WorldWideScience

Sample records for space environment exposure

  1. Radiation environment in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goka, Tateo; Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Komiyama, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) had been build into the International Space Station (ISS), which is a multipurpose manned facility and laboratory and is operated in orbit at about 400 km in altitude. Two Japanese astronauts stayed in the ISS for long time (4.5 and 5.5 months) for the first time. Space radiation exposure is one of the biggest safety issues for astronauts to stay for such a long duration in space. This special paper is presenting commentary on space radiation environment in ISS, neutrons measurements and light particles (protons and electrons) measurements, the instruments, radiation exposure management for Japanese astronauts and some comments in view of health physics. (author)

  2. Biopan-survival I: exposure of the osmophiles synechococcus sp. (Nageli) and haloarcula sp. to the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; White, M. R.; Rothschild, L. J.

    The objective of this study was to determine the survivability of osmophilic microorganisms in space, as well as examine the DNA breakage in osmophilic cells exposed to solar UV-radiation plus vacuum and to vacuum only. The organisms used were an unidentified species of Synechococcus (Nägeli) that inhabits the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and an unidentified species of the extremely halophilic genus Haloarcula (designated as isolate G) isolated from a evaporitic NaCl crystal. Because these organisms are desiccation resistant and gypsum-halite as well as NaCl attenuate UV-radiation, we hypothesized that these organisms would survive in the space environment, better than most others. The organisms were exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks while in earth orbit aboard the Biopan facility. Ground controls were tested in a space simulation facility. All samples were compared to unexposed samples. Survivability was determined by plate counts and the most probable number technique. DNA breakage was determined by labeling breaks in the DNA with ^32P followed by translation. Results indicate that the osmophilic microbes survived the 2 week exposure. The major cause of cell death was DNA damage. The number of strand breaks in the DNA from vacuum UV exposed cells was greater than the vacuum only exposed cells.

  3. Enhanced Predictions of Time to Critical Dielectric Breakdown of Materials Under Prolonged Exposure to Space Plasma Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The leading cause of spacecraft failures and malfunctions due to interactions with the space plasma environment is electrostatic discharge (ESD). The enhanced time...

  4. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  5. Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

  6. Space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled with the increasing concern over trapped radiation effects on microelectronics, the availability of new data, long term changes in the Earth's magnetic field, and observed variations in the trapped radiation fluxes have generated the need for better, more comprehensive tools for modeling and predicting the Earth's trapped radiation environment and its effects on space systems. The objective of this report is to describe the current status of those efforts and review methods for attacking the issues associated with modeling the trapped radiation environment in a systematic, practical fashion. The ultimate goal will be to point the way to increasingly better methods of testing, designing, and flying reliable microelectronic systems in the Earth's radiation environment. The review will include a description of the principal models of the trapped radiation environment currently available--the AE8 and AP8 models. Recent results rom radiation experiments on spacecraft such as CRRES, SAMPEX, and CLEMENTINE will then be described. (author)

  7. Environment monitoring from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental problems such as acid rain, ozone depletion, deforestation, erosion, and the greenhouse effect are of increasing concern, and continuous earth observation from artificial satellites has been contributing significant information on the environment since the 1960s. Earth observation from space has the advantages of wide area coverage at potentially high resolutions, periodic and long-term observation capability, data acquisition with uniform quality and repeatability, and ability to observe using different types of sensors. Problems to be solved in earth observation include the need for preprocessing of satellite data, understanding the relationship between observed physical parameters and objects, and the high volume of data for processing. In Japan, a research project on the higher-order utilization of remote sensing data from space was organized in 1985, and the results led to recognition of the importance of satellite observation. It was then decided to undertake a program to improve the understanding of the earth environment by satellite. Five research plans were selected: a basic study on earth observation by microwaves; global change analysis of the biosphere; a study of the physical process of the water cycle over land; a study of air-sea interaction; and higher-order processing of earth observation information. In recognition of the international nature of satellite data, as well as the capabilities of Canada and Japan in computer, communication, and multimedia technologies, bilateral cooperation is proposed in the area of earth environment information systems based on satellite observation

  8. The space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    There are three primary sources of space radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped belt radiation, and solar particle events (SPE). All are composed of ions, the nuclei of atoms. Their energies range from a few MeV u -1 to over a GeV u -1 . These ions can fragment when they interact with spacecraft materials and produce energetic neutrons and ions of lower atomic mass. Absorbed dose rates inside a typical spacecraft (like the Space Shuttle) in a low inclination (28.5 degrees) orbit range between 0.05 and 2 mGy d -1 depending on the altitude and flight inclination (angle of orbit with the equator). The quality factor of radiation in orbit depends on the relative contributions of trapped belt radiation and GCR, and the dose rate varies both with orbital altitude and inclination. The corresponding equivalent dose rate ranges between 0.1 and 4 mSv d -1 . In high inclination orbits, like that of the Mir Space Station and as is planned for the International Space Station, blood-forming organ (BFO) equivalent dose rates as high as 1.5 mSv d -1 . Thus, on a 1 y mission, a crew member could obtain a total dose of 0.55 Sv. Maximum equivalent dose rates measured in high altitude passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) were 10 mSv h -1 . For an interplanetary space mission (e.g., to Mars) annual doses from GCR alone range between 150 mSv y -1 at solar maximum and 580 mSv y -1 at solar minimum. Large SPE, like the October 1989 series, are more apt to occur in the years around solar maximum. In free space, such an event could contribute another 300 mSv, assuming that a warning system and safe haven can be effectively used with operational procedures to minimize crew exposures. Thus, the total dose for a 3 y mission to Mars could exceed 2 Sv

  9. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  10. Astronaut exposure to space radiation - Space Shuttle experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwell, W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle astronauts are exposed to both the trapped radiation and the galactic cosmic radiation environments. In addition, the sun periodically emits high-energy particles which could pose a serious threat to flight crews. NASA adheres to federal regulations and recommended exposure limits for radiation protection and has established a radiological health and risk assessment program. Using models of the space radiation environment, a Shuttle shielding model, and an anatomical human model, crew exposure estimates are made for each Shuttle flight. The various models are reviewed. Dosimeters are worn by each astronaut and are flown at several fixed locations to obtain inflight measurements. The dosimetry complement is discussed in detail. A comparison between the premission calculations and measurements is presented. Extrapolation of Shuttle experience to long-duration exposure is explored. 14 refs

  11. Considering the space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudenot, J.C.; Fillon, T.; Barrillot, C.; Calvet, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    The high levels of radiation encountered in space and in the upper atmosphere can affect the onboard electronics in satellites, launch vehicles and aircraft. The main categories of radiation in space have been classified into four distinct types; radiation belts, solar flares, cosmic radiation and the solar wind. Most of the risk to modern electronic systems arises from heavy ions. In geostationary and low polar orbits, these originate mainly as protons from solar flares. In medium earth orbits, the main source is trapped protons and the South Atlantic anomaly. (authors)

  12. The ionizing radiation environment in space and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Jim; Falconer, David; Fry, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The ionizing radiation environment in space poses a hazard for spacecraft and space crews. The hazardous components of this environment are reviewed and those which contribute to radiation hazards and effects identified. Avoiding the adverse effects of space radiation requires design, planning, monitoring and management. Radiation effects on spacecraft are avoided largely though spacecraft design. Managing radiation exposures of space crews involves not only protective spacecraft design and careful mission planning. Exposures must be managed in real time. The now-casting and forecasting needed to effectively manage crew exposures is presented. The techniques used and the space environment modeling needed to implement these techniques are discussed.

  13. Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Michel; de Donder, Erwin; Messios, Neophytos; Hetey, Laszlo; Calders, Stijn; Evans, Hugh; Daly, Eamonn

    SPENVIS is an ESA operational software developed and maintained at BIRA-IASB since 1996. It provides standardized access to most of the recent models of the hazardous space environment, through a user-friendly Web interface (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/). The system allows spacecraft engineers to perform a rapid analysis of environmental problems related to natural radiation belts, solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, plasmas, gases, magnetic fields and micro-particles. Various reporting and graphical utilities and extensive help facilities are included to allow engineers with relatively little familiarity to produce reliable results. SPENVIS also contains an active, integrated version of the ECSS Space Environment Standard and access to in-flight data on the space environment. Although SPENVIS in the first place is designed to help spacecraft designers, it is also used by technical universities in their educational programs. In the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme, SPENVIS will be part of the initial set of precursor services of the Space Weather segment. SPENVIS includes several engineering models to assess to effects of the space environment on spacecrafts such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. The presentation will review how such models could be connected to in situ measurements or forecasting models of the space environment in order to produce post event analysis or in orbit effects alert. The last developments and models implemented in SPENVIS will also be presented.

  14. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  15. Space Weather, Environment and Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...

  16. Human Pathophysiological Adaptations to the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian C. Demontis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Space is an extreme environment for the human body, where during long-term missions microgravity and high radiation levels represent major threats to crew health. Intriguingly, space flight (SF imposes on the body of highly selected, well-trained, and healthy individuals (astronauts and cosmonauts pathophysiological adaptive changes akin to an accelerated aging process and to some diseases. Such effects, becoming manifest over a time span of weeks (i.e., cardiovascular deconditioning to months (i.e., loss of bone density and muscle atrophy of exposure to weightlessness, can be reduced through proper countermeasures during SF and in due time are mostly reversible after landing. Based on these considerations, it is increasingly accepted that SF might provide a mechanistic insight into certain pathophysiological processes, a concept of interest to pre-nosological medicine. In this article, we will review the main stress factors encountered in space and their impact on the human body and will also discuss the possible lessons learned with space exploration in reference to human health on Earth. In fact, this is a productive, cross-fertilized, endeavor in which studies performed on Earth yield countermeasures for protection of space crew health, and space research is translated into health measures for Earth-bound population.

  17. The impact of long-term exposure to space environment on adult mammalian organisms: a study on mouse thyroid and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Masini

    Full Text Available Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis.In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10(-7M and 10(-8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains.In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3β- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1β were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3β and 17β steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 β expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. -90% vs. laboratory and ground controls, indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules.Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis

  18. System survivability in nuclear and space environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudie, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Space systems must operate in the hostile natural environment of space. In the event of a war, these systems may also be exposed to the radiation environments created by the explosions of nuclear warheads. The effects of these environments on a space system and hardening techniques are discussed in the paper

  19. Space environment effects on polymers in low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, E.; Gouzman, I.

    2003-01-01

    Polymers are widely used in space vehicles and systems as structural materials, thermal blankets, thermal control coatings, conformal coatings, adhesives, lubricants, etc. The low earth orbit (LEO) space environment includes hazards such as atomic oxygen, UV radiation, ionizing radiation (electrons, protons), high vacuum, plasma, micrometeoroids and debris, as well as severe temperature cycles. Exposure of polymers and composites to the space environment may result in different detrimental effects via modification of their chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface erosion. The high vacuum induces material outgassing (e.g. low-molecular weight residues, plasticizers and additives) and consequent contamination of nearby surfaces. The present work reviews the LEO space environment constituents and their interactions with polymers. Examples of degradation of materials exposed in ground simulation facilities are presented. The issues discussed include the erosion mechanisms of polymers, formation of contaminants and their interaction with the space environment, and protection of materials from the harsh space environment

  20. An innovative in vitro device providing continuous low doses of γ-rays mimicking exposure to the space environment: A dosimetric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda-Loth, V.; Franceries, X.; Afonso, A. S.; Ayala, A.; Eche, B.; Ginibrière, D.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Bardiès, M.; Lacoste-Collin, L.; Courtade-Saïdi, M.

    2018-02-01

    Astronauts are exposed to microgravity and chronic irradiation but experimental conditions combining these two factors are difficult to reproduce on earth. We have created an experimental device able to combine chronic irradiation and altered gravity that may be used for cell cultures or plant models in a ground based facility. Irradiation was provided by thorium nitrate powder, conditioned so as to constitute a sealed source that could be placed in an incubator. Cell plates or plant seedlings could be placed in direct contact with the source or at various distances above it. Moreover, a random positioning machine (RPM) could be positioned on the source to simulate microgravity. The activity of the source was established using the Bateman formula. The spectrum of the source, calculated according to the natural decrease of radioactivity and the gamma spectrometry, showed very good adequacy. The experimental fluence was close to the theoretical fluence evaluation, attesting its uniform distribution. A Monte Carlo model of the irradiation device was processed by GATE code. Dosimetry was performed with radiophotoluminescent dosimeters exposed for one month at different locations (x and y axes) in various cell culture conditions. Using the RPM placed on the source, we reached a mean absorbed dose of gamma rays of (0.33 ± 0.17) mSv per day. In conclusion, we have elaborated an innovative device allowing chronic radiation exposure to be combined with altered gravity. Given the limited access to the International Space Station, this device could be useful to researchers interested in the field of space biology.

  1. Overview of fiber optics in the natural space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.; Dorsky, L.; Johnston, A.; Bergman, L.; Stassinopoulos, E.

    1991-01-01

    The potential applications of fiber-optic (FO) systems in spacecraft which will be exposed to the space radiation environment are discussed in view of tests conducted aboard the Long-Duration Exposure Facility and the Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby spacecraft. Attention is given to anticipated trends in the use of FO in spacecraft communications systems. The natural space radiation environment is noted to be far more benign than the military space environment, which encompasses displacement-damage effects due to significant neutron influences

  2. NASA Space Environments Technical Discipline Team Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, J. I.; Nicholas, A. C.; Parker, L. N.; Xapsos, M.; Walker, P. W.; Stauffer, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Space Environment Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is a technical organization led by NASA's Technical Fellow for Space Environments that supports NASA's Office of the Chief Engineer through the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The Space Environments TDT conducts independent technical assessments related to the space environment and space weather impacts on spacecraft for NASA programs and provides technical expertise to NASA management and programs where required. This presentation will highlight the status of applied space weather activities within the Space Environment TDT that support development of operational space weather applications and a better understanding of the impacts of space weather on space systems. We will first discuss a tool that has been developed for evaluating space weather launch constraints that are used to protect launch vehicles from hazardous space weather. We then describe an effort to better characterize three-dimensional radiation transport for CubeSat spacecraft and processing of micro-dosimeter data from the International Space Station which the team plans to make available to the space science community. Finally, we will conclude with a quick description of an effort to maintain access to the real-time solar wind data provided by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite at the Sun-Earth L1 point.

  3. Space environment durability of beta cloth in LDEF thermal blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Roger C.; Whitaker, Ann F.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1993-01-01

    Beta cloth performance for use on long-term space vehicles such as Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) requires resistance to the degrading effects of the space environment. The major issues are retention of thermal insulating properties through maintaining optical properties, preserving mechanical integrity, and generating minimal particulates for contamination-sensitive spacecraft surfaces and payloads. The longest in-flight test of beta cloth's durability was on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), where it was exposed to the space environment for 68 months. The LDEF contained 57 experiments which further defined the space environment and its effects on spacecraft materials. It was deployed into low-Earth orbit (LEO) in Apr. 1984 and retrieved Jan. 1990 by the space shuttle. Among the 10,000 plus material constituents and samples onboard were thermal control blankets of multilayer insulation with a beta cloth outer cover and Velcro attachments. These blankets were exposed to hard vacuum, thermal cycling, charged particles, meteoroid/debris impacts, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO). Of these space environmental exposure elements, AO appears to have had the greatest effect on the beta cloth. The beta cloth analyzed in this report came from the MSFC Experiment S1005 (Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe) tray oriented approximately 22 deg from the leading edge vector of the LDEF satellite. The location of the tray on LDEF and the placement of the beta cloth thermal blankets are shown. The specific space environment exposure conditions for this material are listed.

  4. Global environment and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    1991-01-01

    The present status of investigation of acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse effect and their relations to radiation exposure are reported. Soil acidification increases transfer rates of radioactivities to plants which increases the population dose. There are two types of ozone depletion, conventional type and ozone hole type and the latter is much more serious than the former. In the greenhouse effect, although there are large uncertainties both in theoretical and observational sides, present predictions about the global warming will not be very far from reality. Environmental effects are wide-ranging and serious. Radon and thoron exhalation rates are affected by the global warming. The influence of the greenhouse effect on ozone depletion is to suppress depletion for conventional type and enhance depletion for ozone hole type. (author) 65 refs

  5. Information Space, Information Field, Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes information space, information field and information environment; shows that information space can be natural and artificial; information field is substantive and processual object and articulates the space property; information environment is concerned with some object and acts as the surrounding in relation to it and is considered with regard to it. It enables to define information environment as a subset of information space. It defines its passive description. Information environment can also be defined as a subset of information field. It corresponds to its active description.

  6. Lifelong Residential Exposure to Green Space and Attention : A Population-based Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Dadvand (Payam); C. Tischer (Christina); M. Estarlich (Marisa); S. Llop (Sabrina); A. Dalmau-Bueno (Albert); M. López-Vicente (Mònica); Valentín, A. (Antònia); de Keijzer, C. (Carmen); A. Fernández-Somoano (Ana); Lertxundi, N. (Nerea); Rodriguez-Dehli, C. (Cristina); M. Gascon (Mireia); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); D. Zugna (Daniela); X. Basagaña (Xavier); M. Nieuwenhuijsen (Mark); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); F. Ballester (Ferran); J. Sunyer (Jordi)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBACKGROUND: Natural environments, including green spaces, may have beneficial impacts on brain development. However, longitudinal evidence of an association between long-term exposure to green spaces and cognitive development (including attention) in children is limited.

  7. ISS External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Steagall, Courtney; Huang, Alvin; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    (1) The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit, (2) Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives, (3) Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle, and (4)The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  8. Physics of the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyliünas, Vytenis M.

    This book, one in the Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series, joins a growing list of advanced-level textbooks in a field of study and research known under a variety of names: space plasma physics, solar-terrestrial or solar-planetary relations, space weather, or (the official name of the relevant AGU section) space physics and aeronomy. On the basis of graduate courses taught by the author in various departments at the University of Michigan, complete with problems and with appendices of physical constants and mathematical identities, this is indeed a textbook, systematic and severe in its approach. The book is divided into three parts, in length ratios of roughly 6:4:5. Part I, “Theoretical Description of Gases and Plasmas,” starts by writing down Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz transformation (no nonsense about any introductory material of a descriptive or historical nature) and proceeds through particle orbit theory, kinetics, and plasma physics with fluid and MHD approximations to waves, shocks, and energetic particle transport. Part II, “The Upper Atmosphere,” features chapters on the terrestrial upper atmosphere, airglow and aurora, and the ionosphere. Part III, “Sun-Earth Connection,” deals with the Sun, the solar wind, cosmic rays, and the terrestrial magnetosphere. The book thus covers, with two exceptions, just about all the topics of interest to Space Physics and Aeronomy scientists, and then some (the chapter on the Sun, for instance, briefly discusses also topics of the solar interior: thermonuclear energy generation, equilibrium structure, energy transfer, with a page or two on each). One exception reflects a strong geocentric bias: there is not one word in the main text on magnetospheres and ionospheres of other planets and their interaction with the solar wind (they are mentioned in a few problems). The other exception: the chapter on the terrestrial magnetosphere lacks a systematic exposition of the theory of

  9. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  10. Solar/Space Environment Data (Satellites)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors the geospace and solar environments using a variety of space weather sensors aboard its fleet of...

  11. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Miller, Sharon K.; Porter, Ron; Schneider, Todd A.; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge of the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will help serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environments and spacecraft effects (SENSE) organization. This SENSE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Engineering effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system and system-level selection and the testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with the numerous programs within NASA, other federal

  12. Natural Hazards of the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven W.; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are subject to numerous environmental hazards. Here I'll briefly discuss three environment factors that pose acute threats to the survival of spacecraft systems and crew: atmospheric drag, impacts by meteoroids and orbital debris, and ionizing radiation. Atmospheric drag continuously opposes the orbital motion of a satellite, causing the orbit to decay. This decay will lead to reentry if not countered by reboost maneuvers. Orbital debris is a by-product of man's activities in space, and consists of objects ranging in size from miniscule paint chips to spent rocket stages and dead satellites. Ionizing radiation experienced in LEO has several components: geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen belts); energetic solar particles; galactic cosmic rays; and albedo neutrons. These particles can have several types of prompt harmful effects on equipment and crew, from single-event upsets, latchup, and burnout of electronics, to lethal doses to crew.All three types of prompt threat show some dependence on the solar activity cycle. Atmospheric drag mitigation and large debris avoidance require propulsive maneuvers. M/OD and ionizing radiation require some form of shielding for crew and sensitive equipment. Limiting exposure time is a mitigation technique for ionizing radiation and meteor streams.

  13. Space environments and their effects on space automation and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.

    1990-01-01

    Automated and robotic systems will be exposed to a variety of environmental anomalies as a result of adverse interactions with the space environment. As an example, the coupling of electrical transients into control systems, due to EMI from plasma interactions and solar array arcing, may cause spurious commands that could be difficult to detect and correct in time to prevent damage during critical operations. Spacecraft glow and space debris could introduce false imaging information into optical sensor systems. The presentation provides a brief overview of the primary environments (plasma, neutral atmosphere, magnetic and electric fields, and solid particulates) that cause such adverse interactions. The descriptions, while brief, are intended to provide a basis for the other papers presented at this conference which detail the key interactions with automated and robotic systems. Given the growing complexity and sensitivity of automated and robotic space systems, an understanding of adverse space environments will be crucial to mitigating their effects.

  14. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  15. Space Ethics and Protection of the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The construction of the International Space Station in low Earth orbit and the formulation of plans to search for life on Mars - one day by means of manned missions - indicate that mankind is intent on making the space environment part of its domain. Publicity surrounding space tourism, in-space `burials' and the sale of lunar `real estate' suggests that, some time in the 21st century, the space environment will become an extraterrestrial extension of our current business and domestic environment. This prompts the question of our collective attitude towards the space environment and the degree to which we should regulate its use and protect it for future generations. What, indeed, are the ethical considerations of space exploration and development? Ethics can be defined as "the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct, and of the rules or principles that ought to govern it". More practically, it represents "an approved code of behaviour" adopted, for example, by a group or profession. If a set of ethics is to be developed for space, it is important that what we refer to as the `space community', or `space profession', is intimately involved. Indeed, if it is not, the profession risks having the job done for it, for example by politicians and members of the general public, who for their own reasons may wish to place restrictions on space development, or ban it altogether. The terrestrial nuclear power industry, for example, has already suffered this fate, while widespread ignorance of the subject has led to a moratorium on the use of RTGs in spacecraft. However, there is a danger in the discussion of ethics that consideration is confined to the philosophical aspects, thus excusing those involved from providing practical solutions to the problems that emerge. The fact that mankind has already affected, and arguably damaged, the space environment transports the discussion beyond the philosophical realm. This paper offers a pragmatic analysis of one

  16. Human response to combined indoor environment exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    Most thermal comfort standards and guidelines presume sedentary, light activity and a neutral overall thermal sensation when predicting local thermal discomfort. In addition, current standards specify criteria for separate aspects of the indoor environment, e.g. thermal climate, air quality...... or noise, with only little consideration of possible interactions between the different types of exposure. The studies summarized in this article found a clear impact of activity and overall thermal sensation on human sensitivity to air movement, whereas no interaction effects of exposure to several local...... thermal discomfort factors were observed. Limited evidence was found of significant interactions between different aspects of the indoor environment. Only for the effect of air temperature and air humidity on sensory air quality were well-estabished relationships available....

  17. Situative Space Tracking within Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surie, Dipak; Jäckel, Florian; Janlert, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our efforts in modeling and tracking a human agent’s situation based on his/her possibilities to perceive and act upon objects (both physical and virtual) within smart environments. A Situative Space Model is proposed. WLAN signal-strength-based situative space tracking syste......-laboratory smart home environment where a global precision of 83.4% and a global recall of 88.6% were obtained.......This paper describes our efforts in modeling and tracking a human agent’s situation based on his/her possibilities to perceive and act upon objects (both physical and virtual) within smart environments. A Situative Space Model is proposed. WLAN signal-strength-based situative space tracking system...

  18. The near coastal environment monitored from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekielda, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    The optical information required for monitoring the marine environment from space is discussed and applied for the near coastal area. By categorizing coastal features it is possible to recognize coastal regions to a high degree and to indentify water masses derived from land sources and sewage dumping sites. It is concluded that monitoring from space can be used as a tool in environmental planning. (orig.) [de

  19. Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Summary of activities: (1) FYO1 NRA - Model development and data mining. (2) FY03 NRA - Flight investigations. (3) SET carrier development. (4) Study for accommodation of SET carrier to support advanced detectors. (5) Collaboration with other programs: LWS TR&T to maximize synergy between TR&T space environment research and SET space environment effects research. LWS Data System to optimize dissemination of SET data. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program to leverage ground testing of technologies. Defense Threat Reduction Agency to leverage ground testing and common interests in advanced detectors. and Air Force Research Laboratory to leverage flight opportunities. (6) Education and Public Outreach.

  20. Sensor Exposure, Exploitation, and Experimentation Environment (SE4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, D.; Duff, F.; Goding, J.; Bankston, M.; McLaughlin, T.; Six, S.; Taylor, S.; Wootton, S.

    2011-09-01

    As the resident space object population increases from new launches and events such as the COSMOS/IRIDIUM collision, the maintenance of high-level Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has become increasingly difficult. To maintain situational awareness of the changing environment, new systems and methods must be developed. The Sensor Exposure, Exploitation and Experimentation Environment (SE4) provides a platform to illustrate “The Art of the Possible” that shows the potential benefit of enriched sensor data collections and real-time data sharing. Through modeling and simulation, and a net-centric architecture, SE4 shows the added value of sharing data in real-time and exposing new types of sensor data. The objective of SE4 is to develop an experimentation and innovation environment for sensor data exposure, composable sensor capabilities, reuse, and exploitation that accelerates the delivery of needed Command and Control, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance capabilities to the warfighter. Through modeling, simulation and rapid prototyping, the art of the possible for a fully-connected, net-centric space Command and Control (C2) and sensor enterprise can be demonstrated. This paper provides results that demonstrate the potential for faster cataloging of breakup events and additional event monitoring that are possible with data available today in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Demonstrating the art of the possible for the enterprise will guide net-centric requirements definition and facilitate discussions with stakeholder organizations on the Concept of Operations (CONOPS), policy, and Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) evolution necessary to take full advantage of net-centric operations. SE4 aligns with direction from Secretary Gates and the Chairman Joint Chief of Staff that emphasizes the need to get the most out of our existing systems. Continuing to utilize SE4 will enable the enterprise by demonstrating the benefits of applying

  1. Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo

    2009-01-01

    A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.

  2. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-01-01

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space

  3. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-05-17

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

  4. Book Review: Physics of the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1998-01-01

    Space physics, narrowly defined as the study of Earth's plasma environment, has had an identity crisis throughout its relatively brief existence as a discipline. - The limited and often serendipitous nature of the data requires the research style of an astrophysicist. However, the in situ observations and instrumentation that are central to the field are quite different from the remote observations and instrumentation of astronomy. Compared to neutral gases, the wealth of additional phenomena and the complexity associated with magnetized plasmas and their interaction leaves little in common with the atmospheric scientist. Although the phenomena studied in space physics are ultimately important to astrophysics, the intimate measurements of plasma properties provide a greater commonality with the plasma physicist. Space physics has experienced something of a renaissance in the past few years. The interdisciplinary umbrella "Solar-Terrestrial Physics" or "Sun-Earth Connection" has stimulated an increasing interaction of space physicists, solar physicists and atmospheric scientists. Spectacular images of the Sun from Yohkoh and SOHO and solar-activity-related damage to communications satellites have increased the public's awareness of and interest in "space weather". The dangers of energetic particles and currents in space to technological systems and to future space exploration have elevated space physics observations from interesting scientific measurements that can be included on a space probe to critically important measurements that must be made.

  5. Space Analogue Environments: Are the Populations Comparable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, G. M.

    Background: Much of our present understanding about psychology in space is based on studies of groups operating in so-called analogue environments where personnel are exposed to many of the same stressors as those experienced by astronauts in space. One possible problem with extrapolating results is that personnel operating in various hazardous and confined environments might differ in characteristics influencing coping, interaction, and performance. The object of this study was to compare the psychological similarity of these populations in order to get a better understanding of whether this extrapolation is justifiable. The samples investigated include polar crossings (N= 22), personnel on Antarctic research stations (N= 183), several military occupations (N= 187), and participants in space simulation studies (N=20). Methods: Personnel in each of these environments were assessed using the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and Utrecht Coping List (UCL). The PCI is a multidimensional trait assessment battery that measures various aspects of achievement orientation and social competence. The UCL is a questionnaire designed to assess habitual coping strategies when encountering stressful or demanding situations. Results: Only minor differences in use of habitual coping strategies were evident across the different samples. In relation to personality scores, the military subjects and participants in space simulation studies indicated higher competitiveness and negative instrumentality compared to both the personnel on Antarctic research stations and participants in polar expedition. Among the personnel on Antarctic research stations, significant gender differences were found with women scoring lower on competitiveness, negative instrumentality and impatience/irritability. Compared to the other samples, the participants in polar expeditions were found to be more homogeneous in personality and no significant gender differences were evident on the traits that

  6. Infectious Disease risks associated with exposure to stressful environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Ichard T.; Smith, Morey; Sams, Clarence

    1993-01-01

    Multiple environmental factors asociated with space flight can increase the risk of infectious illness among crewmembers thereby adversely affecting crew health and mission success. Host defences can be impaired by multiple physiological and psychological stressors including: sleep deprivation, disrupted circadian rhythms, separation from family, perceived danger, radiation exposure, and possibly also by the direct and indirect effects of microgravity. Relevant human immunological data from isolated or stressful environments including spaceflight will be reviewed. Long-duration missions should include reliable hardware which supports sophisticated immunodiagnostic capabilities. Future advances in immunology and molecular biology will continue to provide therapeutic agents and biologic response modifiers which should effectively and selectively restore immune function which has been depressed by exposure to environmental stressors.

  7. Women's Health Issues in the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Women have been an integral part of US space crews since Sally Ride's mission in 1983, and a total of 40 women have been selected as US astronauts. The first Russian female cosmonaut flew in 1963. This presentation examines the health care and reproductive aspects of flying women in space. In addition, the reproductive implications of delaying one's childbearing for an astronaut career and the impact of new technology such as assisted reproductive techniques are examined. The reproductive outcomes of the US female astronauts who have become pregnant following space flight exposure are also presented. Since women have gained considerable operational experience on the Shuttle, Mir and during EVA, the unique operational considerations for preflight certification, menstruation control and hygiene, contraception, and urination are discussed. Medical and surgical implications for women on long-duration missions to remote locations are still evolving, and enabling technologies for health care delivery are being developed. There has been considerable progress in the development of microgravity surgical techniques, including laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and laparotomy. The concepts of prevention of illness, conversion of surgical conditions to medically treatable conditions and surgical intervention for women on long duration space flights are considered.

  8. Reading space characteristics in campus environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, A. C.; Kusuma, H. E.

    2018-03-01

    Reading activity is a part of daily learning activities that are usually done by college students and takes place in the facilities that are provided by the campus. However, students tend to have a perception of a particular location that is considered appropriate with the activities undertaken. This study identified students’ perceptions of reading space characteristics in campus environment which are considered able to accommodate reading activity. Exploratory qualitative research methods were used to collect data from selected types of space and the reasons for the students in choosing the specifics space to do their reading. The results showed that students do not only use library facilities as a support unit of academic activities. This study found that students tend to use some places with non-library function, such as students’ union room, hallway, and classroom. Students perceive reading space by its physical and social characteristics. The physical consist of ambiance, quiet place, tranquility, availability of facilities, the level of coolness, lighting, location accessibility, connection with nature, convenience furniture, air quality, aesthetics, the flexibility of activities, the crowd of place, the level of shade, outdoor, ownership, and indoor. While the social characteristics of the reading space are to have privacy, favorable reading position, and the presence of others.

  9. Effects of the space environment on the health and safety of space workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, W. E.

    1980-07-01

    Large numbers of individuals are required to work in space to assemble and operate a Solar Power Satellite. The physiological and behavioral consequences for large groups of men and women who perform complex tasks in the vehicular or extravehicular environments over long periods of orbital stay time were considered. The most disturbing consequences of exposure to the null gravity environment found relate to: (1) a generalized cardiovascular deconditioning along with loss of a significant amount of body fluid volume; (2) loss of bone minerals and muscle mass; and (3) degraded performance of neutral mechanisms which govern equilibrium and spatial orientation.

  10. Effects of the space environment on the health and safety of space workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals are required to work in space to assemble and operate a Solar Power Satellite. The physiological and behavioral consequences for large groups of men and women who perform complex tasks in the vehicular or extravehicular environments over long periods of orbital stay time were considered. The most disturbing consequences of exposure to the null gravity environment found relate to: (1) a generalized cardiovascular deconditioning along with loss of a significant amount of body fluid volume; (2) loss of bone minerals and muscle mass; and (3) degraded performance of neutral mechanisms which govern equilibrium and spatial orientation.

  11. Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen A.; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual’s environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. In this paper we discuss a framework based on the concept of spatial polygamy to demonstrate the need to collect new forms of data on human spatial behavior and contextual exposures across time and space. Adopting new data and methods will be essential if we want to better understand social inequality in terms of exposure to health risks and access to health resources. We discuss the opportunities and challenges focusing on the potential seemingly offered by focusing on human mobility, and specifically the utilization of activity space concepts and data. A goal of the paper is to spatialize social and health science concepts and research practice vis-a-vis the complexity of exposure. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research focusing on theoretical and conceptual development, promoting research on new types of places and human movement, the dynamic nature of contexts, and on training. “When we elect wittingly or unwittingly, to work within a level … we tend to discern or construct – whichever emphasis you prefer – only those kinds of systems whose elements are confined to that level.”Otis Dudley Duncan (1961, p. 141). “…despite the new ranges created by improved transportation, local government units have tended to remain medieval in size.”Torsten Hägerstrand (1970, p.18) “A detective investigating a crime needs both tools and understanding. If he has no fingerprint powder, he will fail to find fingerprints on most surfaces. If he does not understand where the criminal is likely to have put his fingers, he will not

  12. The ESA Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynderickx, D.; Quaghebeur, B.; Evans, H. D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The ESA SPace ENVironment Information System (SPENVIS) provides standardized access to models of the hazardous space environment through a user-friendly WWW interface. The interface includes parameter input with extensive defaulting, definition of user environments, streamlined production of results (both in graphical and textual form), background information, and on-line help. It is available on-line at http://www.spenvis.oma.be/spenvis/. SPENVIS Is designed to help spacecraft engineers perform rapid analyses of environmental problems and, with extensive documentation and tutorial information, allows engineers with relatively little familiarity with the models to produce reliable results. It has been developed in response to the increasing pressure for rapid-response tools for system engineering, especially in low-cost commercial and educational programmes. It is very useful in conjunction with radiation effects and electrostatic charging testing in the context of hardness assurance. SPENVIS is based on internationally recognized standard models and methods in many domains. It uses an ESA-developed orbit generator to produce orbital point files necessary for many different types of problem. It has various reporting and graphical utilities, and extensive help facilities. The SPENVIS radiation module features models of the proton and electron radiation belts, as well as solar energetic particle and cosmic ray models. The particle spectra serve as input to models of ionising dose (SHIELDOSE), Non-Ionising Energy Loss (NIEL), and Single Event Upsets (CREME). Material shielding is taken into account for all these models, either as a set of user-defined shielding thicknesses, or in combination with a sectoring analysis that produces a shielding distribution from a geometric description of the satellite system. A sequence of models, from orbit generator to folding dose curves with a shielding distribution, can be run as one process, which minimizes user interaction and

  13. DISILICIDE BASE REFRACTORY METAL COATINGS IN SPACE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocarsly, Sidney I.

    1963-03-15

    Studies of probable effects of space environment exposure of Durak B'' (a Chromizing Corp. proprietary disilicide coating) coated Mo are described. It was concluded that, in a high-temperature environment, solar radiation will not affect the material system. Sputtering will not cause a structural problem, but it may cause a change in optical properties. Meteoroids may cause coating spalling and minimum to possibly total failure. Some protection system will probably be necessary. Vacuum will cause some coating evaporation. The rate will be temperature-dependent and probably of a low order. The possible problem area is that the evaporation appears to occur preferentially at crack sites. Ionized nitrogen and hydrogen may react with the coating and charge physical or mechanical properties. (A.G.W.)

  14. Space environment studies for the SZ-4 spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zonghai

    2004-01-01

    The space environment, especially the solar-terrestrial space environment, has close bearings on mankind's astronautical activities. An overview is presented of the space environment and safeguard services on the 'SZ' series of spacecraft, with special reference to the SZ-4 spacecraft. These include monitoring of the space environment on SZ-4, studies on its distribution, variation and effects on astronautical performance, as well as space environment forecasts for safe launching, normal operation and safe return of SZ-4. Current progress both in China and overseas is covered

  15. JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Orozco, David S.; Stern, Ryan A.; Ahten, Earl R.; Girard, Mike

    2013-01-01

    A flight-qualified implementation of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) Operating Environment for the JPL-SDR built for the CoNNeCT Project has been developed. It is compliant with the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard, and provides the software infrastructure for STRS compliant waveform applications. This software provides a standards-compliant abstracted view of the JPL-SDR hardware platform. It uses industry standard POSIX interfaces for most functions, as well as exposing the STRS API (Application Programming In terface) required by the standard. This software includes a standardized interface for IP components instantiated within a Xilinx FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The software provides a standardized abstracted interface to platform resources such as data converters, file system, etc., which can be used by STRS standards conformant waveform applications. It provides a generic SDR operating environment with a much smaller resource footprint than similar products such as SCA (Software Communications Architecture) compliant implementations, or the DoD Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS).

  16. Exposure and Concealment in Digitalized Public Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Bo; Newell, B.C.; Timan, Tjerk; Koops, B-J.

    2017-01-01

    The Dutch CBP recently decided that monitoring people in and around commercial shops by tracking their mobile phone WiFi-signal without notice for analysis is against Dutch law. The ECJ judged in František Ryneš that monitoring the footpath in public space with a surveillance camera is in general a

  17. Piezoelectric PVDF materials performance and operation limits in space environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargaville, Tim Richard; Assink, Roger Alan; Clough, Roger Lee; Celina, Mathias Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Piezoelectric polymers based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are of interest for large aperture space-based telescopes. Dimensional adjustments of adaptive polymer films are achieved via charge deposition and require a detailed understanding of the piezoelectric material responses which are expected to suffer due to strong vacuum UV, gamma, X-ray, energetic particles and atomic oxygen under low earth orbit exposure conditions. The degradation of PVDF and its copolymers under various stress environments has been investigated. Initial radiation aging studies using gamma- and e-beam irradiation have shown complex material changes with significant crosslinking, lowered melting and Curie points (where observable), effects on crystallinity, but little influence on overall piezoelectric properties. Surprisingly, complex aging processes have also been observed in elevated temperature environments with annealing phenomena and cyclic stresses resulting in thermal depoling of domains. Overall materials performance appears to be governed by a combination of chemical and physical degradation processes. Molecular changes are primarily induced via radiative damage, and physical damage from temperature and AO exposure is evident as depoling and surface erosion. Major differences between individual copolymers have been observed providing feedback on material selection strategies

  18. Association between activity space exposure to food establishments and individual risk of overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Kestens

    Full Text Available Environmental exposure to food sources may underpin area level differences in individual risk for overweight. Place of residence is generally used to assess neighbourhood exposure. Yet, because people are mobile, multiple exposures should be accounted for to assess the relation between food environments and overweight. Unfortunately, mobility data is often missing from health surveys. We hereby test the feasibility of linking travel survey data with food listings to derive food store exposure predictors of overweight among health survey participants.Food environment exposure measures accounting for non-residential activity places (activity spaces were computed and modelled in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, using travel surveys and food store listings. Models were then used to predict activity space food exposures for 5,578 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey. These food exposure estimates, accounting for daily mobility, were used to model self-reported overweight in a multilevel framework. Median Odd Ratios were used to assess the proportion of between-neighborhood variance explained by such food exposure predictors.Estimates of food environment exposure accounting for both residential and non-residential destinations were significantly and more strongly associated with overweight than residential-only measures of exposure for men. For women, residential exposures were more strongly associated with overweight than non-residential exposures. In Montreal, adjusted models showed men in the highest quartile of exposure to food stores were at lesser risk of being overweight considering exposure to restaurants (OR = 0.36 [0.21-0.62], fast food outlets (0.48 [0.30-0.79], or corner stores (0.52 [0.35-0.78]. Conversely, men experiencing the highest proportion of restaurants being fast-food outlets were at higher risk of being overweight (2.07 [1.25-3.42]. Women experiencing higher residential exposures were at lower risk of overweight

  19. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This presentation outlines a brief description of the Living With a Star (LWS) Program missions and detailed information about the Space Environment Testbed (SET) payload consisting of a space weather monitor and carrier containing 4 board experiments.

  20. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning

  1. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning.

  2. Cosmic ray exposure in aircraft and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2000-01-01

    The exposure from cosmic ray radiation to the workers and public is a new aspect of exposure that was cased by the development of science and technology. ICRP Publication 60 says: 'to provide some practical guidance, the Commission recommends that there should be a requirement to include exposure to natural sources as part of occupational exposure only in the following cases: radon..., some natural radionuclides..., operation of jet air craft, space flight'. For this situation what kind of radiation protection concept is applicable? And what kind of radiation guideline and procedure are possible to propose? Here, we would like to review the past activities on this issue and to summarize the concepts in ICRP concerning to these exposure. Then the recommended radiation protection system will be proposed as one trial to this solution. In the paper the characters of cosmic ray were firstly reviewed. Cosmic rays are consisted by solar one and galactic one. Both of them have high energy and this will cause the difficulty of dosimetry because of lacking of physical and biological data. Next discussion point is a classification of exposure. For this, several classifications were done: jet airplane flight, supersonic airplane flight and space flight. Other classification is aircrew (occupational exposure), passengers (public exposure), frequent flyers (gray zone), space astronauts (special mission), and pregnant women. Considering the real level of radiation the practical radiation control is proposed including the cosmic radiation exposure prediction method by computer codes. The discussion of space astronauts is a little different for the highness of radiation doses. The dose levels will be obtained through the discussion of lifetime risk balancing their mission importance. (author)

  3. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-15

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety.

  4. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-01

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety

  5. Space and Atmospheric Environments: From Low Earth Orbits to Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Natural space and atmospheric environments pose a difficult challenge for designers of technological systems in space. The deleterious effects of environment interactions with the systems include degradation of materials, thermal changes, contamination, excitation, spacecraft glow, charging, radiation damage, and induced background interference. Design accommodations must be realistic with minimum impact on performance while maintaining a balance between cost and risk. The goal of applied research in space environments and effects is to limit environmental impacts at low cost relative to spacecraft cost and to infuse enabling and commercial off-the-shelf technologies into space programs. The need to perform applied research to understand the space environment in a practical sense and to develop methods to mitigate these environment effects is frequently underestimated by space agencies and industry. Applied science research in this area is critical because the complexity of spacecraft systems is increasing, and they are exposed simultaneously to a multitude of space environments.

  6. Controlling criteria for radiation exposure of astronauts and space workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    1989-01-01

    Space workers likely to suffer from radiation exposure in the outer space are currently limited to the U.S. and Soviet Union, and only a small amount of data and information is available concerning the techniques and criteria for control of radiation exposure in this field. Criteria used in the Soviet Union are described first. The criteria (TRS-75), called the Radiation Safety Criteria for Space Navigation, are tentative ones set up in 1975. They are based on risk assessment. The standard radiation levels are established based on unit flight time: 50rem for 1 month, 80rem for 3 months, 110rem for 6 months and 150rem for 12 months. These are largely different from the emergency exposure limit of 100mSv (10rem) specified in a Japanese law, and the standard annual exposure value of 50mSv (5rem) for workers in nuclear power plants at normal times. For the U.S., J.A. Angelo, Jr., presented a paper titled 'Radiation Protection Issues and Techniques concerning Extended Manned Space Missions' at an IAEA meeting held in 1988. Though the criteria shown in the paper are not formal ones at the national level, similar criteria are expected to be adopted by the nation in the near future. The exposure limits recommended in the paper include a depth dose of 1-4Sv for the whole life span of a worker. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Embrittlement of MISSE 5 Polymers After 13 Months of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aobo; Yi, Grace T.; Ashmead, Claire C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding space environment induced degradation of spacecraft materials is essential when designing durable and stable spacecraft components. As a result of space radiation, debris impacts, atomic oxygen interaction, and thermal cycling, the outer surfaces of space materials degrade when exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO). The objective of this study was to measure the embrittlement of 37 thin film polymers after LEO space exposure. The polymers were flown aboard the International Space Station and exposed to the LEO space environment as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 5 (MISSE 5). The samples were flown in a nadir-facing position for 13 months and were exposed to thermal cycling along with low doses of atomic oxygen, direct solar radiation and omnidirectional charged particle radiation. The samples were analyzed for space-induced embrittlement using a bend-test procedure in which the strain necessary to induce surface cracking was determined. Bend-testing was conducted using successively smaller mandrels to apply a surface strain to samples placed on a semi-suspended pliable platform. A pristine sample was also tested for each flight sample. Eighteen of the 37 flight samples experienced some degree of surface cracking during bend-testing, while none of the pristine samples experienced any degree of cracking. The results indicate that 49 percent of the MISSE 5 thin film polymers became embrittled in the space environment even though they were exposed to low doses (approx.2.75 krad (Si) dose through 127 mm Kapton) of ionizing radiation.

  8. Mutagenic effects of space environment and protons on rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Shen Mei

    1998-07-01

    Dry seeds of 5 rice varieties were carried by recoverable satellite for space mutation, and were irradiated by 4∼8 MeV protons with various doses. The mutagenic effects was studied. The results indicated that the space environment could cause chromosomal structure aberration and had stimulating mitosis action in root tip cells. As compared with γ-rays and protons, the effects of space environment flight were lower on chromosomal aberration but were significantly higher on mitosis index. Space environment and protons induce high frequency of chlorophyll deficient mutation and mutation in plant height and heading date in M 2 generation. Frequency of beneficial mutation induced by space environment and protons were higher than those induced by γ-rays

  9. Space plasma observations - observations of solar-terrestrial environment. Space Weather Forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Eiichi; Akioka, Maki

    1996-01-01

    The space environment becomes more important than ever before because of the expansion in the utilization of near-earth space and the increase in the vulnerability of large scale systems on the ground such as electrical power grids. The concept of the Space Weather Forecast program emerged from the accumulation of understanding on basic physical processes and from our activities as one of the regional warning centers of the international network of space environment services. (author)

  10. Effects and mechanism on Kapton film under ozone exposure in a ground near space simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Yang, Guimin; Liu, Gang; Jiang, Haifu; Zhang, Tingting

    2018-05-01

    The effect on aircraft materials in the near space environment is a key part of air-and-space integration research. Ozone and aerodynamic fluids are important organizational factors in the near space environment and both have significant influences on the performance of aircraft materials. In the present paper a simulated ozone environment was used to test polyimide material that was rotated at the approximate velocity of 150-250 m/s to form an aerodynamic fluid field. The goal was to evaluate the performance evolution of materials under a comprehensive environment of ozone molecular corrosion and aerodynamic fluids. The research results show that corrosion and sputtering by ozone molecules results in Kapton films exhibiting a rugged "carpet-like" morphology exhibits an increase in surface roughness. The morphology after ozone exposure led to higher surface roughness and an increase in surface optical diffuse reflection, which is expressed by the lower optical transmittance and the gradual transition from light orange to brown. The mass loss test, XPS, and FTIR analysis show that the molecular chains on the surface of the Kapton film are destroyed resulting in Csbnd C bond breaking to form small volatile molecules such as CO2 or CO, which are responsible for a linear increase in mass loss per unit area. The Csbnd N and Csbnd O structures exhibit weakening tendency under ozone exposure. The present paper explores the evaluation method for Kapton's adaptability under the ozone exposure test in the near space environment, and elucidates the corrosion mechanism and damage mode of the polyimide material under the combined action of ozone corrosion and the aerodynamic fluid. This work provides a methodology for studying materials in the near-space environment.

  11. Risk evaluation of cosmic-ray exposure in long-term manned space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Majima, Hideyuki; Ando, Koichi; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masao

    1999-03-01

    Long-term manned space missions are planned to be implemented within the first two decades of the 21st century. The International Space Station (ISS) will be ready to run, and a plan to visit Mars is also under way. Humans will live in space for long periods of time and we are planning to do experiments in space to examine various aspects of space science. The main risk in long-term manned space missions is large exposure to space radiation. Human safety must be ensured in space where exposure to cosmic rays is almost 1 mSv a day. As such missions will inevitably result in significant exposure for astronauts, there is increasing need to protect them adequately based on both physical and biological knowledge. A good method to evaluate realistic risk associated with space missions will be in urgent demand. At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan, a research institutes of the Science Technology Agency of Japan, high energy cosmic radiation can be simulated only with heavy ion irradiation accelerated by the particle accelerator, Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC). Research to evaluate risk of space radiation, including physical measurement techniques, protective effects, biological effects and risk adjustment, aging, neuronal cell damage and cancer risk are undergoing. We organized a workshop of the latest topics and experimental results of physics and biology related to space radiation supported by Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST). This workshop was held as a satellite meeting associated with the 32nd Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Scientific Assembly (Nagoya, July 12-19th, 1998). This volume is an extended proceedings of the workshop. The proceedings contain six main subjects covering the latest information on Risk Evaluation of Cosmic-Ray Exposure in Long-Term Manned Space Mission'. 1. Risk Estimation of Heavy Ion Exposure in Space. 2. Low Dose-Rate Effects and Microbeam-Related Heavy Ions. 3. Chromosome and

  12. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common approach to define environmental exposures, focusing on the local residential environment, using census tracts or postcodes to delimit exposures. However, use of such administrative units may not be appropriate to evaluate contextual effets on health because they are generally not a 'true' representation of the environments to which individuals are exposed. Recent work has suggested that advances may be made if an activity-space approach is adopted. The present paper investigates how various disciplines may contribute to the refinement of the concept of activity space for use in health research. In particular we draw on seminal work in time geography, which provides a framework to describe individual behavior in space and time, and can help the conceptualization of activity space. In addition we review work in environmental psychology and social networks research, which provides insights on how people and places interact and offers new theories for improving the spatial definition of contextual exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet; LaBel, Kenneth; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Living with a Star (LWS) Program to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affects life and society. The Program Architecture includes science missions, theory and modeling and Space Environment Testbeds (SET). This current paper discusses the Space Environment Testbeds. The goal of the SET program is to improve the engineering approach to accomodate and/or mitigate the effects of solar variability on spacecraft design and operations. The SET Program will infuse new technologies into the space programs through collection of data in space and subsequent design and validation of technologies. Examples of these technologies are cited and discussed.

  14. 11th International Space Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The proceedings published in this book document and foster the goals of the 11th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-11 to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials. Contributions cover aspects of interaction with space environment of LEO, GEO, Deep Space, Planetary environments, ground-based qualification and in-flight experiments, as well as lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences.

  15. Exposure to antineoplastic drugs outside the hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijster, T; Fransman, W; Veldhof, R; Kromhout, H

    2006-10-01

    The objectives were (i) to identify occupational populations outside hospitals working with antineoplastic drugs, (ii) to determine the size of the populations 'at risk', (iii) to identify major determinants and routes of exposure outside hospitals and (iv) to estimate exposure levels and frequencies relative to levels found in hospitals. The survey consisted of two phases; (i) identification of activities with potential exposure to antineoplastic drugs by literature review, interviews, questionnaires and workplace visits, (ii) exploratory measurements of exposure and surface contamination in selected sectors. Eight sectors were identified with potential exposure to antineoplastic drugs: pharmaceutical industry, pharmacies, universities, veterinary medicine, nursing homes, home care, laundry facilities, and waste treatment. Four sectors were of primary concern: veterinary medicine, home care, nursing homes and industrial laundries. The populations potentially exposed in these sectors vary considerably (from several tens to thousands of workers), as do their levels of exposure. Exposure measurements collected in the veterinary medicine sector showed that workers are indeed exposed to antineoplastic drugs and, in some cases (on gloves after administration), levels were 15 times higher than levels measured during administration in hospitals. Workers sorting contaminated hospital laundry in industrial laundry facilities were exposed to antineoplastic drugs through inhalation. For the home care and nursing homes sectors the highest exposure levels were found when cleaning toilets and washing treated patients. These two sectors are expected to have the largest exposed population (5,000-10,000 individuals). This study has resulted in a comprehensive overview of populations with potential exposure to antineoplastic drugs. Exposure levels can potentially be high compared with the hospital environment, because exposure routes are complex and awareness of the hazard (and

  16. Microorganisms and biomolecules in space hard environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microorganisms and biomolecules exposed to space vacuum and to different intensities of selected wavelengths of solar ultraviolet radiation is studied. The influence of these factors, applied singly or simultaneously, on the integrity of microbial systems and biomolecules is measured. Specifically, this experiment will study in Bacillus subtilis spores (1) disturbances in subsequent germination, outgrowth, and colony formation; (2) photochemical reactions of the DNA and protein in vivo and in vitro and their role in biological injury; and (3) the efficiency of repair processes in these events.

  17. Abnormal environmental light exposure in the intensive care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Emily P; Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C; Maas, Matthew B

    2017-08-01

    We sought to characterize ambient light exposure in the intensive care unit (ICU) environment to identify patterns of light exposure relevant to circadian regulation. A light monitor was affixed to subjects' bed at eye level in a modern intensive care unit and continuously recorded illuminescence for at least 24h per subject. Blood was sampled hourly and measured for plasma melatonin. Subjects underwent hourly vital sign and bedside neurologic assessments. Care protocols and the ICU environment were not modified for the study. A total of 67,324 30-second epochs of light data were collected from 17 subjects. Light intensity peaked in the late morning, median 64.1 (interquartile range 19.7-138.7) lux. The 75th percentile of light intensity exceeded 100lx only between 9AM and noon, and never exceeded 150lx. There was no correlation between melatonin amplitude and daytime, nighttime or total light exposure (Spearman's correlation coefficients all 0.5). Patients' environmental light exposure in the intensive care unit is consistently low and follows a diurnal pattern. No effect of nighttime light exposure was observed on melatonin secretion. Inadequate daytime light exposure in the ICU may contribute to abnormal circadian rhythms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prior Exposure and Educational Environment towards Entrepreneurial Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Soria-Barreto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on the responses to a questionnaire applied to 351 students of business management in Chile and Colombia. Through the analysis of structural equations on Ajzen’s model, we found that entrepreneurial education, the University environment, and the prior entrepreneurial exposure are mediated by the factors of the Ajzen`s model to generate entrepreneurial intention in higher education students. The results show that entrepreneurial education strengthens the perceived control of behavior and, with it, albeit in a differentiated way, the entrepreneurial intention of men and women. University environment affects entrepreneurial intention through attitude towards entrepreneurship; and finally, the work experience, used as one of the variables that measure prior entrepreneurial exposure, explains the entrepreneurial intention inversely through the subjective norms. We found that gender has a moderate effect on perceived control of behavior and entrepreneurial education. The scarce studies on the impact of the University environment and the mixed results of the entrepreneurial education and prior entrepreneurial exposure toward entrepreneurial intention show the necessity for further research. A second contribution is the opportunity to present new evidence about the relationship between University environment, entrepreneurial education and prior exposure to developing countries of South America, including the gender effect (moderator for entrepreneurial intention. It is important to note that most of the research in this area applies to developed countries, and some scholars suggest that extrapolating the results is not convenient.

  19. Genetic risks associated with radiation exposures during space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.

    1983-01-01

    Although the genetic risks of space radiation do not pose a significant hazard to the general population, the risks may be very important to the individual astronaut. The present paper summarizes some experimental results on the induction of dominant lethal mutations and chromosomal damage in the first generation which may be used in the prediction of the genetic risks of radiation exposures of space crews. Young adult male mice were exposed to single, weekly and continuous doses of gamma rays, neutrons in single doses and weekly exposures and continuous doses of Pu-239 alpha particles. Evaluation of fetal survival rates in females mated to the exposed males shows the mutation rate in individuals exposed to gamma rays to decline as the exposure period is prolonged and the dose rate is reduced, while the response to neutrons is in the opposite direction. Cytological determinations show the rate of balanced chromosomal translocations to drop as gamma ray exposures change from one-time to continuous, however little or no dose rate effect is seen with neutron radiation and alpha particle exposure shows no regular dose-response. Based on the above results, it is predicted that the rate of dominant mutations and transmissible chromosome aberrations in astronauts on a 100-day mission will increase by 4.5 to 41.25 percent over the spontaneous rate. 35 references

  20. The Near-Earth Space Radiation for Electronics Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; LaBel, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of: a) charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics, b) the nature and distribution of trapped and transiting radiation, and c) their effect on electronic components.

  1. Radiations in space and global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguti, Takasi

    1994-01-01

    It has been well known that the global environment of the earth is basically determined by the radiation equilibrium of the earth atmosphere system embedded in the solar radiation. However, the surface temperature of about 15 degC on average is much higher than that determined by the radiation equilibrium. This is due to the so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane and others. Also the global environment has evolved by interacting with the living things on the earth, for example, tree oxygen by photosynthesis, and a small amount of ozone protecting living things from the fetal damage due to solar ultraviolet radiation. The solar radiation of short wavelength, that is, ultraviolet to X-ray influences atmospheric constituents, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the atmosphere through chemical reaction. The solar energetic particles produced by solar flares precipitate in the polar regions, and the nitric oxides are produced by auroral X-ray. Auroral activities accelerate particles in the magnetosphere. All these radiations cause significant global changes. Human activities increase greenhouse gases rapidly and cause global warming, and atmospheric chloro-fluoro-carbon (CFC) makes the ozone hole. Now, human activities must be modified to match the natural cycle of materials. (K.I.)

  2. The effects of the space environment on two aramid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two aramid fibers having closely related chemical structures were chosen for important roles in the first tether to be used to connect pairs of orbiting vehicles. The protective outer jackets of the tethers will consist of woven fibers of poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide), commercially available from du Pont as Nomex. A cylindrical sheath of woven Kevlar 29, whose principal constituent is poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide), will be the load-bearing component for the tethers. Orbiting tethers will be in a hostile environment in which short wavelength electromagnetic radiation and energetic charged particles degrade exposed organic materials. At lower orbiting altitudes atomic oxygen is an especially serious hazard. Studies on the effects of ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen on fibers and films of Kevlar and Nomex are in progress. In an experiment to simulate the effects of atomic oxygen in space, small tows of Kevlar and Nomex were mounted in a commercial ashing device filled with oxygen at low pressure. An RF discharge in the instrument dissociated the molecular oxygen producing a strongly oxidizing atmosphere containing O(3P)(sup 4). Erosion was measured in terms of mass loss. Kevlar films were exposed to UV radiation in an apparatus consisting of a small vacuum chamber, 23 cm in diameter, into which a mass spectrometer and a quartz window were incorporated. Samples were exposed under vacuum with a 1000 watt xenon-arc lamp. Volatile products could be monitored with the mass spectrometer during the exposures. Transmission infrared spectra were taken before and after exposure to monitor chemical changes in the films

  3. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The awareness of potentially significant impacts of space weather on spaceand ground ]based technological systems has generated a strong desire in many sectors of government and industry to effectively transform knowledge and understanding of the variable space environment into useful tools and applications for use by those entities responsible for systems that may be vulnerable to space weather impacts. Essentially, effectively transitioning science knowledge to useful applications relevant to space weather has become important. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective, and how in the current environment those can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  4. Optimization of application execution in the GridSpace environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malawski, M.; Kocot, J.; Ryszka, I.; Bubak, M.; Wieczorek, M.; Fahringer, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to optimization of execution of applications in the GridSpace environment. In this environment operations are invoked on special objects which reside on Grid resources what requires a specific approach to optimization of execution. This approach is implemented in the

  5. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the Living With a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbed (SET) program is to improve the performance of hardware in the space radiation environment. The program has developed a payload for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) spacecraft that is scheduled for launch in August 2015 on the SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket. The primary structure of DSX is an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) ring. DSX will be in a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). This oral presentation will describe the SET payload.

  6. The Living With a Star Program Space Environment Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the objective, approach, and scope of the Living With a Star (LWS) program at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Scientists involved in the project seek to refine the understanding of space weather and the role of solar variability in terrestrial climate change. Research and the development of improved analytic methods have led to increased predictive capabilities and the improvement of environment specification models. Specifically, the Space Environment Testbed (SET) project of LWS is responsible for the implementation of improved engineering approaches to observing solar effects on climate change. This responsibility includes technology development, ground test protocol development, and the development of a technology application model/engineering tool.

  7. Healing environments in cancer treatment and care. Relations of space and practice in hematological cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høybye, Mette Terp

    2013-02-01

    Given the growing attention to the importance of design in shaping healing hospital environments this study extends the understanding of healing environments, beyond causal links between environmental exposure and health outcome by elucidating how environments and practices interrelate. The study was conducted as an ethnographic fieldwork from March 2011 to September 2011 at the Department of Haematology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, systematically using participant observation and interviews as research strategies. It included 20 patients, four of who were followed closely over an extended time period. Through thematic analysis five key concepts emerged about the social dynamics of hospital environments: practices of self; creating personal space; social recognition; negotiating space; and ambiguity of space and care. Through these concepts, the study demonstrates how the hospital environment is a flow of relations between space and practice that changes and challenges a structural idea of design and healing. Patients' sense of healing changes with the experience of progression in treatment and the capacity of the hospital space to incite an experience of homeliness and care. Furthermore, cancer patients continuously challenge the use and limits of space by individual objects and practices of privacy and home. Healing environments are complex relations between practices, space and care, where recognition of the individual patient's needs, values and experiences is key to developing the environment to support the patient quality of life. The present study holds implications for practice to inform design of future hospital environments for cancer treatment. The study points to the importance for being attentive to the need for flexible spaces in hospitals that recognize the dynamics of healing, by providing individualized care, relating to the particular and changing needs of patients supporting their potential and their challenged condition with the best

  8. Public spaces and urban sustainability in the tropical built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Y. M.; Kozlowski, M.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainability is an overarching sense of responsibility towards the future. On a city-wide level, urban sustainability incorporates a wide body of changes especially as they relate to the built environment, all of which intended at creating a livable place. This paper discusses existing public spaces in view of their achievement against a set of criteria for the built environment. The paper introduces performance design criteria for the tropical built environment. The key findings indicate that long-term strategies, guidance and directions for the city and region can achieve development which corresponds to local climate, synergies and provide a higher proportion of public spaces that offer something for everyone.

  9. Teamwork in high-risk environments analogous to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1990-01-01

    Mountaineering expeditions combine a number of factors which make them potentially good analogs to the planetary exploration facet of long-duration space missions. A study of mountain climbing teams was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of the environment as a space analog and to specifically identify the factors and issues surrounding teamwork and 'successful' team performance in two mountaineering environments. This paper focuses on social/organizational factors, including team size and structure, leadership styles and authority structure which were found in the sample of 22 climb teams (122 individuals). The second major issue discussed is the construction of a valid performance measure in this high-risk environment.

  10. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort. - Highlights: • Indoor and outdoor environments were classified by exposure to health concern. • Measurements taken by people provide better knowledge than fixed stations. • Social stress and noise are more stressing factors than Thermal load and CO. • The most stressful places are crowded ones like markets etc. • Short visit in green spaces are effective in reducing levels of stress.

  11. Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev

    2016-07-01

    In accordance with the resolution of ISO TC20/SC14 WG4/WG6 joint meeting, Technical Specification (TS) 'Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles' which describes computer simulation methods of space environment impact on nanostructured materials is being prepared. Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. Most such standards are related to production and characterization of nanostructures, however there is no ISO documents concerning nanomaterials behavior in different environmental conditions, including the space environment. The given TS deals with the peculiarities of the space environment impact on nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1-100 nm). The basic purpose of the document is the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scale to modeling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. This document will emphasize the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and present the recommendations for the choice of the most appropriate methods (or a group of methods) for computer modeling of various processes that can occur in nanostructured materials under the influence of different space environment components. In addition, TS includes the description of possible

  12. Radiation exposure of man in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Pohl, E.

    1982-01-01

    Indoor exposure of man represents the major component of the dose from the natural radiation environment (NRE). The different sources of the NRE and their complex superposition are discussed. Due to the use of radiologically disadvantageous material in or near the building, radon-rich tap water, specific architectural styles and decreased ventilation rates NRE-levels indoors have been found to even exceed the upper limit for professional exposure. The inadequacy of the existing international regulatory framework and specific local problems resulted in the establishment of national exposure limits. In general, no remedial action is recommended at levels below 50 μR/h for external gamma radiation, 10 mWL for internal radon daughter exposure. Several technical countermeasures reducing indoor gamma dose rates and radon levels have been developed for existing buildings. However, the use of some of the techniques is limited due to low cost-effectiveness or lack of long-term stability. Different techniques in order to achieve low indoor exposures for new buildings and financial aspects associated the application of radiation protection concepts are discussed

  13. Task exposures in an office environment: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerd, Dwayne; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Mazumder, Anjali; Cole, Donald; Wells, Richard; Moore, Anne

    2009-10-01

    Task-related factors such as frequency and duration are associated with musculoskeletal disorders in office settings. The primary objective was to compare various task recording methods as measures of exposure in an office workplace. A total of 41 workers from different jobs were recruited from a large urban newspaper (71% female, mean age 41 years SD 9.6). Questionnaire, task diaries, direct observation and video methods were used to record tasks. A common set of task codes was used across methods. Different estimates of task duration, number of tasks and task transitions arose from the different methods. Self-report methods did not consistently result in longer task duration estimates. Methodological issues could explain some of the differences in estimates seen between methods observed. It was concluded that different task recording methods result in different estimates of exposure likely due to different exposure constructs. This work addresses issues of exposure measurement in office environments. It is of relevance to ergonomists/researchers interested in how to best assess the risk of injury among office workers. The paper discusses the trade-offs between precision, accuracy and burden in the collection of computer task-based exposure measures and different underlying constructs captures in each method.

  14. The Exposure Advantage: Early Exposure to a Multilingual Environment Promotes Effective Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Samantha P; Liberman, Zoe; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2015-07-01

    Early language exposure is essential to developing a formal language system, but may not be sufficient for communicating effectively. To understand a speaker's intention, one must take the speaker's perspective. Multilingual exposure may promote effective communication by enhancing perspective taking. We tested children on a task that required perspective taking to interpret a speaker's intended meaning. Monolingual children failed to interpret the speaker's meaning dramatically more often than both bilingual children and children who were exposed to a multilingual environment but were not bilingual themselves. Children who were merely exposed to a second language performed as well as bilingual children, despite having lower executive-function scores. Thus, the communicative advantages demonstrated by the bilinguals may be social in origin, and not due to enhanced executive control. For millennia, multilingual exposure has been the norm. Our study shows that such an environment may facilitate the development of perspective-taking tools that are critical for effective communication. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Fictional space in participatory design of engaging interactive environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    practices of visitors and museum knowledge. The second and larger part of the contribution addresses the issue of shaping design inquiries. This part is summarized through the overarching notion of fictional space denoting a perspective on the creation of a design space where established norms...... spaces for museums and science centres. The dissertation is composed of seven research papers framed by a general overview that summarises the arguments made in the papers and outlines related work and research method. The contribution reflects a dual yet intertwined concern for understanding engagement...... in exhibition spaces and shaping design inquiries around the notion of engaging interactive environments. The first part of the contribution relates to conceptualising aspects of engagement in relation to interactive environments. The perspective of participatory engagement is presented as an overarching...

  16. Lead-Free Experiment in a Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, J. F.; Strickland, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum addresses the Lead-Free Technology Experiment in Space Environment that flew as part of the seventh Materials International Space Station Experiment outside the International Space Station for approximately 18 months. Its intent was to provide data on the performance of lead-free electronics in an actual space environment. Its postflight condition is compared to the preflight condition as well as to the condition of an identical package operating in parallel in the laboratory. Some tin whisker growth was seen on a flight board but the whiskers were few and short. There were no solder joint failures, no tin pest formation, and no significant intermetallic compound formation or growth on either the flight or ground units.

  17. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  18. Exposure to space radiation of high-performance infrared multilayer filters and materials technology experiments (A0056)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J. S.; Hunneman, R.; Whatley, A.; Lipscombe, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared multilayer interface filter which were used in satellite radiometers were examined. The ability of the filters to withstand the space environment in these applications is critical. An experiment on the LDEF subjects the filters to authoritative spectral measurements following space exposure to ascertain their suitability for spacecraft use and to permit an understanding of degradation mechanisms. The understanding of the effects of prolonged space exposure on spacecraft materials, surface finishes, and adhesive systems is important to the spacecraft designer. Materials technology experiments and experiment on infrared multilayer filters are discussed.

  19. A study of dynamical behavior of space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    1974-01-01

    Studies have covered a wide range of problems in the space environment, such as the problems of the dynamical behavior of the thermosphere, hydromagnetic wave propagation in the ionosphere, and interplanetary space environment. The theories used to analyze these problems range from a continuum theory of magnetohydrodynamics to the kinetic theory of free molecular flow. This is because the problems encountered covered the entire range of the Knudsen number (i.e., the ratio of mean free path to the characteristic length). Significant results are summarized.

  20. The Effects of Space Environment on Wireless Communication Devices' Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Landon, Hillyard; Dennison, JR

    2012-01-01

    This project evaluates the effects of the space environment on small radio hardware devices called Bluetooth (a proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances) chips (hoovers). When electronics are exposed to the harsh environment outside the Earth's atmosphere, they sometimes do not perform as expected. The USU Getaway Away Special (GAS) team is now in the design stages of launching a CubeSat (a 10 cm cubed autonomous satellite to fly in Low Earth Orbi...

  1. Space - A unique environment for process modeling R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfelt, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Process modeling, the application of advanced computational techniques to simulate real processes as they occur in regular use, e.g., welding, casting and semiconductor crystal growth, is discussed. Using the low-gravity environment of space will accelerate the technical validation of the procedures and enable extremely accurate determinations of the many necessary thermophysical properties. Attention is given to NASA's centers for the commercial development of space; joint ventures of universities, industries, and goverment agencies to study the unique attributes of space that offer potential for applied R&D and eventual commercial exploitation.

  2. Crystal Growth and Other Materials Physical Researches in Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingxiang

    Material science researches in space environment are based on reducing the effects of buoyancy driven transport, the effects of atomic oxygen, radiation, extremes of heat and cold and the ultrahigh vacuum, so as to unveil the underlying fundamental phenomena, lead maybe to new potential materials or new industrial processes and develop space techniques. Currently, research program on materials sciences in Chinese Manned Space Engineering (CMSE) is going on. More than ten projects related to crystal growth and materials processes are selected as candidates to be executed in Shenzhou spacecraft, Tiangong Space Laboratory and Chinese Space Station. In this talk, we will present some examples of the projects, which are being prepared and executed in the near future flight tasks. They are both basic and applied research, from discovery to technology.

  3. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.

    1990-01-01

    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  4. The Human Exposure Potential from Propylene Releases to the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Morgott

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed literature search was performed to assess the sources, magnitudes and extent of human inhalation exposure to propylene. Exposure evaluations were performed at both the community and occupational levels for those living or working in different environments. The results revealed a multitude of pyrogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic emission sources. Pyrogenic sources, including biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, appear to be the primary contributors to atmospheric propylene. Despite a very short atmospheric lifetime, measurable levels could be detected in highly remote locations as a result of biogenic release. The indoor/outdoor ratio for propylene has been shown to range from about 2 to 3 in non-smoking homes, which indicates that residential sources may be the largest contributor to the overall exposure for those not occupationally exposed. In homes where smoking takes place, the levels may be up to thirty times higher than non-smoking residences. Atmospheric levels in most rural regions are typically below 2 ppbv, whereas the values in urban levels are much more variable ranging as high as 10 ppbv. Somewhat elevated propylene exposures may also occur in the workplace; especially for firefighters or refinery plant operators who may encounter levels up to about 10 ppmv.

  5. Space Radiation Peculiarities in the Extra Vehicular Environment of the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Bankov, Nikolay; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen

    2013-12-01

    The space weather and the connected with it ionizing radiation were recognized as a one of the main health concern to the International Space Station (ISS) crew. Estimation the effects of radiation on humans in ISS requires at first order accurate knowledge of the accumulated by them absorbed dose rates, which depend of the global space radiation distribution and the local variations generated by the 3D surrounding shielding distribution. The R3DE (Radiation Risks Radiometer-Dosimeter (R3D) for the EXPOSE-E platform on the European Technological Exposure Facility (EuTEF) worked successfully outside of the European Columbus module between February 2008 and September 2009. Very similar instrument named R3DR for the EXPOSE-R platform worked outside Russian Zvezda module of ISS between March 2009 and August 2010. Both are Liulin type, Bulgarian build miniature spectrometers-dosimeters. They accumulated about 5 million measurements of the flux and absorbed dose rate with 10 seconds resolution behind less than 0.41 g cm-2 shielding, which is very similar to the Russian and American space suits [1-3] average shielding. That is why all obtained data can be interpreted as possible doses during Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) of the cosmonauts and astronauts. The paper first analyses the obtained long-term results in the different radiation environments of: Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), inner radiation belt trapped protons in the region of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer radiation belt (ORB) relativistic electrons. The large data base was used for development of an empirical model for calculation of the absorbed dose rates in the extra vehicular environment of ISS at 359 km altitude. The model approximate the averaged in a grid empirical dose rate values to predict the values at required from the user geographical point, station orbit or area in geographic coordinate system. Further in the paper it is presented an intercomparison between predicted by the model dose

  6. Childhood exposure to green space - A novel risk-decreasing mechanism for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engemann, Kristine; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Arge, Lars; Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2018-03-21

    Schizophrenia risk has been linked to urbanization, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Green space is hypothesized to positively influence mental health and might mediate risk of schizophrenia by mitigating noise and particle pollution exposure, stress relief, or other unknown mechanisms. The objectives for this study were to determine if green space are associated with schizophrenia risk, and if different measures of green space associate differently with risk. We used satellite data from the Landsat program to quantify green space in a new data set for Denmark at 30×30m resolution for the years 1985-2013. The effect of green space at different ages and within different distances from each person's place of residence on schizophrenia risk was estimated using Cox regression on a very large longitudinal population-based sample of the Danish population (943,027 persons). Living at the lowest amount of green space was associated with a 1.52-fold increased risk of developing schizophrenia compared to persons living at the highest level of green space. This association remained after adjusting for known risk factors for schizophrenia: urbanization, age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The strongest protective association was observed during the earliest childhood years and closest to place of residence. This is the first nationwide population-based study to demonstrate a protective association between green space during childhood and schizophrenia risk; suggesting limited green space as a novel environmental risk factor for schizophrenia. This study supports findings from other studies highlighting positive effects of exposure to natural environments for human health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis on Space Environment from the Anomalies of Geosynchronous Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaejin Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While it is well known that space environment can produce spacecraft anomaly, defining space environment effects for each anomalies is difficult. This is caused by the fact that spacecraft anomaly shows various symptoms and reproducing it is impossible. In this study, we try to find the conditions of when spacecraft failures happen more frequently and give satellite operators useful information. Especially, our study focuses on the geosynchronous satellites which cost is high and required high reliability. We used satellite anomaly data given by Satellite News Digest which is internet newspaper providing space industry news. In our analysis, 88 anomaly cases occurred from 1997 to 2008 shows bad corelation with Kp index. Satellite malfunctions were likely to happen in spring and fall and in local time from midnight to dawn. In addition, we found the probability of anomaly increase when high energy electron flux is high. This is more clearly appeared in solar minimum than maximum period.

  8. Space Use in the Commons: Evaluating a Flexible Library Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Asher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – This article evaluates the usage and user experience of the Herman B Wells Library’s Learning Commons, a newly renovated technology and learning centre that provides services and spaces tailored to undergraduates’ academic needs at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB. Methods – A mixed-method research protocol combining time-lapse photography, unobtrusive observation, and random-sample surveys was employed to construct and visualize a representative usage and activity profile for the Learning Commons space. Results – Usage of the Learning Commons by particular student groups varied considerably from expectations based on student enrollments. In particular, business, first and second year students, and international students used the Learning Commons to a higher degree than expected, while humanities students used it to a much lower degree. While users were satisfied with the services provided and the overall atmosphere of the space, they also experienced the negative effects of insufficient space and facilities due to the space often operating at or near its capacity. Demand for collaboration rooms and computer workstations was particularly high, while additional evidence suggests that the Learning Commons furniture mix may not adequately match users’ needs. Conclusions – This study presents a unique approach to space use evaluation that enables researchers to collect and visualize representative observational data. This study demonstrates a model for quickly and reliably assessing space use for open-plan and learning-centred academic environments and for evaluating how well these learning spaces fulfill their institutional mission.

  9. The MISSE 7 Flexural Stress Effects Experiment After 1.5 Years of Wake Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Kate E.; De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Low Earth orbit space environment conditions, including ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen exposure, can cause degradation of exterior spacecraft materials over time. Radiation and thermal exposure often results in bond- breaking and embrittlement of polymers, reducing mechanical strength and structural integrity. An experiment called the Flexural Stress Effects Experiment (FSEE) was flown with the objective of determining the role of space environmental exposure on the degradation of polymers under flexural stress. The FSEE samples were flown in the wake orientation on the exterior of International Space Station for 1.5 years. Twenty-four samples were flown: 12 bent over a 0.375 in. mandrel and 12 were over a 0.25 in. mandrel. This was designed to simulate flight configurations of insulation blankets on spacecraft. The samples consisted of assorted polyimide and fluorinated polymers with various coatings. Half the samples were designated for bend testing and the other half will be tensile tested. A non-standard bend-test procedure was designed to determine the surface strain at which embrittled polymers crack. All ten samples designated for bend testing have been tested. None of the control samples' polymers cracked, even under surface strains up to 19.7%, although one coating cracked. Of the ten flight samples tested, seven show increased embrittlement through bend-test induced cracking at surface strains from 0.70%to 11.73%. These results show that most of the tested polymers are embrittled due to space exposure, when compared to their control samples. Determination of the extent of space induced embrittlement of polymers is important for designing durable spacecraft.

  10. Adaptive Changes in Sensorimotor Coordination and Motion Sickness Following Repeated Exposures to Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Initial interpretation of novel sensory information may be inappropriate and result in perceptual errors. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, unilateral labyrinthectomy and experimentally produced stimulus rearrangements. The purpose of this research was to compare disturbances in sensorimotor coordination produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays and to examine the effects of exposure duration, and repeated exposures to VR systems. The first study examined disturbances in balance control, and the second study examined disturbances in eye-head-hand (EHH) and eye-head coordination.

  11. Analyses of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Multilayer Insulation Blankets Retrieved After 19 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groh, Kim K.; Perry, Bruce A.; Mohammed, Jelila S.; Banks, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Since its launch in April 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has made many important observations from its vantage point in low Earth orbit (LEO). However, as seen during five servicing missions, the outer layer of multilayer insulation (MLI) has become increasingly embrittled and has cracked in many areas. In May 2009, during the 5th servicing mission (called SM4), two MLI blankets were replaced with new insulation and the space-exposed MLI blankets were retrieved for degradation analyses by teams at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The retrieved MLI blankets were from Equipment Bay 8, which received direct sunlight, and Equipment Bay 5, which received grazing sunlight. Each blanket was divided into several regions based on environmental exposure and/or physical appearance. The aluminized-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) outer layers of the retrieved MLI blankets have been analyzed for changes in optical, physical, and mechanical properties, along with chemical and morphological changes. Pristine and as-retrieved samples (materials) were heat treated to help understand degradation mechanisms. When compared to pristine material, the analyses have shown how the Al-FEP was severely affected by the space environment. Most notably, the Al-FEP was highly embrittled, fracturing like glass at strains of 1 to 8 percent. Across all measured properties, more significant degradation was observed for Bay 8 material as compared to Bay 5 material. This paper reviews the tensile and bend-test properties, density, thickness, solar absorptance, thermal emittance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental composition measurements, surface and crack morphologies, and atomic oxygen erosion yields of the Al-FEP outer layer of the retrieved HST blankets after 19 years of space exposure.

  12. Towards the Next Generation of Space Environment Prediction Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since its establishment more than 15 years ago, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC, http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is serving as an assess point to expanding collection of state-of-the-art space environment models and frameworks as well as a hub for collaborative development of next generation space weather forecasting systems. In partnership with model developers and international research and operational communities the CCMC integrates new data streams and models from diverse sources into end-to-end space weather impacts predictive systems, identifies week links in data-model & model-model coupling and leads community efforts to fill those gaps. The presentation will highlight latest developments, progress in CCMC-led community-wide projects on testing, prototyping, and validation of models, forecasting techniques and procedures and outline ideas on accelerating implementation of new capabilities in space weather operations.

  13. Radiation in the living environment: sources, exposure and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rashi

    2013-01-01

    We are living in a milieu of radiations and continuously exposed to radiations from natural sources from conception to death. We are exposed to radiation from Sun and outer space, radioactive materials present in the earth, house we live in, buildings and workplace, food we eat and air we breath. Each flake of snow, grain of soil, drop of rain, a flower, and even each man in the street is a source of this radiation. Even our own bodies contain naturally occurring radioactive elements. The general belief is that the radiations are harmful and everybody is scared of the same. The cancer is the most important concern on account of exposure to Ionizing Radiation which is initiated by the damage to DNA. The level of exposure depends on the environmental and working conditions and may vary from low to moderate to high and depending on the same the exposed humans can be classified as general public, non nuclear workers (NNW) and nuclear workers (NW). Though, the LNT theory which is considered to be the radiation paradigm considers all radiation at all levels to be harmful and the -severity of the deleterious effect increases with the increase in dose, however, the available literature, data and reports (epidemiological and experimental) speaks otherwise particularly at low levels. The purpose of this paper is to address the question, whether the radiation is harmful at all levels or it is simply media hype and the truth is different, and to promote harmony with nature and to improve our quality of life with the knowledge that cancer mortality rates decrease following exposure to LLIR. Various sources of radiation exposure and the subsequent consequences will be discussed. (author)

  14. Electrostatic Discharge Test of Multi-Junction Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is conducting electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO/CD 11221, the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels. This standard is currently in its final review with expected approval in 2010. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of 4 cells. The ESD tests are performed at the beginning of life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point. The environmental exposure sequence consists of UV radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume. This paper discusses the coverglass flashover simulation, ESD test setup, and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Results from 5th-year testing are compared to the baseline ESD characteristics determined at the BOL condition.

  15. Vertebrate development in the environment of space: models, mechanisms, and use of the medaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, D. J.; Herrada, G.; Kiss, S.; Cannon, T.; Forsstrom, C.; Pranger, L. A.; Weismann, W. P.; Pearce, L.; Whalon, B.; Phillips, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    With the advent of space travel, it is of immediate interest and importance to study the effects of exposure to various aspects of the altered environment of space, including microgravity, on Earth-based life forms. Initial studies of space travel have focused primarily on the short-term effects of radiation and microgravity on adult organisms. However, with the potential for increased lengths of time in space, it is critical to now address the effects of space on all phases of an organism's life cycle, from embryogenesis to post-natal development to reproduction. It is already possible for certain species to undergo multiple generations within the confines of the Mir Space Station. The possibility now exists for scientists to consider the consequences of even potentially subtle defects in development through multiple phases of an organism's life cycle, or even through multiple generations. In this discussion, we highlight a few of the salient observations on the effects of the space environment on vertebrate development and reproductive function. We discuss some of the many unanswered questions, in particular, in the context of the choice of appropriate models in which to address these questions, as well as an assessment of the availability of hardware already existing or under development which would be useful in addressing these questions.

  16. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon S.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry (e.g. blocking diodes). Key elements of the space environment which must be accounted for in a PV system design include: Solar Photon Radiation, Charged Particle Radiation, Plasma, and Thermal Cycling. While solar photon radiation is central to generating power in PV systems, the complete spectrum includes short wavelength ultraviolet components, which photo-ionize materials, as well as long wavelength infrared which heat materials. High energy electron radiation has been demonstrated to significantly reduce the output power of III-V type PV cells; and proton radiation damages material surfaces - often impacting coverglasses and antireflective coatings. Plasma environments influence electrostatic charging of PV array materials, and must be understood to ensure that long duration arcs do not form and potentially destroy PV cells. Thermal cycling impacts all components on a PV array by inducing stresses due to thermal expansion and contraction. Given such demanding environments, and the complexity of structures and materials that form a PV array system, mission success can only be ensured through realistic testing in the laboratory. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a broad space environment test capability to allow PV array designers and manufacturers to verify their system's integrity and avoid costly on-orbit failures. The Marshall Space Flight Center test capabilities are available to government, commercial, and university customers. Test solutions are tailored to meet the customer's needs, and can include performance assessments, such as flash testing in the case of PV cells.

  17. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribby, Calvin P; Miller, Harvey J; Brown, Barbara B; Werner, Carol M; Smith, Ken R

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces : the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals' trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time.

  18. Space Shuttle Orbiter logistics - Managing in a dynamic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfroe, Michael B.; Bradshaw, Kimberly

    1990-01-01

    The importance and methods of monitoring logistics vital signs, logistics data sources and acquisition, and converting data into useful management information are presented. With the launch and landing site for the Shuttle Orbiter project at the Kennedy Space Center now totally responsible for its own supportability posture, it is imperative that logistics resource requirements and management be continually monitored and reassessed. Detailed graphs and data concerning various aspects of logistics activities including objectives, inventory operating levels, customer environment, and data sources are provided. Finally, some lessons learned from the Shuttle Orbiter project and logistics options which should be considered by other space programs are discussed.

  19. The Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology - Toward an International Information System for Space Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovetto, R.

    2016-09-01

    The orbital space environment is home to natural and artificial satellites, debris, and space weather phenomena. As the population of orbital objects grows so do the potential hazards to astronauts, space infrastructure and spaceflight capability. Orbital debris, in particular, is a universal concern. This and other hazards can be minimized by improving global space situational awareness (SSA). By sharing more data and increasing observational coverage of the space environment we stand to achieve that goal, thereby making spaceflight safer and expanding our knowledge of near-Earth space. To facilitate data-sharing interoperability among distinct orbital debris and space object catalogs, and SSA information systems, I proposed ontology in (Rovetto, 2015) and (Rovetto and Kelso, 2016). I continue this effort toward formal representations and models of the overall domain that may serve to improve peaceful SSA and increase our scientific knowledge. This paper explains the project concept introduced in those publications, summarizing efforts to date as well as the research field of ontology development and engineering. I describe concepts for an ontological framework for the orbital space environment, near-Earth space environment and SSA domain. An ontological framework is conceived as a part of a potential international information system. The purpose of such a system is to consolidate, analyze and reason over various sources and types of orbital and SSA data toward the mutually beneficial goals of safer space navigation and scientific research. Recent internationals findings on the limitations of orbital data, in addition to existing publications on collaborative SSA, demonstrate both the overlap with this project and the need for datasharing and integration.

  20. Modelling the near-Earth space environment using LDEF data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dale R.; Coombs, Cassandra R.; Crowell, Lawrence B.; Watts, Alan J.

    1992-01-01

    Near-Earth space is a dynamic environment, that is currently not well understood. In an effort to better characterize the near-Earth space environment, this study compares the results of actual impact crater measurement data and the Space Environment (SPENV) Program developed in-house at POD, to theoretical models established by Kessler (NASA TM-100471, 1987) and Cour-Palais (NASA SP-8013, 1969). With the continuing escalation of debris there will exist a definite hazard to unmanned satellites as well as manned operations. Since the smaller non-trackable debris has the highest impact rate, it is clearly necessary to establish the true debris environment for all particle sizes. Proper comprehension of the near-Earth space environment and its origin will permit improvement in spacecraft design and mission planning, thereby reducing potential disasters and extreme costs. Results of this study directly relate to the survivability of future spacecraft and satellites that are to travel through and/or reside in low Earth orbit (LEO). More specifically, these data are being used to: (1) characterize the effects of the LEO micrometeoroid an debris environment on satellite designs and components; (2) update the current theoretical micrometeoroid and debris models for LEO; (3) help assess the survivability of spacecraft and satellites that must travel through or reside in LEO, and the probability of their collision with already resident debris; and (4) help define and evaluate future debris mitigation and disposal methods. Combined model predictions match relatively well with the LDEF data for impact craters larger than approximately 0.05 cm, diameter; however, for smaller impact craters, the combined predictions diverge and do not reflect the sporadic clouds identified by the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) aboard LDEF. The divergences cannot currently be explained by the authors or model developers. The mean flux of small craters (approximately 0.05 cm diameter) is

  1. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In recent times long-term stay has become a common occurrence in the International Space Station (ISS). However adaptation to the space environment can sometimes...

  2. Crew behavior and performance in space analog environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives and the current status of the Crew Factors research program conducted at NASA-Ames Research Center are reviewed. The principal objectives of the program are to determine the effects of a broad class of input variables on crew performance and to provide guidance with respect to the design and management of crews assigned to future space missions. A wide range of research environments are utilized, including controlled experimental settings, high fidelity full mission simulator facilities, and fully operational field environments. Key group processes are identified, and preliminary data are presented on the effect of crew size, type, and structure on team performance.

  3. Human exposure, biomarkers, and fate of organotins in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Hussein K; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Adekola, Folahan A; Ximba, Bhekumusa J; Snyman, Reinette G; Opeolu, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Organotin compounds result from the addition of organic moieties to inorganic tin.Thus, one or more tin-carbon bonds exist in each organotin molecule. The organo-tin compounds are ubiquitous in the environment. Organotin compounds have many uses, including those as fungicides and stabilizers in plastics, among others in industry. The widespread use of organotins as antifouling agents in boat paints has resulted in pollution of freshwater and marine ecosystems. The presence of organotin compounds in freshwater and marine ecosystems is now understood to be a threat, because of the amounts found in water and the toxicity of some organotin compounds to aquatic organisms, and perhaps to humans as well. Organotin com-pounds are regarded by many to be global pollutants of a stature similar to biphenyl,mercury, and the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. This stature results from the high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and endocrine disruptive features of even very low levels of selected organotin compounds.Efforts by selected governmental agencies and others have been undertaken to find a global solution to organotin pollution. France was the first country to ban the use of the organotins in 1980. This occurred before the international maritime organization (IMO) called for a global treaty to ban the application of tributyltin (TBT)-based paints. In this chapter, we review the organotin compounds with emphasis on the human exposure, fate, and distribution of them in the environment. The widespread use of the organotins and their high stability have led to contamination of some aquatic ecosystems. As a result, residues of the organotins may reach humans via food consumption. Notwithstanding the risk of human exposure, only limited data are available on the levels at which the organotins exist in foodstuffs consumed by humans. Moreover, the response of marine species to the organotins, such as TBT, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, more data on the

  4. Effect of science laboratory centrifuge of space station environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searby, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that it is essential to have a centrifuge operating during manned space station operations. Background information and a rationale for the research centrifuge are given. It is argued that we must provide a controlled acceleration environment for comparison with microgravity studies. The lack of control groups in previous studies throws into question whether the obseved effects were the result of microgravity or not. The centrifuge could be used to provide a 1-g environment to supply specimens free of launch effects for long-term studies. With the centrifuge, the specimens could be immediately transferred to microgravity without undergoing gradual acclimation. Also, the effects of artificial gravity on humans could be investigated. It is also argued that the presence of the centrifuge on the space station will not cause undo vibrations or other disturbing effects.

  5. Research Progress and Prospect of GNSS Space Environment Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Yibin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Troposphere and ionosphere are two important components of the near-earth space environment. They are close to the surface of the earth and have great influence on human life. The developments of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS over the past several decades provide a great opportunity for the GNSS-based space environment science. This review summarizes the research progress and prospect of the GNSS-based research of the Earth's troposphere and ionosphere. On the tropospheric perspective, modeling of the key tropospheric parameters and inversion of precipitable water vapor (PWV are dominant researching fields. On the ionospheric perspective, 2D/3D ionospheric models and regional/global ionospheric monitoring are dominant researching fields.

  6. Platinum group elements in the environment: emissions and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiella-Jackowska, Aleksandra; Polkowska, Zaneta; Namieńnik, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    frequently cause allergic reactions, the metallic forms of PGEs are probably inert; however, they may undergo transformation to biologically available forms after release to the environment. Because exposure to PGEs may result in health hazards, it is necessary to evaluate the risks of human exposure to these metals. Available data show that the highest exposed groups (Leceniewska et al. 2001) are individuals who work in refineries, chemical plants, electronics plants, jewelry production, oncological wards (medical personnel), and road maintenance; also highly exposed are women who have silicone breast implants. The effects of PGE exposure in live organisms include the following: asthma, miscarriage, nausea, hair loss, skin diseases, and, in humans, other serious health problems. As production and use of PGEs grow, there is a commensurate need to generate additional experimental and modeling data on them; such data would be designed to provide a better understanding of the environmental disposition and influence on human health of the PGEs.

  7. Atmospheric and Space Sciences: Ionospheres and Plasma Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiǧit, Erdal

    2018-01-01

    The SpringerBriefs on Atmospheric and Space Sciences in two volumes presents a concise and interdisciplinary introduction to the basic theory, observation & modeling of atmospheric and ionospheric coupling processes on Earth. The goal is to contribute toward bridging the gap between meteorology, aeronomy, and planetary science. In addition recent progress in several related research topics, such atmospheric wave coupling and variability, is discussed. Volume 1 will focus on the atmosphere, while Volume 2 will present the ionospheres and the plasma environments. Volume 2 is aimed primarily at (research) students and young researchers that would like to gain quick insight into the basics of space sciences and current research. In combination with the first volume, it also is a useful tool for professors who would like to develop a course in atmospheric and space physics.

  8. Simulated Space Environment Effects on a Candidate Solar Sail Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Bryant, Robert G.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Wadsworth, Heather M.; Craven, Paul D.; Nehls, Mary K.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    For long duration missions of solar sails, the sail material needs to survive harsh space environments and the degradation of the sail material controls operational lifetime. Therefore, understanding the effects of the space environment on the sail membrane is essential for mission success. In this study, we investigated the effect of simulated space environment effects of ionizing radiation, thermal aging and simulated potential damage on mechanical, thermal and optical properties of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) polyester solar sail membrane to assess the degradation mechanisms on a feasible solar sail. The solar sail membrane was exposed to high energy electrons (about 70 keV and 10 nA/cm2), and the physical properties were characterized. After about 8.3 Grad dose, the tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain of the sail membrane decreased by about 20 95%. The aluminum reflective layer was damaged and partially delaminated but it did not show any significant change in solar absorbance or thermal emittance. The effect on mechanical properties of a pre-cracked sample, simulating potential impact damage of the sail membrane, as well as thermal aging effects on metallized PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) film will be discussed.

  9. Artificial intelligence and the space station software support environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Gilbert

    1986-01-01

    In a software system the size of the Space Station Software Support Environment (SSE), no one software development or implementation methodology is presently powerful enough to provide safe, reliable, maintainable, cost effective real time or near real time software. In an environment that must survive one of the most harsh and long life times, software must be produced that will perform as predicted, from the first time it is executed to the last. Many of the software challenges that will be faced will require strategies borrowed from Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI is the only development area mentioned as an example of a legitimate reason for a waiver from the overall requirement to use the Ada programming language for software development. The limits are defined of the applicability of the Ada language Ada Programming Support Environment (of which the SSE is a special case), and software engineering to AI solutions by describing a scenario that involves many facets of AI methodologies.

  10. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and

  11. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

    2014-01-01

    The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  12. BUSEFL: The Boston University Space Environment Forecast Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contos, A.R.; Sanchez, L.A.; Jorgensen, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    BUSEFL (Boston University Space Environment Forecast Laboratory) is a comprehensive, integrated project to address the issues and implications of space weather forecasting. An important goal of the BUSEFL mission is to serve as a testing ground for space weather algorithms and operational procedures. One such algorithm is the Magnetospheric Specification and Forecast Model (MSFM), which may be implemented in possible future space weather prediction centers. Boston University Student-satellite for Applications and Training (BUSAT), the satellite component of BUSEFL, will incorporate four experiments designed to measure (1) the earth close-quote s magnetic field, (2) distribution of energetic electrons trapped in the earth close-quote s radiation belts, (3) the mass and charge composition of the ion fluxes along the magnetic field lines and (4) the auroral forms at the foot of the field line in the auroral zones. Data from these experiments will be integrated into a ground system to evaluate space weather prediction codes. Data from the BUSEFL mission will be available to the scientific community and the public through media such as the World Wide Web (WWW). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. The Effect of Topography on the Exposure of Airless Bodies to Space Radiation: Phobos Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Wang, Y.; Guo, J.; Schwadron, N.; Cooper, J. F.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Spence, H. E.; Jordan, A.; Sturner, S. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wilson, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The surfaces of airless bodies, such as the Moon and Phobos (innermost Martian moon), are directly exposed to the surrounding space environment, including energetic particle radiation from both the ever-present flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and episodic bursts of solar energetic particles (SEPs). Characterizing this radiation exposure is critical to our understanding of the evolution of these bodies from space weathering processes, such as radiation damage of regolith, radiolysis of organics and volatiles, and dielectric breakdown. Similarly, this also has important implications for the long-term radiation exposure of future astronauts and equipment on the surface. In this study, the focus is the influence of Phobian topography on the direct exposure of Phobos to space radiation. For a given point on its surface, this exposure depends on: (i) the solid angle subtended by the sky, (ii) the solid angle of the sky blocked by Mars, and (iii) the energy and angular distributions of ambient energetic particle populations. The sky solid angle, determined using the elevation of the local horizon calculated from a digital elevation model (DEM), can be significantly reduced around topographic lows, such as crater floors, or increased near highs like crater rims. The DEM used in this study was produced using images from the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), and has the highest available spatial resolution ( 100m). The proximity of Phobos to Mars means the Martian disk appears large in the Phobian sky, but this only effects the moon's near side due its tidally locked orbit. Only isotropic distributions of energetic particles are initially considered, which is typically a reasonable assumption for GCRs and sometimes for SEPs. Observations of the radiation environments on Mars by Curiosity's Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), and the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) at the Moon

  14. Space Environment Modelling with the Use of Artificial Intelligence Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstedt, H.; Wintoft, P.; Wu, J.-G.; Gleisner, H.; Dovheden, V.

    1996-12-01

    Space based technological systems are affected by the space weather in many ways. Several severe failures of satellites have been reported at times of space storms. Our society also increasingly depends on satellites for communication, navigation, exploration, and research. Predictions of the conditions in the satellite environment have therefore become very important. We will here present predictions made with the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANN) and hybrids of AT methods. We are developing a space weather model based on intelligence hybrid systems (IHS). The model consists of different forecast modules, each module predicts the space weather on a specific time-scale. The time-scales range from minutes to months with the fundamental time-scale of 1-5 minutes, 1-3 hours, 1-3 days, and 27 days. Solar and solar wind data are used as input data. From solar magnetic field measurements, either made on the ground at Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) at Stanford, or made from space by the satellite SOHO, solar wind parameters can be predicted and modelled with ANN and MHD models. Magnetograms from WSO are available on a daily basis. However, from SOHO magnetograms will be available every 90 minutes. SOHO magnetograms as input to ANNs will therefore make it possible to even predict solar transient events. Geomagnetic storm activity can today be predicted with very high accuracy by means of ANN methods using solar wind input data. However, at present real-time solar wind data are only available during part of the day from the satellite WIND. With the launch of ACE in 1997, solar wind data will on the other hand be available during 24 hours per day. The conditions of the satellite environment are not only disturbed at times of geomagnetic storms but also at times of intense solar radiation and highly energetic particles. These events are associated with increased solar activity. Predictions of these events are therefore

  15. Specification of the near-Earth space environment with SHIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanova, Vania Koleva; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Henderson, Michael Gerard; Godinez, Humberto C.; Jeffery, Christopher Andrew Munn

    2017-01-01

    Here, predicting variations in the near-Earth space environment that can lead to spacecraft damage and failure is one example of “space weather” and a big space physics challenge. A project recently funded through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program aims at developing a new capability to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. The project goals are to understand the dynamics of the surface charging environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons representing the source and seed populations for the radiation belts, on both macro- and micro-scale. Important physics questions related to particle injection and acceleration associated with magnetospheric storms and substorms, as well as plasma waves, are investigated. These challenging problems are addressed using a team of world-class experts in the fields of space science and computational plasma physics, and state-of-the-art models and computational facilities. A full two-way coupling of physics-based models across multiple scales, including a global MHD (BATS-R-US) embedding a particle-in-cell (iPIC3D) and an inner magnetosphere (RAM-SCB) codes, is achieved. New data assimilation techniques employing in situ satellite data are developed; these provide an order of magnitude improvement in the accuracy in the simulation of the SCE. SHIELDS also includes a post-processing tool designed to calculate the surface charging for specific spacecraft geometry using the Curvilinear Particle-In-Cell (CPIC) code that can be used for reanalysis of satellite failures or for satellite design.

  16. Proposed Pharmacological Countermeasures Against Apoptotic Cell Death in Experimental Models Mimicking Space Environment Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Papucci, Laura; Witort, Ewa; Donnini, Martino; Lapucci, Andrea; Lazzarano, Stefano; Mazzoni, Tiziano; Simoncini, Madine; Falciani, Piergiuseppe; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Several damaging agents have been suggested to affect human vision during long term space travels. Recently, apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents has emerged as frequent pathogenetic mechanism of ophthalmologic pathologies. Here, we propose two countermeasures: coenzyme Q10 and bcl-2 downregulation preventing antisense oligoribonucleotides (ORNs), aimed to inhibit cellular apoptotic death. Our studies have been carried out on retina and neuronal cultured cells treated with the following apoptotic stimuli mimicking space environment: a several-day exposure to either 3H-labeled tymidine or to the genotoxic drug doxorubicin, UV irradiation, hypoxia and glucose/growth factor starvation (Locke medium). The preliminary results clearly indicate that CoQ10, as well as bcl-2 down-regulation preventing ORNs, significantly counteract apoptosis in response to different DNA damaging agents in cultured eye and in neuronal cells. This supports the possibility that both could be optimal countermeasures against ophthalmologic lesions during space explorations.

  17. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  18. Urban green spaces assessment approach to health, safety and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari Neisiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The city is alive with dynamic systems, where parks and urban green spaces have high strategic importance which help to improve living conditions. Urban parks are used as visual landscape with so many benefits such as reducing stress, reducing air pollution and producing oxygen, creating opportunities for people to participate in physical activities, optimal environment for children and decreasing noise pollution. The importance of parks is such extent that are discussed as an indicator of urban development. Hereupon the design and maintenance of urban green spaces requires integrated management system based on international standards of health, safety and the environment. In this study, Nezami Ganjavi Park (District 6 of Tehran with the approach to integrated management systems have been analyzed. In order to identify the status of the park in terms of the requirements of the management system based on previous studies and all Tehran Municipality’s considerations, a check list has been prepared and completed by park survey and interview with green space experts. The results showed that the utility of health indicators were 92.33 % (the highest and environmental and safety indicators were 72 %, 84 % respectively. According to SWOT analysis in Nezami Ganjavi Park some of strength points are fire extinguishers, first aid box, annual testing of drinking water and important weakness is using unseparated trash bins also as an opportunities, there are some interesting factors for children and parents to spend free times. Finally, the most important threat is unsuitable park facilities for disabled.

  19. Medical Implications of Space Radiation Exposure Due to Low-Altitude Polar Orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Jeffery C; Auñon-Chancellor, Serena M; Charles, John

    2018-01-01

    Space radiation research has progressed rapidly in recent years, but there remain large uncertainties in predicting and extrapolating biological responses to humans. Exposure to cosmic radiation and solar particle events (SPEs) may pose a critical health risk to future spaceflight crews and can have a serious impact on all biomedical aspects of space exploration. The relatively minimal shielding of the cancelled 1960s Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program's space vehicle and the high inclination polar orbits would have left the crew susceptible to high exposures of cosmic radiation and high dose-rate SPEs that are mostly unpredictable in frequency and intensity. In this study, we have modeled the nominal and off-nominal radiation environment that a MOL-like spacecraft vehicle would be exposed to during a 30-d mission using high performance, multicore computers. Projected doses from a historically large SPE (e.g., the August 1972 solar event) have been analyzed in the context of the MOL orbit profile, providing an opportunity to study its impact to crew health and subsequent contingencies. It is reasonable to presume that future commercial, government, and military spaceflight missions in low-Earth orbit (LEO) will have vehicles with similar shielding and orbital profiles. Studying the impact of cosmic radiation to the mission's operational integrity and the health of MOL crewmembers provides an excellent surrogate and case-study for future commercial and military spaceflight missions.Chancellor JC, Auñon-Chancellor SM, Charles J. Medical implications of space radiation exposure due to low-altitude polar orbits. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):3-8.

  20. Erosion Data from the MISSE 8 Polymers Experiment After 2 Years of Space Exposure on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Yi, Grace T.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Guo, Aobo; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Polymers Experiment was exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 2.14 and 2.0 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 8 (MISSE 8) and the Optical Reflector Materials Experiment-III (ORMatE-III), respectively. The experiment contained 42 samples, which were flown in either ram, wake, or zenith orientations. The primary objective was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey) of fluoropolymers. This paper provides an overview of the experiment with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the atomic oxygen fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO Ey results. The Ey values for the fluoropolymers range from 1.45 x 10(exp -25) cm(exp 3)/atom for white Tedlar Registered Trademark? (polyvinyl fluoride with white titanium dioxide pigment) flown in the ram orientation to 6.32 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp 3)/atom for aluminized-Teflon Registered Trademark? fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) flown in the zenith orientation. Erosion yield data for FEP flown in ram, wake and zenith orientations are compared, and the Ey was found to be highly dependent on orientation, hence environmental exposure. Teflon FEP had an order of magnitude higher Ey when flown in the zenith direction (6.32 x10(exp -24) cm(exp3)/atom) as compared to the ram direction (2.37 x 10(exp -25) cm(exp 3)/atom). The Ey of FEP was found to increase with a direct correlation to the solar exposure/AO fluence ratio showing the effect of solar radiation and/or heating due to solar exposure on FEP erosion. In addition, back-surface carbon painted FEP (C-FEP) flown in the zenith orientation had a significantly higher Ey than clear FEP or Al-FEP further indicating that heating has a significant impact on the erosion of FEP, particularly in the zenith orientation.

  1. The Design Space of Multi-Language Development Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Non-trivial software systems integrate many artifacts expressed in multiple modeling and program- ming languages. However, even though these artifacts heavily depend on each other, existing development envi- ronments do not sufficiently support handling relations between artifacts in different...... languages. By means of a literature survey, tool prototyping and experiments we study the design space of multi-language development environments (MLDEs)—tools that consider the cross-language relations as first artifacts. We ask: what is the state of the art in the MLDE space? What are the design choices...... and challenges faced by tool builders? To what extent MLDEs are desired by users, and for what support features? Our main conclusions are that (a) cross-language re- lations are ubiquitous and troublesome in multi-language systems, (b) users highly appreciated cross-language sup- port mechanisms of MLDEs and (c...

  2. Do Inner Planets Modulate the Space Environment of the Earth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Variabilities in the solar wind cause disturbances throughout the heliosphere on all temporal and spatial scales, which leads to changeable space weather. As a view of space weather forecasting, in particular, it is important to know direct and indirect causes modulating the space environment near the Earth in advance. Recently, there are discussions on a role of the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury in affecting the solar wind velocity in the Earth’s neighborhood during its inferior conjunctions. In this study we investigate a question of whether other parameters describing the space environment near the Earth are modulated by the inner planets’ wake, by examining whether the interplanetary magnetic field and the proton density in the solar wind observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft, and the geomagnetic field via the Dst index and Auroral Electrojet index (AE index are dependent upon the relative position of the inner planets. We find there are indeed apparent variations. For example, the mean variations of the geomagnetic fields measured in the Earth’s neighborhood apparently have varied with a timescale of about 10 to 25 days. Those variations in the parameters we have studied, however, turn out to be a part of random fluctuations and have nothing to do with the relative position of inner planets. Moreover, it is found that variations of the proton density in the solar wind, the Dst index, and the AE index are distributed with the Gaussian distribution. Finally, we point out that some of properties in the behavior of the random fluctuation are to be studied.

  3. Process material management in the Space Station environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Humphries, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station will provide a unique facility for conducting material-processing and life-science experiments under microgravity conditions. These conditions place special requirements on the U.S. Laboratory for storing and transporting chemicals and process fluids, reclaiming water from selected experiments, treating and storing experiment wastes, and providing vacuum utilities. To meet these needs and provide a safe laboratory environment, the Process Material Management System (PMMS) is being developed. Preliminary design requirements and concepts related to the PMMS are addressed, and the MSFC PMMS breadboard test facility and a preliminary plan for validating the overall system design are discussed.

  4. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.; Bachtel, Russell; Speed, John; O'Rear, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960 s to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and modifications were funded by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to remove dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink, and the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August of 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive modifications

  5. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at NASA Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.; Bachtel, Russell; Speed, John; O'Rear, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft.) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft.) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960 s to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and modifications were funded by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope, which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to minimize dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink, and the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August of 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive

  6. Creating the Deep Space Environment for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Cerimele, Mary P.; Montz, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. It was originally designed and built in the mid 1960's to test the Apollo Command and Service Module and several manned tests were conducted on that spacecraft, contributing to the success of the program. The chamber has been used since that time to test spacecraft active thermal control systems, Shuttle DTO, DOD, and ESA hardware in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. NASA is now moving from LEO towards exploration of locations with environments approaching those of deep space. Therefore, Chamber A has undergone major modifications to enable it to simulate these deeper space environments. Environmental requirements were driven, and the modifications were funded, by the James Webb Space Telescope program, and this telescope which will orbit Solar/Earth L2, will be the first test article to benefit from the chamber s new capabilities. To accommodate JWST, the Chamber A high vacuum system has been modernized, additional LN2 shrouds have been installed, the liquid nitrogen system has been modified to remove dependency on electrical power and increase its reliability, a new helium shroud/refrigeration system has been installed to create a colder more stable and uniform heat sink and, the controls have been updated to increase the level of automation and improve operator interfaces. Testing of these major modifications was conducted in August 2012 and this initial test was very successful, with all major systems exceeding their performance requirements. This paper will outline the changes in the overall environmental requirements, discuss the technical design data that was used in the decisions leading to the extensive

  7. Analysis of the Thermo-Elastic Response of Space Reflectors to Simulated Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, G.; Ivagnes, M. M.; Marchetti, M.; Poscente, F.

    2002-01-01

    The evaluation of space environment effects on materials and structures is a key matter to develop a proper design of long duration missions: since a large part of satellites operating in the earth orbital environment are employed for telecommunications, the development of space antennas and reflectors featured by high dimensional stability versus space environment interactions represents a major challenge for designers. The structural layout of state of the art space antennas and reflectors is very complex, since several different sensible elements and materials are employed: particular care must be placed in evaluating the actual geometrical configuration of the reflectors operating in the space environment, since very limited distortions of the designed layout can produce severe effects on the quality of the signal both received and transmitted, especially for antennas operating at high frequencies. The effects of thermal loads due to direct sunlight exposition and to earth and moon albedo can be easily taken into account employing the standard methods of structural analysis: on the other hand the thermal cycling and the exposition to the vacuum environment produce a long term damage accumulation which affects the whole structure. The typical effects of the just mentioned exposition are the outgassing of polymeric materials and the contamination of the exposed surface, which can affect sensibly the thermo-mechanical properties of the materials themselves and, therefore, the structural global response. The main aim of the present paper is to evaluate the synergistic effects of thermal cycling and of the exposition to high vacuum environment on an innovative antenna developed by Alenia Spazio S.p.a.: to this purpose, both an experimental and numerical research activity has been developed. A complete prototype of the antenna has been exposed to the space environment simulated by the SAS facility: this latter is constituted by an high vacuum chamber, equipped by

  8. Characterisation of Growth and Ultrastructural Effects of the Xanthoria elegans Photobiont After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Annette; Posthoff, Eva; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Onofri, Silvano; Ott, Sieglinde

    2016-06-01

    The lichen Xanthoria elegans has been exposed to space and simulated Mars-analogue environment in the Lichen and Fungi Experiment (LIFE) on the EXPOSE-E facility at the International Space Station (ISS). This long-term exposure of 559 days tested the ability of various organisms to cope with either low earth orbit (LEO) or Mars-analogue conditions, such as vacuum, Mars-analogue atmosphere, rapid temperature cycling, cosmic radiation of up to 215 ± 16 mGy, and insolation of accumulated doses up to 4.87 GJm-2, including up to 0.314 GJm-2 of UV irradiation. In a previous study, X. elegans demonstrated considerable resistance towards these conditions by means of photosynthetic activity as well as by post-exposure metabolic activity of 50-80 % in the algal and 60-90 % in the fungal symbiont (Brandt et al. Int J Astrobiol 14(3):411-425, 2015). The two objectives of the present study were complementary: First, to verify the high post-exposure viability by using a qualitative cultivation assay. Second, to characterise the cellular damages by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which were caused by the space and Mars-analogue exposure conditions of LIFE. Since the algal symbiont of lichens is considered as the more susceptible partner (de Vera and Ott 2010), the analyses focused on the photobiont. The study demonstrated growth and proliferation of the isolated photobiont after all exposure conditions of LIFE. The ultrastructural analysis of the algal cells provided an insight to cellular damages caused by long-term exposure and highlighted that desiccation-induced breakdown of cellular integrity is more pronounced under the more severe space vacuum than under Mars-analogue atmospheric conditions. In conclusion, desiccation-induced damages were identified as a major threat to the photobiont of X. elegans. Nonetheless, a fraction of the photobiont cells remained cultivable after all exposure conditions tested in LIFE.

  9. Culture and error in space: implications from analog environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R L

    2000-09-01

    An ongoing study investigating national, organizational, and professional cultures in aviation and medicine is described. Survey data from 26 nations on 5 continents show highly significant national differences regarding appropriate relationships between leaders and followers, in group vs. individual orientation, and in values regarding adherence to rules and procedures. These findings replicate earlier research on dimensions of national culture. Data collected also isolate significant operational issues in multi-national flight crews. While there are no better or worse cultures, these cultural differences have operational implications for the way crews function in an international space environment. The positive professional cultures of pilots and physicians exhibit a high enjoyment of the job and professional pride. However, a negative component was also identified characterized by a sense of personal invulnerability regarding the effects of stress and fatigue on performance. This misperception of personal invulnerability has operational implications such as failures in teamwork and increased probability of error. A second component of the research examines team error in operational environments. From observational data collected during normal flight operations, new models of threat and error and their management were developed that can be generalized to operations in space and other socio-technological domains. Five categories of crew error are defined and their relationship to training programs in team performance, known generically as Crew Resource Management, is described. The relevance of these data for future spaceflight is discussed.

  10. Adaptation of radiation shielding code to space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Koichi; Hara, Akihisa

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the trend to the development of space has heightened. To the development of space, many problems are related, and as one of them, there is the protection from cosmic ray. The cosmic ray is the radiation having ultrahigh energy, and there was not the radiation shielding design code that copes with cosmic ray so far. Therefore, the high energy radiation shielding design code for accelerators was improved so as to cope with the peculiarity that cosmic ray possesses. Moreover, the calculation of the radiation dose equivalent rate in the moon base to which the countermeasures against cosmic ray were taken was simulated by using the improved code. As the important countermeasures for the safety protection from radiation, the covering with regolith is carried out, and the effect of regolith was confirmed by using the improved code. Galactic cosmic ray, solar flare particles, radiation belt, the adaptation of the radiation shielding code HERMES to space environment, the improvement of the three-dimensional hadron cascade code HETCKFA-2 and the electromagnetic cascade code EGS 4-KFA, and the cosmic ray simulation are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Farming of Vegetables in Space-Limited Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Vegetables that contain most of the essential components of human nutrition are perishable and cannot be stocked. To secure vegetable supply in space limited cities such as Singapore, there are different farming methods to produce vegetables. These include low-cost urban community gardening and innovative rooftop and vertical farms integrated with various technologies such as hydroponics, aquaponics and aeroponics. However, for large-scale vegetable production in space-limited Singapore, we need to develop farming systems that not only increase productivity many-fold per unit of land but also produce all types of vegetable, all year-round for today and the future. This could be resolved through integrated vertical aeroponic farming system. Manipulation of root-zone (RZ) environments such as cooling the RZ, modifying mineral nutrients and introducing elevated RZ CO2 using aeroponics can further boost crop productivity beyond what can be achieved from more efficient use of land area. We could also adopt energy saving light emitting diodes (LEDs) for vertical aeroponic farming system to promote uniform growth and to improve the utilisation of limited space via shortening the growth cycle, thus improving vegetable production in a cost-effective manner.

  12. Exposure research going mobile: A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in a convergent media environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohme, J.; Albæk, E.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    In today’s convergent media environment, media exposure becomes increasingly channel-independent and social media-bound, and media content is more frequently accessed on mobile devices. This calls for new approaches to measuring media exposure. This study applies an innovative approach to survey (n

  13. Protection from Induced Space Environments Effects on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Stegall, Courtney; Schmidl, Danny; Huang, Alvin; Olsen, Randy; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is one of the largest, most complex multinational scientific projects in history and protection from induced space environments effects is critical to its long duration mission as well as to the health of the vehicle and safety of on-orbit operations. This paper discusses some of the unique challenges that were encountered during the design, assembly and operation of the ISS and how they were resolved. Examples are provided to illustrate the issues and the risk mitigation strategies that were developed to resolve these issues. Of particular importance are issues related with the interaction of multiple spacecraft as in the case of ISS and Visiting Vehicles transporting crew, hardware elements, cargo and scientific payloads. These strategies are applicable to the development of future long duration space systems, not only during design, but also during assembly and operation of these systems.

  14. ICRP PUBLICATION 123: Assessment of Radiation Exposure of Astronauts in Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Bartlett, D.T.; Cool, D.A.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Jia, X.; McAulay, I.R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Petrov, V.; Reitz, G.; Sato, T.

    2013-01-01

    During their occupational activities in space, astronauts are exposed to ionising radiation from natural radiation sources present in this environment. They are, however, not usually classified as being occupationally exposed in the sense of the general ICRP system for radiation protection of workers applied on Earth. The exposure assessment and risk-related approach described in this report is clearly restricted to the special situation in space, and should not be applied to any other exposure situation on Earth. The report describes the terms and methods used to assess the radiation exposure of astronauts, and provides data for the assessment of organ doses. Chapter 1 describes the specific situation of astronauts in space, and the differences in the radiation fields compared with those on Earth. In Chapter 2, the radiation fields in space are described in detail, including galactic cosmic radiation, radiation from the Sun and its special solar particle events, and the radiation belts surrounding the Earth. Chapter 3 deals with the quantities used in radiological protection, describing the Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) system of dose quantities, and subsequently presenting the special approach for applications in space; due to the strong contribution of heavy ions in the radiation field, radiation weighting is based on the radiation quality factor, Q, instead of the radiation weighting factor, w R . In Chapter 4, the methods of fluence and dose measurement in space are described, including instrumentation for fluence measurements, radiation spectrometry, and area and individual monitoring. The use of biomarkers for the assessment of mission doses is also described. The methods of determining quantities describing the radiation fields within a spacecraft are given in Chapter 5. Radiation transport calculations are the most important tool. Some physical data used in radiation transport codes are presented, and the various codes used for calculations in high

  15. Applicability of Long Duration Exposure Facility environmental effects data to the design of Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Lu, Cheng-Yi; Aronoff, Irene

    1992-01-01

    Data defining space environmental effects on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are examined in terms of the design of the electrical power system (EPS) of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The significant effects of long-term exposure to space are identified with respect to the performance of the LDEF's materials, components, and systems. A total of 57 experiments were conducted on the LDEF yielding information regarding coatings, thermal systems, electronics, optics, and power systems. The resulting database is analyzed in terms of the specifications of the SSF EPS materials and subsystems and is found to be valuable in the design of control and protection features. Specific applications are listed for findings regarding the thermal environment, atomic oxygen, UV and ionizing radiation, debris, and contamination. The LDEF data are shown to have a considerable number of applications to the design and planning of the SSF and its EPS.

  16. DEGAS: Dynamic Exascale Global Address Space Programming Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-02-23

    The Dynamic, Exascale Global Address Space programming environment (DEGAS) project will develop the next generation of programming models and runtime systems to meet the challenges of Exascale computing. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics.

  17. Astronauts Need Their Rest Too: Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The success and effectiveness of human space flight depends on astronauts' ability to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance. This alert state ensures the proper operation of sophisticated instrumentation. An important way for humans to remedy fatigue and maintain alertness is to get plenty of rest. Astronauts, however, commonly experience difficulty sleeping while in space. During flight, they may also experience disruption of the body's circadian rhythm - the natural phases the body goes through every day as we oscillate between states of high activity during the waking day and recuperation, rest, and repair during nighttime sleep. Both of these factors are associated with impairment of alertness and performance, which could have important consequences during a mission in space. The human body was designed to sleep at night and be alert and active during the day. We receive these cues from the time of day or amount of light, such as the rising or setting of the sun. However, in the environment of the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station where light levels are highly variable, the characteristics of a 24-hour light/dark cycle are not present to cue the astronauts' bodies about what time of the day it is. Astronauts orbiting Earth see a sunset and sunrise every 90 minutes, sending potentially disruptive signals to the area of the brain that regulates sleep. On STS-107, researchers will measure sleep-wake activity with state-of-the-art technology to quantify how much sleep astronauts obtain in space. Because light is the most powerful time cue to the body's circadian system, individual light exposure patterns of the astronauts will also be monitored to determine if light exposure is associated with sleep disruption. The results of this research could lead to the development of a new treatment for sleep disturbances, enabling crewmembers to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance due to sleep deprivation. What we learn

  18. Electro-Mechanical Systems for Extreme Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Tyler, Tony R.; Abel, Phillip B.; Levanas, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond low earth orbit presents challenges for hardware that must operate in extreme environments. The current state of the art is to isolate and provide heating for sensitive hardware in order to survive. However, this protection results in penalties of weight and power for the spacecraft. This is particularly true for electro-mechanical based technology such as electronics, actuators and sensors. Especially when considering distributed electronics, many electro-mechanical systems need to be located in appendage type locations, making it much harder to protect from the extreme environments. The purpose of this paper to describe the advances made in the area of developing electro-mechanical technology to survive these environments with minimal protection. The Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), the Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Aeroflex, Inc. over the last few years have worked to develop and test electro-mechanical hardware that will meet the stringent environmental demands of the moon, and which can also be leveraged for other challenging space exploration missions. Prototype actuators and electronics have been built and tested. Brushless DC actuators designed by Aeroflex, Inc have been tested with interface temperatures as low as 14 degrees Kelvin. Testing of the Aeroflex design has shown that a brushless DC motor with a single stage planetary gearbox can operate in low temperature environments for at least 120 million cycles (measured at motor) if long life is considered as part of the design. A motor control distributed electronics concept developed by JPL was built and operated at temperatures as low as -160 C, with many components still operational down to -245 C. Testing identified the components not capable of meeting the low temperature goal of -230 C. This distributed controller is universal in design with the ability to control different types of motors and read many different types of sensors. The controller

  19. Secondary electron emission and its role in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němeček, Z.; Pavlů, J.; Richterová, I.; Šafránková, J.; Vaverka, J.

    2018-01-01

    The role of dust in the space environment is of increasing interest in recent years and also the fast development of fusion devices with a magnetic confinement brought new issues in the plasma-surface interaction. Among other processes, secondary electron emission plays an important role for dust charging in interplanetary space and its importance increases at and above the surfaces of airless bodies like planets, moons, comets or asteroids. A similar situation can be found in many industrial applications where the dust is a final product or an unintentional impurity. The present paper reviews the progress in laboratory investigations of the secondary emission process as well as an evolution of the modeling of the interaction of energetic electrons with dust grains of different materials and sizes. The results of the model are discussed in view of latest laboratory simulations and they are finally applied on the estimation of an interaction of the solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas with the dust attached to or levitating above the lunar surface.

  20. OverView of Space Applications for Environment (SAFE) initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Ko; Fukuda, Toru; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sobue, Shinichi; Nukui, Tomoyuki

    2014-06-01

    Climate change and human activities have a direc or indirect influence on the acceleration of environmental problems and natural hazards such as forest fires, draughts and floods in the Asia-Pacific countries. Satellite technology has become one of the key information sources in assessment, monitoring and mitigation of these disasters and related phenomenon. However, there are still gaps between science and application of satellite technology in real-world usage. Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) recommended to initiate the Space Applications for Environment (SAFE) proposal providing opportunity to potential user agencies in the Asia Pacific region to develop prototype applications of satellite technology for number of key issues including forest resources management, coastal monitoring and management, agriculture and food security, water resource management and development user-friendly tools for application of satellite technology. This paper describes the overview of SAFE initiative and outcomes of two selected prototypes; agricultural drought monitoring in Indonesia and coastal management in Sri Lanka, as well as the current status of on-going prototypes.

  1. Fiber-based laser MOPA transmitter packaging for space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Gonzales, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Fahey, Molly; Plants, Michael; Rodriguez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Abshire, James; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Hariharan, Anand; Mamakos, William; Bean, Brian

    2018-02-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing lidar to remotely measure CO2 and CH4 in the Earth's atmosphere. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. We are working on maturing the technology readiness of a fiber-based, 1.57-micron wavelength laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. To this end, we are building a ruggedized prototype to demonstrate the required power and performance and survive the required environment. We are building a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture. The laser is a wavelength-locked, single frequency, externally modulated DBR operating at 1.57-micron followed by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The last amplifier stage is a polarization-maintaining, very-large-mode-area fiber with 1000 μm2 effective area pumped by a Raman fiber laser. The optical output is single-frequency, one microsecond pulses with >450 μJ pulse energy, 7.5 KHz repetition rate, single spatial mode, and < 20 dB polarization extinction.

  2. Robust free-space optical communication for indoor information environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Toyohisa; Itoh, Hideo; Kunifuji, Susumu; Nakashima, Hideyuki

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of our study is to establish a robust communication, while keeping security and privacy, between a handheld communicator and the surrounding information environment. From the viewpoint of low power consumption, we have been developing a reflectivity modulating communication module composed of a liquid crystal light modulator and a corner-reflecting mirror sheet. We installed a corner-reflecting sheet instead of light scattering sheet in a handheld videogame machine with a display screen with a reflection-type liquid crystal. Infrared (IR) LED illuminator attached next to the IR camera of a base station illuminates all the room, and the terminal send their data to the base station by switching ON and OFF of the reflected IR beam. Intensity of reflected light differs with the position and the direction of the terminal, and sometimes the intensity of OFF signal at a certain condition is brighter than that of ON signal at another condition. To improve the communication quality, use of machine learning technique is a possibility of the solution. In this paper, we compare various machine learning techniques for the purpose of free space optical communication, and propose a new algorithm that improves the robustness of the data link. Evaluation using an actual free-space communication system is also described.

  3. OverView of Space Applications for Environment (SAFE) initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Ko; Fukuda, Toru; Nukui, Tomoyuki; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sobue, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and human activities have a direc or indirect influence on the acceleration of environmental problems and natural hazards such as forest fires, draughts and floods in the Asia-Pacific countries. Satellite technology has become one of the key information sources in assessment, monitoring and mitigation of these disasters and related phenomenon. However, there are still gaps between science and application of satellite technology in real-world usage. Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) recommended to initiate the Space Applications for Environment (SAFE) proposal providing opportunity to potential user agencies in the Asia Pacific region to develop prototype applications of satellite technology for number of key issues including forest resources management, coastal monitoring and management, agriculture and food security, water resource management and development user-friendly tools for application of satellite technology. This paper describes the overview of SAFE initiative and outcomes of two selected prototypes; agricultural drought monitoring in Indonesia and coastal management in Sri Lanka, as well as the current status of on-going prototypes

  4. Thermal System Upgrade of the Space Environment Simulation Test Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ashok B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the refurbishing and upgrade of the thermal system for the existing thermal vacuum test facility, the Space Environment Simulator, at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The chamber is the largest such facility at the center. This upgrade is the third phase of the long range upgrade of the chamber that has been underway for last few years. The first phase dealt with its vacuum system, the second phase involved the GHe subsystem. The paper describes the considerations of design philosophy options for the thermal system; approaches taken and methodology applied, in the evaluation of the remaining "life" in the chamber shrouds and related equipment by conducting special tests and studies; feasibility and extent of automation, using computer interfaces and Programmable Logic Controllers in the control system and finally, matching the old components to the new ones into an integrated, highly reliable and cost effective thermal system for the facility. This is a multi-year project just started and the paper deals mainly with the plans and approaches to implement the project successfully within schedule and costs.

  5. Modeling exposures to organophosphates and pyrethroids for children living in an urban low-income environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide exposure in urban low-income residential environments may be elevated as a result of persistent application due to severe pest infestation. Children living in this environment may be a sensitive subpopulation for these non-dietary exposures, due to their physiological a...

  6. SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENT MONITORED BY KITSAT-1 AND KITSAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Shin

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of space radiation experiments carried out on board the first two Korean technology demonstration microsatellites are presented in this paper. The first satellite, KITSAT-1, launched in August 1992, carries a radiation monitoring payload called cosmic ray experiment(CRE for characterizing the low-earth orbit(LEO radiation environment. The CRE consists of two sub-systems: the cosmic particle experiment (CPE and the total dose experiment(TDE. In addition, single event upset(SEUrates of the program memory and the RAM disk are also monitored. The second satellite, KITSAT-2, launched in September 1993, carries a newly developed 32-bit on-board computer(OBC, KASCOM(KAIST satellite computer in addition to OBC186. SEUs ocurred in the KASCOM, as well as in the program memory and RAM disk memory, have been monitored since the beginning of the satellite operation. These two satellites, which are very similar in structures but different in orbits, provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of the radiation environment characterized by the orbit.

  7. Exercise during long term exposure to space: Value of exercise during space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    There appear to be two general physiological reasons why exercise will be beneficial to space travelers who will experience a weightless and isolated environment for many months or a few years: (1) to alleviate or prevent tissue atrophy (principally bone and muscle), to maintain cardiovascular function, and to prevent deleterious changes in extracellular and cellular fluid volumes and plasma constituents, especially electrolytes; and (2) to maintain whole organism functional physical and physiological status with special reference to neuromuscular coordination (physical skill) and physical fitness (muscle strength and power, flexibility, and aerobic endurance). The latter reason also relates well to the ability of the crew members to resist both general and local fatigue and thus ensure consistent physical performance. Various forms of exercise, performed regularly, could help alleviate boredom and assist the travelers in coping with stress, anxiety, and depression. The type, frequency, duration and intensity of exercise and ways of ensuring that crew members engage in it are discussed.

  8. SPACE, COLOR AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN A NUBIAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Kamel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Nubians relocated after the construction of the High Dam South of Aswan to a completely different setting, adjusted with difficulty to their new environment and changed part of it to suit their needs. This paper is a longitudinal study; it deals with the issue of continuity in the patterns of lifestyle within the present Egyptian Nubian community. The aim is to seek evidence on such continuity and to explain the repercussions of previous socio-economic values on the actual residential built and lived-in environment. The methodology is based on earlier studies that were done before relocation and immediately after, also on site visits made by the authors to detect the current aspects of the built-environment. The field study focuses on changes made to the interior and exterior spaces, on the use of decorative patterns and color of the walls and on the residents’ lifestyle. The tools for data gathering are annotated photographs and semi-structured interviews. The cases are chosen from a random sample in one of the 33 villages that constitute the Kom-Ombo site – the village of Eneba (Aniba. Results show evidence of change in all investigated aspects with a slight continuity in some of the culturally related values.

  9. VirtualSpace: A vision of a machine-learned virtual space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnik, J.; Sarno-Smith, L. K.; Chu, X.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Space borne instrumentation tends to come and go. A typical instrument will go through a phase of design and construction, be deployed on a spacecraft for several years while it collects data, and then be decommissioned and fade into obscurity. The data collected from that instrument will typically receive much attention while it is being collected, perhaps in the form of event studies, conjunctions with other instruments, or a few statistical surveys, but once the instrument or spacecraft is decommissioned, the data will be archived and receive progressively less attention with every passing year. This is the fate of all historical data, and will be the fate of data being collected by instruments even at the present time. But what if those instruments could come alive, and all be simultaneously present at any and every point in time and space? Imagine the scientific insights, and societal gains that could be achieved with a grand (virtual) heliophysical observatory that consists of every current and historical mission ever deployed? We propose that this is not just fantasy but is imminently doable with the data currently available, with the present computational resources, and with currently available algorithms. This project revitalizes existing data resources and lays the groundwork for incorporating data from every future mission to expand the scope and refine the resolution of the virtual observatory. We call this project VirtualSpace: a machine-learned virtual space environment.

  10. The Value of Biomedical Simulation Environments to Future Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Myers, Jerry G.; Skytland, Nicholas G.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    With the ambitious goals to send manned missions to asteroids and onto Mars, substantial work will be required to ensure the well being of the men and women who will undertake these difficult missions. Unlike current International Space Station or Shuttle missions, astronauts will be required to endure long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation, isolation and reduced gravity. These new operation conditions will pose health risks that are currently not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. Therefore, it is essential to develop and apply advanced tools to predict, assess and mitigate potential hazards to astronaut health. NASA s Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working to develop and apply computational models of physiologic response to space flight operation conditions over various time periods and environmental circumstances. The collective application and integration of well vetted models assessing the physiology, biomechanics and anatomy is referred to as the Digital Astronaut. The Digital Astronaut simulation environment will serve as a practical working tool for use by NASA in operational activities such as the prediction of biomedical risks and functional capabilities of astronauts. In additional to space flight operation conditions, DAP s work has direct applicability to terrestrial biomedical research by providing virtual environments for hypothesis testing, experiment design, and to reduce animal/human testing. A practical application of the DA to assess pre and post flight responses to exercise is illustrated and the difficulty in matching true physiological responses is discussed.

  11. On public space design for Chinese urban residential area based on integrated architectural physics environment evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Tan, Y. T.; Xin, L. S.

    2017-04-01

    The residential public space is an important part in designing the ecological residence, and a proper physics environment of public space is of greater significance to urban residence in China. Actually, the measure to apply computer aided design software into residential design can effectively avoid an inconformity of design intent with actual using condition, and a negative impact on users due to bad architectural physics environment of buildings, etc. The paper largely adopts a design method of analyzing architectural physics environment of residential public space. By analyzing and evaluating various physics environments, a suitability assessment is obtained for residential public space, thereby guiding the space design.

  12. Adaptive Changes In Postural Equilibrium And Motion Sickness Following Repeated Exposures To Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Changes in the environmental sensory stimulus conditions and the way we interact with the new stimuli may result in motion sickness, and perceptual, spatial orientation and sensorimotor disturbances. Initial interpretation of novel sensory information may be inappropriate and result in perceptual errors. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, unilateral labyrinthectomy and experimentally produced stimulus rearrangements. Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays, and to examine the effects of exposure duration, and repeated exposures to VR systems. Forty-one subjects (21 men, 20 women) participated in the study with an age range of 21-49 years old. One training session was completed in order to achieve stable performance on the posture and VR tasks before participating in the experimental sessions. Three experimental sessions were performed each separated by one day. The subjects performed a navigation and pick and place task in either a dome or head-mounted display

  13. Free-space optical channel characterization in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2017-12-28

    Recently, FSO (Free-Space Optical Communication) has received a lot of attention thanks to its high data-rate transmission via unbounded unlicensed bandwidth. However, some weather conditions lead to significant degradation of the FSO link performance. Based on this context and in order to have a better understanding of the capabilities of FSO communication in a coastal environment, the effects of temperature and humidity on an FSO system are investigated in this study. An experiment is conducted using an open source FSO system that achieves a transmission rate of 1 Gbit/s at a distance of 70 m. Two new mathematical models are proposed to represent the effects of temperature and humidity on our developed FSO system operating at a wavelength of 1 550 nm. The first model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the air temperature in coastal regions, while the second model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the humidity and the dew-point temperature. The key finding of this study is that FSO links can achieve maximum availability in a coastal city with normal variations in temperature and humidity.

  14. Exposure Research Going Mobile: A Smartphone-Based Measurement of Media Exposure to Political Information in a Convergent Media Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, J.; Albaek, E.; H. de Vreese, C.

    2016-01-01

    platform modes. The study furthermore confirms limitations of mere usage time measurements of social media platforms in effects research and explores a range of actual content types that citizens encounter in social networks. It recommends more frequent use of mobile exposure measurements and argues...... for a content-related assessment of social media use in effects research. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.......In today’s convergent media environment, media exposure becomes increasingly channel-independent and social media-bound, and media content is more frequently accessed on mobile devices. This calls for new approaches to measuring media exposure. This study applies an innovative approach to survey (n...

  15. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  16. Heliosheath Space Environment Interactions with Icy Bodies in the Outermost Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Hill, Matthew E.; Richardson, John D.; Sturner, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    The Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are exploring the space environment of the outermost solar system at the same time that earth-based astronomy continues to discover new icy bodies, one larger than Pluto, in the transitional region outward from the Classical Kuiper Belt to the Inner Oort Cloud. Some of the Scattered Disk Objects in this region periodically pass through the heliosheath, entered by Voyager 1 in Dec. 2004 and later expected to be reached by Voyager 2, and out even beyond the heliopause into the Very Local Interstellar Medium. The less energetic heliosheath ions, important for implantation and sputtering processes, are abundant near and beyond the termination shock inner boundary, but the source region of the more penetrating anomalous cosmic ray component has not yet been found. Advantageous for modeling of icy body interactions, the measured heliosheath flux spectra are relatively more stable within this new regime of isotropic compressional magnetic turbulence than in the upstream heliospheric environment. The deepest interactions and resultant radiation-induced chemistry arise from the inwardly diffusing component of the galactic cosmic ray ions with significant intensity modulation also arising in the heliosheath beyond Voyager 1. Surface gardening by high-velocity impacts of smaller bodies (e.g., fragments of previous KBO collisions) and dust is a further space weathering process setting the time scales for long term exposure of different regolith layers to the ion irradiation. Sputtering and ionization of impact ejecta grains may provide a substantial feedback of pickup ions for multiple cycles of heliosheath acceleration and icy body interaction. Thus the space weathering interactions are potentially of interest not only for effects on sensible surface composition of the icy bodies but also for evolution of the heliosheath plasma energetic ion, and neutral emission environment.

  17. Design of the Experimental Exposure Conditions to Simulate Ionizing Radiation Effects on Candidate Replacement Materials for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. Montgomery

    1998-09-01

    In this effort, experimental exposure times for monoenergetic electrons and protons were determined to simulate the space radiation environment effects on Teflon components of the Hubble Space Telescope. Although the energy range of the available laboratory particle accelerators was limited, optimal exposure times for 50 keV, 220 keV, 350 keV, and 500 KeV electrons were calculated that produced a dose-versus-depth profile that approximated the full spectrum profile, and were realizable with existing equipment. For the case of proton exposure, the limited energy range of the laboratory accelerator restricted simulation of the dose to a depth of .5 mil. Also, while optimal exposure times were found for 200 keV, 500 keV and 700 keV protons that simulated the full spectrum dose-versus-depth profile to this depth, they were of such short duration that the existing laboratory could not be controlled to within the required accuracy. In addition to the obvious experimental issues, other areas exist in which the analytical work could be advanced. Improved computer codes for the dose prediction- along with improved methodology for data input and output- would accelerate and make more accurate the calculational aspects. This is particularly true in the case of proton fluxes where a paucity of available predictive software appears to exist. The dated nature of many of the existing Monte Carlo particle/radiation transport codes raises the issue as to whether existing codes are sufficient for this type of analysis. Other areas that would result in greater fidelity of laboratory exposure effects to the space environment is the use of a larger number of monoenergetic particle fluxes and improved optimization algorithms to determine the weighting values.

  18. An approach for assessing human exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Glenn; MacDonell, Margaret; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Teuschler, Linda; Picel, Kurt; Butler, Jim; Chang, Young-Soo; Hartmann, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to multiple chemicals, including incidental exposures to complex chemical mixtures released into the environment and to combinations of chemicals that already co-exist in the environment because of previous releases from various sources. Exposures to chemical mixtures can occur through multiple pathways and across multiple routes. In this paper, we propose an iterative approach for assessing exposures to environmental chemical mixtures; it is similar to single-chemical approaches. Our approach encompasses two elements of the Risk Assessment Paradigm: Problem Formulation and Exposure Assessment. Multiple phases of the assessment occur in each element of the paradigm. During Problem Formulation, analysts identify and characterize the source(s) of the chemical mixture, ensure that dose-response and exposure assessment measures are concordant, and develop a preliminary evaluation of the mixture's fate. During Exposure Assessment, analysts evaluate the fate of the chemicals comprising the mixture using appropriate models and measurement data, characterize the exposure scenario, and estimate human exposure to the mixture. We also describe the utility of grouping the chemicals to be analyzed based on both physical-chemical properties and an understanding of environmental fate. In the article, we also highlight the need for understanding of changes in the mixture composition in the environment due to differential transport, differential degradation, and differential partitioning to other media. The section describes the application of the method to various chemical mixtures, highlighting issues associated with assessing exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment

  19. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  20. Exposure of space electronics and materials to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    Describes the methods and sources available for irradiation of space instruments developed at the Department of Automation. Methods for calculations and measurements of fluences and doses are also described. The sources are gamma-rays from iridium-192 and cobalt-60, 30 MeV protons, 10 MeV electrons...

  1. Cytogenetic examination of cosmonauts for space radiation exposure estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigiryova, G. P.; Novitskaya, N. N.; Fedorenko, B. S.

    2012-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate radiation induced chromosome aberration frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cosmonauts who participated in flights on Mir Orbital Station and ISS (International Space Station). Materials and methodsCytogenetic examination which has been performed in the period 1992-2008 included the analysis of chromosome aberrations using conventional Giemsa staining method in 202 blood samples from 48 cosmonauts who participated in flights on Mir Orbital Station and ISS. ResultsSpace flights led to an increase of chromosome aberration frequency. Frequency of dicentrics plus centric rings (Dic+Rc) depend on the space flight duration and accumulated dose value. After the change of space stations (from Mir Orbital Station to ISS) the radiation load of cosmonauts based on data of cytogenetic examination decreased. Extravehicular activity also adds to chromosome aberration frequency in cosmonauts' blood lymphocytes. Average doses after the first flight, estimated by the frequency of Dic+Rc, were 227 and 113 mGy Eq for long-term flights (LTF) and 107 and 53 mGy Eq for short-term flights (STF). ConclusionCytogenetic examination of cosmonauts can be applied to assess equivalent doses.

  2. Prediction of LDEF exposure to the ionizing radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, J. W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the LDEF mission's trapped proton and electron and galactic cosmic ray proton exposures have been made using the currently accepted models with improved resolution near mission end and better modeling of solar cycle effects. An extension of previous calculations, to provide a more definitive description of the LDEF exposure to ionizing radiation, is represented by trapped proton and electron flux as a function of mission time, presented considering altitude and solar activity variation during the mission and the change in galactic cosmic ray proton flux over the mission. Modifications of the AP8MAX and AP8MIN fluence led to a reduction of fluence by 20%. A modified interpolation model developed by Daly and Evans resulted in 30% higher dose and activation levels, which better agreed with measured values than results predicted using the Vette model.

  3. Modeling of Complex Material Systems in Extreme Environments for Space Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Among the many enabling technologies of space research is the design of materials which are stable in the environments of interest for a given application. At the...

  4. A Comprehensive CFD Tool for Aerothermal Environment Around Space Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this SBIR project is to develop an innovative, high fidelity computational tool for accurate prediction of aerothermal environment around space vehicles....

  5. Space Environment Automated Alerts and Anomaly Analysis Assistant (SEA^5) for NASA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a comprehensive analysis and dissemination system (Space Environment Automated Alerts  & Anomaly Analysis Assistant: SEA5) that will...

  6. A Comprehensive CFD Tool for Aerothermal Environment Around Space Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this SBIR project is to develop an innovative, high fidelity computational tool for accurate prediction of aerothermal environment around space vehicles....

  7. The effect of randomised exposure to different types of natural outdoor environments compared to exposure to an urban environment on people with indications of psychological distress in Catalonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Triguero-Mas

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have reported associations between short-term exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE and health benefits. However, they lack insight into mechanisms, often have low external and ecological validity, and have rarely focused on people with some psycho-physiological affection. The aim of this study was to use a randomized, case-crossover design to investigate: (i the effects of unconstrained exposure to real natural and urban environments on psycho-physiological indicators of people with indications of psychological distress, (ii the possible differential effects of 30 and 30+180 minutes exposures, and (iii the possible mechanisms explaining these effects.People (n = 26 with indications of psychological distress were exposed to green (Collserola Natural Park, blue (Castelldefels beach and urban (Eixample neighbourhood environments in Catalonia. They were exposed to all environments in groups for a period of 30+180 minutes between October 2013 and January 2014. During the exposure period, participants were instructed to do what they would usually do in that environment. Before, during (at 30 and 30+180 minutes and after each exposure, several psycho-physiological measures were taken: mood (measured as Total Mood Disturbance, TMD, attention capacity (measured as backwards digit-span task, stress levels (measures as salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, autonomous nervous system (assessed as heart rate variability and the indicators: low frequency power (LF, high frequency power (HF, ratio between LF and HF (LF:HF, and coefficients of component variance of LF, HF, and LF:HF. We also measured several potential mediators: air pollution, noise, physical activity, social interactions, and self-perceived restoration experience.When compared with responses to urban environment, we found statistically significantly lower TMD [-4.78 (-7.77, -1.79 points difference], and salivary cortisol [-0.21 (-0

  8. Gene-environment interaction and biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Ari

    2005-01-01

    Biological monitoring methods and biological limit values applied in occupational and environmental medicine have been traditionally developed on the assumption that individuals do not differ significantly in their biotransformation capacities. It has become clear, however, that this is not the case, but wide inter-individual differences exist in the metabolism of chemicals. Integration of the data on individual metabolic capacity in biological monitoring studies is therefore anticipated to represent a significant refinement of the currently used methods. We have recently conducted several biological monitoring studies on occupationally exposed subjects, which have included the determination of the workers' genotypes for the metabolic genes of potential importance for a given chemical exposure. The exposure levels have been measured by urine metabolites, adducts in blood macromolecules, and cytogenetic alterations in lymphocytes. Our studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms in metabolic genes may indeed be important modifiers of individual biological monitoring results of, e.g., carbon disulphide and styrene. The information is anticipated to be useful in insuring that the workplace is safe for everyone, including the most sensitive individuals. This knowledge could also be useful to occupational physicians, industrial hygienists, and regulatory bodies in charge of defining acceptable exposure limits for environmental and/or occupational pollutants

  9. Profile analysis of after-effects experienced during exposure to several virtual reality environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Jones, Marshall B.; Lilienthal, Michael G.; Harm, Deborah L.

    1994-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms are an unwanted by-product of exposure to virtual environments. This problem is not new and was reported in the early flight simulators and experiments on ego motions and vection. The cardinal symptom of motion sickness is, of course, vomiting, but this symptom is ordinarily preceded by a variety of other symptoms. In his classic studies of motion sickness conducted before and during World War II, G. R. Wendt introduced a three point scale to score motion sickness beyond a vomit/no vomit dichotomy. Later, Navy scientists developed a Motion Sickness Questionnaire (MSQ), originally for use in a slowly rotating room. In the last 20 years the MSQ has been used in a series of studies of air, sea, and space sickness. Only recently, however, has it been appreciated that symptom patterns in the MSQ are not uniform but vary with the way sickness is induced. In seasickness, for example, nausea is the most prominent symptom. In Navy simulators, however, the most common symptom is eye strain, especially when cathode ray tubes are employed in the simulation. The latter result was obtained in a survey of over 1,500 pilot exposures. Using this database, Essex scientists conducted a factor analysis of the MSQ. We found that signs and symptoms of motion sickness fell mainly into three clusters: 1) oculomotor disturbance, 2) nausea and related neurovegetative problems, and 3) disorientation, ataxia, and vertigo. We have since rescored the MSQ results obtained in Navy simulators in terms of these three components. We have also compared these and other profiles obtained from three different vitual reality systems to profiles obtained in sea sickness, space sickness, and alcohol intoxication. We will show examples of these various profiles and point out simularities and differences among them which indicate aspects of what might be called 'virtual-reality sickness'.

  10. HUMAN EXPOSURE TO THE ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vukanac

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial radionuclides are product of different human activities and their presence in the environment is negative side effect of civilization progress. They have been spread in the environment by events such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and by deliberate and negligent discharge of radioactive waste from nuclear and other installation. Once released in to the nature, the artificial radionuclides start to circle in the same manner as naturally occurring ones, and finally they fall out from air and water onto the ground and build into the foodstuff and drinking water resulting in radiation doses to human beings. The short overview of presence of artificial radioactivity in human environment and its impact on human life is presented in this paper.

  11. HUMAN EXPOSURE TO THE ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vukanac

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial radionuclides are product of different human activities and their presence in the environment is negative side effect of civilization progress. They have been spread in the environment by events such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and by deliberate and negligent discharge of radioactive waste from nuclear and other installation. Once released in to the nature, the artificial radionuclides start to circle in the same manner as naturally occurring ones, and finally they fall out from air and water onto the ground and build into the foodstuff and drinking water resulting in radiation doses to human beings. The short overview of presence of artificial radioactivity in human environment and its impact on human life is presented in this paper

  12. UTILITY OF SPLENIC MACROPHAGE AGGREGATES AS AN INDICATOR OF FISH EXPOSURE TO DEGRADED ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs) as an indicator of fish exposure to degraded environments was evaluated in several species of estuarine fishes as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Estuaries (EMAP-E)...

  13. 0173 Grouping strategies for exposure assessment of the psychosocial work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Morten Vejs; Schlünssen, Vivi; Basinas, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Individual response style, mood, expectations, and health status may affect reporting of the psychosocial work environment, and bias associations with outcomes. Reporting bias may be avoided by aggregating individual responses, ideally preserving exposure contrast. In this study, we e...

  14. Studies of Earth Space Environment and Sudden Disappearances of Solar Prominences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Tian-Sen

    2005-01-01

    With the support from AFOSR's Minority University Program, we worked on research of Sun-Earth space environment, conducted daily solar observation programs, improved solar instruments, and established...

  15. Stony meteoroid space erosion and drag: Effect on cosmic ray exposure ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2017-09-01

    Collisions with dust particles in retrograde orbits cause space erosion on stony meteoroids in addition to the particle drag which causes drift toward resonances. The spacing between resonances determines the maximum drift time and sets upper limits on the neon-21 cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages for meteoroids less than ∼1 m in radius, while space erosion controls the limit for radii greater than ∼1 m; the limits accord well with the measured CRE ages of stony meteorites.

  16. Exposure to 27 polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor environment of a workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Ebbehøj, N E; Göen, T

    2016-01-01

    -chlorinated congeners. Health effect from this little-acknowledged exposure has not yet been documented, but data supporting lack of effect are sparse and research generating information on effect of exposure to specific congeners including at levels relevant for the indoor environment should be encouraged....

  17. Research on the Design of Public Space Environment for Aging Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Soo, Kim Chul

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies the living space environment suitable for the elderly, because the elderly and the disabled have become increasingly prominent social problems. Through the discussion of the humanistic environment design method of the elderly and the disabled, the paper puts forward a new environment design which has the traditional characteristics and adapts to the new society to care for the elderly (the disabled).By studying and analyzing the background of social aging, the theory of public space environment design and the needs of the elderly, it is pointed out that the design of public space environment in the aged society needs to be implemented in detail design. The number of elderly people in public space will increase, give full attention to the public space outdoor environment quality, for the elderly to provide a variety of environmental facilities have long-term significance.

  18. Some technologically enhanced exposures to natural radiation environment in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Mishra, U.C.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of results of gamma spectrometric measurements of natural radioactivity in a number of coal and flyash samples from thermal power plants and phosphatic fertilizer samples collected from various fertilizer plants in India are presented. These constitute the sources of technologically enhanced exposures to natural radiation. A brief description of sampling and measurement procedures is given. The radiation doses to the population from coal burning for electricity generation have been calculated using the method outlined in UNSCEAR report of 1979 with corrections for local population density. The external radiation dose to the farmers has been calculated on the basis of usage of phosphatic fertilizers for rice, wheat, millets and sugarcane crops for the normal agricultural practices

  19. Exposure to public natural space as a protective factor for emotional well-being among young people in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Quynh; Craig, Wendy; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-04-29

    Positive emotional well-being is fundamentally important to general health status, and is linked to many favorable health outcomes. There is societal interest in understanding determinants of emotional well-being in adolescence, and the natural environment represents one potential determinant. Psychological and experimental research have each shown links between exposure to nature and both stress reduction and attention restoration. Some population studies have suggested positive effects of green space on various indicators of health. However, there are limited large-scale epidemiological studies assessing this relationship, specifically for populations of young people and in the Canadian context. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to public natural space and positive emotional well-being among young adolescent Canadians. This cross-sectional study was based upon the Canadian 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey with linked geographic information system (GIS) data. Following exclusions, the sample included 17 249 (grades 6 to 10, mostly ages 11 to 16) students from 317 schools. Features of the natural environment were extracted using GIS within a 5 km radius circular buffer surrounding each school. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the presence of public natural space (features include green and blue spaces such as parks, wooded areas, and water bodies) and students' reports of positive emotional well-being, while controlling for salient covariates and the clustered nature of the data. Over half of Canadian youth reported positive emotional well-being (58.5% among boys and 51.6% among girls). Relationships between measures of natural space and positive emotional well-being were weak and lacked consistency overall, but modest protective effects were observed in small cities. Positive emotional well-being was more strongly associated with other factors including

  20. Changes in the composition, structure and friction property of sputtered MoS2 films by LEO environment exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Hu, Ming; Sun, Jiayi; Fu, Yanlong; Yang, Jun; Liu, Weimin; Weng, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sputtered MoS 2 films were exposed in real low earth orbit (LEO) environment. • LEO exposure resulted in the oxidation and S loss of MoS 2 film surface. • Depth affected by the LEO exposure was limited within 10 nm. • The exposed MoS 2 film exhibited a slight increase in friction coefficient at initial sliding stage. - Abstract: Radio frequency-sputtered MoS 2 films had been exposed for 43.5 h in real low earth orbit (LEO) space environment by a space environment exposure device (SEED) aboard China Shenzhou-7 manned spaceship. The composition, morphology, phase structure and friction property of the exposed films were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and ball-on-disk tribometer. XRD and EDS results revealed that the as-deposited MoS 2 films were characterized by a MoS x O y phase structure, in which x and y values were determined to be ∼0.65 and 1.24, respectively. XPS analysis revealed that due to space atomic oxygen attack, the film surface was oxidized to MoO 3 and MoS x O y with higher O concentration, while the partial S was lost. However, the affected depth was restricted within the surface layer because of protective function of the oxidation layer. As a result, the friction coefficient only exhibited a slight increase at initial stage of sliding friction

  1. Progress in Space Weather Modeling and Observations Needed to Improve the Operational NAIRAS Model Aircraft Radiation Exposure Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Tobiska, W.; Xu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. Addressing these science questions require improvements in both space weather modeling and observations. The focus of this talk is to present these science questions, the proposed methodologies for addressing these science questions, and the anticipated improvements to the operational predictions of atmospheric radiation exposure. The overarching goal of this work is to provide a decision support tool for the aviation industry that will enable an optimal balance to be achieved between minimizing health risks to passengers and aircrew while simultaneously minimizing costs to the airline companies.

  2. Bio-Inspired Space Environment-Resistant Polymer Composite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Use of inorganic nanoparticles which have been recently explored for therapeutic purposes in the treatment of oxidative stress disorder, cancer and heart diseases...

  3. Fast Neutron Dosimeter for the Space Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model calculations and risk assessment estimates indicate that secondary neutrons, with energies ranging between 0.5 to >150 MeV, make a significant contribution...

  4. Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program delivers a completely new technology solution to isolation and sensing of power flow (current and voltage). Based on striction materials technology,...

  5. How can GPS technology help us better understand exposure to the food environment? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cetateanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Global Positioning Systems (GPS are increasingly being used to objectively assess movement patterns of people related to health behaviours. However research detailing their application to the food environment is scarce. This systematic review examines the application of GPS in studies of exposure to food environments and their potential influences on health. Methods: Based on an initial scoping exercise, published articles to be included in the systematic review were identified from four electronic databases and reference lists and were appraised and analysed, the final cut-off date for inclusion being January 2015. Included studies used GPS to identify location of individuals in relation to food outlets and link that to health or diet outcomes. They were appraised against a set of quality criteria. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria, which were appraised to be of moderate quality. Newer studies had a higher quality score. Associations between observed mobility patterns in the food environment and diet related outcomes were equivocal. Findings agreed that traditional food exposure measures overestimate the importance of the home food environment. Conclusions: The use of GPS to measure exposure to the food environment is still in its infancy yet holds much potential. There are considerable variations and challenges in developing and standardising the methods used to assess exposure. Keywords: Global positioning systems, Geographic information system, Food environments, Food exposure, Systematic review

  6. Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkins, Pamela; Badhwar, Gautam; Obot, Victor; Wilson, Bobby; Jejelewo, Olufisayo

    2001-08-01

    NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far, the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space, exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation

  7. Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkins, P.; Badhwar, G.; Obot, V.; Wilson, B.; Jejelewo, O.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far. the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space. exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation

  8. Using the FLUKA Monte Carlo Code to Simulate the Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter to Assist and Aid Our Understanding of Ground Based Accelerator Testing, Space Hardware Design, and Secondary Space Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Designing hardware to operate in the space radiation environment is a very difficult and costly activity. Ground based particle accelerators can be used to test for exposure to the radiation environment, one species at a time, however, the actual space environment cannot be duplicated because of the range of energies and isotropic nature of space radiation. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is an integrated physics package based at CERN that has been under development for the last 40+ years and includes the most up-to-date fundamental physics theory and particle physics data. This work presents an overview of FLUKA and how it has been used in conjunction with ground based radiation testing for NASA and improve our understanding of secondary particle environments resulting from the interaction of space radiation with matter.

  9. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure, COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method, Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE (Metal’s EASE, PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database, DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4:557–569

  10. Human homeostasis in the space environment: A systems synthesis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    The features of homeostatic changes which occur during adaptation to the weightless state are examined and the possible mechanisms underlying the responses are explored. Cardiac output, negative fluid balance, body weight, bone calcium, and muscle atrophy are discussed. Some testable hypotheses concerning possible effects on homeostasis that long-term exposure to weightlessness might cause are proposed.

  11. Comparison of Space Debris Environment Models: ORDEM2000, MASTER-2001, MASTER-2005 and MASTER-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemitsu, Yuki; 赤星, 保浩; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; 鳴海, 智博; Narumi, Tomohiro; Faure, Pauline; 松本, 晴久; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; 北澤, 幸人; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    2012-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact by space debris on spacecraft is one of the most important issues for space development and operation, especially considering the growing amount of space debris in recent years. It is therefore important for spacecraft design to evaluate the impact risk by using environment models. In this paper, the authors compared the results of the debris impact flux in low Earth orbit, as calculated by four debris environment engineering models -NASA's ORDEM2000 and ESA's MASTER-2001...

  12. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Lee, Myeongjee; Ye, Shinhee; Kwon, Jung-Hyun; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Yangho; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eunhee

    2018-01-09

    Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD), but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO₂ and PM 10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.219 (1.023-1.452) per 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 10 and 1.353 (1.027-1.782) per 10 ppb increase in NO₂. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999). The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM 10 and NO₂ exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify the association between TRAP exposure and infantile AD.

  13. Assessment of mankind's exposure through his environment: new tools and aid to decision - Colloquium report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry-Mieg, Morgane; Rousset, Marine; Varkados-Lemarechal, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    During this colloquium, the different sessions addressed environmental measurement strategies to assess mankind's exposure, the use and the interpretation of exposure bio-markers, the estimation and reconstruction of exposures (integrated modelling, model-measurement coupling), the organization and motives of dialogue between involved parties. Round tables addressed topics such as: measurement strategies and objectives, bio-availability of soil pollutants, approaches and tools for exposure assessment, new methodological strategies for the assessment of chemical exposure, interpretation of bio-markers, reference toxicological values, interest of bio-monitoring in professional environment, transcriptomic analysis, evolutions in the characterization of genotoxic hazards, a tool for the assessment of the exposure of newborn children to pesticides, and so on

  14. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses to Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Implications for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2018-01-01

    New initiatives to send humans to Mars within the next few decades are illustrative of the resurgence of interest in space travel. However, as with all exploration, there are risks. The Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts.

  15. 2004 Space Report: Environment and Strategy for Space Research at NATO's Research and Technology Organisation (RTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the motivation for and a strategy to enhance the NATO Research and Technology Organisation's (RTO) current space research effort to reflect NATO's growing military dependence on space systems. Such systems and services provided by these systems are critical elements of military operations. NATO uses space systems for operational planning and support, communication, radio navigation, multi-sensor and multi-domain demonstrations. Such systems are also used to promote regional stability. A quantitative analysis of work related to space in the NATO RTO showed that during the period of 1998 - 2004, 5% of the research pursued in the NATO RTO has been clearly focused on space applications. Challenging environmental and organizational barriers for increasing RTO space research were identified. In part, these include lack of sufficient space expertise representation on panels, the military sensitivity of space, current panel work loads and the need for specific technical recommendations from peers. A strategy for enhancing space research in the RTO is to create a limited-life Space Advisory Group (SAG) composed of Space Expert Consultants who are panel members with appropriate expertise and additional expertise from the nations. The SAG will recommend and find support in the nations for specific technical activities related to space in the areas of Space Science, Remote Sensing Data Analysis, Spacecraft Systems, Surveillance and Early Warning, Training and Simulation and Policy. An RTO Space Advisory Group will provide an organizational mechanism to gain recognition of RTO as a forum for trans-Atlantic defence space research and to enhance space research activities.

  16. The impact of exposure to films of natural and built environments on state body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Pickering, Mark; Barron, David; Patel, Shreepali

    2018-06-12

    Previous work has shown that exposure to images of nature results in elevated state body appreciation, but static images may lack ecological validity. Here, we examined the impact of exposure to short films of simulated, first-person walks in natural or built environments. Thirty-six university students completed a measure of state body appreciation before and after watching films of either a walk in a natural or a built environment created specifically for the present study. Two weeks later, they completed the same task but watched the other film type. Results indicated that exposure to the film of a natural environment resulted in significantly elevated state body appreciation (d = 0.66). There was no significant change in state body appreciation following exposure to the film of the built environment (d = 0.14). These findings suggest that exposure to films depicting the natural environment may promote immediate, moderate-sized improvements in state body image. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of space environment on biological characteristics of melanoma B16 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Chuanying; Xiang Qing; Xu Mei; Li Hongyan; Xu Bo; Fang Qing; Tang Jingtian; Guo Yupeng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of space environment on biological characteristics of melanoma B16 Cells. Methods: B16 cells were carried to the space (in orbit for 8 days, circle the earth 286 times) by the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite, and then harvested and monocloned. 110 strains of space B16 cells were obtained in total. Ten strains of space B16 cells were selected and its morphological changes were examined with the phasecontrast microscope. Flow cytometry and MTT assay were carried out to evaluate the cell cycle and cell viability. Results Morphological changes were observed in the space cells, and melainin granules on the surface in some cells. It was demonstrated by MTF assay that space cells viability varied muti- directionally. It was showed by flow cytometry analysis that G1 phase of space cells was prolonged, S phase shortened. Conclusion: Space environment may change the biological characteristics of melanoma B16 cells. (authors)

  18. Space Environments and Effects Concept: Transitioning Research to Operations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Spann, James; Burns, Howard D.; Schumacher, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. NASA has established numerous offices specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline offices, a concept focusing on the development of space environment and effects application is presented. This includes space climate, space weather, and natural and induced space environments. This space environment and effects application is composed of 4 topic areas; characterization and modeling, engineering effects, prediction and operation, and mitigation and avoidance. These topic areas are briefly described below. Characterization and modeling of space environments will primarily focus on utilization during Program mission concept, planning, and design phases. Engineering effects includes materials testing and flight experiments producing data to be used in mission planning and design phases. Prediction and operation pulls data from existing sources into decision-making tools and empirical data sets to be used during the operational phase of a mission. Mitigation and avoidance will develop techniques and strategies used in the design and operations phases of the mission. The goal of this space environment and effects application is to develop decision-making tools and engineering products to support the mission phases of mission concept through operations by focusing on transitioning research to operations. Products generated by this space environments and effects application are suitable for use in anomaly investigations. This paper will outline the four topic areas, describe the need, and discuss an organizational structure for this space environments and effects

  19. Screens as light biological variable in microgravitational space environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacht, S.; Masali, M.

    Foreword The ability of the biological organisms to orient themselves and to synchronize on the variations of the solar rhythms is a fundamental aspect in the planning of the human habitat above all when habitat is confined in the Space the planetary and in satellite outer space settlements In order to simulate the experience of the astronauts in long duration missions one of the dominant characteristics of the Space confined habitats is the absence of the earthlings solar cycles references The Sun is the main references and guidelines of the biological compass and timepiece The organism functions are influenced from the variation of the light in the round of the 24 hours the human circadian rhythms In these habitats it is therefore necessary to reproduce the color and intensity of the solar light variations along the arc of the day according to defined scientific programs assuring a better performance of the human organism subsubsection Multilayer Foldable Screens as biological environmental variable In the project Multilayer Foldable Screens are the monitors posed in the ceiling of an Outer Space habitat and are made of liquid crystals and covered with Kevlar they stand for a modulate and flexible structure for different arrangements and different visions Screens work sout s on all the solar light frequencies and display the images that the subject needs They are characterized from the emission of an environmental light that restores the earthly solar cycle for intensity and color temperature to irradiate

  20. Analytic Shielding Optimization to Reduce Crew Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Inside Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Tim P.; Hanzo, Arthur; Hussein, Hesham; Jarvis, Kandy S.; Kimble, Ryan; Lee, Kerry T.; Patel, Chirag; Reddell, Brandon D.; Stoffle, Nicholas; hide

    2009-01-01

    A sustainable lunar architecture provides capabilities for leveraging out-of-service components for alternate uses. Discarded architecture elements may be used to provide ionizing radiation shielding to the crew habitat in case of a Solar Particle Event. The specific location relative to the vehicle where the additional shielding mass is placed, as corroborated with particularities of the vehicle design, has a large influence on protection gain. This effect is caused by the exponential- like decrease of radiation exposure with shielding mass thickness, which in turn determines that the most benefit from a given amount of shielding mass is obtained by placing it so that it preferentially augments protection in under-shielded areas of the vehicle exposed to the radiation environment. A novel analytic technique to derive an optimal shielding configuration was developed by Lockheed Martin during Design Analysis Cycle 3 (DAC-3) of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). [1] Based on a detailed Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the vehicle including a specific crew positioning scenario, a set of under-shielded vehicle regions can be identified as candidates for placement of additional shielding. Analytic tools are available to allow capturing an idealized supplemental shielding distribution in the CAD environment, which in turn is used as a reference for deriving a realistic shielding configuration from available vehicle components. While the analysis referenced in this communication applies particularly to the Orion vehicle, the general method can be applied to a large range of space exploration vehicles, including but not limited to lunar and Mars architecture components. In addition, the method can be immediately applied for optimization of radiation shielding provided to sensitive electronic components.

  1. Radiation exposure of airline crew members to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, G. E-mail: gianni.deangelis@iol.it; Caldora, M.; Santaquilani, M.; Scipione, R.; Verdecchia, A

    2001-06-01

    A study of radiation exposures in the ionizing radiation environment of the atmosphere is currently in progress for the Italian civil aviation flight personnel. After a description of the considered data sources/ the philosophy of the study is presented/ and an overview is given of the data processing with regard to flight routes/ the computational techniques for radiation dose evaluation along the flight paths and for the exposure matrix building/ along with an indication of the results that the study should provide.

  2. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  3. Power plants operating in normal conditions, space management, and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the local populations considerations related to the establishment of a nuclear power plant comprising 4 units of 900 MW: reception of a population in the existing environment, acceptance of the power plant by the local population, effluent releases and environmental impacts, and the power plant future [fr

  4. Office Space: How Will Technology Affect the Education Office Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2009-01-01

    The office environment 10 years from now will be different from the one today. More office personnel will be organized around processes rather than functions. More work activities will be done by teams rather than individuals, and those teams will change over time, as will the nature of the work projects and the people who constitute the team. The…

  5. MURI Center for Materials Chemistry in the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-30

    ionic species in relevant reaction environments, surface photochemistry expertise, synchrotron-based measurement and irradiation, synthesis of structural...and Ne+ ions with dodecanethiolate and semifluorinated dodecanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAM), polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS...POSS/Kapton models as gas phase species, and with alkane thiol self assembled monolayers on gold surfaces, and with liquid squalane. We have also

  6. Alkylating agent (MNU)-induced mutation in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, T.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Takahashi, S.; Masukawa, M.; Sekikawa, K.; Amano, T.; Nakano, T.; Nagaoka, S.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, some contradictory data about the effects of microgravity on radiation-induced biological responses in space experiments have been reported. We prepared a damaged template DNA produced with an alkylating agent (N-methyl-N-nitroso urea; MNU) to measure incorrect base-incorporation during DNA replication in microgravity. We examined whether mutation frequency is affected by microgravity during DNA replication for a DNA template damaged by an alkylating agent. Using an in vitro enzymatic reaction system, DNA synthesis by Taq polymerase or polymerase III was done during a US space shuttle mission (Discovery, STS-91). After the flight, DNA replication and mutation frequencies were measured. We found that there was almost no effect of microgravity on DNA replication and mutation frequency. It is suggested that microgravity might not affect at the stage of substrate incorporation in induced-mutation frequency.

  7. Effects of Solar Activity and Space Environment in 2003 Oct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Seok Cho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a good example of extreme solar and geomagnetic activities from October to November, 2003. These activities are characterized by very large sunspot groups, X-class solar flares, strong particle events, and huge geomagnetic storms. We discuss ground-based and space-based data in terms of space weather scales. Especially, we present several solar and geomagnetic disturbance data produced in Korea : sunspots, geo-magnetograms, aurora, Ionogram, and Total Electron Content (TEC map by GPS data. Finally, we introduce some examples of the satellite orbit and communication effects caused by these activities; e.g., the disturbances of the KOMPSAT-1 operational orbit and HF communication.

  8. Distributed computing environments for future space control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallefont, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of a CNES research project on distributed computing systems. The purpose of this research was to study the impact of the use of new computer technologies in the design and development of future space applications. The first part of this study was a state-of-the-art review of distributed computing systems. One of the interesting ideas arising from this review is the concept of a 'virtual computer' allowing the distributed hardware architecture to be hidden from a software application. The 'virtual computer' can improve system performance by adapting the best architecture (addition of computers) to the software application without having to modify its source code. This concept can also decrease the cost and obsolescence of the hardware architecture. In order to verify the feasibility of the 'virtual computer' concept, a prototype representative of a distributed space application is being developed independently of the hardware architecture.

  9. Mesh Networking in the Tactical Environment Using White Space Technolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    facilitate the establishment of a point to multi-point network topology . The base station node handles the compilation of data necessary to determine a...the client nodes from the base station node, the number of client nodes, and the network topology . The metrics chosen for evaluation were picked as a...model, are commonly utilized to simulate quadratic path loss across free space [22]. This model uses the following formula to calculate path loss: L

  10. Human-like robots for space and hazardous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The three year goal for the Kansas State USRA/NASA Senior Design team is to design and build a walking autonomous robotic rover. The rover should be capable of crossing rough terrain, traversing human made obstacles (such as stairs and doors), and moving through human and robot occupied spaces without collision. The rover is also to evidence considerable decision making ability, navigation, and path planning skills.

  11. Distributed Sensing and Processing Adaptive Collaboration Environment (D-SPACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    RISC 525 Brooks Road Rome NY 13441-4505 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) AFRL/RI 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2014-195 12...cloud” technologies are not appropriate for situation understanding in areas of denial, where computation resources are limited, data not easily...graph matching process. D-SPACE distributes graph exploitation among a network of autonomous computational resources, designs the collaboration policy

  12. Radiation Exposure and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer in Early NASA Astronauts: Space for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, S. R.; Little, M. P.; Campbell, L. J.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.

    2018-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to establish whether there is evidence for excess cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality in an early NASA astronaut cohort and determine if a correlation exists between space radiation exposure and mortality.

  13. Creating the Thermal Environment for Safely Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Lauterbach, John; Garcia, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. The chamber was originally built to support testing of the Apollo Service and Command Module for lunar missions, but underwent major modifications to be able to test the James Webb Space Telescope in a simulated deep space environment. To date seven tests have been performed in preparation of testing the flight optics for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Each test has had a uniquie thermal profile and set of thermal requirements for cooling down and warming up, controlling contamination, and releasing condensed air. These range from temperatures from 335K to 15K, with tight uniformity and controllability for maintining thermal stability and pressure control. One unique requirement for two test was structurally proof loading hardware by creating thermal gradients at specific temperatures. This paper will discuss the thermal requirements and goals of the tests, the original requirements of the chamber thermal systems for planned operation, and how the new requirements were met by the team using the hardware, system flexiblilty, and engineering creativity. It will also discuss the mistakes and successes to meet the unique goals, especially when meeting the thermal proof load.

  14. An Overview of the Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Garrett, Henry B.; Miller, Sharon K.; Peddie, Darilyn; Porter Ron; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore our Earth, and the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge on the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments fields that will serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environment and spacecraft effects (SESE) organization. This SESE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems, and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Environment effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system, and system-level response to the space environment and include the selection and testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with

  15. USA Space Debris Environment, Operations, and Research Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    Space Missions in 2017 Earth Satellite Population Collision Avoidance Maneuvers Post mission Disposal of U.S.A. Spacecraft Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and the Space Debris Sensor (SDS) A total of 86 space launches placed more than 400 spacecraft into Earth orbits during 2017, following the trend of increase over the past decade NASA has established conjunction assessment processes for its human spaceflight and uncrewed spacecraft to avoid accidental collisions with objects tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network - NASA also assists other U.S. government spacecraft owners with conjunction assessments and subsequent maneuvers The ISS has conducted 25 debris collision avoidance maneuvers since 1999 - None in 2016-2017, but an ISS visiting vehicle had one collision avoidance maneuver in 2017 During 2017 NASA executed or assisted in the execution of 21 collision avoidance maneuvers by uncrewed spacecraft - Four maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from Fengyun-1C - Two maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from the collision of Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 - One maneuver was conducted to avoid the ISS NASA has established conjunction assessment processes for its human spaceflight and uncrewed spacecraft to avoid accidental collisions with objects tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network - NASA also assists other U.S. government spacecraft owners with conjunction assessments and subsequent maneuvers The ISS has conducted 25 debris collision avoidance maneuvers since 1999 - None in 2016-2017, but an ISS visiting vehicle had one collision avoidance maneuver in 2017 During 2017 NASA executed or assisted in the execution of 21 collision avoidance maneuvers by uncrewed spacecraft - Four maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from Fengyun-1C - Two maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from the collision of Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 The 2014-15 NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) study on the micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD

  16. Utilization of MAX and FAX human phantoms for space radiation exposure calculations using HZETRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Garry; Slaba, Tony; Clowdsley, Martha; Blattnig, Steve; Walker, Steven; Simonsen, Lisa

    To estimate astronaut health risk due to space radiation, one must have the ability to calculate, for known radiation environments external to the body, particle spectra, LET spectra, dose, dose equivalent, or gray equivalent that are averaged over specific organs or tissue types. This may be accomplished using radiation transport software and computational human body tissue models. Historically, NASA scientists have used the HZETRN software to calculate radiation transport through both vehicle shielding materials and body tissue. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) and the Computerized Anatomical Female (CAF) body models, combined with the CAMERA software, have been used for body tissue self-shielding calculations. The CAM and CAF, which were developed in 1973 and 1992, respectively, model the 50th percentile U.S. Air Force male and female and are constructed using individual quadric surfaces that combine to form thousands of solid regions that represent specific tissues and structures within the body. In order to transport an external radiation environment to a point within one of the body models using HZETRN, a directional distribution of the tissues surrounding that point is needed. The CAMERA software is used to "ray trace" the CAM and CAF models, providing the thickness of each tissue type traversed along each of a large number of rays originating at a dose point. More recently, R. Kramer of the Departmento de Energia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco in Brazil and his co-workers developed the Male Adult voXel (MAX) model and the Female Adult voXel (FAX). These voxel-based body models were developed using segmented Computed Tomography (CT) scans of adult cadavers, and the quantities and distributions of various body tissues have been adjusted to match those specified in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference adult male and female. A new set of tools has been developed to facilitate space radiation exposure

  17. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Lyseen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals’ exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people’s complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person’s perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure.

  18. 10th meeting of the International Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Protection of Materials and Structures From the Space Environment

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the 10th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-10J, since its inception in 1992, have been to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials, including aspects of LEO, GEO and Deep Space environments, ground-based qualification, and in-flight experiments and lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of the atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences. The knowledge of environmental conditions on and around the Moon, Mars, Venus and the low Earth orbit as well as other possible candidates for landing such as asteroids have become an important issue, and protecting both hardware and human life from the effects of space environments has taken on a new meaning in light of the increased interest in space travel and colonization of other planets.  And while many materia...

  19. Change of Cr-39(DOP) track detector response as a result of space exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, J.S.; Singh, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The response functions for CR-39(DOP) plastic track detectors are calculated, using the simplex method for nonlinear least squares fit, from experimental data obtained from accelerator beams as well as space exposure. The average detector sensitivity is reduced by over 30% in the case of space exposure. The average charge shift for the oxygen group is one charge unit, and it increases with particle charge. The effect decreases with restricted energy loss, which is contrary to that observed in the registration temperature effect. We have discussed various environmental parameters which may produce the observed effect. The registration temperature effect may account for the observed effect (within the errors) for the worst case (temperature) analysis. However, a more reasonable estimate suggests that both the registration temperature as well as pressure during exposure contribute to the observed effect. To discriminate between the separate contributions, further experimental data is needed. (author)

  20. How can GPS technology help us better understand exposure to the food environment? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetateanu, Andreea; Jones, Andy

    2016-12-01

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are increasingly being used to objectively assess movement patterns of people related to health behaviours. However research detailing their application to the food environment is scarce. This systematic review examines the application of GPS in studies of exposure to food environments and their potential influences on health. Based on an initial scoping exercise, published articles to be included in the systematic review were identified from four electronic databases and reference lists and were appraised and analysed, the final cut-off date for inclusion being January 2015. Included studies used GPS to identify location of individuals in relation to food outlets and link that to health or diet outcomes. They were appraised against a set of quality criteria. Six studies met the inclusion criteria, which were appraised to be of moderate quality. Newer studies had a higher quality score. Associations between observed mobility patterns in the food environment and diet related outcomes were equivocal. Findings agreed that traditional food exposure measures overestimate the importance of the home food environment. The use of GPS to measure exposure to the food environment is still in its infancy yet holds much potential. There are considerable variations and challenges in developing and standardising the methods used to assess exposure.

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of rice after seed ground simulated radiation and spaceflight explains the radiation effects of space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Jinming; Liang, Shujian; Lei, Huang; Shenyi, Zhang; Sun, Yeqing

    In previous work, we compared the proteomic profiles of rice plants growing after seed space-flights with ground controls by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and found that the protein expression profiles were changed after seed space environment exposures. Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as cosmic radiation, microgravity and space magnetic fields are involved. Rice seed is in the process of dormant of plant development, showing high resistance against stresses, so the highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects to seeds. To further investigate the radiation effects of space environment, we performed on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and compared between the proteomes of seed irra-diated plants and seed spaceflight (20th recoverable satellite) plants from the same rice variety. Space ionization shows low-dose but high energy particle effects, for searching the particle effects, ground radiations with the same low-dose (2mGy) but different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3KeV/µm-C, 30KeV/µm-C, 31KeV/µm-Ne, 62.2KeV/µm-C, 500Kev/µm-Fe) were performed; using 2-D DIGE coupled with clustering and principle component analysis (PCA) for data process and comparison, we found that the holistic protein expression patterns of plants irradiated by LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles were most similar to spaceflight. In addition, although space environment presents a low-dose radiation (0.177 mGy/day on the satellite), the equivalent simulated radiation dose effects should still be evaluated: radiations of LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles with different cumulative doses (2mGy, 20mGy, 200mGy, 2000mGy) were further carried out and resulted that the 2mGy radiation still shared most similar proteomic profiles with spaceflight, confirming the low-dose effects of space radiation. Therefore, in the protein expression level

  2. Jumbo Space Environment Simulation and Spacecraft Charging Chamber Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    probes for Jumbo. Both probes are produced by Trek Inc. Trek probe model 370 is capable of -3 to 3kV and has an extremely fast, 50µs/kV response to...changing surface potentials. Trek probe 341B is capable of -20 to 20kV with a 200 µs/kV response time. During our charging experiments the probe sits...unlimited. 12 REFERENCES [1] R. D. Leach and M. B. Alexander, "Failures and anomalies attributed to spacecraft charging," NASA RP-1375, Marshall Space

  3. Chemistry in interstellar space. [environment characteristics influencing reaction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, B.

    1973-01-01

    The particular characteristics of chemistry in interstellar space are determined by the unique environmental conditions involved. Interstellar matter is present at extremely low densities. Large deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium are, therefore, to be expected. A relatively intense ultraviolet radiation is present in many regions. The temperatures are in the range from 5 to 200 K. Data concerning the inhibiting effect of small activation energies in interstellar clouds are presented in a table. A summary of measured activation energies or barrier heights for exothermic exchange reactions is also provided. Problems of molecule formation are discussed, taking into account gas phase reactions and surface catalyzed processes.

  4. A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Teri M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the potential role of the natural environment in human health and well-being. However, the evidence-base for specific and direct health or well-being benefits of activity within natural compared to more synthetic environments has not been systematically assessed. Methods We conducted a systematic review to collate and synthesise the findings of studies that compare measurements of health or well-being in natural and synthetic environments. Effect sizes of the differences between environments were calculated and meta-analysis used to synthesise data from studies measuring similar outcomes. Results Twenty-five studies met the review inclusion criteria. Most of these studies were crossover or controlled trials that investigated the effects of short-term exposure to each environment during a walk or run. This included 'natural' environments, such as public parks and green university campuses, and synthetic environments, such as indoor and outdoor built environments. The most common outcome measures were scores of different self-reported emotions. Based on these data, a meta-analysis provided some evidence of a positive benefit of a walk or run in a natural environment in comparison to a synthetic environment. There was also some support for greater attention after exposure to a natural environment but not after adjusting effect sizes for pretest differences. Meta-analysis of data on blood pressure and cortisol concentrations found less evidence of a consistent difference between environments across studies. Conclusions Overall, the studies are suggestive that natural environments may have direct and positive impacts on well-being, but support the need for investment in further research on this question to understand the general significance for public health.

  5. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, A.; Mohnen, S.M.; Droomers, M.; Kruize, H.; Gidlow, C.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Andrusaityte, S.; Helbich, M.; Maas, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Triguero-Mas, M.; Masterson, D.; Ellis, N.; Kempen, E. van; Hardyns, W.; Stronks, K.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona

  7. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health : an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain),

  8. Healing environments in cancer treatment and care. Relations of space and practice in hematological cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp

    2013-01-01

    of the individual patient ’ s needs, values and experiences is key to developing the environment to support the patient quality of life. The present study holds implications for practice to inform design of future hospital environments for cancer treatment. The study points to the importance for being attentive...... these concepts, the study demonstrates how the hospital environment is a fl ow of relations between space and practice that changes and challenges a structural idea of design and healing. Patients ’ sense of healing changes with the experience of progression in treatment and the capacity of the hospital space...... to incite an experience of homeliness and care. Furthermore, cancer patients continuously challenge the use and limits of space by individual objects and practices of privacy and home. Discussion. Healing environments are complex relations between practices, space and care, where recognition...

  9. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  10. Ionospheric Response to Extremes in the Space Environment: Establishing Benchmarks for the Space Weather Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, R. A.; Azeem, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    One of the goals of the National Space Weather Action Plan is to establish extreme event benchmarks. These benchmarks are estimates of environmental parameters that impact technologies and systems during extreme space weather events. Quantitative assessment of anticipated conditions during these extreme space weather event will enable operators and users of affected technologies to develop plans for mitigating space weather risks and improve preparedness. The ionosphere is one of the most important regions of space because so many applications either depend on ionospheric space weather for their operation (HF communication, over-the-horizon radars), or can be deleteriously affected by ionospheric conditions (e.g. GNSS navigation and timing, UHF satellite communications, synthetic aperture radar, HF communications). Since the processes that influence the ionosphere vary over time scales from seconds to years, it continues to be a challenge to adequately predict its behavior in many circumstances. Estimates with large uncertainties, in excess of 100%, may result in operators of impacted technologies over or under preparing for such events. The goal of the next phase of the benchmarking activity is to reduce these uncertainties. In this presentation, we will focus on the sources of uncertainty in the ionospheric response to extreme geomagnetic storms. We will then discuss various research efforts required to better understand the underlying processes of ionospheric variability and how the uncertainties in ionospheric response to extreme space weather could be reduced and the estimates improved.

  11. A research on the excavation, support, and environment control of large scale underground space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pil Chong; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Jeong, So Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    With the growing necessity of the underground space due to the deficiency of above-ground space, the size and shape of underground structures tend to be complex and diverse. This complexity and variety force the development of new techniques for rock mass classification, excavation and supporting of underground space, monitoring and control of underground environment. All these techniques should be applied together to make the underground space comfortable. To achieve this, efforts have been made on 5 different areas; research on the underground space design and stability analysis, research on the techniques for excavation of rock by controlled blasting, research on the development of monitoring system to forecast the rock behaviour of underground space, research on the environment inspection system in closed space, and research on dynamic analysis of the airflow and environmental control in the large geos-spaces. The 5 main achievements are improvement of the existing structure analysis program(EXCRACK) to consider the deformation and failure characteristics of rock joints, development of new blasting design (SK-cut), prediction of ground vibration through the newly proposed wave propagation equation, development and In-Situ application of rock mass deformation monitoring system and data acquisition software, and trial manufacture of the environment inspection system in closed space. Should these techniques be applied to the development of underground space, prevention of industrial disaster, cut down of construction cost, domestication of monitoring system, improvement of tunnel stability, curtailment of royalty, upgrade of domestic technologies will be brought forth. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Evasive Maneuvers in Space Debris Environment and Technological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio D. C. Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of collisional dynamics between space debris and an operational vehicle in LEO. We adopted an approach based on the relative dynamics between the objects on a collisional course and with a short warning time and established a semianalytical solution for the final trajectories of these objects. Our results show that there are angular ranges in 3D, in addition to the initial conditions, that favor the collisions. These results allowed the investigation of a range of technological parameters for the spacecraft (e.g., fuel reserve that allow a safe evasive maneuver (e.g., time available for the maneuver. The numerical model was tested for different values of the impact velocity and relative distance between the approaching objects.

  13. Electrical behaviour of a silicone elastomer under simulated space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggero, A; Dantras, E; Paulmier, T; Rejsek-Riba, V; Tonon, C; Dagras, S; Balcon, N; Payan, D

    2015-01-01

    The electrical behavior of a space-used silicone elastomer was characterized using surface potential decay and dynamic dielectric spectroscopy techniques. In both cases, the dielectric manifestation of the glass transition (dipole orientation) and a charge transport phenomenon were observed. An unexpected linear increase of the surface potential with temperature was observed around T g in thermally-stimulated potential decay experiments, due to molecular mobility limiting dipolar orientation in one hand, and 3D thermal expansion reducing the materials capacitance in the other hand. At higher temperatures, the charge transport process, believed to be thermally activated electron hopping with an activation energy of about 0.4 eV, was studied with and without the silica and iron oxide fillers present in the commercial material. These fillers were found to play a preponderant role in the low-frequency electrical conductivity of this silicone elastomer, probably through a Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars relaxation phenomenon. (paper)

  14. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

  15. ISS External Payload Platform - a new opportunity for research in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Christian; Pape, Uwe

    4U CubeSat, which demands miniaturised hardware solutions. But every payload can extensively use all ISS resources required: mass is not limited, power only limited by the payload heat radiation capability, the datalink is a USB 2.0 standard bus enabling a real-time and private data link. The new EPP transforms the station into a true laboratory in space with the capability to support research in various fields: exposure of biologic or material samples, experiments related to the radiation environment in low Earth orbit, and more.

  16. TDRS-1 single event upsets and the effect of the space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.C.; Daughtridge, S.C.; Stone, J.L.; Sauer, H.H.; Darling, P.

    1991-01-01

    The systematic recording of Single Event Upsets on TDRS-1 from 1984 to 1990 allows correlations to be drawn between those upsets and the space environment. In this paper, ground based neutron monitor data are used to illustrate the long-term relationship between galactic cosmic rays and TDRS-1 upsets. The short-term effects of energetic solar particles are illustrated with space environment data from GOES-7

  17. Inter-comparison of personal monitors for nanoparticles exposure at workplaces and in the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todea, A.M.; Beckmann, S.; Kaminski, H.; Bard, D.; Bau, S.; Clavaguera, S.; Dahmann, D.; Dozol, H.; Dziurowitz, N.; Elihn, K.; Fierz, M.; Lidén, G.; Meyer-Plath, A.; Monz, C.; Neumann, V.; Pelzer, J.; Simonow, B.K.; Thali, P.; Tuinman, I.; Vleuten, A. van der; Vroomen, H.; Asbach, C.

    2017-01-01

    Personal monitors based on unipolar diffusion charging (miniDiSC/DiSCmini, NanoTracer, Partector) can be used to assess the individual exposure to nanoparticles in different environments. The charge acquired by the aerosol particles is nearly proportional to the particle diameter and, by

  18. CosmoBon, tree research team, for studying utilization of woody plant in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Sato, Seigo; Baba, Keiichi; Chida, Yukari

    2012-07-01

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science, as Tree research team, TRT. Trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. We have the serious problem about their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We have been investigating the tension wood formation under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. CosmoBon is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. The tension wood formation in CosmoBon was confirmed as the same as that in the natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  19. Metagenomic analysis of the airborne environment in urban spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be, Nicholas A; Thissen, James B; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y; Allen, Jonathan E; Rojas, Mark; Golovko, George; Fofanov, Yuriy; Koshinsky, Heather; Jaing, Crystal J

    2015-02-01

    The organisms in aerosol microenvironments, especially densely populated urban areas, are relevant to maintenance of public health and detection of potential epidemic or biothreat agents. To examine aerosolized microorganisms in this environment, we performed sequencing on the material from an urban aerosol surveillance program. Whole metagenome sequencing was applied to DNA extracted from air filters obtained during periods from each of the four seasons. The composition of bacteria, plants, fungi, invertebrates, and viruses demonstrated distinct temporal shifts. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki was detected in samples known to be exposed to aerosolized spores, illustrating the potential utility of this approach for identification of intentionally introduced microbial agents. Together, these data demonstrate the temporally dependent metagenomic complexity of urban aerosols and the potential of genomic analytical techniques for biosurveillance and monitoring of threats to public health.

  20. The contamination of personal space : boundary construction in a prison environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibley, David; van Hoven, Bettina

    In this paper, inmates in dormitories in a prison in New Mexico, USA, talk about their everyday lives. We are particularly interested in the ways in which they think about space. Their principal concern appears to be the definition of personal space in an environment where boundaries are weak. The

  1. Anaesthesia in austere environments: literature review and considerations for future space exploration missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, Matthieu; Fleming, Sarah; Mawkin, Mala; Hinkelbein, Jochen

    2018-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will take humans far beyond low Earth orbit and require complete crew autonomy. The ability to provide anaesthesia will be important given the expected risk of severe medical events requiring surgery. Knowledge and experience of such procedures during space missions is currently extremely limited. Austere and isolated environments (such as polar bases or submarines) have been used extensively as test beds for spaceflight to probe hazards, train crews, develop clinical protocols and countermeasures for prospective space missions. We have conducted a literature review on anaesthesia in austere environments relevant to distant space missions. In each setting, we assessed how the problems related to the provision of anaesthesia (e.g., medical kit and skills) are dealt with or prepared for. We analysed how these factors could be applied to the unique environment of a space exploration mission. The delivery of anaesthesia will be complicated by many factors including space-induced physiological changes and limitations in skills and equipment. The basic principles of a safe anaesthesia in an austere environment (appropriate training, presence of minimal safety and monitoring equipment, etc.) can be extended to the context of a space exploration mission. Skills redundancy is an important safety factor, and basic competency in anaesthesia should be part of the skillset of several crewmembers. The literature suggests that safe and effective anaesthesia could be achieved by a physician during future space exploration missions. In a life-or-limb situation, non-physicians may be able to conduct anaesthetic procedures, including simplified general anaesthesia.

  2. Space environment monitoring by low-altitude operational satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroehl, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The primary task of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is the acquisition of meteorological data in the visual and infrared spectral regions. The Air Weather Service operates two satellites in low-altitude, sun-synchronous, polar orbits at 850 km altitude, 98.7 deg inclination, 101.5 minute period and dawn-dusk or noon-midnight equatorial crossing times. Special DMSP sensors of interest to the space science community are the precipitating electron spectrometer, the terrestrial noise receiver, and the topside ionosphere plasma monitor. Data from low-altitude, meteorological satellites can be used to build empirical models of precipitating electron characteristics of the auroral zone and polar cap. The Tiros-NOAA satellite program complements the DMSP program. The orbital elements are the same as DMSP's, except for the times of equatorial crossing, and the tilt of the orbital plane. The Tiros-NOAA program meets the civilian community's needs for meteorological data as the DMSP program does for the military

  3. ISS And Space Environment Interactions Without Operating Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Suggs,Rob; McCollum, Matt

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur. The details of interaction effects on spacecraft have not been addressed until driven by design. This was true for ISS. If the structure is allowed to float highly negative impinging ions can sputter exposed conductors which can degrade the primary surface and also generate contamination due to the sputtered material. Arcing has been known to occur on solar arrays that float negative of the ambient plasma. This can also generate electromagnetic interference and voltage transients. Much of the ISS structure and pressure module surfaces exposed to space is anodized aluminum. The anodization

  4. Validation of smoking-related virtual environments for cue exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Pericot-Valverde, Irene; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Ferrer-García, Marta; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Craving is considered one of the main factors responsible for relapse after smoking cessation. Cue exposure therapy (CET) consists of controlled and repeated exposure to drug-related stimuli in order to extinguish associated responses. The main objective of this study was to assess the validity of 7 virtual reality environments for producing craving in smokers that can be used within the CET paradigm. Forty-six smokers and 44 never-smokers were exposed to 7 complex virtual environments with smoking-related cues that reproduce typical situations in which people smoke, and to a neutral virtual environment without smoking cues. Self-reported subjective craving and psychophysiological measures were recorded during the exposure. All virtual environments with smoking-related cues were able to generate subjective craving in smokers, while no increase was observed for the neutral environment. The most sensitive psychophysiological variable to craving increases was heart rate. The findings provide evidence of the utility of virtual reality for simulating real situations capable of eliciting craving. We also discuss how CET for smoking cessation can be improved through these virtual tools. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EXPURT - a model for evaluating exposure from radioactive material deposited in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, M.J.; Brown, J.

    1990-06-01

    This model, EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer), is described in detail. The model simulates the movement of activity deposited on various surfaces in the urban environment and, by taking into account the shielding properties of buildings and the habits of the population, evaluates the external doses to members of the population living in such urban environments, as a function of time after deposition. One of the other advantages of EXPURT over simpler models is that it can be used to assess the possible dose reductions that might be achieved by various decontamination techniques; for example, it can estimate the effectiveness of decontaminating roof surfaces alone in reducing exposure to individuals living in an urban environment. Sensitivity/uncertainty studies have been performed whereby those parameters contributing most to remaining uncertainty in the model's predictions of dose and dose rates were identified. Predictions of the EXPURT model were compared with those from a simpler external dose model in use at NRPB. (author)

  6. Korean Ministry of Environment's web-based visual consumer product exposure and risk assessment system (COPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hunjoo; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Ji Young; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-05-01

    With support from the Korean Ministry of the Environment (ME), our interdisciplinary research staff developed the COnsumer Product Exposure and Risk assessment system (COPER). This system includes various databases and features that enable the calculation of exposure and determination of risk caused by consumer products use. COPER is divided into three tiers: the integrated database layer (IDL), the domain specific service layer (DSSL), and the exposure and risk assessment layer (ERAL). IDL is organized by the form of the raw data (mostly non-aggregated data) and includes four sub-databases: a toxicity profile, an inventory of Korean consumer products, the weight fractions of chemical substances in the consumer products determined by chemical analysis and national representative exposure factors. DSSL provides web-based information services corresponding to each database within IDL. Finally, ERAL enables risk assessors to perform various exposure and risk assessments, including exposure scenario design via either inhalation or dermal contact by using or organizing each database in an intuitive manner. This paper outlines the overall architecture of the system and highlights some of the unique features of COPER based on visual and dynamic rendering engine for exposure assessment model on web.

  7. Environment modelling in near Earth space: Preliminary LDEF results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, C. R.; Atkinson, D. R.; Wagner, J. D.; Crowell, L. B.; Allbrooks, M.; Watts, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Hypervelocity impacts by space debris cause not only local cratering or penetrations, but also cause large areas of damage in coated, painted or laminated surfaces. Features examined in these analyses display interesting morphological characteristics, commonly exhibiting a concentric ringed appearance. Virtually all features greater than 0.2 mm in diameter possess a spall zone in which all of the paint was removed from the aluminum surface. These spall zones vary in size from approximately 2 - 5 crater diameters. The actual craters in the aluminum substrate vary from central pits without raised rims, to morphologies more typical of craters formed in aluminum under hypervelocity laboratory conditions for the larger features. Most features also possess what is referred to as a 'shock zone' as well. These zones vary in size from approximately 1 - 20 crater diameters. In most cases, only the outer-most layer of paint was affected by this impact related phenomenon. Several impacts possess ridge-like structures encircling the area in which this outer-most paint layer was removed. In many ways, such features resemble the lunar impact basins, but on an extremely reduced scale. Overall, there were no noticeable penetrations, bulges or spallation features on the backside of the tray. On Row 12, approximately 85 degrees from the leading edge (RAM direction), there was approximately one impact per 15 cm(exp 2). On the trailing edge, there was approximately one impact per 72 cm(exp 2). Currently, craters on four aluminum experiment trays from Bay E09, directly on the leading edge are being measured and analyzed. Preliminary results have produced more than 2200 craters on approximately 1500 cm(exp 2) - or approximately 1 impact per 0.7 cm(exp 2).

  8. Rover Low Gain Antenna Qualification for Deep Space Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Amaro, Luis R.; Brown, Paula R.; Usiskin, Robert; Prater, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    A method to qualify the Rover Low Gain Antenna (RLGA) for use during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission has been devised. The RLGA antenna must survive all ground operations, plus the nominal 670 Martian sol mission that includes the summer and winter seasons of the Mars thermal environment. This qualification effort was performed to verify that the RLGA design, its bonding, and packaging processes are adequate. The qualification test was designed to demonstrate a survival life of three times more than all expected ground testing, plus a nominal 670 Martian sol missions. Baseline RF tests and a visual inspection were performed on the RLGA hardware before the start of the qualification test. Functional intermittent RF tests were performed during thermal chamber breaks over the course of the complete qualification test. For the return loss measurements, the RLGA antenna was moved to a test area. A vector network analyzer was calibrated over the operational frequency range of the antenna. For the RLGA, a simple return loss measurement was performed. A total of 2,010 (3 670 or 3 times mission thermal cycles) thermal cycles was performed. Visual inspection of the RLGA hardware did not show any anomalies due to the thermal cycling. The return loss measurement results of the RLGA antenna after the PQV (Package Qualification and Verification) test did not show any anomalies. The antenna pattern data taken before and after the PQV test at the uplink and downlink frequencies were unchanged. Therefore, the developed design of RLGA is qualified for a long-duration MSL mission.

  9. Living with a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbeds (SET), Mission Carrier Overview and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patschke, Robert; Barth, Janet; Label, Ken; Mariano, Carolyn; Pham, Karen; Brewer, Dana; Cuviello, Michael; Kobe, David; Wu, Carl; Jarosz, Donald

    2004-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. This will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The three program elements of the LWS Program are Science Missions; Targeted Research and Technology; and Space Environment Testbeds (SETS). SET is an ideal platform for small experiments performing research on space environment effects on technologies and on the mitigation of space weather effects. A short description of the LWS Program will be given, and the SET will be described in detail, giving the mission objectives, available carrier services, and upcoming flight opportunities.

  10. The impact of ergonomic work environment exposures on the risk of disability pension: Prospective results from DWECS/DREAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labriola, Merete; Feveile, Helene; Christensen, Karl B; Strøyer, Jesper; Lund, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The objectives were to identify the impact of ergonomic work environment exposures on the risk of disability pension. A representative sample of 8475 employees of the total working population in Denmark were interviewed regarding work environment exposures and followed in a national register with data on granted disability pension. For women, approximately 34% of the disability pension cases were attributable to ergonomic work environment exposures. For men, 21% of the disability pension cases were attributable to ergonomic work environment. Ergonomic work environment, especially physically demanding work, working with hands lifted and repetitive work, are areas of intervention at the workplace that can facilitate and prolong labour market participation. The study provides estimates for the association between ergonomic exposures at work and administrative, cost-related measures of work disability in a large population-based longitudinal cohort study over 14 years. Approximately 21% for men and 34% for women of the disability pension cases were attributable to ergonomic work environment exposures.

  11. Work environments and exposure to hazardous substances in korean tire manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Naroo; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Jeong, Sijeong; Yi, Gwang Yong; Shin, Jungah

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tire manufacturing work environments extensively and to identify workers' exposure to hazardous substances in various work processes. Personal air sampling was conducted to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon disulfide, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylcyclohexane, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and rubber fume in tire manufacturing plants using the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health Manual of Analytical Methods. Noise, carbon monoxide, and heat stress exposure were evaluated using direct reading instruments. Past concentrations of rubber fume were assessed using regression analysis of total particulate data from 2003 to 2007, after identifying the correlation between the concentration of total particulate and rubber fume. Workers were exposed to rubber fume that exceeded 0.6 mg/m(3), the maximum exposure limit of the UK, in curing and production management processes. Forty-seven percent of workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA. Workers in the production management process were exposed to 28.1℃ (wet bulb globe temperature value, WBGT value) even when the outdoor atmosphere was 2.7℃ (WBGT value). Exposures to other substances were below the limit of detection or under a tenth of the threshold limit values given by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. To better classify exposure groups and to improve work environments, examining closely at rubber fume components and temperature as risk indicators in tire manufacturing is recommended.

  12. From outer space to Earth-The social significance of isolated and confined environment research in human space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Koji; Tachibana, Shoichi; Inoue, Natsuhiko

    2017-11-01

    Human space exploration requires massive budgets every fiscal year. Especially under severe financial constraint conditions, governments are forced to justify to society why spending so much tax revenue for human space exploration is worth the cost. The value of human space exploration might be estimated in many ways, but its social significance and cost-effectiveness are two key ways to gauge that worth. Since these measures should be applied country by country because sociopolitical conditions differ in each country and must be taken into consideration, the study on the social significance of human space exploration must take the coloration of a case-study. This paper, focusing on the case of Japan with surveying Japanese literary and national documents as well as taking its sociopolitical conditions into account, examines the social significance of human space exploration. First, we give an overview of the circumstances surrounding Japan's human space exploration program. Derived from the statements of such relevant parties as scholars, journalists, policy makers, and astronauts, this overview indicates that the main concerns about human space exploration in Japan are its social significance and cost-effectiveness (Section 1). Next, an overview of behavioral science-an essential field for human space exploration (referred to in this paper as space behavioral science) that provides support for astronauts-is presented from the perspective of stress research in isolated and confined environments (Section 2). We then give two examples of where such knowledge from space behavioral science research has been applied to terrestrial isolated and confined environments. One is JAXA's support in 2009 for people who were vulnerable to infection by a new strain of flu and accordingly placed in an isolated and confined facility under the Infectious Disease Law and the Quarantine Law. The other is NASA's support in 2010 for Chilean mine workers who were trapped 700 m

  13. CosmoBon for studying wood formation under exotic gravitational environment for future space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Funada, Ryo; Nakamura, Teruko; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Cosmobon, Jstwg

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science. Japanese flowering cherry tree is one of a candidate for these studies. Mechanism behind sensing gravity and controlling shape of tree has been studied quite extensively. Even molecular mechanism for the response of plant against gravity has been investigated quite intensively for various species, woody plants are left behind. Morphology of woody branch growth is different from that of stem growth in herbs. Morphology in tree is strongly dominated by the secondary xylem formation. Nobody knows the tree shape grown under the space environment. If whole tree could be brought up to space as research materials, it might provide important scientific knowledge. Furthermore, trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. The serious problem would be their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We can study secondly xylem formation, wood formation, under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. "CosmoBon" is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. It has been recognized that the reaction wood in CosmoBon is formed similar to natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  14. Effects of prolonged exposure to space flight factors for 175 days on lettuce seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maximova, E.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of prolonged (up to 175 days) exposure of Lactuca sativa seeds to space flight factors, including primary cosmic radiation heavy ions have been studied. The data obtained evidence a significant fourfold increase of spontaneous mutagenesis in seeds both with regard to the total number of aberrant cells as well as the formation of single cells with multiple aberrations. Comparison of the present experiment with earlier works shows that the frequency of such aberrations increases with the duration of the flight

  15. Urban Public Space Context and Cognitive Psychology Evolution in Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chen; Xu, Hua-wei

    2017-11-01

    The rapid development of information technology has had a great impact on the understanding of urban environment, which brings different spatially psychological experience. Information and image transmission has been full with the streets, both the physical space and virtual space have been unprecedentedly blended together through pictures, images, electronic media and other tools, which also stimulates people’s vision and psychology and gives birth to a more complex form of urban space. Under the dual role of spatial mediumlization and media spatialization, the psychological cognitive pattern of urban public space context is changing.

  16. Model for evaluation of the radiological exposure in an urban environment after a radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine Rua Rodriguez

    1994-08-01

    A dynamic model aimed on the assessment of the long-term consequences of an accidental contamination of an urban environments has been developed. The model was designed to assess the radiation exposure, as a function of time, of the different kinds of people that uses the contaminated environment, the relative contribution of each exposure pathway and to simulate the application of countermeasures and its effects on the reduction of surfaces contamination and on the exposure of the individuals and of the population. The model is an empirical one, mainly based on environmental data gathered after the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents, and takes into account climatic and population habits characteristic of tropical areas. The model was applied here to a contamination with the radionuclide 137 Cs but can be easily adapted to other nuclides by changes on parameter values. An analysis of the variabilities associated to the model outputs regarding population habits, different kinds of urban environment and parameters uncertainty has shown that the main source of uncertainty on model predictions is associated to a correct knowledge of population characteristics, its habits and used of the contaminated environment. (author)

  17. Making Time for Nature: Visual Exposure to Natural Environments Lengthens Subjective Time Perception and Reduces Impulsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith S Berry

    Full Text Available Impulsivity in delay discounting is associated with maladaptive behaviors such as overeating and drug and alcohol abuse. Researchers have recently noted that delay discounting, even when measured by a brief laboratory task, may be the best predictor of human health related behaviors (e.g., exercise currently available. Identifying techniques to decrease impulsivity in delay discounting, therefore, could help improve decision-making on a global scale. Visual exposure to natural environments is one recent approach shown to decrease impulsive decision-making in a delay discounting task, although the mechanism driving this result is currently unknown. The present experiment was thus designed to evaluate not only whether visual exposure to natural (mountains, lakes relative to built (buildings, cities environments resulted in less impulsivity, but also whether this exposure influenced time perception. Participants were randomly assigned to either a natural environment condition or a built environment condition. Participants viewed photographs of either natural scenes or built scenes before and during a delay discounting task in which they made choices about receiving immediate or delayed hypothetical monetary outcomes. Participants also completed an interval bisection task in which natural or built stimuli were judged as relatively longer or shorter presentation durations. Following the delay discounting and interval bisection tasks, additional measures of time perception were administered, including how many minutes participants thought had passed during the session and a scale measurement of whether time "flew" or "dragged" during the session. Participants exposed to natural as opposed to built scenes were less impulsive and also reported longer subjective session times, although no differences across groups were revealed with the interval bisection task. These results are the first to suggest that decreased impulsivity from exposure to natural as

  18. Surviving the space environment - An overview of advanced materials and structures development at the CWRU CCDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John F.; Zdankiewicz, Edward M.; Schmidt, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    The development of advanced materials and structures for long-term use in space is described with specific reference given to applications to the Space Station Freedom and the lunar base. A flight-testing program is described which incorporates experiments regarding the passive effects of space travel such as material degradation with active materials experiments such as the Materials Exposure Flight Experiment. Also described is a research and development program for materials such as organic coatings and polymeric composites, and a simulation laboratory is described which permits the analysis of materials in the laboratory. The methods of investigation indicate that the NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space facilitates the understanding of material degradation in space.

  19. Prediction of Thermal Environment in a Large Space Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Yoon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the thermal environment of large space buildings such as stadiums can vary depending on the location of the stands, it is important to divide them into different zones and evaluate their thermal environment separately. The thermal environment can be evaluated using physical values measured with the sensors, but the occupant density of the stadium stands is high, which limits the locations available to install the sensors. As a method to resolve the limitations of installing the sensors, we propose a method to predict the thermal environment of each zone in a large space. We set six key thermal factors affecting the thermal environment in a large space to be predicted factors (indoor air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and clothing and the fixed factors (air velocity, metabolic rate, and relative humidity. Using artificial neural network (ANN models and the outdoor air temperature and the surface temperature of the interior walls around the stands as input data, we developed a method to predict the three thermal factors. Learning and verification datasets were established using STAR CCM+ (2016.10, Siemens PLM software, Plano, TX, USA. An analysis of each model’s prediction results showed that the prediction accuracy increased with the number of learning data points. The thermal environment evaluation process developed in this study can be used to control heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC facilities in each zone in a large space building with sufficient learning by ANN models at the building testing or the evaluation stage.

  20. Tensile properties of aluminized V-5Cr-5Ti alloy after exposure in air environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The objectives of this task are to (a) develop procedures to modify surface regions of V-Cr-Ti alloys in order to minimize oxygen uptake by the alloys when exposed to environments that contain oxygen, (b) evaluate the oxygen uptake of the surface-modified V-Cr-Ti alloys as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure in the exposure environment, (c) characterize the microstructures of oxide scales and oxygen trapped at the grain boundaries of the substrate alloys, and (d) evaluate the influence of oxygen uptake on the tensile properties of the modified alloys at room and elevated temperatures.

  1. Overview of exposure to and effects from radionuclides in terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Bradley E

    2011-07-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, precipitated by the devastating earthquake and subsequent tsunami that struck the northeastern coast of Japan in March 2011, has raised concerns about potential impacts to terrestrial and marine environments from radionuclides released into the environment. A preliminary understanding of the potential ecological impacts from radionuclides can be ascertained from observations and data developed following previous environmental incidents elsewhere in the world. This article briefly summarizes how biota experience exposure to ionizing radiation, what effects may be produced, and how they may differ among taxa and habitats. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. Overview of the MISSE 7 Polymers and Zenith Polymers Experiments After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Grace T.; de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7), two experiments called the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 1.5 years. The Polymers Experiment contained 47 samples, which were flown in a ram or wake flight orientation. The objectives of the Polymers Experiment were to determine the LEO atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atoms, given in cu cm/atom) of the polymers, and to determine if atomic oxygen erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. The Zenith Polymers Experiment was flown in a zenith flight orientation. The primary objective of the Zenith Polymers Experiment was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the erosion of fluoropolymers. Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) was flown in each experiment for atomic oxygen fluence determination. This paper provides an introduction to both the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and the MISSE 7 Zenith Polymers Experiment, and provides initial erosion yield results.

  3. Detection of fluorotelomer alcohols in indoor environments and their relevance for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Fiedler, Dominik; Kizlauskas, Markus; Müller, Josef

    2013-07-01

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH) are important precursors of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCA). These neutral and volatile compounds are frequently found in indoor air and may contribute to the overall human exposure to per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS). In this study air samples of ten workplace environments and a car interior were analysed. In addition, extracts and emissions from selected outdoor textiles were analysed in order to establish their potential contribution to the indoor levels of the above-mentioned compounds. Concentrations of FTOHs measured in air ranged from 0.15 to 46.8, 0.25 to 286, and 0.11 to 57.5ng/m(3) for 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 FTOHs, respectively. The highest concentrations in air were identified in shops selling outdoor clothing, indicating outdoor textiles to be a relevant source of FTOH in indoor workplace environments. Total amounts of FTOH in materials of outdoor textiles accounted for selling outdoor textiles contains the highest levels of FTOH. Exposure of humans to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) through absorption of FTOH and subsequent degradation is discussed on the basis of indoor air levels. Calculation of indoor air-related exposure using the median of the measured air levels revealed that exposure is on the same order of magnitude as the recently reported dietary intakes for a background-exposed population. On the basis of the 95th percentile, indoor air exposure to PFOA was estimated to exceed dietary exposure. However, indoor air-related intakes of FTOH are far below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of PFOA, indicating that there is no risk to health, even when assuming an unrealistic complete degradation of FTOH into PFOA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to space radiation of high-performance infrared multilayer filters and materials technology experiment (A0056)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Gary J.; Seeley, John S.; Hunneman, Roger

    1992-01-01

    Infrared optical multilayer filters and materials were exposed to the space environment of low Earth orbit on LDEF. The effects are summarized of that environment on the physical and optical properties of the filters and materials flown.

  5. Erosion Results of the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and Zenith Polymers Experiment After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Yi, Grace T.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Leneghan, Halle A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded due to reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Therefore, in order to design durable spacecraft it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield (E(sub y), volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of materials susceptible to AO reaction. Two spaceflight experiments, the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment, were developed to determine the AO E(sub y) of various polymers flown in ram, wake or zenith orientations in LEO. These experiments were flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7) mission for 1.5 years on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments included Kapton H(TradeMark) witness samples for AO fluence determination in ram and zenith orientations. The Polymers Experiment also included samples to determine whether AO erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. This paper provides an overview of the MISSE 7 mission, a description of the flight experiments with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO E(sub y) results. The E(sub y) values ranged from 7.99x10(exp -28)cu cm/atom for TiO2/Al2O3 coated Teflon(TradeMark) fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) flown in the ram orientation to 1.22x10(exp -23cu cm/atom for polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) flown in the zenith orientation. The E(sub y) of similar samples flown in different orientations has been compared to help determine solar exposure and associated heating effects on AO erosion. The E(sub y) data from these ISS spaceflight experiments provides valuable information for LEO spacecraft design purposes.

  6. A Monte Carlo transport code study of the space radiation environment using FLUKA and ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, T; Carminati, F; Brun, R; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Empl, A; MacGibbon, J

    2001-01-01

    We report on the progress of a current study aimed at developing a state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo computer simulation of the space radiation environment using advanced computer software techniques recently available at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland. By taking the next-generation computer software appearing at CERN and adapting it to known problems in the implementation of space exploration strategies, this research is identifying changes necessary to bring these two advanced technologies together. The radiation transport tool being developed is tailored to the problem of taking measured space radiation fluxes impinging on the geometry of any particular spacecraft or planetary habitat and simulating the evolution of that flux through an accurate model of the spacecraft material. The simulation uses the latest known results in low-energy and high-energy physics. The output is a prediction of the detailed nature of the radiation environment experienced in space as well a...

  7. Taking SiC Power Devices to the Final Frontier: Addressing Challenges of the Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Silicon carbide power device technology has the potential to enable a new generation of aerospace power systems that demand high efficiency, rapid switching, and reduced mass and volume in order to expand space-based capabilities. For this potential to be realized, SiC devices must be capable of withstanding the harsh space radiation environment. Commercial SiC components exhibit high tolerance to total ionizing dose but to date, have not performed well under exposure to heavy ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic rays. Insertion of SiC power device technology into space applications to achieve breakthrough performance gains will require intentional development of components hardened to the effects of these highly-energetic heavy ions. This work presents heavy-ion test data obtained by the authors over the past several years for discrete SiC power MOSFETs, JFETs, and diodes in order to increase the body of knowledge and understanding that will facilitate hardening of this technology to space radiation effects. Specifically, heavy-ion irradiation data taken under different bias, temperature, and ion beam conditions is presented for devices from different manufacturers, and the emerging patterns discussed.

  8. Habituation to novel visual vestibular environments with special reference to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. R.; Kenyon, R. V.; Oman, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The etiology of space motion sickness and the underlying physiological mechanisms associated with spatial orientation in a space environment were investigated. Human psychophysical experiments were used as the basis for the research concerning the interaction of visual and vestibular cues in the development of motion sickness. Particular emphasis is placed on the conflict theory in terms of explaining these interactions. Research on the plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex is discussed.

  9. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.

  10. Carrier Plus: A sensor payload for Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed (LWS/SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Cheryl J.; Moss, Steven; Howard, Regan; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Grycewicz, Tom; Barth, Janet L.; Brewer, Dana

    2003-01-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTR4) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center are collaborating to develop the Carrier Plus sensor experiment platform as a capability of the Space Environments Testbed (SET). The Space Environment Testbed (SET) provides flight opportunities for technology experiments as part of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program. The Carrier Plus will provide new capability to characterize sensor technologies such as state-of-the-art visible focal plane arrays (FPAs) in a natural space radiation environment. The technical objectives include on-orbit validation of recently developed FPA technologies and performance prediction methodologies, as well as characterization of the FPA radiation response to total ionizing dose damage, displacement damage and transients. It is expected that the sensor experiment will carry 4-6 FPAs and associated radiation correlative environment monitors (CEMs) for a 2006-2007 launch. Sensor technology candidates may include n- and p-charge coupled devices (CCDs), active pixel sensors (APS), and hybrid CMOS arrays. The presentation will describe the Carrier Plus goals and objectives, as well as provide details about the architecture and design. More information on the LWS program can be found at http://lws.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Business announcements for LWS/SET and program briefings are posted at http://lws-set.gsfc.nasa.gov

  11. A user interface development tool for space science systems Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczur, Martha R.

    1990-01-01

    The Transportable Applications Environment Plus (TAE PLUS), developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is a portable What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) user interface development and management system. Its primary objective is to provide an integrated software environment that allows interactive prototyping and development that of user interfaces, as well as management of the user interface within the operational domain. Although TAE Plus is applicable to many types of applications, its focus is supporting user interfaces for space applications. This paper discusses what TAE Plus provides and how the implementation has utilized state-of-the-art technologies within graphic workstations, windowing systems and object-oriented programming languages.

  12. TIROS-N/NOAA A-J space environment monitor subsystem. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, R.A.; Bushnell, R.H.

    1987-04-01

    The Space Environment Monitor (SEM), which is incorporated as a subsystem in the TIROS-N and NOAA A-J satellites, is described. The SEM consists of a Total Energy Detector (TED), a Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED), a High Energy Proton and Alpha Detector (HEPAD) and a Data Processing Unit (DPU). The detectors are intended to provide near-real-time particle data for use in the Space Environment Service Center of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and to provide a long-term scientific data base. Telemeter codes, data reduction, and test instructions are given

  13. Role of Green Spaces in Favorable Microclimate Creating in Urban Environment (Exemplified by Italian Cities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finaeva, O.

    2017-11-01

    The article represents a brief analysis of factors that influence the development of an urban green space system: territorial and climatic conditions, cultural and historical background as well as the modern strategy of historic cities development. The introduction defines the concept of urban greening, green spaces and green space distribution. The environmental parameters influenced by green spaces are determined. By the example of Italian cities the principles of the urban greening system development are considered: the historical aspects of formation of the urban greening system in Italian cities are analyzed, the role of green spaces in the formation of the urban environment structure and the creation of a favorable microclimate is determined, and a set of measures aimed at its improvement is highlighted. The modern principles of urban greening systems development and their characteristic features are considered. Special attention is paid to the interrelation of architectural and green structures in the formation of a favorable microclimate and psychological comfort in the urban environment; various methods of greening are considered by the example of existing architectural complexes depending on the climate of the area and the landscape features. The examples for the choice of plants and the application of compositional techniques are given. The results represent the basic principles of developing an urban green spaces system. The conclusion summarizes the techniques aimed at the microclimate improvement in the urban environment.

  14. Exploring consumer exposure pathways and patterns of use for chemicals in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie L. Dionisio

    ,CPCat,Chemical/Product Categories Database,DCPS,Danish Consumer Product Survey,DfE,Design for the Environment,EDSP,Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program,EPA,Environmental Protection Agency,EWG,Environmental Working Group,GRAS,Generally Recognized as Safe,HTP,Human Toxome Project,IUR,Inventory Update Reporting Modifications Rule,MSDS,Material Safety Data Sheets,NICNAS,National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme,RPC,Retail Product Categories Database,SDWA,Safe Drinking Water Act,SPIN,Substances in Preparation in Nordic Countries,TSCA,Toxic Substances Control Act,Chemical exposure,Human exposure,High throughput,Exposure prioritization,Use category

  15. Impact of space environment on stability of medicines: Challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Priti; Bhayani, Dhara

    2017-03-20

    To upkeep health of astronauts in a unique, isolated, and extreme environment of space is the primary goal for a successful space mission, hence, safe and efficacious medications are essential for the wellness of astronauts. Space medication has been challenged with problems related to efficacy. Along with altered physiology, one of the possible reasons could be instability of space medications in the presence of harsh spaceflight environmental conditions. Altered physical and chemical stability can result in reduced potency which can result in reduced efficacy. Right now, medicines from the International Space Station are replaced before their expiration. But, for longer duration missions to Mars or any other asteroid, there will not be any chance of replacement of medicines. Hence, it is desired that medicines maintain the shelf-life throughout the space mission. Stability of medicines used for short term or long term space missions cannot be judged by drug stability guidelines based on terrestrial environmental factors. Unique environmental conditions related to spaceflight include microgravity, excessive vibration, hard vacuum, humidity variation, temperature differences and excessive radiation, which may cause instability of medicines. This write-up provides a review of the problem and countermeasure approaches for pharmaceuticals exposed to the space environment. The first part of the article discusses thought processes behind outlining of International Conference on Harmonization drug stability guidelines, Q1A (R2) and Q1B, and its acceptance limits for accelerated stability study. The second part of the article describes the difference in the radiation environment of deep space compared to radiation environment inside the space shuttle based on penetration power of different types of radiation. In the third part of the article, various promising approaches are listed which can be used for assurance of space medicine stability. One of the approaches is the

  16. Virtual nature environment with nature sound exposure induce stress recovery by enhanced parasympathetic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annerstedt, Matilda; Jönsson, Peter; Wallergård, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    . The group that recovered in virtual nature without sound and the control group displayed no particular autonomic activation or deactivation. The results demonstrate a potential mechanistic link between nature, the sounds of nature, and stress recovery, and suggest the potential importance of virtual reality......Experimental research on stress recovery in natural environments is limited, as is study of the effect of sounds of nature. After inducing stress by means of a virtual stress test, we explored physiological recovery in two different virtual natural environments (with and without exposure to sounds...... of nature) and in one control condition. Cardiovascular data and saliva cortisol were collected. Repeated ANOVA measurements indicated parasympathetic activation in the group subjected to sounds of nature in a virtual natural environment, suggesting enhanced stress recovery may occur in such surroundings...

  17. Evidence of Molecular Adaptation to Extreme Environments and Applicability to Space Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović, M. D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This is initial investigation of gene signatures responsible for adapting microscopic life to the extreme Earth environments. We present preliminary results on identification of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs common to several hyperthermophiles and exclusion of those common to a mesophile (non-hyperthermophile: {it Escherichia coli (E. coli K12}, will yield a group of proteins possibly involved in adaptation to life under extreme temperatures. Comparative genome analyses represent a powerful tool in discovery of novel genes responsible for adaptation to specific extreme environments. Methanogens stand out as the only group of organisms that have species capable of growth at 0D C ({it Metarhizium frigidum (M.~frigidum} and {it Methanococcoides burtonii (M.~burtonii} and 110D C ({it Methanopyrus kandleri (M.~kandleri}. Although not all the components of heat adaptation can be attributed to novel genes, the {it chaperones} known as heat shock proteins stabilize the enzymes under elevated temperature. However, highly conserved {it chaperons} found in bacteria and eukaryots are not present in hyperthermophilic Archea, rather, they have a unique {it chaperone TF55}. Our aim was to use software which we specifically developed for extremophile genome comparative analyses in order to search for additional novel genes involved in hyperthermophile adaptation. The followinghyperthermophile genomes incorporated in this software were used forthese studies: {it Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (M.~jannaschii, M.~kandleri, Archaeoglobus fulgidus (A.~fulgidus} and threespecies of {it Pyrococcus}. Common genes were annotated and groupedaccording to their roles in cellular processes where such informationwas available and proteins not previously implicated in theheat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified. Additionalexperimental data are needed in order to learn more about theseproteins. To address non-gene based components of thermaladaptation

  18. Evidence of molecular adaptation to extreme environments and applicability to space environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is initial investigation of gene signatures responsible for adapting microscopic life to the extreme Earth environments. We present preliminary results on identification of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs common to several hyperthermophiles and exclusion of those common to a mesophile (non-hyperthermophile: Escherichia coli (E. coli K12, will yield a group of proteins possibly involved in adaptation to life under extreme temperatures. Comparative genome analyses represent a powerful tool in discovery of novel genes responsible for adaptation to specific extreme environments. Methanogens stand out as the only group of organisms that have species capable of growth at 0ºC (Metarhizium frigidum (M. frigidum and Methanococcoides burtonii (M. burtonii and 110ºC (Methanopyrus kandleri (M. kandleri. Although not all the components of heat adaptation can be attributed to novel genes, the chaperones known as heat shock proteins stabilize the enzymes under elevated temperature. However, highly conserved chaperons found in bacteria and eukaryots are not present in hyperthermophilic Archea, rather, they have a unique chaperone TF55. Our aim was to use software which we specifically developed for extremophile genome comparative analyses in order to search for additional novel genes involved in hyperthermophile adaptation. The following hyperthermophile genomes incorporated in this software were used for these studies: Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (M. jannaschii, M. kandleri, Archaeoglobus fulgidus (A. fulgidus and three species of Pyrococcus. Common genes were annotated and grouped according to their roles in cellular processes where such information was available and proteins not previously implicated in the heat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified. Additional experimental data are needed in order to learn more about these proteins. To address non-gene based components of thermal adaptation, all sequenced extremophiles were

  19. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning in belief space (under motion and sensing uncertainty) is a challenging problem due to the computational intractability of its exact solution. The Feedback-based Information RoadMap (FIRM) framework made an important theoretical step toward enabling roadmap-based planning in belief space and provided a computationally tractable version of belief space planning. However, there are still challenges in applying belief space planners to physical systems, such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes in the obstacle map), as well as unforeseen large deviations in the robot\\'s location (e.g., the kidnapped robot problem). We then utilize these techniques to implement the first online replanning scheme in belief space on a physical mobile robot that is robust to changes in the environment and large disturbances. This method demonstrates that belief space planning is a practical tool for robot motion planning.

  20. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in hydrogen-containing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study has been initiated at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the performance of several V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure to environments containing hydrogen at various partial pressures. The goal is to correlate the chemistry of the exposure environment with hydrogen uptake in the samples and its influence on the microstructure and tensile properties of the alloys. At present, the principal effort has focused on the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy of heat identified as BL-71; however other alloys (V-5Cr-5Ti alloy of heats BL-63, and T87, plus V-4Cr-4Ti alloy from General Atomics [GA]) are also being evaluated. Other variables of interest are the effect of initial grain size on the tensile behavior of the alloys. Experiments conducted on specimens of various V-Cr-Ti alloys exposed to pH 2 levels of 0.01 and 3 x 10 -6 torr showed negligible effect of H 2 on either maximum engineering stress or uniform and total elongation. However, uniform and total elongation decreased substantially when the alloys were exposed to 1.0 torr H 2 pressure. Preliminary data from sequential exposures of the materials to low-pO 2 and several low-pH 2 environments did not reveal an adverse effect on the maximum engineering stress or on uniform and total elongation. Further, tests in H 2 environments on specimens annealed at different temperatures showed that grain-size variation by a factor of ∼2 had little or no effect on tensile properties

  1. Carotid artery and lower cranial nerve exposure with increasing surgical complexity to the parapharyngeal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Rodriguez, Ana M; Sreenath, Satyan B; Rawal, Rounak B; Overton, Lewis J; Farzal, Zainab; Zanation, Adam M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the extent of carotid artery exposure attained, including the identification of the external carotid branches and lower cranial nerves in five sequential external approaches to the parapharyngeal space, and to provide an anatomical algorithm. Anatomical study. Six latex-injected adult cadaver heads were dissected in five consecutive approaches: transcervical approach with submandibular gland removal, posterior extension of the transcervical approach, transcervical approach with parotidectomy, parotidectomy with lateral mandibulotomy, and parotidectomy with mandibulectomy. The degree of carotid artery exposure attained, external carotid branches, and lower cranial nerves visualized was documented. The transcervical approach exposed 1.5 cm (Standard Deviation (SD) 0.5) of internal carotid artery (ICA) and 1.25 cm (SD 0.25) of external carotid artery (ECA). The superior thyroid and facial arteries and cranial nerve XII and XI were identified. The posterior extension exposed 2.9 cm (SD 0.7) of ICA and 2.7 cm (SD 1.0) of ECA. Occipital and ascending pharyngeal arteries were visualized. The transparotid approach exposed 4.0 cm (SD 1.1) of ICA and 3.98 cm (SD 1.8) of ECA. Lateral mandibulotomy exposed the internal maxillary artery, cranial nerve X, the sympathetic trunk, and 4.6 cm (SD 2.4) of ICA. Mandibulectomy allowed for complete ECA exposure, cranial nerve IX, lingual nerve, and 6.9 cm (SD 1.3) of ICA. Approaches for the parapharyngeal space must be based on anatomic and biological patient factors. This study provides a guide for the skull base surgeon for an extended approach based on the desired anatomic exposure. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:585-591, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. The impact of ergonomic work environment exposures on the risk of disability pension: Prospective results from DWECS/DREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Feveile, Helene; Christensen, Karl B

    2009-01-01

    The objectives were to identify the impact of ergonomic work environment exposures on the risk of disability pension. A representative sample of 8475 employees of the total working population in Denmark were interviewed regarding work environment exposures and followed in a national register...... with data on granted disability pension. For women, approximately 34% of the disability pension cases were attributable to ergonomic work environment exposures. For men, 21% of the disability pension cases were attributable to ergonomic work environment. Ergonomic work environment, especially physically...... demanding work, working with hands lifted and repetitive work, are areas of intervention at the workplace that can facilitate and prolong labour market participation. The study provides estimates for the association between ergonomic exposures at work and administrative, cost-related measures of work...

  3. Impact of Anthracene Exposure on Bacterial Community Composition and Function in an Egyptian Marine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, A.E.M.; Lappin-Scott, H.

    2013-01-01

    The application of bioremediation technology for pollution treatment requires more knowledge about how do microbial communities respond to pollutant exposure. The main goals of this study are to investigate the behavior of natural bacterial microflora of Suez Gulf (SGM) in response to exposure to different concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) for different periods. In this study, anthracene, as a model of (PAHs) was added in different concentrations, (30,150 and 500 ppm) to fertilized Suez Gulf water in shaking microcosms to examine the possible shifts in bacterial community composition and function. Changes in bacterial community composition was followed up after different periods of exposure (0, 6, 12, and 18) days to the above mentioned concentrations of anthracene by profiling the amplified product of 16S rDNA via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of SGM in treated microcosm separately. DGGE profiles revealed remarkable changes in diversity due to exposure concentration and duration to anthracene. A diverse relationship between anthracene concentration and bacterial diversity was detected. On the other hand, changes in community function were determined by testing the biodegradation capabilities of the consortia after different exposures separately in microcosms containing 50 ppm of anthracene for 14 days. The remaining anthracene was extracted and monitored by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DGGE profiles of amplified 16S rDNA extracted from parallel biodegradation microcosms were examined to indicate the effects of pre-exposure to different concentrations for different periods to PAHs on the bacterial community compositions. The results confirm that the long term effects of pre exposure to high concentrations of PAH on the bacterial community composition, suggesting that that some organisms can be used as a bio marker indicating the exposures of the marine environment to high concentrations of PAHs. HPLC

  4. Geostationary Communications Satellites as Sensors for the Space Weather Environment: Telemetry Event Identification Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, A.; Cahoy, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reliability of geostationary communication satellites (GEO ComSats) is critical to many industries worldwide. The space radiation environment poses a significant threat and manufacturers and operators expend considerable effort to maintain reliability for users. Knowledge of the space radiation environment at the orbital location of a satellite is of critical importance for diagnosing and resolving issues resulting from space weather, for optimizing cost and reliability, and for space situational awareness. For decades, operators and manufacturers have collected large amounts of telemetry from geostationary (GEO) communications satellites to monitor system health and performance, yet this data is rarely mined for scientific purposes. The goal of this work is to acquire and analyze archived data from commercial operators using new algorithms that can detect when a space weather (or non-space weather) event of interest has occurred or is in progress. We have developed algorithms, collectively called SEER (System Event Evaluation Routine), to statistically analyze power amplifier current and temperature telemetry by identifying deviations from nominal operations or other events and trends of interest. This paper focuses on our work in progress, which currently includes methods for detection of jumps ("spikes", outliers) and step changes (changes in the local mean) in the telemetry. We then examine available space weather data from the NOAA GOES and the NOAA-computed Kp index and sunspot numbers to see what role, if any, it might have played. By combining the results of the algorithm for many components, the spacecraft can be used as a "sensor" for the space radiation environment. Similar events occurring at one time across many component telemetry streams may be indicative of a space radiation event or system-wide health and safety concern. Using SEER on representative datasets of telemetry from Inmarsat and Intelsat, we find events that occur across all or many of

  5. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  6. Initial Efforts in Characterizing Radiation and Plasma Effects on Space Assets: Bridging the Space Environment, Engineering and User Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Guild, T. B.; Jiggens, P.; Jun, I.; Mazur, J. E.; Meier, M. M.; Minow, J. I.; Pitchford, D. A.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Shprits, Y.; Tobiska, W. K.; Xapsos, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Jordanova, V. K.; Kellerman, A. C.; Fok, M. C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has been leading the community-wide model validation projects for many years. Such effort has been broadened and extended via the newly-launched International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment (https://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/assessment/), Its objective is to track space weather models' progress and performance over time, which is critically needed in space weather operations. The Radiation and Plasma Effects Working Team is working on one of the many focused evaluation topics and deals with five different subtopics: Surface Charging from 10s eV to 40 keV electrons, Internal Charging due to energetic electrons from hundreds keV to several MeVs. Single Event Effects from solar energetic particles (SEPs) and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) (several MeV to TeVs), Total Dose due to accumulation of doses from electrons (>100 KeV) and protons (> 1 MeV) in a broad energy range, and Radiation Effects from SEPs and GCRs at aviation altitudes. A unique aspect of the Radiation and Plasma Effects focus area is that it bridges the space environments, engineering and user community. This presentation will summarize the working team's progress in metrics discussion/definition and the CCMC web interface/tools to facilitate the validation efforts. As an example, tools in the areas of surface charging/internal charging will be demoed.

  7. CliniSpace: a multiperson 3D online immersive training environment accessible through a browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Parvati; Heinrichs, W LeRoy; Youngblood, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Immersive online medical environments, with dynamic virtual patients, have been shown to be effective for scenario-based learning (1). However, ease of use and ease of access have been barriers to their use. We used feedback from prior evaluation of these projects to design and develop CliniSpace. To improve usability, we retained the richness of prior virtual environments but modified the user interface. To improve access, we used a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) approach to present a richly immersive 3D environment within a web browser.

  8. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent

  9. Innovative Learning Environments and New Materialism: A Conjunctural Analysis of Pedagogic Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charteris, Jennifer; Smardon, Dianne; Nelson, Emily

    2017-01-01

    An Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development research priority, innovative learning environments (ILEs) have been translated into policy and practice in 25 countries around the world. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, learning spaces are being reconceptualised in relation to this policy work by school leaders who are confronted by an impetus to…

  10. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar; Agarwal, Saurav; Mahadevan, Aditya; Chakravorty, Suman; Tomkins, Daniel; Denny, Jory; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    , such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes

  11. Is green space in the living environment associated with people's feelings of social safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Winsum-Westra, M. van; Verheij, R.A.; Vries, S. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigate whether the percentage of green space in people’s living environment affects their feelings of social safety positively or negatively. More specifically they investigate the extent to which this relationship varies between urban and rural areas, between groups in the

  12. Is green space in the living environment associated with people's feelings of social safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Winsum-Westra, M. van; Verheij, R.A.; Vries, S. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. The authors investigate whether the percentage of green space in people's living environ- ment affects their feelings of social safety positively or negatively. More specifically they investigate the extent to which this relationship varies between urban and rural areas, between groups in

  13. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...

  14. Oncogenesis of melanoma B16 cell clones mutagenized by space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yupeng; Yang Hongsheng; Tang Jingtian; Xu Mei; Geng Chuanying; Fang Qing; Xu Bo; Li Hongyan; Xiang Xing; Pan Lin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the oncogenesis of the melanoma B16 cell clones mutagenized by space environment, and find the B16 cell clones with remarkably mutated immunogenicity. Methods: B16 cells were carried by the Chinese 20th recoverable satellite to the outer space, and were harvested after 18 days' spaceflight and then monocloned. Four cell clones, which were randomly selected from the total 110 clones obtained , and the control clone were routinely cultured. The cultured cells were injected to 10 groups of C57BL/6J mice, 82.1 mice in each group. Five groups of mice received hypodermic injection and another 5 groups of mice received abdominal injection. The survival time was observed in abdominal injection groups. The mice in hypodermic injection groups were sacrificed after 14 days, the tumor, spleen and thymus were weighted, and the serum IL-2 concentration was determined. Moreover, the melanoma tumor tissues were examined histopathologically. Results: An experiment program suitable to screening space mutagenesis of B16 tumor cell clones in vivo and the observation indices were basically established. One clone was found out which was remarkably different from the control clone in latent period of tumor formation, tumor weight, survival time of the tumor-bearing mice and the expression of IL-2. Conclusions: Cultured melanoma B16 cells could be mutated by outer space environment. The further study will be focused on the influence of space environment on immunogenicity of mutagenized B16 cells. (authors)

  15. Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Urban Residential Environment Characteristics as Determinants of Early Childhood Neurodevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, James W.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Andrews, Howard F.; Garfinkel, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Whyatt, Robin; Rundle, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated whether neighborhood characteristics correlated with early neurodevelopment and whether these characteristics confounded the previously reported association between exposure to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate insecticide) and neurodevelopment. Methods. We obtained prenatal addresses, chlorpyrifos exposure data, and 36-month Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) scores for a birth cohort in New York City (born 1998–2002). We used data from the 2000 US Census to estimate measures of physical infrastructure, socioeconomic status, crowding, demographic composition, and linguistic isolation for 1-kilometer network areas around each child's prenatal address. Generalized estimating equations were adjusted for demographics, maternal education and IQ, prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, caretaking environment quality, and building dilapidation. Results. Of 266 children included as participants, 47% were male, 59% were Dominican, and 41% were African American. For each standard deviation higher in neighborhood percent poverty, the PDI score was 2.6 points lower (95% confidence interval [CI] = −3.7, −1.5), and the MDI score was 1.7 points lower (95% CI = −2.6, −0.8). Neighborhood-level confounding of the chlorpyrifos-neurodevelopment association was not apparent. Conclusions. Neighborhood context and chlorpyrifos exposure were independently associated with neurodevelopment, thus providing distinct opportunities for health promotion. PMID:20299657

  16. Measuring accident risk exposure for pedestrians in different micro-environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassarre, Sylvain; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Golias, John

    2007-11-01

    Pedestrians are mainly exposed to the risk of road accident when crossing a road in urban areas. Traditionally in the road safety field, the risk of accident for pedestrian is estimated as a rate of accident involvement per unit of time spent on the road network. The objective of this research is to develop an approach of accident risk based on the concept of risk exposure used in environmental epidemiology, such as in the case of exposure to pollutants. This type of indicator would be useful for comparing the effects of urban transportation policy scenarios on pedestrian safety. The first step is to create an indicator of pedestrians' exposure, which is based on motorised vehicles' "concentration" by lane and also takes account of traffic speed and time spent to cross. This is applied to two specific micro-environments: junctions and mid-block locations. A model of pedestrians' crossing behaviour along a trip is then developed, based on a hierarchical choice between junctions and mid-block locations and taking account of origin and destination, traffic characteristics and pedestrian facilities. Finally, a complete framework is produced for modelling pedestrians' exposure in the light of their crossing behaviour. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on an artificial network and a first set of results is obtained from the validation of the models in observational studies.

  17. Modelling short term individual exposure from airborne hazardous releases in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Efthimiou, G.C.; Andronopoulos, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The statistical behavior of the variability of individual exposure is described with a beta function. • The extreme value in the beta function is properly addressed by [5] correlation. • Two different datasets gave clear support to the proposed novel theory and its hypotheses. - Abstract: A key issue, in order to be able to cope with deliberate or accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous substances, is the ability to reliably predict the individual exposure downstream the source. In many situations, the release time and/or the health relevant exposure time is short compared to mean concentration time scales. In such a case, a significant scatter of exposure levels is expected due to the stochastic nature of turbulence. The problem becomes even more complex when dispersion occurs over urban environments. The present work is the first attempt to approximate on generic terms, the statistical behavior of the abovementioned variability with a beta distribution probability density function (beta-pdf) which has proved to be quite successful. The important issue of the extreme concentration value in beta-pdf seems to be properly addressed by the [5] correlation in which global values of its associated constants are proposed. Two substantially different datasets, the wind tunnel Michelstadt experiment and the field Mock Urban Setting Trial (MUST) experiment gave clear support to the proposed novel theory and its hypotheses. In addition, the present work can be considered as basis for further investigation and model refinements.

  18. Reduction of Endogenous Melatonin Accelerates Cognitive Decline in Mice in a Simulated Occupational Formaldehyde Exposure Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Mei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals afflicted with occupational formaldehyde (FA exposure often suffer from abnormal behaviors such as aggression, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and in particular, cognitive impairments. Coincidentally, clinical patients with melatonin (MT deficiency also complain of cognitive problems associated with the above mental disorders. Whether and how FA affects endogenous MT metabolism and induces cognitive decline need to be elucidated. To mimic occupational FA exposure environment, 16 healthy adult male mice were exposed to gaseous FA (3 mg/m3 for 7 consecutive days. Results showed that FA exposure impaired spatial memory associated with hippocampal neuronal death. Biochemical analysis revealed that FA exposure elicited an intensive oxidative stress by reducing systemic glutathione levels, in particular, decreasing brain MT concentrations. Inversely, intraperitoneal injection of MT markedly attenuated FA-induced hippocampal neuronal death, restored brain MT levels, and reversed memory decline. At tissue levels, injection of FA into the hippocampus distinctly reduced brain MT concentrations. Furthermore, at cellular and molecular levels, we found that FA directly inactivated MT in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that MT supplementation contributes to the rescue of cognitive decline, and may alleviate mental disorders in the occupational FA-exposed human populations.

  19. Modelling short term individual exposure from airborne hazardous releases in urban environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzis, J.G., E-mail: bartzis@uowm.gr [University of Western Macedonia, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sialvera & Bakola Str., 50100, Kozani (Greece); Efthimiou, G.C.; Andronopoulos, S. [Environmental Research Laboratory, INRASTES, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarchou Grigoriou & Neapoleos Str., 15310, Aghia Paraskevi (Greece)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • The statistical behavior of the variability of individual exposure is described with a beta function. • The extreme value in the beta function is properly addressed by [5] correlation. • Two different datasets gave clear support to the proposed novel theory and its hypotheses. - Abstract: A key issue, in order to be able to cope with deliberate or accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous substances, is the ability to reliably predict the individual exposure downstream the source. In many situations, the release time and/or the health relevant exposure time is short compared to mean concentration time scales. In such a case, a significant scatter of exposure levels is expected due to the stochastic nature of turbulence. The problem becomes even more complex when dispersion occurs over urban environments. The present work is the first attempt to approximate on generic terms, the statistical behavior of the abovementioned variability with a beta distribution probability density function (beta-pdf) which has proved to be quite successful. The important issue of the extreme concentration value in beta-pdf seems to be properly addressed by the [5] correlation in which global values of its associated constants are proposed. Two substantially different datasets, the wind tunnel Michelstadt experiment and the field Mock Urban Setting Trial (MUST) experiment gave clear support to the proposed novel theory and its hypotheses. In addition, the present work can be considered as basis for further investigation and model refinements.

  20. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Are exposure predictions, used for the prioritization of pharmaceuticals in the environment, fit for purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emily E; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Kolpin, Dana W; Furlong, Edward T; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2017-10-01

    Prioritization methodologies are often used for identifying those pharmaceuticals that pose the greatest risk to the natural environment and to focus laboratory testing or environmental monitoring toward pharmaceuticals of greatest concern. Risk-based prioritization approaches, employing models to derive exposure concentrations, are commonly used, but the reliability of these models is unclear. The present study evaluated the accuracy of exposure models commonly used for pharmaceutical prioritization. Targeted monitoring was conducted for 95 pharmaceuticals in the Rivers Foss and Ouse in the City of York (UK). Predicted environmental concentration (PEC) ranges were estimated based on localized prescription, hydrological data, reported metabolism, and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) removal rates, and were compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs). For the River Foss, PECs, obtained using highest metabolism and lowest WWTP removal, were similar to MECs. In contrast, this trend was not observed for the River Ouse, possibly because of pharmaceutical inputs unaccounted for by our modeling. Pharmaceuticals were ranked by risk based on either MECs or PECs. With 2 exceptions (dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine), risk ranking based on both MECs and PECs produced similar results in the River Foss. Overall, these findings indicate that PECs may well be appropriate for prioritization of pharmaceuticals in the environment when robust and local data on the system of interest are available and reflective of most source inputs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2823-2832. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. Internal exposure of populations to long-lived radionuclides released into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses the events that led to the contamination of environments with the long-lived radionuclides of caesium, strontium and other elements, and to the internal exposure of populations living in contaminated areas. Among these events are radioactive releases into the river Techa from the Soviet nuclear weapons facility Mayak in 1949-1956, thermonuclear weapons test in the 1950s and 1960s, the Kyshtim and Windscale accidents in 1957, and the Chernobyl and Tomsk-7 accidents in 1986 and 1993, respectively. Methods of environmental monitoring and individual internal dose monitoring of inhabitants are described. These are based on measuring the content of radionuclides not only in the air, drinking water and local food products, but also in humans using whole-body counters and analysing excreta and autopsy samples. The dynamics of internal exposure of people of different ages to radionuclides of caesium, strontium and plutonium from the environment are considered. Examples of radionuclide distributions in the environment, and of individual/collective internal doses and related medical effects are presented. (Author)

  3. Surgical Space Suits Increase Particle and Microbiological Emission Rates in a Simulated Surgical Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaysegaran, Praveen; Knibbs, Luke D; Morawska, Lidia; Crawford, Ross W

    2018-05-01

    The role of space suits in the prevention of orthopedic prosthetic joint infection remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that space suits may in fact contribute to increased infection rates, with bioaerosol emissions from space suits identified as a potential cause. This study aimed to compare the particle and microbiological emission rates (PER and MER) of space suits and standard surgical clothing. A comparison of emission rates between space suits and standard surgical clothing was performed in a simulated surgical environment during 5 separate experiments. Particle counts were analyzed with 2 separate particle counters capable of detecting particles between 0.1 and 20 μm. An Andersen impactor was used to sample bacteria, with culture counts performed at 24 and 48 hours. Four experiments consistently showed statistically significant increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. One experiment showed inconsistent results, with a trend toward increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. Space suits cause increased PER and MER compared with standard surgical clothing. This finding provides mechanistic evidence to support the increased prosthetic joint infection rates observed in clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Designing new collaborative learning spaces in clinical environments: experiences from a children's hospital in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; Jamieson, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Hospitals are complex places that provide a rich learning environment for students, staff, patients and their families, professional groups and the community. The "new" Royal Children's Hospital opened in late 2011. Its mission is focused on improving health and well-being of children and adolescents through leadership in healthcare, research and education. Addressing the need to create "responsive learning environments" aligned with the shift to student-centred pedagogy, two distinct learning environments were developed within the new Royal Children's Hospital; (i) a dedicated education precinct providing a suite of physical environments to promote a more active, collaborative and social learning experience for education and training programs conducted on the Royal Children's Hospital campus and (ii) a suite of learning spaces embedded within clinical areas so that learning becomes an integral part of the daily activities of this busy Hospital environment. The aim of this article is to present the overarching educational principles that lead the design of these learning spaces and describe the opportunities and obstacles encountered in the development of collaborative learning spaces within a large hospital development.

  5. Overview of the Space Launch System Ascent Aeroacoustic Environment Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Andrew J.; Crosby, William A.; Reed, Darren K.

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of accurate flight vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is critical for component and secondary structure vibroacoustic design. The Aerosciences Branch at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a test at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels (UPWT) to determine such ascent aeroacoustic environments for the Space Launch System (SLS). Surface static pressure measurements were also collected to aid in determination of local environments for venting, CFD substantiation, and calibration of the flush air data system located on the launch abort system. Additionally, this test supported a NASA Engineering and Safety Center study of alternate booster nose caps. Testing occurred during two test campaigns: August - September 2013 and December 2013 - January 2014. Four primary model configurations were tested for ascent aeroacoustic environment definition. The SLS Block 1 vehicle was represented by a 2.5% full stack model and a 4% truncated model. Preliminary Block 1B payload and manned configurations were also tested, using 2.5% full stack and 4% truncated models respectively. This test utilized the 11 x 11 foot transonic and 9 x 7 foot supersonic tunnel sections at the ARC UPWT to collect data from Mach 0.7 through 2.5 at various total angles of attack. SLS Block 1 design environments were developed primarily using these data. SLS Block 1B preliminary environments have also been prepared using these data. This paper discusses the test and analysis methodology utilized, with a focus on the unsteady data collection and processing.

  6. Inventorying the molecular potential of Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains surviving harsh space-related environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijnendonckx, Kristel; van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Bossus, Albert; Ott, C. Mark; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Leys, Natalie

    isolates survived exposure to 2µM AgNO3 for up to 5 weeks. All strains were able to grow on kanamycin (50µg/ml) and chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml and up to 150 µg/ml for the Cupriavidus strains). C. metallidurans IV (0502478) was not able to grow on ampicillin (100µg/ml). All Ralstonia and two Cupriavidus isolates were able to grow on carbenicilllin (100µg/ml). None of the isolates were able to grow on tetracycline (20µg/ml). These antibiotic concentrations are typically used for selection of the relevant resistance markers in a wide range of gram-negative bacteria. In addition, all isolates carried at least one large plasmid. The differences in the plasmid profile might be related to the differences in heavy metal and antibiotic resistance of the isolates. In general, these Ralstonia and Cupriavidus strains seemed to be well adapted to persist in these harsh and oligotrophic spacecraft-related environments. Moreover, these bacteria clearly possessed large plasmids, which are known to carry specific traits, such as metal and antibiotics resistance systems. It is therefore hypothesised that thanks to these plasmids the strains were specifically adapted to their rapid changing environment. These first results justify a more detailed study of the genetic content and the survival and proliferation strategies of these strains to improve the prevention of bacterial contamination, monitoring and disinfection tools for future manned space exploration. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) through the MISSEX and COMICS projects.

  7. Tensile properties of V-5Cr-5Ti alloy after exposure in air environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Oxidation studies were conducted on V-5Cr-5Ti alloy specimens in an air environment to evaluate the oxygen uptake behavior of the alloy as a function of temperature and exposure time. The oxidation rates, calculated from parabolic kinetic measurements of thermogravimetric testing and confirmed by microscopic analysis of cross sections of exposed specimens, were 5, 17, and 27 {mu}m per year after exposure at 300, 400, and 500{degrees}C, respectively. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at room temperature and at 500{degrees}C on preoxidized specimens of the alloy to examine the effects of oxidation and oxygen migration on tensile strength and ductility. Correlations were developed between tensile strength and ductility of the oxidized alloy and microstructural characteristics such as oxide thickness, depth of hardened layer, depth of intergranular fracture zone, and transverse crack length.

  8. Spatial variation of particle number concentration in school microscale environments and its impact on exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Farhad; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Crilley, Leigh R; Laiman, Rusdin; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-05-21

    It has not yet been established whether the spatial variation of particle number concentration (PNC) within a microscale environment can have an effect on exposure estimation results. In general, the degree of spatial variation within microscale environments remains unclear, since previous studies have only focused on spatial variation within macroscale environments. The aims of this study were to determine the spatial variation of PNC within microscale school environments, in order to assess the importance of the number of monitoring sites on exposure estimation. Furthermore, this paper aims to identify which parameters have the largest influence on spatial variation as well as the relationship between those parameters and spatial variation. Air quality measurements were conducted for two consecutive weeks at each of the 25 schools across Brisbane, Australia. PNC was measured at three sites within the grounds of each school, along with the measurement of meteorological and several other air quality parameters. Traffic density was recorded for the busiest road adjacent to the school. Spatial variation at each school was quantified using coefficient of variation (CV). The portion of CV associated with instrument uncertainty was found to be 0.3, and, therefore, CV was corrected so that only noninstrument uncertainty was analyzed in the data. The median corrected CV (CVc) ranged from 0 to 0.35 across the schools, with 12 schools found to exhibit spatial variation. The study determined the number of required monitoring sites at schools with spatial variability and tested the deviation in exposure estimation arising from using only a single site. Nine schools required two measurement sites and three schools required three sites. Overall, the deviation in exposure estimation from using only one monitoring site was as much as 1 order of magnitude. The study also tested the association of spatial variation with wind speed/direction and traffic density, using partial

  9. Cue exposure treatment in a virtual environment to reduce nicotine craving: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyoon; Lee, Jang-Han

    2009-02-01

    Smokers show an increase in cue reactivity during exposure to smoking-related cues. CET aims at extinguishing cue reactivity by repeated presentation of substance-related cues and has been claimed a potentially effective method of treating addictive behaviors, including cigarette smoking. We applied CET to eight late-adolescent smokers in virtual environments (VEs). When comparing pre-CET regions to those of post-CET, the inferior frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus were detected. These regions are consistent with previous studies of activated brain regions related to nicotine craving, and VE-CET seems to be an effective method of treating nicotine craving.

  10. Construction of an indicator of exposure to RF fields in urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidetto, T.; Bongio, E.; Gasparino, U.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of a specific task of the CTN-AGF (Centro Tematico Nazionale Agenti Fisici) was the construction of an environmental indicator for the exposure to electromagnetic fields produced by Radio Frequency sources (Base Transceiver Station particularly) in urban environment. The proposed indicator is descriptive and, in the DPSIR framework, is placed among the state indicators. The steps necessary to evaluate the indicator are: - theoretical computation of the electromagnetic field strength; - analysis of the spatial distribution of the potentially exposed population; - topological overlay of the geo referred constructed data

  11. Investigation of individual radiation exposures from discharges to the aquatic environment: techniques used in habits surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.; Jones, P.G.W.

    1982-01-01

    The techniques used by the Fisheries Radiobiological Laboratory (FRL) in conducting habits surveys are described and discussed. The main objectives of these surveys are to investigate exposure pathways to the public resulting from radioactive discharges to the aquatic environment and to provide the basic data from which critical groups can be identified. Preparation, conduct and interpretation of the results of surveys are described and possible errors obtained by the interview technique are highlighted. A means of verifying the results of interviews by a logging technique has been devised and some comparative results are presented. (author)

  12. On reflexivity of random walks in a random environment on a metric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozikov, U.A.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, we consider random walks in random environments on a countable metric space when jumps of the walks of the fractions are finite. The transfer probabilities of the random walk from x is an element of G (where G is the considering metric space) are defined by vector p(x) is an element of R k , k>1, where {p(x), x is an element of G} is the set of independent and indentically distributed random vectors. For the random walk, a sufficient condition of nonreflexivity is obtained. Examples for metric spaces Z d free groups and free product of finite numbers cyclic groups of the second order and some other metric spaces are considered. (author)

  13. Aquatic exposures of chemical mixtures in urban environments: Approaches to impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zwart, Dick; Adams, William; Galay Burgos, Malyka; Hollender, Juliane; Junghans, Marion; Merrington, Graham; Muir, Derek; Parkerton, Thomas; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Whale, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Urban regions of the world are expanding rapidly, placing additional stress on water resources. Urban water bodies serve many purposes, from washing and sources of drinking water to transport and conduits for storm drainage and effluent discharge. These water bodies receive chemical emissions arising from either single or multiple point sources, diffuse sources which can be continuous, intermittent, or seasonal. Thus, aquatic organisms in these water bodies are exposed to temporally and compositionally variable mixtures. We have delineated source-specific signatures of these mixtures for diffuse urban runoff and urban point source exposure scenarios to support risk assessment and management of these mixtures. The first step in a tiered approach to assessing chemical exposure has been developed based on the event mean concentration concept, with chemical concentrations in runoff defined by volumes of water leaving each surface and the chemical exposure mixture profiles for different urban scenarios. Although generalizations can be made about the chemical composition of urban sources and event mean exposure predictions for initial prioritization, such modeling needs to be complemented with biological monitoring data. It is highly unlikely that the current paradigm of routine regulatory chemical monitoring alone will provide a realistic appraisal of urban aquatic chemical mixture exposures. Future consideration is also needed of the role of nonchemical stressors in such highly modified urban water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:703-714. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  14. Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-01-01

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  15. Real-time assessment of exposure dose to workers in radiological environments during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, ByungSeon; Moon, JeiKwon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok; Jeong, SeongYoung; Lee, JungJun; Song, HaeSang; Lee, SangWha; Son, BongKi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The method of exposure dose assessment to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. • The environments of simulation were designed under a virtual reality. • To assess exposure dose to workers, human model was developed within a virtual reality. - Abstract: This objective of this paper is to develop a method to simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. To simulate several scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed using virtual reality. To assess exposure dose to workers, a human model was also developed using virtual reality. The exposure dose was measured and assessed under the principle of ALARA in accordance with radiological environmental change. This method will make it possible to plan for the exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  16. Monte Carlo mixture model of lifetime cancer incidence risk from radiation exposure on shuttle and international space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.E.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    Estimating uncertainty in lifetime cancer risk for human exposure to space radiation is a unique challenge. Conventional risk assessment with low-linear-energy-transfer (LET)-based risk from Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies may be inappropriate for relativistic protons and nuclei in space due to track structure effects. This paper develops a Monte Carlo mixture model (MCMM) for transferring additive, National Institutes of Health multiplicative, and multiplicative excess cancer incidence risks based on Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to determine excess incidence risk for various US astronaut exposure profiles. The MCMM serves as an anchor point for future risk projection methods involving biophysical models of DNA damage from space radiation. Lifetime incidence risks of radiation-induced cancer for the MCMM based on low-LET Japanese data for nonleukemia (all cancers except leukemia) were 2.77 (90% confidence limit, 0.75-11.34) for males exposed to 1 Sv at age 45 and 2.20 (90% confidence limit, 0.59-10.12) for males exposed at age 55. For females, mixture model risks for nonleukemia exposed separately to 1 Sv at ages of 45 and 55 were 2.98 (90% confidence limit, 0.90-11.70) and 2.44 (90% confidence limit, 0.70-10.30), respectively. Risks for high-LET 200 MeV protons (LET=0.45 keV/μm), 1 MeV α-particles (LET=100 keV/μm), and 600 MeV iron particles (LET=180 keV/μm) were scored on a per particle basis by determining the particle fluence required for an average of one particle per cell nucleus of area 100 μm 2 . Lifetime risk per proton was 2.68x10 -2 % (90% confidence limit, 0.79x10 -3 %-0.514x10 -2 %). For α-particles, lifetime risk was 14.2% (90% confidence limit, 2.5%-31.2%). Conversely, lifetime risk per iron particle was 23.7% (90% confidence limit, 4.5%-53.0%). Uncertainty in the DDREF for high-LET particles may be less than that for low-LET radiation because typically there is very little dose-rate dependence. Probability density functions for

  17. Exploring consumer exposure pathways and patterns of use for chemicals in the environment through the Chemical/Product Categories Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exploring consumer exposure pathways and patterns of use for chemicals in the environment through the Chemical/Product Categories Database (CPCat) (Presented by: Kathie Dionisio, Sc.D., NERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (1/23/2014).

  18. Characterising food environment exposure at home, at work, and along commuting journeys using data on adults in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2013-06-27

    Socio-ecological models of behaviour suggest that dietary behaviours are potentially shaped by exposure to the food environment ('foodscape'). Research on associations between the foodscape and diet and health has largely focussed on foodscapes around the home, despite recognition that non-home environments are likely to be important in a more complete assessment of foodscape exposure. This paper characterises and describes foodscape exposure of different types, at home, at work, and along commuting routes for a sample of working adults in Cambridgeshire, UK. Home and work locations, and transport habits for 2,696 adults aged 29-60 were drawn from the Fenland Study, UK. Food outlet locations were obtained from local councils and classified by type - we focus on convenience stores, restaurants, supermarkets and takeaway food outlets. Density of and proximity to food outlets was characterised at home and work. Commuting routes were modelled based on the shortest street network distance between home and work, with exposure (counts of food outlets) that accounted for travel mode and frequency. We describe these three domains of food environment exposure using descriptive and inferential statistics. For all types of food outlet, we found very different foodscapes around homes and workplaces (with overall outlet exposure at work 125% higher), as well as a potentially substantial exposure contribution from commuting routes. On average, work and commuting environments each contributed to foodscape exposure at least equally to residential neighbourhoods, which only accounted for roughly 30% of total exposure. Furthermore, for participants with highest overall exposure to takeaway food outlets, workplaces accounted for most of the exposure. Levels of relative exposure between home, work and commuting environments were poorly correlated. Relying solely on residential neighbourhood characterisation greatly underestimated total foodscape exposure in this sample, with levels of

  19. Evaluating methods for estimating space-time paths of individuals in calculating long-term personal exposure to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Soenario, Ivan; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Dijst, Martin; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the major concerns for human health. Associations between air pollution and health are often calculated using long-term (i.e. years to decades) information on personal exposure for each individual in a cohort. Personal exposure is the air pollution aggregated along the space-time path visited by an individual. As air pollution may vary considerably in space and time, for instance due to motorised traffic, the estimation of the spatio-temporal location of a persons' space-time path is important to identify the personal exposure. However, long term exposure is mostly calculated using the air pollution concentration at the x, y location of someone's home which does not consider that individuals are mobile (commuting, recreation, relocation). This assumption is often made as it is a major challenge to estimate space-time paths for all individuals in large cohorts, mostly because limited information on mobility of individuals is available. We address this issue by evaluating multiple approaches for the calculation of space-time paths, thereby estimating the personal exposure along these space-time paths with hyper resolution air pollution maps at national scale. This allows us to evaluate the effect of the space-time path and resulting personal exposure. Air pollution (e.g. NO2, PM10) was mapped for the entire Netherlands at a resolution of 5×5 m2 using the land use regression models developed in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE, http://escapeproject.eu/) and the open source software PCRaster (http://www.pcraster.eu). The models use predictor variables like population density, land use, and traffic related data sets, and are able to model spatial variation and within-city variability of annual average concentration values. We approximated space-time paths for all individuals in a cohort using various aggregations, including those representing space-time paths as the outline of a persons' home or associated parcel

  20. Thermal Exposure and Environment Effects on Tension, Fracture and Fatigue of 5XXX Alloys Tested in Different Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-27

    Thermal Exposure and Environment Effects on Tension, Fracture and Fatigue of 5XXX Alloys Tested in Different Orientations Sb. GRANT NUMBER ONR-N000 14...e.g.Hl31, HI 16, HI 28), thermal exposure conditions (i .e. time, temperature), and environment (e.g. dry air, humid air, solutions) on the... environmental cracking susceptibility at different load ing rates in both the S-T and L-T orientations. Experiments were conducted using slow strain rate

  1. Radiation and Internal Charging Environments for Thin Dielectrics in Interplanetary Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Altstatt, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft designs using solar sails for propulsion or thin membranes to shade instruments from the sun to achieve cryogenic operating temperatures are being considered for a number of missions in the next decades. A common feature of these designs are thin dielectric materials that will be exposed to the solar wind, solar energetic particle events, and the distant magnetotail plasma environments encountered by spacecraft in orbit about the Earth-Sun L2 point. This paper will discuss the relevant radiation and internal charging environments developed to support spacecraft design for both total dose radiation effects as well as dose rate dependent phenomenon, such as internal charging in the solar wind and distant magnetotail environments. We will describe the development of radiation and internal charging environment models based on nearly a complete solar cycle of Ulysses solar wind plasma measurements over a complete range of heliocentric latitudes and the early years of the Geotail mission where distant magnetotail plasma environments were sampled beyond X(sub GSE) = -100 Re to nearly L2 (X(sub GSE) -236 Re). Example applications of the environment models are shown to demonstrate the radiation and internal charging environments of thin materials exposed to the interplanetary space plasma environments.

  2. The Objectives of NASA's Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Brewer, Dana; Kauffman, Billy; Howard, Regan; Griffin, Geoff; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA is planning to fly a series of Space Environment Testbeds (SET) as part of the Living With A Star (LWS) Program. The goal of the testbeds is to improve and develop capabilities to mitigate and/or accommodate the affects of solar variability in spacecraft and avionics design and operation. This will be accomplished by performing technology validation in space to enable routine operations, characterize technology performance in space, and improve and develop models, guidelines and databases. The anticipated result of the LWS/SET program is improved spacecraft performance, design, and operation for survival of the radiation, spacecraft charging, meteoroid, orbital debris and thermosphere/ionosphere environments. The program calls for a series of NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) to be issued to solicit flight validation experiments, improvement in environment effects models and guidelines, and collateral environment measurements. The selected flight experiments may fly on the SET experiment carriers and flights of opportunity on other commercial and technology missions. This paper presents the status of the project so far, including a description of the types of experiments that are intended to fly on SET-1 and a description of the SET-1 carrier parameters.

  3. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Coil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS. Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation. Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  4. Mugilid Fish Are Sentinels of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Coastal and Estuarine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Ortiz-Zarragoitia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects on fish reproduction can result from a variety of toxicity mechanisms first operating at the molecular level. Notably, the presence in the environment of some compounds termed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs can cause adverse effects on reproduction by interfering with the endocrine system. In some cases, exposure to EDCs leads to the animal feminization and male fish may develop oocytes in testis (intersex condition. Mugilid fish are well suited sentinel organisms to study the effects of reproductive EDCs in the monitoring of estuarine/marine environments. Up-regulation of aromatases and vitellogenins in males and juveniles and the presence of intersex individuals have been described in a wide array of mullet species worldwide. There is a need to develop new molecular markers to identify early feminization responses and intersex condition in fish populations, studying mechanisms that regulate gonad differentiation under exposure to xenoestrogens. Interestingly, an electrophoresis of gonad RNA, shows a strong expression of 5S rRNA in oocytes, indicating the potential of 5S rRNA and its regulating proteins to become useful molecular makers of oocyte presence in testis. Therefore, the use of these oocyte markers to sex and identify intersex mullets could constitute powerful molecular biomarkers to assess xenoestrogenicity in field conditions.

  5. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in oxygen-containing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study was conducted to evaluate the oxidation kinetics of V-4Cr-4Ti (44 alloy) and V-5Cr-5Ti alloys (55 alloy) and to establish the role of oxygen ingress on the tensile behavior of the alloys at room temperature and at 500 C. The oxidation rate of the 44 alloy is slightly higher than that of the 55 alloy. The oxidation process followed parabolic kinetics. Maximum engineering stress for 55 alloy increased with an increase in oxidation time at 500 C. The maximum stress values for 55 alloy were higher at room temperature than ta 500 C for the same oxidation treatment. Maximum engineering stresses for 44 alloy were substantially lower than those for 55 alloy in the same oxidation ∼500 h exposure in air at 500 C; the same values were 4.8 and 6.1%, respectively, at 500 C after ∼2060 h oxidation in air at 500 C. Maximum engineering stress for 44 alloy at room temperature was 421.6--440.6 MPa after ∼250 h exposure at 500 C in environments with a pO 2 range of 1 x 10 -6 to 760 torr. The corresponding uniform and total elongation values were 11--14.4% and 14.5--21.7%, respectively. Measurements of crack depths in various specimens showed that depth is independent of pO 2 in the preexposure environment and was of 70--95 microm after 250--275 h exposure at 500 C

  6. High Fidelity Measurement of Free Space Solar Particle Event and Galactic Cosmic Ray Environments at Intermediate Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgab, M.

    2018-02-01

    A charged particle measurement experiment mounted externally to the Deep Space Gateway is proposed, contributing to improving astronaut radiation exposure management during Solar Particle Events and Extra Vehicular Activities.

  7. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  8. The Revised Space Environment Models in CREME-MC: A Replacement for CREME96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Reed, Robert A.; Sierawski, Brian; Watts, John W.; Weller, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    The CREME96 model has been available on the WWW for more than 10 years now. While principally for the estimation of radiation effects on spacecraft electronics, it contains space radiation environment models that have been used for instrument design calculations, estimation of instrumental background, estimation of radiation hazards and many other purposes. Because of the evolution of electronic part design we have found it necessary to revise CREME96, creating CREME-MC. As part of this revision, we are revising and extending the environmental models in CREME96. This talk will describe the revised radiation environment models that are being made available in CREME-MC

  9. Conceptual Design and Demonstration of Space Scale for Measuring Mass in Microgravity Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Kyu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new idea for developing a space scale for measuring mass in a microgravity environment was proposed by using the inertial force properties of an object to measure its mass. The space scale detected the momentum change of the specimen and reference masses by using a load-cell sensor as the force transducer based on Newton’s laws of motion. In addition, the space scale calculated the specimen mass by comparing the inertial forces of the specimen and reference masses in the same acceleration field. By using this concept, a space scale with a capacity of 3 kg based on the law of momentum conservation was implemented and demonstrated under microgravity conditions onboard International Space Station (ISS with an accuracy of ±1 g. By the performance analysis on the space scale, it was verified that an instrument with a compact size could be implemented and be quickly measured with a reasonable accuracy under microgravity conditions.

  10. Sustainable Shaping of Urban Spaces in the Context of the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Agnieszka Pawłowicz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment is of great importance when it comes to developing a city, as it shapes its spaces, defines its roles and performs climatic and protective functions. Industrialization often requires removing landscape obstacles and vegetation to erect new buildings. An urban planner, though, should be aware of the borders that must not be crossed. Designing new streets and buildings should follow a sustainable growth pattern, if the city landscape and its climatic conditions are to improve for generations to come. This paper discusses the aspects of planning and managing urban spaces in such a way as to provide their users with healthy and comfortable living conditions. The paper is based on a survey conducted to gather the opinions of members of a city community on the environment in which they live.

  11. Implications for space radiation environment models from CREAM and CREDO measurements over half a solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.S.; Truscott, P.R.; Peerless, C.L.; Watson, C.J.; Evans, H.E.; Knight, P.; Cosby, M.; Underwood, C.; Cousins, T.; Noulty, R.; Maag, C.

    1999-01-01

    Flight data obtained between 1990 and 1997 from the Cosmic Radiation Environment Monitors CREAM and CREDO carried on UoSAT-3, Space Shuttle, STRV-1a (Space Technology Research Vehicle) and APEX (Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiment Spacecraft) provide coverage over half a solar cycle. The modulation of cosmic rays and evolution of the South Atlantic Anomaly are observed, the former comprising a factor of three increase at high latitudes and the latter a general increase accompanied by a north-westward drift. Comparison of particle fluxes and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra is made with improved environment and radiation transport calculations which account for shield distributions and secondary particles. While there is an encouraging convergence between predictions and observations, significant improvements are still required, particularly in the treatment of locally produced secondary particles. Solar-particle events during this time period have LET spectra significantly below the October 1989 event which has been proposed as a worst case model

  12. Simulation of the space debris environment in LEO using a simplified approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebschull, Christopher; Scheidemann, Philipp; Hesselbach, Sebastian; Radtke, Jonas; Braun, Vitali; Krag, H.; Stoll, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Several numerical approaches exist to simulate the evolution of the space debris environment. These simulations usually rely on the propagation of a large population of objects in order to determine the collision probability for each object. Explosion and collision events are triggered randomly using a Monte-Carlo (MC) approach. So in many different scenarios different objects are fragmented and contribute to a different version of the space debris environment. The results of the single Monte-Carlo runs therefore represent the whole spectrum of possible evolutions of the space debris environment. For the comparison of different scenarios, in general the average of all MC runs together with its standard deviation is used. This method is computationally very expensive due to the propagation of thousands of objects over long timeframes and the application of the MC method. At the Institute of Space Systems (IRAS) a model capable of describing the evolution of the space debris environment has been developed and implemented. The model is based on source and sink mechanisms, where yearly launches as well as collisions and explosions are considered as sources. The natural decay and post mission disposal measures are the only sink mechanisms. This method reduces the computational costs tremendously. In order to achieve this benefit a few simplifications have been applied. The approach of the model partitions the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) region into altitude shells. Only two kinds of objects are considered, intact bodies and fragments, which are also divided into diameter bins. As an extension to a previously presented model the eccentricity has additionally been taken into account with 67 eccentricity bins. While a set of differential equations has been implemented in a generic manner, the Euler method was chosen to integrate the equations for a given time span. For this paper parameters have been derived so that the model is able to reflect the results of the numerical MC

  13. Acute Effects of Exposure to a Traditional Rural Environment on Urban Dwellers: A Crossover Field Study in Terraced Farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyoung Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing attention and public preference for rural amenities, little evidence is available on the health benefits of a rural environment. In this study, we identified physiological and psychological benefits of exposure to a rural environment using multiparametric methods. Twelve young male adults participated in a 3-day field experiment (mean ± standard deviation age, 22.3 ± 1.3 years. Sleeping environment, diet program, physical activities, and other factors possibly affecting physiological responses were controlled during experiment period. For all participants, salivary cortisol concentration, heart rate variability, and blood pressure were measured at rural and urban field sites. Self-evaluation questionnaires were administered to analyze the psychological states in two different environments. Volatile compounds in the air were also analyzed to investigate air quality. The data were compared between rural and urban environments. The data showed that exposure to a rural environment reduced stress hormone secretion and sympathetic nervous activity and increased parasympathetic nervous activity. Short-term exposure to a rural environment also improved mood states. Our findings indicate that exposure to a rural environment effectively reduced physiological stress and enhanced psychological well-being.

  14. Challenges for Transitioning Science Knowledge to an Operational Environment for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James

    2012-01-01

    Effectively transitioning science knowledge to an operational environment relevant to space weather is critical to meet the civilian and defense needs, especially considering how technologies are advancing and present evolving susceptibilities to space weather impacts. The effort to transition scientific knowledge to a useful application is not a research task nor is an operational activity, but an effort that bridges the two. Successful transitioning must be an intentional effort that has a clear goal for all parties and measureable outcome and deliverable. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective for terrestrial weather and disaster relief efforts, and how those methodologies can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  15. Operation of commercially-based microcomputer technology in a space radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelverton, J. N.

    This paper focuses on detection and recovery techniques that should enable the reliable operation of commercially-based microprocessor technology in the harsh radiation environment of space and at high altitudes. This approach is especially significant in light of the current shift in emphasis (due to cost) from space hardened Class-S parts qualification to a more direct use of commercial parts. The method should offset some of the concern that the newer high density state-of-the-art RISC and CISC microprocessors can be used in future space applications. Also, commercial aviation, should benefit, since radiation induced transients are a new issue arising from the increased quantities of microcomputers used in aircraft avionics.

  16. Effects of a Green Space Layout on the Outdoor Thermal Environment at the Neighborhood Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to address the existing urban design needs and computer-aided thermal engineering and explore the optimal green space layout to obtain an acceptable thermal environment at the neighborhood scale through a series of building energy and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The building-energy analysis software eQUEST and weather database TMY2 were adopted to analyze the electric energy consumed by air conditioners and the analysis results were incorporated to derive the heat dissipated from air conditioners. Then, the PHOENICS CFD software was used to analyze how the green space layout influences outdoor thermal environment based on the heat dissipated from air conditioners and the solar heat reemitted from the built surfaces. The results show that a green space located in the center of this investigated area and at the far side of the downstream of a summer monsoon is the recommended layout. The layouts, with green space in the center, can decrease the highest temperature by 0.36 °C.

  17. Experience of Multisensory Environments in Public Space among People with Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Jenkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explored the role of sensory characteristics embedded in the built environment and whether they support or hinder people with visual impairment in their use of public spaces. An online survey link was e-mailed to the presidents and committee members of each state’s chapters and associations of the National Federation of the Blind in the United States, resulting in 451 direct invitations to participate. Written responses of the survey questions from 48 respondents with visual impairment were analyzed. Three main themes: Barriers, Supporters, and Context-Dependence emerged from the respondents’ experience of multisensory characteristics within the built environment. The four subthemes subsumed in Barriers were: (1 Population specific design, (2 Extreme sensory backgrounds, (3 Uneven ground surfaces and objects, and (4 Inconsistent lighting. For Supporters, respondents provided specific examples of various sensory characteristics in built environments, including audible cues and echoes, smells, tactile quality of the ground surface, and temperature. Context-Dependence referred to the effects of sensory characteristics embedded in public spaces depending on one’s vision condition, the proximity to the sensory cues and the purpose of the activities one was performing at that moment. Findings provide occupational therapy practitioners an in-depth understanding of the transactional relationship between embedded sensory characteristics in the built environment, occupations, and people with visual impairment in order to make appropriate modifications or removal of barriers that affect occupational performance and engagement. Suggestions for occupational therapists as well as architects, designers, planners, policy makers/legislators related to functional sensory cues in the design of built environments were provided to increase accessibility in the use of public spaces by people with visual impairment.

  18. Experience of Multisensory Environments in Public Space among People with Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Gavin R; Yuen, Hon K; Vogtle, Laura K

    2015-07-23

    This qualitative study explored the role of sensory characteristics embedded in the built environment and whether they support or hinder people with visual impairment in their use of public spaces. An online survey link was e-mailed to the presidents and committee members of each state's chapters and associations of the National Federation of the Blind in the United States, resulting in 451 direct invitations to participate. Written responses of the survey questions from 48 respondents with visual impairment were analyzed. Three main themes: Barriers, Supporters, and Context-Dependence emerged from the respondents' experience of multisensory characteristics within the built environment. The four subthemes subsumed in Barriers were: (1) Population specific design, (2) Extreme sensory backgrounds, (3) Uneven ground surfaces and objects, and (4) Inconsistent lighting. For Supporters, respondents provided specific examples of various sensory characteristics in built environments, including audible cues and echoes, smells, tactile quality of the ground surface, and temperature. Context-Dependence referred to the effects of sensory characteristics embedded in public spaces depending on one's vision condition, the proximity to the sensory cues and the purpose of the activities one was performing at that moment. Findings provide occupational therapy practitioners an in-depth understanding of the transactional relationship between embedded sensory characteristics in the built environment, occupations, and people with visual impairment in order to make appropriate modifications or removal of barriers that affect occupational performance and engagement. Suggestions for occupational therapists as well as architects, designers, planners, policy makers/legislators related to functional sensory cues in the design of built environments were provided to increase accessibility in the use of public spaces by people with visual impairment.

  19. The Ascent Study - Understanding the Market Environment for the Follow-on to the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Derek

    2002-01-01

    The ASCENT Study - Understanding the Market Environment for the Follow-on to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, awarded a contract (base plus option amounting to twenty months of analysis) to Futron Corporation in June 2001 to investigate the market environment, and explore the price elasticity attributes, relevant for the introduction of the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (the follow-on to the Space Shuttle) in the second decade of this century. This work is known as the ASCENT Study (Analysis of Space Concepts Enabled by New Transportation) and data collection covering a total of 42 different sectors took place during 2001. Modeling and forecasting activities for 26 of these markets (all of them international in nature) have been taking place throughout 2002, and the final results of the ASCENT Study, which include 20 year forecasts, are due by the end of January, 2003. This paper describes the markets being analyzed for the ASCENT Study, and includes some preliminary findings in terms of launch vehicle demand during the next 20 years, broken down by mass class and mission type. Amongst these markets are the potential public space travel opportunities. When completed, the final report of the ASCENT Study is expected to represent a significant reference document for all business development, financing and planning activities in the space industry for some time to come. One immediate use will be as a key factor in determining the cargo capability and launch rates to be used for designing the follow-on to the Space Shuttle. The Study will also provide NASA with a quantified indication of the extent to which the lower cost to orbit, made possible by a new class of launch vehicle, will bring into being new markets.

  20. Planning, Implementation and Optimization of Future space Missions using an Immersive Visualization Environement (IVE) Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E.

    Planning, Implementation and Optimization of Future Space Missions using an Immersive Visualization Environment (IVE) Machine E. N. Harris, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, CO and George.W. Morgenthaler, U. of Colorado at Boulder History: A team of 3-D engineering visualization experts at the Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company have developed innovative virtual prototyping simulation solutions for ground processing and real-time visualization of design and planning of aerospace missions over the past 6 years. At the University of Colorado, a team of 3-D visualization experts are developing the science of 3-D visualization and immersive visualization at the newly founded BP Center for Visualization, which began operations in October, 2001. (See IAF/IAA-01-13.2.09, "The Use of 3-D Immersive Visualization Environments (IVEs) to Plan Space Missions," G. A. Dorn and G. W. Morgenthaler.) Progressing from Today's 3-D Engineering Simulations to Tomorrow's 3-D IVE Mission Planning, Simulation and Optimization Techniques: 3-D (IVEs) and visualization simulation tools can be combined for efficient planning and design engineering of future aerospace exploration and commercial missions. This technology is currently being developed and will be demonstrated by Lockheed Martin in the (IVE) at the BP Center using virtual simulation for clearance checks, collision detection, ergonomics and reach-ability analyses to develop fabrication and processing flows for spacecraft and launch vehicle ground support operations and to optimize mission architecture and vehicle design subject to realistic constraints. Demonstrations: Immediate aerospace applications to be demonstrated include developing streamlined processing flows for Reusable Space Transportation Systems and Atlas Launch Vehicle operations and Mars Polar Lander visual work instructions. Long-range goals include future international human and robotic space exploration missions such as the development of a Mars

  1. Using the Moon as a high-fidelity analogue environment to study biological and behavioral effects of long-duration space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roma, Peter G.; De Boever, Patrick; Clément, Gilles; Hargens, Alan R.; Loeppky, Jack A.; Evans, Joyce M.; Peter Stein, T.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Mano, Tadaaki; Iwase, Satoshi; Reitz, Guenther; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.

    2012-12-01

    Due to its proximity to Earth, the Moon is a promising candidate for the location of an extra-terrestrial human colony. In addition to being a high-fidelity platform for research on reduced gravity, radiation risk, and circadian disruption, the Moon qualifies as an isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environment suitable as an analog for studying the psychosocial effects of long-duration human space exploration missions and understanding these processes. In contrast, the various Antarctic research outposts such as Concordia and McMurdo serve as valuable platforms for studying biobehavioral adaptations to ICE environments, but are still Earth-bound, and thus lack the low-gravity and radiation risks of space. The International Space Station (ISS), itself now considered an analog environment for long-duration missions, better approximates the habitable infrastructure limitations of a lunar colony than most Antarctic settlements in an altered gravity setting. However, the ISS is still protected against cosmic radiation by the Earth magnetic field, which prevents high exposures due to solar particle events and reduces exposures to galactic cosmic radiation. On Moon the ICE environments are strengthened, radiations of all energies are present capable of inducing performance degradation, as well as reduced gravity and lunar dust. The interaction of reduced gravity, radiation exposure, and ICE conditions may affect biology and behavior - and ultimately mission success - in ways the scientific and operational communities have yet to appreciate, therefore a long-term or permanent human presence on the Moon would ultimately provide invaluable high-fidelity opportunities for integrated multidisciplinary research and for preparations of a manned mission to Mars.

  2. The Joint Space Operations Center Mission System and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment Status Update 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Krezan, Jeremy; Howard, Samantha; Sabol, Chris; Kim, Richard; Echeverry, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is a service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA) performed at the US-led JSpOC. The Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE) is a test-bed maintained and operated by the Air Force to (1) serve as a centralized test-bed for all research and development activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support JMS Program Office-led market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. In this paper we will share with the international remote sensing community some of the recent JMS and ARCADE developments that may contribute to greater SSA at the JSpOC in the future, and share technical areas still in great need.

  3. Radiation exposure of airline crew members to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, G. De; Ballard, T.; Lagorio, S.; Verdecchia, A.

    2000-01-01

    All risk assessment techniques for possible health effects from low dose rate radiation exposure should combine knowledge both of the radiation environment and of the biological response, whose effects (e.g. carcinogenesis) are usually evaluated through mathematical models and/or animal and cell experiments. Data on human exposure to low dose rate radiation exposure and its effects are not readily available, especially with regards to stochastic effects, related to carcinogenesis and therefore to cancer risks, for which the event probability increases with increasing radiation exposure. The largest source of such data might be airline flight personnel, if enrolled for studies on health effects induced by the cosmic-ray generated atmospheric ionizing radiation, whose total dose, increasing over the years, might cause delayed radiation-induced health effects, with the high-LET and highly ionizing neutron component typical of atmospheric radiation. In 1990 flight personnel has been given the status of 'occupationally exposed to radiation' by the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP), with a received radiation dose that is at least twice larger than that of the general population. The studies performed until now were limited in scope and cohort size, and moreover no information whatsoever on radiation occupational exposure (e.g. dose, flight hours, route haul, etc.) was used in the analysis, so no correlation has been until now possible between atmospheric ionizing radiation and (possibly radiation-induced) observed health effects. Our study addresses the issues, by considering all Italian civilian airline flight personnel, both cockpit and cabin crew members, with about 10,000 people selected, whose records on work history and actual flights (route, aircraft type, date, etc. for each individual flight for each person where possible) are considered. Data on actual flight routes and profiles have been obtained for the whole time frame. The actual dose

  4. Application of Advanced Materials Protecting from Influence of Free Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Oleg; Shovkoplyas, Yuriy

    2016-07-01

    High cost and low availability of the components certified for use in the space environment forces satellite designers to using industrial and even commercial items. Risks associated with insufficient knowledge about behavior of these components in radiation environment are parried, mainly, by careful radiating designing of a satellite where application of special protective materials with improved space radiation shielding characteristics is one of the most widely used practices. Another advantage of protective materials application appears when a satellite designer needs using equipment in more severe space environment conditions then it has been provided at the equipment development. In such cases only expensive repeated qualification of the equipment hardness can be alternative to protective materials application. But mostly this way is unacceptable for satellite developers, being within strong financial and temporal restrictions. To apply protective materials effectively, the developer should have possibility to answer the question: "Where inside a satellite shall I place these materials and what shall be their shape to meet the requirements on space radiation hardness with minimal mass and volume expenses?" At that, the minimum set of requirements on space radiation hardness include: ionizing dose, nonionizing dose, single events, and internal charging. The standard calculative models and experimental techniques, now in use for space radiation hardness assurance of a satellite are unsuitable for the problem solving in such formulation. The sector analysis methodology, widely used in satellite radiating designing, is applicable only for aluminium shielding and doesn't allow taking into account advantages of protective materials. The programs simulating transport of space radiations through a substance with the use of Monte-Carlo technique, such as GEANT4, FLUKA, HZETRN and others, are fully applicable in view of their capabilities; but time required for

  5. Nurturing Environments for Boys and Men of Color with Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Phillip W; Yaros, Anna; Lowe, Ashley; McDaniel, Mark S

    2017-06-01

    Boys and men of color are exposed to traumatic experiences at significantly higher rates than are other demographic groups. To understand and address the mental and behavioral health effects of trauma, including violent incidents, on this population, we review the literature showing the context for, outcomes of, and potential responses to trauma exposure. We present the existing research about the unique challenges and associated negative outcomes for boys and men of color, as well as identify the gaps in the literature. We present the potential nurturing responses by systems such as schools, law enforcement, and communities to trauma-exposed boys and men of color, and we describe evidence-based programs and practices that directly address trauma. Finally, we argue that, rather than using a deficit model, a model of optimal development can be used to understand how to support and protect boys and men of color through nurturing environments.

  6. Gamma exposures due to radionuclides deposited in urban environments: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckbach, R.; Jacob, P.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    The modification of gamma exposure from deposited activity at locations inside and outside of buildings in urban environments compared with unshielded locations has been computed using the Monte Carlo method. The types of buildings considered were a house of prefabricated parts, a semi-detached house, a row of four large terrace houses and a multistorey house block. The computations were performed for source energies of 0.3 MeV, 0.662 MeV and 3.0 MeV. In this first part of the paper results for the kerma at various locations inside and outside the buildings due to a contamination with unit surface activity are presented separately for each of the various deposition areas such as walls, windows, roofs, light shafts, paved areas, lawns, and trees. (author)

  7. Radiation Environments and Exposure Considerations for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, William M.; Low, Nora M.; Zillmer, Andrew; Johnson, Gregory A.; Normand, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) is the next generation (RTG) being developed by DOE to provide reliable, long-life electric power for NASA's planetary exploration programs. The MMRTG is being developed by Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and Teledyne Energy Systems Incorporated (TESI) for use on currently planned and projected flyby, orbital and planet landing missions. This is a significant departure from the design philosophy of the past which was to match specific mission requirements to RTG design capabilities. Undefined mission requirements provide a challenge to system designers by forcing them to put a design envelope around 'all possible missions'. These multi-mission requirements include internal and external radiation sources. Internal sources include the particles ejected by decaying Pu-238 and its daughters plus particles resulting from the interaction of these particles with other MMRTG materials. External sources include the full spectrum of charged particle radiation surrounding planets with magnetic fields and the surfaces of extraterrestrial objects not shielded by magnetic fields. The paper presents the results of investigations into the environments outlined above and the impact of radiation exposure on potential materials to be used on MMRTG and ground support personnel. Mission requirements were also reviewed to evaluate total integrated dose and to project potential shielding requirements for materials. Much of the information on mission shielding requirements was provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The primary result is an ionizing radiation design curve which indicates the limits to which a particular mission can take the MMRTG in terms of ionizing radiation exposure. Estimates of personnel radiation exposure during ground handling are also provided

  8. Interaction of dental pulp stem cells with Biodentine and MTA after exposure to different environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Agrafioti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic effects of Biodentine and MTA on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs and to assess cell viability and adherence after material exposure to an acidic environment. Material and Methods: DPSCs were cultured either alone or in contact with either: Biodentine; MTA set for 1 hour; or MTA set for 24 hours. After 4 and 7 days, cell viability was measured using the MTT assay. Biodentine and MTA were also prepared and packed into standardized bovine dentin disks and divided into three groups according to the storage media (n=6/group: freshly mixed materials without storage medium (Group A; materials stored in saline (Group B; materials stored in citric acid buffered at pH 5.4 (Group C. After 24 hours, DPSCs were introduced in the wells and cell adherence, viability, and cellular morphology were observed via confocal microscopy after three days of culture. Cell viability was analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance test with Tukey's post hoc tests (α=0.05. Results: Biodentine expressed significantly higher cell viability compared with all other groups after 4 days, with no differences after 7 days. Notably, cell viability was significantly greater in 24-hour set MTA compared with 1-hour set MTA and control groups after 7 days. Material exposure to an acidic environment showed an increase in cell adherence and viability in both groups. Conclusions: Biodentine induced a significantly accelerated cell proliferation compared with MTA. Setting of these materials in the presence of citric acid enhanced DPSC viability and adherence.

  9. Analysis of exposure to electromagnetic fields in a healthcare environment: simulation and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Martín, Miguel Angel; Del Pozo, Alejandro; Febles, Victor; Hernández, José A; de Aldecoa, José C Fernández; Ramos, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in wireless technologies have lead to an increase in wireless instrumentation present in healthcare centers. This paper presents an analytical method for characterizing electric field (E-field) exposure within these environments. The E-field levels of the different wireless communications systems have been measured in two floors of the Canary University Hospital Consortium (CUHC). The electromagnetic (EM) conditions detected with the experimental measures have been estimated using the software EFC-400-Telecommunications (Narda Safety Test Solutions, Sandwiesenstrasse 7, 72793 Pfullingen, Germany). The experimental and simulated results are represented through 2D contour maps, and have been compared with the recommended safety and exposure thresholds. The maximum value obtained is much lower than the 3 V m(-1) that is established in the International Electrotechnical Commission Standard of Electromedical Devices. Results show a high correlation in terms of E-field cumulative distribution function (CDF) between the experimental and simulation results. In general, the CDFs of each pair of experimental and simulated samples follow a lognormal distribution with the same mean.

  10. Urbapat: External exposure and countermeasures after a radiological accident in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Gallego, E.

    1992-01-01

    URBAPAT (URBAN PATHWAY) is a computer model, written in FORTRAN 77, for the evaluation of the gamma external exposure, and the adequate countermeasures, after a radiological accident involving dispersion and deposition of radioactive material on different urban surfaces. The code estimates the evolution of radioactive material in the urban environment using a dynamic model consisting on 21 compartments, that simulate five different urban surfaces with their particular retention properties. For the assessment of the gamma external exposure in urban areas, one of then main contributors to the long-term individual dose, the model considers the contribution of each surface to the dose rate delivered by five radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134, I-131, Te-132, Ba-140) in different locations outside and inside three types of buildings (semi-detached houses, terrace houses and multi-stored buildings). The population is classified in various groups, attending to their stay time in each location. The model can evaluate the dose avoided by the introduction of countermeasures like decontamination of the urban surfaces or relocation. An assessment of their associated costs will permit to perform the needed cost-benefit analysis of the different countermeasures and alternatives, following IAEA and ICRP recommendations. The capability to perform sensitivity and uncertainty assessment of the more important parameters affecting the results obtained will also be included in the model. (Author)

  11. The continuing Exposure to Noise in Workers in the Society and Living Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Ehtesham zadeh

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available As the industry develops in the societies, human being is more likely to exposed to high level of noises and be at risk of hearing loss. Urbanism and working in the situation which are not in accordance with the personal nature make people even more susceptible to risk factors of hearing loss. Exposure of workers to industrial noise has been the subject to several studies and it seems that reconsidering the situations in both society and nature can be a key to change environment for decreasing noise in the society.For example in Tehran, geographically, the slope of the earth from north to south is 5-10% which is a main factor contributing in noise pollution.Moreover, the source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems including motor vehicles, air craft noises and rail noises. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area.In the current article we have examined both conditions in the hearing condition of workers with high levels of noise exposure.

  12. From LDEF to a national Space Environment and Effects (SEE) program: A natural progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, David E.; Calloway, Robert L.; Funk, Joan G.; Kinard, William H.; Levine, Arlene S.

    1995-02-01

    As the LDEF program draws to a close, it leaves in place the fundamental building blocks for a Space Environment and Effects (SEE) program. Results from LDEF data analyses and investigations now form a substantial core of knowledge on the long term effects of the space environment on materials, system and structures. In addition, these investigations form the basic structure of a critically-needed SEE archive and database system. An agency-wide effort is required to capture all elements of a SEE program to provide a more comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, determining the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, updating the models which predict both the environments and those effects on subsystems and spacecraft, and, finally, ensuring that this multitudinous information is properly maintained, and inserted into spacecraft design programs. Many parts and pieces of a SEE program already exist at various locations to fulfill specific needs. The primary purpose of this program, under the direction of the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in NASA Headquarters, is to take advantage of these parts; apply synergisms where possible; identify and when possible fill-in gaps; coordinate and advocate a comprehensive SEE program. The SEE program must coordinate and support the efforts of well-established technical communities wherein the bulk of the work will continue to be done. The SEE program will consist of a NASA-led SEE Steering Committee, consisting of government and industry users, with the responsibility for coordination between technology developers and NASA customers; and Technical Working Groups with primary responsibility for program technical content in response to user needs. The Technical Working Groups are as follows: Materials and Processes; Plasma and Fields; Ionizing Radiation; Meteoroids and Orbital Debris; Neutral External Contamination; Thermosphere, Thermal, and Solar

  13. Reactor Start-up and Control Methodologies: Consideration of the Space Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Holloway, James Paul

    2004-01-01

    The use of fission energy in space power and propulsion systems offers considerable advantages over chemical propulsion. Fission provides over six orders of magnitude higher energy density, which translates to higher vehicle specific impulse and lower specific mass. These characteristics enable the accomplishment of ambitious space exploration missions. The natural radiation environment in space provides an external source of protons and high energy, high Z particles that can result in the production of secondary neutrons through interactions in reactor structures. Initial investigation using MCNPX 2.5.b for proton transport through the SAFE-400 reactor indicates a secondary neutron net current of 1.4x107 n/s at the core-reflector interface, with an incoming current of 3.4x106 n/s due to neutrons produced in the Be reflector alone. This neutron population could provide a reliable startup source for a space reactor. Additionally, this source must be considered in developing a reliable control strategy during reactor startup, steady-state operation, and power transients. An autonomous control system is developed and analyzed for application during reactor startup, accounting for fluctuations in the radiation environment that result from changes in vehicle location (altitude, latitude, position in solar system) or due to temporal variations in the radiation field, as may occur in the case of solar flares. One proposed application of a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle is in a tour of the Jovian system, where the time required for communication to Earth is significant. Hence, it is important that a reactor control system be designed with feedback mechanisms to automatically adjust to changes in reactor temperatures, power levels, etc., maintaining nominal operation without user intervention. This paper will evaluate the potential use of secondary neutrons produced by proton interactions in the reactor vessel as a startup source for a space reactor and will present a

  14. TRI-Worthy Projects for the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, V. E.; Strangman, G. E.; Donoviel, D.

    2018-02-01

    Preparations for exploration will require exposure to the actual deep space environment. The new TRI for Space Health proposes innovative projects using real space radiation to make medically-relevant measurements affecting human physiology.

  15. The affect of the space environment on the survival of Halorubrum chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nägeli): data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nägeli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested ~10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life beyond earth, the potential for interplanetary

  16. The Affect of the Space Environment on the Survival of Halorubrum Chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nageli): Data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nageli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (lambda is greater than 110 nm or lambda is greater than 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested approximately 10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life

  17. The Erosion of Diamond and Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded due to reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Therefore, in order to design durable spacecraft, it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of materials susceptible to AO reaction. The Polymers Experiment was developed to determine the AO Ey of various polymers and other materials flown in ram and wake orientations in LEO. The experiment was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7) mission for 1.5 years on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). As part of the experiment, a sample containing Class 2A diamond (100 plane) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG, basal and edge planes) was exposed to ram AO and characterized for erosion. The materials were salt-sprayed prior to flight to provide isolated sites of AO protection. The Ey of the samples was determined through post-flight electron microscopy recession depth measurements. The experiment also included a Kapton H witness sample for AO fluence determination. This paper provides an overview of the MISSE 7 mission, a description of the flight experiment, the characterization techniques used, the mission AO fluence, and the LEO Ey results for diamond and HOPG (basal and edge planes). The data is compared to the Ey of pyrolytic graphite exposed to four years of space exposure as part of the MISSE 2 mission. The results indicate that diamond erodes, but with a very low Ey of 1.58 +/- 0.04 x 10(exp -26) cm(exp 3)/atom. The different HOPG planes displayed significantly different amounts of erosion from each other. The HOPG basal plane had an Ey of 1.05 +/- 0.08 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp 3)/atom while the edge plane had a lower Ey of only 5.38 +/- 0.90 x 10(exp -25) -cm(exp 3)/atom. The Ey data from this ISS spaceflight experiment provides valuable information for understanding of chemistry

  18. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    Energy) and AFRL/RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE). The ARCADE formalizes capability development processes that hitherto have been ad hoc, slow to address the evolving space threat environment, and not easily repeatable. Therefore, the purpose of the ARCADE is to: (1) serve as a centralized testbed for all research and development (R&D) activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) facilitate collaboration among developers who otherwise would not collaborate due to organizational, policy, or geographical barriers, and (4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. Over the last several years Scitor Corporation has provided systems engineering support to the JMS Increment 3 Program Office, and has worked with AFRL/RV and AFRL/RD to create a high performance computing environment and SOA at both unclassified and classified levels that together allow developers to develop applications in an environment similar to the version of JMS currently in use by the JSpOC operators. Currently the ARCADE is operational in an unclassified environment via the High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) Portal on DREN. The ARCADE also exists on SECRET and TOP SECRET environments on multiple networks. This presentation will cover the following topics: (1) Scitors role in shaping the ARCADE into its current form, (2) ARCADEs value proposition for potential technology developers, and (3) ARCADEs value proposition for the Government. These topics will be discussed by way of several case studies: a JMS

  19. Parental education and exposure of female and male students to bulling in school environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research exploring the correlation between exposure of elementary school students to various types of bulling at school (stealing of personal belongings, violence, coercion, mockery, shunning and their parents' educational level. Special emphasis was put on connections in mother-daughter and father-son dyads were explored. The research is a part TIMSS 2007 International Project covered a representative sample of 2447 8th Grade students (1161 boys and 1286 girls from 36 elementary schools in Serbia. A questionnaire was used to collect the information on assessment of school environment, as well as students' experience of peer victimization. Overall, 48.1% students (in male sub-sample 54.4%; in female sub-sample 42.7% reported being subjected to some kind of bullying in the preceding month. Much more frequently than girls, boys were subjected to theft of personal belongings, coercion and shunning. Correlation is found between educational level of mothers and bullying of their daughters at schools (especially violence, coercion and mockery. While students/daughters of highly educated mothers were more frequently subjected to coercion (forced to do something they did not want to do, daughters of poorly educated mothers were more frequently subjected to shunning. The sub-sample of boys did not indicate any correlation between educational level of fathers and peer victimization in school environment.

  20. Use of portable exposimeters to monitor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in the everyday environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sanjay; Struchen, Benjamin; Finta, Viktoria; Eeftens, Marloes; Röösli, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) levels in the environment is highly heterogeneous. It is thus not entirely clear how to monitor spatial variability and temporal trends of RF-EMF exposure levels in the environment in a representative and efficient manner. The aim of this study was to test a monitoring protocol for RF-EMF measurements in public areas using portable devices. Using the ExpoM-RF devices mounted on a backpack, we have conducted RF-EMF measurements by walking through 51 different outdoor microenvironments from 20 different municipalities in Switzerland: 5 different city centers, 5 central residential areas, 5 non-central residential areas, 15 rural residential areas, 15 rural centers and 6 industrial areas. Measurements in public transport (buses, trains, trams) were collected when traveling between the areas. Measurements were conducted between 25th March and 11th July 2014. In order to evaluate spatial representativity within one microenvironment, we measured two crossing paths of about 1km in length in each microenvironment. To evaluate repeatability, measurements in each microenvironment were repeated after two to four months on the same paths. Mean RF-EMF exposure (sum of 15 main frequency bands between 87.5 and 5,875MHz) was 0.53V/m in industrial zones, 0.47V/m in city centers, 0.32V/m in central residential areas, 0.25V/m non-central residential areas, 0.23V/m in rural centers and rural residential areas, 0.69V/m in trams, 0.46V/m in trains and 0.39V/m in buses. Major exposure contribution at outdoor locations was from mobile phone base stations (>80% for all outdoor areas with respect to the power density scale). Temporal correlation between first and second measurement of each area was high: 0.89 for total RF-EMF, 0.90 for all five mobile phone downlink bands combined, 0.51 for all five uplink bands combined and 0.79 for broadcasting. Spearman correlation between arithmetic mean values of the

  1. Using a Total Environment Framework (Built, Natural, Social Environments) to Assess Life-long Health Effects of Chemical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAseeks applications for research on how pollution affects human health in the context of the total environment – built, natural, and social environments interacting together with inherent characteristics and interactions.

  2. Predictors of Behavior and Performance in Extreme Environments: The Antarctic Space Analogue Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Gunderson, E K. Eric; Holland, A. W.; Miller, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    To determine which, if any, characteristics should be incorporated into a select-in approach to screening personnel for long-duration spaceflight, we examined the influence of crewmember social/ demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station physical environments on performance measures in 657 American men who spent an austral winter in Antarctica between 1963 and 1974. During screening, subjects completed a Personal History Questionnaire which obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, the Deep Freeze Opinion Survey which assessed 5 different personality traits, and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) Scale which measured 6 dimensions of interpersonal needs. Station environment included measures of crew size and severity of physical environment. Performance was assessed on the basis of combined peer-supervisor evaluations of overall performance, peer nominations of fellow crewmembers who made ideal winter-over candidates, and self-reported depressive symptoms. Social/demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station environments collectively accounted for 9-17% of the variance in performance measures. The following characteristics were significant independent predictors of more than one performance measure: military service, low levels of neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness, and a low desire for affection from others. These results represent an important first step in the development of select-in criteria for personnel on long-duration missions in space and other extreme environments. These criteria must take into consideration the characteristics of the environment and the limitations they place on meeting needs for interpersonal relations and task performance, as well as the characteristics of the individuals and groups who live and work in these environments.

  3. Nutritional considerations during prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperbaric, hyperoxic environment: recommendations for saturation divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, S K; Swinton, P A; Dolan, E

    2016-01-01

    Saturation diving is an occupation that involves prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperoxic, hyperbaric environment. The unique and extreme environment is thought to result in disruption to physiological and metabolic homeostasis, which may impact human health and performance. Appropriate nutritional intake has the potential to alleviate and/or support many of these physiological and metabolic concerns, whilst enhancing health and performance in saturation divers. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to identify the physiological and practical challenges of saturation diving and consequently provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for saturation divers to promote health and performance within this challenging environment. Saturation diving has a high-energy demand, with an energy intake of between 44 and 52 kcal/kg body mass per day recommended, dependent on intensity and duration of underwater activity. The macronutrient composition of dietary intake is in accordance with the current Institute of Medicine guidelines at 45-65 % and 20-35 % of total energy intake for carbohydrate and fat intake, respectively. A minimum daily protein intake of 1.3 g/kg body mass is recommended to facilitate body composition maintenance. Macronutrient intake between individuals should, however, be dictated by personal preference to support the attainment of an energy balance. A varied diet high in fruit and vegetables is highly recommended for the provision of sufficient micronutrients to support physiological processes, such as vitamin B12 and folate intake to facilitate red blood cell production. Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, are also recommended to reduce oxidised molecules, e.g. free radicals, whilst selenium and zinc intake may be beneficial to reinforce endogenous antioxidant reserves. In addition, tailored hydration and carbohydrate fueling strategies for underwater work are also advised.

  4. A universal mirror wave-mode threshold condition for non-thermal space plasma environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Leubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluctuations are recognized in a large variety of space plasmas by increasingly high resolution, in situ observations as mirror wave mode structures. A typical requirement for the excitation of mirror modes is a dominant perpendicular pressure in a high-beta plasma environment. Contrary, we demonstrate from a realistic kinetic analysis how details of the velocity space distributions are of considerable significance for the instability threshold. Introducing the most common characteristics of observed ion and electron distributions by a mixed suprathermal-loss-cone, we derive a universal mirror instability criterion from an energy principle for collisionless plasmas. As a result, the transition from two temperature Maxwellians to realistic non-thermal features provides a strong source for the generation of mirror wave mode activity, reducing drastically the instability threshold. In particular, a number of space-related examples illuminate how the specific structure of the velocity space distribution dominates as a regulating excitation mechanism over the effects related to changes in the plasma parameters.

  5. Contamination Control Assessment of the World's Largest Space Environment Simulation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Aaron; Henry, Michael W.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Sinclair, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Power Facility s thermal vacuum test chamber is the largest chamber in the world capable of providing an environment for space simulation. To improve performance and meet stringent requirements of a wide customer base, significant modifications were made to the vacuum chamber. These include major changes to the vacuum system and numerous enhancements to the chamber s unique polar crane, with a goal of providing high cleanliness levels. The significance of these changes and modifications are discussed in this paper. In addition, the composition and arrangement of the pumping system and its impact on molecular back-streaming are discussed in detail. Molecular contamination measurements obtained with a TQCM and witness wafers during two recent integrated system tests of the chamber are presented and discussed. Finally, a concluding remarks section is presented.

  6. Preserving the Near-Earth Space Environment with Green Engineering and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2009-01-01

    Green engineering and operations are essential to preserving the near-Earth space environment for future generations. The U.S. and the international aerospace community have been proactive in addressing the threat of the increasing orbital debris population and the risks to people and property from reentering debris. NASA has led this activity first by devoting resources to thoroughly understand the technical issues and then by developing effective and acceptable policies and guidelines. NASA also worked closely with the international community to ensure that the US aerospace industry was not placed at an economic disadvantage. In the long term, the removal of large orbital debris will be essential to the sustainability of space operations.

  7. Design for unusual environment (space). Complementary use of modelling and testing phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambiaghi, Danilo; Cambiaghi, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Designing for space requires a great imagination effort from the designer. He must perceive that the stresses experimented by the facilities he is designing will be quite different in space (during the mission), in launch phase and on ground (before launch handling phase), and he must design for all such environmental conditions. Furthermore he must design for mechanical and thermal environment, which often lead to conflicting needs. Virtual models may help very much in balancing the conflicting requirements, but models must be validated to be reliable. Test phase help validating the models, but may overstress the items. The aim of the designer is to reach an efficient and safe design through a balanced use of creativity, modelling and testing

  8. Workshop on Two-Phase Fluid Behavior in a Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Editor); Juhasz, AL (Editor); Long, W. Russ (Editor); Ottenstein, Laura (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Workshop was successful in achieving its main objective of identifying a large number of technical issues relating to the design of two-phase systems for space applications. The principal concern expressed was the need for verified analytical tools that will allow an engineer to confidently design a system to a known degree of accuracy. New and improved materials, for such applications as thermal storage and as heat transfer fluids, were also identified as major needs. In addition to these research efforts, a number of specific hardware needs were identified which will require development. These include heat pumps, low weight radiators, advanced heat pipes, stability enhancement devices, high heat flux evaporators, and liquid/vapor separators. Also identified was the need for a centralized source of reliable, up-to-date information on two-phase flow in a space environment.

  9. Data collection costs in industrial environments for three occupational posture exposure assessment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Documentation of posture measurement costs is rare and cost models that do exist are generally naïve. This paper provides a comprehensive cost model for biomechanical exposure assessment in occupational studies, documents the monetary costs of three exposure assessment methods for different stakeholders in data collection, and uses simulations to evaluate the relative importance of cost components. Methods Trunk and shoulder posture variables were assessed for 27 aircraft baggage handlers for 3 full shifts each using three methods typical to ergonomic studies: self-report via questionnaire, observation via video film, and full-shift inclinometer registration. The cost model accounted for expenses related to meetings to plan the study, administration, recruitment, equipment, training of data collectors, travel, and onsite data collection. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using simulated study parameters and cost components to investigate the impact on total study cost. Results Inclinometry was the most expensive method (with a total study cost of € 66,657), followed by observation (€ 55,369) and then self report (€ 36,865). The majority of costs (90%) were borne by researchers. Study design parameters such as sample size, measurement scheduling and spacing, concurrent measurements, location and travel, and equipment acquisition were shown to have wide-ranging impacts on costs. Conclusions This study provided a general cost modeling approach that can facilitate decision making and planning of data collection in future studies, as well as investigation into cost efficiency and cost efficient study design. Empirical cost data from a large field study demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed models. PMID:22738341

  10. Thin film heat flux sensor for Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine environment stresses engine components to their design limits and beyond. The extremely high temperatures and rapid temperature cycling can easily cause parts to fail if they are not properly designed. Thin film heat flux sensors can provide heat loading information with almost no disturbance of gas flows or of the blade. These sensors can provide steady state and transient heat flux information. A thin film heat flux sensor is described which makes it easier to measure small temperature differences across very thin insulating layers.

  11. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...... gravity field, Earth magnetic field and eclipse. The structure and facilities within the toolbox are described and exemplified using a student satellite case (AAUSAT-II). The validity of developed models is confirmed by comparing the simulation results with the realistic data obtained from the Danish...

  12. Design of Compact Particle Detector System Using FPGA for Space Particle Environment Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We have designed a high resolution proton and electron telescope for the detection of high energy particles, which constitute a major part of the space environment. The flux of the particles, in the satellite orbits, can vary abruptly according to the position and solar activities. In this study, a conceptual design of the detector, for adapting these variations with a high energy resolution, was made and the performance was estimated. In addition, a parallel processing algorithm was devised and embodied using FPGA for the high speed data processing, capable of detecting high flux without losing energy resolution, on board a satellite.

  13. Perception and acceptance of risk from radiation exposure in space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.

    1997-01-01

    There are a number of factors that influence how a person views a particular risk. These include whether the risk is judged to be voluntary and/or controllable, whether the effects are immediate or delayed, and the magnitude of the benefits that are to be gained as a result of being exposed to the risk. An important aspect of the last factor is whether those who suffer the risks are also those who stand to reap the benefits. The manner in which risk is viewed is also significantly influenced by the manner in which it is framed and presented. In short, risk does not exist in the world independent of our minds and cultures, waiting to be measured. Assessments of risk are based on models whose structure is subjective and associated evaluations are laden with assumptions whose inputs are dependent on judgments. In fact, subjectivity permeates every aspect of risk assessment. The assessment of radiation risks in space is no exception. The structuring of the problem includes judgments related to the probability, magnitude, and effects of the various types of radiation likely to be encountered and assumptions related to the quantitative relationship between dose and a range of specific effects, all of which have associated uncertainties. For these reasons, there is no magic formula that will lead us to a precise level of acceptable risk from exposure to radiation in space. Acceptable risk levels must evolve through a process of negotiation that integrates a large number of social, technical, and economic factors. In the end, a risk that is deemed to be acceptable will be the outgrowth of the weighing of risks and benefits and the selection of the option that appears to be best

  14. Individual thermal profiles as a basis for comfort improvement in space and other environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Coca, A.; Leon, G. R.; Dancisak, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development of individualized countermeasures to address problems in thermoregulation is of considerable importance for humans in space and other extreme environments. A methodology is presented for evaluating minimal/maximal heat flux from the total human body and specific body zones, and for assessing individual differences in the efficiency of heat exchange from these body areas. The goal is to apply this information to the design of individualized protective equipment. METHODS: A multi-compartment conductive plastic tubing liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) was developed. Inlet water temperatures of 8-45 degrees C were imposed sequentially to specific body areas while the remainder of the garment was maintained at 33 degrees C. RESULTS: There were significant differences in heat exchange level among body zones in both the 8 degrees and 45 degrees C temperature conditions (p thermal profiles is feasible for better comfort of astronauts on long-duration missions and personnel in other extreme environments.

  15. NASCA Report 2: Longitudinal Study of Relationship of Exposure to Space Radiation and Risk of Lens Opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylack, Leon T., Jr.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Tung, William H.; Wear, Mary L.; Marak, Lisa J.; Hardy, Dale S.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) was a five-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear (N), cortical (C), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. It began in 2003 and was completed in December, 2009. Participants included 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space, and comparison subjects consisted of three groups, a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and c) 99 non-aircrew, ground-based subjects.

  16. A sibling study of whether maternal exposure to different types of natural space is related to birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elizabeth A; Shortt, Niamh K; Mitchell, Richard; Pearce, Jamie

    2018-02-01

    Birthweight is an important determinant of health across the life course. Maternal exposure to natural space has been linked to higher birthweight, but stronger evidence of a causal link is needed. We use a quasi-experimental sibling study design to investigate if change in the mother's exposure to natural space between births was related to birthweight, in urban Scotland. Amount (% area) of total natural space, total accessible (public) natural space, parks, woodlands and open water within 100 m of the mother's postcode was calculated for eligible births (n = 40 194; 1991-2010) in the Scottish Longitudinal Study (a semi-random 5.3% sample of the Scottish population). Associations between natural space and birthweight were estimated, using ordinary least squares and fixed effects models. Birthweight was associated with the total amount of natural space around the mother's home (+8.2 g for interquartile range increase), but was unrelated to specific types of natural space. This whole-sample relationship disappeared in the sibling analysis, indicating residual confounding. The sibling models showed effects for total natural space with births to women who already had children (+20.1 g), and to those with an intermediate level of education (+14.1 g). The importance of total natural space for birthweight suggests that benefits can be experienced near to as well as within natural space. Ensuring expectant mothers have good access to high quality neighbourhood natural space has the potential to improve the infant's start in life, and consequently their health trajectory over the life course. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  17. Determination of Measurement Points in Urban Environments for Assessment of Maximum Exposure to EMF Associated with a Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Linhares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A base station (BS antenna operates in accordance with the established exposure limits if the values of electromagnetic fields (EMF measured in points of maximum exposure are below these limits. In the case of BS in open areas, the maximum exposure to EMF probably occurs in the antenna’s boresight direction, from a few tens to a few hundred meters away. This is not a typical scenery for urban environments. However, in the line of sight (LOS situation, the region of maximum exposure can still be analytically estimated with good results. This paper presents a methodology for the choice of measurement points in urban areas in order to assess compliance with the limits for exposure to EMF.

  18. An Innovative Context-Based Crystal-Growth Activity Space Method for Environmental Exposure Assessment: A Study Using GIS and GPS Trajectory Data Collected in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Kwan, Mei-Po; Chai, Yanwei

    2018-04-09

    Scholars in the fields of health geography, urban planning, and transportation studies have long attempted to understand the relationships among human movement, environmental context, and accessibility. One fundamental question for this research area is how to measure individual activity space, which is an indicator of where and how people have contact with their social and physical environments. Conventionally, standard deviational ellipses, road network buffers, minimum convex polygons, and kernel density surfaces have been used to represent people's activity space, but they all have shortcomings. Inconsistent findings of the effects of environmental exposures on health behaviors/outcomes suggest that the reliability of existing studies may be affected by the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP). This paper proposes the context-based crystal-growth activity space as an innovative method for generating individual activity space based on both GPS trajectories and the environmental context. This method not only considers people's actual daily activity patterns based on GPS tracks but also takes into account the environmental context which either constrains or encourages people's daily activity. Using GPS trajectory data collected in Chicago, the results indicate that the proposed new method generates more reasonable activity space when compared to other existing methods. This can help mitigate the UGCoP in environmental health studies.

  19. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  20. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  1. Public open spaces and walking for recreation: moderation by attributes of pedestrian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark

    2014-05-01

    This study examined whether attributes of pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to public open spaces (POS) and adults' recreational walking. Data were collected from participants of the North West Adelaide Health Study in 2007. Recreational walking was determined using self-reported walking frequency. Measures of POS access (presence, count, and distance to the nearest POS) were assessed using a Geographic Information System. Pedestrian environmental attributes included aesthetics, walking infrastructure, barrier/traffic, crime concern, intersection density, and access to walking trails. Regression analyses examined whether associations between POS access and recreational walking were moderated by pedestrian environmental attributes. The sample included 1574 participants (45% men, mean age: 55). POS access measures were not associated with recreational walking. However, aesthetics, walking infrastructure, and access to walking trail were found to moderate the POS-walking relationships. The presence of POS was associated with walking among participants with aesthetically pleasing pedestrian environments. Counter-intuitively, better access to POS was associated with recreational walking for those with poorer walking infrastructure or no access to walking trails. Local pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to POS and recreational walking. Our findings suggest the presence of complex relationships between POS availability and pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Benzene Exposures in the Working Environment at Gasoline Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunisa Chaiklieng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate benzene exposure in the working environment of workers at gasoline stations. Ambient air (n=20 and inhaled air samples (n=101 of benzene were collected in the city of Khon Kaen, Thailand and analyzed with gas chromatography (GC-FID. Data records were also kept of the amounts of various petroleum products sold. The results of inhaled air benzene indicated the range concentration from 0.03 ppb to 65.71 ppb and showed significant differences between concentrations of each zone (p<0.05. The highest mean concentration was found in suburban stations (35.55 ppb, followed by urban stations (18.19 ppb, and rural stations (2.52 ppb. The highest mean concentration of ambient air was found in urban stations (45.55 ppb. Regarding different job functions, the benzene concentration of fueling workers in the inhalation zone (27.29 ppb was significantly higher than that of cashiers (0.56 ppb. The amounts of petroleum products with high benzene content sold were relatively consistent with inhaled benzene concentration, indicated by the significant differences between suburban and rural zones (p<0.05. In conclusion, this study found the inhaled air benzene concentration ranged 0.03 to 65.71 ppb depending on locations and job functions of workers. Therefore, workers should be protected of adversely affected health from long-term exposure by training on safe working practice and awareness of the different risks associated with their job functions, locations of stations and daily amounts of petroleum products sold.

  3. Inter-comparison of personal monitors for nanoparticles exposure at workplaces and in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Ana Maria; Beckmann, Stefanie; Kaminski, Heinz; Bard, Delphine; Bau, Sébastien; Clavaguera, Simon; Dahmann, Dirk; Dozol, Hélène; Dziurowitz, Nico; Elihn, Karine; Fierz, Martin; Lidén, Göran; Meyer-Plath, Asmus; Monz, Christian; Neumann, Volker; Pelzer, Johannes; Simonow, Barbara Katrin; Thali, Patrick; Tuinman, Ilse; van der Vleuten, Arjan; Vroomen, Huub; Asbach, Christof

    2017-12-15

    Personal monitors based on unipolar diffusion charging (miniDiSC/DiSCmini, NanoTracer, Partector) can be used to assess the individual exposure to nanoparticles in different environments. The charge acquired by the aerosol particles is nearly proportional to the particle diameter and, by coincidence, also nearly proportional to the alveolar lung-deposited surface area (LDSA), the metric reported by all three instruments. In addition, the miniDiSC/DiSCmini and the NanoTracer report particle number concentration and mean particle size. In view of their use for personal exposure studies, the comparability of these personal monitors was assessed in two measurement campaigns. Altogether 29 different polydisperse test aerosols were generated during the two campaigns, covering a large range of particle sizes, morphologies and concentrations. The data provided by the personal monitors were compared with those obtained from reference instruments: a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for LDSA and mean particle size and a ultrafine particle counter (UCPC) for number concentration. The results indicated that the LDSA concentrations and the mean particle sizes provided by all investigated instruments in this study were in the order of ±30% of the reference value obtained from the SMPS when the particle sizes of the test aerosols generated were within 20-400nm and the instruments were properly calibrated. Particle size, morphology and concentration did not have a major effect within the aforementioned limits. The comparability of the number concentrations was found to be slightly worse and in the range of ±50% of the reference value obtained from the UCPC. In addition, a minor effect of the particle morphology on the number concentration measurements was observed. The presence of particles >400nm can drastically bias the measurement results of all instruments and all metrics determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure of Students to Emotional and Physical Violence in the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Şahbal; Özan, Sema; Timbil, Sevgi; Şemin, Semih; Kasapçi, Oya

    2016-12-01

    While peer abuse or physical violence in school is emphasized more, the physical and emotional violence caused by school staff has been emphasized less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables related to emotional and physical violence that students are exposed to in the school environment. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to 434 fifth-grade students receiving education in the primary schools in Konak district of Izmir province. Being prepared by the researchers of this study, the questionnaire consisted of questions about the socio-demographic features of the child and the family, the place where the child has been raised, family income, average grade, and the emotional and physical violence of teachers, parents, and peers s/he has been exposed to within the last year. The Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. The study group consisted of 214 (49.3%) female and 220 (50.7%) male students. Students reported that they were exposed to at least one type of emotional violence from 59.4% of teachers, 52.8% of parents, and 61.8% of children at school; they were exposed to at least one type of physical violence from 42.9% of teachers, 33.6% of parents, and 24.9% of children at school. While the rate of encountering with the beating of another child was 53%, the rate of watching this in television/cinema was 52.8%. Regarding exposure to at least one type of violence, males were found to be significantly more exposed to emotional and physical violence from male teachers, female teachers, and fathers and physical violence from children at school. The factors regarding the exposure to emotional and physical violence by teachers were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and it was determined that the physical violence from teachers, emotional violence from children in school, and emotional violence from parents could predict the

  5. Exposure of Students to Emotional and Physical Violence in the School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARAS, Şahbal; ÖZAN, Sema; TIMBIL, Sevgi; ŞEMİN, Semih; KASAPÇI, Oya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While peer abuse or physical violence in school is emphasized more, the physical and emotional violence caused by school staff has been emphasized less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables related to emotional and physical violence that students are exposed to in the school environment. Methods This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to 434 fifth-grade students receiving education in the primary schools in Konak district of Izmir province. Being prepared by the researchers of this study, the questionnaire consisted of questions about the socio-demographic features of the child and the family, the place where the child has been raised, family income, average grade, and the emotional and physical violence of teachers, parents, and peers s/he has been exposed to within the last year. The Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results The study group consisted of 214 (49.3%) female and 220 (50.7%) male students. Students reported that they were exposed to at least one type of emotional violence from 59.4% of teachers, 52.8% of parents, and 61.8% of children at school; they were exposed to at least one type of physical violence from 42.9% of teachers, 33.6% of parents, and 24.9% of children at school. While the rate of encountering with the beating of another child was 53%, the rate of watching this in television/cinema was 52.8%. Regarding exposure to at least one type of violence, males were found to be significantly more exposed to emotional and physical violence from male teachers, female teachers, and fathers and physical violence from children at school. The factors regarding the exposure to emotional and physical violence by teachers were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and it was determined that the physical violence from teachers, emotional violence from children in school, and emotional violence from

  6. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in helium and low-partial-pressure oxygen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1997-01-01

    A test program is in progress to evaluate the effect of oxygen at low pO 2 on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)wt% Cr-(4-5)wt% Ti alloys. Some of the tensile specimens were precharged with oxygen at low pO 2 at 500 degrees C and reannealed in vacuum at 500 degrees C in environments with various pO 2 levels and subsequently tensile tested at room temperature. The preliminary results indicate that both approaches are appropriate for evaluating the effect of oxygen uptake on the tensile properties of the alloys. The data showed that in the relatively short-time tests conducted thus far, the maximum engineering stress slightly increased after oxygen exposure but the uniform and total elongation values exhibited significant decrease after exposure in oxygen-containing environments. The data for a specimen exposed to a helium environment were similar to those obtained in low pO 2 environments

  7. Peripersonal Space: An Index of Multisensory Body–Environment Interactions in Real, Virtual, and Mixed Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Serino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human–environment interactions normally occur in the physical milieu and thus by medium of the body and within the space immediately adjacent to and surrounding the body, the peripersonal space (PPS. However, human interactions increasingly occur with or within virtual environments, and hence novel approaches and metrics must be developed to index human–environment interactions in virtual reality (VR. Here, we present a multisensory task that measures the spatial extent of human PPS in real, virtual, and augmented realities. We validated it in a mixed reality (MR ecosystem in which real environment and virtual objects are blended together in order to administer and control visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli in ecologically valid conditions. Within this mixed-reality environment, participants are asked to respond as fast as possible to tactile stimuli on their body, while task-irrelevant visual or audiovisual stimuli approach their body. Results demonstrate that, in analogy with observations derived from monkey electrophysiology and in real environmental surroundings, tactile detection is enhanced when visual or auditory stimuli are close to the body, and not when far from it. We then calculate the location where this multisensory facilitation occurs as a proxy of the boundary of PPS. We observe that mapping of PPS via audiovisual, as opposed to visual alone, looming stimuli results in sigmoidal fits—allowing for the bifurcation between near and far space—with greater goodness of fit. In sum, our approach is able to capture the boundaries of PPS on a spatial continuum, at the individual-subject level, and within a fully controlled and previously laboratory-validated setup, while maintaining the richness and ecological validity of real-life events. The task can therefore be applied to study the properties of PPS in humans and to index the features governing human–environment interactions in virtual or MR. We propose PPS as an

  8. Characterization of System Level Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  9. Development of a Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and. control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for inter-spacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for RF Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  10. Characterization of a Prototype Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for interspacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of the medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for Radio Frequency Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  11. Examining the Role of Supportive Family Connection in Violence Exposure Among Male Youth in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Alison J; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Fein, Joel A; Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Miller, Elizabeth; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-04-24

    Family connection has demonstrated protective effects on violence perpetration, victimization, and witnessing in the general U.S. adolescent population. However, several studies examining the impact of family connection on violence exposure in adolescents living in low-resource urban environments have failed to demonstrate similar protective effects. We interviewed male youth in low-resource neighborhoods in Philadelphia recruited through household random sampling. Adjusted logistic regression was used to test whether a supportive relationship with an adult family member was inversely associated with violence involvement and violence witnessing. In 283 youth participants aged 10 to 24 years, 33% reported high violence involvement, 30% reported high violence witnessing, and 17% reported both. Youth who identified at least one supportive adult family member were significantly less likely to report violence involvement (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.18, 0.69]) and violence witnessing (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = [0.24, 0.88]). Youth with two supportive parents, and those with supportive mothers only, also demonstrated significant inverse associations with violence involvement. Supportive parental relationships were inversely but not significantly related to witnessing violence. The findings suggest that supportive parental relationships may not prevent youth in low-resource neighborhoods from witnessing violence but may help prevent direct violence involvement. Next studies should be designed such that the mechanisms that confer protection can be identified, and should identify opportunities to bolster family connection that may reduce adolescent violence involvement among youth in low-resource urban environments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Control of the Onboard Microgravity Environment and Extension of the Service Life of the Long-Term Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of control of the on-board microgravity environment in order to extend the service life of the long-term space station has been discussed. Software developed for the ISS and the results of identifying dynamic models and external impacts based on telemetry data have been presented. Proposals for controlling the onboard microgravity environment for future long-term space stations have been formulated.

  13. Investigation on high efficiency volume Bragg gratings performances for spectrometry in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loicq, Jérôme; Stockman, Y.; Georges, Marc; Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.

    2017-11-01

    The special properties of Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) make them good candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low level of straylight and low polarisation sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of VBGs as enabling technology for future ESA missions with demanding requirements for spectrometry. The VBGs suitability for space application is being investigated in the frame of a project led by CSL and funded by the European Space Agency. The goal of this work is twofold: first the theoretical advantages and drawbacks of VBGs with respect to other technologies with identical functionalities are assessed, and second the performances of VBG samples in a representative space environment are experimentally evaluated. The performances of samples of two VBGs technologies, the Photo-Thermo-Refractive (PTR) glass and the DiChromated Gelatine (DCG), are assessed and compared in the Hα, O2-B and NIR bands. The tests are performed under vacuum condition combined with temperature cycling in the range of 200 K to 300K. A dedicated test bench experiment is designed to evaluate the impact of temperature on the spectral efficiency and to determine the optical wavefront error of the diffracted beam. Furthermore the diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. Finally the straylight, the diffraction efficiency under conical incidence and the polarisation sensitivity is evaluated.

  14. The simplified spherical harmonics (SPL) methodology with space and moment decomposition in parallel environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianluca, Longoni; Alireza, Haghighat

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the SP L (simplified spherical harmonics) equations have received renewed interest for the simulation of nuclear systems. We have derived the SP L equations starting from the even-parity form of the S N equations. The SP L equations form a system of (L+1)/2 second order partial differential equations that can be solved with standard iterative techniques such as the Conjugate Gradient (CG). We discretized the SP L equations with the finite-volume approach in a 3-D Cartesian space. We developed a new 3-D general code, Pensp L (Parallel Environment Neutral-particle SP L ). Pensp L solves both fixed source and criticality eigenvalue problems. In order to optimize the memory management, we implemented a Compressed Diagonal Storage (CDS) to store the SP L matrices. Pensp L includes parallel algorithms for space and moment domain decomposition. The computational load is distributed on different processors, using a mapping function, which maps the 3-D Cartesian space and moments onto processors. The code is written in Fortran 90 using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) libraries for the parallel implementation of the algorithm. The code has been tested on the Pcpen cluster and the parallel performance has been assessed in terms of speed-up and parallel efficiency. (author)

  15. Characteristics of personal space during obstacle circumvention in physical and virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin-Lajoie, Martin; Richards, Carol L; Fung, Joyce; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2008-02-01

    It is not known how the flexible protective zone maintained around oneself during locomotion (personal space or PS; see [Gérin-Lajoie M, Richards CL, McFadyen BJ. The negotiation of stationary and moving obstructions during walking: anticipatory locomotor adaptations and preservation of personal space. Motor Control 2005;9:242-69]) is modulated with walking speed, whether both sides of the PS are symmetrical, and whether the circumvention of physical and virtual obstructions elicit the same use of such PS. Personal space was measured in ten adults as they circumvented a cylindrical obstacle that was stationary within their path. Both left and right passes were performed at natural self-selected, slow and fast walking speeds. The same circumvention task was also performed at natural speeds in an immersive virtual environment (VE) replicating the same obstruction scenario. The shape and size of PS were maintained across walking speeds, and a smaller PS was generally observed on the dominant side. The general shape and lateral bias of the PS were preserved in the VE while its size was slightly increased. The systematic behavior across walking speeds and types of environment and the lateral bias suggest that PS is used to control navigation. This study deepens our understanding of normal adaptive walking behavior and has implications for the development of better tools for the assessment and retraining of locomotor capacity in different populations, from people with walking deficits to elite athletes. Since the PS behavior was shown to be robust in the VE used for this study, the virtual reality technology is proposed as a promising platform for the development of such assessment and retraining applications.

  16. Developing an Adaptive Robotic Assistant for Close-Proximity Human-Robot Interaction in Space Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As mankind continues making strides in space exploration and associated technologies, the frequency, duration, and complexity of human space exploration missions...

  17. Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported. Detailed consideration of the effects of both the natural and induced ionizing radiation environment during ISS design, development, and flight operations has produced a safe, efficient manned space platform that is largely immune to deleterious effects of the LEO ionizing radiation environment. The assumption of a small shielding mass for purposes of design and verification has been shown to be a valid worst-case approximation approach to design for reliability, though predicted dependences of single event effect (SEE) effects on latitude, longitude, SEP events, and spacecraft structural shielding mass are not observed. The Figure of Merit (FOM) method over predicts the rate for median shielding masses of about 10g/cm(exp 2) by only a factor of 3, while the Scott Effective Flux Approach (SEFA) method overestimated by about one order of magnitude as expected. The Integral Rectangular Parallelepiped (IRPP), SEFA, and FOM methods for estimating on-orbit (Single Event Upsets) SEU rates all utilize some version of the CREME-96 treatment of energetic particle interaction with structural shielding, which has been shown to underestimate the production of secondary particles in heavily shielded manned spacecraft. The need for more work directed to development of a practical understanding of secondary particle production in massive structural shielding for SEE design and verification is indicated. In contrast, total dose estimates using CAD based shielding mass distributions functions and the Shieldose Code provided a reasonable accurate estimate of accumulated dose in Grays internal to the ISS pressurized elements, albeit as a result of using worst-on-worst case assumptions (500 km altitude x 2) that compensate for ignoring both GCR and secondary particle

  18. Chemical mixtures: Evaluation of risk for child-specific exposures in a multi-stressor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, H.R.; Abadin, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating the health impact from exposure to chemical mixtures is multifaceted. One component is exposure. Exposure, and consequently risk assessment for mixtures and chemicals in general, are often viewed in terms of a given exposure to a given population at a given location over a given time period. However, environmental exposures are present throughout human lifetime. As a result, an evaluation of risk must include the distinctive characteristics related to chemical exposures which will impact risk depending upon the particular life stage where exposure occurs. Risks to offspring may be associated with unique exposures in utero, during infancy, childhood, or adolescent periods. For example, exposure of infants to anthropogenic chemicals via breast milk may be of concern. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) approach to evaluating risks associated with exposure to mixtures of chemicals is presented. In addition to the breast milk issues, indoor exposure to combined air pollutants, drinking water contaminants, and soil and dust contaminants are discussed. The difference between a mixture's risk evaluation for children and adults is in the distinct exposure scenarios resulting from variations in behavior, physiology, and/or pharmacokinetics between adults and children rather than in the method for the specific mixtures evaluation per se

  19. Effects of electron irradiation in space environment on thermal and mechanical properties of carbon fiber/bismaleimide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qi; Chen, Ping; Gao, Yu; Ma, Keming; Lu, Chun; Xiong, Xuhai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Electron irradiation decreased the storage modulus finally. •T g decreased first and then increased and finally decreased. •The thermal stability was reduced and then improved and finally decreased. •The changing trend of flexural strength and ILSS are consistent. -- Abstract: The effects of electron irradiation in simulated space environment on thermal and mechanical properties of high performance carbon fiber/bismaleimide composites were investigated. The dynamic mechanical properties of the composites exposed to different fluences of electron irradiation were evaluated by Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to investigate the changes in thermal stability of the resin matrix after exposure to electron irradiation. The changes in mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated by flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). The results indicated that electron irradiation in high vacuum had an impact on thermal and mechanical properties of CF/BMI composites, which depends on irradiation fluence. At lower irradiation fluences less than 5 × 10 15 cm −2 , the dynamic storage modulus, cross-linking degree, thermal stability and mechanical properties that were determined by a competing effect between chain scission and cross-linking process, decreased firstly and then increased. While at higher fluences beyond 5 × 10 15 cm −2 , the chain scission process was dominant and thus led to the degradation in thermal and mechanical properties of the composites

  20. Centralized vs. decentralized nursing stations: effects on nurses' functional use of space and work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborowsky, Terri; Bunker-Hellmich, Lou; Morelli, Agneta; O'Neill, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based findings of the effects of nursing station design on nurses' work environment and work behavior are essential to improve conditions and increase retention among these fundamental members of the healthcare delivery team. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate how nursing station design (i.e., centralized and decentralized nursing station layouts) affected nurses' use of space, patient visibility, noise levels, and perceptions of the work environment. Advances in information technology have enabled nurses to move away from traditional centralized paper-charting stations to smaller decentralized work stations and charting substations located closer to, or inside of, patient rooms. Improved understanding of the trade-offs presented by centralized and decentralized nursing station design has the potential to provide useful information for future nursing station layouts. This information will be critical for understanding the nurse environment "fit." The study used an exploratory design with both qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative data regarding the effects of nursing station design on nurses' health and work environment were gathered by means of focus group interviews. Quantitative data-gathering techniques included place- and person-centered space use observations, patient visibility assessments, sound level measurements, and an online questionnaire regarding perceptions of the work environment. Nurses on all units were observed most frequently performing telephone, computer, and administrative duties. Time spent using telephones, computers, and performing other administrative duties was significantly higher in the centralized nursing stations. Consultations with medical staff and social interactions were significantly less frequent in decentralized nursing stations. There were no indications that either centralized or decentralized nursing station designs resulted in superior visibility. Sound levels measured in all

  1. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Unmanned Vacuum Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in more than 30 years, an advanced space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design was operated inside a vacuum chamber representative of the flight operating environment. The test article, PLSS 2.0, was the second system-level integrated prototype of the advanced PLSS design, following the PLSS 1.0 Breadboard that was developed and tested throughout 2011. Whereas PLSS 1.0 included five technology development components with the balance the system simulated using commercial-off-the-shelf items, PLSS 2.0 featured first generation or later prototypes for all components less instrumentation, tubing and fittings. Developed throughout 2012, PLSS 2.0 was the first attempt to package the system into a flight-like representative volume. PLSS 2.0 testing included an extensive functional evaluation known as Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) testing, Human-in-the-Loop testing in which the PLSS 2.0 prototype was integrated via umbilicals to a manned prototype space suit for 19 two-hour simulated EVAs, and unmanned vacuum environment testing. Unmanned vacuum environment testing took place from 1/9/15-7/9/15 with PLSS 2.0 located inside a vacuum chamber. Test sequences included performance mapping of several components, carbon dioxide removal evaluations at simulated intravehicular activity (IVA) conditions, a regulator pressure schedule assessment, and culminated with 25 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). During the unmanned vacuum environment test series, PLSS 2.0 accumulated 378 hours of integrated testing including 291 hours of operation in a vacuum environment and 199 hours of simulated EVA time. The PLSS prototype performed nominally throughout the test series, with two notable exceptions including a pump failure and a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) leak, for which post-test failure investigations were performed. In addition to generating an extensive database of PLSS 2.0 performance data, achievements included requirements and

  2. Virtual reality exposure treatment of agoraphobia: a comparison of computer automatic virtual environment and head-mounted display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Morina, N.; Kerkhof, G.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Wiederhold, B.K.; Bouchard, S.; Riva, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) were investigated in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The level of presence in VRET was compared between using either a head-mounted display (HMD) or a computer automatic virtual environment (CAVE). Results indicate

  3. The nature of impulsivity: visual exposure to natural environments decreases impulsive decision-making in a delay discounting task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith S Berry

    Full Text Available The benefits of visual exposure to natural environments for human well-being in areas of stress reduction, mood improvement, and attention restoration are well documented, but the effects of natural environments on impulsive decision-making remain unknown. Impulsive decision-making in delay discounting offers generality, predictive validity, and insight into decision-making related to unhealthy behaviors. The present experiment evaluated differences in such decision-making in humans experiencing visual exposure to one of the following conditions: natural (e.g., mountains, built (e.g., buildings, or control (e.g., triangles using a delay discounting task that required participants to choose between immediate and delayed hypothetical monetary outcomes. Participants viewed the images before and during the delay discounting task. Participants were less impulsive in the condition providing visual exposure to natural scenes compared to built and geometric scenes. Results suggest that exposure to natural environments results in decreased impulsive decision-making relative to built environments.

  4. Measurements of indoor thermal environment and energy analysis in a large space building in typical seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen; Zou, Zhijun; Li, Meiling; Wang, Xin; Huang, Wugang; Yang, Jiangang [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Li, Wei; Xiao, Xueqin [Shanghai International Gymnastics Stadium, Shanghai (China)

    2007-05-15

    Shanghai International Gymnastics Stadium is the selected object for site-measurement. The site-measurements have been carried out during summer, winter, and the transitional seasons. Their indoor thermal environments were controlled by continuous air-conditioning, intermittent air-conditioning and natural ventilation, respectively. The site-measurement includes outdoor environment (the weather conditions and peripheral hallway), indoor air temperature distribution (the occupant zone temperature, radial temperature near upper openings and the vertical temperature distributions, etc.), and the heat balance of air-conditioning system, etc. It is found that temperature stratification in winter with air-conditioning is most obvious. The maximum difference of vertical temperature is 15{sup o}C in winter. The second largest one is 12{sup o}C in summer, and less than 2{sup o}C in the transitional season. The results of measurements indicate that it is different in the characteristics on energy saving of upper openings during the different seasons. With heat balance measurements, it is discovered that the roof load and ventilated and infiltrated load account for larger percentages in terms of cooling and heating load. In this paper, many discussions on the results of site measurements show some characteristics and regulations of indoor thermal environment in large space building. (author)

  5. The NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vette, J.I.

    1991-11-01

    The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped Radiation Environment Modeling Program (TREMP). In chapter 2 the historical background leading to the establishment of this program is given. Also, the purpose of this modeling program as established by the founders of the program is discussed. This is followed in chapter 3 by the philosophy and approach that was applied in this program throughout its lifetime. As will be seen, this philosophy led to the continuation of the program long after it would have expired. The highlights of the accomplishments are presented in chapter 4. A view to future possible efforts in this arena is given in chapter 5, mainly to pass on to future workers the differences that are perceived from these many years of experience. Chapter 6 is an appendix that details the chronology of the development of TREMP. Finally, the references, which document the work accomplished over these years, are presented in chapter 7

  6. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen- hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during ight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced ows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle con guration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot- re test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate ight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative e ort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This presentation discusses the various trends of base convective heat ux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base ow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi- empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the ight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  7. Hearing and Performance During a 70-h Exposure to Noise Simulating the Space Station Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, S.M.; Crabtree, B.; Baranski, J.V.; Smith, D.G.; Thompson, M.M.; Steeneken, H.J.M.; Verhave, J.A.; Buckey, J.C.; Alvarenga, D.L.; Comtois, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Elevated hearing thresholds have been documented in some astronauts after long-term spaceflights although noise levels were lower than those normally associated with noise-induced hearing loss in ground-based operations. The present study was conducted to determine whether prolonged

  8. Fast neutron irradiation tests of flash memories used in space environment at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Andreani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a neutron accelerated study of soft errors in advanced electronic devices used in space missions, i.e. Flash memories performed at the ChipIr and VESUVIO beam lines at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The two neutron beam lines are set up to mimic the space environment spectra and allow neutron irradiation tests on Flash memories in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV and up to 800 MeV. The ISIS neutron energy spectrum is similar to the one occurring in the atmospheric as well as in space and planetary environments, with intensity enhancements varying in the range 108- 10 9 and 106- 10 7 respectively. Such conditions are suitable for the characterization of the atmospheric, space and planetary neutron radiation environments, and are directly applicable for accelerated tests of electronic components as demonstrated here in benchmark measurements performed on flash memories.

  9. Fast neutron irradiation tests of flash memories used in space environment at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Paccagnella, A.; Bagatin, M.; Gerardin, S.; Cazzaniga, C.; Frost, C. D.; Picozza, P.; Gorini, G.; Mancini, R.; Sarno, M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a neutron accelerated study of soft errors in advanced electronic devices used in space missions, i.e. Flash memories performed at the ChipIr and VESUVIO beam lines at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The two neutron beam lines are set up to mimic the space environment spectra and allow neutron irradiation tests on Flash memories in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV and up to 800 MeV. The ISIS neutron energy spectrum is similar to the one occurring in the atmospheric as well as in space and planetary environments, with intensity enhancements varying in the range 108- 10 9 and 106- 10 7 respectively. Such conditions are suitable for the characterization of the atmospheric, space and planetary neutron radiation environments, and are directly applicable for accelerated tests of electronic components as demonstrated here in benchmark measurements performed on flash memories.

  10. Screening and identification of tillering dwarf mutant of rice induced by space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianlong; Li Chunshou; Wang Junmin; Luo Rongting; Zhang Mingxian

    2003-01-01

    Major agronomic traits and dwarfism of the tiller dwarf mutant, R955, induced by space environment from rice variety Bing 95-503 were identified. The results indicated that the traits including days from sowing to heading, 1000-grain weight, grain volume, plant type and awn-growing character were obviously different from those of the 5 tiller dwarfs such as ID-3, which were known for their dwarfing genes. R955 was insensitive to response of GA3, and its dwarfing gene was controlled by recessive gene(s), nonallelic to the tiller dwarfing genes d 3 , d 10 , d 14 , d 17 and d 27 . R955 had good plant type with the plant height near semidwarfism, normal grain size, and as many as 68 productive panicles per plant

  11. Effects of space environment on chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis characteristics of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Li; Lv Jinyin; Gong Qingzhu; Gao Junfeng

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the space environment on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthesis characteristics of wheat cultivars, Xinong 1043 M1 and Shaan253 M 1 , were studied. The results showed that the decrement of contents of PS II primary photochemical efficiency (F v /F m ), potential activity (F v /F 0 ), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and photosynthesis rate (Pn) were less than that of control, increment of non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) were more than that of control. The results suggested that photosynthetic apparatus were damaged, photosynthetic electron transport, photosynthetic primary reaction were inhibited, rate of photosynthesis decreased and growth of M 1 plant were retarded, which leading to thousand kernel weights decreased. (authors)

  12. LDPC concatenated space-time block coded system in multipath fading environment: Analysis and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Sharma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have been found to show exceptionally good performance for single antenna systems over a wide class of channels. In this paper, the performance of LDPC codes with multiple antenna systems is investigated in flat Rayleigh and Rician fading channels for different modulation schemes. The focus of attention is mainly on the concatenation of irregular LDPC codes with complex orthogonal space-time codes. Iterative decoding is carried out with a density evolution method that sets a threshold above which the code performs well. For the proposed concatenated system, the simulation results show that the QAM technique achieves a higher coding gain of 8.8 dB and 3.2 dB over the QPSK technique in Rician (LOS and Rayleigh (NLOS faded environments respectively.

  13. METRIC: A Dedicated Earth-Orbiting Spacecraft for Investigating Gravitational Physics and the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Peron

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A dedicated mission in low Earth orbit is proposed to test predictions of gravitational interaction theories and to directly measure the atmospheric density in a relevant altitude range, as well as to provide a metrological platform able to tie different space geodesy techniques. The concept foresees a small spacecraft to be placed in a dawn-dusk eccentric orbit between 450 and 1200 km of altitude. The spacecraft will be tracked from the ground with high precision, and a three-axis accelerometer package on-board will measure the non-gravitational accelerations acting on its surface. Estimates of parameters related to fundamental physics and geophysics should be obtained by a precise orbit determination, while the accelerometer data will be instrumental in constraining the atmospheric density. Along with the mission scientific objectives, a conceptual configuration is described together with an analysis of the dynamical environment experienced by the spacecraft and the accelerometer.

  14. Respiratory morbidity associated with exposure to particulate matter in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Martínez. L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: it is assumed that prolonged exposure to airborne pollutants in the areas where people live or work can affect their respiratory systems. In order to demand for control measures aimed at protecting the community’s health, it is necessary to provide evidence for this claim. Methods: the respiratory morbidity of people living or working in urban areas of Medellín was analyzed (high particulate matter pollution. The average of PM10 is 60 µg/m3 and then compared with the respiratory morbidity of a matched sample of inhabitants living in the municipalities located in eastern Antioquia (low pollution. The average of PM10 is 30 µg/m3. Results: the groups that were compared were similar with respect to sociodemographic and other potential confounding variables. Upon comparing the two groups, a higher risk of respiratory signs and symptoms can be observed for subjects from the urban areas of Medellín. Nasal congestion, respiratory distress, and cough are the symptoms that occur in sharper contrast with relative risk of 2.60 95% CI (1.93, 3.62; 2.22 95% CI (1.56, 3.15 and 2.14 95% CI (1.63, 2.81 respectively. Conclusion: high pm10 levels as an indicator of air pollution in urban environments where people live and work contribute to a higher risk of respiratory disease. This implies adverse consequences both in economic and social terms. The control of such a situation hence becomes a social and professional priority.

  15. Association between occupational exposure levels of antineoplastic drugs and work environment in five hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Jin; Koda, Shigeki; Nishida, Shozo; Yoshida, Toshiaki; Miyajima, Keiko; Kumagai, Shinji

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the measurement of contamination by antineoplastic drugs for safer handling of such drugs by medical workers. We investigated the relationship between the contamination level of antineoplastic drugs and the conditions of their handling. Air samples and wipe samples were collected from equipment in the preparation rooms of five hospitals (hospitals A-E). These samples were subjected to measurement of the amounts of cyclophosphamide (CPA), fluorouracil (5FU), gemcitabine (GEM), and platinum-containing drugs (Pt). Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected from the pharmacists who handled or audited, the antineoplastic drugs were analyzed for CPA and Pt. Pt was detected from air samples inside BSC in hospital B. Antineoplastic drugs were detected from wipe samples of the BSC in hospitals A, B, D, and E and of other equipment in the preparation rooms in hospitals A, B, C, and D. Cyclophosphamide and 5FU were detected from wipe samples of the air-conditioner filter in hospital A, and CPA was detected from that in hospital D. Cyclophosphamide was detected from urine samples of workers in hospitals B, D, and E. The contamination level of antineoplastic drugs was suggested to be related with the amount of drugs handled, cleaning methods of the equipment, and the skill level of the technique of maintaining negative pressure inside a vial. In order to reduce the contamination and exposure to antineoplastic drugs in the hospital work environment very close to zero, comprehensive safety precautions, including adequate mixing and cleaning methods was required in addition to BSC and closed system device.

  16. Assessment of general public exposure to LTE and RF sources present in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2010-10-01

    For the first time, in situ electromagnetic field exposure of the general public to fields from long term evolution (LTE) cellular base stations is assessed. Exposure contributions due to different radiofrequency (RF) sources are compared with LTE exposure at 30 locations in Stockholm, Sweden. Total exposures (0.2-2.6 V/m) satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels (from 28 V/m for frequency modulation (FM), up to 61 V/m for LTE) at all locations. LTE exposure levels up to 0.8 V/m were measured, and the average contribution of the LTE signal to the total RF exposure equals 4%.

  17. Analytical and Experimental Studies of Leak Location and Environment Characterization for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Abel, Joshua; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations ("directionality"). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb-mass/yr. to about 1 lb-mass/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  18. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Blackmon, Rebecca; Brown, Martin [Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Inc, 7701 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Abel, Joshua; Hawk, Doug [Alliant Techsystems, Inc, 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Autrey, David; Glenn, Jodie [Lockheed Martin, 1300 Hercules, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Bond, Tim; Buffington, Jesse [NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, 2101 NASA Pkwy, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Cheng, Edward; Ma, Jonathan; Rossetti, Dino [Conceptual Analytics, 8209 Woburn Abbey Rd, Glenn Dale, MD 20769 (United States); DeLatte, Danielle [ASRC Federal Space and Defense, 7000 Muirkirk Meadows Drive, Suite 100, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Garcia, Kelvin; Mohammed, Jelila; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Perry, Radford [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tull, Kimathi [Jackson and Tull, 7375 Executive Pl, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Warren, Eric [Wyle STE Group, 1290 Hercules Ave, Houston, TX 77058-2769 (United States)

    2014-12-09

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH{sub 3} coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (“directionality”). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb{sub m/}/yr. to about 1 lb{sub m}/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  19. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Blackmon, Rebecca; Brown, Martin; Abel, Joshua; Hawk, Doug; Autrey, David; Glenn, Jodie; Bond, Tim; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; Ma, Jonathan; Rossetti, Dino; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Mohammed, Jelila; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Perry, Radford; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH 3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (“directionality”). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb m/ /yr. to about 1 lb m /day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit

  20. Concepts for the calculation of radiation exposure in the environment of nuclear plants for planning and surveillance purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenk, H.D.; Vogt, K.J.; Bruessermann, K.; Schwarz, G.

    1977-01-01

    In connection with the release of radioactive substances from nuclear plants, the following requirements are to be met in respect of the assessment of radiation exposure of persons in the environment of the plant: for the purpose of planning and licencing nuclear plants, the release rates of radioactive substances are to be limited to such a degree that the dose limit values specified in the Radiation Protection Ordinance are not exceeded at any time or on any site. This applies possibly under consideration of the pre-exposure rate. For long-lived radionuclides this requirement involves the calculation of annual doses at the end of a period determined by the time of operation of the plant and by the exposure time of the persons. During the operation of nuclear plants it is necessary to calculate the radiation exposure rates resulting from the emission measured for the year of reference. This application requires the calculation of the dose commitment resulting in the future on the basis of annual emissions for persons living in the environment of the plant. In connection with the long-term prediction of the environmental impact caused by the entire nuclear industry, problems will also be arising in conjunction with the case history of the environmental exposure being subject to respective alterations as a result of additional plants

  1. Effect of Exposure to Hyperoxic, Hypobaric, and Hyperbaric Environments on Concentrations of Selected Aerobic and Anaerobic Fecal Flora of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, James D.; Gordon, Francis B.

    1975-01-01

    Alterations in selected aerobic and anaerobic fecal microflora of the mouse were determined during exposure to hyperoxic and normoxic hypo- and hyperbaric environments. Examination of fecal cultures obtained during exposure for 6 weeks to either 60 or 77% oxygen concentration at 1 atmosphere absolute revealed little alteration in the aerobic or anaerobic flora. There appeared to be only a retardation in the reduction of the Klebsiella-Enterobacter flora which normally occurs after weaning. During exposure to hypobaric environments (100% O2, 0.2 atmosphere absolute), significant alterations in concentrations of Escherichia coli, slow lactose fermenters, Klebsiella-Enterobacter, and enterococci were found in some instances. All alterations were toward increased concentrations. Variations in concentrations of different colony types of obligately anaerobic gram-positive (anGPR) and gram-negative (anGNR) rods cultured during the same experiments also occurred. One colony type of anGPR appeared to decrease while a second type increased in numbers. Concentrations of three colony types of anGNR were generally, but not always, increased. During hyperbaric exposure (2.8% O2, 7.5 atmospheres absolute), increased concentrations of Klebsiella-Enterobacter, E. coli, slow lactose fermenters and enterococci were also noted. Changes in numbers of both colony types of anGPR, when occurring, were in the direction of lower numbers. Alteration in numbers of anGNR were in both directions but were more frequent in the direction of higher numbers. After return to normal air for 4 weeks of either hypo- or hyperbaric exposure, fecal concentrations of all organisms tended to revert toward control values with the exception of the anGPR which remained in lower concentrations after termination of the hyperbaric exposure. These observations indicate that, despite the great variation in the fecal flora among individual mice, it is possible to discover the effects induced by altered gaseous

  2. Biomarkers of exposure in environment-wide association studies - Opportunities to decode the exposome using human biomonitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Nadine; Gotti, Alberto; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Costopoulou, Danae; De Vocht, Frank; Garí, Mercè; Grimalt, Joan O; Heath, Ester; Hiscock, Rosemary; Jagodic, Marta; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Kedikoglou, Kleopatra; Kosjek, Tina; Leondiadis, Leondios; Maggos, Thomas; Mazej, Darja; Polańska, Kinga; Povey, Andrew; Rovira, Joaquim; Schoierer, Julia; Schuhmacher, Marta; Špirić, Zdravko; Stajnko, Anja; Stierum, Rob; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Vassiliadou, Irene; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Horvat, Milena; Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A

    2018-07-01

    The European Union's 7th Framework Programme (EU's FP7) project HEALS - Health and Environment-wide Associations based on Large Population Surveys - aims a refinement of the methodology to elucidate the human exposome. Human biomonitoring (HBM) provides a valuable tool for understanding the magnitude of human exposure from all pathways and sources. However, availability of specific biomarkers of exposure (BoE) is limited. The objective was to summarize the availability of BoEs for a broad range of environmental stressors and exposure determinants and corresponding reference and exposure limit values and biomonitoring equivalents useful for unraveling the exposome using the framework of environment-wide association studies (EWAS). In a face-to-face group discussion, scope, content, and structure of the HEALS deliverable "Guidelines for appropriate BoE selection for EWAS studies" were determined. An expert-driven, distributed, narrative review process involving around 30 individuals of the HEALS consortium made it possible to include extensive information targeted towards the specific characteristics of various environmental stressors and exposure determinants. From the resulting 265 page report, targeted information about BoE, corresponding reference values (e.g., 95th percentile or measures of central tendency), exposure limit values (e.g., the German HBM I and II values) and biomonitoring equivalents (BEs) were summarized and updated. 64 individual biological, chemical, physical, psychological and social environmental stressors or exposure determinants were included to fulfil the requirements of EWAS. The list of available BoEs is extensive with a number of 135; however, 12 of the stressors and exposure determinants considered do not leave any measurable specific substance in accessible body specimens. Opportunities to estimate the internal exposure stressors not (yet) detectable in human specimens were discussed. Data about internal exposures are useful to decode

  3. Free-space optical channel characterization and experimental validation in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2018-03-05

    Over the years, free-space optical (FSO) communication has attracted considerable research interest owing to its high transmission rates via the unbounded and unlicensed bandwidths. Nevertheless, various weather conditions lead to significant deterioration of the FSO link capabilities. In this context, we report on the modelling of the channel attenuation coefficient (β) for a coastal environment and related ambient, considering the effect of coastal air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and dew point (TD) by employing a mobile FSO communication system capable of achieving a transmission rate of 1 Gbps at an outdoor distance of 70 m for optical beam wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm. For further validation of the proposed models, an indoor measurement over a 1.5 m distance utilizing 1310 nm, 1550 nm, and 1064 nm lasers was also performed. The first model provides a general link between T and β, while the second model provides a relation between β, RH as well as TD. By validating our attenuation coefficient model with actual outdoor and indoor experiments, we obtained a scaling parameter x and decaying parameter c values of 19.94, 40.02, 45.82 and 0.03015, 0.04096, 0.0428 for wavelengths of 1550, 1310, 1064 nm, respectively. The proposed models are well validated over the large variation of temperature and humidity over the FSO link in a coastal region and emulated indoor environment.

  4. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  5. Free-space optical channel characterization and experimental validation in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy; Park, Kihong; Alfaraj, Nasir; Guo, Yujian; Stegenburgs, Edgars; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    Over the years, free-space optical (FSO) communication has attracted considerable research interest owing to its high transmission rates via the unbounded and unlicensed bandwidths. Nevertheless, various weather conditions lead to significant deterioration of the FSO link capabilities. In this context, we report on the modelling of the channel attenuation coefficient (β) for a coastal environment and related ambient, considering the effect of coastal air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and dew point (TD) by employing a mobile FSO communication system capable of achieving a transmission rate of 1 Gbps at an outdoor distance of 70 m for optical beam wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm. For further validation of the proposed models, an indoor measurement over a 1.5 m distance utilizing 1310 nm, 1550 nm, and 1064 nm lasers was also performed. The first model provides a general link between T and β, while the second model provides a relation between β, RH as well as TD. By validating our attenuation coefficient model with actual outdoor and indoor experiments, we obtained a scaling parameter x and decaying parameter c values of 19.94, 40.02, 45.82 and 0.03015, 0.04096, 0.0428 for wavelengths of 1550, 1310, 1064 nm, respectively. The proposed models are well validated over the large variation of temperature and humidity over the FSO link in a coastal region and emulated indoor environment.

  6. Physiological Disorders in Closed Environment-Grown Crops for Space Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Morrow, Robert

    Crop production for life support systems in space will require controlled environments where temperature, humidity, CO2, and light might differ from natural environments where plants evolved. Physiological disorders, i.e., abnormal plant growth and development, can occur under these controlled environments. Among the most common of these disorders are Ca deficiency injuries such as leaf tipburn (e.g., lettuce), blossom-end-rot in fruits (e.g., tomato and pepper), and internal tissue necrosis in fruits or tubers (e.g., cucumber and potato). Increased Ca nutrition to the plants typically has little effect on these disorders, but slowing overall growth or providing better air circulation to increase transpiration can be effective. A second common disorder is oedema or intumescence, which appears as callus-like growth or galls on leaves (e.g., sweetpotato, potato, pepper, and tomato). This disorder can be reduced by increasing the near UV radiation ( 300-400 nm) to the plants. Leaf injury and necrosis can occur under long photoperiods (e.g., tomato, potato, and pepper) and at super-elevated (i.e., ¿ than 4000 mol mol-1) CO2 concentrations (e.g., soybean, potato, and radish), and these can be managed by reducing the photoperiod and CO2 concentration, respectively. Lack of blue light in the spectrum (e.g., under red LEDs or LPS lamps) can result in leggy growth and/or leaves lacking in chlorophyll (e.g., wheat, bean, and radish). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), most commonly ethylene, can accumulate in tightly closed systems and result in a variety of negative responses. Most of these disorders can be mitigated by altering the environmental set-points or by using more resistant cultivars.

  7. Analysis of the Metal Oxide Space Clouds (MOSC) HF Propagation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Booth, N.; Selzer, L.

    2015-12-01

    Artificial Ionospheric Modification (AIM) attempts to modify the ionosphere in order to alter the high frequency (HF) propagation environment. It can be achieved through injections of aerosols, chemicals or radio (RF) signals into the ionosphere. The Metal Oxide Space Clouds (MOSC) experiment was undertaken in April/May 2013 to investigate chemical AIM. Two sounding rockets were launched from the Kwajalein Atoll (part of the Marshall Islands) and each released a cloud of vaporized samarium (Sm). The samarium created a localized plasma cloud, with increased electron density, which formed an additional ionospheric layer. The ionospheric effects were measured by a wide range of ground based instrumentation which included a network of high frequency (HF) sounders. Chirp transmissions were made from three atolls and received at five sites within the Marshall Islands. One of the receive sites consisted of an 18 antenna phased array, which was used for direction finding. The ionograms have shown that as well as generating a new layer the clouds created anomalous RF propagation paths, which interact with both the cloud and the F-layer, resulting in 'ghost traces'. To fully understand the propagation environment a 3D numerical ray trace has been undertaken, using a variety of background ionospheric and cloud models, to find the paths through the electron density grid for a given fan of elevation and azimuth firing angles. Synthetic ionograms were then produced using the ratio of ray path length to speed of light as an estimation of the delay between transmission and observation for a given frequency of radio wave. This paper reports on the latest analysis of the MOSC propagation environment, comparing theory with observations, to further understanding of AIM.

  8. Man-made radionuclides in the environment and resulting radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.

    2009-01-01

    This contribution gives a survey about the sources of man-made environmental radioactivity and quantifies some of the resulting radiation exposures. The relevance of the different radionuclides with respect to the radiation exposures is discussed. Finally, the question of the effects of small doses is addressed. (orig.)

  9. Range-finding risk assessment of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds in a laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Antti J; Palomäki, Jaana E; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Siivola, Kirsi M; Koponen, Ismo K; Yu, Mingzhou; Kanerva, Tomi S; Norppa, Hannu; Alenius, Harri T; Hussein, Tareq; Savolainen, Kai M; Hämeri, Kaarle J

    2014-05-16

    This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers' risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs) during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m(-3) (0.08 to 0.74 cm(-3)). In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled) dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m(-3), which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers' calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h) dose of submicrometer urban air particles.

  10. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti J. Koivisto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3. In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h dose of submicrometer urban air particles.

  11. Exposure to Neighborhood Green Space and Mental Health: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. M. Beyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green space is now widely viewed as a health-promoting characteristic of residential environments, and has been linked to mental health benefits such as recovery from mental fatigue and reduced stress, particularly through experimental work in environmental psychology. Few population level studies have examined the relationships between green space and mental health. Further, few studies have considered the role of green space in non-urban settings. This study contributes a population-level perspective from the United States to examine the relationship between environmental green space and mental health outcomes in a study area that includes a spectrum of urban to rural environments. Multivariate survey regression analyses examine the association between green space and mental health using the unique, population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin database. Analyses were adjusted for length of residence in the neighborhood to reduce the impact of neighborhood selection bias. Higher levels of neighborhood green space were associated with significantly lower levels of symptomology for depression, anxiety and stress, after controlling for a wide range of confounding factors. Results suggest that “greening” could be a potential population mental health improvement strategy in the United States.

  12. Fighting in a Contested Space Environment: Training Marines for Operations with Degraded or Denied Space-Enabled Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    TRAINING MARINES FOR OPERATIONS WITH DEGRADED OR DENIED SPACE-ENABLED CAPABILITIES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) David M. Garcia 7. PERFORMING ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...could possibly have been linked to the blast as well [19]. Space Debris (4) There are over 20,000 pieces of debris the size of a softball or greater

  13. Multipathway Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Fecal Contamination for Young Children in Low-Income Urban Environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath Analytical Approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuke; Moe, Christine L; Null, Clair; Raj, Suraja J; Baker, Kelly K; Robb, Katharine A; Yakubu, Habib; Ampofo, Joseph A; Wellington, Nii; Freeman, Matthew C; Armah, George; Reese, Heather E; Peprah, Dorothy; Teunis, Peter F M

    2017-01-01

    Lack of adequate sanitation results in fecal contamination of the environment and poses a risk of disease transmission via multiple exposure pathways. To better understand how eight different sources contribute to overall exposure to fecal contamination, we quantified exposure through multiple

  14. Space Radiation Environment Prediction for VLSI microelectronics devices onboard a LEO Satellite using OMERE-Trad Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    This tutorial/survey paper presents the assessment/determination of level of hazard/threat to emerging microelectronics devices in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space radiation environment with perigee at 300 Km, apogee at 600Km altitude having different orbital inclinations to predict the reliability of onboard Bulk Built-In Current Sensor (BBICS) fabricated in 350nm technology node at OptMA Lab. UFMG Brazil. In this context, the various parameters for space radiation environment have been analyzed to characterize the ionizing radiation environment effects on proposed BBICS. The Space radiation environment has been modeled in the form of particles trapped in Van-Allen radiation belts(RBs), Energetic Solar Particles Events (ESPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) where as its potential effects on Device- Under-Test (DUT) has been predicted in terms of Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Single-Event Effects (SEE) and Displacement Damage Dose (DDD). Finally, the required mitigation techniques including necessary shielding requirements to avoid undesirable effects of radiation environment at device level has been estimated /determined with assumed standard thickness of Aluminum shielding. In order to evaluate space radiation environment and analyze energetic particles effects on BBICS, OMERE toolkit developed by TRAD was utilized.

  15. Ultralightweight PV Array Materials for Deep Space Mission Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photovoltaic arrays for future deep space NASA missions demand multiple functionalities. They must efficiently generate electrical power, have very large areas and...

  16. FOREWORD: Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kaltenbacher, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Inverse problems can usually be modelled as operator equations in infinite-dimensional spaces with a forward operator acting between Hilbert or Banach spaces—a formulation which quite often also serves as the basis for defining and analyzing solution methods. The additional amount of structure and geometric interpretability provided by the concept of an inner product has rendered these methods amenable to a convergence analysis, a fact which has led to a rigorous and comprehensive study of regularization methods in Hilbert spaces over the last three decades. However, for numerous problems such as x-ray diffractometry, certain inverse scattering problems and a number of parameter identification problems in PDEs, the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based on conventions rather than an appropriate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, non-Hilbertian regularization and data fidelity terms incorporating a priori information on solution and noise, such as general Lp-norms, TV-type norms, or the Kullback-Leibler divergence, have recently become very popular. These facts have motivated intensive investigations on regularization methods in Banach spaces, a topic which has emerged as a highly active research field within the area of inverse problems. Meanwhile some of the most well-known regularization approaches, such as Tikhonov-type methods requiring the solution of extremal problems, and iterative ones like the Landweber method, the Gauss-Newton method, as well as the approximate inverse method, have been investigated for linear and nonlinear operator equations in Banach spaces. Convergence with rates has been proven and conditions on the solution smoothness and on the structure of nonlinearity have been formulated. Still, beyond the existing results a large number of challenging open questions have arisen, due to the more involved handling of general Banach spaces and the larger variety

  17. Evaluation of Quantitative Exposure Assessment Method for Nanomaterials in Mixed Dust Environments: Application in Tire Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Marisa L; Cyrs, William D; Tosiano, Melissa A; Panko, Julie M

    2015-11-01

    Current recommendations for nanomaterial-specific exposure assessment require adaptation in order to be applied to complicated manufacturing settings, where a variety of particle types may contribute to the potential exposure. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a method that would allow for exposure assessment of nanostructured materials by chemical composition and size in a mixed dust setting, using carbon black (CB) and amorphous silica (AS) from tire manufacturing as an example. This method combined air sampling with a low pressure cascade impactor with analysis of elemental composition by size to quantitatively assess potential exposures in the workplace. This method was first pilot-tested in one tire manufacturing facility; air samples were collected with a Dekati Low Pressure Impactor (DLPI) during mixing where either CB or AS were used as the primary filler. Air samples were analyzed via scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to identify what fraction of particles were CB, AS, or 'other'. From this pilot study, it was determined that ~95% of all nanoscale particles were identified as CB or AS. Subsequent samples were collected with the Dekati Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) at two tire manufacturing facilities and analyzed using the same methodology to quantify exposure to these materials. This analysis confirmed that CB and AS were the predominant nanoscale particle types in the mixing area at both facilities. Air concentrations of CB and AS ranged from ~8900 to 77600 and 400 to 22200 particles cm(-3), respectively. This method offers the potential to provide quantitative estimates of worker exposure to nanoparticles of specific materials in a mixed dust environment. With pending development of occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials, this methodology will allow occupational health and safety practitioners to estimate worker exposures to specific materials, even in scenarios

  18. Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2011-10-01

    An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time, but that UV radiation on anoxic planets can act as a strong selection pressure on surface-dwelling organisms. Finally, these experiments have yielded new phototrophic organisms of potential use in biomass and oxygen production in space exploration.

  19. Modelling of human exposure to air pollution in the urban environment: a GPS-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Tchepel, Oxana

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this work was the development of a new modelling tool for quantification of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution within distinct microenvironments by using a novel approach for trajectory analysis of the individuals. For this purpose, mobile phones with Global Positioning System technology have been used to collect daily trajectories of the individuals with higher temporal resolution and a trajectory data mining, and geo-spatial analysis algorithm was developed and implemented within a Geographical Information System to obtain time-activity patterns. These data were combined with air pollutant concentrations estimated for several microenvironments. In addition to outdoor, pollutant concentrations in distinct indoor microenvironments are characterised using a probabilistic approach. An example of the application for PM2.5 is presented and discussed. The results obtained for daily average individual exposure correspond to a mean value of 10.6 and 6.0-16.4 μg m(-3) in terms of 5th-95th percentiles. Analysis of the results shows that the use of point air quality measurements for exposure assessment will not explain the intra- and inter-variability of individuals' exposure levels. The methodology developed and implemented in this work provides time-sequence of the exposure events thus making possible association of the exposure with the individual activities and delivers main statistics on individual's air pollution exposure with high spatio-temporal resolution.

  20. Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments - Possible Implications for Pupils' Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate Vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation - as illustrated in the results and discussed. The school environments, typical in southern and middle Sweden......More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor......, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment....

  1. Health risk characterization for exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries environments using human adverse response data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2015-01-01

    Health risk characterization of exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries has been carried out in previous studies using guideline values set by various agencies. In this work, health risk was characterized with the exposure data as cumulative probability distribution (CPD) plots but using human epidemiological data. This was achieved by using lowest observable adverse effects levels (LOAEL) data plotted as cumulative probability lowest effects distribution (CPLED). The health risk due to benzene was characterized by using probabilistic methods of hazard quotient (HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 ), Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) and overall risk probability (ORP). CPD relationships of adverse health effects relationships and exposure data were in terms of average daily dose (ADD) and lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for benzene. For service station environments HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 were in a range of 0.000071-0.055 and 0.0049-21, respectively. On the other hand, the risk estimated for petroleum refinery environments suggests higher risk with HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 values ranging from 0.0012 to 77 and 0.17 to 560, respectively. The results of Monte-Carlo risk probability (MRP) and ORP indicated that workers in petroleum refineries (MRP of 2.9-56% and ORP of 4.6-52% of the affected population) were at a higher risk of adverse health effects from exposure to benzene as compared to exposure to benzene in service station environments (MRP of 0.051 -3.4% and ORP of 0.35-2.7% affected population). The adverse effect risk probabilities estimated by using the Monte-Carlo simulation technique and the ORP method were found to be generally consistent.

  2. Occupational exposure at the Department of Nuclear Medicine as a work environment: A 19-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Gwardyś, Aleksandra; Supińska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Maria H.; Elbl, Bogumiła; Cichoń-Bańkowska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background: This study assessed the radiation safety at Nuclear Medicine Department being a work environment. Ionizing radiation exposure of the employees in the last 19 years and the effects of legislative changes in radiological protection were analyzed. Material/Methods: All employees of the investigated department were regularly and individually monitored using chest badges equipped with Kodak film type 2. Overall, 629 annual doses of the employees of nuclear medicine department, ...

  3. Occupational Exposure to Respirable Dust, Respirable Crystalline Silica and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions in the London Tunnelling Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Karen S; Mair, Craig; Alexander, Carla; de Vocht, Frank; van Tongeren, Martie

    2016-03-01

    Personal 8-h shift exposure to respirable dust, diesel engine exhaust emissions (DEEE) (as respirable elemental carbon), and respirable crystalline silica of workers involved in constructing an underground metro railway tunnel was assessed. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were also assessed using a MicroAeth AE51. During sprayed concrete lining (SCL) activities in the tunnel, the geometric mean (GM) respirable dust exposure level was 0.91mg m(-3), with the highest exposure measured on a back-up sprayer (3.20mg m(-3)). The GM respirable crystalline silica concentration for SCL workers was 0.03mg m(-3), with the highest measurement also for the back-up sprayer (0.24mg m(-3)). During tunnel boring machine (TBM) activities, the GM respirable dust concentration was 0.54mg m(-3). The GM respirable elemental carbon concentration for all the TBM operators was 18 µg m(-3); with the highest concentration measured on a segment lifter. The BC concentrations were higher in the SCL environment in comparison to the TBM environment (daily GM 18-54 µg m(-3) versus 3-6 µg m(-3)). This small-scale monitoring campaign provides additional personal data on exposures experienced by underground tunnel construction workers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Automation of closed environments in space for human comfort and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report culminates the work accomplished during a three year design project on the automation of an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) suitable for space travel and colonization. The system would provide a comfortable living environment in space that is fully functional with limited human supervision. A completely automated ECLSS would increase astronaut productivity while contributing to their safety and comfort. The first section of this report, section 1.0, briefly explains the project, its goals, and the scheduling used by the team in meeting these goals. Section 2.0 presents an in-depth look at each of the component subsystems. Each subsection describes the mathematical modeling and computer simulation used to represent that portion of the system. The individual models have been integrated into a complete computer simulation of the CO2 removal process. In section 3.0, the two simulation control schemes are described. The classical control approach uses traditional methods to control the mechanical equipment. The expert control system uses fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence to control the system. By integrating the two control systems with the mathematical computer simulation, the effectiveness of the two schemes can be compared. The results are then used as proof of concept in considering new control schemes for the entire ECLSS. Section 4.0 covers the results and trends observed when the model was subjected to different test situations. These results provide insight into the operating procedures of the model and the different control schemes. The appendix, section 5.0, contains summaries of lectures presented during the past year, homework assignments, and the completed source code used for the computer simulation and control system.

  5. CfDS attends the first meeting of the All-Party Parliamentary Astronomy and Space Environment Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizon, B.

    1999-06-01

    This group first met on March 11th, 1999, as 'a forum for discussion to further parliamentary interest in astronomy and the space environment affecting terrestrial life and its climate; and to increase awareness of the social, political and philosophical implications of present and future space technologies connected with exploring and understanding the cosmos'. CfDS coordinator Bob Mizon attended the first meeting of the group.

  6. Hexachlorobenzene sources, levels and human exposure in the environment of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Han, Jingyi; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Wang, T.Y.; Sun, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the published scientific data on sources, levels and human exposure of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in China. Potential sources of unintended HCB emission were assessed by production information, emission factors and environmental policies. HCB was observed in various

  7. Use of chromosome translocations for measuring prior environment exposures in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in cytogenetic methodology are beginning to have a major impact upon our ability to provide assessments of environmental exposure in humans. The advent of fluorescent-based techniques for `painting` whole chromosomes has made the analysis of chromosome translocations rapid, specific, sensitive and routine. Chromosome painting has been used to address a wide variety of scientific questions, resulting in an increased understanding of the biological consequences of adverse environmental exposure. This paper describes the use of chromosome translocations as a biological marker of exposure and effect in humans. The relevance of translocations is discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of painting compared to classical cytogenetic methods for translocation evaluation. The factors to consider in the use of translocations as a retrospective indicator of exposure are then described. Several theoretical parameters that are important to the use of translocations are provided, and the paper concludes with a vision for the future of cytogenetic methodology.

  8. Exposure to Chemicals in Consumer Products: The Role of the Near-Field Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi; Huang, L.

    2016-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products during product use and environmental releases with inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake as typical exposure routes. Nevertheless, chemical exposure modeling has traditionally focused on the far-field with near-field indoor models only...... recently gaining attention. Further, models that are mostly emissions-based, may not necessarily be applicable to all types of chemical release from consumer products. To address this gap, we (1) define a framework to simultaneously account for exposure to chemicals in the near- and far-field, (2......) determine chemical product concentrations for various functional use categories, (3) introduce a quantitative metric linking exposure to chemical mass in products, the Product Intake Fraction (PiF), and (4) demonstrate our framework for various consumer product categories. This framework lends itself...

  9. Solar UVR exposure research environment in South Africa: Past, present and future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, CY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available phototype classification with UVR exposure estimates likely to cause sunburn on un- tanned skin (Fitzpatrick, 1988) Skin type; Unexposed skin colour Constitutive characteristics Continuous UVR exposure estimated to elicit sunburn on un-tanned..., immunosuppression and skin cancer. Approximately 1 000 South Africans die each year from melanoma skin cancer and 30% of all histologically-diagnosed cancers are skin cancers, including the non-fatal non-melanoma skin cancers. Individuals with minimum natural...

  10. Measurements of natural radiation exposure rates in various living environment, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu

    1991-01-01

    Natural gamma-ray and cosmic-ray exposure rates were measured indoors and outdoors for 94 model houses of housing exhibition centers in Nagoya to obtain basic data for estimation of the population dose. Influence of the structure of houses on indoor exposure rates and relationship between indoor and outdoor natural gamma-ray exposure rates were studied. Exposure rates were measured with a 1.5''φ x 4''NaI(Tl) scintillation counter and a 6''φ spherical plastic scintillation counter. The mean indoor natural gamma-ray exposure rate in ferro-concrete buildings was about 40 % higher than that in fire-proof wooden houses and about 60 % higher than that in light weight steel framed buildings; that in fire-proof wooden houses was about 10 % higher than that in light weight steel framed buildings. The ratio of indoor to outdoor natural gamma-ray exposure rate was found to be 0.95 ± 0.15, 0.77 ± 0.10 and 0.72 ± 0.13 for ferro-concrete buildings, fire-proof wooden houses and light weight steel framed buildings, respectively. The mean indoor cosmic-ray exposure rate in ferro-concrete buildings was 2.8 μR/h, which was about 18 % lower than the outdoor value. The indoor cosmic-ray exposure rate both in fire-proof wooden houses and in light weight steel framed buildings were about 3.2 μR/h, which was 6 % lower than the outdoor value. (author)

  11. Cosmogenic radionuclides. Theory and applications in the terrestrial and space environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, Juerg; Steiger, Rudolf von; McCracken, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. The book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any field of modern science, and how these tools may assist in the solution of many present and future problems that we face here on Earth. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the basic principles behind the applications of cosmogenic (and other) radionuclides as environmental tracers and dating tools. The second section of the book discusses in some detail the production of radionuclides by cosmic radiation, their transport and distribution in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, their storage in natural archives, and how they are measured. The third section of the book presents a number of examples selected to illustrate typical tracer and dating applications in a number of different spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, solar physics and astronomy). At the same time the authors have outlined the limitations of the use of cosmogenic radionuclides. Written on a level understandable by graduate students without specialist skills in physics or mathematics, the book addresses a wide audience, ranging from archaeology, biophysics, and geophysics, to atmospheric physics, hydrology, astrophysics and space science.

  12. Cosmogenic radionuclides. Theory and applications in the terrestrial and space environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Juerg [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Steiger, Rudolf von [International Space Science Insitute, Bern (Switzerland); McCracken, Ken [Maryland Univ., College Park (United States). IPST

    2012-07-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. The book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any field of modern science, and how these tools may assist in the solution of many present and future problems that we face here on Earth. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the basic principles behind the applications of cosmogenic (and other) radionuclides as environmental tracers and dating tools. The second section of the book discusses in some detail the production of radionuclides by cosmic radiation, their transport and distribution in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, their storage in natural archives, and how they are measured. The third section of the book presents a number of examples selected to illustrate typical tracer and dating applications in a number of different spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, solar physics and astronomy). At the same time the authors have outlined the limitations of the use of cosmogenic radionuclides. Written on a level understandable by graduate students without specialist skills in physics or mathematics, the book addresses a wide audience, ranging from archaeology, biophysics, and geophysics, to atmospheric physics, hydrology, astrophysics and space science.

  13. Occupational exposure to potentially infectious biological material in a dental teaching environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Carvalhais, Helenaura P; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Auad, Sheyla M; Martins, Laura H P M; Paiva, Saul M; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of occupational accidents with exposure to biological material among undergraduate students of dentistry and to estimate potential risk factors associated with exposure to blood. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire (86.4 percent return rate), which was completed by a sample of 286 undergraduate dental students (mean age 22.4 +/-2.4 years). The students were enrolled in the clinical component of the curriculum, which corresponds to the final six semesters of study. Descriptive, bivariate, simple logistic regression and multiple logistic regression (Forward Stepwise Procedure) analyses were performed. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 percent. Percutaneous and mucous exposures to potentially infectious biological material were reported by 102 individuals (35.6 percent); 26.8 percent reported the occurrence of multiple episodes of exposure. The logistic regression analyses revealed that the incomplete use of individual protection equipment (OR=3.7; 95 percent CI 1.5-9.3), disciplines where surgical procedures are carried out (OR=16.3; 95 percent CI 7.1-37.2), and handling sharp instruments (OR=4.4; 95 percent CI 2.1-9.1), more specifically, hollow-bore needles (OR=6.8; 95 percent CI 2.1-19.0), were independently associated with exposure to blood. Policies of reviewing the procedures during clinical practice are recommended in order to reduce occupational exposure.

  14. Issues with using radiological exposures as a company performance measure in a low dose environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, Richard I.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Collective and maximum individual doses are two measures commonly used as an indicator for measuring Company performance. There is often an expectation for year on year improvements by optimisation of exposures through improved working methods and modernisation of facilities. Eventually a level of exposure can be reached that is no longer easy to measure which makes meaningful trend analysis difficult. The paper discusses the issues that arose at AWE where the majority of exposures are close the limit of detection for the TLD system used. It details the investigation that was carried out when recorded doses where observed to unexpectedly increase significantly. The paper shows the significant effect of a small change in the background radiation levels that are subtracted for each individual dose measurement. Also discussed is the effect of using TLD dosimeter readers that have undergone recent maintenance and are therefore assessing slightly increased exposures. Compounding the apparent increase in gamma dose a slight change in the manufacturing process for the plastic neutron film in the neutron dosimeters also gave an increased neutron exposure measurement which is detailed. The paper concludes with describing the changes that have been made to better ensure reproducibility of the exposure measurements so that any improvements in Company performance can be shown. It also questions the use of Collective Dose as a performance measure which is commonly misused across the industry. (author)

  15. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.0: Space Environment Software Products for 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Ginet, G. P.; Hall, T.; Holeman, E.; Tautz, M.

    2002-05-01

    AF-GEOSpace Version 2.0 (release 2002 on WindowsNT/2000/XP) is a graphics-intensive software program developed by AFRL with space environment models and applications. It has grown steadily to become a development tool for automated space weather visualization products and helps with a variety of tasks: orbit specification for radiation hazard avoidance; satellite design assessment and post-event analysis; solar disturbance effects forecasting; frequency and antenna management for radar and HF communications; determination of link outage regions for active ionospheric conditions; and physics research and education. The object-oriented C++ code is divided into five module classes. Science Modules control science models to give output data on user-specified grids. Application Modules manipulate these data and provide orbit generation and magnetic field line tracing capabilities. Data Modules read and assist with the analysis of user-generated data sets. Graphics Modules enable the display of features such as plane slices, magnetic field lines, line plots, axes, the Earth, stars, and satellites. Worksheet Modules provide commonly requested coordinate transformations and calendar conversion tools. Common input data archive sets, application modules, and 1-, 2-, and 3-D visualization tools are provided to all models. The code documentation includes detailed examples with click-by-click instructions for investigating phenomena that have well known effects on communications and spacecraft systems. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.0 builds on the success of its predecessors. The first release (Version 1.21, 1996/IRIX on SGI) contained radiation belt particle flux and dose models derived from CRRES satellite data, an aurora model, an ionosphere model, and ionospheric HF ray tracing capabilities. Next (Version 1.4, 1999/IRIX on SGI) science modules were added related to cosmic rays and solar protons, low-Earth orbit radiation dosages, single event effects probability maps, ionospheric

  16. What to expect from immersive virtual environment exposure: influences of gender, body mass index, and past experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanney, Kay M; Hale, Kelly S; Nahmens, Isabelina; Kennedy, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    For those interested in using head-coupled PC-based immersive virtual environment (VE) technology to train, entertain, or inform, it is essential to understand the effects this technology has on its users. This study investigated potential adverse effects, including the sickness associated with exposure and extreme responses (emesis, flashbacks). Participants were exposed to a VE for 15 to 60 min, with either complete or streamlined navigational control and simple or complex scenes, after which time measures of sickness were obtained. More than 80% of participants experienced nausea, oculomotor disturbances, and/or disorientation, with disorientation potentially lasting > 24 hr. Of the participants, 12.9% prematurely ended their exposure because of adverse effects; of these, 9.2% experienced an emetic response, whereas only 1.2% of all participants experienced emesis. The results indicate that designers may be able to reduce these rates by limiting exposure duration and reducing the degrees of freedom of the user's navigational control. Results from gender, body mass, and past experience comparisons indicated it may be possible to identify those who will experience adverse effects attributable to exposure and warn such individuals. Applications for this research include military, entertainment, and any other interactive systems for which designers seek to avoid adverse effects associated with exposure.

  17. Measures for minimizing radiation hazardous to the environment in the advent of large-scale space commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of hazardous effects from radio-frequency (RF), light, infrared, and nuclear radiation on human and other biological species in the advent of large-scale space commercialization is considered. Attention is focused on RF/microwave radiation from earth antennas and domestic picture phone communication links, exposure to microwave radiation from space solar-power satellites, and the continuous transmission of information from spacecraft as well as laser radiation from space. Measures for preventing and/or reducing these effects are suggested, including the use of interlocks for cutting off radiation toward ground, off-pointing microwave energy beams in cases of altitude failure, limiting the satellite off-axis gain data-rate product, the use of reflective materials on buildings and in personnel clothing to protect from space-borne lasers, and underwater colonies in cases of high-power lasers. For nuclear-power satellites, deposition in stable points in the solar system is proposed. 12 refs

  18. The Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program: Protection of materials in the space environment subprogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lorne R.; Francoeur, J.; Aguero, Alina; Wertheimer, Michael R.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.; Martinu, L.; Blezius, J. W.; Oliver, M.; Singh, A.

    1995-01-01

    Three projects are currently underway for the development of new coatings for the protection of materials in the space environment. These coatings are based on vacuum deposition technologies. The projects will go as far as the proof-of-concept stage when the commercial potential for the technology will be demonstrated on pilot-scale fabrication facilities in 1996. These projects are part of a subprogram to develop supporting technologies for automation and robotics technologies being developed under the Canadian Space Agency's STEAR Program, part of the Canadian Space Station Program.

  19. Pluto's interaction with its space environment: Solar wind, energetic particles, and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagenal, F; Horányi, M; McComas, D J; McNutt, R L; Elliott, H A; Hill, M E; Brown, L E; Delamere, P A; Kollmann, P; Krimigis, S M; Kusterer, M; Lisse, C M; Mitchell, D G; Piquette, M; Poppe, A R; Strobel, D F; Szalay, J R; Valek, P; Vandegriff, J; Weidner, S; Zirnstein, E J; Stern, S A; Ennico, K; Olkin, C B; Weaver, H A; Young, L A

    2016-03-18

    The New Horizons spacecraft carried three instruments that measured the space environment near Pluto as it flew by on 14 July 2015. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument revealed an interaction region confined sunward of Pluto to within about 6 Pluto radii. The region's surprisingly small size is consistent with a reduced atmospheric escape rate, as well as a particularly high solar wind flux. Observations from the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument suggest that ions are accelerated and/or deflected around Pluto. In the wake of the interaction region, PEPSSI observed suprathermal particle fluxes equal to about 1/10 of the flux in the interplanetary medium and increasing with distance downstream. The Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter, which measures grains with radii larger than 1.4 micrometers, detected one candidate impact in ±5 days around New Horizons' closest approach, indicating an upper limit of <4.6 kilometers(-3) for the dust density in the Pluto system. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Development of a Flexible Lead-Free Piezoelectric Transducer for Health Monitoring in the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Laurenti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the fabrication process for the development of a flexible piezopolymeric transducer for health monitoring applications, based on lead-free, piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO thin films. All the selected materials are compatible with the space environment and were deposited by the RF magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature, in view of preserving the total flexibility of the structures, which is an important requirement to guarantee coupling with cylindrical fuel tanks whose integrity we want to monitor. The overall transducer architecture was made of a c-axis-oriented ZnO thin film coupled to a pair of flexible Polyimide foils coated with gold (Au electrodes. The fabrication process started with the deposition of the bottom electrode on Polyimide foils. The ZnO thin film and the top electrode were then deposited onto the Au/Polyimide substrates. Both the electrodes and ZnO layer were properly patterned by wet-chemical etching and optical lithography. The assembly of the final structure was then obtained by gluing the upper and lower Polyimide foils with an epoxy resin capable of guaranteeing low outgassing levels, as well as adequate thermal and electrical insulation of the transducers. The piezoelectric behavior of the prototypes was confirmed and evaluated by measuring the mechanical displacement induced from the application of an external voltage.

  1. FPGAs operating in a radiation environment: lessons learned from FPGAs in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirthlin, M J

    2013-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are increasingly being used as a key component of digital systems because of their in-field reprogrammability, low non-recurring engineering costs (NRE), and relatively short design cycle. Recently, there has been great interest in using FPGAs within spacecraft. FPGAs, like all semiconductor devices, are susceptible to the effects of radiation. There is an active research community investigating the effects of radiation on FPGAs and developing methods to mitigate against these effects. There has been significant progress over the last decade in the understanding and developing FPGA technology that is resistant to the effects of radiation. The success of FPGAs within spacecraft suggests that FPGAs may be used in particle physics experiments where radiation levels are considerable higher than the conventional terrestrial earth environment. This paper will summarize the effects of radiation on FPGAs, methods to mitigate against these effects, provide a case study of a successful FPGA system operating in space, and discuss the issues that will affect the use of FPGAs within particle physics experiments.

  2. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-04-22

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people's stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space q