WorldWideScience

Sample records for space environmentally stable

  1. Space Environmentally Stable Polyimides and Copolyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kent A.; Connell, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Polyimides with a unique combination of properties including low color in thin films, atomic oxygen (AO), ultra-violet (UV) radiation resistance, solubility in organic solvents in the imide form, high glass transition (T(sub g)) temperatures and high thermal stability have been prepared and characterized. The polymers were prepared by reacting a novel aromatic diamine with aromatic dianhydrides in a polar aprotic solvent. The solubility of the polymers in the imide form as well as the color density of thin films were dependent upon the chemical structure of the dianhydride. Several thin films (25-50 mm thick) prepared by solution casting of amide acid or imide solutions exhibited very low color and high optical transparency (approximately 90%) as determined by UV/visible spectroscopy. The polymers exhibited T(sub g)s >200 C depending upon the structure of the dianhydride and temperatures of 5% weight loss approximately 500C in air as determined by dynamic thermogravimetric analysis. Thin films coated with silver/inconel were exposed to a high fluence of AO and 1000 equivalent solar hours of UV radiation. The effects of these exposures on optical properties were minor. These space environmentally durable polymers are potentially useful in a variety of applications on spacecraft such as thin film membranes on antennas, second-surface mirrors, thermal/optical coatings and multi-layer thermal insulation (MLI) blanket materials. The chemistry, physical and mechanical properties of the polymers as well as their responses to AO and UV exposure will be discussed.

  2. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  3. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  4. Dimensionally Stable Structural Space Cable, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the need for an affordable exoplanet-analysis science mission, NASA has recently embarked on the ROSES Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions...

  5. Stability of Picard Bundle Over Moduli Space of Stable Vector ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.

  6. Recent applications of stable isotopes in environmental medicine in germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.; Herbarth, O.

    2000-01-01

    In the last few years, a new quality in the application of stable isotopes became manifest. It is the establishment of stable isotopes as a tool in medical routine diagnosis - a novel field of nuclear medicine - and in environmental-medical epidemiological surveys. Owing to missing suitable radioactive isotopes of the bio elements carbon and nitrogen and because of ethical problems in the human use of some radionuclides, the stable isotopes 13 C and 1% N play a key role in this new field. A review is given about four new stable isotope-aided methods for in vivo organ function test. Three of them were developed in Leipzig, germany, and one in houston/Texas. We have validated the tests and then introduced into medical and environmental routine diagnostic use: ( 15 N Methacetin and ( 13 C) methacetin liver function tests to characterize the detoxification capacity of the human liver; ( 15 N) Urea and ( 13 C) urea tests to detect the colonization of the human stomach by the bacterium helicobacter pylori. This bacterium is, as known, responsible for gastritis and ulcer of the gastrointestinal tract. The transmission ways of H. Pylori are under investigation world-wide

  7. An ultra-stable optical frequency reference for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, T.; Döringshoff, K.; Kovalchuk, E.; Pahl, J.; Gohlke, M.; Weise, D.; Johann, U.; Peters, A.; Braxmaier, C.

    2017-11-01

    We realized ultra-stable optical frequency references on elegant breadboard (EBB) and engineering model (EM) level utilizing Doppler-free spectroscopy of molecular iodine near 532nm. A frequency stability of about 1•10-14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5•10-15 at integration times between 10 s and 100 s was achieved. These values are comparable to the currently best laboratory setups. Both setups use a baseplate made of glass material where the optical components are joint using a specific assembly-integration technology. Compared to the EBB setup, the EM setup is further developed with respect to compactness and mechanical and thermal stability. The EM setup uses a baseplate made of fused silica with dimensions of 380 x 180 x 40 mm3 and a specifically designed 100 x 100 x 30 mm3 rectangular iodine cell in nine-pass configuration with a specific robust cold finger design. The EM setup was subjected to thermal cycling and vibrational testing. Applications of such an optical frequency reference in space can be found in fundamental physics, geoscience, Earth observation, and navigation & ranging. One example is the proposed mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research) mission, dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a sunsynchronous low-Earth orbit. By comparing an iodine standard to a cavity-based frequency reference and integration over 2 year mission lifetime, the Kennedy-Thorndike coefficient will be determined with up to two orders of magnitude higher accuracy than the current best ground experiment. In a current study, the compatibility of the payload with the SaudiSat-4 host vehicle is investigated.

  8. Environmental Development Plan (EDP): space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies and examines the environmental, safety, health, and socioeconomic (ES and H) issues associated with the ongoing DOE Space Applications Program and the associated research, development, and demonstration programs. The EDP presents an ES and H research and development (R/D) program and strategy for timely resolutions of the issues and satisfaction of the associated requirements necessary for precluding impediments to the space nuclear systems technology. The EDP has been limited to the consideration of: (1) space nuclear power system nuclear fuel fabrication; (2) space nuclear power system heat source fabrication; (3) testing of subsystems and assembled systems; (4) R and D in support of space nuclear system development; (5) nuclear system responses to launch and reentry accidents; and (6) nuclear system environmental behavior and recovery

  9. Space Environmental Effects on Materials and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbann, Leslie M.

    2009-01-01

    The Materials and Processes (M&P) Branch of the Structural Engineering Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) seeks to uphold the production of dependable space hardware through materials research, which fits into NASA's purpose of advancing human exploration, use, and development of space. The Space Environmental Effects projects fully support these Agency goals. Two tasks were assigned to support M&P. Both assignments were to further the research of material behavior outside of Earth's atmosphere in order to determine which materials are most durable and safe to use in space for mitigating risks. One project, the Materials on International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) task, was to compile data from International Space Station (ISS) experiments to pinpoint beneficial space hardware. The other project was researching the effects on composite materials of exposure to high doses of radiation for a Lunar habitat project.

  10. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    these developments in way or another. In addition to national EIA regulations, there are also international agreements on EIA (i.a. the Espoo Convention) which establish their own EIA systems. In international law of outer space, environmental impact assessment is, however, not a well-established tool. The UN space treaties were drafted during a time when such consideratio ns were still not among the highest ranking items on national agendas. Therefore, these instruments fail to contain provisions regarding impact assessment, and also rest of the environmental content found in them is rather modest. The nearest equivalent to any impact assessment is contained in the Outer Space Treaty Article IX, namely the requirement of prior consultations in case of planned space activity or experiment that might cause "potentially harmful interference" with space activities of other St ates Parties. There also exist some applicable provisions on national level, such as the requirement of "formal assessment" on NASA programs of "[orbital] debris generation potential and debris mitigation options" in NASA Policy for Limiting Orbital Debris Generation (Art. 1.b). Also the national legislation of some space faring countries provides at least for the supply of some kind of information assessing the possible environmental consequences of proposed space activities. For instance, the Russian Statute on Lisencing Space Operations requires that for obtaining a license for space operation in the Russian Federation, the applicant has to supply, i.a. "documents confirming the safety of space operations (including ecological, fire and explosion safety) and the reliability of space equipment'"(Art.5.h). However, such provisions are obviously not enough for ensuring effective international regulation of the issue. The goal of this paper is to consider the usefulness of international environmental impact assessment for space activities. The space environment, however, is a unique arena in many ways

  11. The status of applying stable isotope in the studies of environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhipeng; Zhang Liwen; Zhu Tan; Feng Yinchang

    2007-01-01

    The stable isotope composition is characteristic in the pollution source, and it is relatively fixed in the process of transferring and reaction. At present the precise analysis result of stable isotope ratio can be obtained easily. So the stable isotopes can be applied to the pollution affair arbitration and source study. The concept and analytical method of stable isotopes are introduced. The research status of the stable isotopes in the field of environmental science and the isotope fractionation is reviewed. (authors)

  12. Kennedy Space Center environmental health program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmaro, G.M.; Cardinale, M.A.; Summerfield, B.R.; Tipton, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center's environmental health organization is responsible for programs which assure its employees a healthful workplace under diverse and varied working conditions. These programs encompass the disciplines of industrial hygiene, radiation protection (health physics), and environmental sanitation/pollution control. Activities range from the routine, such as normal office work, to the highly specialized, such as the processing of highly toxic and hazardous materials

  13. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepoint, Gilles [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be; Dauby, Patrick [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, rue Vautier, B1000 Brussels (Belgium); Gobert, Sylvie [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem.

  14. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  15. Stable black strings in anti-de sitter space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    In my talk I show a black string which is a foliation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) Schwarzschild black hole becomes classically stable if the size of black hole horizon is larger than the AdS radius even if the black string extends infinitely. I will also give a comment on the relation with the Gubser-Mitra conjecture. This talk is based on our paper (Phys. Rev. D64: 064010, 2001) which is a collaboration with Gungwon Kang

  16. Recent developments in low cost stable structures for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.C.; Grastataro, C.; Smith, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) is advancing the development of low cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in spacecraft and stable structures. The use of advanced composites is well developed, but the application of an all-composite tracker structure has never been achieved. This paper investigates the application of composite technology to the design and fabrication of an all-composite spacecraft bus for small satellites, using technology directly applicable to central tracking in a high luminosity environment. The satellite program Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is the second in a series of satellites to be launched into orbit for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will discuss recent developments in the area of low cost composites, used for either spacecraft or ultra stable applications in high energy physics (HEP) detectors. The use of advanced composites is a relatively new development in the area of HEP. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) spawned a new generation of Trackers which made extensive use of graphite fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite systems. LANL has designed a structure employing new fabrication technology. This concept will lower the cost of composite structures to a point that they may now compete with conventional materials. This paper will discuss the design, analysis and proposed fabrication of a small satellite structure. Central tracking structures using advanced materials capable of operating in an adverse environment typical of that found in a high luminosity collider could use identical concepts

  17. Environmental Studies at the Guiana Space Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Sandrine

    2013-09-01

    The Environmental Commitment of the French Space Agency at the Guiana Space Centre (CNES / CSG) specifies that the environmental protection is a major stake. Consequently, CNES participates in numerous space programs that contribute significantly to a better knowledge, management and protection of our environment at a global scale.The studies and researches that are done at CNES / CSG meet several objectives:* Assessment of safety and environmental effects and risk related to the effects overflowing due to a pollution caused by ground and flight activities* Improvement of the studies related to the knowledge of the environment (flora and fauna monitoring).* Risk assessment and management which may affect the safety of people , property, and protection of public health and environment * Verification of the compliance of the results of impact studies of launch vehicle in flight phase provided by the launch operator (Technical Regulation) with the French Safety Operational Acts.In this note, study and research programs are presented. They allow a better knowledge of the surrounding environment and of impacts caused by the industrial activities done in Guiana Space Center.

  18. Stable isotopes in plant nutrition, soil fertility and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The individual contributions in these proceedings are indexed separately. Main topics covered include the measurement of biological nitrogen fixation, studies of soil organic matter, investigations of nutrient uptake and use by plants, studies of plant metabolism and new methodologies in the analysis of stable isotopes. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. An ultra-stable iodine-based frequency reference for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Keetman, Anja; Reggentin, Matthias; Kovalchuk, Evgeny; Peters, Achim

    2012-07-01

    Future space missions require for ultra-stable optical frequency references. Examples are the gravitational wave detector LISA/eLISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), the SpaceTime Asymmetry Research (STAR) program, the aperture-synthesis telescope Darwin and the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) follow on mission exploring Earth's gravity. As high long-term frequency stability is required, lasers stabilized to atomic or molecular transitions are preferred, also offering an absolute frequency reference. Frequency stabilities in the 10 ^{-15} domains at longer integration times (up to several hours) are demonstrated in laboratory experiments using setups based on Doppler-free spectroscopy. Such setups with a frequency stability comparable to the hydrogen maser in the microwave domain, have the potential to be developed space compatible on a relatively short time scale. Here, we present the development of ultra-stable optical frequency references based on modulation-transfer spectroscopy of molecular iodine. Noise levels of 2\\cdot10 ^{-14} at an integration time of 1 s and below 3\\cdot10 ^{-15} at integration times between 100 s and 1000 s are demonstrated with a laboratory setup using an 80 cm long iodine cell in single-pass configuration in combination with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and standard optical components and optomechanic mounts. The frequency stability at longer integration times is (amongst other things) limited by the dimensional stability of the optical setup, i.e. by th pointing stability of the two counter-propagating beams overlapped in the iodine cell. With the goal of a future space compatible setup, a compact frequency standard on EBB (elegant breadboard) level was realized. The spectroscopy unit utilizes a baseplate made of Clearceram-HS, a glass ceramics with an ultra-low coefficient of thermal expansion of 2\\cdot10 ^{-8} K ^{-1}. The optical components are joint to the baseplate using adhesive bonding technology

  20. How to take environmental samples for stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to analyse a diverse range of samples for environmental investigations. The main types are soil/sediments, vegetation, fauna, shellfish, waste and water. Each type of samples requires different storage and collection methods. Outlined here are the preferred methods of collection to ensure maximum sample integrity and reliability. (author).

  1. How to take environmental samples for stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is possible to analyse a diverse range of samples for environmental investigations. The main types are soil/sediments, vegetation, fauna, shellfish, waste and water. Each type of samples requires different storage and collection methods. Outlined here are the preferred methods of collection to ensure maximum sample integrity and reliability. (author).

  2. How to take environmental samples for stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is possible to analyse a diverse range of samples for environmental investigations. The main types are soil/sediments, vegetation, fauna, shellfish, waste and water. Each type of samples requires different storage and collection methods. Outlined here are the preferred methods of collection to ensure maximum sample integrity and reliability. (author).

  3. How to take environmental samples for stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to analyse a diverse range of samples for environmental investigations. The main types are soil/sediments, vegetation, fauna, shellfish, waste and water. Each type of samples requires different storage and collection methods. Outlined here are the preferred methods of collection to ensure maximum sample integrity and reliability. (author)

  4. Environmental effects on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-11-10

    The timing of band formation and linear skeletal growth rate based on environmental changes were investigated using alizarin red S (ARS) in Porites lutea coral at Khang Khao Island, the Gulf of Thailand from November 10, 1999 to March 15, 2001. The X-radiograph of the vertical section of the Porites coral skeleton was ...

  5. Environmental effects and large space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    When planning large scale operations in space, environmental impact must be considered in addition to radiation, spacecraft charging, contamination, high power and size. Pollution of the atmosphere and space is caused by rocket effluents and by photoelectrons generated by sunlight falling on satellite surfaces even light pollution may result (the SPS may reflect so much light as to be a nuisance to astronomers). Large (100 Km 2) structures also will absorb the high energy particles that impinge on them. Altogether, these effects may drastically alter the Earth's magnetosphere. It is not clear if these alterations will in any way affect the Earth's surface climate. Large structures will also generate large plasma wakes and waves which may cause interference with communications to the vehicle. A high energy, microwave beam from the SPS will cause ionospheric turbulence, affecting UHF and VHF communications. Although none of these effects may ultimately prove critical, they must be considered in the design of large structures.

  6. A discrete-space urban model with environmental amenities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaila Tajibaeva; Robert G. Haight; Stephen Polasky

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of providing environmental amenities associated with open space in a discrete-space urban model and characterizes optimal provision of open space across a metropolitan area. The discrete-space model assumes distinct neighborhoods in which developable land is homogeneous within a neighborhood but heterogeneous across neighborhoods. Open...

  7. Environmental safety of the global information space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В’ячеслав Степанович Волошин

    2015-03-01

    Databases of full-text publications – journals, articles, monographs- are surely a means of salvation for science. There already exist a large number of such portals. Besides, advantages and disadvantages of electronic subscriptions to periodicals should certainly be considered. The former include the following most evident ones: aggregation of large data arrays, saving money on a subscription, an opportunity to work with relevant publications, thematic collections of materials, availability of records, simultaneous access of an unlimited number of users and others. Nevertheless, there are many disadvantages that make it difficult to work with full-text publications. They are the following: selective representativeness of publication numbers, complexity of keyword search, occasional presence of obsolete text formats, printed versions, possible psychological barrier, physiological incompatibility with computer equipment, fatigue caused by prolonged work on the computer. The Internet was followed by the appearance of global control networks, their aims ranging from control of a human life support to a unified control of humanity. So, the formed global information space promises the man to get access to almost any information source. Meanwhile, environmental safety of the man, his/her objective biological psyche and abilities in harmonious development are at serious risk

  8. Multiturn extraction and injection by means of adiabatic capture in stable islands of phase space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cappi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently a novel approach has been proposed for performing multiturn extraction from a circular machine. Such a technique consists of splitting the beam by means of stable islands created in transverse phase space by magnetic elements creating nonlinear fields, such as sextupoles and octupoles. Provided a slow time variation of the linear tune is applied, adiabatic with respect to the betatron motion, the islands can be moved in phase space and eventually charged particles may be trapped inside the stable structures. This generates a certain number of well-separated beamlets. Originally, this principle was successfully tested using a fourth-order resonance. In this paper the approach is generalized by considering other types of resonances as well as the possibility of performing multiple multiturn extractions. The results of numerical simulations are presented and described in detail. Of course, by time reversal, the proposed approach could be used also for multiturn injection.

  9. The size of stable international environmental agreements in the case of stock pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.; de Zeeuw, A.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the literature on stability of International Environmental Agreements is essen- tially static and can therefore not identify changes in the size of the stable coalition in connection with changes in the stock of pollutants. This is a relevant issue because most global pollution problems are

  10. Organic light emitting diodes with environmentally and thermally stable doped graphene electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuruvila, Arun; Kidambi, Piran R.; Kling, Jens

    2014-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the environmental and thermal stability of graphene charge transfer doping using molybdenum– trioxide (MoO3), vanadium–pentoxide (V2O5) and tungsten–trioxide (WO3). Our results show that all these metal oxides allow a strong and stable p-type doping of graphene...

  11. Stable isotope composition of environmental water and food products as a tracer of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchnicki, R.; Owczarczyk, A.; Soltyk, W.

    2004-01-01

    The paper is the review of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) activity in application of stable isotope ratios (especially D/H and 18 O/ 16 O) for environmental studies and food origin control. INCT has at disposal since 1998, a high class instrument - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer, Delta Plus, Finnigan MAT, Germany - suitable to perform such measurements. (author)

  12. A study of ultra-stable optical clocks, frequency sources and standards for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.A.; Knight, D.J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Optical or laser-based communication systems are expected to supplement microwave based systems for satellite-to-satellite and spacecraft-to-satellite communications early in the next millennium. Optical systems can carry far more traffic than microwave and address the need to increase communication bandwidths to meet the demands of commerce and the entertainment industry. There is already significant research and commercial interest in this area (now driven particularly by the multi-media and Internet services delivery sector) and there is a strong need to establish which are the best choices of optical sources to develop for space based optical communications. In addition to communication requirements there are strong arguments for developing ultra-stable optical frequency sources and detectors in space for at least two other purposes. At present the microwave radiation that is used for communications is also used for other purposes, for example navigation or tracking, and 'space science' experiments. With the switch from the microwave to the optical for communications it may well be convenient to switch to the optical for these and other functions. This study has examined the potential stable laser requirements for a range of space applications. An interim report was presented in the form of a conference paper summarising our initial findings (see Appendix 5). This final report gives our conclusions in more detail and recommends areas for further study

  13. Experimental evidence of adiabatic splitting of charged particle beams using stable islands of transverse phase space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gilardoni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel technique to perform multiturn extraction from a circular particle accelerator was proposed. It is based on beam splitting and trapping, induced by a slow crossing of a nonlinear resonance, inside stable islands of transverse phase space. Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron started in 2002 and evidence of beam splitting was obtained by summer 2004. In this paper, the measurement results achieved with both a low- and a high-intensity, single-bunch proton beam are presented.

  14. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  15. Green hypocrisy? Environmental attitudes and residential space heating expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Traynor, Laura; Lange, Ian A.; Moro, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, the largest proportion of household energy use is for space heating. Popular media make claims of a green hypocrisy: groups which have the strongest attitude towards the environment have the highest emissions. This study examines whether environmental attitudes and behaviours are associated with space heating energy use using data from the British Household Panel Survey. Results find that environmentally friendly attitudes generally do not lead to lower heating expenditures though ...

  16. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  17. Environmental stressors during space flight: potential effects on body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    1. Organisms may be affected by many environmental factors during space flight, e.g., acceleration, weightlessness, decreased pressure, changes in oxygen tension, radiofrequency radiation and vibration. 2. Previous studies of change in body temperature--one response to these environmental factors--are reviewed. 3. Conditions leading to heat stress and hypothermia are discussed.

  18. Space Environmental Effects on Coated Tether Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville s Propulsion Research Center has teamed with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to research the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) bombardment on coated tether materials. Tethers Unlimited Inc. has provided several candidate tether materials with various coatings for AO exposure in MSFC s Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility. Additional samples were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation at MSFC. AO erodes most organic materials, and ultraviolet radiation embrittles polymers. This test series was performed to determine the effect of AO and UV on the mechanical integrity of tether materials that were treated with AO-protective coatings, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) or metallization. Both TUI's Multi-Application Survivable Tether (MAST) Experiment and Marshall Space Flight Center s Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) programs will benefit from this research by helping to determine tether materials and coatings that give the longest life with the lowest mass penalty.

  19. LEARNING AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Softer Learning Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ümran TOPÇU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning is a central part of everyone’s life that is often associated with school and  classrooms. Today’ classroom looks and functions like the classroom of an earlier century. Desks lined up in neat rows, facing the teacher and a board or screen is the general condition in many educational institutions. Most of us have sat through classes in plain, hard rooms. Although they did not look very pleasant, we all coped with them. If they could be designed slightly more tolerable, would they help in the betterment of education and learning in any measurable way? This paper aims at describing an attempt to design an alternative classroom. Based on several years of experience, it is observed that there is a demand among students for softer, warmer and more intimate instructional spaces. Students of “People and Environment” Course were asked to select a suitable space to redesign as a “Soft Classroom” within Bahçeşehir University Besiktas Campus  premises. This case study presented a potential research project to etter understand,  how student engagement can be increased by changing learning spaces.

  20. Green hypocrisy? Environmental attitudes and residential space heating expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, Laura; Lange, Ian; Moro, Mirko [Stirling Univ. (United Kingdom). Division of Economics

    2012-06-15

    In the UK, the largest proportion of household energy use is for space heating. Popular media make claims of a green hypocrisy: groups which have the strongest attitude towards the environment have the highest emissions. This study examines whether environmental attitudes and behaviours are associated with space heating energy use using data from the British Household Panel Survey. Results find that environmentally friendly attitudes generally do not lead to lower heating expenditures though environmentally friendly behaviours are associated with lower heating expenditure. Also, the effect of these attitudes and behaviours do not change as income increase.

  1. The European Person Equivalent: Measuring the personal environmental space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    The European person equivalent (PE) is a quantification of the environmental impact caused annually by the activities of an average European. It comprises contributions to all the major environmental impacts from global to local as well as our consumption of resources. Similarly, the targeted...... European person equivalent is a quantification of the average person’s environmental impact in a near future according to the current politically set environmental targets. In addition to expressing the current societal priorities in pollution reduction, the targeted PE expresses the environmental space...... available to all of us according to the current environmental policy. Both concepts were developed in the mid-nineties for use in life cycle impact assessment to help comparisons across different environmental impact categories. Since then they have shown their value as a pedagogic tool in the presentation...

  2. Environmental controls on stable isotopes of precipitation in Lanzhou, China: An enhanced network at city scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fenli; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Qiu, Xue; Du, Mingxia

    2017-12-31

    Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation are very sensitive to environmental changes, and can record evolution of water cycle. The Lanzhou city in northwestern China is jointly influenced by the monsoon and westerlies, which is considered as a vital platform to investigate the moisture regime for this region. Since 2011, an observation network of stable isotopes in precipitation was established across the city, and four stations were included in the network. In 2013, six more sampling stations were added, and the enhanced network might provide more meaningful information on spatial incoherence and synoptic process. This study focused on the variations of stable isotopes (δ 18 O and δD) in precipitation and the environmental controls based on the 1432 samples in this enhanced network from April 2011 to October 2014. The results showed that the precipitation isotopes had great spatial diversity, and the neighboring stations may present large difference in δD and δ 18 O. Based on the observation at ten sampling sites, an isoscape in precipitation was calculated, and the method is useful to produce isoscape for small domains. The temperature effect and amount effect was reconsidered based on the dataset. Taking meteorological parameters (temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, water vapor pressure and dew point temperature) as variables in a multi-linear regression, the result of coefficients for these meteorological parameters were calculated. Some cases were also involved in this study, and the isotopic characteristics during one event or continuous days were used to understand the environmental controls on precipitation isotopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New developments in the use of stable activable tracers in environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, W.; Keasler, K.; Ghannam, L.; Borovik, A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of stable activable tracers (SATs) in environmental science are reported. (A stable activable tracer is a stable material injected into a system under study and whose concentration is measured by post-sampling activation analysis.) The activable nuclear parts of the tracers studied have been rare earth nuclides with short-lived activation products or Cu. To trace the fate of fluid-bound pollutants (and/or water masses) in marine waters, we have used anionic DTPA complexes of the rare earths. These tracers were shown to be stable (80 to 90% nondissociated) in extensive laboratory tests involving solutions of the tracer in estuarine water including large amounts of marine sediments. Results of a field study in which the flushing time and other hydrological characteristics of an estuarine marina were measured by simultaneously using a fluorescent dye and a SAT are presented. To trace the path of potentially toxic organic molecules, three stable activable tracers, dysprosium(III)-trisacetylacetonate DY(acac) 3 3H 2 O), dysprosium(III)-trisdibenzoylmethane (DY(dbm) 3 H 2 O and copper oxinate Cu (C 9 H 6 ON) 2 were synthesized. Their octanol/water partition coefficients and their solubility in water were measured and used to correlate the tracer species and its biological activity with that of known toxic materials. In a project to demonstrate the simple use of SATs to trace the origin of common insecticides and herbicides, seven common insecticides and herbicides were marked with anionic rare earth DTPA complexes and shown to be detectable at dilutions of 1 part in 10 12 . Two arsenical herbicides were chosen for further study and the tracer/herbicide ratio was shown to remain constant in samples of herbicide material collected on plant surfaces and runoff waters in the environment for long periods

  4. Earth Observation from Space - The Issue of Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrieu, Sylvie; Nelson, Ross F.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing scientists work under assumptions that should not be taken for granted and should, therefore, be challenged. These assumptions include the following: 1. Space, especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will always be available to governmental and commercial space entities that launch Earth remote sensing missions. 2. Space launches are benign with respect to environmental impacts. 3. Minimization of Type 1 error, which provides increased confidence in the experimental outcome, is the best way to assess the significance of environmental change. 4. Large-area remote sensing investigations, i.e. national, continental, global studies, are best done from space. 5. National space missions should trump international, cooperative space missions to ensure national control and distribution of the data products. At best, all of these points are arguable, and in some cases, they're wrong. Development of observational space systems that are compatible with sustainability principles should be a primary concern when Earth remote sensing space systems are envisioned, designed, and launched. The discussion is based on the hypothesis that reducing the environmental impacts of thedata acquisition step,which is at the very beginning of the information streamleading to decision and action, will enhance coherence in the information streamand strengthen the capacity of measurement processes to meet their stated functional goal, i.e. sustainable management of Earth resources. We suggest that unconventional points of view should be adopted and when appropriate, remedial measures considered that could help to reduce the environmental footprint of space remote sensing and of Earth observation and monitoring systems in general. This article discusses these five assumptions inthe contextof sustainablemanagementof Earth's resources. Takingeachassumptioninturn,we find the following: (1) Space debris may limit access to Low Earth Orbit over the next decades. (2) Relatively speaking, given

  5. Space Environmental Effects on Colored Coatings and Anodizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1999-01-01

    Colored coatings and anodizes are used on spacecraft as markers and astronaut visual aids. These materials must be stable in the space environment and withstand atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, and high vacuum without significant change in optical and mechanical properties. A variety of colored coatings and anodizes have been exposed to simulated space environments at Marshall Space Flight Center and also actual space environment as part of the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) - I flight experiment. Colored coatings were developed by AZ Technology, Huntsville, AL, under a NASA contract for International Space Station (ISS). These include yellow, red, blue, and black paints suitable for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) visual aids and ISS emblems. AaChron, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, developed stable colored anodizes, also in yellow, red, blue, and black, for astronaut visual aids. These coatings were exposed in the laboratory to approximately 550 equivalent sun-hours of solar ultraviolet radiation and approximately 1 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm of atomic oxygen in vacuum. The AZ Technology yellow colored coating, designated TMS800IY, and all four AaChron colored anodizes were flown on POSA-I. POSA-I was a Risk Mitigation Experiment for ISS. It was attached to the exterior of the Mir space station docking module by EVA and was exposed for 18 months. The laboratory-simulated space environment, the natural space environment and the unique environment of an orbiting, active space station and their effects on these developmental materials are discussed.

  6. Radioisotopes and stable isotopes and their applications in earth sciences, safety-in-mines, and environmental protection. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The state of the art and objectives of isotope research in earth sciences, safety-in-mines, and environmental protection is reported. Volume 1 contains papers dedicated to origin and distribution of natural radioisotopes and stable isotopes

  7. Picometer stable scan mechanism for gravitational wave detection in space: LISA PAAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnenburg, J. A. C. M.; Rijnveld, N.

    2017-11-01

    Detection and observation of gravitational waves requires extreme stability in the frequency range 0.03 mHz to 1 Hz. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission will attain this by creating a giant interferometer in space, based on free floating proof masses in three spacecrafts. Due to orbit evolution and time delay in the interferometer arms, the direction of transmitted light changes. To solve this problem, a picometer stable Point-Ahead Angle Mechanism (PAAM) was designed, realized and successfully tested. The PAAM concept is based on a rotatable mirror. The critical requirements are the contribution to the optical path length (less than 1.4 pm / rt Hz) and the angular jitter (less than 8 nrad / rt Hz). Extreme dimensional stability is achieved by manufacturing a monolithical Haberland hinge mechanism out of Ti6Al4V, through high precision wire erosion. Extreme thermal stability is realized by placing the thermal center on the surface of the mirror. Because of piezo actuator noise and leakage, the PAAM has to be controlled in closed-loop. To meet the requirements in the low frequencies, an active target capacitance-to-digital converter is used. Interferometric measurements with a triangular resonant cavity in vacuum proved that the PAAM meets the requirements.

  8. Stable isotope ratios in freshwater mussel shells as high resolution recorders of riverine environmental variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukolich, S.; Kendall, C.; Dettman, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical record stored in growth increments of freshwater mussel shells reveals annual to sub-annual changes in environmental conditions during the lifetime of the organism. The carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen stable isotope composition of aragonite shells responds to changes in water chemistry, temperature, streamflow, turbidity, growth rate, size, age, and reproduction. The goals of this study are to determine how stable isotopes can be used to reconstruct the conditions in which the mussels lived and to illuminate any vital effects that might obscure the isotopic record of those conditions. Previous research has suggested that annual δ13C values decrease in older freshwater mussel shells due to lower growth rates and greater incorporation of dietary carbon into the shell with increasing age. However, a high-resolution, seasonal investigation of δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O as they relate to organism age has not yet been attempted in freshwater mussels. A total of 28 Unionid mussels of three different species were collected live in 2011 in the Tennessee River near Paducah, Kentucky, USA. In this study, we analyzed the shell nacre and external organic layers for stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios, focusing on growth bands formed between 2006 and 2011. We present a time series of shell δ13C, δ18O, and δ15N values with monthly resolution. We also compare the shell-derived geochemical time series to a time series of the δ13C and δ15N of particulate organic matter, δ13C of DIC, δ18OWater, and water temperature in which the mussels lived. Results show that environmental factors such as water temperature and primary productivity dominate shell chemistry while animal age has little or no effect.

  9. Stable lead isotopes in environmental health with emphasis on human investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian

    2008-01-01

    There has been widespread use of stable lead isotopes in the earth sciences for more than 40 years focussed on the origin and age of rocks and minerals with lesser application in environmental investigations where the emphasis has been directed typically to the source of lead in environmental media such as air, water and soils. In contrast, the number of environmental health investigations focussed on humans (and primates) is limited in spite of the demonstrated utility of the approach in pioneering studies in the early 1970's. This paper reviews the status of lead isotopes in human investigations especially over the past 2 decades, the period over which most activity has taken place. Following a brief introduction to the method, examples are provided illustrating the use of lead isotopes in a wide spectrum of activities including sources and pathways of lead in diverse environments from urban to mining communities, various applications associated with pregnancy, the contribution of bone lead to blood lead including in the elderly, the half-life of lead in blood, and lead in bones and other media. A brief outline of critical research on non-human primates is also given. The lead isotope method is a powerful technique for tracing lead and could be employed more widely in human investigations

  10. Space for action: How practitioners influence environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kågström, Mari, E-mail: mari.kagstrom@slu.se [Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Richardson, Tim, E-mail: tim.richardson@nmbu.no [Department of Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Frederik A Dahls vei 15, KA-bygningen, Ås (Norway)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The concept of ‘space for action’ offers an important new lens on EA practice. • Focuses on the relation between practitioner's understanding and their actions • Environmental assessment practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. • Practitioners may underestimate their potential to make a difference. • Contributes to understanding change in the environmental assessment field. This article contributes to understanding of how change occurs in the field of environmental assessment (EA). It argues that the integration of new issues in EA, such as human health, is significantly influenced by how practitioners' understandings shape their actions, and by what happens when those, possibly different, interpretations of appropriate action are acted out. The concept of space for action is developed as a means of investigating this relation between understanding and action. Frame theory is also used, to develop a sharper focus on how ‘potential spaces for action’ are created, what these imply for (individuals') preferred choices and actions in certain situations, and what happens in practice when these are acted out and ‘actual spaces for action’ are created. This novel approach is then applied in a Swedish case study of transport planning. The analysis reveals the important work done by practitioners, revealing just how EA practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. Analysis of practice using the lens of spaces for action offers an important new perspective in understanding how the field adapts to new challenges.

  11. Space for action: How practitioners influence environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kågström, Mari; Richardson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of ‘space for action’ offers an important new lens on EA practice. • Focuses on the relation between practitioner's understanding and their actions • Environmental assessment practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. • Practitioners may underestimate their potential to make a difference. • Contributes to understanding change in the environmental assessment field. This article contributes to understanding of how change occurs in the field of environmental assessment (EA). It argues that the integration of new issues in EA, such as human health, is significantly influenced by how practitioners' understandings shape their actions, and by what happens when those, possibly different, interpretations of appropriate action are acted out. The concept of space for action is developed as a means of investigating this relation between understanding and action. Frame theory is also used, to develop a sharper focus on how ‘potential spaces for action’ are created, what these imply for (individuals') preferred choices and actions in certain situations, and what happens in practice when these are acted out and ‘actual spaces for action’ are created. This novel approach is then applied in a Swedish case study of transport planning. The analysis reveals the important work done by practitioners, revealing just how EA practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. Analysis of practice using the lens of spaces for action offers an important new perspective in understanding how the field adapts to new challenges

  12. A simple and stable method of tagging Agrobacterium fabrum C58 for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriam BOURI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium fabrum is one of the eleven Agrobacterium spp. complex species that has been observed to carry a Ti plasmid and induce crown gall, a disease causing significant damage to economically important perennial agricultural crops. Members of this species complex, including A. fabrum, are morphologically indistinguishable from one another on culture media and are known to grow together in soil and within host galls. Consequently, the tracking of this species in its natural environment requires a cautious approach to tagging strains without altering any of their ecologically important traits. A gentamicin resistant cassette (aacC1 was inserted, by homologous recombination, into a non-coding region of the A. fabrum C58 chromosome between the genes atu1182 and atu1183. The resultant strain did not show any significant in vitro growth differences compared to the wild-type strain, and the marker was stable in rich medium, both with and without selective pressure. The mutant/marked strain was indistinguishable from the parental strain for ability to induce galls, grow in bulk soil and colonize the rhizosphere of tomato plants. Easy, precise, safe and stable tagging of the A. fabrum C58 genome facilitates environmental population surveys by either simple selection or direct detection by PCR. This methodology provides understanding of the ecology of this species complex as an integral part of managing the soil microbiota for improved crown gall management.

  13. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  14. Simulated Space Environmental Effects on Thin Film Solar Array Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria; Carr, John; SanSoucie, Michael; Boyd, Darren; Phillips, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) experiment consists of thin-film, low mass, low volume solar panels. Given the variety of thin solar cells and cover materials and the lack of environmental protection typically afforded by thick coverglasses, a series of tests were conducted in Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Environmental Effects Facility to evaluate the performance of these materials. Candidate thin polymeric films and nitinol wires used for deployment were also exposed. Simulated space environment exposures were selected based on SSP 30425 rev. B, "Space Station Program Natural Environment Definition for Design" or AIAA Standard S-111A-2014, "Qualification and Quality Requirements for Space Solar Cells." One set of candidate materials were exposed to 5 eV atomic oxygen and concurrent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation for low Earth orbit simulation. A second set of materials were exposed to 1 MeV electrons. A third set of samples were exposed to 50, 100, 500, and 700 keV energy protons, and a fourth set were exposed to >2,000 hours of near ultraviolet (NUV) radiation. A final set was rapidly thermal cycled between -55 and +125degC. This test series provides data on enhanced power generation, particularly for small satellites with reduced mass and volume resources. Performance versus mass and cost per Watt is discussed.

  15. Space Environmental Effects Testing Capability at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWittBurns, H.; Craven, Paul; Finckenor, Miria; Nehls, Mary; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of the space environment on materials and systems is fundamental and essential for mission success. If not properly understood and designed for, the effects of the environment can lead to degradation of materials, reduction of functional lifetime, and system failure. In response to this need, the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed world class Space Environmental Effects (SEE) expertise and test facilities to simulate the space environment. Capabilities include multiple unique test systems comprising the most complete SEE testing capability available. These test capabilities include charged particle radiation (electrons, protons, ions), ultraviolet radiation (UV), vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV), atomic oxygen, plasma effects, space craft charging, lunar surface and planetary effects, vacuum effects, and hypervelocity impacts as well as the combination of these capabilities. In addition to the uniqueness of the individual test capabilities, MSFC is the only NASA facility where the effects of the different space environments can be tested in one location. Combined with additional analytical capabilities for pre- and post-test evaluation, MSFC is a one-stop shop for materials testing and analysis. The SEE testing and analysis are performed by a team of award winning experts nationally recognized for their contributions in the study of the effects of the space environment on materials and systems. With this broad expertise in space environmental effects and the variety of test systems and equipment available, MSFC is able to customize tests with a demonstrated ability to rapidly adapt and reconfigure systems to meet customers needs. Extensive flight experiment experience bolsters this simulation and analysis capability with a comprehensive understanding of space environmental effects.

  16. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the current estimates of the integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day. and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 109 protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed in the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 Kev-2.5 Mev can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 Kev to 2.5 Mev. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the ultraviolet (less than 400 nm wavelength) is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study (NAS8-38609) in order to

  17. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  18. Space Environmental Effects on Candidate Solar Sail Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Nehls, Mary; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted ot a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar, Teonex, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were characterized

  19. Environmental monitors in the Midcourse Space Experiments (MSX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) is an SDIO sponsored space based sensor experiment with a full complement of optical sensors. Because of the possible deleterious effect of both molecular and particulate contamination on these sensors, a suite of environmental monitoring instruments are also being flown with the spacecraft. These instruments are the Total Pressure Sensor based on the cold-cathode gauge, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a Bennett-type ion mass spectrometer, a cryogenic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), four temperature-controlled QCM's, and a Xenon and Krypton Flash Lamp Experiment. These instruments have been fully space-qualified, are compact and low cost, and are possible candidate sensors for near-term planetary and atmospheric monitoring. The philosophy adopted during design and fabrication, calibration and ground testing, and modeling will be discussed .

  20. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on last-year major depression in adulthood: a highly heritable stable liability but strong environmental effects on 1-year prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Gardner, C O

    2017-07-01

    This study seeks to clarify the contribution of temporally stable and occasion-specific genetic and environmental influences on risk for major depression (MD). Our sample was 2153 members of female-female twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Registry. We examined four personal interview waves conducted over an 8-year period with MD in the last year defined by DSM-IV criteria. We fitted a structural equation model to the data using classic Mx. The model included genetic and environmental risk factors for a latent, stable vulnerability to MD and for episodes in each of the four waves. The best-fit model was simple and included genetic and unique environmental influences on the latent liability to MD and unique wave-specific environmental effects. The path from latent liability to MD in the last year was constant over time, moderate in magnitude (+0.65) and weaker than the impact of occasion-specific environmental effects (+0.76). Heritability of the latent stable liability to MD was much higher (78%) than that estimated for last-year MD (32%). Of the total unique environmental influences on MD, 13% reflected enduring consequences of earlier environmental insults, 17% diagnostic error and 70% wave-specific short-lived environmental stressors. Both genetic influences on MD and MD heritability are stable over middle adulthood. However, the largest influence on last-year MD is short-lived environmental effects. As predicted by genetic theory, the heritability of MD is increased substantially by measurement at multiple time points largely through the reduction of the effects of measurement error and short-term environmental risk factors.

  2. Coupled Environmental Processes in the Mojave Desert and Implications for ET Covers as Stable Landforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, D.; Young, M.; Zitzer, S.; McDonald, E.; Caldwell, T.

    2006-01-01

    Monolayer evapotranspiration (ET) covers are the baseline method for closure of disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed LLW, and transuranic (TRU) waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The regulatory timeline is typically 1,000 years for LLW and 10,000 years for TRU waste. Covers for such waste have different technical considerations than those with shorter timelines because they are subject to environmental change for longer periods of time, and because the environmental processes are often coupled. To evaluate these changes, four analog sites (approximately 30, 1,000 to 2,000, 7,000 to 12,500, and 125,000 years in age) on the NTS were analyzed to address the early post-institutional control period (the youngest site), the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of LLW, and the 10,000-year period for TRU waste. Tests included soil texture, structure, and morphology; surface soil infiltration and hydraulic conductivity; vegetation and faunal surveys; and literature reviews. Separate measurements were made in plant undercanopy and intercanopy areas. The results showed a progressive increase in silt and clay content of surface soils with age. Changes in soil texture and structure led to a fivefold decline in saturated hydraulic conductivity in intercanopy areas, but no change in undercanopies, which were subject to bioturbation. These changes may have been responsible for the reduction in total plant cover, most dramatically in intercanopy areas, primarily because more precipitation either runs off the site or is held nearer to the surface where plant roots are less common. The results suggest that covers may evolve over longer timeframes to stable landforms that minimize the need for active maintenance

  3. Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  4. Towards Designing Environmentally Stable Conjugated Polymers with very Small Band-Gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Y.; Kim, Sung C.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated substituent effect on the stabilization energies, and nucleus-independent chemical shifts of pentafulvalenes and on the electronic structures of the corresponding polypentafulvalenes to design environmentally stable semiconductive or conductive polymers. Geometrical optimizations of the molecules were carried out at the density functional level of theory with B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-311+G(d) basis set. Stabilization energies were estimated using isodesmic and homodesmotic reactions. As a criterion of aromaticity nucleus-independent chemical shifts of the molecules were computed using GIAO approach. For the polymers the geometrical parameters were optimized through AM1 band calculations and the electronic structures were obtained through modified extended Huckel band calculations. It is found that strong electronwithdrawing substituents increase isodesmic and homodesmotic stabilization energies of pentafulvalene, though it does not increase the aromaticity. Nitro-substituted pentafulvalene is estimated to have stabilization energy as much as azulene. However, substitution either with electron-donating groups or with electronwithdrawing groups does not significantly affect the electronic structures of polypentafulvalene and poly (vinylenedioxypentafulvalene)

  5. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order

  6. Alamos: An International Collaboration to Provide a Space Based Environmental Monitoring Solution for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S. O.; Dunn, A.; Lecomte, J.; Buchheim, K.; Johansson, E.; Berger, T.

    2018-02-01

    This abstract proposes the advantages of an externally mounted instrument in support of the human physiology, space biology, and human health and performance key science area. Alamos provides Space-Based Environmental Monitoring capabilities.

  7. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

  8. Stable isotopes to trace food web stressors: Is space the final frontier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To support community decision-making, we need to evaluate sources of stress and impact at a variety of spatial scales, whether local or watershed-based. Increasingly, we are using stable isotope-based approaches to determine those scales of impact, and using these approaches in v...

  9. Physiochemical and environmental stable isotope profile of marine coastal water, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Javed, T.; Fazil, M.; Latif, Z.; Ahmad, N.

    2005-01-01

    Physiochemical and environmental stable isotope (delta /sup 13/C, delta /sup 18/O delta /sup 2/H, delta /sup 34/S) analysis of seawater samples collected from selected locations off Pakistan. Coast was performed to assess pollution scenario during 2002. Objective of the study was to establish a baseline data profile of Pakistan coastal waters. Coastal location includes: Indus Delta, Karachi Harbour, Southeast Coast Karachi, Northwest Coast Karachi, Sonmiani, Ormara. Pasni, Gwadar and Jiwani. In-situ physiochemical parameters such as: pH, electrical conductivity (E.C), salinity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen (DO) were performed with portable meters. Stable isotope of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and sulfur was performed on GD -150 modified Mass Spectrometer. Values of delta /sup 18/O along the Sindh Coast (Indus Delta, Karachi Harbour High Tide, Karachi Harbour Low Tide, North West Coast South East Coast, Gadani), lie in range of -6.3 to -2.4 , -0.17 to -0.2, -0.13 to + 1.16, + 0.65 to + 1.25, + 0.88 to +0.93, and 1.14 %. SMOW respectively. The values of delta /sup 18/O along Baluchistan Coast (Sonmiani, Ormara, Pasni, Gwadar, and Jiwani) lie in the range of 0.74 to 1.08,0.77 to 0.82, 0.96 to + 1.07,0.38 to 1.23, and 0.45 to 0.83 % SMOW respectively. Values of delta /sup 13/ C of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) along Sindh Coast lie in the range of -2.7 to 0.55, -7.0 to -2.14, -11.48 to -2.98, -1.26 to 2.12, -2.91 to -0.56, and -1.31 to -0.28 % V- PDB. Values of delta /sup 13/ C of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) off Baluchistan Coast lie in the range of - 2.65 to -0.68, -8.5 to 0.07, -1.1 to 0.01, -1.3 to 0.47 and -5.2 to 0 % V-PDB respectively. Significantly depleted delta /sup 13/C (TDIC) values observed in water samples collected off Karachi coast, Indus Delta and Armor Coast indicate pollution inputs from industrial and domestic waste drains into shallow marine environment off these coasts. Carbon Isotope data shows that the Gwadar and Pasni are

  10. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order basis functions in time to improve the accuracy of the solver. The method is validated by showing convergence in temporal basis function order, time step size, and geometric discretization order. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Applications of isotopes. [Need and cost of stable iotopes for use as tracers in biomedical and environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby-Smith, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Current and potential applications of stable isotopes as tracers in a number of biomedical and environmental areas are discussed. It is pointed out that a wide variety of problems exist in these fields whose solutions in principle are amenable to the isotopic approach. The number and diversity of these problems as well as the unique role stable isotopes can play in their solution illustrate the importance of achieving and maintaining a broad inventory of isotopic species. Experience has demonstrated unequivocally an additional overriding requirement for widespread exploration of stable isotopes by the scientific and technical community, i.e., the need for low cost availability of the materials in quantity. Some representative applications of /sup 12/C, /sup 13/C, /sup 14/N, /sup 15/N, /sup 16/O, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O are discussed.

  12. Solar Array Sails: Possible Space Plasma Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Willie R.

    2005-01-01

    An examination of the interactions between proposed "solar sail" propulsion systems with photovoltaic energy generation capabilities and the space plasma environments. Major areas of interactions ere: Acting from high voltage arrays, ram and wake effects, V and B current loops and EMI. Preliminary analysis indicates that arcing will be a major risk factor for voltages greater than 300V. Electron temperature enhancement in the wake will be produce noise that can be transmitted via the wake echo process. In addition, V and B induced potential will generate sheath voltages with potential tether like breakage effects in the thin film sails. Advocacy of further attention to these processes is emphasized so that plasma environmental mitigation will be instituted in photovoltaic sail design.

  13. Stable isotopes in speleothems as proxies of past environmental changes in the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoetl, C.; Burns, S.J.; Mangini, A.

    2002-01-01

    This short communication presents preliminary results and interpretations from an ongoing research project in the Obir Cave of southeast Austria. This cave system hosts abundant calcite dripstones many of which are actively forming today. The stable isotopic composition of a Holocene stalagmite dated by U-series TIMS techniques shows rather stable values throughout most of the last eight millennia, except for the last few hundred years when both C and O isotope values strongly increase (probably due to changes in the cave air circulation as a result of mining activity). (author)

  14. Mean or green : Which values can promote stable pro-environmental behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    In most cases, pro-environmental behavior does not maximize individual interests, but mainly benefits other people or the environment. We propose that although acting on the basis of egoistic considerations may result in pro-environmental behavior, altruistic and biospheric considerations provide

  15. Stable, Extreme Temperature, High Radiation, Compact. Low Power Clock Oscillator for Space, Geothermal, Down-Hole & other High Reliability Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient and stable clock signal generation requirements at extreme temperatures (-180C to +450C)and radiation (>250 Krad TID) are not met with the current...

  16. Low Cost Environmental Sensors for Spaceflight: NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buehler, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  17. 25th Space Simulation Conference. Environmental Testing: The Earth-Space Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Topics covered include: Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation; The ESA Large Space Simulator Mechanical Ground Support Equipment for Spacecraft Testing; Temperature Stability and Control Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the Aquarius Radiometer; The Liquid Nitrogen System for Chamber A: A Change from Original Forced Flow Design to a Natural Flow (Thermo Siphon) System; Return to Mercury: A Comparison of Solar Simulation and Flight Data for the MESSENGER Spacecraft; Floating Pressure Conversion and Equipment Upgrades of Two 3.5kw, 20k, Helium Refrigerators; Affect of Air Leakage into a Thermal-Vacuum Chamber on Helium Refrigeration Heat Load; Special ISO Class 6 Cleanroom for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Project; A State-of-the-Art Contamination Effects Research and Test Facility Martian Dust Simulator; Cleanroom Design Practices and Their Influence on Particle Counts; Extra Terrestrial Environmental Chamber Design; Contamination Sources Effects Analysis (CSEA) - A Tool to Balance Cost/Schedule While Managing Facility Availability; SES and Acoustics at GSFC; HST Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Static Test; Virtual Shaker Testing: Simulation Technology Improves Vibration Test Performance; Estimating Shock Spectra: Extensions beyond GEVS; Structural Dynamic Analysis of a Spacecraft Multi-DOF Shaker Table; Direct Field Acoustic Testing; Manufacture of Cryoshroud Surfaces for Space Simulation Chambers; The New LOTIS Test Facility; Thermal Vacuum Control Systems Options for Test Facilities; Extremely High Vacuum Chamber for Low Outgassing Processing at NASA Goddard; Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier; The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT; Extraction of Thermal Performance Values from Samples in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar; Thermal (Silicon Diode) Data Acquisition System; Aquarius's Instrument Science Data System (ISDS) Automated

  18. Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Since the morphism ϕ is given by the universal property of the moduli space, the pullback of the universal bundle E on X × M to X × P by the map idX × ϕ is isomorphic (up to a twist by a line bundle coming from P) to ˜E. In other words, there is an integer k such that. 0 −→ (idX × ϕ)∗E −→ W ⊠ OP (k) −→ Ox×P (k + 1) −→ 0.

  19. Recipes for stable linear embeddings from Hilbert spaces to R^m

    OpenAIRE

    Puy, Gilles; Davies, Michael; Gribonval, Remi

    2017-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a linear map from a Hilbert space H (possibly infinite dimensional) to Rm that satisfies a restricted isometry property (RIP) on an arbitrary signal model, i.e., a subset of H. We present a generic framework that handles a large class of low-dimensional subsets but also unstructured and structured linear maps. We provide a simple recipe to prove that a random linear map satisfies a general RIP with high probability. We also describe a generic technique ...

  20. Recipes for stable linear embeddings from Hilbert spaces to R^m

    OpenAIRE

    Puy, Gilles; Davies, Mike; Gribonval, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a linear map from a Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$ (possibly infinite dimensional) to $\\mathbb{R}^m$ that satisfies a restricted isometry property (RIP) on an arbitrary signal model $\\mathcal{S} \\subset \\mathcal{H}$. We present a generic framework that handles a large class of low-dimensional subsets but also unstructured and structured linear maps. We provide a simple recipe to prove that a random linear map satisfies a general RIP on $\\mathcal{S}$ with h...

  1. Environmental stable isotope of the 'Sistema de las Encadenadas de Chascomus', Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapena, C; Miretzky, P; Panarello, H.O; Fernandez Cirelli, A

    2001-01-01

    in winter, whereas the chloride type ones, in summer, suggesting a possible precipitation of carbonates in this last season. An increase in the concentrations of all the ions in summer, probably due to the evaporation process, is also observed (Miretzky et al. 1998, 2000). The aim of the present paper is to study the relation between the surficial and shallow groundwater by means of environmental stable isotopes ( 2 H and 18 O) (au)

  2. Stable isotopic analysis of fossil chironomids as an approach to environmental reconstruction: state of development and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Heiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Remains of chironomid larvae, especially their strongly sclerotized head capsules, can be found abundantly and well preserved in most lake sediment records. These remains mainly consist of chitin and proteins and, since their chemical composition does not seem to be strongly affected by decompositional processes, they can be used to develop palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on their stable isotopic composition. Here we review available stable isotope studies based on fossil chironomids and indicate future research necessary to further develop this still relatively new research approach. Efforts to produce stable isotope records based on fossil chironomids have mainly examined the elements H, N, C, and O. They have focussed on (1 developing the methodology for preparing samples for isotopic analysis, (2 laboratory studies cultivating chironomid larvae under controlled conditions to determine the factors affecting their stable isotopic composition, (3 ecosystem-scale studies relating stable isotopic measurements of fossil chironomid assemblages to environmental conditions, and (4 developing first down-core records describing past changes in the stable isotopic composition of chironomid assemblages. These studies have shown that chemical sample pretreatment may affect the isotopic composition for some elements. Laboratory runs suggest that the diet of the larvae influences their stable isotopic composition for H, N, C and O, whereas stable isotopes in the ambient water also strongly influence their oxygen and to a lesser extent hydrogen isotopic composition. These experiments also indicate only minor offsets between the nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of chironomid soft tissue and the fossilizing head capsules, whereas for hydrogen and oxygen this offset remains to be explored. Though few datasets have been published, the available ecosystem studies and developed down-core sediment records indicate that stable isotopes in

  3. Studies on concentration of minor stable elements in marine environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hamaji; Ishii, Toshiaki; Iimura, Mitsue; Koyanagi, Taku

    1978-01-01

    Information on the physico-chemical state and quantity of stable elements in marine environments is frequently required to analyze the radioecological behavior of radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the sea. In this work, determination of stable Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Zr, Rb, Cs and some rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in seawater and marine organisms was carried out and the concentration factors were estimated. Seawater and marine organisms were collected on the seashore of Ibaraki Prefecture and analysed by means of neutron activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry depending on the elements or samples. Average concentration factors of the rare earth elements by marine organisms are estimated as 3 x 10 1 : muscle of fish, 5 x 10 2 : soft part of clams, and 2 x 10 2 : algae, respectively. Concentration factors by muscle of fishes were 10 3 : Fe, 2 x 10 2 : Co, 5 x 10 2 : Zn, and 5 x 10 1 : Cs, and those by soft part of shellfishes were 10 4 : Fe, 10 3 : Co, 2 x 10 3 : Zn, and 10 1 : Cs, whereas those by algae were 2 x 10 4 : Fe, 5 x 10 2 : Co, 10 3 : Zn, and 3 x 10 1 : Cs, respectively. The high concentration factors for numerous stable elements by shellfishes and algae suggested their suitabilities to the indicator organisms for monitoring of marine pollution by these heavy metals and corresponding radioisotopes and also their significant contribution to the internal radiation exposure to man as radioactive seafoods. (author)

  4. In-liquid Plasma. A stable light source for advanced oxidation processes in environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Akihiro; Shimamura, Takeshi; Sawada, Seiya; Sato, Susumu; Serpone, Nick; Horikoshi, Satoshi

    2018-06-01

    A microwave-inspired device that generates stable in-liquid plasma (LP) in aqueous media and emits narrow light emission lines at 280-320 nm, 660 nm and 780 nm is examined as a light source capable of driving photochemical reactions and advanced oxidation processes in wastewater treatments. The microwave-driven lighting efficiency was improved by decompressing the inside of the reaction vessel, which resulted in lowering the incident power of the microwaves and suppressed the deterioration of the microwave irradiation antenna. This protocol made it possible to generate continuous stable plasma in water. Evaluation of the LP device was carried out by revisiting the decomposition of 1,4-dioxane in aqueous media against the use of such other conventional water treatment processes as (i) UV irradiation alone, (ii) TiO2-assisted photocatalysis with UV irradiation (UV/TiO2), (iii) oxidation with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and (iv) UV-assisted decomposition in the presence of NaClO (UV/NaClO). The in-liquid plasma technique proved superior to these four other methods. The influence of pH on the LP protocol was ascertained through experiments in acidified (HCl and H2SO4) and alkaline (NaOH and KOH) aqueous media. Except for H2SO4, decomposition of 1,4-dioxane was enhanced in both acidic and alkaline media.

  5. Survey of Beamed Energy Propulsion Concepts by the MSFC Space Environmental Effects Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Edwards, D. L.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This will be a survey paper of work that was performed by the Space Environmental Effects Team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in the area of laser energy propulsion concepts. Two types of laser energy propulsion techniques were investigated. The first was ablative propulsion, which used a pulsed ruby laser impacting on single layer coatings and films. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the laser power density that produced an optimum coupling coefficient for each type of material tested. A commercial off-the-shelf multi-layer film was also investigated for possible applications in ablative micro-thrusters, and its optimum coupling coefficient was determined. The second type of study measured the purely photonic force provided by a 300W CW YAG laser. In initial studies, the photon force resulting from the momentum of incident photons was measured directly using a vacuum compatible microbalance and these results were compared to theory. Follow-on work used the same CW laser to excite a stable optical cavity for the purpose of amplifying the available force from incident photons.

  6. Stable narrow spacing dual-wavelength Q-switched graphene oxide embedded in a photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H; Soltanian, M R K; Alimadad, M; Harun, S W

    2014-01-01

    An ultra-stable dual-wavelength saturable absorber based on a cladding-embedded commercial graphene oxide (GO) solution by capillary action in a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is demonstrated for the first time. The saturation absorption property is achieved through evanescent coupling between the guided light and the cladding-filled graphene layers. Stable spacing dual-wavelength fiber lasing is attained by controlling the polarization state of a simple 0.9 m long ring of highly doped Leikki Er80-8/125 erbium-doped fiber as the primary gain medium with PCF, polarization controller and tunable bandpass filter. Embedded GO is used to generate the desired pulsed output, and the laser is capable of generating pulses having a repetition rate of 24 kHz with an average output power and pulse energy of 0.167 mW and 8.98 nJ, respectively, at the maximum pump power of 220 mW. (paper)

  7. Environmental Disturbance Modeling for Large Inflatable Space Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Tightening space budgets and stagnating spacelift capabilities are driving the Air Force and other space agencies to focus on inflatable technology as a reliable, inexpensive means of deploying large structures in orbit...

  8. Environmental "Omics" of International Space Station: Insights, Significance, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Space Biology program funded two multi-year studies to catalogue International Space Station (ISS) environmental microbiome. The first Microbial Observatory (MO) experiment will generate a microbial census of the ISS surfaces and atmosphere using advanced molecular microbial community analysis "omics" techniques, supported by traditional culture-based methods and state-of-the art molecular techniques. The second MO experiment will measure presence of viral and select bacterial and fungal pathogens on ISS surfaces and correlate their presence on crew. The "omics" methodologies of the MO experiments will serve as the foundation for an extensive microbial census, offering significant insight into spaceflight-induced changes in the populations of beneficial and potentially harmful microbes. The safety of crewmembers and the maintenance of hardware are the primary goals for monitoring microorganisms in this closed habitat. The statistical analysis of the ISS microbiomes showed that three bacterial phyla dominated both in ISS and Earth cleanrooms, but varied in their abundances. While members of Actinobacteria were predominant on ISS, Proteobacteria dominated the Earth cleanrooms. Alpha diversity estimators indicated a significant drop in viable microbial diversity. To better characterize the shared community composition among samples, beta-diversity metrics analysis were conducted. At the bacterial species level characterization, the microbial community composition is strongly associated with sampling site. Results of the study indicate significant differences between ISS and Earth cleanroom microbiomes in terms of community structure and composition. Bacterial strains isolated from ISS surfaces were also tested for their resistance to nine antibiotics using conventional disc method and Vitek 2 system. Most of the Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant to penicillin. Five strains were specifically resistant to erythromycin and the ermA gene was also

  9. Are genetic and environmental influences on job satisfaction stable over time? A three-wave longitudinal twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Dong; Stanek, Kevin C; Zhang, Zhen; Ones, Deniz S; McGue, Matt

    2016-11-01

    Job satisfaction research has unfolded as an exemplary manifestation of the "person versus environment" debate in applied psychology. With the increasing recognition of the importance of time, it is informative to examine a question critical to the dispositional view of job satisfaction: Are genetic influences on job satisfaction stable across different time points? Drawing upon dispositional and situational perspectives on job satisfaction and recent research in developmental behavioral genetics, we examined whether the relative potency of genetic (i.e., the person) and environmental influences on job satisfaction changed over time in a 3-wave longitudinal twin study. Biometric behavioral genetics analyses showed that genetic influences accounted for 31.2% of the variance in job satisfaction measured at approximately Age 21, which was markedly greater than the 18.7% and 19.8% of variance explained by genetic factors at Age 25 and Age 30. Such genetic influences were mediated via positive affectivity and negative affectivity, but not via general mental ability. After partialing out genetic influences, environmental influences on job satisfaction were related to interpersonal conflict at work and occupational status, and these influences were relatively stable across the 3 time points. These results offer important implications for organizations and employees to better understand and implement practices to enhance job satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Development of a stable cell line with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis for screening environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Christina T.; Beames, Burton; Alex Merrick, B.; Martin, Negin; Romeo, Charles; Jetten, Anton M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a stable cell line with intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis. • The ERRα repressor, XCT790, down regulates this pathway. • Phytoestrogen, genisten stimulates this pathway. - Abstract: The estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) play critical roles in the control of several physiological functions, including the regulation of genes involved in energy homeostasis. However, little is known about the ability of environmental chemicals to disrupt or modulate this important bioenergetics pathway in humans. The goal of this study was to develop a cell-based assay system with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis that could be used as a screening assay for detecting such chemicals. To this end, we successfully generated several stable cell lines expressing PGC-1α and showed that the reporter driven by the native ERRα hormone response unit (AAB-Luc) is active in these cell lines and that the activation is PGC-1α-dependent. Furthermore, we show that this activation can be blocked by the ERRα selective inverse agonist, XCT790. In addition, we find that genistein and bisphenol A further stimulate the reporter activity, while kaempferol has minimal effect. These cell lines will be useful for identifying environmental chemicals that modulate this important pathway

  11. Development of a stable cell line with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis for screening environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Christina T., E-mail: teng1@niehs.nih.gov [DNTP, BioMolecular Screening Branch, Division, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Beames, Burton; Alex Merrick, B. [DNTP, BioMolecular Screening Branch, Division, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Martin, Negin; Romeo, Charles [DIR, Viral Core Lab, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Jetten, Anton M. [DIR Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • We developed a stable cell line with intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis. • The ERRα repressor, XCT790, down regulates this pathway. • Phytoestrogen, genisten stimulates this pathway. - Abstract: The estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) play critical roles in the control of several physiological functions, including the regulation of genes involved in energy homeostasis. However, little is known about the ability of environmental chemicals to disrupt or modulate this important bioenergetics pathway in humans. The goal of this study was to develop a cell-based assay system with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis that could be used as a screening assay for detecting such chemicals. To this end, we successfully generated several stable cell lines expressing PGC-1α and showed that the reporter driven by the native ERRα hormone response unit (AAB-Luc) is active in these cell lines and that the activation is PGC-1α-dependent. Furthermore, we show that this activation can be blocked by the ERRα selective inverse agonist, XCT790. In addition, we find that genistein and bisphenol A further stimulate the reporter activity, while kaempferol has minimal effect. These cell lines will be useful for identifying environmental chemicals that modulate this important pathway.

  12. The effect of environmental factors on stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes in Mediterranean olive oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Mihailova, Alina; Abbado, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Traceability of the geographic origin of olive oils is an important issue from both commercial and health perspectives. This study evaluates the impact of environmental factors on stable C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes in extra virgin olive oils from Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain. The data are used to investigate the applicability of stable isotope methodology for olive oil regional classification in the Mediterranean region. Analysis of stable C isotope composition of n-C29 alkane showed that extra virgin olive oils from Portugal and Spain have the most positive n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Conversely, olive oils from Slovenia, northern and central Italy are characterized by the most negative values. Overall, the n-C29 alkane delta13C values show a positive correlation with the mean air temperature during August-December and a negative correlation with the mean relative humidity during these months. Analysis of stable H isotope composition of n-C29 alkane revealed that the deltaD values are the most positive in olive oils from Greece and Morocco and the most negative in oils from northern Italy. The deltaD values of oils show significant correlation with all the analyses geographical parameters: the mean air temperature and relative humidity during August-December, the total amount of rainfall (the same months) and the annual deltaD values of precipitation. As predictor variables in the Categorical Data Analysis, the n-C29 alkane deltaD values show the most significant discriminative power, followed by the n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Overall, 93.4% of olive oil samples have been classified correctly into one of the production regions. Our findings suggest that an integrated analysis of C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes extracted from extra virgin olive oil could become a useful tool for geographical provenancing of this highly popular food commodity.

  13. The Study of Environmental Crisis and Local Distribution of Green Space in Tehran City

    OpenAIRE

    K. zayyari; L. Vahedian Beiky; Z. Parnoon

    2012-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionUncontrolled development of large cities due to the increase in population and migration has led to a massive environmental destruction and pollution, and the latter has destroyed green spaces within the city and changed the land use. Therefore, the need for green space and connection with nature has an important role in human life. The best way to reduce the destructive effects of environmental hazards is the development of green space. Due to its wide range of...

  14. Analytical pyrolysis and stable isotope analyses reveal past environmental changes in coralloid speleothems from Easter Island (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z; De la Rosa, José M; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Pereira, Manuel F C; González-Pérez, José A; Calaforra, José M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-08-26

    This study comprises an innovative approach based on the combination of chromatography (analytical pyrolysis and pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis (Py-CSIA)), light stable isotopes, microscopy and mineralogy analyses to characterize the internal layering of coralloid speleothems from the Ana Heva lava tube in Easter Island (Chile). This multidisciplinary proxy showed that the speleothems consist of banded siliceous materials of low crystallinity with different mineralogical compositions and a significant contribution of organic carbon. Opal-A constitutes the outermost grey layer of the coralloids, whereas calcite and amorphous Mg hydrate silicate are the major components of the inner whitish and honey-brown layers, respectively. The differences found in the mineralogical, elemental, molecular and isotopic composition of these distinct coloured layers are related to environmental changes during speleothem development. Stable isotopes and analytical pyrolysis suggested alterations in the water regime, pointing to wetter conditions during the formation of the Ca-rich layer and a possible increase in the amount of water dripping into the cave. The trend observed for δ(15)N values suggested an increase in the average temperature over time, which is consistent with the so-called climate warming during the Holocene. The pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis of each speleothem layer showed a similar trend with the bulk δ(13)C values pointing to the appropriateness of direct Py-CSIA in paleoenvironmental studies. The δ(13)C values for n-alkanes reinforced the occurrence of a drastic environmental change, indicating that the outermost Opal layer was developed under drier and more arid environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Late Pleistocene ecological, environmental and climatic reconstruction based on megafauna stable isotopes from northwestern Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guarda, Erwin; Domingo, Laura; Tornero, Carlos; Pino, Mario; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Sevilla, Paloma; Villavicencio, Natalia; Agustí, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Stable isotope analyses have been performed on the bioapatite (δ13C; δ18O) and collagen (δ13C; δ15N) of four late Pleistocene South American megafaunal taxa (Notiomastodon platensis, Equus andium, cf. Hemiauchenia paradoxa and Xenarthra indet.) to evaluate paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions as well as paleoecological features of this time period. The analyzed megafauna was found at several locations in the northwestern Chilean Patagonia (38°-42°S, 74°-71°W). The bioapatite δ13C values indicated the presence of C3 vegetation ranging from forestal to woodland areas. The collagen δ15N values pointed to temperate and humid ecosystems, and to the consumption of shrubs, trees, grasses and sedges. Mean annual temperatures estimated from bioapatite δ18OPO4 values show a similarity to modern temperatures and suggested that the megafauna under study may have lived during warm stages (interstadials) of the late Pleistocene. When comparing our results with those obtained from other South American regions, we find that the diet of this particular Chilean megafauna appears to have been more influenced by resource availability than by the potential dietary range of the taxa.

  16. Proceedings of the Space Shuttle Environmental Assessment Workshop on Stratospheric Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    Various aspects of the potential environmental impact of space shuttle exhaust are explored. Topics include: (1) increased ultraviolet radiation levels in the biosphere due to destruction of atmospheric ozone; (2) climatic changes due to aerosol particles affecting the planetary albedo; (3) space shuttle propellants (including alternate formulations); and (4) measurement of space shuttle exhaust products.

  17. Applications of stable isotope analysis in foodstuffs surveillance and environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.; Blochberger, F.

    1991-12-01

    The instrumental coupling of Elemental Analysis and Mass Spectrometry, constituting a convenient tool for isotope ratio measurements of the bioelements in solid or liquid samples is now well established. Advantages of this technique compared with the so far usual wet chemistry sample preparation are: speed of analysis, easy operation and minor sample consumption. The performance of the system is described and some applications are given. Detection of foodstuffs adulterations is mainly based on the natural carbon isotope differences between C 3 - and C 4 -plants. In the field of environmental research the existing small isotopic variations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in nature, which depend on substance origin and history, are used as intrinsic signature of the considered sample. Examples of source appointment or exclusion by help of this natural isotopic tracer method are dealt with. (authors)

  18. Stable isotopes of transition and post-transition metals as tracers in environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Tomas D.; Baskaran, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The transition and post-transition metals, which include the elements in Groups 3–12 of the Periodic Table, have a broad range of geological and biological roles as well as industrial applications and thus are widespread in the environment. Interdisciplinary research over the past decade has resulted in a broad understanding of the isotope systematics of this important group of elements and revealed largely unexpected variability in isotope composition for natural materials. Significant kinetic and equilibrium isotope fractionation has been observed for redox sensitive metals such as iron, chromium, copper, molybdenum and mercury, and for metals that are not redox sensitive in nature such as cadmium and zinc. In the environmental sciences, the isotopes are increasingly being used to understand important issues such as tracing of metal contaminant sources and fates, unraveling metal redox cycles, deciphering metal nutrient pathways and cycles, and developing isotope biosignatures that can indicate the role of biological activity in ancient and modern planetary systems.

  19. Application of stable environmental isotopes in mine hydrogeology taking Polish coal basins as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozkowski, A.; Przewlocki, K.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary results of the stable isotope investigations carried out in Polish coal basins are presented. In the case of the Lublin Coal Basin, the extreme values of δ 18 O lie between -10.05 and -4.95 per mille, and of δD from -71. 99 to -41.40 per mille. The tested waters may be divided into two groups regarding the relative isotope content. The first group includes waters with overall mineralization lying between 0.4 and 2.5 g/litre. All the waters from the overburden may be placed in this group, and also most of those from the productive Carboniferous. The low content of heavy isotopes allows this group to be classified as infiltration waters. Hence it must be expected that water inflows to the mines will come from both static and dynamic sources. Waters from the Carboniferous with mineralization higher than 10 g/litre are grouped separately. On the precipitation line these points are shifted to the SMOW values. These waters represent a mixture of relict and infiltration waters. If mining is taken to a depth greater than 1000 m, only a minimal proportion of waters from the dynamic sources in mine inflows need be expected. In the case of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, extreme values of δ 18 O vary from -11.57 to +0.34 per mille, and δD from -72.9 to -1.2 per mille. From analysis of the diagram showing the relation between δ 18 O and δD contents the deep infiltration of contemporary atmospheric waters in the productive Carboniferous of the northern, hydrogeologically non-isolated sector of the Coal Basin is evident. In the southern isolated sector of the basin no recent freshening of the waters under Tertiary overburden is observed. In the formations of varied geological age occurring below 600 m, relict waters appear. It may therefore be predicted that inflow to new mines scheduled for construction will be from static resources only. (author)

  20. The use of stable isotopes to trace the impact of landfill gases on environmental waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, P.; Hendy, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    The process of anaerobic fermentation leading to methanogenisis in landfills produces isotopically depleted methane and isotopically enriched carbon dioxide. While the inflammability of methane is a recognised environmental hazard, the impact of the carbon dioxide produced has not been recognised. Unlike methane, the carbon dioxide is very soluble in waters it comes in contact with and unlike leachates it is not contained by the engineered structure of modern landfills. The carbon dioxide gas has the potential of dissolving in ground waters, lowering their pH and degrading their water quality. We have used up to +13 per thousand delta/sup 13/C values of the CO/sub 2/ gas to trace and quantify the effect of the enhanced P/sub CO2/ on groundwater. The downstream consequences of enhanced P/sub CO2/ on groundwater quality also depend on matrix lithology, being more significant for basaltic environments such as those typical of Auckland landfills than for the rhyolitic sands and gravels common in Waikato landfills. (author)

  1. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) — A new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu; Danet, Andrei-Florin

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants. - Highlights: • ESIA is an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral pollutants • Overcoming the analytical limitations of ESIA is challenging • Development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants is needed

  2. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) — A new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu, E-mail: badeasilviu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Danet, Andrei-Florin [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Panduri Str., Bucharest 050657 (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants. - Highlights: • ESIA is an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral pollutants • Overcoming the analytical limitations of ESIA is challenging • Development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants is needed.

  3. Super Global Projects and Environmentally Friendly Technologies Used in Space Exploration: Realities and Prospects of the Space Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The 60th anniversary of the Space Age is an important intermediate finishing point on the way of a man and the whole humanity to space. Along with the outstanding achievements, there are a number of challenges and contradictions in space exploration due to the aggravation of the global crisis on Earth, low efficiency and the backlog of space research in the transition to a new technology based reality and clean technologies. Both the international astronautics and the space exploration area nowadays face difficulties in choosing a new paradigm and a development strategy that is becoming even more complicated due to the current unstable and turbulent situation on Earth. The article reveals the optimistic scenario of further space exploration, as well as the methodological and practical aspects of new projects and technologies. The periodization of the Space Age history has been conducted. It has been also proposed a new classification of the “space” phenomenon due to concretizing the concept of “global” in the form of a three-scale structure encompassing the following levels: 1 planetary global; 2 super global; 3 universally global. The notion of “super global space exploration project” has been introduced. The concept of further space exploration is proposed, which includes four interrelated super global projects:1 Earth Protection System from Asteroid and Comet Threat; 2 Moon Exploration; 3 Mars Exploration; 4 Cosmic Humanity. Since the humanity is embarking on the practical implementation of these super global projects, it is urgent to make a transition towards a new technology based order, as well as up-to-date technologies. A couple of ecological projects and space exploration technologies of the 20th and 21st centuries have been exemplified and analyzed. It has been also worked out the list of new environmentally friendly space technologies and projects. The research makes an emphasis upon a great potential of clean and green

  4. Aragats space-environmental centre: status and SEP forecasting possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilingarian, A; Avakyan, K; Babayan, V; Bostanjyan, N; Chilingarian, S; Eganov, V; Hovhanissyan, A; Karapetyan, G; Gevorgyan, N; Gharagyozyan, G; Ghazaryan, S; Garyaka, A; Ivanov, V; Martirosian, H; Martirosov, R; Melkumyan, L; Sogoyan, H; Sokhoyan, S; Tserunyan, S; Vardanyan, A; Zazyan, M [Cosmic Ray Division, Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanyan Brothers 2, Yerevan 36 (Armenia); Yeremian, A [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    The Aragats Space Environment Center in Armenia provides real-time monitoring of cosmic particle fluxes. Neutron monitors operating at altitudes of 2000 m and 3200 m on Mt Aragats continuously gather data to detect possible abrupt enhancement of the count rates. Additional high precision detectors, measuring muon and electron fluxes, along with directional information have been put in operation on Mt Aragats in the summer of 2002. We plan to use this information to establish an early warning system against extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) events which pose danger to the satellite electronics and the space station crew. Solar ion and proton fluxes as measured by space-borne sensors on ACE and GOES satellites are used to derive expected arrival times of highest energy ions at 1 AU. The peaks in the time series detected by Aragats neutron monitors, coincided with these times, demonstrate the possibility of early detection of SEP events using the ground-based detectors.

  5. Final Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air...Chapter 3. Affected Environment 3-12 Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air Force Base the root and debris zone of the...protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e. insects

  6. Environmental control and life support testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.

  7. Environmental education excursions and proximity to urban green space : Densification in a ‘compact city’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2016-01-01

    The value of urban green space for environmental education fieldwork is empirically investigated in a study among all secondary schools in Amsterdam. The article describes how the proximity of schools to green spaces emerges as a new factor in the ‘sustainable city’ and the ‘compact city’ debate.

  8. Students' Imaginings of Spaces of Learning in Outdoor and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I interrogate students' stories about the spaces and places in a tertiary Outdoor and Environmental Education course that support and shape their environmental ethics. Drawing on a longitudinal qualitative study, I explore the ways in which particular sites of learning (outdoor, practical learning) are privileged and how…

  9. Estimation of environmental noise impacts within architectural spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y. S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

    2002-01-01

    Public Law 91-596, ''Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,'' Dec. 29, 1970, stimulated interest in modeling the impacts of interior noise on employees, as well as the intelligibility of interior public-address and other speech intra-communication systems. The classical literature on this topic has primarily featured a statistical uniform diffuse-field model. This was pioneered by Leo L. Beranek in the 1950s, based on energy-density formulations at the former Bell Telephone (AT and T) Laboratories in the years from 1930 to 1950. This paper compares the classical prediction approach to the most recent statistical methods. Such models were developed in the late 1970s and included innovations such as consideration of irregularly shaped (e.g., L-shaped) interior room spaces and coupled spaces

  10. Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on Space Tether Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckernor, Miria M.; Gitlemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation erode and embrittle most polymeric materials. This research was designed to test several different materials and coatings under consideration for their application to space tethers, for resistance to these effects. The samples were vacuum dehydrated, weighed and then exposed to various levels of AO or UV radiation at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. They were then re-weighed to determine mass loss due to atomic oxygen erosion, inspected for damage and tensile tested to determine strength loss. The experiments determined that the Photosil coating process, while affording some protection, damaged the tether materials worse than the AO exposure. TOR-LM also failed to fully protect the materials, especially from UV radiation. The POSS and nickel coatings did provide some protection to the tethers, which survived the entire test regime. M5 was tested, uncoated, and survived AO exposure, though its brittleness prevented any tensile testing.

  11. Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Testing Capability: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWittBurns, H.; Crave, Paul; Finckenor, Miria; Finchum, Charles; Nehls, Mary; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of the space environment on materials and systems is fundamental and essential for mission success. If not properly understood and designed for, the space environment can lead to materials degradation, reduction of functional lifetime, and system failure. Ground based testing is critical in predicting performance NASA/MSFC's expertise and capabilities make up the most complete SEE testing capability available.

  12. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  13. Space Environmental Testing of the Electrodynamic Dust Shield Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, P. J.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M .R.; Yim, H.; Delaune, P. B.; Clements, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's exploration missions to Mars and the moon may be jeopardized by dust that will adhere to surfaces of (a) Optical systems, viewports and solar panels, (b) Thermal radiators, (c) Instrumentation, and (d) Spacesuits. We have developed an active dust mitigation technology, the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, a multilayer coating that can remove dust and also prevents its accumulation Extensive testing in simulated laboratory environments and on a reduced gravity flight shows that high dust removal performance can be achieved Long duration exposure to the space environment as part of the MISSE-X payload will validate the technology for lunar missions.

  14. The hydrographic basin a space for the environmental planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoyer Mejia Monica

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the work done in watershed management in the framework of sustainable development in Caldas, it describes different points of view to the watershed management approaches as well as its legal aspects developed in the recent history of Colombia. You will also find different basins delineations according to the size, spatial scale used, and the proposed objectives to achieve different goals in watershed management as a way to do environmental planning. At the end of this paper you will find a description of the methodological faces used to achieve a so-called ordering plan, based on legal. Parameters used to date in Colombia

  15. Environmental changes induced by human activities in the Northern Curonian Lagoon (Eastern Baltic: diatoms and stable isotope data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrė Vaikutienė

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A sediment core collected from the northwestern part of the Curonian Lagoon, which was deposited approximately during 1800-2002, was analysed for several proxy records. Changes in diatom assemblages and carbon, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N and δ18O revealed two periods, which are characterized by differences in the sedimentation rate, sediment type and trophic state of the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon. Low δ15N values in organics and prevailing fresh-brackish benthic diatoms indicate low enrichment in the shallow, freshwater lagoon during the period 1800-1955. The eutrophic conditions in this shallow lagoon are reflected by a high abundance of planktonic diatoms common in nutrient-rich basins and increased d15N values in organics of the sediments since 1955. Starting approximately in the 1960s, decreased freshwater run-off and increased brackish-water inflow into the lagoon were observed. These changes were likely caused by the construction of the hydropower station (and a reservoir near the Nemunas River and the artificial deepening of the Klaipėda Strait during 1960-1962 and later, also by the rising sea level in the SE Baltic. The changed river run-off and the artificially deepened strait significantly influenced the fresh-brackish water circulation and environmental conditions in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon in the last decades.

  16. Integrated Assessment Of Groundwater Recharge In The North Kelantan River Basin Using Environmental Water Stable Isotopes, Tritium And Chloride Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Nur Hayati Hussin; Ismail Yusof; Kamaruzaman Mamat; Johari Abdul Latif; Rohaimah Demanah

    2014-01-01

    Estimation and understanding of groundwater recharge mechanism and capacity of aquifer are essential issues in water resources investigation. An integrated study of environmental chloride content in the unsaturated zone using chloride mass balance method (CMB) and isotopic analyses of deuterium, oxygen-18, and tritium values range in the alluvial channel aquifer profiles (quaternary sediments) of the North Kelantan River basin has been carried out in order to estimate and understand groundwater recharge processes. However, the rate of aquifer recharge is one of the most difficult factors to measure in the evaluation of ground water resources. Estimation of recharge, by whatever method, is normally subject to large uncertainties and errors. In this paper, changes in stable isotopic signatures in different seasons and tritium analysis of the sampled groundwater observed at different depth in the aquifer system were evaluated. Stable isotope data are slightly below the local meteoric water line (LMWL) indicating that there is some isotopic enrichment due to direct evaporation through the soil surface which is exposed prior or during the recharging process. The overall data on water isotopic signatures from boreholes and production wells (shallow and relatively deep aquifer system) are spread over a fairly small range but somewhat distinct compared to river water isotopic compositions. Such a narrow variation in isotopic signatures of the sampled groundwaters may suggest that all groundwater samples originated from the same area of direct recharge predominantly from rainfall and nearby rivers. Environmental tritium data measured in groundwater at different depths and locations together with a medium-term of limited monthly rainfall collections were used to investigate the groundwater age distributions (residence times). The existence of groundwater in the aquifer system (sampled wells) is predominantly designated as modern (young) water that has undergone recharged

  17. The Sustainable Development of Space: Astro-environmental and dynamical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, Aaron; Byers, Michael; Russell, Sara

    2018-04-01

    The sustainable development of space is a global (and exo-global) challenge that is not limited by borders or research disciplines. Sustainable development is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". While the development of space brings new economic and scientific possibilities, it also carries significant political, legal, and technical uncertainties. For example, the rapidly increasing accessibility of space is motivating states to unilaterally adopt legislation for the new era of space use, which may have significant unintended consequences, such as increased risks to space assets, disputes among state as well as non-state actors, and changes to unique astro-environments. Any policy or legal position must be informed by the dynamical and astrophysical realities of space use, creating complex and interwoven challenges. Here, we explore several of these potential challenges related to astro-environmentalism, space minining operations, and the associated dynamics.

  18. Transnational Urban Spaces and Urban Environmental Reforms : Analyzing Beijing's Environmental Restructuring in the Light of Globalization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this era of globalization, `transnational spaces¿ are being created within urban settings, providing a direct connection between the `local¿ and the `global¿. Corporate headquarters, hotels, shopping malls, and airports are typical examples of such spaces, which while located within an urban

  19. Sustaining an Environmental Ethic: Outdoor and Environmental Education Graduates' Negotiation of School Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I draw on interviews with graduates from an Outdoor and Environmental Education course to explore the ways in which their environmental ethics changed since leaving university. I do this in relation to the graduates' personal and professional experiences, particularly in the context of teaching Outdoor Education and Physical…

  20. Quantification of Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition to Environmental Surfaces using Mercury Stable Isotopes in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Olson, M.; Robinson, M.; Vanderveer, P.; Creswell, J. E.; Parman, A.; Mallek, J.; Gorski, P.

    2009-12-01

    atmospheric turbulence and wind speed. GEM enriched in stable isotope 198 (GEM-198) was released into the room from source at elevated but environmentally relevant concentrations of GEM-198 for several days. Uptake of GEM-198 from deciduous and conifer trees, grass turf, 3 types of soil, sand, concrete, asphalt, and adsorbent coated deposition coupons were quantified over several days. Exposures were conducted between 10oC and 30oC, in dark and light conditions. Mercury was recovered from the samples using acidic digestions and surface leaches, and then analyzed for the content of GEM-198 by high resolution ICPMS. Experimental results demonstrated that uptake by White Ash, White Spruce, and Kentucky bluegrass were significantly higher than uptakes measured for two Wisconsin soils, peat, sand, concrete and asphalt at all of the conditions studied. Deposition resistances for surface transfer processes for were calculated for each of the substrates across the conditions studied for use in atmospheric model simulations.

  1. An environmental testing facility for Space Station Freedom power management and distribution hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackola, Arthur S.; Hartjen, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    The plans for a new test facility, including new environmental test systems, which are presently under construction, and the major environmental Test Support Equipment (TSE) used therein are addressed. This all-new Rocketdyne facility will perform space simulation environmental tests on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) hardware to Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Engineering Model, Qualification Model, and Flight Model levels of fidelity. Testing will include Random Vibration in three axes - Thermal Vacuum, Thermal Cycling and Thermal Burn-in - as well as numerous electrical functional tests. The facility is designed to support a relatively high throughput of hardware under test, while maintaining the high standards required for a man-rated space program.

  2. Development of advanced technology for stable support of Korean style space foods by the collaboration with an industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Choi, Jong Il; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-06-01

    Keeping pace with the space era of 21 century, Korea gets an opportunity to participate in a project in which the manned spaceship and the international space station will be developed. The Korean astronaut program is so the first step to open a new field of space development project that needs many researches and experiments to implement the mission successfully. Because food is an important part of life, it is imperative that the space food system is the best it can be. The supply of food must be nourishing and tasty so astronauts maintain their health during their important stays in space. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop space foods maintaining microbial safety and sensory characteristics, and the objective is to produce basic information about the processing technology of space foods. The results showed that combination treatment of radiation technology might be helpful for extending the space foods such as space Kimchi. And the development of a new herbal preparation (HemoHIM) for immune and hematopoiesis modulation as well as oxidative damage inhibition in space environment might be helpful for improving the astronaut's health

  3. Development of advanced technology for stable support of Korean style space foods by the collaboration with an industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Choi, Jong Il; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-06-15

    Keeping pace with the space era of 21 century, Korea gets an opportunity to participate in a project in which the manned spaceship and the international space station will be developed. The Korean astronaut program is so the first step to open a new field of space development project that needs many researches and experiments to implement the mission successfully. Because food is an important part of life, it is imperative that the space food system is the best it can be. The supply of food must be nourishing and tasty so astronauts maintain their health during their important stays in space. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop space foods maintaining microbial safety and sensory characteristics, and the objective is to produce basic information about the processing technology of space foods. The results showed that combination treatment of radiation technology might be helpful for extending the space foods such as space Kimchi. And the development of a new herbal preparation (HemoHIM) for immune and hematopoiesis modulation as well as oxidative damage inhibition in space environment might be helpful for improving the astronaut's health.

  4. Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network (SEVAN) – characteristics and first operation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot; Arakelyan, Karen; Avakyan, Karen; Bostanjyan, Nikolaj; Chilingaryan, Suren; Pokhsraryan, D; Sargsyan, D; Reymers, A

    2013-01-01

    Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network is a worldwide network of identical particle detectors located at middle and low latitudes aimed to improve fundamental research of space weather conditions and to provide short- and long-term forecasts of the dangerous consequences of space storms. SEVAN detected changing fluxes of different species of secondary cosmic rays at different altitudes and latitudes, thus turning SEVAN into a powerful integrated device used to explore solar modulation effects. Till to now the SEVAN modules are installed at Aragats Space Environmental Centre in Armenia (3 units at altitudes 800, 2000 and 3200 m a.s.l.), Bulgaria (Moussala), Croatia and India (New-Delhi JNU.) and now under installation in Slovakia, LomnitskySchtit). Recently SEVAN detectors were used for research of new high-energy phenomena originated in terrestrial atmosphere – Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs). In 2011 first joint measurements of solar modulation effects were detected by SEVAN network, now under analysis.

  5. Orientation of Space Station Freedom electrical power system in environmental effects assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1990-01-01

    The orientation effects of six Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (EPS) components are evaluated for three environmental interactions: aerodynamic drag, atomic oxygen erosion, and orbital debris impact. Designers can directly apply these orientation factors to estimate the magnitude of the examined environment and the environmental effects for the EPS component of interest. The six EPS components are the solar array, photovoltaic module radiator, integrated equipment assembly, solar dynamic concentrator, solar dynamic radiator, and beta gimbal.

  6. Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Runway 22 or on Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards AFB. 17 On the basis of the findings of the Environmental Assessment, no significant impact to human...FLIGHT TEST CENTER Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space Page 5-3 Bowles, A.E., S. Eckert, L . Starke, E. Berg, L . Wolski, and...Numbers. Anne Choate, Laura 20 Pederson , Jeremy Scharfenberg, Henry Farland. Washington, D.C. September. 21 Jeppesen Sanderson, Incorporated 22

  7. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations will be discussed, and how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and nonenvironmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. The presentation of destination environmental data demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  8. Capabilities of the Environmental Effects Branch at Marshall Space Flight Cente

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jan; Finckenor, Miria; Nehls, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Environmental Effects Branch at the Marshall Space Flight Center supports a myriad array of programs for NASA, DoD, and commercial space including human exploration, advanced space propulsion, improving life on Earth, and the study of the Sun, the Earth, and the solar system. The branch provides testing, evaluation, and qualification of materials for use on external spacecraft surfaces and in contamination-sensitive systems. Space environment capabilities include charged particle radiation, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, impact, plasma, and thermal vacuum, anchored by flight experiments and analysis of returned space hardware. These environmental components can be combined for solar wind or planetary surface environment studies or to evaluate synergistic effects. The Impact Testing Facility allows simulation of impacts ranging from sand and rain to micrometeoroids and orbital debris in order to evaluate materials and components for flight and ground-based systems. The Contamination Control Team is involved in the evaluation of environmentally-friendly replacements for HCFC-225 for use in propulsion oxygen systems, developing cleaning methods for additively manufactured hardware, and reducing risk for the Space Launch System.

  9. Characterization of Candidate Solar Sail Material Exposed to Space Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David; Hovater, Mary; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George; Hollerman, William; Gray, Perry

    2003-01-01

    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. Solar sails are not limited by reaction mass and provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Once thought to be difficult or impossible, solar sailing has come out of science fiction and into the realm of possibility. Any spacecraft using this method would need to deploy a thin sail that could be as large as many kilometers in extent. The availability of strong, ultra lightweight, and radiation resistant materials will determine the future of solar sailing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the utilization of ultra lightweight materials for spacecraft propulsion. The Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC is actively characterizing candidate solar sail material to evaluate the thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to space environmental effects. This paper will describe the exposure of candidate solar sail materials to emulated space environmental effects including energetic electrons, combined electrons and Ultraviolet radiation, and hypervelocity impact of irradiated solar sail material. This paper will describe the testing procedure and the material characterization results of this investigation.

  10. Environmental filtering structures tree functional traits combination and lineages across space in tropical tree assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, Mengesha; Cao, Min; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Li, Jie; Yang, Jie

    2017-03-09

    Environmental filtering consistently shapes the functional and phylogenetic structure of species across space within diverse forests. However, poor descriptions of community functional and lineage distributions across space hamper the accurate understanding of coexistence mechanisms. We combined environmental variables and geographic space to explore how traits and lineages are filtered by environmental factors using extended RLQ and fourth-corner analyses across different spatial scales. The dispersion patterns of traits and lineages were also examined in a 20-ha tropical rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. We found that environmental filtering was detected across all spatial scales except the largest scale (100 × 100 m). Generally, the associations between functional traits and environmental variables were more or less consistent across spatial scales. Species with high resource acquisition-related traits were associated with the resource-rich part of the plot across the different spatial scales, whereas resource-conserving functional traits were distributed in limited-resource environments. Furthermore, we found phylogenetic and functional clustering at all spatial scales. Similar functional strategies were also detected among distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic distance is not necessarily a proxy for functional distance. In summary, environmental filtering considerably structured the trait and lineage assemblages in this species-rich tropical rainforest.

  11. A Zero-One Dichotomy Theorem for r-Semi-Stable Laws on Infinite Dimensional Linear Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    SEMISTABLE LAWS - LIKE STABLE ONES - ARE CONTINUOUS: i.e. THEY ASSIGN’ ZERO MASS TO SIIMGLETONS.. DD 172 1 1473 sov’ow as, IMail , 62 i 1 SOee..S $.M 0 102 LfP.Of 4 6601 1ECIuatY CLASSI’PICA1 130N 00 1 100 0449 (W%4 Dma rwer

  12. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement Space Shuttle Program Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    MAIMIEOIR, NATIUM L FEATURES TO BE ALTERED: Nost applicable. EMISSIONS: .• Operational: Space Shuttle main eagin. and SolidRocket Roast r exhaust. 414...symptom. (50) (2) From animal studies" (a) Bobwhite quail and domestic chicken eggs displayed a 50 percent mortality rate upon a single 15-minute exposure...t In another planned study (as opposed to casual observation) chicken eggs were exposed to about 30 sonic booms per day during incubation; median

  13. Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

  14. Environmental space management in the harbor of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Milieuruimtemanagement haven Amsterdam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klok, L.; Hulskotte, J. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Den Haag (Netherlands); Van Breemen, T. [Haven Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    A new calculation tool will quickly offer the Harbor of Amsterdam insight in the effect of activities in the harbor on the air quality and hence the available environmental space. [Dutch] Een nieuw rekeninstrument geeft Haven Amsterdam snel inzicht in het effect van alle activiteiten in de haven op de luchtkwaliteit en daarmee in de beschikbare milieuruimte.

  15. Singing the Spaces: Artful Approaches to Navigating the Emotional Landscape in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly explores the gap in the environmental education literature on emotions, and then offers a rationale and potential directions for engaging the emotions more fully, through the arts. Using autoenthnographic and arts-based methods, and including original songs and invitational reflective questions to open spaces for further inquiry…

  16. Integration of Distinct Educating Spaces and Their Potential for a More Comprehensive Environmental Education Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iared, Valéria Ghisloti; de Oliveira, Haydée Torres

    2012-01-01

    To investigate if the units of the São Carlos Ecological Pole (São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil) are educating spaces that may contribute to the understanding of the complexity of environmental issues and stimulate a sense of belonging and social responsibility, we interviewed primary school teachers who had accompanied visits to these places and…

  17. Integrated Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Technology Demonstration for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Knox, James C.; Parrish, Keith J.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Jan, Darrell L.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the frontiers of deep space continues to be defined by the technological challenges presented by safely transporting a crew to and from destinations of scientific interest. Living and working on that frontier requires highly reliable and efficient life support systems that employ robust, proven process technologies. The International Space Station (ISS), including its environmental control and life support (ECLS) system, is the platform from which humanity's deep space exploration missions begin. The ISS ECLS system Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) subsystem and environmental monitoring (EM) technical architecture aboard the ISS is evaluated as the starting basis for a developmental effort being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) via the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) Project.. An evolutionary approach is employed by the ARREM project to address the strengths and weaknesses of the ISS AR subsystem and EM equipment, core technologies, and operational approaches to reduce developmental risk, improve functional reliability, and lower lifecycle costs of an ISS-derived subsystem architecture suitable for use for crewed deep space exploration missions. The most promising technical approaches to an ISS-derived subsystem design architecture that incorporates promising core process technology upgrades will be matured through a series of integrated tests and architectural trade studies encompassing expected exploration mission requirements and constraints.

  18. Collaborative Approaches in Developing Environmental and Safety Management Systems for Commercial Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Stacey; Murray, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) licenses and permits U.S. commercial space launch and reentry activities, and licenses the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites. ASTs mission is to ensure the protection of the public, property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States during commercial space transportation activities and to encourage, facilitate, and promote U.S. commercial space transportation. AST faces unique challenges of ensuring the protection of public health and safety while facilitating and promoting U.S. commercial space transportation. AST has developed an Environmental Management System (EMS) and a Safety Management System (SMS) to help meet its mission. Although the EMS and SMS were developed independently, the systems share similar elements. Both systems follow a Plan-Do-Act-Check model in identifying potential environmental aspects or public safety hazards, assessing significance in terms of severity and likelihood of occurrence, developing approaches to reduce risk, and verifying that the risk is reduced. This paper will describe the similarities between ASTs EMS and SMS elements and how AST is building a collaborative approach in environmental and safety management to reduce impacts to the environment and risks to the public.

  19. Speleothem stable isotope records for east-central Europe: resampling sedimentary proxy records to obtain evenly spaced time series with spectral guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor Hatvani, István; Kern, Zoltán; Leél-Őssy, Szabolcs; Demény, Attila

    2018-01-01

    Uneven spacing is a common feature of sedimentary paleoclimate records, in many cases causing difficulties in the application of classical statistical and time series methods. Although special statistical tools do exist to assess unevenly spaced data directly, the transformation of such data into a temporally equidistant time series which may then be examined using commonly employed statistical tools remains, however, an unachieved goal. The present paper, therefore, introduces an approach to obtain evenly spaced time series (using cubic spline fitting) from unevenly spaced speleothem records with the application of a spectral guidance to avoid the spectral bias caused by interpolation and retain the original spectral characteristics of the data. The methodology was applied to stable carbon and oxygen isotope records derived from two stalagmites from the Baradla Cave (NE Hungary) dating back to the late 18th century. To show the benefit of the equally spaced records to climate studies, their coherence with climate parameters is explored using wavelet transform coherence and discussed. The obtained equally spaced time series are available at PANGAEA.875917" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.875917.

  20. 26th Space Simulation Conference Proceedings. Environmental Testing: The Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Topics covered include: A Multifunctional Space Environment Simulation Facility for Accelerated Spacecraft Materials Testing; Exposure of Spacecraft Surface Coatings in a Simulated GEO Radiation Environment; Gravity-Offloading System for Large-Displacement Ground Testing of Spacecraft Mechanisms; Microscopic Shutters Controlled by cRIO in Sounding Rocket; Application of a Physics-Based Stabilization Criterion to Flight System Thermal Testing; Upgrade of a Thermal Vacuum Chamber for 20 Kelvin Operations; A New Approach to Improve the Uniformity of Solar Simulator; A Perfect Space Simulation Storm; A Planetary Environmental Simulator/Test Facility; Collimation Mirror Segment Refurbishment inside ESA s Large Space; Space Simulation of the CBERS 3 and 4 Satellite Thermal Model in the New Brazilian 6x8m Thermal Vacuum Chamber; The Certification of Environmental Chambers for Testing Flight Hardware; Space Systems Environmental Test Facility Database (SSETFD), Website Development Status; Wallops Flight Facility: Current and Future Test Capabilities for Suborbital and Orbital Projects; Force Limited Vibration Testing of JWST NIRSpec Instrument Using Strain Gages; Investigation of Acoustic Field Uniformity in Direct Field Acoustic Testing; Recent Developments in Direct Field Acoustic Testing; Assembly, Integration and Test Centre in Malaysia: Integration between Building Construction Works and Equipment Installation; Complex Ground Support Equipment for Satellite Thermal Vacuum Test; Effect of Charging Electron Exposure on 1064nm Transmission through Bare Sapphire Optics and SiO2 over HfO2 AR-Coated Sapphire Optics; Environmental Testing Activities and Capabilities for Turkish Space Industry; Integrated Circuit Reliability Simulation in Space Environments; Micrometeoroid Impacts and Optical Scatter in Space Environment; Overcoming Unintended Consequences of Ambient Pressure Thermal Cycling Environmental Tests; Performance and Functionality Improvements to Next Generation

  1. Environmental Physiology at the Johnson Space Center: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work in environmental physiology done at Johnson Space Center (JSC). The work is aimed at keeping astronauts healthy. This is a different approach than treating the sick, and is more of an occupational health model. The reduction of risks is the main emphasis for this work. They emphasis is to reduce the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and acute mountain sickness (AMS). The work in environmental physiology encompasses the following areas: (1) Pressure: hypobaric and hyperbaric (2) Gases: hypoxia and hyperoxia, hypercapnia--closed space issues, inert gas physiology / respiration (3) Temperature: hypothermia and hyperthermia, thermal comfort, Protective clothing diving, aviation, mountaineering, and space (4) Acceleration (5) Noise and Vibration (6) Exercise / Performance (6) Acclimatization / Adaptation: engineering solutions when necessary. This presentation reviews the work done at JSC in the areas of DCS and AMS.

  2. Low earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahra, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the photovoltaic power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized

  3. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common approach to define environmental exposures, focusing on the local residential environment, using census tracts or postcodes to delimit exposures. However, use of such administrative units may not be appropriate to evaluate contextual effets on health because they are generally not a 'true' representation of the environments to which individuals are exposed. Recent work has suggested that advances may be made if an activity-space approach is adopted. The present paper investigates how various disciplines may contribute to the refinement of the concept of activity space for use in health research. In particular we draw on seminal work in time geography, which provides a framework to describe individual behavior in space and time, and can help the conceptualization of activity space. In addition we review work in environmental psychology and social networks research, which provides insights on how people and places interact and offers new theories for improving the spatial definition of contextual exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Population persistence of stream fish in response to environmental change: integrating data and models across space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, B. H.; Schueller, P.; Bassar, R.; Coombs, J.; Rosner, A.; Sakrejda, K.; Kanno, Y.; Whiteley, A.; Nislow, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    For stream fishes, environmental variation is a key driver of individual body growth/movement/survival and, by extension, population dynamics. Identifying how stream fish respond to environmental variation can help clarify mechanisms responsible for population dynamics and can help provide tools to forecast relative resilience of populations across space. Forecasting dynamics across space is challenging, however, because it can be difficult to conduct enough studies with enough intensity to fully characterize broad-scale population response to environmental change. We have adopted a multi-scale approach, using detailed individual-based studies and analyses (integral projection matrix) to determine sensitivities of population growth to environmental variation combined with broad spatial data and analyses (occupancy and abundance models) to estimate patterns of population response across space. Population growth of brook trout was most sensitive to stream flow in the spring and winter, most sensitive to stream temperature in the fall and sensitive to both flow and temperature in the summer. High flow in the spring and winter had negative effects on population growth while high temperature had a negative effect in the fall. Flow had no effect when it was cold, but a positive effect when it was warm in the summer. Combined with occupancy and abundance models, these data give insight into the spatial structure of resilient populations and can help guide prioritization of management actions.

  5. Intensity effects in the formation of stable islands in phase space during the multi-turn extraction process at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Shinji; Prior, Chris; Gilardoni, Simone; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hirlander, Simon; Huschauer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The CERN PS utilises a Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE) scheme to stretch the beam pulse length to optimise the filling process of the SPS. MTE is a novel technique to split a beam in transverse phase space into nonlinear stable islands. The recent experimental results indicate that the positions of the islands depend on the total beam intensity. Particle simulations have been performed to understand the detailed mechanism of the intensity dependence. The analysis carried out so far suggests space charge effects through image charges and image currents on the vacuum chamber and the magnets iron cores dominate the observed behaviour. In this talk, the latest analysis with realistic modelling of the beam environment is discussed and it is shown how this further improves the understanding of intensity effects in MTE.

  6. Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system phase 3 simplified integrated test detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. C.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Dubiel, M. Y.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Whitley, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) in 1989 is presented. This was the first test in the phase 3 series integrated environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) tests. The basic goal of the SIT was to achieve full integration of the baseline air revitalization (AR) subsystems for Space Station Freedom. Included is a description of the SIT configuration, a performance analysis of each subsystem, results from air and water sampling, and a discussion of lessons learned from the test. Also included is a full description of the preprototype ECLSS hardware used in the test.

  7. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  8. Goddard Space Flight Center: 1994 Maryland/GSFC Earth and Environmental Science Teacher Ambassador Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, James

    1995-01-01

    The Maryland/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth and Environmental Science Teacher Ambassador Program was designed to enhance classroom instruction in the Earth and environmental science programs in the secondary schools of the state of Maryland. In October 1992, more than 100 school system administrators from the 24 local Maryland school systems, the Maryland State Department of Education, and the University of Maryland met with NASA GSFC scientists and education officers to propose a cooperative state-wide secondary school science teaching enhancement initiative.

  9. Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    shallow- rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Draft Environmental Assessment - California Space Center...buckwheat flowers and buds where the larvae feed until maturation. Upon maturation larvae burrow into the soil and pupate, usually within the root and...terrain, sharp or protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle

  10. Overlapping and permeability: Research on the pattern hierarchy of communication space and design strategy based on environmental behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leilei, Sun; Liang, Zhang; Bing, Chen; Hong, Xi

    2017-11-01

    This thesis is to analyze the basic pattern hierarchy of communication space by using the theory of environmental psychology and behavior combined with relevant principles in architecture, to evaluate the design and improvement of communication space in specific meaning, and to bring new observation ideas and innovation in design methods to the system of space, environment and behavior.

  11. Next Steps Toward Understanding Human Habitation of Space: Environmental Impacts and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Entry into low earth orbit and beyond causes profound shifts in environmental conditions that have the potential to influence human productivity, long term health, and even survival. We now have evidence that microgravity, radiation and/or confinement in space can lead to demonstrably detrimental changes in the cardiovascular (e.g. vessel function, orthostatic intolerance), musculoskeletal (muscle atrophy, bone loss) and nervous (eye, neurovestibular) systems of astronauts. Because of both the limited number of astronauts who have flown (especially females) and the high degree of individual variability in the human population, important unanswered questions about responses to the space environment remain: What are the sex differences with respect to specific physiological systems? Are the responses age-dependent and/or reversible after return to Earth? Do observed detrimental changes that resemble accelerated aging progress continuously over time or plateau? What are the mechanisms of the biological responses? Answering these important questions certainly demands a multi-pronged approach, and the study of multicellular model organisms (such as rodents and flies) already has provided opportunities for exploring those questions in some detail. Recent long duration spaceflight experiments with rodents show that mice in space provide a mammalian model that uniquely combines the influence of reduced gravitational loading with increased physical activity. In addition, multiple investigators have shown that ground-based models that simulate aspects of spaceflight (including rodent hind limb unloading to mimic weightlessness and exposure to ionizing radiation), cause various transient and persistent detrimental consequences in multiple physiological systems. In general, we have found that adverse skeletal effects of simulated weightlessness and space radiation when combined, can be quantitatively, if not qualitatively, different from the influence of each environmental

  12. Space use optimisation and sustainability-environmental comparison of international cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Sebastiaan; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy

    2004-11-01

    As a follow-up to our first paper in this journal, this paper discusses projects involving intensive and multiple use of space recently completed or still being developed around railway stations in London (Broadgate and Canary Wharf), Paris (Seine Rive Gauche and La Défense) and Amsterdam (Zuidas and Bijlmer). The cases were compared on the basis of spatial, functional and environmental indicators, as treated in our first paper. The environmental performance of each of the cases was determined through comparison with a theoretic reference project for an equal number of users, yet with average West-European urban values for spatial, functional and environmental properties. The case studies revealed that a high floor space index is easily achievable in urban plans, implying efficient use of land and preservation of green area outside the city. For a mono-functional office area it is easier to achieve a high FSI than for a functionally diverse area with, e.g. apartments and shops. Therefore, with respect to a reference functionally equal to the cases, the predominant office character of Canary Wharf, Broadgate and La Défense results in good environmental performance. However, on the basis of a functionally diverse reference, for which monofunctional cases were enlarged with additional area for housing and amenities, the varied areas of Zuidas and Seine Rive Gauche perform best. With respect to average urban plans, the cases achieved environmental improvement of factor 1.5. This performance is restricted by the energy consumption of buildings, which has by far the most influence on the end result. The impact of stacking on the use of building materials and energy consumption of buildings is limited, and specific sustainability measures on the building scale were not involved in the calculations. The environmental benefits of intensive and multiple use of space are mainly demonstrated by the great improvement factors for the green area preserved and transport fuel

  13. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems technology options for Space Station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.; Sage, K. H.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous assessments regarding the suitability of candidate technologies for manned Space Stations will be needed over the next several years to obtain a basis for recommending the optimum system for an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) Space Station which is to be launched in the early 1990's. This paper has the objective to present analysis programs, the candidate recommendations, and the recommended approach for integration these candidates into the NASA Space Station reference configuration. Attention is given to ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) technology assessment program, an analysis approach for candidate technology recommendations, mission model variables, a candidate integration program, metabolic oxygen recovery, urine/flush water and all waste water recovery, wash water and condensate water recovery, and an integration analysis.

  14. Installation and Characterization of Charged Particle Sources for Space Environmental Effects Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skevington, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Charged particle sources are integral devices used by Marshall Space Flight Center s Environmental Effects Branch (EM50) in order to simulate space environments for accurate testing of materials and systems. By using these sources inside custom vacuum systems, materials can be tested to determine charging and discharging properties as well as resistance to sputter damage. This knowledge can enable scientists and engineers to choose proper materials that will not fail in harsh space environments. This paper combines the steps utilized to build a low energy electron gun (The "Skevington 3000") as well as the methods used to characterize the output of both the Skevington 3000 and a manufactured Xenon ion source. Such characterizations include beam flux, beam uniformity, and beam energy. Both sources were deemed suitable for simulating environments in future testing.

  15. Environmental monitoring and research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C. R.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, W. M.; Summerfield, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Biomedical Operations and Research Office at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center has been supporting environmental monitoring and research since the mid-1970s. Program elements include monitoring of baseline conditions to document natural variability in the ecosystem, assessments of operations and construction of new facilities, and ecological research focusing on wildlife habitat associations. Information management is centered around development of a computerized geographic information system that incorporates remote sensing and digital image processing technologies along with traditional relational data base management capabilities. The proactive program is one in which the initiative is to anticipate potential environmental concerns before they occur and, by utilizing in-house expertise, develop impact minimization or mitigation strategies to reduce environmental risk.

  16. Space Toxicology: Environmental Health Considerations during Spaceflight Operations and Potential Paths for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen N.; Sundaresan, Alemalu

    2009-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a specialized discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids [1]. Astronaut explorers face unique challenges to their health while working and living with limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. At its core the practice of space toxicology to identify, assess and predict potential chemical contaminants and limit the astronaut s exposure to these environmental factors in order to protect crew health. Space toxicologists are also charged with setting safe exposure limits that will protect the astronaut against a multitude of chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space, toxicological risks are gauged and managed within the context of isolation, continual exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the necessary use of highly toxic compounds required for propulsion. As the space program move towards human presence and exploration other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of unusual and/or reactive mineral dusts must also be analyzed and controlled. Placing humans for long-term presence in space creates several problems and challenges to the long-term health of the crew, such as bone-loss and immunological challenges and has spurred research into acute, chronic and episodic exposure of the pulmonary system to mineral dusts [2]. NASA has demonstrated that lunar soil contains several types of reactive dusts, including an extremely fine respirable component. In order to protect astronaut health, NASA is now investigating the toxicity of this unique class of dusts. Understanding how these reactive components behave "biochemically" in a moisture-rich pulmonary environment will aid in determining how toxic these particles are to humans. The data obtained from toxicological examination of lunar dusts will determine the human risk criteria for lunar

  17. Microbial communities of the Lemon Creek Glacier show subtle structural variation yet stable phylogenetic composition over space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Springer Sheik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are geologically important yet transient ecosystems that support diverse, biogeochemically significant microbial communities. During the melt season glaciers undergo dramatic physical, geochemical and biological changes that exert great influence on downstream biogeochemical cycles. Thus, we sought to understand the temporal melt-season dynamics of microbial communities and associated geochemistry at the terminus of Lemon Creek Glacier (LCG in coastal southern Alaska. Due to late season snowfall, sampling of LCG occurred in three interconnected areas: proglacial Lake Thomas, the lower glacial outflow stream and the glacier’s terminus. LCG associated microbial communities were phylogenetically diverse and varied by sampling location. However, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated communities at all sampling locations. Strict anaerobic groups such as methanogens, SR1, and OP11 were also recovered from glacier outflows, indicating anoxic conditions in at least some portions of the LCG subglacial environment. Microbial community structure was significantly correlated with sampling location and sodium concentrations. Microbial communities sampled from terminus outflow waters exhibited day-to-day fluctuation in taxonomy and phylogenetic similarity. However, these communities were not significantly different from randomly constructed communities from all three sites. These results indicate that glacial outflows share a large proportion of phylogenetic overlap with downstream environments and that the observed significant shifts in community structure are driven by changes in relative abundance of different taxa, and not complete restructuring of communities. We conclude that LCG glacial discharge hosts a diverse and relatively stable microbiome that shifts at fine taxonomic scales in response to geochemistry and likely water residence time.

  18. Space station environmental control and life support systems test bed program - an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Albert F.

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins to intensify activities for development of the Space Station, decisions must be made concerning the technical state of the art that will be baselined for the initial Space Station system. These decisions are important because significant potential exists for enhancing system performance and for reducing life-cycle costs. However, intelligent decisions cannot be made without an adequate assessment of new and ready technologies, i.e., technologies which are sufficiently mature to allow predevelopment demonstrations to prove their application feasibility and to quantify the risk associated with their development. Therefore, the NASA has implemented a technology development program which includes the establishment of generic test bed capabilities in which these new technologies and approaches can be tested at the prototype level. One major Space Station subsystem discipline in which this program has been implemented is the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS). Previous manned space programs such as Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle have relied heavily on consumables to provide environmental control and life support services. However, with the advent of a long-duration Space Station, consumables must be reduced within technological limits to minimize Space Station resupply penalties and operational costs. The use of advanced environmental control and life support approaches involving regenerative processes offers the best solution for significant consumables reduction while also providing system evolutionary growth capability. Consequently, the demonstration of these "new technologies" as viable options for inclusion in the baseline that will be available to support a Space Station initial operational capability in the early 1990's becomes of paramount importance. The mechanism by which the maturity of these new regenerative life support technologies will be demonstrated is the Space

  19. Automatically stable discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methods for stationary transport problems: Quasi-optimal test space norm

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti H.; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the application of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) finite element framework to stationary convection-diffusion problems. In particular, we demonstrate how the quasi-optimal test space norm improves the robustness of the DPG method with respect to vanishing diffusion. We numerically compare coarse-mesh accuracy of the approximation when using the quasi-optimal norm, the standard norm, and the weighted norm. Our results show that the quasi-optimal norm leads to more accurate results on three benchmark problems in two spatial dimensions. We address the problems associated to the resolution of the optimal test functions with respect to the quasi-optimal norm by studying their convergence numerically. In order to facilitate understanding of the method, we also include a detailed explanation of the methodology from the algorithmic point of view. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Automatically stable discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methods for stationary transport problems: Quasi-optimal test space norm

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti H.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the application of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) finite element framework to stationary convection-diffusion problems. In particular, we demonstrate how the quasi-optimal test space norm improves the robustness of the DPG method with respect to vanishing diffusion. We numerically compare coarse-mesh accuracy of the approximation when using the quasi-optimal norm, the standard norm, and the weighted norm. Our results show that the quasi-optimal norm leads to more accurate results on three benchmark problems in two spatial dimensions. We address the problems associated to the resolution of the optimal test functions with respect to the quasi-optimal norm by studying their convergence numerically. In order to facilitate understanding of the method, we also include a detailed explanation of the methodology from the algorithmic point of view. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Space Use Variation in Co-Occurring Sister Species: Response to Environmental Variation or Competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Claire M. S.; Meynard, Christine; Watson, Johan; Rioux, Camille; Benhamou, Simon; Perez, Julie; du Plessis, Jurie J.; Avenant, Nico; Pillay, Neville; Ganem, Guila

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence often involves niche differentiation either as the result of environmental divergence, or in response to competition. Disentangling the causes of such divergence requires that environmental variation across space is taken into account, which is rarely done in empirical studies. We address the role of environmental variation versus competition in coexistence between two rodent species: Rhabdomys bechuanae (bechuanae) and Rhabdomys dilectus dilectus (dilectus) comparing their habitat preference and home range (HR) size in areas with similar climates, where their distributions abut (allopatry) or overlap (sympatry). Using Outlying Mean Index analyses, we test whether habitat characteristics of the species deviate significantly from a random sample of available habitats. In allopatry, results suggest habitat selection: dilectus preferring grasslands with little bare soil while bechuanae occurring in open shrublands. In sympatry, shrubland type habitats dominate and differences are less marked, yet dilectus selects habitats with more cover than bechuanae. Interestingly, bechuanae shows larger HRs than dilectus, and both species display larger HRs in sympatry. Further, HR overlaps between species are lower than expected. We discuss our results in light of data on the phylogeography of the genus and propose that evolution in allopatry resulted in adaptation leading to different habitat preferences, even at their distribution margins, a divergence expected to facilitate coexistence. However, since sympatry occurs in sites where environmental characteristics do not allow complete species separation, competition may explain reduced inter-species overlap and character displacement in HR size. This study reveals that both environmental variation and competition may shape species coexistence. PMID:25693176

  2. Producing Gorongosa: Space and the Environmental Politics of Degradation in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Madison Walker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the spatial production of the greater Gorongosa ecosystem, linking the production of space with scientific discourses on environmental degradation. Ecological research conducted in Gorongosa National Park (GNP in the 1960s established the spatial contours and produced the greater Gorongosa ecosystem that is continually under threat from Mozambican cultivators. This discursive production and its material effects obscure a long history of human occupancy and transformation of the landscape that is now categorised as a national park. The use of aerial surveys and satellite imagery by conservationists to chart biophysical changes in the landscape is central to the spatial production of the greater Gorongosa ecosystem. The knowledge produced through these ways of seeing the landscape is used to justify various socio-technical and legal interventions to protect the environment. Through analysing the discourse on human-induced environmental degradation in GNP between 2005 and 2010, I suggest that when nature and space are taken as self evident by conservation practitioners, there is a danger of reproducing narratives of environmental degradation that simplify historically dynamic interactions between people, institutions, and their biophysical surroundings, and serve as further justification for intervening in the lives and livelihoods of adjacent residents.

  3. Environmental control and life support technologies for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, F. T.; Wynveen, R. A.; Lin, C.

    1986-01-01

    Regenerative environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technologies are found by the present evaluation to have reached a degree of maturity that recommends their application to long duration manned missions. The missions for which regenerative ECLSSs are attractive in virtue of the need to avoid expendables and resupply requirements have been identified as that of the long duration LEO Space Station, long duration stays at GEO, a permanently manned lunar base (or colony), manned platforms located at the earth-moon libration points L4 or L5, a Mars mission, deep space exploration, and asteroid exploration. A comparison is made between nonregenerative and regenerative ECLSSs in the cases of 10 essential functions.

  4. Dock Sud's environmental pollution: Spatial representations, space representation and spatial practices in peripheral neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Valeria Ursino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present some of the results and argumentative lines used in the analysis of the field work carried out in the neighborhoods of Porst, Danubio and Villa Inflamable, in the Dock Sud area, located in the district of Avellaneda, province de Buenos Aires, during 2010 and 2011. Within this framework, we observed and recorded the inhabitants' usual routes around the neighborhood, which is environmentally polluted but which has also been symbolically appropriated. Along these lines then, our general aim was to learn about social representations, representation spaces and the spatial practices of the inhabitants of the most affected neighborhoods of Dock Sud due to the area's environmental issues. To this end, there was a reconstruction of the subjects' practices in the neighborhood, of the hegemonic discourse about the pollution in this place and, finally, the population's conflict and struggle practices

  5. Assessment of environmental effects on Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Nahra, Henry K.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of EPS (electrical power system) interactions with the LEO (low earth orbit) environment are described. The results of these analyses will support EPS design so as to be compatible with the natural and induced environments and to meet power, lifetime, and performance requirements. The environmental impacts to the Space Station Freedom EPS include aerodynamic drag, atomic oxygen erosion, ultraviolet degradation, VXB effect, ionizing radiation dose and single event effects, electromagnetic interference, electrostatic discharge, plasma interactions (ion sputtering, arcing, and leakage current), meteoroid and orbital debris threats, thermal cycling effects, induced current and voltage potential differences in the SSF due to induced electric field, and contamination degradation.

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  7. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2010 - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011 and the continued permanent presence of six crew members on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and extension of the ISS service life from 2015 to 2020 or beyond.

  8. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non -regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  10. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  11. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2014 and February 2015. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  12. Stable isotope evidence for the environmental impact of a land-based fish farm in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Isotopic examination (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) of organic matter sources and consumers was used to assess the impact and trace the dispersal of wastewater from a land-based fish farm in western Mediterranean. The results provide evidence of the non-negligible effect of aquaculture facilities on the natural stable isotopic composition of organisms. Aquaculture waste entered the food web, altering the natural isotopic composition of organic matter sources at the base and the upper trophic levels. Nitrogen-rich fish waste mainly affected δ 15 N values, while δ 13 C showed less alteration. Waste seemed to disperse widely enough to affect the isotopic composition at the study site about 500 m from the outfall, while sites at 1 and 2 km from the outfall showed values that were similar to each other and different from those of the impacted site. The impact was detected at different ecosystem levels, although primary producers were more affected by fish farm waste taking up aquaculture-derived nutrients

  13. Electrostatic Discharge Test of Multi-Junction Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is conducting electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO/CD 11221, the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels. This standard is currently in its final review with expected approval in 2010. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of 4 cells. The ESD tests are performed at the beginning of life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point. The environmental exposure sequence consists of UV radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume. This paper discusses the coverglass flashover simulation, ESD test setup, and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Results from 5th-year testing are compared to the baseline ESD characteristics determined at the BOL condition.

  14. Stable isotopes in yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) fossils reveal environmental stability in the late Quaternary of the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Linda M.; Meltzer, David J.; Emslie, Steven D.; Tuross, Noreen

    2015-03-01

    High elevation plant and animal communities are considered extremely sensitive to environmental change. We investigated an exceptional fossil record of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) specimens that was recovered from Cement Creek Cave (elev. 2860 m) and ranged in age from radiocarbon background circa 49.8 cal ka BP to ~ 1 cal ka BP. We coupled isotopic and radiocarbon measurements (δ18O, δD, δ15N, δ13C, and 14C) of bone collagen from individually-AMS dated specimens of marmots to assess ecological responses by this species to environmental change over time in a high elevation basin in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Colorado, USA. We find little change in all four isotope ratios over time, demonstrating considerable environmental stability during periods when the marmots were present. The stable ecology and the apparent persistence of the small mammal community in the cave fauna throughout the late Quaternary are in marked contrast to the changes that occurred in the large mammal community, including local extirpation and extinction, at the end of the Pleistocene.

  15. Preliminary study of environmental parameters associated with the feasibility of a polygeneration plant at Kennedy Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of a polygeneration plant at Kennedy Space Center was studied. Liquid hydrogen and gaseous nitrogen are the two principal products in consideration. Environmental parameters (air quality, water quality, biological diversity and hazardous waste disposal) necessary for the feasibility study were investigated. A National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) project flow sheet was to be formulated for the environmental impact statement. Water quality criteria for Florida waters were to be established

  16. Earthquakes, public spaces and (the social construction of environmental disasters. The role of public space for risk mitigation and urban redevelopment and the role of environmental disasters for re­ assessing the ‘space of the Public’.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pizzo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from long­lasting research dedicated to urban risk reduction through a planning approach. It focuses on public space, proposing an inversion of the usual perspective: instead of considering public spaces for risk mitigation and urban redevelopment, here the imperatives of environmental safety and urban resilience can be instrumental for exploring the meaning and role of the public space from a different, rather compelling point of view. One starting point is the concept of SUM, Strategic Urban Structure (or Framework, from the Italian “Struttura urbana minima”, which has been introduced in order to set out the contents of urban risk reduction in local administration agendas and particularly into ordinary planning processes. The SUM has been conceived both as an analytical and a normative/planning tool. Public spaces are the backbone of both urban structure and of the SUM. From their features, localization, distribution within thesettlement, and their systemic characters, largely depend the capacity of a town to positively react to a seismic event. Six case­studies of small and medium­size historic towns in the Umbria Region (one of the many Italian Regions with a high level of seismic risk, help to understand the complexities and problems related to seismic prevention within historical centres, and the conflicts between conservation of the heritage and the imperatives of environmental safety. In order to overcome possible criticalities identified in a SUM, it is necessary to provide alternatives to its functioning through redundant elements. The concept of redundancy, which is strictly related to that of uncertainty, is very interesting and promising in this field of research.

  17. The effect of environmental parameters to dust concentration in air-conditioned space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. M. M.; Manssor, N. A. S.; Nalisa, A.; Yahaya, N.

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia has a wet and hot climate, therefore most of the spaces are air conditioned. The environment might affect dust concentration inside a space and affect the indoor air quality (IAQ). The main objective of this study is to study the dust concentration collected inside enclosed air-conditioned space. The measurement was done physically at four selected offices and two classrooms using a number of equipment to measure the dust concentration and environmental parameters which are temperature and relative air humidity. It was found that the highest dust concentration produced in office (temperature of 24.7°C, relative humidity of 66.5%) is 0.075 mg/m3, as compared to classroom, the highest dust concentration produced is 0.060 mg/m3 office (temperature of 25.9°C, relative humidity of 64.0%). However, both measurements show that value still within the safety level set by DOSH Malaysia (2005-2010) and ASHRAE 62.2 2016. The office contained higher dust concentration compared to classroom because of frequent movement transpires daily due to the functional of the offices.

  18. The Environmental Design of Working Spaces in Equatorial Highlands Zones: The Case of Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Carla Soares Gonçalves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical investigations have indicated that the majority of occupants in office buildings would appreciate contact with the external environment, especially in cities where the climate is mild for part of the year. Supported by the possibilities of adaptive thermal models, the design of naturally ventilated buildings has been elaborated since the decade of 1990s. More communal areas rather than private ones are demanded due to the importance of social interaction and knowledge transfer among employees. In this context, this paper investigates the possibility of daylight and thermal comfort in naturally ventilated working environments, located in cities of mild climatic conditions, by redefining the parameters of a façade’s design and exploring coupling strategies with the outdoors. For this purpose, the city of Bogotá (Latitude 4°7′ N, in Colombia, a place with great potential for passive strategies, is taken as the geographic context of this research, which is supported by fieldwork with occupants of 37 office buildings and analytical work. The survey revealed that being close to a window is valued by the majority. Furthermore, 50% would like to have informal areas and outdoor spaces attached to their working environments. In additithe analytical studies showed how the combination of a set of environmental design strategies, including a schedule for coupling and decoupling of indoor spaces with the outdoors and a variation of occupancy density, made thermal comfort possible in free running working spaces in Bogotá.

  19. Heat pumps in urban space heating systems: Energy and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, M.; Impero Abenavoli, R.; Rome Univ. La Sapienza

    1991-01-01

    A statistical survey is conducted of air pollution in the city of Rome (Italy) due to conventional building space heating systems burning fossil fuels. The survey identifies the annual consumption of the different fuels and the relative amounts of the various pollutants released into the atmosphere by the heating plants, e.g., sulfur and nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, etc. Comparisons are then made between the ratios of urban heating plant air pollutants produced per tonne of fuel employed and those for ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) coal, oil and natural gas fired power plants, in order to demonstrate the better environmental performances of the utility operated energy plants. The building space heating system energy consumption and pollution data are then used in a cost benefit analysis favouring the retrofitting of conventional heating systems with heat pump systems to obtain substantial reductions in energy consumption, heating bills and urban air pollution. The use of readily available, competitively priced and low polluting (in comparison with fuel oil and coal) methane as the energy source for space heating purposes is recommended. The paper also notes the versatility of the heat pump systems in that they could also be used for summer air conditioning

  20. Space diffuses multiobjective analysis: A tool to locate lineal projects with a focus of environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricia Jaramillo A Liliana Vinasco T

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological proposal that is developed to identify corridors for lineal projects (highways, transmission lines, pipelines, etc), with environmental management criteria, when there is not complete information about the area of influence of the project, or some of the information is imprecise. Also a computational module is developed that allow the use of the methodological proposal. The proposal is based in the fuzzy multiobjective analysis concept, which takes elements of the diffuse logic and the traditional Multiobjective Analysis; the first one, it conserves its properties with imprecise information and of the second allows, the minimization of multiple objective correspond to the least environmental the physical, biological, cultural, economical and political dimensions of the environment uses the Geographic Information SIG this proposal is being constituted a complete tool for taking decisions in which space attributed is included. The FMA is a recent technique that is in development [S integration to GIS is stiller. The proposal is a contribution to the construction of a conceptual scheme for future applications in this aspects constitute a tool for the environmental planning which decreasing the risks, future cost analysis of natural resources and human group

  1. Application of PIXE analysis to environmental samples stable element distribution in sea algae by scanning microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Kitao, K.; Imaseki, H.; Ishii, T.; Uchida, S.

    1984-01-01

    The resolution of a 33+-3 μm microprobe focussed with quadrupole doublet installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, was used for the present analysis. Brown algae, Hizikia fusiforme was the sample target bombarded with a 2 MeV proton beam collimated mechanically into a rectangular image of 100 μm x 700 μm. Scanning across the sample target prepared into a longitudinal section from the caulis of the algae provided the following observations. More than 12 elements such as Al, Si, P, Cl, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Sr were determined simultaneously, together with their distributional information across the diameter. In the medullary layer, Mn and Zn were specific in their accumulation, while the deposition of Fe, Cu, As and Br were observed to be high in the epithelial layer, especially Fe and Cu which were found on the surface, where they contacted ambient sea water, but no significant change in pattern was indicated for such elements as Al, P and Cl. The PIXE microprobe analysis was, therefore, effective in its detectability for elements below a few ppm level, resultantly providing further possibilities for collecting information from bio-medical and environmental samples on trace characterization of elements. (author)

  2. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  3. Stable exponential cosmological solutions with 3- and l-dimensional factor spaces in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model with a Λ-term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchuk, V.D. [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kobtsev, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2018-02-15

    A D-dimensional gravitational model with a Gauss-Bonnet term and the cosmological term Λ is studied. We assume the metrics to be diagonal cosmological ones. For certain fine-tuned Λ, we find a class of solutions with exponential time dependence of two scale factors, governed by two Hubble-like parameters H > 0 and h, corresponding to factor spaces of dimensions 3 and l > 2, respectively and D = 1 + 3 + l. The fine-tuned Λ = Λ(x, l, α) depends upon the ratio h/H = x, l and the ratio α = α{sub 2}/α{sub 1} of two constants (α{sub 2} and α{sub 1}) of the model. For fixed Λ, α and l > 2 the equation Λ(x, l, α) = Λ is equivalent to a polynomial equation of either fourth or third order and may be solved in radicals (the example l = 3 is presented). For certain restrictions on x we prove the stability of the solutions in a class of cosmological solutions with diagonal metrics. A subclass of solutions with small enough variation of the effective gravitational constant G is considered. It is shown that all solutions from this subclass are stable. (orig.)

  4. Exergy Based Analysis for the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Kirk A.; Nelson, George J.; Mesmer, Bryan L.; Watson, Michael D.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    When optimizing the performance of complex systems, a logical area for concern is improving the efficiency of useful energy. The energy available for a system to perform work is defined as a system's energy content. Interactions between a system's subsystems and the surrounding environment can be accounted for by understanding various subsystem energy efficiencies. Energy balance of reactants and products, and enthalpies and entropies, can be used to represent a chemical process. Heat transfer energy represents heat loads, and flow energy represents system flows and filters. These elements allow for a system level energy balance. The energy balance equations are developed for the subsystems of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The use of these equations with system information would allow for the calculation of the energy efficiency of the system, enabling comparisons of the ISS ECLS system to other systems as well as allows for an integrated systems analysis for system optimization.

  5. Main physical environmental drivers of occupant behaviour with regard to space heating energy demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted the significant gap between the predicted energy performance of buildings and their measured actual performance. Uncertainties regarding behaviour of building occupants are one of the key factors limiting the ability of energy simulation tools to accurately predict...... real building energy requirements . The paper focuses on the particular topics of space heating energy demand related to the occupants habits of adjusting heating set-points. The parameters influencing the user interaction with the heating control system are analyzed in literature for residential......) environmental conditions and the occupants’ heating set-point preferences. The paper aims at providing a reliable basis for a more accurate description of control action models in performance simulation applications....

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028. 1

  7. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  8. Monitoring Space Radiation Hazards with the Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercially Hosted (REACH) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, J. E.; Guild, T. B.; Crain, W.; Crain, S.; Holker, D.; Quintana, S.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Kelly, M. A.; Barnes, R. J.; Sotirelis, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercial Hosting (REACH) project uses radiation dosimeters on a commercial satellite constellation in low Earth orbit to provide unprecedented spatial and time sampling of space weather radiation hazards. The spatial and time scales of natural space radiation environments coupled with constraints for the hosting accommodation drove the instrumentation requirements and the plan for the final orbital constellation. The project has delivered a total of thirty two radiation dosimeter instruments for launch with each instrument containing two dosimeters with different passive shielding and electronic thresholds to address proton-induced single-event effects, vehicle charging, and total ionizing dose. There are two REACH instruments currently operating with four more planned for launch by the time of the 2017 meeting. Our aim is to field a long-lived system of highly-capable radiation detectors to monitor the hazards of single-event effects, total ionizing dose, and spacecraft charging with maximized spatial coverage and with minimal time latency. We combined a robust detection technology with a commercial satellite hosting to produce a new demonstration for satellite situational awareness and for other engineering and science applications.

  9. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  10. Effects Of Environmental And Operational Stresses On RF MEMS Switch Technologies For Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jah, Muzar; Simon, Eric; Sharma, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have been heralded for their ability to provide tremendous advantages in electronic systems through increased electrical performance, reduced power consumption, and higher levels of device integration with a reduction of board real estate. RF MEMS switch technology offers advantages such as low insertion loss (0.1- 0.5 dB), wide bandwidth (1 GHz-100 GHz), and compatibility with many different process technologies (quartz, high resistivity Si, GaAs) which can replace the use of traditional electronic switches, such as GaAs FETS and PIN Diodes, in microwave systems for low signal power (x technologies, the unknown reliability, due to the lack of information concerning failure modes and mechanisms inherent to MEMS devices, create an obstacle to insertion of MEMS technology into high reliability applications. All MEMS devices are sensitive to moisture and contaminants, issues easily resolved by hermetic or near-hermetic packaging. Two well-known failure modes of RF MEMS switches are charging in the dielectric layer of capacitive membrane switches and contact interface stiction of metal-metal switches. Determining the integrity of MEMS devices when subjected to the shock, vibration, temperature extremes, and radiation of the space environment is necessary to facilitate integration into space systems. This paper will explore the effects of different environmental stresses, operational life cycling, temperature, mechanical shock, and vibration on the first commercially available RF MEMS switches to identify relevant failure modes and mechanisms inherent to these device and packaging schemes for space applications. This paper will also describe RF MEMS Switch technology under development at NASA GSFC.

  11. The image of public space on planned housing based on environmental and behavior cognition mapping (case study: Cemara Asri Estate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirfalini Aulia, Dwira; Zahara, Aina

    2018-03-01

    Public spaces in a planned housing is a place of social interaction for every visitor of public space. The research on public space image uses four public spaces that meet the criteria of public space such as pedestrian sidewalks, public park, water front and worship place. Research on the perception of public space is interesting to investigate because housing development is part of the forming of a society that should design with proper architectural considerations. The purpose of this research is to know the image of public space on the planned housing in Medan City based on the mapping of environmental and behavior cognition and to know the difference between the image that happened to four group respondent. The research method of architecture used in this research is a descriptive qualitative method with case study approach (most similar case). Analysis of data used using mental maps and questionnaires. Then the image of public space is formed based on the elements of public space, wayfinding, route choice, and movement. The image difference that occurs to the housing residents and architecture students, design and planning are outstanding, visitors to the public housing space is good, people who have never visited the public space is inadequate.

  12. Multipurpose Cooling Garment for Improved Space Suit Environmental Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these...

  13. Biogeochemistry Science and Education Part One: Using Non-Traditional Stable Isotopes as Environmental Tracers Part Two: Identifying and Measuring Undergraduate Misconceptions in Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Chris

    This dissertation is presented in two sections. First, I explore two methods of using stable isotope analysis to trace environmental and biogeochemical processes. Second, I present two related studies investigating student understanding of the biogeochemical concepts that underlie part one. Fe and Hg are each biogeochemically important elements in their own way. Fe is a critical nutrient for phytoplankton, while Hg is detrimental to nearly all forms of life. Fe is often a limiting factor in marine phytoplankton growth. The largest source, by mass, of Fe to the open ocean is windblown mineral dust, but other more soluble sources are more bioavailable. To look for evidence of these non-soil dust sources of Fe to the open ocean, I measured the isotopic composition of aerosol samples collected on Bermuda. I found clear evidence in the fine size fraction of a non-soil dust Fe source, which I conclude is most likely from biomass burning. Widespread adoption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) has increased their importance as a source of environmental Hg. Isotope analysis would be a useful tool in quantifying this impact if the isotopic composition of Hg from CFL were known. My measurements show that CFL-Hg is isotopically fractionated, in a unique pattern, during normal operation. This fractionation is large and has a distinctive, mass-independent signature, such that CFL Hg can be uniquely identified from other sources. Misconceptions research in geology has been a very active area of research, but student thinking regarding the related field of biogeochemistry has not yet been studied in detail. From interviews with 40 undergraduates, I identified over 150 specific misconceptions. I also designed a multiple-choice survey (concept inventory) to measure understanding of these same biogeochemistry concepts. I present statistical evidence, based on the Rasch model, for the reliability and validity of this instrument. This instrument will allow teachers and researchers to

  14. thermo-stable alpha-amylase(S) from irradiated microbial origin utilizing agricultural and environmental wastes under solid state fermentation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, O.E.A.

    2002-01-01

    an investigation concerning the production of thermo-stable α-amylases by thermophilic bacterial and fungal isolates has been undertaken. nine thermophilic bacteria and five teen fungi were isolated from different localities viz. phyllosphere of water hyacinth, different desert plants leaves, fermented dough, oven dust, garbage , and soil. their amylolytic activities were tested by dinitrosalicylic acid color reagent (Dns) method when grown on some environmental pollutants (garbage and water hyacinth) as well as industrial wastes (Bagasse, biscuit, corn flex and dough residues ) as the sole carbon source at 65 o C for bacterial and at 50 o C for fungal isolates . isolates No. B 1 ,B 2 ,B 5 ,B 6 ,B 7 ,B 8 ,B 9 , and F 4 ,F 6 ,F 8 ,F 1 2,F 1 3 and F 1 5, exhibited the highest α -amylase production when grown on water hyacinth, while B 4 ,F 3 ,F 1 1 and F 1 3, on dough ; (B 3 ,F 9 and F 1 0 ) on bagasse and ( F 1 ,F 2 ,F 5 ,F 7 ,F 1 1 and F 1 4) on garbage. Out of the nine identified bacterial isolated, only two isolates viz; actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, B1 and strepto bacillus moniliformis, B 7 , exhibited the ability to produce high percentages of α amylases at 55 o C (while still able to produce the enzyme within 45-70 o C)

  15. Driver ASIC Environmental Testing and Performance Optimization for SpaceBased Active Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Prada, Camilo

    Direct imaging of Earth-like planets requires techniques for light suppression, such as coronagraphs or nulling interferometers, in which deformable mirrors (DM) are a principal component. On ground-based systems, DMs are used to correct for turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere in addition to static aberrations in the optics. For space-based observations, DMs are used to correct for static and quasi- static aberrations in the optical train. State-of-the-art, high-actuator count deformable mirrors suffer from external heavy and bulky electronics in which electrical connections are made through thousands of wires. We are instead developing Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) capable of direct integration with the DM in a single small package. This integrated ASIC-DM is ideal for space missions, where it offers significant reduction in mass, power and complexity, and performance compatible with high-contrast observations of exoplanets. We have successfully prototyped and tested a 32x32 format Switch-Mode (SM) ASIC which consumes only 2mW static power (total, not per-actuator). A number of constraints were imposed on key parameters of this ASIC design, including sub-picoamp levels of leakage across turned-off switches and from switch-to-substrate, control resolution of 0.04 mV, satisfactory rise/fall times, and a near-zero on-chip crosstalk over a useful range of operating temperatures. This driver ASIC technology is currently at TRL 4. This Supporting Technology proposal will further develop the ASIC technology to TRL 5 by carrying on environmental tests and further optimizing performance, with the end goal of making ASICs suitable for space-based deployment. The effort will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in highcontrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions and in adaptive optic systems, and in design of DM driver electronics. Microscale, which developed the prototype of the ASICDM, will continue its development. We

  16. The exploitation of biomass for building space heating in Greece: Energy, environmental and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michopoulos, A.; Skoulou, V.; Voulgari, V.; Tsikaloudaki, A.; Kyriakis, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The oil substitution with biomass residues for heating buildings is examined. • Primary energy consumption from biomass results increased by 3–4% as compared to diesel oil. • CO 2 and SO 2 emissions are significantly higher with biomass than with diesel oil. • The examined substitution is economically attractive for the final consumers. - Abstract: The exploitation of forest and agricultural biomass residues for energy production may offer significant advantages to the energy policy of the relevant country, but it strongly depends on a number of financial, technological and political factors. The work in hand focuses on the investigation of the energy, environmental and financial benefits, resulting from the exploitation of forest and agricultural biomass residues, fully substituting the conventional fuel (diesel oil) for building space heating in Greece. For this investigation, the energy needs of a representative building are determined using the EnergyPlus software, assuming that the building is located across the various climate zones of Greece. Based on the resulting thermal energy needs, the primary energy consumption and the corresponding emissions are determined, while an elementary fiscal analysis is also performed. The results show that significant financial benefits for the end-user are associated with the substitution examined, even though increased emissions and primary energy consumption have been derived

  17. Effects of simulated space environmental parameters on six commercially available composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, J.G.; Sykes, G.F. Jr.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of simulated space environmental parameters on microdamage induced by the environment in a series of commercially available graphite-fiber-reinforced composite materials were determined. Composites with both thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems were studied. Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) exposures were simulated by thermal cycling; geosynchronous-orbit (GEO) exposures were simulated by electron irradiation plus thermal cycling. The thermal cycling temperature range was -250 F to either 200 F or 150 F. The upper limits of the thermal cycles were different to ensure that an individual composite material was not cycled above its glass transition temperature. Material response was characterized through assessment of the induced microcracking and its influence on mechanical property changes at both room temperature and -250 F. Microdamage was induced in both thermoset and thermoplastic advanced composite materials exposed to the simulated LEO environment. However, a 350 F cure single-phase toughened epoxy composite was not damaged during exposure to the LEO environment. The simuated GEO environment produced microdamage in all materials tested

  18. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  19. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  20. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Integrated Roadmap Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Bagdigian, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Although NASA is currently considering a number of future human space exploration mission concepts, detailed mission requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, making technology investment strategies difficult to develop and sustain without a top-level roadmap to serve as a guide. This paper documents the process and results of an effort to define a roadmap for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) as well as enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro-gravity mission; 2) a long duration microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration partial gravity (surface) exploration mission. To organize the effort, a functional decomposition of ECLSS was completed starting with the three primary functions: atmosphere, water, and solid waste management. Each was further decomposed into sub-functions to the point that current state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies could be tied to the sub-function. Each technology was then assessed by NASA subject matter experts as to its ability to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types. When SOA capabilities were deemed to fall short of meeting the needs of one or more mission types, those gaps were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The result was a list of enabling and enhancing capability needs that can be used to guide future ECLSS development, as well as a list of existing hardware that is ready to go for exploration-class missions. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies intended to meet exploration needs

  1. Environmentally stable adsorbent of tetrahedral silica and non-tetrahedral alumina for removal and recovery of malachite green dye from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, Chellapandian; Sundaram, Thiravium; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2008-01-01

    The conventional adsorbents like activated carbon, agricultural wastes, molecular sieves, etc., used for dye adsorption are unstable in the environment for long time, and hence the adsorbed dyes again gets liberated and pollute the environment. To avoid this problem, environmentally stable adsorbent of silica and alumina should be employed for malachite green adsorption. The adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to confirm the tetrahedral framework of silica and non-tetrahedral framework of alumina. The adsorption equilibrium of dye on alumina and silica were 4 and 5 h, respectively, this less adsorption time on alumina might be due to the less activation energy on alumina (63.46 kJ mol -1 ) than silica (69.93 kJ mol -1 ). Adsorption increased with increase of temperature on silica, in alumina, adsorption increased up to 60 deg. C, and further increase of temperature decreased the adsorption due to the structural change of non-tetrahedral alumina in water. The optimum pH for dye adsorption on alumina was 5 and silica was 6. The dye adsorptions on both adsorbents followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorption well matched with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and found that adsorption capacity on alumina was more than silica. The thermodynamic studies proved that the adsorption was endothermic and chemisorptions (ΔH o > 40 kJ mol -1 ) on alumina and silica. Recovery of dye on alumina and silica were studied from 30 to 90 deg. C and observed that 52% of dye was recovered from alumina and only 3.5% from silica. The less recovery on silica proved the strong adsorption of dye on silica than alumina

  2. Environmentally stable adsorbent of tetrahedral silica and non-tetrahedral alumina for removal and recovery of malachite green dye from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Chellapandian [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamilnadu (India)], E-mail: chellapandiankannan@gmail.com; Sundaram, Thiravium [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamilnadu (India); Palvannan, Thayumanavan [Department of Biochemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011, Tamilnadu (India)

    2008-08-30

    The conventional adsorbents like activated carbon, agricultural wastes, molecular sieves, etc., used for dye adsorption are unstable in the environment for long time, and hence the adsorbed dyes again gets liberated and pollute the environment. To avoid this problem, environmentally stable adsorbent of silica and alumina should be employed for malachite green adsorption. The adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to confirm the tetrahedral framework of silica and non-tetrahedral framework of alumina. The adsorption equilibrium of dye on alumina and silica were 4 and 5 h, respectively, this less adsorption time on alumina might be due to the less activation energy on alumina (63.46 kJ mol{sup -1}) than silica (69.93 kJ mol{sup -1}). Adsorption increased with increase of temperature on silica, in alumina, adsorption increased up to 60 deg. C, and further increase of temperature decreased the adsorption due to the structural change of non-tetrahedral alumina in water. The optimum pH for dye adsorption on alumina was 5 and silica was 6. The dye adsorptions on both adsorbents followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorption well matched with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and found that adsorption capacity on alumina was more than silica. The thermodynamic studies proved that the adsorption was endothermic and chemisorptions ({delta}H{sup o} > 40 kJ mol{sup -1}) on alumina and silica. Recovery of dye on alumina and silica were studied from 30 to 90 deg. C and observed that 52% of dye was recovered from alumina and only 3.5% from silica. The less recovery on silica proved the strong adsorption of dye on silica than alumina.

  3. Soil-based filtration technology for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Bohn, Hinrich

    Soil biofiltration, also known as Soil bed reactor (SBR), technology was originally developed in Germany to take advantage of the diversity in microbial mechanisms to control gases producing malodor in industrial processes. The approach has since gained wider international acceptance and seen numerous improvements, for example, by the use of high-organic compost beds to maximize microbial processes. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms which underlay soil processes involved in air purification, advantages and limitations of the technology and the cur-rent research status of the approach. Soil biofiltration has lower capital and operating/energetic costs than conventional technologies and is well adapted to handle contaminants in moderate concentrations. The systems can be engineered to optimize efficiency though manipulation of temperature, pH, moisture content, soil organic matter and airflow rates. SBR technology was modified for application in the Biosphere 2 project, which demonstrated in preparatory research with a number of closed system testbeds that soil could also support crop plants while also serving as soil filters with air pumps to push air through the soil. This Biosphere 2 research demonstrated in several closed system testbeds that a number of important trace gases could be kept under control and led to the engineering of the entire agricultural soil of Biosphere 2 to serve as a soil filtration unit for the facility. Soil biofiltration, coupled with food crop produc-tion, as a component of bioregenerative space life support systems has the advantages of lower energy use and avoidance of the consumables required for other air purification approaches. Expanding use of soil biofiltration can aid a number of environmental applications, from the mitigation of indoor air pollution, improvement of industrial air emissions and prevention of accidental release of toxic gases.

  4. Ecological Metissage: Exploring the Third Space in Outdoor and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Metis scholar Catherine Richardson introduced the concept of the "Third Space" as the existentially blended territory of a Metis mentality. She compared this to the "First Space" of the dominant Euro-Canadian society and the "Second Space" of colonially subjugated Aboriginal peoples. However, during a recent…

  5. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.

  7. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Supply Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.

  8. BIOGAS PLANT AS AN ELEMENT THAT HAS A POSITIVE INFLUENCE ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES OF RURAL SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Pawłowski

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary rural landscape, an agricultural biogas plant is becoming an increasingly frequent element of agricultural installations. There is a need to ask an important question: is a new technology, such as biogas plants with medium power of 1MW, listed as investments which can have significant environmental impacts? This question is becoming an integral part of rural space as a new form of village buildings. The inevitable changes in the rural landscape and the way of carrying out ...

  9. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  10. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  11. Research-to-operations (R2O) for the Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS) system-impact products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Stephen

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Branch of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC SLG/WMLE) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command's (AFSPC) Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes the Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D) products. This presentation will provide overviews of the current system impact products, along with plans and potentials for future products expected for the SEEFS program. The overviews will include information on applicable research-to-operations (R2O) issues, to include input data coverage and quality control, output confidence levels, modeling standards, and validation efforts.

  12. Applicability of Long Duration Exposure Facility environmental effects data to the design of Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Lu, Cheng-Yi; Aronoff, Irene

    1992-01-01

    Data defining space environmental effects on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are examined in terms of the design of the electrical power system (EPS) of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The significant effects of long-term exposure to space are identified with respect to the performance of the LDEF's materials, components, and systems. A total of 57 experiments were conducted on the LDEF yielding information regarding coatings, thermal systems, electronics, optics, and power systems. The resulting database is analyzed in terms of the specifications of the SSF EPS materials and subsystems and is found to be valuable in the design of control and protection features. Specific applications are listed for findings regarding the thermal environment, atomic oxygen, UV and ionizing radiation, debris, and contamination. The LDEF data are shown to have a considerable number of applications to the design and planning of the SSF and its EPS.

  13. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  14. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  15. Evaluation of space environmental effects on metals and optical thin films on EOIM-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.A.; Linton, R.C.; Finckenor, M.M.; Kamenetzky, R.R.

    1995-02-01

    Metals and optical thin films exposed to the space environment on the Third Flight of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials (EOIM-3) payload, onboard Space Shuttle mission STS-46 were evaluated. The materials effects described in this paper include the effects of space exposure on various pure metals, optical thin films, and optical thin film metals. The changes induced by exposure to the space environment in the material properties were evaluated using bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), specular reflectance (250 nm to 2500 nm), ESCA, VUV reflectance (120 nm to 200 nm), ellipsometry, FTIR and optical properties. Using these analysis techniques gold optically thin film metal mirrors with nickel undercoats were observed to darken due to nickel diffusion through the gold to the surface. Also, thin film nickel mirrors formed nickel oxide due to exposure to both the atmosphere and space.

  16. Evaluation of space environmental effects on metals and optical thin films on EOIM-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

    1995-01-01

    Metals and optical thin films exposed to the space environment on the Third Flight of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials (EOIM-3) payload, onboard Space Shuttle mission STS-46 were evaluated. The materials effects described in this paper include the effects of space exposure on various pure metals, optical thin films, and optical thin film metals. The changes induced by exposure to the space environment in the material properties were evaluated using bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), specular reflectance (250 nm to 2500 nm), ESCA, VUV reflectance (120 nm to 200 nm), ellipsometry, FTIR and optical properties. Using these analysis techniques gold optically thin film metal mirrors with nickel undercoats were observed to darken due to nickel diffusion through the gold to the surface. Also, thin film nickel mirrors formed nickel oxide due to exposure to both the atmosphere and space.

  17. New design and new challenge for space large ultralightweight and stable Zerodur© mirror for future high resolution observation instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilliers, C.; Du Jeu, C.; Costes, V.; Suau, A.; Girault, N.; Cornillon, L.

    2017-11-01

    Space telescopes pupil diameter increases continuously to reach higher resolutions and associated optical scheme become more sensitive. As a consequence the size of these telescopes but also their stability requirements increase. Therefore, mass of space telescopes becomes a strong design driver to be still compatible with price competitive launcher capabilities. Moreover satellite agility requirements are more and more severe and instruments shall be compatible with quick evolution of thermal environment.

  18. Application of Space Environmental Observations to Spacecraft Pre-Launch Engineering and Spacecraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.; Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems and applying this knowledge to spacecraft pre-launch engineering and operations. Particle radiation, neutral gas particles, ultraviolet and x-rays, as well as micrometeoroids and orbital debris in the space environment have various effects on spacecraft systems, including degradation of microelectronic and optical components, physical damage, orbital decay, biasing of instrument readings, and system shutdowns. Space climate and weather must be considered during the mission life cycle (mission concept, mission planning, systems design, and launch and operations) to minimize and manage risk to both the spacecraft and its systems. A space environment model for use in the mission life cycle is presented.

  19. Engineering report. Part 1: NASA wheel air seal development for space shuttle type environmental requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The sealing techniques are studied for existing aircraft wheel-tire designs to meet the hard vacuum .00001 torr and cold temperature -65 F requirements of space travel. The investigation covers the use of existing wheel seal designs.

  20. Space environmental factor impacts upon murine colon microbiota and mucosal homeostasis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We report how high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation microgravity and elevated dietary iron affect colon microbiota (determined by 16S rDNA...

  1. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Cover, John

    2015-01-01

    Nov 2, 2014 marked the completion of the 14th year of continuous human presence in space on board the International Space Station (ISS). After 42 expedition crews, over 115 assembly & utilization flights, over 180 combined Shuttle/Station, US & Russian Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), the post-Assembly-Complete ISS continues to fly and the engineering teams continue to learn from operating its systems, particularly the life support equipment. Problems with initial launch, assembly and activation of ISS elements have given way to more long term system operating trends. New issues have emerged, some with gestation periods measured in years. Major events and challenges for each U.S. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) subsystem occurring during calendar years 2010 through 2014 are summarily discussed in this paper, along with look-aheads for what might be coming in the future for each U.S. ECLS subsystem.

  2. BIOGAS PLANT AS AN ELEMENT THAT HAS A POSITIVE INFLUENCE ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES OF RURAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Pawłowski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary rural landscape, an agricultural biogas plant is becoming an increasingly frequent element of agricultural installations. There is a need to ask an important question: is a new technology, such as biogas plants with medium power of 1MW, listed as investments which can have significant environmental impacts? This question is becoming an integral part of rural space as a new form of village buildings. The inevitable changes in the rural landscape and the way of carrying out farming have both a positive and negative impact on the rural environment. Biogas plants, as new objects in developing country industries, are undoubtedly an important element in the way of obtaining green energy. Location is the most important factor for the success of the establishment and operation of the biogas plant, which is important not only for economic reasons, but also socio-environmental and landscape reasons.

  3. Environmental Impact Specification for Direct Space Weathering of Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    The Direct Space Weathering Project of NASA's Outer Planets Research Program addresses specification of the plasma and energetic particle environments for irradiation and surface chemical processing of icy bodies in the outer solar system and the local interstellar medium. Knowledge of the radiation environments is being expanded by ongoing penetration of the twin Voyager spacecraft into the heliosheath boundary region of the outer heliosphere and expected emergence within the next decade into the very local interstellar medium. The Voyager measurements are being supplemented by remote sensing from Earth orbit of energetic neutral atom emission from this boundary region by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Although the Voyagers long ago passed the region of the Classical Kuiper Belt, the New Horizons spacecraft will encounter Pluto in 2015 and thereafter explore one or more KBOs, meanwhile providing updated measurements of the heliospheric radiation environment in this region. Modeling of ion transport within the heliosphere allows specification of time-integrated irradiation effects while the combination of Voyager and IBEX data supports projection of the in-situ measurements into interstellar space beyond the heliosheath. Transformation of model ion flux distributions into surface sputtering and volume ionization profiles provides a multi-layer perspective for space weathering impact on the affected icy bodies and may account for some aspects of color and compositional diversity. Other important related factors may include surface erosion and gardening by meteoritic impacts and surface renewal by cryovolcanism. Chemical products of space weathering may contribute to energy resources for the latter.

  4. Cities, Networks, and Global Environmental Governance - Spaces of Innovation, Places of Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouteligier, S.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of global dynamics—the increasing interconnection of people and places—innovations in global environmental governance haved altered the role of cities in shaping the future of the planet. This book is a timely study of the importance of these social transformations in our increasingly

  5. HPE Teachers' Negotiation of Environmental Health Spaces: Discursive Positions, Embodiment and Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicole; Wright, Jan; O'Flynn, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    A National Curriculum in Health and Physical Education (HPE) has recently been developed in Australia. This new curriculum reflects, among other educational priorities, both environmental sensitivities and a commitment to the enhancement of young people's health and wellbeing. HPE is one of the key sites in the curriculum where a focused…

  6. Governing Global Environmental Flows: Ecological Modernization in Technonatural Time/Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Environmentalism and social sciences appear to be in a period of disorientation and perhaps transition. In this innovative collection, leading international thinkers explore the notion that one explanation for the current malaise of the ¿politics of ecology¿ is that we increasingly find ourselves

  7. Energy and environmental quality of buildings and open space. Public administration regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Residential sector is responsible of a third of total energy consumption in Italy and 30-40% of CO 2 emission. An energy efficient buildings reduce cost and save energy and emission. The energy recovery is possible also with bioclimatic architecture that represents a contribution at the economic and environmental balance [it

  8. Canoe Pedagogy and Colonial History: Exploring Contested Spaces of Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbery, Liz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I explore how histories of colonialism are integral to the Euro-Western idea of wilderness at the heart of much outdoor environmental education. In the context of canoe tripping, I speculate about why the politics of land rarely enters into teaching on the land. Finally, because learning from difficult knowledge often troubles the…

  9. Tunable and stable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser with 1.3 nm mode spacing output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C H; Shih, F Y; Wang, C H; Chow, C W; Chi, S

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, we propose and investigate a stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with self-injected Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) scheme. By using an FP-LD incorporated with a tunable bandpass filter (TBF) within the gain cavity, the fiber laser can lase at two single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) wavelengths simultaneously due to the self-injected operation. The proposed dual-wavelength laser has a good performance of the output power and optical side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). The laser also shows a wide tuning range from 1523.08 to 1562.26 nm. Besides, the output stabilities of the fiber laser are also discussed

  10. The Myopic Stable Set for Social Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, Thomas; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Saulle, Riccardo; Seel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new solution concept for models of coalition formation, called the myopic stable set. The myopic stable set is defined for a very general class of social environments and allows for an infinite state space. We show that the myopic stable set exists and is non-empty. Under minor

  11. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  12. Approaching Environmental Health Disparities and Green Spaces: An Ecosystem Services Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities occur when adverse health conditions are unequal across populations due in part to gaps in wealth. These disparities continue to plague global health. Decades of research suggests that the natural environment can play a key role in sustaining the health of the public. However, the influence of the natural environment on health disparities is not well-articulated. Green spaces provide ecosystem services that are vital to public health. This paper discusses the link between green spaces and some of the nation’s leading health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular health, heat-related illness, and psychological health. These associations are discussed in terms of key demographic variables—race, ethnicity, and income. The authors also identify research gaps and recommendations for future research.

  13. Space-environmental tolerances in a cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Ajioka, Reiko; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Inoue, Kotomi

    2016-07-01

    We have been investigating the tolerances to space-environments of a cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 (hereafter referred to as HK-01). Dry colonies of HK-01 had high tolerance to dry conditions, but more detailed information about tolerance to high-temperature, UV, gamma-ray and heavy particle beams were not deeply investigated. The obtained dry colonies of HK-01 after exposure to each of the conditions described above were investigated. In all of the tested colonies of HK-01 after exposure, all or some of the cells in the colonies were alive. One of the purposes of space agriculture is growing plants on Mars. In the early stages, of our research, cyanobacteria are introduced on Mars to promote the oxidation of the atmosphere and the formation of soil from Mars's regolith. HK-01 will contribute to each of these factors in the future.

  14. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAS. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology.

  15. The Komplast Experiment: Space Environmental Effects after 12 Years in LEO (and Counting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, J. L.; Shaevich, S.; Aleksandrov, N. G.; Shumov, A. E.; Novikov, L. S.; Alred, J. A.; Shindo, D. J.; Kravchenko, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Komplast materials experiment was designed by the Khrunichev Space Center, together with other Russian scientific institutes, and has been carried out by Mission Control Moscow since 1998. The purpose is to study the effect of the low earth orbit (LEO) environment on exposed samples of various spacecraft materials. The Komplast experiment began with the launch of the first International Space Station (ISS) module on November 20, 1998. Two of eight experiment panels were retrieved during Russian extravehicular activity in February 2011 after 12 years of LEO exposure, and were subsequently returned to Earth by Space Shuttle "Discovery" on the STS-133/ULF-5 mission. The retrieved panels contained an experiment to detect micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts, radiation sensors, a temperature sensor, several pieces of electrical cable, both carbon composite and adhesive-bonded samples, and many samples made from elastomeric and fluoroplastic materials. Our investigation is complete and a summary of the results obtained from this uniquely long-duration exposure experiment will be presented.

  16. Experimental and computational approaches to evaluate the environmental mitigation effect in narrow spaces by noble metal chemical addition (NMCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Ryosuke; Ota, Nobuyuki; Nagase, Makoto; Aizawa, Motohiro; Ishida, Kazushige; Wada, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    The environmental mitigation effect of NMCA in a narrow space was evaluated by experimental and computational approaches. In the experiment at 8 MPa and 553K, T-tube whose branched line had a narrow space was prepared, and the Zr electrodes were set in the branched line at certain intervals, which were 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15 and 29 cm from the opening section of the branched line. Electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) at the tip of the branched narrow space varied in response to the water chemistry in the main line which was at right angle with the branched line. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis reproduced the experimental results. It was also confirmed by CFD analysis that the ingress of water from the main line into the narrow space was accelerated by cavity flow and thermal convection. By CFD analysis in a thermal sleeve of actual plant condition, which had a narrow space, the concentration of dissolved oxygen at a tip of the thermal sleeve reached at 250 ppb within 300 sec, which was the same concentration of the main line. Noble metal deposition on the surface of the thermal sleeve was evaluated by mass transfer model. Noble metal deposition was the largest near the opening section of the branched line, and gradually decreased toward the tip section. In light of the consumption of dissolved oxygen in the branched line, noble metal deposition in the thermal sleeve was sufficient to reduce the ECP. It was expected that NMCA could mitigate the corrosion environment in the thermal sleeve. (author)

  17. Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    A program has been proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a high-temperature particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system to be used to power an advanced second stage nuclear rocket engine. The purpose of this Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) is to assess the potential environmental impacts of component development and testing, construction of ground test facilities, and ground testing. Major issues and goals of the program include the achievement and control of predicted nuclear power levels; the development of materials that can withstand the extremely high operating temperatures and hydrogen flow environments; and the reliable control of cryogenic hydrogen and hot gaseous hydrogen propellant. The testing process is designed to minimize radiation exposure to the environment. Environmental impact and mitigation planning are included for the following areas of concern: (1) Population and economy; (2) Land use and infrastructure; (3) Noise; (4) Cultural resources; (5) Safety (non-nuclear); (6) Waste; (7) Topography; (8) Geology; (9) Seismic activity; (10) Water resources; (11) Meteorology/Air quality; (12) Biological resources; (13) Radiological normal operations; (14) Radiological accidents; (15) Soils; and (16) Wildlife habitats.

  18. Revitalization of Space-Related Human Factors, Environmental and Habitability Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane; Pickett, Lynn K.; Tillman, Barry; Foley, Tico

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO) recently directed that the agency establish crew health standards to aid in the development of requirements for future vehicles and habitats. Response to this direction includes development of a new NASA habitability and human factors standard and an accompanying design handbook. The new standard contains high-level, over-arching principles to assure its applicability and usability across all NASA development programs. The handbook will provide detailed design requirements and suggestions that will meet the standards. The information contained in NASA-STD-3000 will be updated and included in the new design handbook. In this approach, each new program will derive detailed program-specific requirements from the new standard using the handbook as a design guide and resource. With the completion of the standard, the focus of this year s effort is the development of the new handbook: Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). This is an opportunity for the space flight human factors and habitability community to consolidate up-to-date data for use by NASA programs and designers as well as outside researchers and policy makers looking for the next research focus. The goal of the handbook is to help NASA design and build human space flight systems which accommodate the capabilities and limitations of the crew so as to provide an environment where the crew can live and work effectively, safely, and comfortably. Handbook contents will address that primary goal, addressing unique aspects of space flight and habitation, including reduced gravity conditions, time lags, EVA systems and day/night cycles, not addressed in other standards or handbooks. The handbook will be divided into topics similar to NASA-STD-3000 (anthropometrics, architecture, workstations, etc.) and each topic area will contain elements for designers, human factors practitioners, program managers, operators, and researchers. The handbook will include the

  19. Investigations of the response of hybrid particle detectors for the Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network (SEVAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chilingarian

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A network of particle detectors located at middle to low latitudes known as SEVAN (Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network is being created in the framework of the International Heliophysical Year (IHY-2007. It aims to improve the fundamental research of the particle acceleration in the vicinity of the Sun and space environment conditions. The new type of particle detectors will simultaneously measure the changing fluxes of most species of secondary cosmic rays, thus turning into a powerful integrated device used for exploration of solar modulation effects. Ground-based detectors measure time series of secondary particles born in cascades originating in the atmosphere by nuclear interactions of protons and nuclei accelerated in the galaxy. During violent solar explosions, sometimes additional secondary particles are added to this "background" flux. The studies of the changing time series of secondary particles shed light on the high-energy particle acceleration mechanisms. The time series of intensities of high energy particles can also provide highly cost-effective information on the key characteristics of interplanetary disturbances. The recent results of the detection of the solar extreme events (2003–2005 by the monitors of the Aragats Space-Environmental Center (ASEC illustrate the wide possibilities provided by new particle detectors measuring neutron, electron and muon fluxes with inherent correlations. We present the results of the simulation studies revealing the characteristics of the SEVAN networks' basic measuring module. We illustrate the possibilities of the hybrid particle detector to measure neutral and charged fluxes of secondary CR, to estimate the efficiency and purity of detection; corresponding median energies of the primary proton flux, the ability to distinguish between neutron and proton initiated GLEs and some other important properties of hybrid particle detectors.

  20. Survey of the environmental biocontamination on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, N.; de Boever, P.; Poddubko, S.; Deshevaya, E.; Polikarpov, N.; Rakova, N.; Coninx, I.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Reports on the exploitation of the orbital station Mir has indicated that microorganisms are ubiquitously present and that they should be considered as indigenous to any spacecraft environment Although most microorganisms do not affect human health it has been reported that in a confined environment such as a space cabin microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat Monitoring the biological contamination of the current International Space Station ISS is imperative and the results of the investigations may trigger off specific countermeasures when microbial concentrations pass defined thresholds e g disinfection and sterilization Aim More than 500 samples were collected at different locations over a period of six years to characterize air and surface biocontamination residing in the ISS Results Concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungi were lower than 7 1x102 CFU m 3 and 4 4x101 CFU m 3 respectively Staphylococcus sp was by far the most dominant airborne bacterial species whereas Aspergillus sp and Penicillium sp dominated the fungal population The bacterial concentrations in surfaces samples fluctuated from 2 5x101 to 4 3x104 CFU 100 cm2 Staphylococcus sp dominated in all of these samples The number of fungi varied between 2 5x101 CFU 100 cm2 and 3 0x105 CFU 100 cm2 with Aspergillus sp and Cladosporium sp as the most dominant genera Furthermore the investigations identified the presence of several opportunistic pathogens e g S aureus

  1. Space Environmental Effects Testing and Characterization of the Candidate Solar Sail Material Aluminized Mylar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. L.; Hubbs, W. S.; Wertz, G. E.; Alstatt, R.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The usage of solar sails as a propellantless propulsion system has been proposed for many years. The technical challenges associated with solar sails are fabrication of ultralightweight films, deploying the sails and controlling the spacecraft. Integral to all these challenges is the mechanical property integrity of the sail while exposed to the harsh environment of space. This paper describes testing and characterization of a candidate solar sail material, Aluminized Mylar. This material was exposed to a simulated Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) and evaluated by measuring thermooptical and mechanical property changes. Testing procedures and results are presented.

  2. Environmental control and life support system requirements and technology needs for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sedej, Melaine; Lin, Chin

    1987-01-01

    NASA has completed an environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technology R&D plan for advanced missions which gave attention to the drivers (crew size, mission duration, etc.) of a range of manned missions under consideration. Key planning guidelines encompassed a time horizon greater than 50 years, funding resource requirements, an evolutionary approach to goal definition, and the funding of more than one approach to satisfy a given perceived requirement. Attention was given to the ECLSS requirements of transportation and service vehicles, platforms, bases and settlements, ECLSS functions and average load requirements, unique drivers for various missions, and potentially exploitable commonalities among vehicles and habitats.

  3. Environmental Controls on Space-Time Biodiversity Patterns in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporato, A. M.; Bonetti, S.; Feng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon/Andes territory is characterized by the highest biodiversity on Earth and understanding how all these ecological niches and different species originated and developed is an open challenge. The niche perspective assumes that species have evolved and occupy deterministically different roles within its environment. This view differs from that of the neutral theories, which assume ecological equivalence between all species but incorporates stochastic demographic processes along with long-term migration and speciation rates. Both approaches have demonstrated tremendous power in predicting aspects species biodiversity. By combining tools from both approaches, we use modified birth and death processes to simulate plant species diversification in the Amazon/Andes and their space-time ecohydrological controls. By defining parameters related to births and deaths as functions of available resources, we incorporate the role of space-time resource variability on niche formation and community composition. We also explicitly include the role of a heterogeneous landscape and topography. The results are discussed in relation to transect datasets from neotropical forests.

  4. Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

    1994-01-01

    For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

  5. The application of DPSIR model in analyzing the space and environmental state on Murter Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Lončar

    Full Text Available The aim of the author has been to analyze the natural and socio-geographical components of Murter Island in order to get familiar with their characteristics which would be the basis for evaluating the current state of the environment and development possibilities of the Island. An integrated research model DPSIR (driving forces – pressures – states – impacts – responses designed by the European Environmental Agency (EEA, 1999 was used to analyze the environment. The model consists of driving forces (D, pressures (P, states (S, impacts (I and responses (R on the current state of the environment, and enables the analysis and synthesis of causal relationships between human activities and environment, as well as impacts and responses to the environmental changes. Population and tourism have been selected as the main driving forces, but also as the major pressures on the environment. The pressure is reflects in the concentration of the population in the coastal zone, the number of tourists, the amount of waste, pollution of the sea and beaches during the tourist season in overloading the electrical networks et al.

  6. [Differences and sources of CO2 concentration, carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition between inside and outside of a green space system and influencing factors in an urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-song; Shu, Jian-hua; Zheng, Ning

    2015-10-01

    The off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique was used to measure air CO2 concentration, stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18C) isotope ratios on the Fourth Ring Road (FRR) and in the green space system of Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture (BILA) in summer and winter seasons. The variations of CO2 concentration, δ13C value, δ18C value and the differences of them between the FRR and the BILA, which were correlated with traffic volume and meteorological factors, were analyzed at half-hour timescale. The results showed that traffic volume on the FRR was large both in summer and winter with obvious morning and evening rush hours, and more than 150 thousands vehicles were observed everyday during the observation periods. Diurnal variation of the CO2 concentration showed a two-peak curve both on the FRR and in the green space system of the BILA. In contrast, diurnal variation of δ13C value was a two-trough curve while diurnal variation of δ18O value was a single-trough curve. The differences of CO2 concentration, δ13C value and δ18O value between the FRR and the green space system of BILA in summer were greater than those in winter. The carbon isotope partitioning results showed that in summer vehicle exhaust contributed 64.9% to total atmospheric CO2 of the FRR during measurement time, while heterotrophic respiration contributed 56.3% to total atmospheric CO2 of the green space system in BILA. However, in winter atmospheric CO2 from both the FRR and green space system mostly came from vehicle exhaust. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that differences of CO2 concentration between the FRR and green space system were significantly related to vehicle volume and solar radiation at half-hour timescale, while solar radiation and relative humidity were the main meteorological factors causing δ13 and δ18O differences between the FRR and green space system. Plants in the green space system strongly assimilated CO2 from fossil fuel burning

  7. An Innovative Context-Based Crystal-Growth Activity Space Method for Environmental Exposure Assessment: A Study Using GIS and GPS Trajectory Data Collected in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Kwan, Mei-Po; Chai, Yanwei

    2018-04-09

    Scholars in the fields of health geography, urban planning, and transportation studies have long attempted to understand the relationships among human movement, environmental context, and accessibility. One fundamental question for this research area is how to measure individual activity space, which is an indicator of where and how people have contact with their social and physical environments. Conventionally, standard deviational ellipses, road network buffers, minimum convex polygons, and kernel density surfaces have been used to represent people's activity space, but they all have shortcomings. Inconsistent findings of the effects of environmental exposures on health behaviors/outcomes suggest that the reliability of existing studies may be affected by the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP). This paper proposes the context-based crystal-growth activity space as an innovative method for generating individual activity space based on both GPS trajectories and the environmental context. This method not only considers people's actual daily activity patterns based on GPS tracks but also takes into account the environmental context which either constrains or encourages people's daily activity. Using GPS trajectory data collected in Chicago, the results indicate that the proposed new method generates more reasonable activity space when compared to other existing methods. This can help mitigate the UGCoP in environmental health studies.

  8. Systems engineering aspects of a preliminary conceptual design of the space station environmental control and life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. H.; Meyer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systems engineering aspects of developing a conceptual design of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) are discussed. Topics covered include defining system requirements and groundrules for approach, formulating possible cycle closure options, and establishing a system-level mass balance on the essential materials processed in oxygen and water cycles. Consideration is also given to the performance of a system trade-off study to determine the best degree of cycle closure for the ECLSS, and the construction of a conceptual design of the ECLSS with subsystem performance specifications and candidate concepts. For the optimum balance between development costs, technological risks, and resupply penalties, a partially closed cycle ECLSS option is suggested.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028.

  10. The spacing between adjacent binding sites in the family of repeats affects the functions of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 in transcription activation and stable plasmid maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebner, Christy; Lasanen, Julie; Battle, Scott; Aiyar, Ashok

    2003-07-05

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the closely related Herpesvirus papio (HVP) are stably replicated as episomes in proliferating latently infected cells. Maintenance and partitioning of these viral plasmids requires a viral sequence in cis, termed the family of repeats (FR), that is bound by a viral protein, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1). Upon binding FR, EBNA1 maintains viral genomes in proliferating cells and activates transcription from viral promoters required for immortalization. FR from either virus encodes multiple binding sites for the viral maintenance protein, EBNA1, with the FR from the prototypic B95-8 strain of EBV containing 20 binding sites, and FR from HVP containing 8 binding sites. In addition to differences in the number of EBNA1-binding sites, adjacent binding sites in the EBV FR are typically separated by 14 base pairs (bp), but are separated by 10 bp in HVP. We tested whether the number of binding sites, as well as the distance between adjacent binding sites, affects the function of EBNA1 in transcription activation or plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that EBNA1 activates transcription more efficiently when adjacent binding sites are separated by 10 bp, the spacing observed in HVP. In contrast, using two separate assays, we demonstrate that plasmid maintenance is greatly augmented when adjacent EBNA1-binding sites are separated by 14 bp, and therefore, presumably lie on the same face of the DNA double helix. These results provide indication that the functions of EBNA1 in transcription activation and plasmid maintenance are separable.

  11. The spacing between adjacent binding sites in the family of repeats affects the functions of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 in transcription activation and stable plasmid maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebner, Christy; Lasanen, Julie; Battle, Scott; Aiyar, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the closely related Herpesvirus papio (HVP) are stably replicated as episomes in proliferating latently infected cells. Maintenance and partitioning of these viral plasmids requires a viral sequence in cis, termed the family of repeats (FR), that is bound by a viral protein, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1). Upon binding FR, EBNA1 maintains viral genomes in proliferating cells and activates transcription from viral promoters required for immortalization. FR from either virus encodes multiple binding sites for the viral maintenance protein, EBNA1, with the FR from the prototypic B95-8 strain of EBV containing 20 binding sites, and FR from HVP containing 8 binding sites. In addition to differences in the number of EBNA1-binding sites, adjacent binding sites in the EBV FR are typically separated by 14 base pairs (bp), but are separated by 10 bp in HVP. We tested whether the number of binding sites, as well as the distance between adjacent binding sites, affects the function of EBNA1 in transcription activation or plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that EBNA1 activates transcription more efficiently when adjacent binding sites are separated by 10 bp, the spacing observed in HVP. In contrast, using two separate assays, we demonstrate that plasmid maintenance is greatly augmented when adjacent EBNA1-binding sites are separated by 14 bp, and therefore, presumably lie on the same face of the DNA double helix. These results provide indication that the functions of EBNA1 in transcription activation and plasmid maintenance are separable

  12. Production of potato minitubers using advanced environmental control technologies developed for growing plants in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Development of plant growth systems for use in outer space have been modified for use on earth as the backbone of a new system for rapid growth of potato minitubers. The automation of this new biotechnology provides for a fully controllable method of producing pathogen-free nuclear stock potato minitubers from tissue cultured clones of varieties of potato in a biomanufacturing facility. These minitubers are the beginning stage of seed potato production. Because the new system provides for pathogen-free minitubers by the tens-of-millions, rather than by the thousands which are currently produced in advanced seed potato systems, a new-dimension in seed potato development, breeding and multiplication has been achieved. The net advantage to earth-borne agricultural farming systems will be the elimination of several years of seed multiplication from the current system, higher quality potato production, and access to new potato varieties resistant to diseases and insects which will eliminate the need for chemical controls.

  13. Advanced Environmentally Resistant Lithium Fluoride Mirror Coatings for the Next Generation of Broadband Space Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brian; Quijada, Manuel A.; Hennessy, John; Egan, Arika; Del Hoyo, Javier G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the physical vapor deposition (PVD) of protective fluoride films have raised the far-ultraviolet (FUV: 912-1600 A) reflectivity of aluminum-based mirrors closer to the theoretical limit. The greatest gains, at more than 20%, have come for lithium fluoride-protected aluminum, which has the shortest wavelength cutoff of any conventional overcoat. Despite the success of the NASA FUSE mission, the use of lithium fluoride (LiF)-based optics is rare, as LiF is hygroscopic and requires handling procedures that can drive risk. With NASA now studying two large mission concepts for astronomy, Large UV-Optical-IR Surveyor (LUVOIR) and the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx), which mandate throughput down to 1000 , the development of LiF-based coatings becomes crucial. This paper discusses steps that are being taken to qualify these new enhanced LiF-protected aluminum (eLiF) mirror coatings for flight. In addition to quantifying the hygroscopic degradation, we have developed a new method of protecting eLiF with an ultrathin (10-20 A) capping layer of a nonhygroscopic material to increase durability. We report on the performance of eLiF-based optics and assess the steps that need to be taken to qualify such coatings for LUVOIR, HabEx, and other FUV-sensitive space missions.

  14. What happens at the gap between knowledge and practice? Spaces of encounter and misencounter between environmental scientists and local people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H. Toomey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers studying processes of global environmental change are increasingly interested in their work having impacts that go beyond academia to influence policy and management. Recent scholarship in the conservation sciences has pointed to the existence of a research-action gap and has proposed various solutions for overcoming it. However, most of these studies have been limited to the spaces of dissemination, where the science has already been done and is then to be passed over to users of the information. Much less attention has been paid to encounters that occur between scientists and nonscientists during the practice of doing scientific research, especially in situations that include everyday roles of labor and styles of communication (i.e., fieldwork. This paper builds on theories of contact that have examined encounters and relations between different groups and cultures in diverse settings. I use quantitative and qualitative evidence from Madidi National Park, Bolivia, including an analysis of past research in the protected area, as well as interviews (N = 137 and workshops and focus groups (N = 12 with local inhabitants, scientists, and park guards. The study demonstrates the significance of currently unacknowledged or undervalued components of the research-action gap, such as power, respect, and recognition, to develop a relational and reciprocal notion of impact. I explain why, within such spaces of encounter or misencounter between scientists and local people, knowledge can be exchanged or hidden away, worldviews can be expanded or further entrenched, and scientific research can be welcomed or rejected.

  15. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshagh, Morteza; Khajeh, Farzaneh; Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh; Fattahi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Different environmental conditions, such as high temperature or exposure to some chemical agents, may affect the force decay of different methods of space closure during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the force decay pattern in the presence of tea as a popular drink in some parts of the world and two mouthwashes that are usually prescribed by the orthodontist once the treatment is in progress. Elastic chain (EC), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) closed coil spring and tie-back (TB) method were used as the means of space closure. The specimens were placed in five different media: Hot tea, hot water (65°), chlorhexidine mouthwash, fluoride mouthwash and the control group (water at 37°). The specimens were stretched 25 mm and the elastic force of three systems was measured at the beginning of the study, after 24 h, after 1 week and after 3 weeks. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the results between the groups and Duncan test was carried out to compare the sets of means in different groups (P ≤ 0.05). Tea increases the force decay in the EC and TB groups. Oral mouthwashes also resulted in more rapid force decay than the control group. EC and Ni-Ti groups were not much affected in the presence of oral mouthwashes. Regarding the immersion media, TB method showed the biggest variation in different media and Ni-Ti coil spring was least affected by the type of media.

  16. The Use of Space Technology for Environmental Security, Disaster Rehabilitation and Sustainable Development in Afghanistan and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Kian

    Since the dawn of time, humans have engaged in war. In the last 5,600 years of recorded history 14,600 wars have been waged1. The United Nations has sought to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war and to foster peace. Wars have recently taken place in Afghanistan and Iraq. Both countries are now faced with a range of complex problems. In-depth country assessments reveal significant shortcomings in the areas of water, sanitation, health, security and natural resource management. These are key factors when examining environmental security, sustainable development and trans-boundary problems, all of which are issues relevant to the Middle East and Central Asian states. Space technology can be applied to support the reconstruction and development plans for Afghanistan and Iraq; however, there needs to be an investigation and open discussion of how these resources can best be used. Already, agencies within the United Nations possess considerable expertise in the use of space technologies in the area of disaster management. If this capability is to be used, there will need to be inter-agency coordination, not to mention a further expansion and development of the United Nations role in both Afghanistan and Iraq.

  17. Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Diane K; Allen, Peg; Jones, Dina L; Marquez, David X; Brown, David R; Rosenberg, Dori; Janicek, Sarah; Allen, Laila; Belza, Basia

    2016-03-01

    Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had wayfinding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking.

  18. Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Diane K.; Allen, Peg; Jones, Dina L.; Marquez, David X.; Brown, David R.; Rosenberg, Dori; Janicek, Sarah; Allen, Laila; Belza, Basia

    2016-01-01

    Background Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. Methods We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. Results All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had wayfinding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. Conclusions Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking. PMID:26181907

  19. Environmental health of Spanish parks: An approach to the allergenic potential of urban green spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Cariñanos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks are green infrastructure elements that should contribute to improving the quality of life and well-being of citizens. In this work there are presented the results of applying a new index to estimate the potential allergenicity of parks located in 20 Spanish cities. This index, which considers intrinsic biological and biometric parameters of existing plant species in parks, allows the allergenic risk thereof to be calculated on a scale ranging from 0 to 1, depending on whether to the park’s allergenicity is zero or has a high risk for the population. The parks selected for this study have different typologies, sizes, species richness and biodiversities, which has yielded highly variable index values. Almost half of the analysed parks have an index value higher than 0.30, a threshold considered having a moderate to high risk, and therefore, enough to cause allergy symptoms in the population. Conversely, most of the parks had an index value below this threshold, so that the risk of suffering allergies is low or very low. The formula also allows the species that most contribute to the resulting value for allergenicity to be known, which are those having an anemophilous strategy of pollination, extended periods of flowering, and a referenced high allergenicity. These requirements are met by all species of the Betulaceae, Cupressaceae and Moraceae families, and to a lesser extent by Oleaceae and Platanaceae. It can be concluded that the development of an index to estimate the allergenicity of urban green spaces constitutes a useful tool to minimize the impact of pollen allergy on the population.

  20. Space time modelling of air quality for environmental-risk maps: A case study in South Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Amilcar; Pereira, Maria J.

    2007-10-01

    Since the 1960s, there has been a strong industrial development in the Sines area, on the southern Atlantic coast of Portugal, including the construction of an important industrial harbour and of, mainly, petrochemical and energy-related industries. These industries are, nowadays, responsible for substantial emissions of SO2, NOx, particles, VOCs and part of the ozone polluting the atmosphere. The major industries are spatially concentrated in a restricted area, very close to populated areas and natural resources such as those protected by the European Natura 2000 network. Air quality parameters are measured at the emissions' sources and at a few monitoring stations. Although air quality parameters are measured on an hourly basis, the lack of representativeness in space of these non-homogeneous phenomena makes even their representativeness in time questionable. Hence, in this study, the regional spatial dispersion of contaminants is also evaluated, using diffusive-sampler (Radiello Passive Sampler) campaigns during given periods. Diffusive samplers cover the entire space extensively, but just for a limited period of time. In the first step of this study, a space-time model of pollutants was built, based on a stochastic simulation-direct sequential simulation-with local spatial trend. The spatial dispersion of the contaminants for a given period of time-corresponding to the exposure time of the diffusive samplers-was computed by ordinary kriging. Direct sequential simulation was applied to produce equiprobable spatial maps for each day of that period, using the kriged map as a spatial trend and the daily measurements of pollutants from the monitoring stations as hard data. In the second step, the following environmental risk and costs maps were computed from the set of simulated realizations of pollutants: (i) maps of the contribution of each emission to the pollutant concentration at any spatial location; (ii) costs of badly located monitoring stations.

  1. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  2. Molecular environment of stable iodine and radioiodine (129I) in natural organic matter: Evidence inferred from NMR and binding experiments at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhong, Junyan; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Roberts, Kimberly A.; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Yeager, Chris M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2012-11-01

    129I is a major by-product of nuclear fission and had become one of the major radiation risk drivers at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 129I is present at elevated levels in the surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area and was found to be bound predominantly to soil organic matter (SOM). Naturally bound 127I and 129I to sequentially extracted humic acids (HAs), fulvic acids (FAs) and a water extractable colloid (WEC) were measured in a 129I-contaminated wetland surface soil located on the SRS. WEC is a predominantly colloidal organic fraction obtained from soil re-suspension experiments to mimic the fraction that may be released during groundwater exfiltration, storm water or surface runoff events. For the first time, NMR techniques were applied to infer the molecular environment of naturally occurring stable iodine and radioiodine binding to SOM. Iodine uptake partitioning coefficients (Kd) by these SOM samples at ambient iodine concentrations were also measured and related to quantitative structural analyses by 13C DPMAS NMR and solution state 1H NMR on the eight humic acid fractions. By assessing the molecular environment of iodine, it was found that it was closely associated with the aromatic regions containing esterified products of phenolic and formic acids or other aliphatic carboxylic acids, amide functionalities, quinone-like structures activated by electron-donating groups (e.g., NH2), or a hemicellulose-lignin-like complex with phenyl-glycosidic linkages. However, FAs and WEC contained much greater concentrations of 127I or 129I than HAs. The contrasting radioiodine contents among the three different types of SOM (HAs, FAs and WEC) suggest that the iodine binding environment cannot be explained solely by the difference in the amount of their reactive binding sites. Instead, indirect evidence indicates that the macro-molecular conformation, such as the hydrophobic aliphatic periphery hindering the active aromatic cores and the hydrophilic

  3. Environmental changes around the Jurassic/Cretaceous transition: New nannofossil, chemostratigraphic and stable isotope data from the Lókút section (Transdanubian Range, Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, J.; Haas, J.; Stoykova, K.; Wierzbowski, H.; Brański, P.

    2017-10-01

    New biostratigraphical, chemical and stable isotope (C, O) data are presented from the Lókút section (Transdanubian Range, Hungary) representing a ca. 13 m thick continuous succession of Lower Tithonian-Lower Berriasian pelagic limestones. The study is conducted to verify timing of nannofossil events and major palaeoenvironmental changes at the Jurassic/Cretaceous transition including lithogenic input, palaeoredox and palaeoproductivity variations. Nannofossil zones from NJT 16b to NKT have been identified in the Lókút section and correlated with magnetostratigraphy, covering an interval from polarity zone M21r to M18r. The nannofossil Zone NJT 16b spans the interval from the upper part of M21r to lowermost part of M19n2n but its lower limit is poorly defined due to large diachronism in first occurrence (FO) of Nannoconus infans in various Tethyan sections. FOs of N. kamptneri minor and N. steinmannii minor are situated in the topmost part of the M19n2n and lowermost part of M19n1r magnetozones, respectively. They are located ca. 2-2.5 m above the J/K boundary defined as Intermedia/Alpina subzonal boundary, which falls within the lower half of magnetozone M19n2n. The position of first occurrences of these taxa is similar to that from the Puerto Escaño section (southern Spain) and slightly lower than in Italian sections (Southern Alps). Concentrations of chemical element proxies of terrigenous transport (Al, K, Rb, Th) decrease towards the top of the Lókút section, which suggests a decrease in input of terrigenous material and increasing carbonate productivity during the Early Tithonian and the Berriasian. Slight oxygen depletion at the sea bottom (decrease of Th/U ratio), and large increase in concentrations of productive elements (P, Ba, Ni, Cu) is observed upsection. Nutrients supply via upwelling seems to be the most likely explanation. Increase in phosphorus accumulation rate and a microfacies change from Saccocoma to calpionellid dominated took place in

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Capability Roadmap Development for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering a number of future human space exploration mission concepts. Although detailed requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, near-term technology investment decisions need to be guided by the anticipated capabilities needed to enable or enhance the mission concepts. This paper describes a roadmap that NASA has formulated to guide the development of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) and enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro gravity mission; 2) a long duration transit microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration surface exploration mission. To organize the effort, ECLSS was categorized into three major functional groups (atmosphere, water, and solid waste management) with each broken down into sub-functions. The ability of existing, flight-proven state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types was then assessed. When SOA capabilities fell short of meeting the needs, those "gaps" were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The resulting list of enabling and enhancing capability gaps can be used to guide future ECLSS development. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies needed to enable and enhance exploration may be developed in a manner that synergistically benefits the ISS operational capability, supports Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) development, and sustains long-term technology investments for longer duration missions. This paper summarizes NASA s ECLSS capability roadmap

  5. Overview of Microbiological Tests Performed During the Design of the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Mittelman, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    The design and manufacturing of the main Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the United States segments of the International Space Station (ISS) was an involved process that started in the late 1980's, with the assessment and testing of competing technologies that could be used to clean the air and recycle water. It culminated in 2009 with the delivery and successful activation of the Water Recovery System (WRS) water processor (WP). The ECLSS required the work of a team of engineers and scientist working together to develop systems that could clean and/or recycle human metabolic loads to maintain a clean atmosphere and provide the crew clean water. One of the main goals of the ECLSS is to minimize the time spent by the crew worrying about vital resources not available in the vacuum of space, which allows them to spend most of their time learning to live in a microgravity environment many miles from the comforts of Earth and working on science experiments. Microorganisms are a significant part of the human body as well as part of the environment that we live in. Therefore, the ISS ECLSS design had to take into account the effect microorganisms have on the quality of stored water and wastewater, as well as that of the air systems. Hardware performance issues impacted by the accumulation of biofilm and/or microbiologically influenced corrosion were also studied during the ECLSS development stages. Many of the tests that were performed had to take into account the unique aspects of a microgravity environment as well as the challenge of understanding how to design systems that could not be sterilized or maintained in a sterile state. This paper will summarize the work of several studies that were performed to assess the impacts and/or to minimize the effects of microorganisms in the design of a closed loop life support system.

  6. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct numerical simulation of stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hirofumi; Houra, Tomoya; Nagano, Yasutaka

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents direct numerical simulations (DNS) of stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers. Since a buoyancy-affected boundary layer is often encountered in an urban environmental space where stable and unstable stratifications exist, exploring a buoyancy-affected boundary layer is very important to know the transport phenomena of the flow in an urban space. Although actual observation may qualitatively provide the characteristics of these flows, the relevant quantitative turbulent quantities are very difficult to measure. Thus, in order to quantitatively investigate a buoyancy-affected boundary layer in detail, we have here carried out for the first time time- and space-developing DNS of slightly stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers. The DNS results show the quantitative turbulent statistics and structures of stable and unstable thermal boundary layers, in which the characteristic transport phenomena of thermally stratified boundary layers are demonstrated by indicating the budgets of turbulent shear stress and turbulent heat flux. Even though the input of buoyant force is not large, the influence of buoyancy is clearly revealed in both stable and unstable turbulent boundary layers. In particular, it is found that both stable and unstable thermal stratifications caused by the weak buoyant force remarkably alter the structure of near-wall turbulence

  8. Stable lead isotopic characterisation of the historical record of environmental lead contamination in dated freshwater lake sediment cores from northern and central Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eades, L.J.; Farmer, J.G. [Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, EH9 3JJ, Scotland Edinburgh (United Kingdom); MacKenzie, A.B. [Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland Glasgow (United Kingdom); Kirika, A.; Bailey-Watts, A.E. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, EH26 0QB, Scotland Penicuik (United Kingdom)

    2002-06-20

    Sediment cores from three Scottish freshwater lakes, Loch Ness in the remote north and Loch Lomond and the Lake of Menteith, much closer to the heavily populated and industrialised central belt, were analysed for 210Pb, 137Cs, Pb and stable Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb). The radionuclide data were used to establish chronologies for the Loch Ness and Loch Lomond cores, but a chronology could not be developed for the Lake of Menteith core, in which the surface sediment had been subject to intense mixing. Although Pb concentrations generally started increasing during the mid-17th Century, a small peak occurred for Loch Ness in the early 16th Century, perhaps attributable to the influence of medieval mining and smelting in mainland Europe. Temporal trends in the pattern of Pb accumulation were similar for Loch Ness and both sites in Loch Lomond, with 40-50% of the anthropogenic Pb deposited prior to the 20th Century. Fluxes of anthropogenic Pb to the lake sediments peaked during the 1950s at all locations where chronologies could be established. The 5-fold increase in anthropogenic Pb inventory for the southern basin of Loch Lomond relative to Loch Ness reflected geographical proximity to the main polluting sources. The 206Pb/207Pb data for anthropogenic Pb in the sediments from Loch Ness and Loch Lomond exhibited largely similar trends related to five different time periods. Pre-1820, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio was close to that for coal (1.181). From 1820 to 1900, a fairly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.17 probably resulted from a combination of emissions from the smelting of indigenous Pb ore (1.170) and coal burning (1.181) in Scotland, and industrial activity to the south in England, where Australian Pb of characteristically low 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.04) was already in use. From 1901 to 1930, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio declined by <0.01, due to the increasing influence of Australian Pb. From 1931 to 1975/1985, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of anthropogenic Pb declined by a

  9. Stable lead isotopic characterisation of the historical record of environmental lead contamination in dated freshwater lake sediment cores from northern and central Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, L J; Farmer, J G; MacKenzie, A B; Kirika, A; Bailey-Watts, A E

    2002-06-20

    Sediment cores from three Scottish freshwater lakes, Loch Ness in the remote north and Loch Lomond and the Lake of Menteith, much closer to the heavily populated and industrialised central belt were analysed for 210Pb, 137Cs, Pb and stable Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb). The radionuclide data were used to establish chronologies for the Loch Ness and Loch Lomond cores, but a chronology could not be developed for the Lake of Menteith core, in which the surface sediment had been subject to intense mixing. Although Pb concentrations generally started increasing during the mid-17th Century, a small peak occurred for Loch Ness in the early 16th Century, perhaps attributable to the influence of medieval mining and smelting in mainland Europe. Temporal trends in the pattern of Pb accumulation were similar for Loch Ness and both sites in Loch Lomond, with 40-50% of the anthropogenic Pb deposited prior to the 20th Century. Fluxes of anthropogenic Pb to the lake sediments peaked during the 1950s at all locations where chronologies could be established. The 5-fold increase in anthropogenic Pb inventory for the southern basin of Loch Lomond relative to Loch Ness reflected geographical proximity to the main polluting sources. The 206Pb/207Pb data for anthropogenic Pb in the sediments from Loch Ness and Loch Lomond exhibited largely similar trends related to five different time periods. Pre-1820, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio was close to that for coal (1.181). From 1820 to 1900, a fairly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio of approximately 1.17 probably resulted from a combination of emissions from the smelting of indigenous Pb ore (1.170) and coal burning (1.181) in Scotland, and industrial activity to the south in England, where Australian Pb of characteristically low 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.04) was already in use. From 1901 to 1930, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio declined by <0.01, due to the increasing influence of Australian Pb. From 1931 to 1975/1985, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of anthropogenic Pb

  10. Complex shaped ZnO nano- and microstructure based polymer composites: mechanically stable and environmentally friendly coatings for potential antifouling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölken, Iris; Hoppe, Mathias; Mishra, Yogendra K; Gorb, Stanislav N; Adelung, Rainer; Baum, Martina J

    2016-03-14

    Since the prohibition of tributyltin (TBT)-based antifouling paints in 2008, the development of environmentally compatible and commercially realizable alternatives is a crucial issue. Cost effective fabrication of antifouling paints with desired physical and biocompatible features is simultaneously required and recent developments in the direction of inorganic nanomaterials could play a major role. In the present work, a solvent free polymer/particle-composite coating based on two component polythiourethane (PTU) and tetrapodal shaped ZnO (t-ZnO) nano- and microstructures has been synthesized and studied with respect to mechanical, chemical and biocompatibility properties. Furthermore, antifouling tests have been carried out in artificial seawater tanks. Four different PTU/t-ZnO composites with various t-ZnO filling fractions (0 wt%, 1 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt%) were prepared and the corresponding tensile, hardness, and pull-off test results revealed that the composite filled with 5 wt% t-ZnO exhibits the strongest mechanical properties. Surface free energy (SFE) studies using contact angle measurements showed that the SFE value decreases with an increase in t-ZnO filler amounts. The influence of t-ZnO on the polymerization reaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy measurements and thermogravimetric analysis. The immersion tests demonstrated that fouling behavior of the PTU/t-ZnO composite with a 1 wt% t-ZnO filler has been decreased in comparison to pure PTU. The composite with a 5 wt% t-ZnO filler showed almost no biofouling.

  11. Does office space occupation matter? The role of the number of persons per enclosed office space, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction in the physical and mental health of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, B; Schneider, A; Nowak, D

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effects of office space occupation, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction on physical and mental health of office workers in small-sized and open-plan offices as well as possible underlying mechanisms. Office space occupation was characterized as number of persons per one enclosed office space. A total of 207 office employees with similar jobs in offices with different space occupation were surveyed regarding their work situation (psychosocial work characteristics, satisfaction with privacy, acoustics, and control) and health (psychosomatic complaints, irritation, mental well-being, and work ability). Binary logistic and linear regression analyses as well as bootstrapped mediation analyses were used to determine associations and underlying mechanisms. Employee health was significantly associated with all work characteristics. Psychosocial work stressors had the strongest relation to physical and mental health (OR range: 1.66-3.72). The effect of office space occupation on employee health was mediated by stressors and environmental satisfaction, but not by psychosocial work resources. As assumed by sociotechnical approaches, a higher number of persons per enclosed office space was associated with adverse health effects. However, the strongest associations were found with psychosocial work stressors. When revising office design, a holistic approach to work (re)design is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Multivariate Max-Stable Spatial Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-06

    Analysis of spatial extremes is currently based on univariate processes. Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and explicitly quantified, they are therefore widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extreme events of real processes, such as environmental phenomena, it may be useful to study several spatial variables simultaneously. To this end, we extend some theoretical results and applications of max-stable processes to the multivariate setting to analyze extreme events of several variables observed across space. In particular, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. Then, we define a Poisson process construction in the multivariate setting and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extremevalue, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the BrownResnick models. Inferential aspects of those models based on composite likelihoods are developed. We present results of various Monte Carlo simulations and of an application to a dataset of summer daily temperature maxima and minima in Oklahoma, U.S.A., highlighting the utility of working with multivariate models in contrast to the univariate case. Based on joint work with Simone Padoan and Huiyan Sang.

  13. Multivariate Max-Stable Spatial Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of spatial extremes is currently based on univariate processes. Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and explicitly quantified, they are therefore widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extreme events of real processes, such as environmental phenomena, it may be useful to study several spatial variables simultaneously. To this end, we extend some theoretical results and applications of max-stable processes to the multivariate setting to analyze extreme events of several variables observed across space. In particular, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. Then, we define a Poisson process construction in the multivariate setting and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extremevalue, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the BrownResnick models. Inferential aspects of those models based on composite likelihoods are developed. We present results of various Monte Carlo simulations and of an application to a dataset of summer daily temperature maxima and minima in Oklahoma, U.S.A., highlighting the utility of working with multivariate models in contrast to the univariate case. Based on joint work with Simone Padoan and Huiyan Sang.

  14. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  15. Environmental systems and management activities on the Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida: results of a modeling workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Roelle, James E.

    1985-01-01

    In the early 1960's, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began purchasing 140,000 acres on Merritt Island, Florida, in order to develop a center for space exploration. Most of this land was acquired to provide a safety and security buffer around NASA facilities. NASA, as the managing agency for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), is responsible for preventing or controlling environmental pollution from the Federal facilities and activities at the Space Center and is committed to use all practicable means to protect and enhance the quality of the surrounding environment. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1963 when management authority for undeveloped lands at KSC was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In addition to manage for 11 Federally-listed threatened and endangered species and other resident and migratory fish and wildlife populations, the Refuge has comanagement responsibility for 19,000 acres of mosquito control impoundments and 2,500 acres of citrus groves. The Canaveral National Seashore was developed in 1975 when management of a portion of the coastal lands was transferred from NASA to the National Park Service. This multiagency jurisdiction on Merritt Island has resulted in a complex management environment. The modeling workshop described in this report was conducted May 21-25, 1984, at the Kennedy Space Center to: (1) enhance communication among the agencies with management responsibilities on Merritt Island; (2) integrate available information concerning the development, management, and ecology of Merritt Island; and (3) identify key research and monitoring needs associated with the management and use of the island's resources. The workshop was structured around the formulation of a model that would simulate primary management and use activities on Merritt Island and their effects on upland, impoundment, and estuarine vegetation and associated wildlife. The simulation model is composed of

  16. What the growth of a space tourism industry could contribute to employment, economic growth, environmental protection, education, culture and world peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patrick; Autino, Adriano

    2010-06-01

    The authors argue that the creation of a popular new industry of passenger space travel could be economically and socially very beneficial in creating new employment in aerospace and related fields in order to supply these services. In doing so, the application of nearly a half-century of technological development that has yet to be used commercially could create many new aerospace engineering business opportunities. In addition, by growing to large scale, space tourism has unique potential to reduce the cost of space travel sharply, thereby making many other activities in space feasible and profitable. The paper discusses the scope for new employment, stimulating economic growth, reducing environmental damage, sustaining education particularly in the sciences, stimulating cultural growth, and preserving peace by eliminating any need for "resource wars".

  17. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  18. Proceedings of the NASA/Florida Institute of Technology Environmental Engineering Conference on Nitrogen Tetroxide. [with emphasis on space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of reducing the user hazards of nitrogen tetroxide, a hypergolic oxidizer are discussed. Kennedy Space Center developments in N2O4 control for the space shuttle are featured. Other areas covered are life support equipment and transportation.

  19. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  20. Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

    2005-01-01

    On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

  1. Environmental charging of spacecraft-tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 2: Specimen 6 to 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Blech, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/USAF program on the Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists, in part, of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicles were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that no discharges were obtained with the quartz-fiber-fabric-covered multilayer insulation specimen. The taped aluminized polyester grounding system used on all specimens did not appear to grossly deteriorate with time; however, the specimens require specific external pressure to maintain constant grounding system resistance.

  2. Perception of Urban Environmental Risks and the Effects of Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs) on Human Well-being in Four Public Green Spaces of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Junya; Wang, Yafei; Fan, Chen; Xia, Beicheng; de Groot, Rudolf

    2018-05-28

    Cities face many challenging environmental problems that affect human well-being. Environmental risks can be reduced by Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs). The effects of UGIs on the urban environment have been widely studied, but less attention has been given to the public perception of these effects. This paper presents the results of a study in Guangzhou, China, on UGI users' perceptions of these effects and their relationship with sociodemographic variables. A questionnaire survey was conducted in four public green spaces. Descriptive statistics, a binary logistic regression model and cross-tabulation analysis were applied on the data from 396 valid questionnaires. The results show that UGI users were more concerned about poor air quality and high temperature than about flooding events. Their awareness of environmental risks was partly in accordance with official records. Regarding the perception of the impacts of environmental risks on human well-being, elderly and female respondents with higher education levels were the most sensitive to these impacts. The respondents' perceptions of these impacts differed among the different green spaces. The effects of UGIs were well perceived and directly observed by the UGI users, but were not significantly influenced by most sociodemographic variables. Moreover, tourists had a lower perception of the impacts of environmental risks and the effects of UGI than residents did. This study provides strong support for UGIs as an effective tool to mitigate environmental risks. Local governments should consider the role of UGIs in environmental risk mitigation and human well-being with regard to urban planning and policy making.

  3. The Dynamic Family Home: a qualitative exploration of physical environmental influences on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-12-24

    Recent changes in home physical environments, such as decreasing outdoor space and increasing electronic media, may negatively affect health by facilitating sedentariness and reducing physical activity. As children spend much of their time at home they are particularly vulnerable. This study qualitatively explored family perceptions of physical environmental influences on sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space. Home based interviews were conducted with 28 families with children aged 9-13 years (total n = 74 individuals), living in Perth, Australia. Families were stratified by socioeconomic status and selected to provide variation in housing. Qualitative methods included a family interview, observation and home tour where families guided the researcher through their home, enabling discussion while in the physical home space. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Emergent themes related to children's sedentariness and physical activity included overall size, space and design of the home; allocation of home space; equipment within the home space; perceived safety of the home space; and the changing nature of the home space. Families reported that children's activity options were limited when houses and yards were small. In larger homes, multiple indoor living rooms usually housed additional sedentary entertainment options, although parents reported that open plan home layouts could facilitate monitoring of children's electronic media use. Most families reported changing the allocation and contents of their home space in response to changing priorities and circumstances. The physical home environment can enhance or limit opportunities for children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity. However, the home space is a dynamic ecological setting that is amenable to change and is largely shaped by the family living within it, thus differentiating it from other settings. While size and space were considered

  4. A Continuation of Base-Line Studies for Environmentally Monitoring Space Transportation System (STS) at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 1; Terrestrial Community Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, I. J.

    1979-01-01

    Vegetation and small mammal populations in or around the Merritt Island area were studied. Thirty sites were selected from plant communities which were relatively free of logging, grazing, and clearing operations. The vegetative analysis was designed to yield a quantitative description and ecological explanation of the major types of upland vegetation in order to determine the possible future effects of NASA space activities on them. Changes in the relative abundance of small mammal populations, species diversity, standing crop biomass, reproductive activity, and other demographic features were documented in order to gather sufficient information on these populations so that it would be possible to detect even the smaller nonnatural behavior changes in the mammals which might be attributable to NASA space activities.

  5. Moral Spaces, the Struggle for an Intergenerational Environmental Ethics and the Social Ecology of Families: An "Other" Form of Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Phillip G.

    2010-01-01

    "Green families" in Australia were studied so as to shed light on how a more durable, everyday environmental ethic and ecopolitic might slowly be enacted in the intimacy of the home "place" over an extended period of time in rapidly changing socio-cultural-ecological conditions. Of particular interest to this study of the green…

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  7. Stable isotopes and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krouse, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas traditionally, stable isotope research has been directed towards resource exploration and development, it is finding more frequent applications in helping to assess the impacts of resource utilization upon ecosystems. Among the many pursuits, two themes are evident: tracing the transport and conversions of pollutants in the environment and better understanding of the interplay among environmental receptors, e.g. food web studies. Stable isotope data are used primarily to identify the presence of pollutants in the environment and with a few exceptions, the consequence of their presence must be assessed by other techniques. Increasing attention has been given to the isotopic composition of humans with many potential applications in areas such as paleodiets, medicine, and criminology. In this brief overview examples are used from the Pacific Rim to illustrate the above concepts. 26 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  8. Development of a novel ozone- and photo-stable HyPer5 red fluorescent dye for array CGH and microarray gene expression analysis with consistent performance irrespective of environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kille Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH and gene expression profiling have become vital techniques for identifying molecular defects underlying genetic diseases. Regardless of the microarray platform, cyanine dyes (Cy3 and Cy5 are one of the most widely used fluorescent dye pairs for microarray analysis owing to their brightness and ease of incorporation, enabling high level of assay sensitivity. However, combining both dyes on arrays can become problematic during summer months when ozone levels rise to near 25 parts per billion (ppb. Under such conditions, Cy5 is known to rapidly degrade leading to loss of signal from either "homebrew" or commercial arrays. Cy5 can also suffer disproportionately from dye photobleaching resulting in distortion of (Cy5/Cy3 ratios used in copy number analysis. Our laboratory has been active in fluorescent dye research to find a suitable alternative to Cy5 that is stable to ozone and resistant to photo-bleaching. Here, we report on the development of such a dye, called HyPer5, and describe its' exceptional ozone and photostable properties on microarrays. Results Our results show HyPer5 signal to be stable to high ozone levels. Repeated exposure of mouse arrays hybridized with HyPer5-labeled cDNA to 300 ppb ozone at 5, 10 and 15 minute intervals resulted in no signal loss from the dye. In comparison, Cy5 arrays showed a dramatic 80% decrease in total signal during the same interval. Photobleaching experiments show HyPer5 to be resistant to light induced damage with 3- fold improvement in dye stability over Cy5. In high resolution array CGH experiments, HyPer5 is demonstrated to detect chromosomal aberrations at loci 2p21-16.3 and 15q26.3-26.2 from three patient sample using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC arrays. The photostability of HyPer5 is further documented by repeat array scanning without loss of detection. Additionally, HyPer5 arrays are shown to preserve sensitivity and

  9. Deep Space Environmental Effects on Immune, Oxidative Stress and Damage, and Health and Behavioral Biomarkers in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B.; Zwart, S.; Smith, S. M.; Simonsen, L. C.; Williams, T.; Antonsen, E.

    2018-02-01

    Biomarkers will be assessed in biological samples (saliva, blood, urine, feces) collected from crewmembers and returned to Earth at various intervals, mirroring (where feasible) collection timepoints used on the International Space Station (ISS).

  10. An introduction to noncommutative spaces and their geometries characterization of the shallow subsurface implications for urban infrastructure and environmental assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Landi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    These lecture notes are an introduction to several ideas and applications of noncommutative geometry. It starts with a not necessarily commutative but associative algebra which is thought of as the algebra of functions on some 'virtual noncommutative space'. Attention is switched from spaces, which in general do not even exist, to algebras of functions. In these notes, particular emphasis is put on seeing noncommutative spaces as concrete spaces, namely as a collection of points with a topology. The necessary mathematical tools are presented in a systematic and accessible way and include among other things, C'*-algebras, module theory and K-theory, spectral calculus, forms and connection theory. Application to Yang--Mills, fermionic, and gravity models are described. Also the spectral action and the related invariance under automorphism of the algebra is illustrated. Some recent work on noncommutative lattices is presented. These lattices arose as topologically nontrivial approximations to 'contuinuum' topolo...

  11. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  12. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  13. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  14. 2008 Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2008 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) centers on two broad environmental protection objectives: (1) reducing environmental stresses on human health, and (2)...

  15. 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) measures overall progress toward environmental sustainability for 142 countries based on environmental systems,...

  16. Analysis of the socio political and environmental conflict about the use of La laguna park public spaces in Nueva Casarapa housing development; Miranda, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerpa, Mildred de

    2013-01-01

    Nueva Casarapa is an integral urban complex conceived under the concept of city. This complex has open spaces, shopping malls, green and public spaces, that are under the care of the owners, and a central natural park known as La Laguna. In 2009, starts a controversy that could become in a political environmental conflict with implications on the Municipio Plaza's government, because of the resolution of using the green areas of the park for a low price grocery market. This resolution was taken unilaterally by the Mayors' Office, not consulting the actors living in the complex. Besides the conflict for the use of this public space located inside of a private urban complex, there are discussions about which should be the institution to manage the resources obtained for the rent of the meeting spaces and who should be responsible of the maintenance staff. In function of this, it is possible to observe the rising of some conflicts between the different organizations and the users of the park that could lead to its damage.

  17. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  18. Ecological niche shifts and environmental space anisotropy: a cautionary note Desplazamientos en el nicho y la anisotropía del espacio ambiental: una nota precautoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Soberón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The anisotropic structure of climatic space may cause significant (and to a large extent unappreciated non-evolutionary niche shifts. This can be seen mostly in the context of spatial transferability of ecological niche models. We explore this effect using a virtual species in the United States. We created a simple virtual species by postulating its fundamental niche as an ellipse in a two-dimensional realistic climatic space. The climatic combinations defined by the ellipse were projected in the geography of the United States and 2 regions of equal area were selected. The structure of niche in the 2 areas is compared. It is shown that the 2 regions have differently positioned subsets of the environmental space, which creates "shifts" in the realized niches despite the fact that no evolution and no biotic interactions are present. The most parsimonious hypothesis when ecological niche modeling reveals shifts in the realized niche is that environmental space is heterogeneous. Without considering differences in the structure of environmental space no speculation about niche evolution or the role of competitors should be attempted.La estructura anisotrópica del espacio climático puede causar desplazamientos significativos no evolutivos en los nichos de las especies. Este efecto poco apreciado en la literatura se manifiesta con gran claridad cuando se realizan transferencias espaciales de modelos de nicho ecológico. Se explora este efecto utilizando una especie virtual en los Estados Unidos. Se creó una especie virtual simplificada postulando su nicho fundamental en forma de una elipse en un espacio realista de 2 dimensiones. Las combinaciones climáticas definidas por la elipse se proyectaron en la geografía de los Estados Unidos y se seleccionaron 2 regiones de igual superficie espacial. Se compara la estructura del nicho en las 2 regiones, mostrando que estas 2 regiones espaciales presentan subconjuntos distintos del espacio de variables

  19. Research on Space Environmental Effect of Organic Composite Materials for Thermal Management of Satellites Using MC-50 Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Weon Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The organic material is one of the most popular material for the satellites and the spacecrafts in order to perform the thermal management, and to protect direct exposure from the space environment. The present paper observes material property changes of organic material under the space environment by using ground facilities. One of the representative organic thermal management material of satellites, 2 mil ITO(Indium Tin Oxide coated aluminized KAPTON was selected for experiments. In order to investigate the single parametric effect of protons in space environment, MC-50 cyclotron system in KIRAMS(Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science was utilized for the ion beam irradiation of protons and ion beam dose was set to the Very Large August 1972 EVENT model, the highest protons occurrence near the earth orbit in history. The energy of ion beam is fixed to 30MeV(mega electron volt, observed average energy, and the equivalent irradiance time conditions were set to 1-year, 3-year, 5-year and 10-year exposure in space. The procedure of analyses includes the measurement of the ultimate tensile strength for the assessment of quantitative degradation in material properties, and the imaging analyses of crystalline transformation and damages on the exposed surface by FE-SEM(Field Emission Scanning Electron Spectroscopy etc.

  20. Nonradioactive Environmental Emissions Chemical Source Term for the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Vapor Space During Waste Retrieval Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    A nonradioactive chemical vapor space source term for tanks on the Phase 1 and the extended Phase 1 delivery, storage, and disposal mission was determined. Operations modeled included mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers. Concentrations of ammonia, specific volatile organic compounds, and quantitative volumes of aerosols were estimated

  1. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  2. Engineering report. Part 2: NASA wheel and brake material tradeoff study for space shuttle type environmental requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    The study included material selection and trade-off for the structural components of the wheel and brake optimizing weight vs cost and feasibility for the space shuttle type application. Analytical methods were used to determine section thickness for various materials, and a table was constructed showing weight vs. cost trade-off. The wheel and brake were further optimized by considering design philosophies that deviate from standard aircraft specifications, and designs that best utilize the materials being considered.

  3. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  4. Environmental project and public space rehabilitation: the great project for the historic center of Naples Unesco World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Losasso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Historic Centre of Naples, World Heritage Site Enhancement” project has as its goal the rehabilitation of the oldest part of the historic center of Naples, one of the largest and most representative of Europe. The research reference field is placed on the level of strategic approach to the project and process management downstream of EU funding in large cities, with particular multidisciplinary relevance and urban issues of a complex nature. The scientific products of study, training and research were collected in Guidelines for the rehabilitation of public spaces and for sustainable performance of interventions on roads, walkways, squares and urban facilities.

  5. The hydrographic basin a space for the environmental planning; La cuenca hidrografica un espacio para la planificacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monica, Dunoyer Mejia

    2002-12-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the work done in watershed management in the framework of sustainable development in Caldas, it describes different points of view to the watershed management approaches as well as its legal aspects developed in the recent history of Colombia. You will also find different basins delineations according to the size, spatial scale used, and the proposed objectives to achieve different goals in watershed management as a way to do environmental planning. At the end of this paper you will find a description of the methodological faces used to achieve a so-called ordering plan, based on legal. Parameters used to date in Colombia.

  6. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  7. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  8. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  9. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  10. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  11. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  12. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  13. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  14. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  15. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN THE PROCESS OF SOCIAL OWNERSHIP OF SPACE IN THE BAY OF THE PONTAL IN MUNICIPALITY OF ILHÉUS / BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilson Batista da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the relationship between society and nature, considering the impact of the appropriation of space in the estuary of Pontal Bay -Ilhéus/BA. The time frame adopted begins with the 70s and extends until the year 2012. The research approach was qualitative, adopting quantitative techniques when necessary. The instruments of collection consisted of systematic observation and interview, plus documentary and bibliographic research. The analyzes showed evidence that the socio-spatial interventions in the Bay originate from the construction of the Port of Ilheus in the northern portion, from the growing, environmental degradation of river basins tributaries (rivers Cachoeira, Santana and Itacanoeira and from the process of occupation surrounding the Bay. These pressures have caused changes in the dynamics of estuarine circulation, leading to a state of beach progradation, intensifying the process of silting up of the Bay, propension to formation of mangroves and impaired water quality due to discharge of sewage.

  17. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  18. A continuation of base-line studies for environmentally monitoring Space Transportation Systems (STS) at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 4: Threatened and endangered species of the Kennedy Space Center. Part 1: Marine turtle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    The status of marine turtle populations in the KSC area was studied using data from previous results from ground and aerial surveillance conducted from 1976 to April 1979. During ground surveillance, various data were recorded on emergent turtles such as: species, weight, tag number (if previously tagged), time discovered, activity at discovery and the location of discovery. Observations were also made on nesting and reproductive characteristics, population estimates, immigration and emigration and growth rate of the turtles. Mortality studies were additionally made and autopsies performed on dead turtles found in the area. It is concluded that further mortality documentation should be done just prior to and just after a future space launch operation in order to accurately assess the cause and effect relationship of such a launch on the turtle population.

  19. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  20. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  1. Development of the TRSSS-1 Satellite as the Major Component of the Space Based Information System(SBIS) for Effective Decision Support System for Thailand's Natural Resources and Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Musigasam, Weerapant; Ditsariyakue, Praneet; Aphicholati, Navanit; Vibulsresth, Suvit

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes development of the first Thailand Remote Sensing Satellite System (TRSSS-1) by the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT), Ministry of Science Technology and Environment (MOSTE). The TRSSS-1 project has primarily been developed as a major component of the Space Base Information System (SBIS) for effective decision support system for Thailand's natural resources and environmental management. The Space Based Information System consists of three components namely, the u...

  2. 2012 Environmental Performance Index and Pilot Trend Environmental Performance Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2012 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) ranks 132 countries on 22 performance indicators in the following 10 policy categories: environmental burden of...

  3. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents’ visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12–16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents’ behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents’ home or school may

  4. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Van Hecke

    Full Text Available Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium. Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people, the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school

  5. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school may stimulate

  6. Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) centers on two broad environmental protection objectives: (1) reducing environmental stresses on human health,...

  7. 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 146 countries. The index...

  8. Environmental isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Environmental isotope hydrology is a relatively new field of investigation based on isotopic variations observed in natural waters. These isotopic characteristics have been established over a broad space and time scale. They cannot be controlled by man, but can be observed and interpreted to gain valuable regional information on the origin, turnover and transit time of water in the system which often cannot be obtained by other techniques. The cost of such investigations is usually relatively small in comparison with the cost of classical hydrological studies. The main environmental isotopes of hydrological interest are the stable isotopes deuterium (hydrogen-2), carbon-13, oxygen-18, and the radioactive isotopes tritium (hydrogen-3) and carbon-14. Isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen are ideal geochemical tracers of water because their concentrations are usually not subject to change by interaction with the aquifer material. On the other hand, carbon compounds in groundwater may interact with the aquifer material, complicating the interpretation of carbon-14 data. A few other environmental isotopes such as 32 Si and 238 U/ 234 U have been proposed recently for hydrological purposes but their use has been quite limited until now and they will not be discussed here. (author)

  9. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  10. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  11. Acoustic mode coupling induced by shallow water nonlinear internal waves: sensitivity to environmental conditions and space-time scales of internal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosi, John A

    2008-09-01

    While many results have been intuited from numerical simulation studies, the precise connections between shallow-water acoustic variability and the space-time scales of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) as well as the background environmental conditions have not been clearly established analytically. Two-dimensional coupled mode propagation through NLIWs is examined using a perturbation series solution in which each order n is associated with nth-order multiple scattering. Importantly, the perturbation solution gives resonance conditions that pick out specific NLIW scales that cause coupling, and seabed attenuation is demonstrated to broaden these resonances, fundamentally changing the coupling behavior at low frequency. Sound-speed inhomogeneities caused by internal solitary waves (ISWs) are primarily considered and the dependence of mode coupling on ISW amplitude, range width, depth structure, location relative to the source, and packet characteristics are delineated as a function of acoustic frequency. In addition, it is seen that significant energy transfer to modes with initially low or zero energy involves at least a second order scattering process. Under moderate scattering conditions, comparisons of first order, single scattering theoretical predictions to direct numerical simulation demonstrate the accuracy of the approach for acoustic frequencies upto 400 Hz and for single as well as multiple ISW wave packets.

  12. Space-temporal analysis of Chagas disease and its environmental and demographic risk factors in the municipality of Barcarena, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Alcinês da Silva; Palácios, Vera Regina da Cunha Menezes; Miranda, Claúdia do Socorro; Costa, Rodrigo Junior Farias da; Catete, Clistenes Pamplona; Chagasteles, Eugenia Janis; Pereira, Alba Lucia Ribeiro Raithy; Gonçalves, Nelson Veiga

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitosis considered a serious problem of public health. In the municipality of Barcarena, Pará, from 2007 to 2014, occurred the highest prevalence of this disease in Brazil. To analyze the disease distribution related to epidemiological, environmental and demographic variables, in the area and period of the study. Epidemiological and demographic data of Barcarena Health Department and satellite images from the National Institute For Space Research (INPE) were used. The deforestation data were obtained through satellite image classification, using artificial neural network. The statistical significance was done with the χ2 test, and the spatial dependence tests among the variables were done using Kernel and Moran techniques. The epidemiological curve indicated a disease seasonal pattern. The major percentage of the cases were in male, brown skin color, adult, illiterate, urban areas and with probable oral contamination. It was confirmed the spatial dependence of the disease cases with the different types of deforestation identified in the municipality, as well as agglomerations of cases in urban and rural areas. Discussion: The disease distribution did not occur homogeneously, possibly due to the municipality demographic dynamics, with intense migratory flows that generates the deforestation. Different relationships among the variables studied and the occurrence of the disease in the municipality were observed. The technologies used were satisfactory to construct the disease epidemiological scenarios.

  13. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future astrophysics missions will require lightweight, thermally stable, submillimeter reflectors in sizes of 4m and greater. To date, graphite fiber reinforced...

  14. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  15. Constraining the role of iron in environmental nitrogen transformations. Dual stable isotope systematics of abiotic NO2- reduction by Fe(II) and its production of N2O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, David [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Wankel, Scott David [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States); Buchwald, Carolyn [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States); Hansel, Colleen [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Redox reactions involving nitrogen and iron have been shown to have important implications for mobilization of priority contaminants. Thus, an understanding of the linkages between their biogeochemical cycling is critical for predicting subsurface mobilization of radionuclides such as uranium. Despite mounting evidence for biogeochemical interactions between iron and nitrogen, our understanding of their environmental importance remains limited. Here we present an investigation of abiotic nitrite (NO2-) reduction by Fe(II) or ‘chemodenitrification,’ and its relevance to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O), specifically focusing on dual (N and O) isotope systematics under a variety of environmentally relevant conditions. We observe a range of kinetic isotope effects that are regulated by reaction rates, with faster rates at higher pH (~8), higher concentrations of Fe(II) and in the presence of mineral surfaces. A clear non-linear relationship between rate constant and kinetic isotope effects of NO2- reduction was evident (with larger isotope effects at slower rates) and is interpreted as reflecting the dynamics of Fe(II)-N reaction intermediates. N and O isotopic composition of product N2O also suggests a complex network of parallel and/or competing pathways. Our findings suggest that NO2- reduction by Fe(II) may represent an important abiotic source of environmental N2O, especially in iron-rich environments experiencing dynamic redox variations. This study provides a multi-compound, multi-isotope framework for evaluating the environmental occurrence of abiotic NO2- reduction and N2O formation, helping future studies constrain the relative roles of abiotic and biological N2O production pathways.

  16. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfman, Lena; Riihimäki, Miia; Pringle, John; Wålinder, Robert

    2009-05-25

    Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13) in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-beta-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to environmental exposure levels in equine stables. Respirable dust and 1

  17. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle John

    2009-05-01

    environmental exposure levels in equine stables. Respirable dust and 1,3-β-glucan levels were increased at winter stabling conditions. Some employees (3/13 had signs of bronchial obstruction, which may be aggravated by working in the stable environment. This study contributes to the identification of suitable biomarkers to monitor the indoor horse stable environment and the personnel. An improved management of the stable climate will be beneficial for the health of both stable workers and horses.

  18. Microbiological Tests Performed During the Design of the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Part 1, Bulk Phase. Part 1; Bulk Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Mittelman, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    The design and manufacturing of the main Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the United States segments of the International Space Station (ISS) was an involved process that started in the mid 1980s, with the assessment and testing of competing technologies that could be used to clean the air and recycle water. It culminated in 2009 with the delivery and successful activation of the Water Recovery System (WRS) water processor (WP). The ECLSS required the work of a team of engineers and scientist working together to develop systems that could clean and/or recycle human metabolic loads to maintain a clean atmosphere and provide the crew clean water. One of the main goals of the ECLSS is to minimize the time spent by the crew worrying about vital resources not available in the vacuum of space, which allows them to spend most of their time learning to live in a microgravity environment many miles from the comforts of Earth and working on science experiments. Microorganisms are a significant part of the human body as well as part of the environment that we live in. Therefore, the ISS ECLSS design had to take into account the effect microorganisms have on the quality of stored water and wastewater, as well as that of the air systems. Hardware performance issues impacted by the accumulation of biofilm and/or microbiologically influenced corrosion were also studied during the ECLSS development stages. Many of the tests that were performed had to take into account the unique aspects of a microgravity environment as well as the challenge of understanding how to design systems that could not be sterilized or maintained in a sterile state. This paper will summarize the work of several studies that were performed to assess the impacts and/or to minimize the effects of microorganisms in open, semi-closed and closed loop life support system. The biofilm and biodeterioration studies that were performed during the design and test periods will be presented in

  19. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  20. Determination of artifactual formation of monomethylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}) in environmental samples using stable Hg{sup 2+} isotopes with ICP-MS detection: Calculation of contents applying species specific isotope addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintelmann, H. [Trent University, Environmental Science Centre, Peterborough ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Falter, R. [Bayreuth Institute for Terrestrial Ecosystem Research (BITOEK), Central Analytics, POB 101251, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Ilgen, G. [Bayreuth Institute for Terrestrial Ecosystem Research (BITOEK), Central Analytics, POB 101251, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Evans, R.D. [Trent University, Environmental Science Centre, Peterborough ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    Various extraction techniques, as distillation, acid and alkaline extraction, have been tested with regard to their potential to form a monomethylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}) artifact from inorganic Hg during sample preparation. Hg{sup 2+} has been added to different reference materials in the form of enriched stable tracers and the formation of new methylmercury from that tracer has been analyzed by HPLC/ICP-MS and GC/ICP-MS. Both techniques gave comparable results. In particular, the distillation technique was prone to artifact formation. The resulting overestimation of methylmercury in sediments was as high as 80%. Artifact formation in hair, liver and algae samples was less significant, though still observable. Fish muscle tissue showed no artifact formation upon distillation, but some of the inorganic tracer was converted to methylmercury during alkaline extraction. Acid extraction of sediments resulted in low artifact formation rates. Fractionated measurements of sediment distillates revealed high methylmercury formation rates towards the end of the distillation process when acid concentrations in the solution are highest. A technique for correction of the measured apparent methylmercury content applying species specific isotope addition (SSIA) is proposed and the calculation scheme is presented. (orig.). With 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. One-dimensional stable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotarev, V M

    1986-01-01

    This is the first book specifically devoted to a systematic exposition of the essential facts known about the properties of stable distributions. In addition to its main focus on the analytic properties of stable laws, the book also includes examples of the occurrence of stable distributions in applied problems and a chapter on the problem of statistical estimation of the parameters determining stable laws. A valuable feature of the book is the author's use of several formally different ways of expressing characteristic functions corresponding to these laws.

  2. [Fractionation of hydrogen stable isotopes in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniak, Iu E; Grigor'ev, A I; Skuratov, V M; Ivanova, S M; Pokrovskiĭ, B G

    2006-01-01

    Fractionation of hydrogen stable isotopes was studied in 9 human subjects in a chamber with normal air pressure imitating a space cabin. Mass-spectrometry of isotopes in blood, urine, saliva, and potable water evidenced increases in the contents of heavy H isotope (deuterium) in the body liquids as compared with water. These results support one of the theories according to which the human organism eliminates heavy stable isotopes of biogenous chemical elements.

  3. Stable isogeometric analysis of trimmed geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marussig, Benjamin; Zechner, Jürgen; Beer, Gernot; Fries, Thomas-Peter

    2017-04-01

    We explore extended B-splines as a stable basis for isogeometric analysis with trimmed parameter spaces. The stabilization is accomplished by an appropriate substitution of B-splines that may lead to ill-conditioned system matrices. The construction for non-uniform knot vectors is presented. The properties of extended B-splines are examined in the context of interpolation, potential, and linear elasticity problems and excellent results are attained. The analysis is performed by an isogeometric boundary element formulation using collocation. It is argued that extended B-splines provide a flexible and simple stabilization scheme which ideally suits the isogeometric paradigm.

  4. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing

  5. InfoSymbiotics/DDDAS - The power of Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems for New Capabilities in Environmental -, Geo-, and Space- Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darema, F.

    2016-12-01

    , ranging from the nano-scale to the terra-scale and to the extra-terra-scale. The talk will address opportunities for new capabilities together with corresponding research challenges, with illustrative examples from several application areas including environmental sciences, geosciences, and space sciences.

  6. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  7. Stable configurations in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.

  8. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  9. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.; Bachtel, Russell; Speed, John; O'Rear, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960 s to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and modifications were funded by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to remove dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink, and the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August of 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive modifications

  10. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at NASA Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.; Bachtel, Russell; Speed, John; O'Rear, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft.) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft.) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960 s to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and modifications were funded by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope, which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to minimize dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink, and the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August of 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive

  11. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960's to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and the modifications were funded, by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to remove dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink and, the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in the overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive

  12. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  13. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  14. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  15. Finding Non-Zero Stable Fixed Points of the Weighted Kuramoto model is NP-hard

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Kuramoto model when considered over the full space of phase angles [$0,2\\pi$) can have multiple stable fixed points which form basins of attraction in the solution space. In this paper we illustrate the fundamentally complex relationship between the network topology and the solution space by showing that determining the possibility of multiple stable fixed points from the network topology is NP-hard for the weighted Kuramoto Model. In the case of the unweighted model this problem is shown...

  16. Overview of the Performance of the Compact Total Electron Content Sensor (CTECS) on the Space Environmental NanoSatellite Experiment (SENSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R. L.; Hansel, S.; Stoffel, D.; Ping, D.; Bardeen, J.; Chin, A.; Bielat, S.; Mulligan, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Air Force's Space & Missile Systems Center (SMC) SENSE mission consists of two identical cubesat buses with space weather payloads. One of the goals of the SENSE mission is to demonstrate the operational potential and usefulness of space weather measurements from a cubesat platform. The payloads on the two cubesats include the Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (SRI), Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (NRL), and Compact Total Electron Content GPS radio occultation sensor (CTECS). After initial contact with both space vehicles (SV), we were able to confirm successful operation of both CTECS. Because of power issues on SV2, only SV1 has provided consistent data. In this presentation, we present an overview of the CTECS sensor. Then we present initial CTECS data, discuss the data quality, and lessons learned.

  17. Informing the Human Plasma Protein Binding of Environmental Chemicals by Machine Learning in the Pharmaceutical Space: Applicability Domain and Limits of Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The free fraction of a xenobiotic in plasma (Fub) is an important determinant of chemical adsorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity, yet experimental plasma protein binding data is scarce for environmentally relevant chemicals. The presented work explores th...

  18. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  19. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  20. Which compactifications of D=11 supergravity are stable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.N.; Pope, C.N.

    1984-01-01

    We complete the stability analysis of all known Freund-Rubin solutions of eleven-dimensional supergravity by determining the necessary and sufficient conditions for Qsup(pqr) spaces (U(1) bundles over S 2 xS 2 xS 2 ) to be stable. (orig.)

  1. Applications of DNA-Stable Isotope Probing in Bioremediation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Vohra, Jyotsna; Murrell, J. Colin

    DNA-stable isotope probing, a method to identify active microorganisms without the prerequisite of cultivation, has been widely applied in the study of microorganisms involved in the degradation of environmental pollutants. Recent advances and technique considerations in applying DNA-SIP in bioremediation are highlighted. A detailed protocol of a DNA-SIP experiment is provided.

  2. Space Solar Power Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, Humayun; Barbosa, Hugo; Bardet, Christophe; Baroud, Michel; Behar, Alberto; Berrier, Keith; Berthe, Phillipe; Bertrand, Reinhold; Bibyk, Irene; Bisson, Joel; Bloch, Lawrence; Bobadilla, Gabriel; Bourque, Denis; Bush, Lawrence; Carandang, Romeo; Chiku, Takemi; Crosby, Norma; De Seixas, Manuel; De Vries, Joha; Doll, Susan; Dufour, Francois; Eckart, Peter; Fahey, Michael; Fenot, Frederic; Foeckersperger, Stefan; Fontaine, Jean-Emmanuel; Fowler, Robert; Frey, Harald; Fujio, Hironobu; Gasa, Jaume Munich; Gleave, Janet; Godoe, Jostein; Green, Iain; Haeberli, Roman; Hanada, Toshiya; Harris, Peter; Hucteau, Mario; Jacobs, Didier Fernand; Johnson, Richard; Kanno, Yoshitsugu; Koenig, Eva Maria; Kojima, Kazuo; Kondepudi, Phani; Kottbauer, Christian; Kulper, Doede; Kulagin, Konstantin; Kumara, Pekka; Kurz, Rainer; Laaksonen, Jyrki; Lang, Andrew Neill; Lathan, Corinna; Le Fur, Thierry; Lewis, David; Louis, Alain; Mori, Takeshi; Morlanes, Juan; Murbach, Marcus; Nagatomo, Hideo; O' brien, Ivan; Paines, Justin; Palaszewski, Bryan; Palmnaes, Ulf; Paraschivolu, Marius; Pathare, Asmin; Perov, Egor; Persson, Jan; Pessoa-Lopes, Isabel; Pinto, Michel; Porro, Irene; Reichert, Michael; Ritt-Fischer, Monika; Roberts, Margaret; Robertson II, Lawrence; Rogers, Keith; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Scire, Francesca; Shibatou, Katsuya; Shirai, Tatsuya; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Soucaille, Jean-Francois; Spivack, Nova; St. Pierre, Dany; Suleman, Afzal; Sullivan, Thomas; Theelen, Bas Johan; Thonstad, Hallvard; Tsuji, Masatoshi; Uchiumi, Masaharu; Vidqvist, Jouni; Warrell, David; Watanabe, Takafumi; Willis, Richard; Wolf, Frank; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Hong

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  3. Monolithic Highly Stable Yb-Doped Femtosecond Fiber Lasers for Applications in Practical Biophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    in the development of all-fiber nonlinear-optical laser control schemes, which resulted in the demonstration of highly stable monolithic, i.e., not containing any free-space elements, lasers with direct fiber-end delivery of femtosecond pulses. This paper provides an overview of the progress in the development...... of such all-fiber mode-locked lasers based on Yb-fiber as gain medium, operating at the wavelength around 1 $\\mu$m, and delivering femtosecond pulses reaching tens of nanojoules of energy.......Operational and environmental stability of ultrafast laser systems is critical for their applications in practical biophotonics. Mode-locked fiber lasers show great promise in applications such as supercontinuum sources or multiphoton microscopy systems. Recently, substantial progress has been made...

  4. Final Environmental Assessment for National Air & Space Intelligence Center and US Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Field Training Activities at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    1997. Flushing Responses to Wintering Bald Eagles to Military Activity. Journal of Wildlife Management. 61(4):1307-1313. Telesco, D.J. and F.T. van ... Manen . 2006. Do black bears respond to military weapons training? The Journal of Wildlife Management. 70(1): 222-229. Whittaker, D. and R.L...patrol use. The dog may be on or offleash in the rear seat, on a stable platform, only. 2. l. 7. Assigning the dog team a cargo van or three-pack pickup

  5. [Current Treatment of Stable Angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Peiman; Cuculi, Florim

    2015-06-17

    Current therapy for stable angina includes surgical and percutaneous revascularization, which has been improved tremendously over the last decades. Smoking cessation and regular exercise are the cornerstone for prevention of further cerebrovascular events. Medical treatment includes treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and antithrombotic management, which can be a challenge in some patients. Owing to the fact the coronary revascularization is readily accessible these days in many industrialized countries, the importance of antianginal therapy has decreased over the past years. This article presents a contemporary overview of the management of patients with stable angina in the year 2015.

  6. Environmental effects on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... which may be influenced by the river run-off due to heavy rainfall. The coral skeleton was ... including cloud cover (Weber and Woodhead, 1972;. Muscatine et al. ..... The effect of colony topography on climate signals in coral ...

  7. Environmentally stable picosecond Yb fiber laser with low repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartl, M.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Díez, A.; Rothhardt, M.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2013-04-01

    A SESAM-mode-locked, all-polarization-maintaining Ytterbium fiber laser producing picosecond pulses with narrow spectral bandwidth is presented. A simple linear all-fiber cavity without dispersion compensation is realized using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Different cavity lengths are investigated and repetition rates down to 0.7 MHz are obtained. Bandwidth and pulse duration of the output pulses are mainly determined by the choice of FBG. Pulses between 30 and 200 ps are generated employing different FBGs with bandwidths between 17 and 96 pm. The experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The laser holds great potential for simple amplification setups without pulse picking.

  8. Engineering Environmentally-Stable Proteases to Specifically Neutralize Protein Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-14

    B4 B5 B6 B9 F hours 37˚C ~ 350nM pN1009-pH0405 (3f09) 300mM KPi , 200mM N3 10, 8, 6, 4, 2, 0 pM pT2032 0 5000 1 104 1.5 104 2 104 2.5 104 55 60 65...70 75 80 3D25S1_2_3 B7 B8 B9 F hours 37˚C ~ 350nM pN1009-pH0405 (3f09) 300mM KPi , 200mM N3 1, 0.1, 0 pM pT2032 Figure 4 Key finding: We can

  9. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  10. Possibility of stable quark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    A recent zero temperature equation of state which contains quark-partons separated from conventional baryons by a phase transition is used to investigate the stability of quark stars. The sensitivity to the input physics is also considered. The conclusions, which are found to be relatively model independent, indicate that a separately identifiable class of stable objects called quark stars does not exist

  11. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  12. Carbon Nanotube/Space Durable Polymer Nanocomposite Films for Electrostatic Charge Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. G., Jr.; Watson, K. A.; Thompson, C. M.; Connell, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    Low solar absorptivity, space environmentally stable polymeric materials possessing sufficient electrical conductivity for electrostatic charge dissipation (ESD) are of interest for potential applications on spacecraft as thin film membranes on antennas, solar sails, large lightweight space optics, and second surface mirrors. One method of imparting electrical conductivity while maintaining low solar absorptivity is through the use of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, SWNTs are difficult to disperse. Several preparative methods were employed to disperse SWNTs into the polymer matrix. Several examples possessed electrical conductivity sufficient for ESD. The chemistry, physical, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films will be presented.

  13. Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, P [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea, s/n, Boa Viagem 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Miguelote, A Y; Chan, R [Coordenacao de Astronomia e Astrofisica, Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino, 77, Sao Cristovao 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Santos, N O, E-mail: pedrosennarocha@gmail.com, E-mail: yasuda@on.br, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: N.O.Santos@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [LERMA/CNRS-FRE 2460, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, ERGA, Boite 142, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-06-15

    Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.

  14. Use of stable isotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F. K.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research is considered to be one of the most important steps to achieve sustainable agriculture development. This paper is focused on the role of stable isotopes and their applications in agriculture for plant and animal production, and to study the relationship between soil, plant, air, water, nutrients and agricultural pests. Symbiotic N 2 fixation and efficient use of chemical and organic N fertilizers using 15 N were reported. Factors affecting 13 C values and application of carbon isotope discrimination to physiological and eco-physiological studies and selection of genotypes with improved water-use efficiency and drought tolerance and the recent progress in this field are reviewed. Moreover, the use of carbon isotope compositions in monitoring environmental changes and its various applications in food technology, animal production and entomology are discussed. (author)

  15. Fire safety and environmental design of deep underground spaces used for human activities. Daishindo chika kukan no bosai/kankyo sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, N.; Kadoya, M.; Tokuda, K.; Hisajima, T.; Okada, N. (Okumura Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-11-10

    The disaster prevention and environment technology, which is the essential conditions for the living in the underground space, was developed to be applied to a simulated model space. The basic conditions including the location and utilization for the simulation model are as follows: (1) It locates at the city center of a big city, (2) A station for a high speed rail way (linear car) is located at the deep underground (50 m), (3) As there are still many physiological and psychological problems left unsolved for the living including dinning and sleeping in the underground, such facilities as private residential house, hotel, and hospital were excluded. Such facilities as shop, restaurant, theater, recreation facility, city hall, police station, and parking lot were considered. For the disaster prevention design, the design technique for emergency evacuation system within the building and for the smoke control system were taken up. For the air conditioning design, the large space air conditioning design, energy saving design system, and the deodorant air conditioning system were investigated. The energy program and the aqueduct program were also discussed. 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. 2010 Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2010 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) ranks 163 countries on environmental performance based on twenty-five indicators grouped within ten core policy...

  17. Use of ecological bag as a didactic resource of the “Quinzinho de Barros” zoo for the environmental education in non-formal learning spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Cherutti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sorocaba’s Zoo has been developing several environmental education programs for students and for the teachers’ continuing education, being one of these programs, the oriented visit. This visit has as target to promote the interaction between the public and the Zoo visitors guide during the tour by the Zoo’s different areas. In this tour the ecological bags are used with the finality of showing several concepts related to the environmental conservation, this way, educating the students for the visit. This environmental project researched the application of the ecological bag as teaching and learning resource tool during the oriented visit. Two group visits of six and eight year old students from public schools were guided and oriented. The data occurred with a group which used previously the ecological bag in their respective classrooms at school, and an other group which just visited the Zoo and did not make any use of the ecological bag. The tools used were the interview and observations performed with the zoo guide, students and teachers from both groups. After analysis of the data obtained, it was concluded that the ecological bag is an important didactical resource if linked to the school activities in the assimilation of the concepts presented in this research.

  18. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) portion of the Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicators Collection contains 103 variables for 146...

  19. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: 2004 Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2004 Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) portion of the Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections contains 111 variables for 235...

  20. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  1. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high-abundance, naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56. All requests for the loan of samples should be submitted with a summary of the purpose of the loan to: Iotope Distribution Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Requests from non-DOE contractors and from foreign institutions require DOE approval

  2. Indoor environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Health (IEH) is a comprehensive term that includes the effects of quantity of air, light and noise in a space and the physical, physiological and psychological aspects from colours, aesthetics, services, outdoor climate...

  3. Indoor environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, SA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Health (IEH) is a comprehensive term that includes the effects of quantity of air, light and noise in a space and the physical, physiological and psychological aspects from colours, aesthetics, services, outdoor climate...

  4. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  5. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen DUMITRASCU; Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we ...

  6. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest canopy...

  7. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest...

  8. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth; Virta, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions

  9. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  10. BASIN TCP Stable Isotope Composition of CO2 in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports stable isotope ratio data of CO2 (13C/12C and 18O/16O) associated with photosynthetic and respiratory exchanges across the biosphere-atmosphere...

  11. BASIN TCP Stable Isotope Composition of CO2 in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports stable isotope ratio data of CO2 (13C/12C and 18O/16O) associated with photosynthetic and respiratory exchanges across the...

  12. Precipitation and stream water stable isotope data from the Marys River, Oregon in water year 2015.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Water stable isotope data collected from a range of streams throughout the Marys River basin in water year 2015, and precipitation data collected within the basin at...

  13. Minute synthesis of extremely stable gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Wang, Baoxiang; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Xie, Zhaohui; Fossum, Jon Otto; Yu, Xiaofeng; Raaen, Steinar

    2009-12-16

    We describe a rapid environmentally friendly wet-chemical approach to synthesize extremely stable non-toxic, biocompatible, water-soluble monodispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in one step at room temperature. The particles have been successfully achieved in just a few minutes by merely adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) acting as an initiator for the reduction of HAuCl(4) in aqueous solution in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) without the use of any reducing agent. It is also proved to be highly efficient for the preparation of AuNPs with controllable sizes. The AuNPs show remarkable stability in water media with high concentrations of salt, various buffer solutions and physiological conditions in biotechnology and biomedicine. Moreover, the AuNPs are also non-toxic at high concentration (100 microM). Therefore, it provides great opportunities to use these AuNPs for biotechnology and biomedicine. This new approach also involved several green chemistry concepts, such as the selection of environmentally benign reagents and solvents, without energy consumption, and less reaction time.

  14. Minute synthesis of extremely stable gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Min; Wang Baoxiang; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Xie Zhaohui; Fossum, Jon Otto; Yu Xiaofeng; Raaen, Steinar

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rapid environmentally friendly wet-chemical approach to synthesize extremely stable non-toxic, biocompatible, water-soluble monodispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in one step at room temperature. The particles have been successfully achieved in just a few minutes by merely adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) acting as an initiator for the reduction of HAuCl 4 in aqueous solution in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) without the use of any reducing agent. It is also proved to be highly efficient for the preparation of AuNPs with controllable sizes. The AuNPs show remarkable stability in water media with high concentrations of salt, various buffer solutions and physiological conditions in biotechnology and biomedicine. Moreover, the AuNPs are also non-toxic at high concentration (100 μM). Therefore, it provides great opportunities to use these AuNPs for biotechnology and biomedicine. This new approach also involved several green chemistry concepts, such as the selection of environmentally benign reagents and solvents, without energy consumption, and less reaction time.

  15. The micro-environmental impact of volatile organic compound emissions from large-scale assemblies of people in a confined space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Tanushree; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Uchimiya, Minori; Kumar, Pawan; Das, Subhasish; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Szulejko, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale assemblies of people in a confined space can exert significant impacts on the local air chemistry due to human emissions of volatile organics. Variations of air-quality in such small scale can be studied by quantifying fingerprint volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone, toluene, and isoprene produced during concerts, movie screenings, and sport events (like the Olympics and the World Cup). This review summarizes the extent of VOC accumulation resulting from a large population in a confined area or in a small open area during sporting and other recreational activities. Apart from VOCs emitted directly from human bodies (e.g., perspiration and exhaled breath), those released indirectly from other related sources (e.g., smoking, waste disposal, discharge of food-waste, and use of personal-care products) are also discussed. Although direct and indirect emissions of VOCs from human may constitute <1% of the global atmospheric VOCs budget, unique spatiotemporal variations in VOCs species within a confined space can have unforeseen impacts on the local atmosphere to lead to acute human exposure to harmful pollutants.

  16. The micro-environmental impact of volatile organic compound emissions from large-scale assemblies of people in a confined space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Tanushree [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hyun, E-mail: kkim61@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Uchimiya, Minori [USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E. Lee Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Kumar, Pawan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 11016 (India); Das, Subhasish; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar [Soil & Agro-Bioengineering Lab, Department of Environmental Science, Tezpur University, Napaam 784028 (India); Szulejko, Jan [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Large-scale assemblies of people in a confined space can exert significant impacts on the local air chemistry due to human emissions of volatile organics. Variations of air-quality in such small scale can be studied by quantifying fingerprint volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone, toluene, and isoprene produced during concerts, movie screenings, and sport events (like the Olympics and the World Cup). This review summarizes the extent of VOC accumulation resulting from a large population in a confined area or in a small open area during sporting and other recreational activities. Apart from VOCs emitted directly from human bodies (e.g., perspiration and exhaled breath), those released indirectly from other related sources (e.g., smoking, waste disposal, discharge of food-waste, and use of personal-care products) are also discussed. Although direct and indirect emissions of VOCs from human may constitute <1% of the global atmospheric VOCs budget, unique spatiotemporal variations in VOCs species within a confined space can have unforeseen impacts on the local atmosphere to lead to acute human exposure to harmful pollutants.

  17. Trans-polychlorinated azobenzenes (PCABs) - new possibly ''dioxin-like'' environmental pollutants. Multidimensional analysis of the structural feature space of congener set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J.; Wilczynska, A.; Piliszek, S.; Puzyn, T. [Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Azoxybenzene is molecule composed of two benzene ring fused to azoxy group (- N(O)=N-). Trans-PCAOBs consist at 399 congeners, and some of them can be formed as unwanted byproduct in the manufacture of 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) and its derivatives, and can be found in herbicides such as Diuron {sup registered}, Linuron {sup registered}, Methazole {sup registered} and Propanil {sup registered}. Degradation of chloroaniline herbicides is also a source of environmental pollution with PCAOBs as well as photolysis and biolysis of DCA. Trans-PCAOBs are planar compounds and can be considered as stereoisomers to highly toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. They is lack or very limited number of data available regarding to sources, possible mechanism of formation, environmental occurence and fate, analytical chemistry, properties, and effects of trans-PCAOBs. In this work some selected thermodynamic and quantum-mechanical properties of trans- PCAOBs were computed using ab initio methods. Presented property data of trans-PCAOBs can be useful as structural descriptors in further QSAR/QSPR studies of those compounds.

  18. Constraints on Development of Wind Energy in Poland due to Environmental Objectives. Is There Space in Poland for Wind Farm Siting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajto, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Zdzisław; Bidłasik, Małgorzata; Borzyszkowski, Jan; Kuśmierz, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate spatial effects of adopting environmental criteria for wind farm siting, i.e., the criteria related to the settlement system and those with regards to landscape values. The set of criteria was elaborated on the basis of literature and experience-based knowledge. Some of the criteria selected are legally binding. The analyses were carried out with the use of GIS tools. Settlement areas with 1000 and 2000 m wide buffer zones, and the areas with the highest landscape values, were assumed as particularly sensitive receptors to wind farm impacts. The results show significant constraints on wind farm siting in Poland. Although the constraints are regionally diversified, they concern 93.9 % of the total country area (1000 m buffer zone) or 99.1 % (2000 m buffer zone). Presumably even greater constraints would be revealed by an additional detailed analysis at a local level. The constraints on wind farm siting in Poland cannot be decreased, because of both social attitudes and demand for appropriate environmental standards, which should be taken into account in spatial and energy policies at all decision making level.

  19. Fact Sheet: National Space Policy. Appendix F-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    For over three decades, the United States has led the world in the exploration and use of outer space. Our achievements in space have inspired a generation of Americans and people throughout the world. We will maintain this leadership role by supporting a strong, stable, and balanced national space program that serves our goals in national security, foreign policy, economic growth, environmental stewardship, and scientific and technical excellence. Access to and use of space are central for preserving peace and protecting US national security as well as civil and commercial interests. The United States will pursue greater levels of partnership and cooperation in national and international space activities and work with other nations to ensure the continued exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. The goals of the US space program are to: (a) Enhance knowledge of the Earth, the solar system, and the universe through human and robotic exploration; (b) Strengthen and maintain the national security of the United States; (c) Enhance the economic competitiveness and scientific and technical capabilities of the United States; (d) Encourage State, local, and private sector investment in, and use of, space technologies; (e) Promote international cooperation to further US domestic, national security, and foreign policies. The United States is committed to the exploration and use of outer space by all nations for peaceful purposes and for the benefit of all humanity. "Peaceful purposes" allow defense and intelligence-related activities in pursuit of national security and other goals. The United States rejects any claims to sovereignty by any nation over outer space or celestial bodies, or any portion thereof, and rejects any limitations on the fundamental right of sovereign nations to acquire data from space. The United States considers the space systems of any nation to be national property with the right of passage through and operations in space without

  20. Ombud's corner: space invaders

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    When normal communication breaks down and there is no sharing anymore, office-mates can become ‘space invaders’. Very often, the situation can be resolved effectively by taking just a few simple steps...   The lack of office space at CERN is a permanent issue that the various departments regularly have to address. As a result, very often this precious space where we spend the entire day has to be shared with other colleagues. Office-mates may come from different backgrounds and cultures and may have very different habits and behaviours; they may also have different activities during the day, sometimes requiring unusual, (perhaps even strange?) interactions with the space they occupy; finally, their presence might be irregular, making it very difficult for us to establish a stable relationship. Mark and Claire share an office as well as some professional activities. In the beginning, the relationship seems to work normally but, over time, the communication between them ste...

  1. Self-similar anomalous diffusion and Levy-stable laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic principles for constructing the process of anomalous diffusion are considered, and corresponding models of random processes are reviewed. The self-similarity and the independent-increments principles are used to extend the notion of diffusion process to the class of Levy-stable processes. Replacing the independent-increments principle with the renewal principle allows us to take the next step in generalizing the notion of diffusion, which results in fractional-order partial space-time differential equations of diffusion. Fundamental solutions to these equations are represented in terms of stable laws, and their relationship to the fractality and memory of the medium is discussed. A new class of distributions, called fractional stable distributions, is introduced. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. High precision and stable structures for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Da Mota Silva, S; Hauviller, Claude

    1999-01-01

    The central detectors used in High Energy Physics Experiments require the use of light and stable structures capable of supporting delicate and precise radiation detection elements. These structures need to be highly stable under environmental conditions where external vibrations, high radiation levels, temperature and humidity gradients should be taken into account. Their main design drivers are high dimension and dynamic stability, high stiffness to mass ratio and large radiation length. For most applications, these constraints lead us to choose Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics ( CFRP) as structural element. The construction of light and stable structures with CFRP for these applications can be achieved by careful design engineering and further confirmation at the prototyping phase. However, the experimental environment can influence their characteristics and behavior. In this case, theuse of adaptive structures could become a solution for this problem. We are studying structures in CFRP with bonded piezoel...

  3. Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal. (orig.)

  4. Stable singularities in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspinwall, P.S.; Morrison, D.R.; Gross, M.

    1996-01-01

    We study a topological obstruction of a very stringy nature concerned with deforming the target space of an N=2 non-linear σ-model. This target space has a singularity which may be smoothed away according to the conventional rules of geometry, but when one studies the associated conformal field theory one sees that such a deformation is not possible without a discontinuous change in some of the correlation functions. This obstruction appears to come from torsion in the homology of the target space (which is seen by deforming the theory by an irrelevant operator). We discuss the link between this phenomenon and orbifolds with discrete torsion as studied by Vafa and Witten. (orig.). With 3 figs

  5. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  6. Stable isotopes - separation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this review, methods used for the separation of stable isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 34 S) will be described. The synthesis of labelled compounds, techniques for detection and assay, and areas of application will also be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen; to date, sulphur isotopes have only assumed a minor role. The field of deuterium chemistry is too extensive for adequate treatment; it will therefore be essentially excluded. (author)

  7. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  8. Venturing into new realms? Microorganisms in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Cockell, Charles; Rettberg, Petra

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges of science is the determination of whether extraterrestrial life exists. Although potential habitable areas might be available for complex life, it is more likely that microbial life could exist in space. Many extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes have been found to be able to withstand numerous, combined environmental factors, such as high or low temperatures and pressures, high-salt conditions, high doses of radiation, desiccation or nutrient limitations. They may even survive the transit from one planet to another. Terrestrial Mars-analogue sites are one focus of researchers, in order to understand the microbial diversity in preparation for upcoming space missions aimed at the detection of life. However, such missions could also pose a risk with respect to contamination of the extraterrestrial environment by accidentally transferred terrestrial microorganisms. Closer to the Earth, the International Space Station is the most enclosed habitat, where humans work and live-and with them numerous microorganisms. It is still unknown how microbes adapt to this environment, possibly even creating a risk for the crew. Information on the microbiology of the ISS will have an impact on the planning and implementation of long-term human spaceflights in order to ensure a safe, stable and balanced microbiome on board. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Surface oceanographic fronts influencing deep-sea biological activity: Using fish stable isotopes as ecological tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, Maite; Navarro, Joan; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; de Sola, Luis Gil; Forero, Manuela G.

    2017-06-01

    Ecotones can be described as transition zones between neighbouring ecological systems that can be shaped by environmental gradients over a range of space and time scales. In the marine environment, the detection of ecotones is complex given the highly dynamic nature of marine systems and the paucity of empirical data over ocean-basin scales. One approach to overcome these limitations is to use stable isotopes from animal tissues since they can track spatial oceanographic variability across marine systems and, in turn, can be used as ecological tracers. Here, we analysed stable isotopes of deep-sea fishes to assess the presence of ecological discontinuities across the western Mediterranean. We were specifically interested in exploring the connection between deep-sea biological activity and particular oceanographic features (i.e., surface fronts) occurring in the pelagic domain. We collected samples for three different abundant deep-sea species in May 2004 from an experimental oceanographic trawling cruise (MEDITS): the Mictophydae jewel lanternfish Lampanyctus crocodilus and two species of the Gadidae family, the silvery pout Gadiculus argenteus and the blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou. The experimental survey occurred along the Iberian continental shelf and the upper and middle slopes, from the Strait of Gibraltar in the SW to the Cape Creus in the NE. The three deep-sea species were highly abundant throughout the study area and they showed geographic variation in their isotopic values, with decreasing values from north to south disrupted by an important change point around the Vera Gulf. Isotopic latitudinal gradients were explained by pelagic oceanographic conditions along the study area and confirm the existence of an ecotone at the Vera Gulf. This area could be considered as an oceanographic boundary where waters of Atlantic origin meet Mediterranean surface waters forming important frontal structures such as the Almeria-Oran front. In fact, our results

  10. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  11. Stable Heavy Hadrons in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mackeprang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Several extensions to the SM feature heavy long-lived particles with masses of O(10^2-10^3 GeV) and mean lifetimes fulfilling $CT \\geq 10m$. Among such theories are supersymmetric scenarios as well as extra-dimensional models in which the heavy new particles are seen as Kaluza-Klein excitations of the well-known SM particles. Such particles will, from the point of view of a collider experiment be seen as stable. This thesis is concerned with the case where the exotic heavy particles emph{can} be considered stable while traversing the detector. Specifically the case is considered where the particles in question carry the charge of the strong nuclear force, commonly referred to as emph{colour charge}. A simulation kit has been developed using GEANT4. This framework is the current standard in experimental particle physics for the simulation of interactions of particles with matter, and it is used extensively for detector simulation. The simulation describes the interactions of these particles with matter which i...

  12. Environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulhaye, F.

    2005-01-01

    The environment is an intricate mixture of natural, built and social components. The natural environment includes air, water, land, climate, flora and fauna, while the built environment consists of the fabric of building infrastructure and open space. The social component of the environment embraces the aesthetics, amenity quality, architectural style, heritages, law behavior, values and traditions of the society. In ecological terms the environment is a distortion of natural ecosystems or an ecosystem in its own right. A characteristic of the urban area is their fast changing nature with respect to their size, form, density and activity. This dynamism stems out of the basic functions of economic, social and cultural developments. The complexity and multiplicity of urban activities gives rise to a variety of environmental problems. Given their different level of economic and social development and the geography, not all the cities have identical problems, yet they have much in common. While the large cities of developed countries have long suffered the problem of pollution, inner city decay and neighborhood collapse, those in the less developed countries face more varied complex problems due to their overpopulation, poverty, inadequacy and poor quality of urban services, infrastructure, transportation, and changing life style. However the increasing pollution is common to the most of the cities and is the major cause of environmental degradation. Given the very serious nature of this problem it is essential to tackle this issue by incorporating the environmental concerns in the education system of Pakistan. This paper would give a brief overview of the environmental problems, and a detailed analysis of the status environmental issues in Pakistan. (author)

  13. Direct transition from a stable equilibrium to quasiperiodicity in non-smooth systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Z.T.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter is to show how a border-collision bifurcation in a piecewise-smooth dynamical system can produce a direct transition from a stable equilibrium point to a two-dimensional invariant torus. Considering a system of nonautonomous differential equations describing the behavior...... of a power electronic DC/DC converter, we first determine the chart of dynamical modes and show that there is a region of parameter space in which the system has a single stable equilibrium point. Under variation of the parameters, this equilibrium may collide with a discontinuity boundary between two smooth...... regions in phase space. When this happens, one can observe a number of different bifurcation scenarios. One scenario is the continuous transformation of the stable equilibrium into a stable period-1 cycle. Another is the transformation of the stable equilibrium into an unstable period-1 cycle with complex...

  14. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  15. Exposure to increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness and increases use of three-dimensional space in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrethe eBrantsæter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors, would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160 were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80 in an aviary and the other half (n = 80 in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by ANOVA on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis (PCA. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds had lower levels of fearfulness, compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency towards a more active behavioral response in the aviary- than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform and upper perch compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens.

  16. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  17. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  18. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  19. Tempered stable laws as random walk limits

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Arijit; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    Stable laws can be tempered by modifying the L\\'evy measure to cool the probability of large jumps. Tempered stable laws retain their signature power law behavior at infinity, and infinite divisibility. This paper develops random walk models that converge to a tempered stable law under a triangular array scheme. Since tempered stable laws and processes are useful in statistical physics, these random walk models can provide a basic physical model for the underlying physical phenomena.

  20. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)

  1. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  2. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  3. Effectiveness and risks of stable iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The factors upon which the efficacy of stable iodine prophylaxis depends are reviewed, with particular reference to the dose of stable iodine, the timing of the dose, the influence of dietary iodine and the impact of the other prospective actions. The risks of stable iodine ingestion are estimated, and their application to the principle of Justification in outlined. (Author)

  4. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...

  5. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  6. ROBUST MPC FOR STABLE LINEAR SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rodrigues

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new model predictive controller (MPC, which is robust for a class of model uncertainties, is developed. Systems with stable dynamics and time-invariant model uncertainty are treated. The development herein proposed is focused on real industrial systems where the controller is part of an on-line optimization scheme and works in the output-tracking mode. In addition, the system has a time-varying number of degrees of freedom since some of the manipulated inputs may become constrained. Moreover, the number of controlled outputs may also vary during system operation. Consequently, the actual system may show operating conditions with a number of controlled outputs larger than the number of available manipulated inputs. The proposed controller uses a state-space model, which is aimed at the representation of the output-predicted trajectory. Based on this model, a cost function is proposed whereby the output error is integrated along an infinite prediction horizon. It is considered the case of multiple operating points, where the controller stabilizes a set of models corresponding to different operating conditions for the system. It is shown that closed-loop stability is guaranteed by the feasibility of a linear matrix optimization problem.

  7. Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs.

  8. Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs

  9. Space-time dynamics of carbon and environmental parameters related to carbon dioxide emissions in the Buor-Khaya Bay and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Kosmach, D. A.; Nishino, S.

    2013-09-01

    , respectively), while the CO2 efflux can be one order lower after a strong storm such as in September 2011. Atmospheric CO2 emissions from a thawed coastal ice complex in the BKB area varied from 9 to 439 mmol m-2 day-1, with the mean value ranged from 75.7 to 101 mmol m-2 day-1 in two years (September 2006 and 2009), suggesting that at the time of observations the eroded coastal area served as a more significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere than the tundra (mean value: 22.7 mmol m-2 day-1) on the neighboring Primorsky coastal plain (September 2006). The observed increase in the Lena River discharge since the 1990s suggests that increased levels of "satellite-derived" annual primary production could be explained by an increasing load of humic acids delivered to shelf water; in this water the color resulting from the presence of CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter) mimics the color resulting from the presence of Chl a when seen from space. Because the BKB area can be employed as an integrator of ongoing changes in the surrounding environment, we suggest that under ongoing changes, more nutrients, products of eroded OC transformation and river transport, will be delivered to the Arctic Ocean with its shrinking ice cover, potentially increasing primary production outside of the shallow East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS). At the same time, because the ESAS is characterized by very low transparency which limits euphotic layer thickness, excessive pCO2 will not be utilized by photosynthesis but will rather be emitted to the atmosphere at increasing rates, affecting regional CO2 balance.

  10. Ecological Impacts of the Space Shuttle Program at John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Drese, John H.; Scheidt, Doug A.; Lowers, Russ H.; Reyier, Eric A.; Holloway-Adkins, Karen G.; Oddy, Donna M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program was one of NASAs first major undertakings to fall under the environmental impact analysis and documentation requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Space Shuttle Program activities at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the associated Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) contributed directly and indirectly to both negative and positive ecological trends in the region through the long-term, stable expenditure of resources over the 40 year program life cycle. These expenditures provided support to regional growth and development in conjunction with other sources that altered land use patterns, eliminated and modified habitats, and contributed to cultural eutrophication of the Indian River Lagoon. At KSC, most Space Shuttle Program related actions were conducted in previously developed facilities and industrial areas with the exception of the construction of the shuttle landing facility (SLF) and the space station processing facility (SSPF). Launch and operations impacts were minimal as a result of the low annual launch rate. The majority of concerns identified during the NEPA process such as potential weather modification, acid rain off site, and local climate change did not occur. Launch impacts from deposition of HCl and particulates were assimilated as a result of the high buffering capacity of the system and low launch and loading rates. Metals deposition from exhaust deposition did not display acute impacts. Sub-lethal effects are being investigated as part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulatory process. Major positive Space Shuttle Program effects were derived from the adequate resources available at the Center to implement the numerous environmental laws and regulations designed to enhance the quality of the environment and minimize impacts from human activities. This included reduced discharges of domestic and industrial wastewater, creation of stormwater management

  11. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  12. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  13. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  14. Rare stable isotopes in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) using accelerators has been applied with success to cosmic ray exposure ages and terrestrial residence times of meteorites by measuring cosmogenic nuclides of Be, Cl, and I. It is proposed to complement this work with experiments on rare stable isotopes, in the hope of setting constraints on the processes of solar nebula/meteoritic formation. The relevant species can be classified as: a) daughter products of extinct nuclides (halflife less than or equal to 2 x 10 8 y) -chronology of the early solar system; b) products of high temperature astrophysical processes - different components incorporated into the solar nebula; and c) products of relatively low temperature processes, stellar winds and cosmic ray reactions - early solar system radiation history. The use of micron-scale primary ion beams will allow detailed sampling of phases within meteorites. Strategies of charge-state selection, molecular disintegration and detection should bring a new set of targets within analytical range. The developing accelerator field is compared to existing (keV energy) ion microprobes

  15. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  16. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen DUMITRASCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we define the estimated measure indicators for a level. The influence of the factors of stability and the ways for increasing it are thus identified, and at the same time the costs of development stages, the costs of usage and the costs of maintenance to be keep on between limits that assure the global efficiency of application. It is presented the base aspects for distributed applications: definition, peculiarities and importance. The aspects for the development cycle of distributed application are detailed. In this article, we alongside give the mechanisms for building the defined structures and analyze the complexity of the defined structures for a distributed application of a virtual store.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, a model has been developed ... instances, people must have the motivation and know- ... feelings and emotion, and behaviour to behavioural.

  18. Host specialist clownfishes are environmental niche generalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Glenn; Kostikova, Anna; Salamin, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Why generalist and specialist species coexist in nature is a question that has interested evolutionary biologists for a long time. While the coexistence of specialists and generalists exploiting resources on a single ecological dimension has been theoretically and empirically explored, biological systems with multiple resource dimensions (e.g. trophic, ecological) are less well understood. Yet, such systems may provide an alternative to the classical theory of stable evolutionary coexistence of generalist and specialist species on a single resource dimension. We explore such systems and the potential trade-offs between different resource dimensions in clownfishes. All species of this iconic clade are obligate mutualists with sea anemones yet show interspecific variation in anemone host specificity. Moreover, clownfishes developed variable environmental specialization across their distribution. In this study, we test for the existence of a relationship between host-specificity (number of anemones associated with a clownfish species) and environmental-specificity (expressed as the size of the ecological niche breadth across climatic gradients). We find a negative correlation between host range and environmental specificities in temperature, salinity and pH, probably indicating a trade-off between both types of specialization forcing species to specialize only in a single direction. Trade-offs in a multi-dimensional resource space could be a novel way of explaining the coexistence of generalist and specialists. PMID:25274370

  19. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  20. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. De la Torre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  1. Thermal Space in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    Present research is revolving around the design process and the use of digital applications to support the design process among architects. This work is made in relation to the current discussions about sustainable architecture and the increased focus on energy consumption and the comfort in our...... and understanding of spaces in buildings can change significantly and instead of the creation of frozen geometrical spaces, thermal spaces can be created as it is suggested in meteorological architecture where functions are distributed in relation to temperature gradients. This creates an interesting contrast......-introducing an increased adaptability in the architecture can be a part of re-defining the environmental agenda and re-establish a link between the environment of the site and the environment of the architecture and through that an increased appreciation of the sensuous space here framed in discussions about thermal...

  2. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  3. Space Station Freedom food management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  4. Abelian properties of Anick spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Brayton

    2017-01-01

    Anick spaces are closely connected with both EHP sequences and the study of torsion exponents. In addition they refine the secondary suspension and enter unstable periodicity. This work describes their H-space properties as well as universal properties. Techniques include a new kind on Whitehead product defined for maps out of co-H spaces, calculations in an additive category that lies between the unstable category and the stable category, and a controlled version of the extension theorem of Gray and Theriault (Geom. Topol. 14 (2010), no. 1, 243-275).

  5. Regularization methods in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kazimierski, Kamil S

    2012-01-01

    Regularization methods aimed at finding stable approximate solutions are a necessary tool to tackle inverse and ill-posed problems. Usually the mathematical model of an inverse problem consists of an operator equation of the first kind and often the associated forward operator acts between Hilbert spaces. However, for numerous problems the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based rather on conventions than on an approprimate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, sparsity constraints using general Lp-norms or the B

  6. Bistable Mechanisms for Space Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A; Tolman, Kyler A; Trease, Brian P; Howell, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Compliant bistable mechanisms are monolithic devices with two stable equilibrium positions separated by an unstable equilibrium position. They show promise in space applications as nonexplosive release mechanisms in deployment systems, thereby eliminating friction and improving the reliability and precision of those mechanical devices. This paper presents both analytical and numerical models that are used to predict bistable behavior and can be used to create bistable mechanisms in materials not previously feasible for compliant mechanisms. Materials compatible with space applications are evaluated for use as bistable mechanisms and prototypes are fabricated in three different materials. Pin-puller and cutter release mechanisms are proposed as potential space applications.

  7. Closed-Cycle, Frequency-Stable CO2 Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Carmen E. (Editor); Miller, Irvin M. (Editor); Wood, George M., Jr. (Editor); Willetts, David V. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings contain a collection of papers and comments presented at a workshop on technology associated with long-duration closed-cycle operation of frequency-stable, pulsed carbon dioxide lasers. This workshop was held at the NASA Langley Research Center June 10 to 12, 1986. The workshop, jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), was attended by 63 engineers and scientists from the United States and the United Kingdom. During the 2 1/2 days of the workshop, a number of issues relating to obtaining frequency-stable operation and to the catalytic control of laser gas chemistry were discussed, and specific recommendations concerning future activities were drafted.

  8. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Eric A; Neufeld, Josh D

    2010-08-02

    DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) is a powerful technique for identifying active microorganisms that assimilate particular carbon substrates and nutrients into cellular biomass. As such, this cultivation-independent technique has been an important methodology for assigning metabolic function to the diverse communities inhabiting a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Following the incubation of an environmental sample with stable-isotope labelled compounds, extracted nucleic acid is subjected to density gradient ultracentrifugation and subsequent gradient fractionation to separate nucleic acids of differing densities. Purification of DNA from cesium chloride retrieves labelled and unlabelled DNA for subsequent molecular characterization (e.g. fingerprinting, microarrays, clone libraries, metagenomics). This JoVE video protocol provides visual step-by-step explanations of the protocol for density gradient ultracentrifugation, gradient fractionation and recovery of labelled DNA. The protocol also includes sample SIP data and highlights important tips and cautions that must be considered to ensure a successful DNA-SIP analysis.

  9. PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF PROVISION OF STABLE LAND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hun’ko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The conditions of stable land use are highlighted in this article. The question of the territory of agricultural enterprises is considered as well. The characteristic of the type of land use is given here. The recommendations are shown on the formation of ecologically safe types of land use. In the terms of new land relations is important to resolve the issue of land use regulation to with stand landscapes against adverse natural and anthropogenic influences. The main instrument of the state, which aims to provide an ecologically permissible and economically effective land use, land use is as an important component of land relations. Planning should include a system of legal, technical, economic and environmental activities that will ensure the preservation, restoration and rational use of land and other natural resources for the benefit of the whole society. Keywords: land use, land management, stable development, landscape, soil erosion, protection of land.

  10. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  11. Tellurium Stable Isotopes as a Paleoredox Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, N.; Johnson, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Despite arguments for variably-oxygenated shallow waters and anoxic deep marine waters, which delayed animal development until the Neoproterozoic Oxidation Event, the magnitude of atmospheric oxygen during the Proterozoic is still uncertain [1]. The evidence for low pO2 (<0.1-1% PAL) is based on geochemical and isotopic proxies, which track the mobilization of Fe and Mn on the continents. For example, large chromium isotope shifts occur at the Neoproterozoic Oxidation Event due to the initiation of Cr redox cycling, but this proxy is insensitive to fluctuations in the lower-pO2 conditions at other times during the Proterozoic. Tellurium, a metalloid with a lower threshold to oxidation, may be sensitive to pO2 shifts in a lower range. In the reduced forms, Te(-II) and Te(0), the element is insoluble and immobile. However, in the more oxidized phases, Te(IV) and Te(VI), Te can form soluble oxyanions (though it tends to adsorb to Fe-oxyhydroxides and clays) [2]. Te stable isotopes have been shown to fractionate during abiotic or biologic reduction of Te(VI) or Te(IV) to elemental Te(0) [3, 4]. Utilizing hydride generation MC-ICP-MS, we are able to obtain high precision (2σ 0.04‰) measurements of δ128Te/125Te for natural samples containing < 10 ng of Te. A suite of Phanerozoic and Proterozoic ironstones show significant variation in δ128Te/125Te (<0.5‰), suggesting that the Te redox cycle was active during the Proterozoic. Future directions will include Te isotope measurements of Precambrian paleosols to determine natural isotope variation before the Great Oxidation Event and experiments to determine fractionation during adsorption to Fe-oxyhydroxides. [1] Planavsky et al. (2014) Science 346 (6209), pp. 635-638 [2] Qin et al. (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51 (11), pp 6027-6035 [3] Baesman et al. (2007) Applied Environmental Microbiology 73 (7), pp 2135-2143 [4] Smithers and Krause (1968) Canadian Journal of Chemistry 46(4): pp 583-591

  12. Climatic and physiological effects on leaf and tree-ring stable isotopes in California redwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, A. R.; Baxter, W.; Wong, C.; Dawson, T. E.; Carroll, A.; Voelker, S.

    2016-12-01

    Variation in the stable isotope composition of organic matter can provide important information about environmental change and biological responses to it. We analyzed the stable carbon (d13C) and oxygen (d18O) isotope ratios of leaves and of the cellulose from individual tree-rings of California's two redwood species to examine how these trees have responded to environmental variation and change in both time and space. Analyses of leaf d13C for both coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) from throughout their geographical ranges show a marked gradient with tree height for trees of all sizes and ages but no clear difference among species or populations. The gradient is best explained by tree response to changes in both microenvironment and physiology that are known to change with height. In contrast, leaf d18O for both species showed no clear relationship with height but very clear differences between species and populations with giant sequoia displaying a much stronger inferred leaf-level response to the higher evaporative conditions present in the Sierra Nevada mountains as compared to the coast. Both species showed population-level differences with the driest and warmest sites most distinct from all of the others. Intra-annual analyses of d13C and d18O in tree-rings over a 21-year period (1974-1994) were also used to explore how climate and tree response to climate was recorded for both species. These analyses revealed unique (local) climatic effects and response to the climate for each species and population of both redwood species. Most pronounced was a significant increase in intrinsic Water Use Efficiency (iWUE) derived from d13C data over the study period in both species, and a distinct d18O response in relation to drought (e.g. 1976/1977) and to warmer days and nights and above-average precipitation (e.g., 1982-1985). Patterns of co-variation in d13C and d18O in both species suggest that during dry and also warm

  13. Environmental Effects on Materials for Space Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    o;t tnut wthicni was 6.own fby the elet -nlt,ttr t- I -w~v tool I!.- for .hoolt a f :rther 2 ritt:s,:t. Pihtogtaphs taker-. fo-r erosof 3d seontis...Luigi BALIS CREMA. Renato BARBONI, Antonio CASTELI.ANI Istituto di Tecnologia Aerospaziale Via ’udossiana, 16 -- 00184 Roma - Italy SUMMARY A. series of

  14. Mid Course Space Experiment (MSX) Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-06

    8217____ a ~~ACTrv=T _ _ _ _ _ _I wTLL USU/SDL =H/APL OSFC VAPE ITP Fabrication -SBV -SPIRIT ft1 -Satellites -Reference -UVISI ___________ Objects...Vandenberg Air Force Base ( VAPE ) Jobit Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratoty MM/UAPL) Kausi Tea Facility (KIT 3 Satellite trussn assucttue, OSDP

  15. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  16. Expanding the isotopic toolbox: Applications of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios to food web studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah B Vander Zanden; David X Soto; Gabriel J Bowen; Keith A Hobson; Keith A Hobson

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in tissues of organisms has formed the foundation of isotopic food web reconstructions, as these values directly reflect assimilated diet. In contrast, stable hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope measurements have typically been reserved for studies of migratory origin and paleoclimate reconstruction based on systematic relationships between organismal tissue and local environmental water. Recently, innovative applicat...

  17. Expanding the Isotopic Toolbox: Applications of Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotope Ratios to Food Web Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Soto, David X.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Hobson, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in tissues of organisms has formed the foundation of isotopic food web reconstructions, as these values directly reflect assimilated diet. In contrast, stable hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope measurements have typically been reserved for studies of migratory origin and paleoclimate reconstruction based on systematic relationships between organismal tissue and local environmental water. Recently, innovative applicatio...

  18. Asymptotically Stable Solutions of a Generalized Fractional Quadratic Functional-Integral Equation of Erdélyi-Kober Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdalla Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a generalized fractional quadratic functional-integral equation of Erdélyi-Kober type in the Banach space BC(ℝ+. We show that this equation has at least one asymptotically stable solution.

  19. Ultra-Stable Zero-CTE HoneySiC and H2CMN Mirror Support Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA MSFC, GSFC and JPL are interested in Ultra-Stable Mirror Support Structures for Exoplanet Missions. Telescopes with Apertures of 4-meters or larger and using an...

  20. Quasi-stable injection channels in a wakefield accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Wiltshire-Turkay, Mara; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Particle-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration is a promising alternative to conventional electron acceleration techniques, potentially allowing electron acceleration to energies orders of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved. In this work we investigate the dependence of the energy gain on the position at which electrons are injected into the wake. Test particle simulations show previously unobserved complex structure in the parameter space, with quasi-stable injection channels forming for particles injected in narrow regions away from the centre of the wake. The result is relevant to the planning and tuning of experiments making use of external injection.

  1. Stable emergent Universe - a creation without Big-Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, E.; Herrera, R.; Labrana, P.; Nissimov, E.; Pacheva, S.

    2015-11-01

    Based on an earlier introduced new class of generalized gravity-matter models defined in terms of two independent non-Riemannian volume forms (alternative generally covariant integration measure densities) on the space-time manifold, we derive an effective ``Einstein-frame'' theory featuring the following remarkable properties: (i) We obtain effective potential for the cosmological scalar field possessing two infinitely large flat regions which allows for a unified description of both early Universe inflation as well as of present dark energy epoch; (ii) for a specific parameter range the model possesses a non-singular stable ``emergent Universe'' solution which describes an initial phase of evolution that precedes the inflationary phase.

  2. Non-linear Yang-Mills instantons from strings are π-stable D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enger, H.; Luetken, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We show that B-type Π-stable D-branes do not in general reduce to the (Gieseker-) stable holomorphic vector bundles used in mathematics to construct moduli spaces. We show that solutions of the almost Hermitian Yang-Mills equations for the non-linear deformations of Yang-Mills instantons that appear in the low-energy geometric limit of strings exist iff they are π-stable, a geometric large volume version of Π-stability. This shows that π-stability is the correct physical stability concept. We speculate that this string-canonical choice of stable objects, which is encoded in and derived from the central charge of the string-algebra, should find applications to algebraic geometry where there is no canonical choice of stable geometrical objects

  3. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the

  4. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  5. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  6. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  7. Isotopes in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, G.; Rozanski, K.; Vose, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive and stable isotopes have long been considered a very efficient tool for studying physical and biological aspects of how the global ecosystem functions. Their applications in environmental research are numerous, embracing research at all levels. This article looks at only a few of the approaches to environmental problems that involve the use of isotopes. Special attention is given to studies of the Amazon Basin. Environmental isotopes are very efficient tools in water cycle studies. Tritium, a radioactive tracer, is especially useful in studying dynamics of water movement in different compartments of the hydrosphere, both on the local and global scales. Heavy stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen (deuterium and oxygen-18) provide information about steady-state characteristics of the water cycle. Isotope methods, some relatively new, have a major role in site-specific studies. Some indicative examples include: Studying turnover of organic matter. Changes in the carbon-13/carbon-12 isotopic ratio of organic matter were used to determine the respective contributions of organic carbon derived from forest and pasture. Studying biological nitrogen fixation. One of the ways nitrogen levels in soil can be maintained for productivity is by biological nitrogen fixation. Studying nitrogen availability and losses. The experimental use of nitrogen-15 is invaluable for defining losses of soil nitrogen to the atmosphere and to groundwater. Studies can similarly be done with stable and radioactive sulphur isotopes. This article indicates some potential uses of isotopes in environmental research. While the major problem of global climate change has not been specifically addressed here, the clearing of the Amazon forest, one focus of the IAEA's environmental programme, may have serious consequences for the global climate. These include substantial reduction of the amount of latent heat transported to the regions outside the tropics and acceleration of the greenhouse

  8. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  9. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  10. Manual for the Use of Stable Isotopes in Entomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    result of problem driven inquisitiveness and technological advances, and are framed by the social and political environment. Although the external environment may mould the technological path, a technology will only become obsolete if there are viable substitution products or methods. Stable isotope methods are a substitute for many radionuclide methods. The progress made in stable isotope science over the past twenty years is a direct result of the interplay of the above factors. Stable isotopes are omnipresent in the environment and pose no health or environmental risks. Advances in isotope ratio mass spectrometry in terms of detection, accuracy and automation have broadened experimental possibilities immensely over the past twenty years. It was recognised that there was significant potential for answering many of the entomologist?s biological and ecological questions using stable isotopes, an expertise the Soil Science Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf had long fostered; therefore collaboration with the Entomology Unit at the same Laboratory was established. A number of collaborative experiments were carried and subsequently published. It was soon recognised that stable isotopes have tremendous potential in entomological research and although there were numerous studies using stable isotopes in ecology, their use in entomology per se was limited. Thus it was felt that a publication was required to make stable isotope techniques more widely known among entomologists. This manual will attempt to provide an introduction to the use of stable isotopes in entomological research. It will strive to communicate the basic principles and techniques of stable isotope science and provide a springboard for further interest and research in this area

  11. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  12. Experimental studies of stable confined electron clouds using Gabor lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Meusel, O.; Glaeser, B.; Schulte, K.

    2013-04-22

    Based on the idea of D. Gabor [1] space charge lenses are under investigation to be a powerful focussing device for intense ion beams. A stable confined electron column is used to provide strong radially symmetric electrostatic focussing, e.g. for positively charged ion beams. The advantages of Gabor lenses are a mass independent focussing strength, space charge compensation of the ion beam and reduced magnetic or electric fields compared to conventional focussing devices. Collective phenomena of the electron cloud result in aberrations and emittance growth of the ion beam. The knowledge of the behaviour of the electron cloud prevents a decrease of the beam brilliance. Numerical models developed to describe the electron confinement and dynamics within a Gabor lens help to understand the interaction of the ion beam with the electron column and show the causes of non-neutral plasma instabilities. The diagnosis of the electron cloud properties helps to evaluate the numerical models and to investigate the influen...

  13. Stable Isotopes and Oral Tori in Greenlandic Norse and Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, M.; Lynnerup, N.; Scott, G. R.

    2017-01-01

    Palatine (PT) and mandibular torus (MT) have long been of interest to dental researchers and anthropologists, but their aetiology remains unresolved. Some combination of genetic and environmental factors influences their expression, but the relative role of each remains contentious. Previous...... research has shown that the Greenlandic Norse exhibit exceptionally high frequencies and pronounced expressions of PT and MT. In this regard, they are significantly different from genetically related medieval Scandinavian populations, so environmental factors have to be considered. An earlier study...... that estimated stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions for a Greenlandic Norse sample makes it possible to compare directly PT and MT expression with the relative degree of marine protein intake. For comparative purposes, parallel observations were made on a Greenlandic Inuit sample. Some researchers...

  14. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  15. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  16. 2014 Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2014 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) ranks 178 countries on 20 performance indicators in the following 9 policy categories: health impacts, air quality,...

  17. 2016 Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2016 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) ranks 180 countries on 20 performance indicators in the following 9 policy categories: health impacts, air quality,...

  18. 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) utilizes a refined methodology based on the 2000 Pilot ESI effort, to construct an index covering 122 countries...

  19. Life Support Systems: Environmental Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Environmental Monitoring (EM) systems task objectives are to develop and demonstrate onboard...

  20. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  1. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  2. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  3. Environmental Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Contains information on the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

  4. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  5. Unit of stable isotopic N15 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera de Bisbal, Evelin; Paredes U, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The continuous and growing demand of crops and cattle for the domestic inhabitants, forces the search of technical solutions in agriculture. One of the solutions able to be covered in a near future it is the escalation of agricultural production in lands already being cultivated, either by means of an intensification of cultivation and / or increasing the unitary yields. In the intensive cropping systems, the crops extract substantial quantities of nutriments that is recovered by means of the application of fertilizers. Due to the lack of resources and to the increase of commercial inputs prices, it has been necessary to pay attention to the analysis and improvement of low inputs cropping systems and to the effective use of resources. Everything has made to establish a concept of plant nutrition focused system, which integrate the sources of nutriments for plants and the production factors of crops in a productive cropping system, to improve the fertility of soils, the agricultural productivity and profitability. This system includes the biggest efficiency of chemical fertilizers as the maximum profit of alternative sources of nutriments, such as organic fertilizers, citrate-phosphate rocks and biological nitrogen fixation. By means of field experiments under different environmental conditions (soils and climate) it can be determined the best combination of fertilizers practice (dose, placement, opportunity and source) for selected cropping systems. The experimentation with fertilizer, marked with stable and radioactive isotopes, provides a direct and express method to obtain conclusive answers to the questions: where, when and how should be applied. The fertilizers marked with N 1 5 have been used to understand the application of marked fertilizer to the cultivations, and the determination of the proportion of crops nutritious element derived from fertilizer. The isotopic techniques offer a fast and reliable mean to obtain information about the distribution of

  6. The Dependence of Cirrus Gamma Size Distributions Expressed as Volumes in N(sub 0)-Lambda-Mu Phase Space and Bulk Cloud Properties on Environmental Conditions: Results from the Small Ice Particles in Cirrus Experiment (SPARTICUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert C.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The variability of cirrus ice microphysical properties is investigated using observations obtained during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) campaign. An existing approach that represents a size distribution (SD) as a single gamma function using an ellipsoid of equally realizable solutions in (N(sub 0), lambda, mu) phase space is modified to automatically identify multiple modes in SDs and characterize each mode by such an ellipsoid. The modified approach is applied to ice crystals with maximum dimension D greater than15 micrometers collected by the 2-D stereo and 2-D precipitation probes on the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet. The dependencies of N(sub 0), mu, and lambda from each mode, total number concentration, bulk extinction, ice water content (IWC), and mass median maximum dimension D(sub mm) as a function of temperature T and cirrus type are then analyzed. The changes in the observed codependencies between N(sub 0), mu, and lambda, bulk extinction, IWC, and D(sub mm) with environmental conditions indicate that particles were larger at higher T during SPARTICUS. At most two modes were observed in any SD during SPARTICUS, with the average boundary between them at 115 micrometers, similar to past studies not using probes with shatter mitigating tips and artifact removal algorithms. The bimodality of the SDs increased with T. This and the differences in N(sub 0), mu, and lambda between the modes suggest that particles with smaller D nucleated more recently than particles with larger D, which grew via vapor deposition and aggregation. Because smaller crystals, whose concentrations are uncertain, make marginal contributions to higher order moments, the use of higher moments for evaluating model fields is suggested.

  7. New media sociofugal spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a classic piece, Sommer (1967: 654 once defined sociofugal space as ‘a place where people typically try to avoid one another’. And the point is that – because of environmental spatial characteristics – people cannot successfully avoid each other, or can do so only to a limited extent. Typically, we are dealing with open public places, where the first come cannot prevent others from arriving afterwards. Under these conditions, space is often unwillingly shared. Consequently, every new arrival raises the thorny issue of the ‘critical distance’ between two or more co-specific socii (members of the same species, together with the question of how each socius is going to make space for himself or herself inside the shifting geometry that each new socius introduces in a context of inter-visibility (or, more precisely, in the element of visible.

  8. Ballooning stable high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Takashi; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-04-01

    The second stable regime of ballooning modes is numerically studied by using the two-dimensional tokamak transport code with the ballooning stability code. Using the simple FCT heating scheme, we find that the plasma can locally enter this second stable regime. And we obtained equilibria with fairly high beta (β -- 23%) stable against ballooning modes in a whole plasma region, by taking into account of finite thermal diffusion due to unstable ballooning modes. These results show that a tokamak fusion reactor can operate in a high beta state, which is economically favourable. (author)

  9. Development of stable isotope manufacturing in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokidychev, A.; Pokidycheva, M.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 25 years, Russia has relied heavily on the electromagnetic separation process for the production of middle and heavy mass stable isotopes. The separation of most light isotopes had been centered in Georgia which, after the collapse of the USSR, left Russia without this capability. In the mid-1970s, development of centrifuge technology for the separation of stable isotopes was begun. Alternative techniques such as laser separation, physical-chemical methods, and ion cyclotron resonance have also been investigated. Economic considerations have played a major role in the development and current status of the stable isotope enrichment capabilities of Russia

  10. Innovative lightweight substrate for stable optical benches and mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugi Grond, E.; Herren, A.; Mérillat, S.; Fermé, J. J.

    2017-11-01

    High precision space optics, such as spectrometers, relay optics, and filters, require ultra stable, lightweight platforms. These equipped platforms have on one side to survive the launch loads, on the other side they have to maintain their stability also under the varying thermal loads occurring in space. Typically such platforms have their equipment (prisms, etalons, beam expanders, etc.) mounted by means of classical bonding, hydro-catalytic bonding or optical contacting. Therefore such an optical bench requires to provide an excellent flatness, minimal roughness and is usually made of the same material as the equipment it carries (glass, glass ceramics). For space systems, mass is a big penalty, therefore such optical platforms are in most cases light weighted by means of machining features (i.e. pockets). Besides of being not extremely mass efficient, such pockets reduce the load carrying capability of the base material significantly. The challenge for Oerlikon Space, in this context, was to develop, qualify and deliver such optical benches, providing a substantial mass reduction compared to actual light weighted systems, while maintaining most of the full load carrying capacity of the base material. Additionally such a substrate can find an attractive application for mirror substrates. The results of the first development and of the first test results will be presented.

  11. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  12. On creation of multilevel system of ecological monitoring and forecasting of status and stability of the environmental objects of the 'Baikanur' Space Site, and areas of falling of separated parts of rocket-carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujmenbaev, B.T.; Ermoldina, G.T.; Kurbanova, R.A.; Ermoldina, Eh.T.

    2005-01-01

    In the article the ecological monitoring system of 'Baikanur' space station and areas of falling of separated parts of rocket-carriers providing carrying out of supervision of several levels is offered: a space segment (reception of the space information from satellites NOAA, TERRA, the Meteor-3M), aviation (aerial photograph from airborne and helicopters) and ground, submitters by stationary points of observation, (ecological control mobile laboratories). Monitoring system creation will allow to create uniform information space with the view of acceptance of administrative decisions and the control of ecological making space-rocket activity. (author)

  13. Biological factors of natural and artificial ecosystems stable (unstable) functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechurkin, Nikolai S.

    The problem of sustainable development of humanity on Earth and the problem of supporting human life in space have the same scientific and methodological bases. The key to solve both problems is a long term maintenance of balanced material cycle. As a whole, natural or artificial ecosystems are to be more closed than open, but their elements (links of systems) are to be substantially open in interactions with each other. Prolonged stable interactions of different links have to have unique joint results - closed material cycling or biotic turnover. It is necessary to include, at least, three types of main links into any system to support real material cycling: producers, consumers, reducers. Producer links are now under studies in many laboratories. It is evident that the higher productivity of link, the lower link stability. Especially, it concerns with parasite impact to plants. As usual, artificial ecosystems are more simple (incomplete) than natural ecosystems, sometimes, they have not enough links for prolonged stable functioning. For example, life support system for space flight can be incomplete in consumer link, having only some crew persons, instead of interacting populations of consumers. As for reducer link, it is necessary to "organize" a special coordinated work of microbial biocenoses to fulfill proper cycling. Possible evolution of links, their self development is a matter of special attention for the maintenance of prolonged stable functioning. It's the most danger for systems with populations of quickly reproducing, so-called, R - strategists, according to symbols of logistic equation. From another side, quick reproduction of R - strategists is able to increase artificial ecosystems and their links functioning. After some damages of system, R - strategist's link can be quickly "self repaired" up to level of normal functioning. Some experimental data of this kind and mathematical models are to be discussed in the paper. This work is supported by

  14. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  15. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  16. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  17. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  18. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  19. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg