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Sample records for space diving system

  1. Dive Activities from Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) for Life on the Edge 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during...

  2. Dive Activities from Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) for Operation Deep Scope 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during...

  3. Dive Activities from Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) for Life on the Edge 2004 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during...

  4. Dive Activities from Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) for Estuary to the Abyss 2004: Exploring Along the Latitude 31-30 Transect - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during...

  5. Dive Activities from Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during...

  6. Environmental System Science Data Infrastructure for a Virtual Ecosystem (ESS-DIVE) - A New U.S. DOE Data Archive

    Agarwal, D.; Varadharajan, C.; Cholia, S.; Snavely, C.; Hendrix, V.; Gunter, D.; Riley, W. J.; Jones, M.; Budden, A. E.; Vieglais, D.

    2017-12-01

    The ESS-DIVE archive is a new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data archive designed to provide long-term stewardship and use of data from observational, experimental, and modeling activities in the earth and environmental sciences. The ESS-DIVE infrastructure is constructed with the long-term vision of enabling broad access to and usage of the DOE sponsored data stored in the archive. It is designed as a scalable framework that incentivizes data providers to contribute well-structured, high-quality data to the archive and that enables the user community to easily build data processing, synthesis, and analysis capabilities using those data. The key innovations in our design include: (1) application of user-experience research methods to understand the needs of users and data contributors; (2) support for early data archiving during project data QA/QC and before public release; (3) focus on implementation of data standards in collaboration with the community; (4) support for community built tools for data search, interpretation, analysis, and visualization tools; (5) data fusion database to support search of the data extracted from packages submitted and data available in partner data systems such as the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and DataONE; and (6) support for archiving of data packages that are not to be released to the public. ESS-DIVE data contributors will be able to archive and version their data and metadata, obtain data DOIs, search for and access ESS data and metadata via web and programmatic portals, and provide data and metadata in standardized forms. The ESS-DIVE archive and catalog will be federated with other existing catalogs, allowing cross-catalog metadata search and data exchange with existing systems, including DataONE's Metacat search. ESS-DIVE is operated by a multidisciplinary team from Berkeley Lab, the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), and DataONE. The primarily data copies are hosted at DOE's NERSC

  7. Endocranial anatomy of the charadriiformes: sensory system variation and the evolution of wing-propelled diving.

    N Adam Smith

    Full Text Available Just as skeletal characteristics provide clues regarding behavior of extinct vertebrates, phylogenetically-informed evaluation of endocranial morphology facilitates comparisons among extinct taxa and extant taxa with known behavioral characteristics. Previous research has established that endocranial morphology varies across Aves; however, variation of those systems among closely related species remains largely unexplored. The Charadriiformes (shorebirds and allies are an ecologically diverse clade with a comparatively rich fossil record, and therefore, are well suited for investigating interspecies variation, and potential links between endocranial morphology, phylogeny, ecology and other life history attributes. Endocranial endocasts were rendered from high resolution X-ray computed tomography data for 17 charadriiforms (15 extant and two flightless extinct species. Evaluation of endocranial character state changes on a phylogeny for Charadriiformes resulted in identification of characters that vary in taxa with distinct feeding and locomotor ecologies. In comparison with all other charadriiforms, stem and crown clade wing-propelled diving Pan-Alcidae displayed compressed semicircular canals, and indistinct occipital sinuses and cerebellar fissures. Flightless wing-propelled divers have relatively smaller brains for their body mass and smaller optic lobes than volant pan-alcids. Observed differences between volant and flightless wing-propelled sister taxa are striking given that flightless pan-alcids continue to rely on the flight stroke for underwater propulsion. Additionally, the brain of the Black Skimmer Rynchops niger, a taxon with a unique feeding ecology that involves continuous forward aerial motion and touch-based prey detection used both at day and night, is discovered to be unlike that of any other sampled charadriiform in having an extremely large wulst as well as a small optic lobe and distinct occipital sinus. Notably, the

  8. CERN Scuba Diving Club

    Club Subaquatique du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Interested in scuba diving? Fancy a fun trial dive? Like every year, the CERN Scuba Diving Club is organizing two free trial dive sessions. Where? Varembé Swimming Pool, Avenue Giuseppe Motta 46, 1202 Genève When? 25th October and 1st November at 19:15 (one session per participant) Price? Trial dives are FREE! Swimming pool entrance 5,40 CHF. What to bring? Swimwear, towel, shower necessities and a padlock – diving equipment will be provided by the CSC. For more information and to subscribe, follow the link below: http://cern.ch/csc-baptemes-2017 Looking forward to meeting you!

  9. Scuba Diving Safety

    ... a no-decompression dive, even in a pressurized airplane. If your dive required decompression stops, don’t ... Alert Network Last Updated: May 1, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: ...

  10. Possible central nervous system oxygen toxicity seizures among US recreational air or enriched air nitrox open circuit diving fatalities 2004-2013.

    Buzzacott, P; Denoble, P J

    2017-01-01

    The first diver certification programme for recreational 'enriched air nitrox' (EAN) diving was released in 1985. Concerns were expressed that many EAN divers might suffer central nervous system (CNS) oxygen toxicity seizures and drown. US fatalities on open-circuit scuba occurring between 2004-2013, where the breathing gas was either air or EAN, were identified. Causes of death and preceding circumstances were examined by a medical examiner experienced in diving autopsies. Case notes were searched for witnessed seizures at elevated partial pressures of oxygen. The dataset comprised 344 air divers (86%) and 55 divers breathing EAN (14%). EAN divers' fatal dives were deeper than air divers' (28 msw vs 18 msw, p < 0.0001). Despite this, of the 249 cases where a cause of death was established, only three EAN divers were considered to have possibly died following CNS oxygen toxicity seizures at depth (ppO2 132, 142 and 193 kPa). The analysis of recreational diving fatalities in the US over 10 years found just one death likely from CNS oxygen toxicity among EAN divers. A further two possible, although unlikely, cases were also found. Fears of commonplace CNS oxygen toxicity seizures while EAN diving have not apparently been realized.

  11. MR imaging of the central nervous system in diving-related decompression illness

    Reuter, M.; Hutzelmann, A.; Steffens, J.C.; Heller, M.; Fritsch, G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation was conducted to determine whether MR imaging showed cerebral or spinal damage in acute diving-related decompression illness, a term that includes decompressions sickness (DCS) and arterial gas embolism (AGE). Material and Methods: A total of 16 divers with dysbaric injuries were examined after the initiation of therapeutic recompression. Their injuries comprised: neurological DCS II n=8; AGE n=7; combined cerebral-AGE/spinal-DCS n=1. T1- and T2-weighted images of the brain were obtained in 2 planes. In addition, the spinal cord was imaged in 7 subjects. The imaging findings were correlated with the neurological symptoms. Results: MR images of the head showed ischemic cerebrovascular lesions in 6/8 patients with AGE but showed focal hyperintensities in only 2/8 divers with DCS. Spinal-cord involvement was detected in 1/7 examinations, which was the combined cerebral-AGE/spinal-DCS case. There was agreement between the locations of the documented lesions and the clinical manifestations. Conclusion: MR readily detects cerebral damage in AGE but yields low sensitivity in DCS. A negative MR investigation cannot rule out AGE or DCS. However, MR is useful in the examination of patients with decompression illness. (orig.)

  12. DeepDive: Declarative Knowledge Base Construction.

    De Sa, Christopher; Ratner, Alex; Ré, Christopher; Shin, Jaeho; Wang, Feiran; Wu, Sen; Zhang, Ce

    2016-03-01

    The dark data extraction or knowledge base construction (KBC) problem is to populate a SQL database with information from unstructured data sources including emails, webpages, and pdf reports. KBC is a long-standing problem in industry and research that encompasses problems of data extraction, cleaning, and integration. We describe DeepDive, a system that combines database and machine learning ideas to help develop KBC systems. The key idea in DeepDive is that statistical inference and machine learning are key tools to attack classical data problems in extraction, cleaning, and integration in a unified and more effective manner. DeepDive programs are declarative in that one cannot write probabilistic inference algorithms; instead, one interacts by defining features or rules about the domain. A key reason for this design choice is to enable domain experts to build their own KBC systems. We present the applications, abstractions, and techniques of DeepDive employed to accelerate construction of KBC systems.

  13. Space Van system update

    Cormier, Len

    1992-07-01

    The Space Van is a proposed commercial launch vehicle that is designed to carry 1150 kg to a space-station orbit for a price of $1,900,000 per flight in 1992 dollars. This price includes return on preoperational investment. Recurring costs are expected to be about $840,000 per flight. The Space Van is a fully reusable, assisted-single-stage-to orbit system. The most innovative new feature of the Space Van system is the assist-stage concept. The assist stage uses only airbreathing engines for vertical takeoff and vertical landing in the horizontal attitude and for launching the rocket-powered orbiter stage at mach 0.8 and an altitude of about 12 km. The primary version of the orbiter is designed for cargo-only without a crew. However, a passenger version of the Space Van should be able to carry a crew of two plus six passengers to a space-station orbit. Since the Space Van is nearly single-stage, performance to polar orbit drops off significantly. The cargo version should be capable of carrying 350 kg to a 400-km polar orbit. In the passenger version, the Space Van should be able to carry two crew members - or one crew member plus a passenger.

  14. Scuba diving accidents.

    Dembert, M L

    1977-08-01

    The principal scuba diving medical problems of barotrauma, air embolism and decompression sickness have as their pathophysiologic basis the Ideal Gas Law and Boyle's Law. Hyperbaric chamber recompression therapy is the only definitive treatment of air embolism and decompression sickness. However, with a basic knowledge of diving medicine, the family physician can provide effective supportive care to the patient prior to initiation of hyperbaric therapy.

  15. Space Vehicle Valve System

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  16. Breath-Hold Diving.

    Fitz-Clarke, John R

    2018-03-25

    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Dive Into Python 3

    Pilgrim, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Mark Pilgrim's Dive Into Python 3 is a hands-on guide to Python 3 (the latest version of the Python language) and its differences from Python 2. As in the original book, Dive Into Python, each chapter starts with a real, complete code sample, proceeds to pick it apart and explain the pieces, and then puts it all back together in a summary at the end. This book includes: * Example programs completely rewritten to illustrate powerful new concepts now available in Python 3: sets, iterators, generators, closures, comprehensions, and much more* A detailed case study of porting a major library from

  18. Space stations systems and utilization

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  19. The cardiovascular and endocrine responses to voluntary and forced diving in trained and untrained rats

    DiNovo, Karyn. M.; Connolly, Tiffanny M.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian diving response, consisting of apnea, bradycardia, and increased total peripheral resistance, can be modified by conscious awareness, fear, and anticipation. We wondered whether swim and dive training in rats would 1) affect the magnitude of the cardiovascular responses during voluntary and forced diving, and 2) whether this training would reduce or eliminate any stress due to diving. Results indicate Sprague-Dawley rats have a substantial diving response. Immediately upon submersion, heart rate (HR) decreased by 78%, from 453 ± 12 to 101 ± 8 beats per minute (bpm), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased 25%, from 143 ± 1 to 107 ± 5 mmHg. Approximately 4.5 s after submergence, MAP had increased to a maximum 174 ± 3 mmHg. Blood corticosterone levels indicate trained rats find diving no more stressful than being held by a human, while untrained rats find swimming and diving very stressful. Forced diving is stressful to both trained and untrained rats. The magnitude of bradycardia was similar during both voluntary and forced diving, while the increase in MAP was greater during forced diving. The diving response of laboratory rats, therefore, appears to be dissimilar from that of other animals, as most birds and mammals show intensification of diving bradycardia during forced diving compared with voluntary diving. Rats may exhibit an accentuated antagonism between the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, such that in the autonomic control of HR, parasympathetic activity overpowers sympathetic activity. Additionally, laboratory rats may lack the ability to modify the degree of parasympathetic outflow to the heart during an intense cardiorespiratory response (i.e., the diving response). PMID:19923359

  20. Validation of Autonomous Space Systems

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — System validation addresses the question "Will the system do the right thing?" When system capability includes autonomy, the question becomes more pointed. As NASA...

  1. The death of buddy diving?

    Cooper, P David

    2011-12-01

    Queensland and 40% of domestic recreational diving holidays occur there. This ruling, however, has implications potentially far beyond this single State. In the absence of local precedents, courts may examine precedents arising in other jurisdictions with which they share a common legal heritage. Rare cases may indeed make bad law but precedent is one of the cornerstones of our legal system. The medical profession, through the revised SPUMS guidelines on recreational diving medical examinations, has now made explicit the level of support expected from dive buddies (e.g., to diabetic divers). The legal profession, through the Watson judgement, has demonstrated the potential consequences of failure to perform an act that a diver has undertaken to perform towards their buddy. The halcyon days of casually agreeing to act as someone's buddy are now gone. Serious consideration should be given to the personal consequences of undertaking this role. The potential to face a custodial sentence for criminally negligent manslaughter if a diver fails in his/her duty-of-care increases the pressure to save their buddy at all costs - or die in the attempt.

  2. Optimal diving behaviour and respiratory gas exchange in birds.

    Halsey, Lewis G; Butler, Patrick J

    2006-11-01

    This review discusses the advancements in our understanding of the physiology and behaviour of avian diving that have been underpinned by optimal foraging theory and the testing of optimal models. To maximise their foraging efficiency during foraging periods, diving birds must balance numerous factors that are directly or indirectly related to the replenishment of the oxygen stores and the removal of excess carbon dioxide. These include (1) the time spent underwater (which diminishes the oxygen supply, increases carbon dioxide levels and may even include a build up of lactate due to anaerobic metabolism), (2) the time spent at the surface recovering from the previous dive and preparing for the next (including reloading their oxygen supply, decreasing their carbon dioxide levels and possibly also metabolising lactate) and (3) the trade-off between maximising oxygen reserves for consumption underwater by taking in more air to the respiratory system, and minimising the energy costs of positive buoyancy caused by this air, to maximise the time available underwater to forage. Due to its importance in avian diving, replenishment of the oxygen stores has become integral to models of optimal diving, which predict the time budgeting of animals foraging underwater. While many of these models have been examined qualitatively, such tests of predictive trends appear fallible and only quantifiable support affords strong evidence of their predictive value. This review describes how the quantification of certain optimal diving models, using tufted ducks, indeed demonstrates some predictive success. This suggests that replenishment of the oxygen stores and removal of excess carbon dioxide have significant influences on the duration of the surface period between dives. Nevertheless, present models are too simplistic to be robust predictors of diving behaviour for individual animals and it is proposed that they require refinement through the incorporation of other variables that also

  3. Recent space nuclear power systems

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Yasuda, Hideshi; Hishida, Makoto

    1991-01-01

    For the advance of mankind into the space, the power sources of large output are indispensable, and it has been considered that atomic energy is promising as compared with solar energy and others. Accordingly in USA and USSR, the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use has been carried out since considerable years ago. In this report, the general features of space nuclear reactors are shown, and by taking the system for the SP-100 project being carried out in USA as the example, the contents of the recent design regarding the safety as an important factor are discussed. Moreover, as the examples of utilizing space nuclear reactors, the concepts of the power source for the base on the moon, the sources of propulsive power for the rockets used for Mars exploration and others, the remote power transmission system by laser in the space and so on are explained. In September, 1988, the launching of a space shuttle of USA was resumed, and the Jupiter explorer 'Galileo' and the space telescope 'Hubble' were successfully launched. The space station 'Mir' of USSR has been used since February, 1986. The history of the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use is described. (K.I.)

  4. Active Space Debris Removal System

    Gabriele GUERRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the space era, more than 5000 launches have been carried out, each carrying satellites for many disparate uses, such as Earth observation or communication. Thus, the space environment has become congested and the problem of space debris is now generating some concerns in the space community due to our long-lived belief that “space is big”. In the last few years, solutions to this problem have been proposed, one of those is Active Space Debris Removal: this method will reduce the increasing debris growth and permit future sustainable space activities. The main idea of the method proposed below is a drag augmentation system: use a system capable of putting an expanded foam on a debris which will increase the area-to-mass ratio to increase the natural atmospheric drag and solar pressure. The drag augmentation system proposed here requires a docking system; the debris will be pushed to its release height and then, after un-docking, an uncontrolled re-entry takes place ending with a burn up of the object and the foam in the atmosphere within a given time frame. The method requires an efficient way to change the orbit between two debris. The present paper analyses such a system in combination with an Electric Propulsion system, and emphasizes the choice of using two satellites to remove five effective rockets bodies debris within a year.

  5. Spaces of Dynamical Systems

    Pilyugin, Sergei Yu

    2012-01-01

    Dynamical systems are abundant in theoretical physics and engineering. Their understanding, with sufficient mathematical rigor, is vital to solving many problems. This work conveys the modern theory of dynamical systems in a didactically developed fashion.In addition to topological dynamics, structural stability and chaotic dynamics, also generic properties and pseudotrajectories are covered, as well as nonlinearity. The author is an experienced book writer and his work is based on years of teaching.

  6. Extracting Databases from Dark Data with DeepDive.

    Zhang, Ce; Shin, Jaeho; Ré, Christopher; Cafarella, Michael; Niu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    DeepDive is a system for extracting relational databases from dark data : the mass of text, tables, and images that are widely collected and stored but which cannot be exploited by standard relational tools. If the information in dark data - scientific papers, Web classified ads, customer service notes, and so on - were instead in a relational database, it would give analysts a massive and valuable new set of "big data." DeepDive is distinctive when compared to previous information extraction systems in its ability to obtain very high precision and recall at reasonable engineering cost; in a number of applications, we have used DeepDive to create databases with accuracy that meets that of human annotators. To date we have successfully deployed DeepDive to create data-centric applications for insurance, materials science, genomics, paleontologists, law enforcement, and others. The data unlocked by DeepDive represents a massive opportunity for industry, government, and scientific researchers. DeepDive is enabled by an unusual design that combines large-scale probabilistic inference with a novel developer interaction cycle. This design is enabled by several core innovations around probabilistic training and inference.

  7. Quantum systems and symmetric spaces

    Olshanetsky, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained

  8. Diving and Environmental Simulation Team

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Diving and Environmental Simulation Team focuses on ways to optimize the performance and safety of Navy divers. Our goal is to increase mission effectiveness by...

  9. Manager's assistant systems for space system planning

    Bewley, William L.; Burnard, Robert; Edwards, Gary E.; Shoop, James

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a class of knowledge-based 'assistant' systems for space system planning. Derived from technology produced for the DARPA/USAF Pilot's Associate program, these assistant systems help the human planner by doing the bookkeeping to maintain plan data and executing the procedures and heuristics currently used by the human planner to define, assess, diagnose, and revise plans. Intelligent systems for Space Station Freedom assembly sequence planning and Advanced Launch System modeling will be presented as examples. Ongoing NASA-funded work on a framework supporting the development of such tools will also be described.

  10. Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    Kruglanski, Michel; de Donder, Erwin; Messios, Neophytos; Hetey, Laszlo; Calders, Stijn; Evans, Hugh; Daly, Eamonn

    SPENVIS is an ESA operational software developed and maintained at BIRA-IASB since 1996. It provides standardized access to most of the recent models of the hazardous space environment, through a user-friendly Web interface (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/). The system allows spacecraft engineers to perform a rapid analysis of environmental problems related to natural radiation belts, solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, plasmas, gases, magnetic fields and micro-particles. Various reporting and graphical utilities and extensive help facilities are included to allow engineers with relatively little familiarity to produce reliable results. SPENVIS also contains an active, integrated version of the ECSS Space Environment Standard and access to in-flight data on the space environment. Although SPENVIS in the first place is designed to help spacecraft designers, it is also used by technical universities in their educational programs. In the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme, SPENVIS will be part of the initial set of precursor services of the Space Weather segment. SPENVIS includes several engineering models to assess to effects of the space environment on spacecrafts such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. The presentation will review how such models could be connected to in situ measurements or forecasting models of the space environment in order to produce post event analysis or in orbit effects alert. The last developments and models implemented in SPENVIS will also be presented.

  11. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program

  12. [Diving accidents. Emergency treatment of serious diving accidents].

    Schröder, S; Lier, H; Wiese, S

    2004-11-01

    Decompression injuries are potentially life-threatening incidents mainly due to a rapid decline in ambient pressure. Decompression illness (DCI) results from the presence of gas bubbles in the blood and tissue. DCI may be classified as decompression sickness (DCS) generated from the liberation of gas bubbles following an oversaturation of tissues with inert gas and arterial gas embolism (AGE) mainly due to pulmonary barotrauma. People working under hyperbaric pressure, e.g. in a caisson for general construction under water, and scuba divers are exposed to certain risks. Diving accidents can be fatal and are often characterized by organ dysfunction, especially neurological deficits. They have become comparatively rare among professional divers and workers. However, since recreational scuba diving is gaining more and more popularity there is an increasing likelihood of severe diving accidents. Thus, emergency staff working close to areas with a high scuba diving activity, e.g. lakes or rivers, may be called more frequently to a scuba diving accident. The correct and professional emergency treatment on site, especially the immediate and continuous administration of normobaric oxygen, is decisive for the outcome of the accident victim. The definitive treatment includes rapid recompression with hyperbaric oxygen. The value of adjunctive medication, however, remains controversial.

  13. Space Station power system issues

    Giudici, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite

  14. Brayton cycle space power systems

    Pietsch, A.; Trimble, S.W.; Harper, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The latest accomplishments in the design and development of the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) for space applications are described, together with a reexamination of the design/cost tradeoffs with respect to current economic parameters and technology status. The results of tests performed on a ground test version of the flight configuration, the workhorse loop, were used to confirm the performance projections made for the flight system. The results of cost-model analysis indicate that the use of the highest attainable power conversion system efficiency will yield the most cost-effective systems. 13 references

  15. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  16. Space construction base control system

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of an attitude control system were studied and developed for a large space base that is structurally flexible and whose mass properties change rather dramatically during its orbital lifetime. Topics of discussion include the following: (1) space base orbital pointing and maneuvering; (2) angular momentum sizing of actuators; (3) momentum desaturation selection and sizing; (4) multilevel control technique applied to configuration one; (5) one-dimensional model simulation; (6) N-body discrete coordinate simulation; (7) structural analysis math model formulation; and (8) discussion of control problems and control methods.

  17. Space station operating system study

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  18. Risso's dolphins plan foraging dives.

    Arranz, Patricia; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Southall, Brandon L; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S; Tyack, Peter L

    2018-02-28

    Humans remember the past and use that information to plan future actions. Lab experiments that test memory for the location of food show that animals have a similar capability to act in anticipation of future needs, but less work has been done on animals foraging in the wild. We hypothesized that planning abilities are critical and common in breath-hold divers who adjust each dive to forage on prey varying in quality, location and predictability within constraints of limited oxygen availability. We equipped Risso's dolphins with sound-and-motion recording tags to reveal where they focus their attention through their externally observable echolocation and how they fine tune search strategies in response to expected and observed prey distribution. The information from the dolphins was integrated with synoptic prey data obtained from echosounders on an underwater vehicle. At the start of the dives, whales adjusted their echolocation inspection ranges in ways that suggest planning to forage at a particular depth. Once entering a productive prey layer, dolphins reduced their search range comparable to the scale of patches within the layer, suggesting that they were using echolocation to select prey within the patch. On ascent, their search range increased, indicating that they decided to stop foraging within that layer and started searching for prey in shallower layers. Information about prey, learned throughout the dive, was used to plan foraging in the next dive. Our results demonstrate that planning for future dives is modulated by spatial memory derived from multi-modal prey sampling (echoic, visual and capture) during earlier dives. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Using Stimulation of the Diving Reflex in Humans to Teach Integrative Physiology

    Choate, Julia K.; Denton, Kate M.; Evans, Roger G.; Hodgson, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    During underwater submersion, the body responds by conserving O[subscript 2] and prioritizing blood flow to the brain and heart. These physiological adjustments, which involve the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems, are known as the diving response and provide an ideal example of integrative physiology. The diving reflex can be…

  20. NUCLEAR THERMIONIC SPACE POWER SYSTEMS

    Howard, R. C.; Rasor, N. S.

    1963-03-15

    The various concepts for utilizing thermionic conversion in space reactor power plants are described and evaluated. The problems (and progress toward their solution) of the in-core concept, particularly, are considered. Progress in thermionic conversion technology is then reviewed from both the hardware and research points of view. Anticipated progress in thermionic conversion and the possible consequences for the performance of electrical propulsion systems are summarized. 46 references. (D.C.W.)

  1. Space Plastic Recycling System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot's proposed Space Plastic Recycler (SPR) is an automated closed loop plastic recycling system that allows the automated conversion of disposable ISS...

  2. Ketogenic diet for high partial pressure oxygen diving.

    Valadao, Jason M; Vigilante, John A; DiGeorge, Nicholas W; O'Connor, Sunila E; Bear, Alexandria; Kenyon, Jeffrey; Annis, Heather; Dituri, Joseph; Dituri, Amy E; Whelan, Harry T

    2014-01-01

    A ketogenic diet (KD) may decrease central nervous system oxygen toxicity symptoms in divers, and in view of this implication a feasibility/ toxicity pilot study was performed to demonstrate tolerance of KD while performing normal diving profiles. The exact mechanism of neuroprotection from the KD remains unknown; however, evidence to support the efficacy of the KD in reducing seizures is present in epilepsy and oxygen toxicity studies, and may provide valuable insight in diving activities. Three divers (two males and one female ages 32-45 with a history of deep diving and high pO2 exposure) on the KD made dives to varying depths in Hawaii using fully closed-circuit MK-15 and Inspiration rebreathers. These rebreathers have an electronically controlled set point, allowing the divers to monitor and control the oxygen level in the breathing loop, which can be varied manually by the divers. Oxygen level was varied during descent, bottom depth and ascent (decompression). Divers fasted for 12-18 hours before diet initiation. The ketosis level was verified by urinating on a Ketostix (reagent strips for urinalysis). Ketosis was achieved and was easily monitored with Ketostix in the simulated operational environment. The KD did not interfere with the diving mission; no seizure activity or signs or symptoms of CNS toxicity were observed, and there were no adverse effects noted by the divers while on the KD.

  3. Accident rates at a busy diving centre.

    Davis, Michael; Malcolm, Kate

    2008-06-01

    Dear Editor, The Poor Knights Islands in Northland, New Zealand, is a world-famous, temperate-water, diving tourism destination, popularised many years ago by Jacques Cousteau. By far the largest dive operator there is Dive! Tutukaka, with five vessels carrying up to 30 divers, operating on a regular basis throughout the year. Dive! Tutukaka is required to keep a detailed, daily vessel manifest. Thus, the number of divers is known accurately and all incidents are recorded by the Skipper or the Chief Divemaster on board. Although all dives are logged (time in, time out and maximum depth for every diver) and kept permanently, these data were not utilised for this brief report. Each customer does two dives on a trip and there are between one and four divemasters on board who may do one, two or more dives a day (van der Hulst G, unpublished observations). Thus the accident rate per diver is known, and it is assumed that the rate per dive is very close to half this figure. In addition, under health and safety regulations all non-diving injuries both on shore and on board are documented, but these will include some non-divers. For the three financial years between July 2005 and 14 June 2008, 32,302 customers dived with Dive! Tutukaka, approximately 63,000 dives (a small minority did only one dive). Over the same period, there were an estimated 7,600 dives conducted by the divemasters. The injuries documented during this time are shown in Table 1. There were seven cases of decompression illness (DCI), a rate of about 1 per 10,000 divers (0.5 per 10,000 dives). Two of the seven DCI cases involved serious neurological injury. There was one further possible case of DCI who did not seek medical advice. If this diver is included then the rate is 1.14 per 10,000 divers. More minor diving injuries and incidents occurred at a rate of approximately 2 per 10,000 divers. Non-diving injuries occurred rarely, the most common being various musculo-skeletal injuries to staff, requiring

  4. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  5. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  6. Diving down the reefs? Intensive diving tourism threatens the reefs of the northern Red Sea.

    Hasler, Harald; Ott, Jörg A

    2008-10-01

    Intensive recreational SCUBA diving threatens coral reef ecosystems. The reefs at Dahab, South Sinai, Egypt, are among the world's most dived (>30,000 dives y(-1)). We compared frequently dived sites to sites with no or little diving. Benthic communities and condition of corals were examined by the point intercept sampling method in the reef crest zone (3m) and reef slope zone (12 m). Additionally, the abundance of corallivorous and herbivorous fish was estimated based on the visual census method. Sediments traps recorded the sedimentation rates caused by SCUBA divers. Zones subject to intensive SCUBA diving showed a significantly higher number of broken and damaged corals and significantly lower coral cover. Reef crest coral communities were significantly more affected than those of the reef slope: 95% of the broken colonies were branching ones. No effect of diving on the abundance of corallivorous and herbivorous fish was evident. At heavily used dive sites, diver-related sedimentation rates significantly decreased with increasing distance from the entrance, indicating poor buoyancy regulation at the initial phase of the dive. The results show a high negative impact of current SCUBA diving intensities on coral communities and coral condition. Corallivorous and herbivorous fishes are apparently not yet affected, but are endangered if coral cover decline continues. Reducing the number of dives per year, ecologically sustainable dive plans for individual sites, and reinforcing the environmental education of both dive guides and recreational divers are essential to conserve the ecological and the aesthetic qualities of these dive sites.

  7. Dive Data from Expedition Information System (EIS) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Deep Reef Habitat - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...

  8. Oxygen Toxicity and Special Operations Forces Diving: Hidden and Dangerous

    Wingelaar, Thijs T.; van Ooij, Pieter-Jan A. M.; van Hulst, Rob A.

    2017-01-01

    In Special Operations Forces (SOF) closed-circuit rebreathers with 100% oxygen are commonly utilized for covert diving operations. Exposure to high partial pressures of oxygen (PO2) could cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) and pulmonary system. Longer exposure time and higher PO2 leads

  9. Diving center contribution in preventing radioactive pollution

    Rus, Simona; Flesteriu, Catalin; Diaconu, Mihai

    2004-01-01

    Applying and developing constructive environment protection measures offers real and long lasting solutions that consolidate our future. In this context the Diving Center contribution in preventing radioactive pollution is enrolled. Our Center performed high quality services with authorised personal. Using their rich human, technological and scientific resources, the armed forces in general and our unity in this case, plays already an important role in supporting the development and natural environment, but results could be even greater and of high impact if the military and civilian requirements would be aligned, valorizing the qualified resources belonging to the military. The environment protection measures are an essential component of the sustainable development, which correctly and duly applied may provide a necessary and realistic option in the eternal confrontation between human activity and correct exploitation of environment. During pressure tests performed over years at the nuclear reactor from Cernavoda, the divers provided: - pressure test at Unit 1 reactor containment (test performed at a pressure of 128 kPa) in order to evaluate the loss rate; - solving previous problems of the sealing system of reactor containment and tracks of electrical cables, pipes, etc; - providing safety procedures for the Cernavoda NPP specialised personnel, after their entering the working area through the small transfer gate; - technical assistance and first aid in case of diving accidents, using the bi-place chamber (fitted with medication transfer sass) provided on site; - supervising the enforcement of legal procedures concerning training, organising and work protection in diving activities; - in case of a collective decompression accident, we had the responsibility to provide necessary treatment of personnel affected in the hyperbaric laboratory. All these activities, even though developed for specific military requirements, may satisfy the saving and protecting needs

  10. Space Radiation Intelligence System (SPRINTS), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen Federal Systems proposes an innovative SPace Radiation INTelligence System (SPRINTS) which provides an interactive and web-delivered capability that...

  11. Space Launch System Development Status

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven

  12. System survivability in nuclear and space environments

    Rudie, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Space systems must operate in the hostile natural environment of space. In the event of a war, these systems may also be exposed to the radiation environments created by the explosions of nuclear warheads. The effects of these environments on a space system and hardening techniques are discussed in the paper

  13. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  14. Physiological and Genetic Adaptations to Diving in Sea Nomads

    Ilardo, Melissa A; Moltke, Ida; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the physiology and genetics of human hypoxia tolerance has important medical implications, but this phenomenon has thus far only been investigated in high-altitude human populations. Another system, yet to be explored, is humans who engage in breath-hold diving. The indigenous Bajau...

  15. Space remote sensing systems an introduction

    Chen, H S

    1985-01-01

    Space Remote Sensing Systems: An Introduction discusses the space remote sensing system, which is a modern high-technology field developed from earth sciences, engineering, and space systems technology for environmental protection, resource monitoring, climate prediction, weather forecasting, ocean measurement, and many other applications. This book consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 1 describes the science of the atmosphere and the earth's surface. Chapter 2 discusses spaceborne radiation collector systems, while Chapter 3 focuses on space detector and CCD systems. The passive space optical rad

  16. Diving the wreck: risk and injury in sport scuba diving.

    Hunt, J C

    1996-07-01

    This paper utilizes psychoanalytic theory to examine risk and injury in the case of a male deep sea diver. It examines the unconscious conflicts which appeared to fuel the diver's involvement in deep diving and to lead to a near fatal incident of decompression sickness. Particular attention is paid to the role of the diver's father in the evolution of the preoedipal and oedipal fantasies and conflicts which appear to be linked to the injury. The research is based on interviews with and fieldwork among recreational and deep divers.

  17. Diving down the reefs? Intensive diving tourism threatens the reefs of the northern Red Sea

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Ott, Jörg A.

    2008-01-01

    Intensive recreational SCUBA diving threatens coral reef ecosystems. The reefs at Dahab, South Sinai, Egypt, are among the world’s most dived (>30,000dives y−1). We compared frequently dived sites to sites with no or little diving. Benthic communities and condition of corals were examined...... to intensive SCUBA diving showed a significantly higher number of broken and damaged corals and significantly lower coral cover. Reef crest coral communities were significantly more affected than those of the reef slope: 95% of the broken colonies were branching ones. No effect of diving on the abundance...... by the point intercept sampling method in the reef crest zone (3 m) and reef slope zone (12 m). Additionally, the abundance of corallivorous and herbivorous fish was estimated based on the visual census method. Sediments traps recorded the sedimentation rates caused by SCUBA divers. Zones subject...

  18. Optimal diving under the risk of predation.

    Heithaus, Michael R; Frid, Alejandro

    2003-07-07

    Many air-breathing aquatic foragers may be killed by aerial or subsurface predators while recovering oxygen at the surface; yet the influence of predation risk on time allocation during dive cycles is little known in spite of numerous studies on optimal diving. We modeled diving behavior under the risk of predation at the surface. The relationship between time spent at the surface and the risk of death is predicted to influence the optimal surface interval, regardless of whether foragers accumulate energy at a constant rate while at the food patch, deplete food resources over the course of the dive, or must search for food during the dive. When instantaneous predation risk during a single surface interval decreases with time spent at the surface, a diver should increase its surface interval relative to that which maximizes energy intake, thereby increasing dive durations and reducing the number of surfacings per foraging bout. When instantaneous risk over a single surface interval does not change or increases with increasing time at the surface, divers should decrease their surface interval (and consequently their dive duration) relative to that which maximizes energy intake resulting in more dives per foraging bout. The fitness consequences of selecting a suboptimal surface interval vary with the risk function and the way divers harvest energy when at depth. Finally, predation risk during surface intervals should have important consequences for habitat selection and other aspects of the behavioral ecology of air-breathing aquatic organisms.

  19. Nonlinear transport of dynamic system phase space

    Xie Xi; Xia Jiawen

    1993-01-01

    The inverse transform of any order solution of the differential equation of general nonlinear dynamic systems is derived, realizing theoretically the nonlinear transport for the phase space of nonlinear dynamic systems. The result is applicable to general nonlinear dynamic systems, with the transport of accelerator beam phase space as a typical example

  20. Report from Workshop on VOCs in diving chambers

    Crosbie, A.; Simpson, M.

    2000-05-01

    This report of the 'Setting the Standards' workshop on the problems of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in diving in offshore operations, sponsored jointly by the UK Health and Safety Executive Offshore Safety Division and the Stolt Rockwater Joint Venture, gives details of the papers presented covering the chemical contamination of diver's atmosphere, sampling protocols and methods, analytical procedures used for VOCs in hyperbaric chambers, and contamination in buildings. The setting of exposure limits in the UK, the derivation of threshold limiting values (TVLs), the selection of Tenax tubes for atmospheric sampling, organic contaminant monitoring, and NASA's approach to contamination in the space environment are examined, and dealing with contamination problems in a submarine atmosphere, and the simulation of a condensate spillage in a diving bell are discussed. Guidelines for the measurement of VOCs in hyperbaric chambers are given in the appendices

  1. Real space renormalization tecniques for disordered systems

    Anda, E.V.

    1984-01-01

    Real space renormalization techniques are applied to study different disordered systems, with an emphasis on the understanding of the electronic properties of amorphous matter, mainly semiconductors. (Authors) [pt

  2. Oxygen Toxicity and Special Operations Forces Diving: Hidden and Dangerous

    Thijs T. Wingelaar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Special Operations Forces (SOF closed-circuit rebreathers with 100% oxygen are commonly utilized for covert diving operations. Exposure to high partial pressures of oxygen (PO2 could cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS and pulmonary system. Longer exposure time and higher PO2 leads to faster development of more serious pathology. Exposure to a PO2 above 1.4 ATA can cause CNS toxicity, leading to a wide range of neurologic complaints including convulsions. Pulmonary oxygen toxicity develops over time when exposed to a PO2 above 0.5 ATA and can lead to inflammation and fibrosis of lung tissue. Oxygen can also be toxic for the ocular system and may have systemic effects on the inflammatory system. Moreover, some of the effects of oxygen toxicity are irreversible. This paper describes the pathophysiology, epidemiology, signs and symptoms, risk factors and prediction models of oxygen toxicity, and their limitations on SOF diving.

  3. Effect of scuba diving on the oxidant/antioxidant status, SIRT1 and SIRT3 expression in recreational divers after a winter nondive period.

    Perović, Antonija; Sobočanec, Sandra; Dabelić, Sanja; Balog, Tihomir; Dumić, Jerka

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of scuba diving on oxidative damage markers in erythrocytes and plasma, antioxidant system in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) gene expressions in recreational divers after a winter nondive period (at least 5 months). For that purpose, 17 male recreational divers performed an immersion at a depth of 30 m for 30 min. Blood samples were collected immediately before and after diving, 3 and 6 h after diving. Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation measured by thiobarbituric-reactive substances (TBARS) method was significantly increased immediately after diving, but returned to the baseline 6 h after diving, while no significant change was found for plasma TBARS and protein carbonyl derivates in both plasma and erythrocytes. Diving-induced catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and consequently total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the PBMC samples (significantly increased immediately after diving, reached the maximum activities 3 h after diving, while 6 h after diving only CAT activity remained significantly increased). No significant change was observed for SOD1 activity and gene expression, as well as SOD2 expression, while CAT and SIRT1 expressions were slightly decreased immediately after diving and 3 h after diving. Interestingly, SIRT3 expression was significantly increased 6 h after diving. In conclusion, after the first dive to 30 m after a nondive season, activation of antioxidant defence was not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage, while SIRT3 upregulation could be a step towards an adaptive response to the diving.

  4. Diving-flight aerodynamics of a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus.

    Benjamin Ponitz

    Full Text Available This study investigates the aerodynamics of the falcon Falco peregrinus while diving. During a dive peregrines can reach velocities of more than 320 km h⁻¹. Unfortunately, in freely roaming falcons, these high velocities prohibit a precise determination of flight parameters such as velocity and acceleration as well as body shape and wing contour. Therefore, individual F. peregrinus were trained to dive in front of a vertical dam with a height of 60 m. The presence of a well-defined background allowed us to reconstruct the flight path and the body shape of the falcon during certain flight phases. Flight trajectories were obtained with a stereo high-speed camera system. In addition, body images of the falcon were taken from two perspectives with a high-resolution digital camera. The dam allowed us to match the high-resolution images obtained from the digital camera with the corresponding images taken with the high-speed cameras. Using these data we built a life-size model of F. peregrinus and used it to measure the drag and lift forces in a wind-tunnel. We compared these forces acting on the model with the data obtained from the 3-D flight path trajectory of the diving F. peregrinus. Visualizations of the flow in the wind-tunnel uncovered details of the flow structure around the falcon's body, which suggests local regions with separation of flow. High-resolution pictures of the diving peregrine indicate that feathers pop-up in the equivalent regions, where flow separation in the model falcon occurred.

  5. Diving under a microscope--a new simple and versatile in vitro diving device for fluorescence and confocal microscopy allowing the controls of hydrostatic pressure, gas pressures, and kinetics of gas saturation.

    Wang, Qiong; Belhomme, Marc; Guerrero, François; Mazur, Aleksandra; Lambrechts, Kate; Theron, Michaël

    2013-06-01

    How underwater diving effects the function of the arterial wall and the activities of endothelial cells is the focus of recent studies on decompression sickness. Here we describe an in vitro diving system constructed to achieve real-time monitoring of cell activity during simulated dives under fluorescent microscopy and confocal microscopy. A 1-mL chamber with sapphire windows on both sides and located on the stage of an inverted microscope was built to allow in vitro diving simulation of isolated cells or arteries in which activities during diving are monitored in real-time via fluorescent microscopy and confocal microscopy. Speed of compression and decompression can range from 20 to 2000 kPa/min, allowing systemic pressure to range up to 6500 kPa. Diving temperature is controlled at 37°C. During air dive simulation oxygen partial pressure is optically monitored. Perfusion speed can range from 0.05 to 10 mL/min. The system can support physiological viability of in vitro samples for real-time monitoring of cellular activity during diving. It allows regulations of pressure, speeds of compression and decompression, temperature, gas saturation, and perfusion speed. It will be a valuable tool for hyperbaric research.

  6. Intelligent tutoring systems for space applications

    Luckhardt-Redfield, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence has been used in many space applications. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have only recently been developed for assisting training of space operations and skills. An ITS at Southwest Research Institute is described as an example of an ITS application for space operations, specifically, training console operations at mission control. A distinction is made between critical skills and knowledge versus routine skills. Other ITSs for space are also discussed and future training requirements and potential ITS solutions are described.

  7. Safety Priorities and Underestimations in Recreational Scuba Diving Operations: A European Study Supporting the Implementation of New Risk Management Programmes

    Serena Lucrezi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Scuba diving is an important marine tourism sector, but requires proper safety standards to reduce the risks and increase accessibility to its market. To achieve safety goals, safety awareness and positive safety attitudes in recreational scuba diving operations are essential. However, there is no published research exclusively focusing on scuba divers’ and dive centres’ perceptions toward safety. This study assessed safety perceptions in recreational scuba diving operations, with the aim to inform and enhance safety and risk management programmes within the scuba diving tourism industry.Materials and Methods: Two structured questionnaire surveys were prepared by the organisation Divers Alert Network and administered online to scuba diving operators in Italy and scuba divers in Europe, using a mixture of convenience and snowball sampling. Questions in the survey included experience and safety offered at the dive centre; the buddy system; equipment and accessories for safe diving activities; safety issues in the certification of new scuba divers; incidents/accidents; and attitudes toward safety.Results: 91 scuba diving centres and 3,766 scuba divers participated in the study. Scuba divers gave importance to safety and the responsiveness of service providers, here represented by the dive centres. However, they underestimated the importance of a personal emergency action/assistance plan and, partly, of the buddy system alongside other safety procedures. Scuba divers agreed that some risks, such as those associated with running out of gas, deserve attention. Dive centres gave importance to aspects such as training and emergency action/assistance plans. However, they were limitedly involved in safety campaigning. Dive centres’ perceptions of safety in part aligned with those of scuba divers, with some exceptions.Conclusion: Greater responsibility is required in raising awareness and educating scuba divers, through participation in

  8. Safety Priorities and Underestimations in Recreational Scuba Diving Operations: A European Study Supporting the Implementation of New Risk Management Programmes

    Lucrezi, Serena; Egi, Salih Murat; Pieri, Massimo; Burman, Francois; Ozyigit, Tamer; Cialoni, Danilo; Thomas, Guy; Marroni, Alessandro; Saayman, Melville

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Scuba diving is an important marine tourism sector, but requires proper safety standards to reduce the risks and increase accessibility to its market. To achieve safety goals, safety awareness and positive safety attitudes in recreational scuba diving operations are essential. However, there is no published research exclusively focusing on scuba divers’ and dive centres’ perceptions toward safety. This study assessed safety perceptions in recreational scuba diving operations, with the aim to inform and enhance safety and risk management programmes within the scuba diving tourism industry. Materials and Methods: Two structured questionnaire surveys were prepared by the organisation Divers Alert Network and administered online to scuba diving operators in Italy and scuba divers in Europe, using a mixture of convenience and snowball sampling. Questions in the survey included experience and safety offered at the dive centre; the buddy system; equipment and accessories for safe diving activities; safety issues in the certification of new scuba divers; incidents/accidents; and attitudes toward safety. Results: 91 scuba diving centres and 3,766 scuba divers participated in the study. Scuba divers gave importance to safety and the responsiveness of service providers, here represented by the dive centres. However, they underestimated the importance of a personal emergency action/assistance plan and, partly, of the buddy system alongside other safety procedures. Scuba divers agreed that some risks, such as those associated with running out of gas, deserve attention. Dive centres gave importance to aspects such as training and emergency action/assistance plans. However, they were limitedly involved in safety campaigning. Dive centres’ perceptions of safety in part aligned with those of scuba divers, with some exceptions. Conclusion: Greater responsibility is required in raising awareness and educating scuba divers, through participation in prevention

  9. Safety Priorities and Underestimations in Recreational Scuba Diving Operations: A European Study Supporting the Implementation of New Risk Management Programmes.

    Lucrezi, Serena; Egi, Salih Murat; Pieri, Massimo; Burman, Francois; Ozyigit, Tamer; Cialoni, Danilo; Thomas, Guy; Marroni, Alessandro; Saayman, Melville

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Scuba diving is an important marine tourism sector, but requires proper safety standards to reduce the risks and increase accessibility to its market. To achieve safety goals, safety awareness and positive safety attitudes in recreational scuba diving operations are essential. However, there is no published research exclusively focusing on scuba divers' and dive centres' perceptions toward safety. This study assessed safety perceptions in recreational scuba diving operations, with the aim to inform and enhance safety and risk management programmes within the scuba diving tourism industry. Materials and Methods: Two structured questionnaire surveys were prepared by the organisation Divers Alert Network and administered online to scuba diving operators in Italy and scuba divers in Europe, using a mixture of convenience and snowball sampling. Questions in the survey included experience and safety offered at the dive centre; the buddy system; equipment and accessories for safe diving activities; safety issues in the certification of new scuba divers; incidents/accidents; and attitudes toward safety. Results: 91 scuba diving centres and 3,766 scuba divers participated in the study. Scuba divers gave importance to safety and the responsiveness of service providers, here represented by the dive centres. However, they underestimated the importance of a personal emergency action/assistance plan and, partly, of the buddy system alongside other safety procedures. Scuba divers agreed that some risks, such as those associated with running out of gas, deserve attention. Dive centres gave importance to aspects such as training and emergency action/assistance plans. However, they were limitedly involved in safety campaigning. Dive centres' perceptions of safety in part aligned with those of scuba divers, with some exceptions. Conclusion: Greater responsibility is required in raising awareness and educating scuba divers, through participation in prevention campaigns

  10. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited

  11. Systems Engineering Analysis for Office Space Management

    2017-09-01

    ENGINEERING ANALYSIS FOR OFFICE SPACE MANAGEMENT by James E. Abellana September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Diana Angelis Second Reader: Walter E. Owen...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ANALYSIS FOR OFFICE SPACE MANAGEMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) James E. Abellana 7...of the systems engineering method, this thesis develops a multicriteria decision-making framework applicable to space allocation decisions for

  12. Lossless Coding Standards for Space Data Systems

    Rice, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    The International Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is preparing to issue its first recommendation for a digital data compression standard. Because the space data systems of primary interest are employed to support scientific investigations requiring accurate representation, this initial standard will be restricted to lossless compression.

  13. Thermal status of saturation divers during operational dives in the North Sea

    Mekjavic, I.B.; Golden, F.St.C.; Eglin, C.M.; Tipton, M.J.

    1999-08-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study investigating the body temperature responses of divers at different depths, seasons, and locations in order to evaluated the effectiveness of current equipment and diving procedures and especially that of the thermal protection to maintain the safety of the diver. Details of the thermal monitoring system and the field study examining diving suit microclimate temperature, skin temperature, core temperature, thermal comfort, and fluid balance are outlined, and recommendations are given.

  14. 29 CFR 1910.410 - Qualifications of dive team.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifications of dive team. 1910.410 Section 1910.410... Requirements § 1910.410 Qualifications of dive team. (a) General. (1) Each dive team member shall have the experience or training necessary to perform assigned tasks in a safe and healthful manner. (2) Each dive team...

  15. Massive Modularity of Space and Surface Systems

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will conduct a systems level investigation of a modular design and operations approach for future NASA exploration systems. Particular emphasis will be...

  16. Space solar power satellite systems with a space elevator

    Kellum, M. J. (Mervyn J.); Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in mankind's access to outer space. If the SE's promise of low-cost access to space can be realized, the economics of space-based business endeavors becomes much more feasible. In this paper, we describe a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) system and estimate its costs within the context of an SE. We also offer technical as well as financial comparisons between SPS and terrestrial solar photovoltaic technologies. Even though SPS systems have been designed for over 35 years, technologies pertinent to SPS systems are continually evolving. One of the designs we present includes an evolving technology, optical rectennas. SPS systems could be a long-term energy source that is clean, technologically feasible, and virtually limitless. Moreover, electrical energy could be distributed inexpensively to remote areas where such power does not currently exist, thereby raising the quality of life of the people living in those areas. The energy 'playing field' will be leveled across the world and the resulting economic growth will improve the lot of humankind everywhere.

  17. A philosophy for space nuclear systems safety

    Marshall, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    The unique requirements and contraints of space nuclear systems require careful consideration in the development of a safety policy. The Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) for the Space Exploration Initiative has proposed a hierarchical approach with safety policy at the top of the hierarchy. This policy allows safety requirements to be tailored to specific applications while still providing reassurance to regulators and the general public that the necessary measures have been taken to assure safe application of space nuclear systems. The safety policy used by the NSPWG is recommended for all space nuclear programs and missions

  18. Comparative incidences of decompression illness in repetitive, staged, mixed-gas decompression diving: is 'dive fitness' an influencing factor?

    Sayer, Martin Dj; Akroyd, Jim; Williams, Guy D

    2008-06-01

    Wreck diving at Bikini Atoll consists of a relatively standard series of decompression dives with maximum depths in the region of 45-55 metres' sea water (msw). In a typical week of diving at Bikini, divers can perform up to 12 decompression dives to these depths over seven days; on five of those days, divers can perform two decompression dives per day. All the dives employ multi-level, staged decompression schedules using air and surface-supplied nitrox containing 80% oxygen. Bikini is serviced by a single diving operator and so a relatively precise record exists both of the actual number of dives undertaken and of the decompression illness incidents both for customer divers and the dive guides. The dive guides follow exactly the dive profiles and decompression schedules of the customers. Each dive guide will perform nearly 400 decompression dives a year, with maximum depths mostly around 50 msw, compared with an average of 10 (maximum of 12) undertaken typically by each customer diver in a week. The incidence of decompression illness for the customer population (presumed in the absence of medical records) is over ten times higher than that for the dive guides. The physiological reasons for such a marked difference are discussed in terms of customer demographics and dive-guide acclimatization to repetitive decompression stress. The rates of decompression illness for a range of diving populations are reviewed.

  19. Integrated design for space transportation system

    Suresh, B N

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  20. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    Finster, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure

  1. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    Finster, Felix [NWF I - Mathematik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  2. Fermion Systems in Discrete Space-Time

    Finster, Felix

    2006-01-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  3. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    Finster, Felix

    2007-05-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  4. Micropropulsion Systems for Precision Controlled Space Flight

    Larsen, Jack

    . This project is thus concentrating on developing a method by which an entire, ecient, control system compensating for the disturbances from the space environment and thereby enabling precision formation flight can be realized. The space environment is initially studied and the knowledge gained is used......Space science is subject to a constantly increasing demand for larger coherence lengths or apertures of the space observation systems, which in turn translates into a demand for increased dimensions and subsequently cost and complexity of the systems. When this increasing demand reaches...... the pratical limitations of increasing the physical dimensions of the spacecrafts, the observation platforms will have to be distributed on more spacecrafts flying in very accurate formations. Consequently, the observation platform becomes much more sensitive to disturbances from the space environment...

  5. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Space Flight Pressurized Systems

    2015-02-28

    as an adhesive , as dictated by the application. [4.3.3.1-2] The effects of fabrication process, temperature/humidity, load spectra, and other...5.2.1-1] System connections for incompatible propellants shall be keyed, sized, or located so that it is physically impossible to interconnect them

  6. Holographic representation of space-variant systems: system theory.

    Marks Ii, R J; Krile, T F

    1976-09-01

    System theory for holographic representation of linear space-variant systems is derived. The utility of the resulting piecewise isoplanatic approximation (PIA) is illustrated by example application to the invariant system, ideal magnifier, and Fourier transformer. A method previously employed to holographically represent a space-variant system, the discrete approximation, is shown to be a special case of the PIA.

  7. Onboard Acoustic Recording from Diving Elephant Seals

    Fletcher, Stacia

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this project was to record sounds impinging on free-ranging northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, a first step in determining the importance of LFS to these animals as they dive...

  8. Using stimulation of the diving reflex in humans to teach integrative physiology.

    Choate, Julia K; Denton, Kate M; Evans, Roger G; Hodgson, Yvonne

    2014-12-01

    During underwater submersion, the body responds by conserving O2 and prioritizing blood flow to the brain and heart. These physiological adjustments, which involve the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems, are known as the diving response and provide an ideal example of integrative physiology. The diving reflex can be stimulated in the practical laboratory setting using breath holding and facial immersion in water. Our undergraduate physiology students complete a laboratory class in which they investigate the effects of stimulating the diving reflex on cardiovascular variables, which are recorded and calculated with a Finapres finger cuff. These variables include heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, and arterial pressures (mean, diastolic, and systolic). Components of the diving reflex are stimulated by 1) facial immersion in cold water (15°C), 2) breathing with a snorkel in cold water (15°C), 3) facial immersion in warm water (30°C), and 4) breath holding in air. Statistical analysis of the data generated for each of these four maneuvers allows the students to consider the factors that contribute to the diving response, such as the temperature of the water and the location of the sensory receptors that initiate the response. In addition to providing specific details about the equipment, protocols, and learning outcomes, this report describes how we assess this practical exercise and summarizes some common student misunderstandings of the essential physiological concepts underlying the diving response. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  9. Deep Space Cryocooler System (DSCS), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As NASA missions continue to extend the horizon beyond near-Earth missions, higher performance systems must evolve to address the challenges of reduced power...

  10. Space Station data management system architecture

    Mallary, William E.; Whitelaw, Virginia A.

    1987-01-01

    Within the Space Station program, the Data Management System (DMS) functions in a dual role. First, it provides the hardware resources and software services which support the data processing, data communications, and data storage functions of the onboard subsystems and payloads. Second, it functions as an integrating entity which provides a common operating environment and human-machine interface for the operation and control of the orbiting Space Station systems and payloads by both the crew and the ground operators. This paper discusses the evolution and derivation of the requirements and issues which have had significant effect on the design of the Space Station DMS, describes the DMS components and services which support system and payload operations, and presents the current architectural view of the system as it exists in October 1986; one-and-a-half years into the Space Station Phase B Definition and Preliminary Design Study.

  11. Real space renormalization techniques for disordered systems

    Anda, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    Real Space renormalization techniques are applied to study different disordered systems, with an emphasis on the under-standing of the electronic properties of amorphous matter, mainly semiconductors. (author) [pt

  12. Space power systems--''Spacecraft 2000''

    Faymon, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The National Space programs of the 21st century will require abundant and relatively low cost power and energy produced by high reliability-low mass systems. Advancement of current power system related technologies will enable the U.S. to realize increased scientific payload for government missions or increased revenue producing payload for commercial space endeavors. Autonomous, unattended operation will be a highly desirable characteristic of these advanced power systems. Those space power-energy related technologies, which will comprise the space craft of the late 1990's and the early 2000's, will evolve from today's state-of-the-art systems and those long term technology development programs presently in place. However, to foster accelerated development of the more critical technologies which have the potential for high-payoffs, additional programs will be proposed and put in place between now and the end of the century. Such a program is ''Spacecraft 2000'', which is described in this paper

  13. Space-Time Reference Systems

    Soffel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address  the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. ...

  14. Security for safety critical space borne systems

    Legrand, Sue

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station contains safety critical computer software components in systems that can affect life and vital property. These components require a multilevel secure system that provides dynamic access control of the data and processes involved. A study is under way to define requirements for a security model providing access control through level B3 of the Orange Book. The model will be prototyped at NASA-Johnson Space Center.

  15. Impacts of Artificial Reefs and Diving Tourism

    Sandra Jakšić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are currently endangered throughout the world. One of the main activities responsible for this is scuba-diving. Scuba-diving on coral reefs was not problematic in the begging, but due to popularization of the new sport, more and more tourists desired to participate in the activity. Mass tourism, direct contact of the tourists with the coral reefs and unprofessional behavior underwater has a negative effect on the coral reefs. The conflict between nature preservation and economy benefits related to scuba-diving tourism resulted in the creation of artificial reefs, used both to promote marine life and as tourists attractions, thereby taking the pressure off the natural coral reefs. Ships, vehicles and other large structures can be found on the coastal sea floor in North America, Australia, Japan and Europe. The concept of artificial reefs as a scuba-diving attraction was developed in Florida. The main goal was to promote aquaculture, with the popularization of scuba-diving attractions being a secondary effect. The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of artificial reefs on scuba-diving tourism, while taking into account the questionnaire carried out among 18 divers

  16. Reliability models for Space Station power system

    Singh, C.; Patton, A. D.; Kim, Y.; Wagner, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the reliability evaluation of Space Station power system. The two options considered are the photovoltaic system and the solar dynamic system. Reliability models for both of these options are described along with the methodology for calculating the reliability indices.

  17. Education Systems as Transition Spaces

    Tikkanen, Jenni; Bledowski, Piotr; Felczak, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The changes that have occurred in the field of education over the course of the last couple of decades have been associated with increased demands that are not only placed on individuals from both within and beyond the education system, but also on the support they require to make successful educational choices. One central way this need is being…

  18. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  19. Towards Mobile Information Systems for Indoor Space

    Xiaoxiang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet of things (IOT and indoor positioning technologies such as Wi-Fi and RFID, indoor mobile information systems have become a new research hotspot. Based on the unique features of indoor space and urgent needs on indoor mobile applications, in this paper we analyze some key issues in indoor mobile information systems, including positioning technologies in indoor environments, representation models for indoor spaces, query processing techniques for indoor moving objects, and index structures for indoor mobile applications. Then, we present an indoor mobile information management system named IndoorDB. Finally, we give some future research topics about indoor mobile information systems.

  20. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  1. Judging complex movement performances for excellence: a principal components analysis-based technique applied to competitive diving.

    Young, Cole; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2014-08-01

    Athletes rely on subjective assessment of complex movements from coaches and judges to improve their motor skills. In some sports, such as diving, snowboard half pipe, gymnastics, and figure skating, subjective scoring forms the basis for competition. It is currently unclear whether this scoring process can be mathematically modeled; doing so could provide insight into what motor skill is. Principal components analysis has been proposed as a motion analysis method for identifying fundamental units of coordination. We used PCA to analyze movement quality of dives taken from USA Diving's 2009 World Team Selection Camp, first identifying eigenpostures associated with dives, and then using the eigenpostures and their temporal weighting coefficients, as well as elements commonly assumed to affect scoring - gross body path, splash area, and board tip motion - to identify eigendives. Within this eigendive space we predicted actual judges' scores using linear regression. This technique rated dives with accuracy comparable to the human judges. The temporal weighting of the eigenpostures, body center path, splash area, and board tip motion affected the score, but not the eigenpostures themselves. These results illustrate that (1) subjective scoring in a competitive diving event can be mathematically modeled; (2) the elements commonly assumed to affect dive scoring actually do affect scoring (3) skill in elite diving is more associated with the gross body path and the effect of the movement on the board and water than the units of coordination that PCA extracts, which might reflect the high level of technique these divers had achieved. We also illustrate how eigendives can be used to produce dive animations that an observer can distort continuously from poor to excellent, which is a novel approach to performance visualization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of pre-dive ingestion of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a scuba dive.

    Theunissen, Sigrid; Balestra, Costantino; Boutros, Antoine; De Bels, David; Guerrero, François; Germonpré, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after scuba diving. Forty-two male scuba divers were divided into two groups: a control (n=21) and a chocolate group (n=21). They performed a 33-metres deep scuba-air dive for 20 minutes in a diving pool (Nemo 33, Brussels). Water temperature was 33⁰C. The chocolate group ingested 30 g of dark chocolate (86% cocoa) 90 minutes before the dive. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), digital photoplethysmography and nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrites (ONOO-) levels were measured before and after the scuba dive in both groups. A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dive (91±7% (mean±95% confidence interval) of pre-dive values; Pchocolate group (105±5% of pre-dive values; Pchocolate group (154±73% of pre-dive values; P=0.04). A significant reduction in ONOO- was observed in the control group (84±12% of pre-dive values; P=0.003) whereas no variation was shown after the dive with chocolate intake (100±28% of pre-dive values; ns). Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 90 minutes before scuba diving prevented post-dive endothelial dysfunction, as the antioxidants contained in dark chocolate probably scavenge free radicals.

  3. NASA's Space Launch System: Deep-Space Delivery for Smallsats

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Norris, George

    2017-01-01

    Designed for human exploration missions into deep space, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, enabling a wide variety of unique utilization opportunities. While primarily focused on launching the large systems needed for crewed spaceflight beyond Earth orbit, SLS also offers a game-changing capability for the deployment of small satellites to deep-space destinations, beginning with its first flight. Currently, SLS is making rapid progress toward readiness for its first launch in two years, using the initial configuration of the vehicle, which is capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). On its first flight test of the Orion spacecraft around the moon, accompanying Orion on SLS will be small-satellite secondary payloads, which will deploy in cislunar space. The deployment berths are sized for "6U" CubeSats, and on EM-1 the spacecraft will be deployed into cislunar space following Orion separate from the SLS Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage. Payloads in 6U class will be limited to 14 kg maximum mass. Secondary payloads on EM-1 will be launched in the Orion Stage Adapter (OSA). Payload dispensers will be mounted on specially designed brackets, each attached to the interior wall of the OSA. For the EM-1 mission, a total of fourteen brackets will be installed, allowing for thirteen payload locations. The final location will be used for mounting an avionics unit, which will include a battery and sequencer for executing the mission deployment sequence. Following the launch of EM-1, deployments of the secondary payloads will commence after sufficient separation of the Orion spacecraft to the upper stage vehicle to minimize any possible contact of the deployed CubeSats to Orion. Currently this is estimated to require approximately 4 hours. The allowed deployment window for the CubeSats will be from the time the upper stage disposal maneuvers are complete to up to 10 days after launch. The upper stage

  4. A forensic diving medicine examination of a highly publicised scuba diving fatality.

    Edmonds, Carl

    2012-12-01

    A high-profile diving death occurred in 2003 at the site of the wreck of the SS Yongala off the Queensland coast. The victim's buddy, her husband, was accused of her murder and found guilty of manslaughter in an Australian court. A detailed analysis of all the evidence concerning this fatality suggests alternative medical reasons for her death. The value of decompression computers in determining the diving details and of CT scans in clarifying autopsy findings is demonstrated. The victim was medically, physically and psychologically unfit to undertake the fatal dive. She was inexperienced and inadequately supervised. She was over-weighted and exposed for the first time to difficult currents. The analysis of the dive demonstrates how important it is to consider the interaction of all factors and to not make deductions from individual items of information. It also highlights the importance of early liaison between expert divers, technicians, diving clinicians and pathologists, if inappropriate conclusions are to be avoided.

  5. Environmental Physiology and Diving Medicine

    Gerardo Bosco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Man’s experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival. This summary will illustrate briefly the physiological changes induced by immersion, swimming, breath-hold diving and exploring while using special equipment in the water. Cardiac, circulatory and pulmonary vascular adaptation and the pathophysiology of novel syndromes have been demonstrated, which will allow selection of individual characteristics in order to succeed in various environments. Training and treatment for these new microenvironments will be suggested with description of successful pioneers in this field. This is a summary of the physiology and the present status of pathology and therapy for the field.

  6. Earth and space science information systems

    Zygielbaum, A. (ed.) (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States))

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Earth and Space Science Information Systems (ESSIS) Conference. The attendees included scientists and engineers across many disciplines. New trends in information organizations were reviewed. One hundred and twenty eight papers are included in this volume, out of these two have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database. The topics covered in the papers range from Earth science and technology to astronomy and space, planetary science and education. (AIP)

  7. Biomedical engineering strategies in system design space.

    Savageau, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism's repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a "system design space" for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further development

  8. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than

  9. Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration

    Uckun, Serdar

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

  10. Conceptual Spaces of the Immune System.

    Fierz, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The immune system can be looked at as a cognitive system. This is often done in analogy to the neuro-psychological system. Here, it is demonstrated that the cognitive functions of the immune system can be properly described within a new theory of cognitive science. Gärdenfors' geometrical framework of conceptual spaces is applied to immune cognition. Basic notions, like quality dimensions, natural properties and concepts, similarities, prototypes, saliences, etc., are related to cognitive phenomena of the immune system. Constraints derived from treating the immune system within a cognitive theory, like Gärdenfors' conceptual spaces, might well prove to be instrumental for the design of vaccines, immunological diagnostic tests, and immunotherapy.

  11. Blood oxygen depletion is independent of dive function in a deep diving vertebrate, the northern elephant seal.

    Jessica U Meir

    Full Text Available Although energetics is fundamental to animal ecology, traditional methods of determining metabolic rate are neither direct nor instantaneous. Recently, continuous blood oxygen (O2 measurements were used to assess energy expenditure in diving elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, demonstrating that an exceptional hypoxemic tolerance and exquisite management of blood O2 stores underlie the extraordinary diving capability of this consummate diver. As the detailed relationship of energy expenditure and dive behavior remains unknown, we integrated behavior, ecology, and physiology to characterize the costs of different types of dives of elephant seals. Elephant seal dive profiles were analyzed and O2 utilization was classified according to dive type (overall function of dive: transit, foraging, food processing/rest. This is the first account linking behavior at this level with in vivo blood O2 measurements in an animal freely diving at sea, allowing us to assess patterns of O2 utilization and energy expenditure between various behaviors and activities in an animal in the wild. In routine dives of elephant seals, the blood O2 store was significantly depleted to a similar range irrespective of dive function, suggesting that all dive types have equal costs in terms of blood O2 depletion. Here, we present the first physiological evidence that all dive types have similarly high blood O2 demands, supporting an energy balance strategy achieved by devoting one major task to a given dive, thereby separating dive functions into distinct dive types. This strategy may optimize O2 store utilization and recovery, consequently maximizing time underwater and allowing these animals to take full advantage of their underwater resources. This approach may be important to optimizing energy expenditure throughout a dive bout or at-sea foraging trip and is well suited to the lifestyle of an elephant seal, which spends > 90% of its time at sea submerged making diving its

  12. The NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Bennett, William R.; Lvovich, Vadim F.; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project is to develop advanced, game changing technologies that will provide future NASA space exploration missions with safe, reliable, light weight and compact power generation and energy storage systems. The development effort is focused on maturing the technologies from a technology readiness level of approximately 23 to approximately 56 as defined in the NASA Procedural Requirement 7123.1B. Currently, the project is working on two critical technology areas: High specific energy batteries, and regenerative fuel cell systems with passive fluid management. Examples of target applications for these technologies are: extending the duration of extravehicular activities (EVA) with high specific energy and energy density batteries; providing reliable, long-life power for rovers with passive fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems that enable reduced system complexity. Recent results from the high energy battery and regenerative fuel cell technology development efforts will be presented. The technical approach, the key performance parameters and the technical results achieved to date in each of these new elements will be included. The Advanced Space Power Systems Project is part of the Game Changing Development Program under NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  13. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  14. Using an autonomous passive acoustic observational system to monitor the environmental impact of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill on deep-diving marine mammals

    Sidorovskaia, N.; Ackleh, A.; Ma, B.; Tiemann, C.; Ioup, J. W.; Ioup, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) is a consortium of scientists from four universities and the U.S. Navy, which performs acoustic measurements and analysis in littoral waters. For the present work, six passive autonomous broadband acoustic sensors were deployed by LADC in the vicinity of the Deep Water Horizon oil spill site in the Northern Gulf of Mexico in fall 2010. The objective of the project is to assess long-term impact of the spill on the deep-diving residential population of marine mammals, particularly, sperm and beaked whales. Collected data were processed to detect, extract, and count acoustic signals produced by different types of marine mammals. As a next step, a statistical model which uses acoustic inputs was developed to estimate residential populations of different types of marine mammals at different distances from the spill site. The estimates were compared to population estimates from years prior to the spill, using pre-spill collected data in the area by LADC from 2001, 2002, and 2007. The results indicate different responses from sperm and beaked whales in the first months following the spill. A recently published article by our research group (Ackleh et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 2306-2314) provides a comparison of 2007 and 2010 estimates showing a decrease in acoustic activity and abundance of sperm whales at the 9-mile distant site, whereas acoustic activity and abundance at the 25-mile distant site has clearly increased. This may indicate that some sperm whales have relocated farther away from the spill subject to food source availability. The beaked whale population appears to return to 2007 numbers after the spill even at the closest 9-mile distant site. Several acoustically observed changes in the animals' habitat associated with the spill, such as anthropogenic noise level, prey presence, etc., can be connected with the observed population trends. Preliminary results for interpreting observed population trends will

  15. General Purpose Data-Driven System Monitoring for Space Operations

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern space propulsion and exploration system designs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Determining the health state of these systems using...

  16. Recreational technical diving part 1: an introduction to technical diving methods and activities.

    Mitchell, Simon J; Doolette, David J

    2013-06-01

    Technical divers use gases other than air and advanced equipment configurations to conduct dives that are deeper and/or longer than typical recreational air dives. The use of oxygen-nitrogen (nitrox) mixes with oxygen fractions higher than air results in longer no-decompression limits for shallow diving, and faster decompression from deeper dives. For depths beyond the air-diving range, technical divers mix helium, a light non-narcotic gas, with nitrogen and oxygen to produce 'trimix'. These blends are tailored to the depth of intended use with a fraction of oxygen calculated to produce an inspired oxygen partial pressure unlikely to cause cerebral oxygen toxicity and a nitrogen fraction calculated to produce a tolerable degree of nitrogen narcosis. A typical deep technical dive will involve the use of trimix at the target depth with changes to gases containing more oxygen and less inert gas during the decompression. Open-circuit scuba may be used to carry and utilise such gases, but this is very wasteful of expensive helium. There is increasing use of closed-circuit 'rebreather' devices. These recycle expired gas and potentially limit gas consumption to a small amount of inert gas to maintain the volume of the breathing circuit during descent and the amount of oxygen metabolised by the diver. This paper reviews the basic approach to planning and execution of dives using these methods to better inform physicians of the physical demands and risks.

  17. Underwater laboratory: Teaching physics through diving practice

    Favale, F.

    2013-01-01

    Diving education and diving science and technology may be a useful tool in teaching physics in non–physics-oriented High School courses. In this paper we present an activity which combines some simple theoretical aspects of fluid statics, fluid dynamics and gas behavior under pressure with diving experience, where the swimming pool and the sea are used as a laboratory. This topic had previously been approached in a pure experimental way in school laboratory, but some particular experiments became much more attractive and meaningful to the students when they could use their bodies to perform them directly in water. The activity was carried out with groups of students from Italian High School classes in different situations.

  18. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications

  19. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not

  20. Relevance of postmortem radiology to the diagnosis of fatal cerebral gas embolism from compressed air diving.

    Cole, A J; Griffiths, D; Lavender, S; Summers, P; Rich, K

    2006-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that artefact caused by postmortem off-gassing is at least partly responsible for the presence of gas within the vascular system and tissues of the cadaver following death associated with compressed air diving. Controlled experiment sacrificing sheep after a period of simulated diving in a hyperbaric chamber and carrying out sequential postmortem computed tomography (CT) on the cadavers. All the subject sheep developed significant quantities of gas in the vascular system within 24 hours, as demonstrated by CT and necropsy, while the control animals did not. The presence of gas in the vascular system of human cadavers following diving associated fatalities is to be expected, and is not necessarily connected with gas embolism following pulmonary barotrauma, as has previously been claimed.

  1. Pressure Induced Changes in Adaptive Immune Function in Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas; implications for dive physiology and health

    Laura A Thompson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased pressure, associated with diving, can alter cell function through several mechanisms and has been shown to impact immune functions performed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in humans. While marine mammals possess specific adaptations which protect them from dive related injury, it is unknown how their immune system is adapted to the challenges associated with diving. The purpose of this study was to measure PBMC activation (IL2R expression and Concanavalin A induced lymphocyte proliferation (BrdU incorporation in belugas following in vitro pressure exposures during baseline, Out of Water Examination (OWE and capture/release conditions. Beluga blood samples (n=4 were obtained from animals at the Mystic Aquarium and from free ranging animals in Alaska (n=9. Human blood samples (n=4 (Biological Specialty Corporation were run for comparison. In vivo catecholamines and cortisol were measured in belugas to characterize the neuroendocrine response. Comparison of cellular responses between controls and pressure exposed cells, between conditions in belugas, between belugas and humans as well as between dive profiles, were run using mixed generalized linear models (α=0.05. Cortisol was significantly higher in wild belugas and OWE samples as compared with baseline for aquarium animals. Both IL2R expression and proliferation displayed significant pressure induced changes, and these responses varied between conditions in belugas. Both belugas and humans displayed increased IL2R expression, while lymphocyte proliferation decreased for aquarium animals and increased for humans and wild belugas. Results suggest beluga PBMC function is altered during diving and changes may represent dive adaptation as the response differs from humans, a non-dive adapted mammal. In addition, characteristics of a dive (i.e., duration, depth as well as neuroendocrine activity can alter the response of beluga cells, potentially impacting the ability of animals

  2. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  3. Space Telescope Pointing Control System software

    Dougherty, H.; Rodoni, C.; Rossini, R.; Tompetrini, K.; Nakashima, A.; Bradley, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Telescope Pointing Control System software is in the advanced development stage, having been tested on both the airbearing and the static simulator. The overall structure of the software is discussed, along with timing and sizing evaluations. The interaction between the controls analysts and software designer is described.

  4. Axiomatic Design of Space Life Support Systems

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering is an organized way to design and develop systems, but the initial system design concepts are usually seen as the products of unexplained but highly creative intuition. Axiomatic design is a mathematical approach to produce and compare system architectures. The two axioms are:- Maintain the independence of the functional requirements.- Minimize the information content (or complexity) of the design. The first axiom generates good system design structures and the second axiom ranks them. The closed system human life support architecture now implemented in the International Space Station has been essentially unchanged for fifty years. In contrast, brief missions such as Apollo and Shuttle have used open loop life support. As mission length increases, greater system closure and increased recycling become more cost-effective.Closure can be gradually increased, first recycling humidity condensate, then hygiene wastewater, urine, carbon dioxide, and water recovery brine. A long term space station or planetary base could implement nearly full closure, including food production. Dynamic systems theory supports the axioms by showing that fewer requirements, fewer subsystems, and fewer interconnections all increase system stability. If systems are too complex and interconnected, reliability is reduced and operations and maintenance become more difficult. Using axiomatic design shows how the mission duration and other requirements determine the best life support system design including the degree of closure.

  5. Long-term cryogenic space storage system

    Hopkins, R. A.; Chronic, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the design, fabrication and testing of a 225-cu ft spherical cryogenic storage system for long-term subcritical applications under zero-g conditions in storing subcritical cryogens for space vehicle propulsion systems. The insulation system design, the analytical methods used, and the correlation between the performance test results and analytical predictions are described. The best available multilayer insulation materials and state-of-the-art thermal protection concepts were applied in the design, providing a boiloff rate of 0.152 lb/hr, or 0.032% per day, and an overall heat flux of 0.066 Btu/sq ft hr based on a 200 sq ft surface area. A six to eighteen month cryogenic storage is provided by this system for space applications.

  6. Launch Processing System. [for Space Shuttle

    Byrne, F.; Doolittle, G. V.; Hockenberger, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a functional description of the Launch Processing System, which provides automatic ground checkout and control of the Space Shuttle launch site and airborne systems, with emphasis placed on the Checkout, Control, and Monitor Subsystem. Hardware and software modular design concepts for the distributed computer system are reviewed relative to performing system tests, launch operations control, and status monitoring during ground operations. The communication network design, which uses a Common Data Buffer interface to all computers to allow computer-to-computer communication, is discussed in detail.

  7. Quality management for space systems in ISRO

    Satish, S.; Selva Raju, S.; Nanjunda Swamy, T. S.; Kulkarni, P. L.

    2009-11-01

    In a little over four decades, the Indian Space Program has carved a niche for itself with the unique application driven program oriented towards National development. The end-to-end capability approach of the space projects in the country call for innovative practices and procedures in assuring the quality and reliability of space systems. The System Reliability (SR) efforts initiated at the start of the projects continue during the entire life cycle of the project encompassing design, development, realisation, assembly, testing and integration and during launch. Even after the launch, SR groups participate in the on-orbit evaluation of transponders in communication satellites and camera systems in remote sensing satellites. SR groups play a major role in identification, evaluation and inculcating quality practices in work centres involved in the fabrication of mechanical, electronics and propulsion systems required for Indian Space Research Organization's (ISRO's) launch vehicle and spacecraft projects. Also the reliability analysis activities like prediction, assessment and demonstration as well as de-rating analysis, Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and worst-case analysis are carried out by SR groups during various stages of project realisation. These activities provide the basis for project management to take appropriate techno-managerial decisions to ensure that the required reliability goals are met. Extensive test facilities catering to the needs of the space program has been set up. A system for consolidating the experience and expertise gained for issue of standards called product assurance specifications to be used in all ISRO centres has also been established.

  8. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study

  9. Qualitative models for space system engineering

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to investigate the implications of qualitative modeling techniques for problems arising in the monitoring, diagnosis, and design of Space Station subsystems and procedures; (2) to identify the issues involved in using qualitative models to enhance and automate engineering functions. These issues include representing operational criteria, fault models, alternate ontologies, and modeling continuous signals at a functional level of description; and (3) to develop a prototype collection of qualitative models for fluid and thermal systems commonly found in Space Station subsystems. Potential applications of qualitative modeling to space-systems engineering, including the notion of intelligent computer-aided engineering are summarized. Emphasis is given to determining which systems of the proposed Space Station provide the most leverage for study, given the current state of the art. Progress on using qualitative models, including development of the molecular collection ontology for reasoning about fluids, the interaction of qualitative and quantitative knowledge in analyzing thermodynamic cycles, and an experiment on building a natural language interface to qualitative reasoning is reported. Finally, some recommendations are made for future research.

  10. SP-100 space reactor power system readiness

    Josloff, A.T.; Matteo, D.N.; Bailey, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System which is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar/Mars surface power for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The technology and design is now at a state of readiness to support the definition of early flight demonstration missions. Of particular importance is that SP-100 meets the demanding U.S. safety performance, reliability and life requirements. The system is scalable and flexible and can be configured to provide 10's to 100's of kWe without repeating development work and can meet DoD goals for an early, low-power demonstration flight in the 1996-1997 time frame

  11. Space nuclear power systems, Part 2

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    This volume, number two of three, contains the reviewed and edited papers were being presented at the Ninth Symposium in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 12--16 January 1992. The objective of the symposium, and hence these volumes, is to summarize the state of knowledge in the area of space nuclear power and propulsion and to provide a forum at which the most recent findings and important new developments can be presented and discussed. Topics included is this volume are: reactor and power systems control; thermionic energy conversion; space missions and power needs; key issues in nuclear and propulsion; nuclear thermal propulsion; manufacturing and processing; thermal management; space nuclear safety; and nuclear testing and production facilities

  12. New advanced TLD system for space dosimetry

    Feher, I.; Szabo, B.; Vagvoelgyi, J.; Deme, S.; Szabo, P.P.; Csoeke, A.

    1983-10-01

    A new version of the TLD reader type PILLE has been developed for space applications. The earlier compact and portable device could also be used for measurements during space flights but its range was limited. A new bulb detector with easier handling has also been developed with an upper limit of linear dose response of 10 Gy. The range of this new and more versatile reader, NA206S, (1μGy-10 Gy) is 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of the earlier system; it also has increased sensitivity and decreased mass. It can be used not only in space applications but also for environmental monitoring or even in accident dosimetry. The measured dose value is displayed on a four-digit display with automatic range switch. Another new version, the NA206E, has been developed for environmental dosimetry; it can be operated from a battery or from the mains. (author)

  13. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  14. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This brief abstract reviews the development of the current day approach to human system risk management for space flight and the development of the critical components of this process over the past few years. The human system risk management process now provides a comprehensive assessment of each human system risk by design reference mission (DRM) and is evaluated not only for mission success but also for long-term health impacts for the astronauts. The discipline of bioastronautics is the study of the biological and medical effects of space flight on humans. In 1997, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) initiated the Bioastronautics Roadmap (Roadmap) as the "Critical Path Roadmap", and in 1998 participation in the roadmap was expanded to include the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the external community. A total of 55 risks and 250 questions were identified and prioritized and in 2000, the Roadmap was base-lined and put under configuration control. The Roadmap took into account several major advisory committee reviews including the Institute of Medicine (IOM) "Safe Passage: Astronaut care for Exploration Missions", 2001. Subsequently, three collaborating organizations at NASA HQ (Chief Health and Medical Officer, Office of Space Flight and Office of Biological & Physical Research), published the Bioastronautics Strategy in 2003, that identified the human as a "critical subsystem of space flight" and noted that "tolerance limits and safe operating bands must be established" to enable human space flight. These offices also requested a review by the IOM of the Roadmap and that review was published in October 2005 as "A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's Bioastronautics Roadmap", that noted several strengths and weaknesses of the Roadmap and made several recommendations. In parallel with the development of the Roadmap, the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) began a process in

  15. Managing Space System Faults: Coalescing NASA's Views

    Muirhead, Brian; Fesq, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Managing faults and their resultant failures is a fundamental and critical part of developing and operating aerospace systems. Yet, recent studies have shown that the engineering "discipline" required to manage faults is not widely recognized nor evenly practiced within the NASA community. Attempts to simply name this discipline in recent years has been fraught with controversy among members of the Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM), Fault Management (FM), Fault Protection (FP), Hazard Analysis (HA), and Aborts communities. Approaches to managing space system faults typically are unique to each organization, with little commonality in the architectures, processes and practices across the industry.

  16. SP-100 space nuclear power system

    Given, R.W.; Morgan, R.E.; Chi, J.W.H.; Westinghouse Electric Corp., Madison, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A baseline design concept for a 100 kWe nuclear reactor space power system is described. The concept was developed under contract from JPL as part of a joint program of the DOE, DOD, and NASA. The major technical and safety constraints influencing the selection of reactor operating parameters are discussed. A lithium-cooled compact fast reactor was selected as the best candidate system. The material selected for the thermoelectric conversion system was silicon germanium (SiGe) with gallium phosphide doping. Attention is given to the improved safety of the seven in-core control rod configuration

  17. New architectures for space power systems

    Ehsani, M.; Patton, A.D.; Biglic, O.

    1992-01-01

    Electric power generation and conditioning have experienced revolutionary development over the past two decades. Furthermore, new materials such as high energy magnets and high temperature superconductors are either available or on the horizon. The authors' work is based on the promise that new technologies are an important driver of new power system concepts and architectures. This observation is born out by the historical evolution of power systems both in terrestrial and aerospace applications. This paper will introduce new approaches to designing space power systems by using several new technologies

  18. Diel Variation in Beaked Whale Diving Behavior

    Baird, Robin; Webster, Daniel L; Schorr, Gregory S; McSweeney, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    ...) occurred at similar rates during the day and night for Blainville's beaked whales (daymean=0.38 h-1; nightmean=0.46 h-1), and there were no significant diel differences in depths, durations, ascent or descent rates for deep dives...

  19. The marine mammal dive response is exercise modulated to maximize aerobic dive duration.

    Davis, Randall W; Williams, Terrie M

    2012-08-01

    When aquatically adapted mammals and birds swim submerged, they exhibit a dive response in which breathing ceases, heart rate slows, and blood flow to peripheral tissues and organs is reduced. The most intense dive response occurs during forced submersion which conserves blood oxygen for the brain and heart, thereby preventing asphyxiation. In free-diving animals, the dive response is less profound, and energy metabolism remains aerobic. However, even this relatively moderate bradycardia seems diametrically opposed to the normal cardiovascular response (i.e., tachycardia and peripheral vasodilation) during physical exertion. As a result, there has been a long-standing paradox regarding how aquatic mammals and birds exercise while submerged. We hypothesized based on cardiovascular modeling that heart rate must increase to ensure adequate oxygen delivery to active muscles. Here, we show that heart rate (HR) does indeed increase with flipper or fluke stroke frequency (SF) during voluntary, aerobic dives in Weddell seals (HR = 1.48SF - 8.87) and bottlenose dolphins (HR = 0.99SF + 2.46), respectively, two marine mammal species with different evolutionary lineages. These results support our hypothesis that marine mammals maintain aerobic muscle metabolism while swimming submerged by combining elements of both dive and exercise responses, with one or the other predominating depending on the level of exertion.

  20. Inner ear decompression sickness in compressed-air diving.

    Klingmann, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) has become more frequently reported in recreational diving. We examined 34 divers after IEDCS and analyzed their dive profiles, pattern of symptoms, time of symptom onset and the association with a right-to left shunt (r/l shunt). Four divers used mixed gas and were excluded from the analysis. Of the remaining 30 divers, 25 presented with isolated IEDCS alone, while five divers had additional skin and neurological symptoms. All divers presented with vertigo (100%), and 12 divers reported additional hearing loss (40%). All symptoms occurred within 120 minutes (median 30 minutes) of ascent. Twenty-two of 30 divers (73.3%) showed a r/l shunt. A possible explanation for the frequent association of a r/l shunt and the dominance of vestibular rather than cochlear symptoms could be attributed to the different blood supply of the inner ear structures and the different size of the labyrinthine compartments. The cochlea has a blood supply up to four times higher than the vestibular part of the inner ear, whereas the vestibular fluid space is 30% larger. The higher prevalence of symptoms referrable to the less well-perfused vestibular organ provides further evidence that persistent local inert gas supersaturation may cause growth of incoming arterial bubbles and may therefore be an important pathophysiological factor in IEDCS.

  1. Space Launch System for Exploration and Science

    Klaus, K.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability enabling diverse deep space missions. The exploration class vehicle launches larger payloads farther in our solar system and faster than ever before. The vehicle's 5 m to 10 m fairing allows utilization of existing systems which reduces development risks, size limitations and cost. SLS lift capacity and superior performance shortens mission travel time. Enhanced capabilities enable a myriad of missions including human exploration, planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary defense and commercial space exploration endeavors. Human Exploration: SLS is the first heavy-lift launch vehicle capable of transporting crews beyond low Earth orbit in over four decades. Its design maximizes use of common elements and heritage hardware to provide a low-risk, affordable system that meets Orion mission requirements. SLS provides a safe and sustainable deep space pathway to Mars in support of NASA's human spaceflight mission objectives. The SLS enables the launch of large gateway elements beyond the moon. Leveraging a low-energy transfer that reduces required propellant mass, components are then brought back to a desired cislunar destination. SLS provides a significant mass margin that can be used for additional consumables or a secondary payloads. SLS lowers risks for the Asteroid Retrieval Mission by reducing mission time and improving mass margin. SLS lift capacity allows for additional propellant enabling a shorter return or the delivery of a secondary payload, such as gateway component to cislunar space. SLS enables human return to the moon. The intermediate SLS capability allows both crew and cargo to fly to translunar orbit at the same time which will simplify mission design and reduce launch costs. Science Missions: A single SLS launch to Mars will enable sample collection at multiple, geographically dispersed locations and a

  2. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  3. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  4. Cermet fuels for space power systems

    Barner, J.O.; Coomes, E.P.; Williford, R.E.; Neimark, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    A refractory-metal matrix, UN-fueled cermet is a very promising fuel candidate for a wide range of multi-megawatt space reactor systems, e.g., steady-state, flexible duty-cycle, or bimodal, single- or two-phase liquid-metal cooled reactors, or thermionic reactors. Cermet fuel is especially promising for reactor designs that require operational strategies which incorporate rapid power changes because of its anticipated capability to withstand thermal shock

  5. Microwave transmission system for space power

    Dickinson, R M [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wave-length microwaves.

  6. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High)

    2015-12-01

    elements (five SMGTs) for the S2E2 Mobile Ground System. ​ SBIRS Block Buy (GEO 5-6) The GEO 5-6 Tech Refresh (TR) Engineering Change Proposal was...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-210 Space Based Infrared System High ( SBIRS High) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 11:24:26 UNCLASSIFIED SBIRS High December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 11:24:26

  7. Space Telescope Control System science user operations

    Dougherty, H. J.; Rossini, R.; Simcox, D.; Bennett, N.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Telescope science users will have a flexible and efficient means of accessing the capabilities provided by the ST Pointing Control System, particularly with respect to managing the overal acquisition and pointing functions. To permit user control of these system functions - such as vehicle scanning, tracking, offset pointing, high gain antenna pointing, solar array pointing and momentum management - a set of special instructions called 'constructs' is used in conjuction with command data packets. This paper discusses the user-vehicle interface and introduces typical operational scenarios.

  8. An Adaptive Regulator for Space Teleoperation System in Task Space

    Chao Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the gravity information which can not be obtained in advance for bilateral teleoperation is studied. In outer space exploration, the gravity term changes with the position changing of the slave manipulator. So it is necessary to design an adaptive regulator controller to compensate for the unknown gravity signal. Moreover, to get a more accurate position tracking performance, the controller is designed in the task space instead of the joint space. Additionally, the time delay considered in this paper is not only time varying but also unsymmetrical. Finally, simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Solar dynamic power systems for space station

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

  10. Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System Anomaly Detection: A Case Study

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is part of the Main Propnlsion System (MPS) which is an extremely complex system containing several sub-systems and components,...

  11. National Space Transportation System (NSTS) technology needs

    Winterhalter, David L.; Ulrich, Kimberly K.

    1990-01-01

    The National Space Transportation System (NSTS) is one of the Nation's most valuable resources, providing manned transportation to and from space in support of payloads and scientific research. The NSTS program is currently faced with the problem of hardware obsolescence, which could result in unacceptable schedule and cost impacts to the flight program. Obsolescence problems occur because certain components are no longer being manufactured or repair turnaround time is excessive. In order to achieve a long-term, reliable transportation system that can support manned access to space through 2010 and beyond, NASA must develop a strategic plan for a phased implementation of enhancements which will satisfy this long-term goal. The NSTS program has initiated the Assured Shuttle Availability (ASA) project with the following objectives: eliminate hardware obsolescence in critical areas, increase reliability and safety of the vehicle, decrease operational costs and turnaround time, and improve operational capability. The strategy for ASA will be to first meet the mandatory needs - keep the Shuttle flying. Non-mandatory changes that will improve operational capability and enhance performance will then be considered if funding is adequate. Upgrade packages should be developed to install within designated inspection periods, grouped in a systematic approach to reduce cost and schedule impacts, and allow the capability to provide a Block 2 Shuttle (Phase 3).

  12. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  13. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Bush, John R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) electrical power system (EPS) is supplying between 2000 and 2400 W of continuous power to the electrical loads. The major components of the EPS are the 5000-W back surface field reflector solar array, the six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) 22-cell 88-Ah batteries, and the charge current controllers, which, in conjunction with the flight computer, control battery charging. The operation of the HST EPS and the results of the HST NiH2 six-battery test are discussed, and preliminary flight data are reviewed. The HST NiH2 six-battery test is a breadboard of the HST EPS on test at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  16. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    Lance, J.R.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of nuclear and non-nuclear power systems for lunar bases are compared with recent studies by others. Power levels from tens of kW e for early base operation up to 2000 kW e for a self-sustaining base with a Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) are considered. Permanent lunar or Martian bases will require the use of multiple nuclear units connected to loads with a power transmission and distribution system analogous to earth-based electric utility systems. A methodology used for such systems is applied to the lunar base system to examine the effects of adding 100 kW e SP-100 class and/or larger nuclear units when a reliability criterion is imposed. The results show that resource and logistic burdens can be reduced by using 1000 kW e units early in the base growth scenario without compromising system reliability. Therefore, both technologies being developed in two current programs (SP-100 and NERVA Derivative Reactor (NDR) technology for space power) can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are also described. (author)

  17. The space-age solar system

    Baugher, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    This book is a description of the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets in the solar system. Discussion is based heavily on results obtained from recent space probes to Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Offers detailed descriptions of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and the results of the recent probes of Halley's comet. A discussion of meteorites leads to a description of the current models of the solar system. Introductory chapters present theories of the solar system from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Other topics covered include the sun, its structure, and how it generates energy; the surfaces, internal structures, and histories of the planets, from innermost Mercury to farthest Pluto, and their moons

  18. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.

    2002-01-01

    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  19. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    Various system aspects of a 300-kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been investigated. Special attention is given to the cases of a reusable OTV and a space-based radar. It is demonstrated that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design, and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly.

  20. Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide

    Smith, David Alan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide (MPG) is to provide future payload developers/users with sufficient insight to support preliminary SLS mission planning. Consequently, this SLS MPG is not intended to be a payload requirements document; rather, it organizes and details SLS interfaces/accommodations in a manner similar to that of current Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) user guides to support early feasibility assessment. Like ELV Programs, once approved to fly on SLS, specific payload requirements will be defined in unique documentation.

  1. Deadly diving? Physiological and behavioural management of decompression stress in diving mammals

    Hooker, S. K.; Fahlman, A.; Moore, M. J.; Aguilar de Soto, N.; Bernaldo de Quirós, Y.; Brubakk, A. O.; Costa, D. P.; Costidis, A. M.; Dennison, S.; Falke, K. J.; Fernandez, A.; Ferrigno, M.; Fitz-Clarke, J. R.; Garner, M. M.; Houser, D. S.; Jepson, P. D.; Ketten, D. R.; Kvadsheim, P. H.; Madsen, P. T.; Pollock, N. W.; Rotstein, D. S.; Rowles, T. K.; Simmons, S. E.; Van Bonn, W.; Weathersby, P. K.; Weise, M. J.; Williams, T. M.; Tyack, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS; ‘the bends’) is a disease associated with gas uptake at pressure. The basic pathology and cause are relatively well known to human divers. Breath-hold diving marine mammals were thought to be relatively immune to DCS owing to multiple anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations that reduce nitrogen gas (N2) loading during dives. However, recent observations have shown that gas bubbles may form and tissue injury may occur in marine mammals under certain circumstances. Gas kinetic models based on measured time-depth profiles further suggest the potential occurrence of high blood and tissue N2 tensions. We review evidence for gas-bubble incidence in marine mammal tissues and discuss the theory behind gas loading and bubble formation. We suggest that diving mammals vary their physiological responses according to multiple stressors, and that the perspective on marine mammal diving physiology should change from simply minimizing N2 loading to management of the N2 load. This suggests several avenues for further study, ranging from the effects of gas bubbles at molecular, cellular and organ function levels, to comparative studies relating the presence/absence of gas bubbles to diving behaviour. Technological advances in imaging and remote instrumentation are likely to advance this field in coming years. PMID:22189402

  2. NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2017-01-01

    Major hardware and software for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) began rolling off assembly lines in 2016, setting the stage for critical testing in 2017 and the launch of a major new capability for deep space human exploration. SLS continues to pursue a 2018 first launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). At NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, LA, Boeing completed welding of structural test and flight liquid hydrogen tanks, and engine sections. Test stands for core stage structural tests at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. neared completion. The B2 test stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center, MS, completed major structural renovation to support core stage green run testing in 2018. Orbital ATK successfully test fired its second qualification solid rocket motor in the Utah desert and began casting the motor segments for EM-1. Aerojet Rocketdyne completed its series of test firings to adapt the heritage RS-25 engine to SLS performance requirements. Production is under way on the first five new engine controllers. NASA also signed a contract with Aerojet Rocketdyne for propulsion of the RL10 engines for the Exploration Upper Stage. United Launch Alliance delivered the structural test article for the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage to MSFC for tests and construction was under way on the flight stage. Flight software testing at MSFC, including power quality and command and data handling, was completed. Substantial progress is planned for 2017. Liquid oxygen tank production will be completed at Michoud. Structural testing at Marshall will get under way. RS-25 hotfire testing will verify the new engine controllers. Core stage horizontal integration will begin. The core stage pathfinder mockup will arrive at the B2 test stand for fit checks and tests. EUS will complete preliminary design review. This paper will discuss the technical and programmatic successes and challenges of 2016 and look ahead to plans for 2017.

  3. [Decompression problems in diving in mountain lakes].

    Bühlmann, A A

    1989-08-01

    The relationship between tolerated high-pressure tissue nitrogen and ambient pressure is practically linear. The tolerated nitrogen high pressure decreases at altitude, as the ambient pressure is lower. Additionally, tissues with short nitrogen half-times have a higher tolerance than tissues which retain nitrogen for longer duration. For the purpose of determining safe decompression routines, the human body can be regarded as consisting of 16 compartments with half-times from 4 to 635 minutes for nitrogen. The coefficients for calculation of the tolerated nitrogen-high pressure in the tissues can be deduced directly from the half-times for nitrogen. We show as application the results of 573 simulated air dives in the pressure-chamber and 544 real dives in mountain lakes in Switzerland (1400-2600 m above sea level) and in Lake Titicaca (3800 m above sea level). They are in accordance with the computed limits of tolerance.

  4. The space station tethered elevator system

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  5. Intelligent computational systems for space applications

    Lum, Henry; Lau, Sonie

    Intelligent computational systems can be described as an adaptive computational system integrating both traditional computational approaches and artificial intelligence (AI) methodologies to meet the science and engineering data processing requirements imposed by specific mission objectives. These systems will be capable of integrating, interpreting, and understanding sensor input information; correlating that information to the "world model" stored within its data base and understanding the differences, if any; defining, verifying, and validating a command sequence to merge the "external world" with the "internal world model"; and, controlling the vehicle and/or platform to meet the scientific and engineering mission objectives. Performance and simulation data obtained to date indicate that the current flight processors baselined for many missions such as Space Station Freedom do not have the computational power to meet the challenges of advanced automation and robotics systems envisioned for the year 2000 era. Research issues which must be addressed to achieve greater than giga-flop performance for on-board intelligent computational systems have been identified, and a technology development program has been initiated to achieve the desired long-term system performance objectives.

  6. Deep Space Network information system architecture study

    Beswick, C. A.; Markley, R. W. (Editor); Atkinson, D. J.; Cooper, L. P.; Tausworthe, R. C.; Masline, R. C.; Jenkins, J. S.; Crowe, R. A.; Thomas, J. L.; Stoloff, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an architecture for the DSN information system in the years 2000-2010 and to provide guidelines for its evolution during the 1990's. The study scope is defined to be from the front-end areas at the antennas to the end users (spacecraft teams, principal investigators, archival storage systems, and non-NASA partners). The architectural vision provides guidance for major DSN implementation efforts during the next decade. A strong motivation for the study is an expected dramatic improvement in information-systems technologies--i.e., computer processing, automation technology (including knowledge-based systems), networking and data transport, software and hardware engineering, and human-interface technology. The proposed Ground Information System has the following major features: unified architecture from the front-end area to the end user; open-systems standards to achieve interoperability; DSN production of level 0 data; delivery of level 0 data from the Deep Space Communications Complex, if desired; dedicated telemetry processors for each receiver; security against unauthorized access and errors; and highly automated monitor and control.

  7. Paralysis from sport and diving accidents.

    Schmitt, H; Gerner, H J

    2001-01-01

    To examine the causes of sport-related spinal cord injuries that developed into paraplegia or tetraplegia, and to compare data from different sports with previous studies in the same geographical region. A retrospective epidemiological study and comparison with previous studies. The Orthopedic Department, specializing in the treatment and rehabilitation of paralyzed patients, at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Between 1985 and 1997, 1,016 cases of traumatic spinal cord injury presented at the Orthopedic Department at the University of Heidelberg: 6.8% were caused by sport and 7.7% by diving accidents. Sport-related spinal cord injuries with paralysis. A total of 1.016 cases of traumatic spinal cord injury were reviewed. Of these, 14.5% were caused by sport accidents (n = 69) or diving accidents (n = 78). Age of patients ranged from 9 to 52 years. 83% were male. 77% of the patients developed tetraplegia, and 23%, paraplegia. 16 of the sport accidents resulted from downhill skiing, 9 resulted from horseback riding, 7 from modern air sports, 6 from gymnastics, 5 from trampolining, and 26 from other sports. Previous analyses had revealed that paraplegia had mainly occurred from gymnastics, trampolining, or high diving accidents. More recently, however, the number of serious spinal injuries caused by risk-filled sports such as hang gliding and paragliding has significantly increased (p = 0.095), as it has for horseback riding and skiing. Examinations have shown that all patients who were involved in diving accidents developed tetraplegia. An analysis of injury from specific sports is still under way. Analysis of accidents resulting in damage to the spinal cord in respect to different sports shows that sports that have become popular during the last 10 years show an increasing risk of injury. Modern air sports hold the most injuries. Injury-preventing strategies also are presented.

  8. Temporal fractals in seabird foraging behaviour: diving through the scales of time

    Macintosh, Andrew J. J.; Pelletier, Laure; Chiaradia, Andre; Kato, Akiko; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Animal behaviour exhibits fractal structure in space and time. Fractal properties in animal space-use have been explored extensively under the Lévy flight foraging hypothesis, but studies of behaviour change itself through time are rarer, have typically used shorter sequences generated in the laboratory, and generally lack critical assessment of their results. We thus performed an in-depth analysis of fractal time in binary dive sequences collected via bio-logging from free-ranging little penguins (Eudyptula minor) across full-day foraging trips (216 data points; 4 orders of temporal magnitude). Results from 4 fractal methods show that dive sequences are long-range dependent and persistent across ca. 2 orders of magnitude. This fractal structure correlated with trip length and time spent underwater, but individual traits had little effect. Fractal time is a fundamental characteristic of penguin foraging behaviour, and its investigation is thus a promising avenue for research on interactions between animals and their environments.

  9. Understanding the Lunar System Architecture Design Space

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the flexible path strategy and the desire of the international community, the lunar surface remains a destination for future human exploration. This paper explores options within the lunar system architecture design space, identifying performance requirements placed on the propulsive system that performs Earth departure within that architecture based on existing and/or near-term capabilities. The lander crew module and ascent stage propellant mass fraction are primary drivers for feasibility in multiple lander configurations. As the aggregation location moves further out of the lunar gravity well, the lunar lander is required to perform larger burns, increasing the sensitivity to these two factors. Adding an orbit transfer stage to a two-stage lunar lander and using a large storable stage for braking with a one-stage lunar lander enable higher aggregation locations than Low Lunar Orbit. Finally, while using larger vehicles enables a larger feasible design space, there are still feasible scenarios that use three launches of smaller vehicles.

  10. Multimegawatt disk generator system for space applications

    Solbes, A.; Iwata, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a 100 megawatt - 500 seconds disk MHD generator system suitable as a burst power source for a space based neutral particle beam (NPB) is presented. The system features two disk generators operated in the magnetic field produced by a single circular superconducting magnet. Gelled reactants are used as the energy source. The oxidizer gel includes the alkali seed. The high heat flux areas of the power train are water cooled. Heat is rejected to a hydrogen stream which is also used for cooling of the exit section. The hydrogen is also used to mitigate the effects of the exhaust products of combustion on the platform. The two disk channels are operated in parallel. A dc to dc converter consolidates the channel's output into a single 100 kilovolt dc output

  11. Dive Data from Expedition Information System (EIS) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Pharmaceutical Discovery, Vision, and Bioluminescence - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...

  12. Human-Systems Integration (HSI) and the Network Integration Evaluations (NIEs), Part 2: A Deeper Dive into Mission Command Complexity and Cognitive Load

    2015-03-01

    system or process more likely to break down or fail when faced with unusual or ambiguous situations. These cautions from the flight management arena...signs, and symbols, and other distinctions in human performance models . IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics . 1983;13(3). 30 Salas E...itself is intrinsically complex and demanding. However, a work setting with a large number of design-related “rough edges” will give the impression of

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF AUTONOMOUS DIVING ON SENSES AND MENTAL PROCESSES

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2010-01-01

    Diving is classified within a group of sports accompanied with an increased risk, yet it is a sport of full biological significance. Diving implies change of immediate human environment. Water, as the natural ambient for diving issues specific demands to the organism, which in turn influence decrease in psychophysical abilities when underwater, and in some instances, immediately after emerging from it. The most important factors influencing decrease in psychophysical abilities are: immersion,...

  14. Human Bone Matrix Changes During Deep Saturation Dives

    2008-08-08

    urine concentrations of Ntx have been demonstrated in bone diseases such as osteoporosis, primary hyperthyroidism , and Paget’s disease. Also... loss in divers, and that the differentials likely came from the gas- induced osmosis model.30 4 The same facility was used for both dives and...Other demographic data such as age, height, weight , and diving experience were also collected for later correlational analyses. The dive took place

  15. System Engineering of Photonic Systems for Space Application

    Watson, Michael D.; Pryor, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    The application of photonics in space systems requires tight integration with the spacecraft systems to ensure accurate operation. This requires some detailed and specific system engineering to properly incorporate the photonics into the spacecraft architecture and to guide the spacecraft architecture in supporting the photonics devices. Recent research in product focused, elegant system engineering has led to a system approach which provides a robust approach to this integration. Focusing on the mission application and the integration of the spacecraft system physics incorporation of the photonics can be efficiently and effectively accomplished. This requires a clear understanding of the driving physics properties of the photonics device to ensure proper integration with no unintended consequences. The driving physics considerations in terms of optical performance will be identified for their use in system integration. Keywords: System Engineering, Optical Transfer Function, Optical Physics, Photonics, Image Jitter, Launch Vehicle, System Integration, Organizational Interaction

  16. NASA's Space Launch System Development Status

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management

  17. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  18. Diving accidents in sports divers in Orkney waters.

    Trevett, A J; Forbes, R; Rae, C K; Sheehan, C; Ross, J; Watt, S J; Stephenson, R

    2001-12-01

    Scapa Flow in Orkney is one of the major world centres for wreck diving. Because of the geography of Orkney and the nature of the diving, it is possible to make relatively accurate estimates of the number of dives taking place. The denominator of dive activity allows the unusual opportunity of precise calculation of accident rates. In 1999, one in every 178 sports divers visiting Orkney was involved in a significant accident, in 2000 the figure was one in 102. Some of these accidents appear to have been predictable and could be avoided by better education and preparation of visiting divers.

  19. Space Debris Alert System for Aviation

    Sgobba, Tommaso

    2013-09-01

    Despite increasing efforts to accurately predict space debris re-entry, the exact time and location of re-entry is still very uncertain. Partially, this is due to a skipping effect uncontrolled spacecraft may experience as they enter the atmosphere at a shallow angle. Such effect difficult to model depends on atmospheric variations of density. When the bouncing off ends and atmospheric re-entry starts, the trajectory and the overall location of surviving fragments can be precisely predicted but the time to impact with ground, or to reach the airspace, becomes very short.Different is the case of a functional space system performing controlled re-entry. Suitable forecasts methods are available to clear air and maritime traffic from hazard areas (so-called traffic segregation).In US, following the Space Shuttle Columbia accident in 2003, a re-entry hazard areas location forecast system was putted in place for the specific case of major malfunction of a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) at re-entry. The Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Calculator (SHAAC) is a system based on ground equipment and software analyses and prediction tools, which require trained personnel and close coordination between the organization responsible for RLV operation (NASA for Shuttle) and the Federal Aviation Administration. The system very much relies on the operator's capability to determine that a major malfunction has occurred.This paper presents a US pending patent by the European Space Agency, which consists of a "smart fragment" using a GPS localizer together with pre- computed debris footprint area and direct broadcasting of such hazard areas.The risk for aviation from falling debris is very remote but catastrophic. Suspending flight over vast swath of airspace for every re-entering spacecraft or rocket upper stage, which is a weekly occurrence, would be extremely costly and disruptive.The Re-entry Direct Broadcasting Alert System (R- DBAS) is an original merging and evolution of the Re

  20. Systems integration processes for space nuclear electric propulsion systems

    Olsen, C.S.; Rice, J.W.; Stanley, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The various components and subsystems that comprise a nuclear electric propulsion system should be developed and integrated so that each functions ideally and so that each is properly integrated with the other components and subsystems in the optimum way. This paper discusses how processes similar to those used in the development and intergration of the subsystems that comprise the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System concepts can be and are being efficiently and effectively utilized for these purposes. The processes discussed include the development of functional and operational requirements at the system and subsystem level; the assessment of individual nuclear power supply and thruster concepts and their associated technologies; the conduct of systems integration efforts including the evaluation of the mission benefits for each system; the identification and resolution of concepts development, technology development, and systems integration feasibility issues; subsystem, system, and technology development and integration; and ground and flight subsystem and integrated system testing

  1. Multimegawatt disk generator system for space applications

    Solbes, H.; Iwata, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a 100 megawatt - 500 seconds disk MHD generator system suitable as a burst power source for a space based neutral particle beam (NPB) is presented. The system features two disk generators operated in the magnetic field produced by a single circular superconducting magnet. Gelled reactants are used as the energy source. The oxidizer gel includes the alkali seed. The high heat flux areas of the power train are water cooled. Heat is rejected to a hydrogen stream which is also used for cooling of the exit section. The hydrogen is also used to mitigate the effects of the exhaust products of combustion on the platform. The two disk channels are operated in parallel. A dc to dc converter consolidates the channel's output into a single 100 kilovolt dc output. Critical development issues relevant to the development of such power systems are identified and discussed. A R and D plan aimed at establishing the technical feasibility of the proposed system is also presented

  2. Liquid Chromatography Applied to Space System

    Poinot, Pauline; Chazalnoel, Pascale; Geffroy, Claude; Sternberg, Robert; Carbonnier, Benjamin

    Searching for signs of past or present life in our Solar System is a real challenge that stirs up the curiosity of scientists. Until now, in situ instrumentation was designed to detect and determine concentrations of a wide number of organic biomarkers. The relevant method which was and still is employed in missions dedicated to the quest of life (from Viking to ExoMars) corresponds to the pyrolysis-GC-MS. Along the missions, this approach has been significantly improved in terms of extraction efficiency and detection with the use of chemical derivative agents (e.g. MTBSTFA, DMF-DMA, TMAH…), and in terms of analysis sensitivity and resolution with the development of in situ high-resolution mass spectrometer (e.g. TOF-MS). Thanks to such an approach, organic compounds such as amino acids, sugars, tholins or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were expected to be found. However, while there’s a consensus that the GC-MS of Viking, Huygens, MSL and MOMA space missions worked the way they had been designed to, pyrolysis is much more in debate (Glavin et al. 2001; Navarro-González et al. 2006). Indeed, (1) it is thought to remove low levels of organics, (2) water and CO2 could interfere with the detection of likely organic pyrolysis products, and (3) only low to mid-molecular weight organic molecules can be detected by this technique. As a result, researchers are now focusing on other in situ techniques which are no longer based on the volatility of the organic matter, but on the liquid phase extraction and analysis. In this line, micro-fluidic systems involving sandwich and/or competitive immunoassays (e.g. LMC, SOLID; Parro et al. 2005; Sims et al. 2012), micro-chip capillary electrophoreses (e.g. MOA; Bada et al. 2008), or nanopore-based analysis (e.g. BOLD; Schulze-Makuch et al. 2012) have been conceived for in situ analysis. Thanks to such approaches, molecular biological polymers (polysaccharides, polypeptides, polynucleotides, phospholipids, glycolipids

  3. Data Model Management for Space Information Systems

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel J.; Ramirez, Paul; Mattmann, chris

    2006-01-01

    The Reference Architecture for Space Information Management (RASIM) suggests the separation of the data model from software components to promote the development of flexible information management systems. RASIM allows the data model to evolve independently from the software components and results in a robust implementation that remains viable as the domain changes. However, the development and management of data models within RASIM are difficult and time consuming tasks involving the choice of a notation, the capture of the model, its validation for consistency, and the export of the model for implementation. Current limitations to this approach include the lack of ability to capture comprehensive domain knowledge, the loss of significant modeling information during implementation, the lack of model visualization and documentation capabilities, and exports being limited to one or two schema types. The advent of the Semantic Web and its demand for sophisticated data models has addressed this situation by providing a new level of data model management in the form of ontology tools. In this paper we describe the use of a representative ontology tool to capture and manage a data model for a space information system. The resulting ontology is implementation independent. Novel on-line visualization and documentation capabilities are available automatically, and the ability to export to various schemas can be added through tool plug-ins. In addition, the ingestion of data instances into the ontology allows validation of the ontology and results in a domain knowledge base. Semantic browsers are easily configured for the knowledge base. For example the export of the knowledge base to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML and the use of open source metadata browsers provide ready-made user interfaces that support both text- and facet-based search. This paper will present the Planetary Data System (PDS) data model as a use case and describe the import of the data model into an ontology tool

  4. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  5. Colliding beam fusion reactor space propulsion system

    Wessel, Frank J.; Binderbauer, Michl W.; Rostoker, Norman; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; O'Toole, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    We describe a space propulsion system based on the Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor (CBFR). The CBFR is a high-beta, field-reversed, magnetic configuration with ion energies in the range of hundreds of keV. Repetitively-pulsed ion beams sustain the plasma distribution and provide current drive. The confinement physics is based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equation, including a Fokker Planck collision operator and all sources and sinks for energy and particle flow. The mean azimuthal velocities and temperatures of the fuel ion species are equal and the plasma current is unneutralized by the electrons. The resulting distribution functions are thermal in a moving frame of reference. The ion gyro-orbit radius is comparable to the dimensions of the confinement system, hence classical transport of the particles and energy is expected and the device is scaleable. We have analyzed the design over a range of 10 6 -10 9 Watts of output power (0.15-150 Newtons thrust) with a specific impulse of, I sp ∼10 6 sec. A 50 MW propulsion system might involve the following parameters: 4-meters diameterx10-meters length, magnetic field ∼7 Tesla, ion beam current ∼10 A, and fuels of either D-He 3 ,P-B 11 ,P-Li 6 ,D-Li 6 , etc

  6. JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System Operating Environment

    Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Orozco, David S.; Stern, Ryan A.; Ahten, Earl R.; Girard, Mike

    2013-01-01

    A flight-qualified implementation of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) Operating Environment for the JPL-SDR built for the CoNNeCT Project has been developed. It is compliant with the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard, and provides the software infrastructure for STRS compliant waveform applications. This software provides a standards-compliant abstracted view of the JPL-SDR hardware platform. It uses industry standard POSIX interfaces for most functions, as well as exposing the STRS API (Application Programming In terface) required by the standard. This software includes a standardized interface for IP components instantiated within a Xilinx FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The software provides a standardized abstracted interface to platform resources such as data converters, file system, etc., which can be used by STRS standards conformant waveform applications. It provides a generic SDR operating environment with a much smaller resource footprint than similar products such as SCA (Software Communications Architecture) compliant implementations, or the DoD Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS).

  7. Observation of the Earth system from space

    Flury, Jakob; Reigber, Christoph; Rothacher, Markus; Boedecker, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    In the recent years, space-based observation methods have led to a subst- tially improved understanding of Earth system. Geodesy and geophysics are contributing to this development by measuring the temporal and spatial va- ations of the Earth's shape, gravity ?eld, and magnetic ?eld, as well as at- sphere density. In the frame of the GermanR&D programmeGEOTECHNO- LOGIEN,researchprojectshavebeen launchedin2002relatedto the satellite missions CHAMP, GRACE and ESA's planned mission GOCE, to comp- mentary terrestrial and airborne sensor systems and to consistent and stable high-precision global reference systems for satellite and other techniques. In the initial 3-year phase of the research programme (2002-2004), new gravity ?eld models have been computed from CHAMP and GRACE data which outperform previous models in accuracy by up to two orders of m- nitude for the long and medium wavelengths. A special highlight is the - termination of seasonal gravity variations caused by changes in continental water masses...

  8. Chaos of discrete dynamical systems in complete metric spaces

    Shi Yuming; Chen Guanrong

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with chaos of discrete dynamical systems in complete metric spaces. Discrete dynamical systems governed by continuous maps in general complete metric spaces are first discussed, and two criteria of chaos are then established. As a special case, two corresponding criteria of chaos for discrete dynamical systems in compact subsets of metric spaces are obtained. These results have extended and improved the existing relevant results of chaos in finite-dimensional Euclidean spaces

  9. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  10. Space rescue system definition (system performance analysis and trades)

    Housten, Sam; Elsner, Tim; Redler, Ken; Svendsen, Hal; Wenzel, Sheri

    This paper addresses key technical issues involved in the system definition of the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV). The perspective on these issues is that of a prospective ACRV contractor, performing system analysis and trade studies. The objective of these analyses and trade studies is to develop the recovery vehicle system concept and top level requirements. The starting point for this work is the definition of the set of design missions for the ACRV. This set of missions encompasses three classes of contingency/emergency (crew illness/injury, space station catastrophe/failure, transportation element catastrophe/failure). The need is to provide a system to return Space Station crew to Earth quickly (less than 24 hours) in response to randomly occurring contingency events over an extended period of time (30 years of planned Space Station life). The main topics addressed and characterized in this paper include the following: Key Recovery (Rescue) Site Access Considerations; Rescue Site Locations and Distribution; Vehicle Cross Range vs Site Access; On-orbit Loiter Capability and Vehicle Design; and Water vs. Land Recovery.

  11. Performance Criteria of Nuclear Space Propulsion Systems

    Shepherd, L. R.

    Future exploration of the solar system on a major scale will require propulsion systems capable of performance far greater than is achievable with the present generation of rocket engines using chemical propellants. Viable missions going deeper into interstellar space will be even more demanding. Propulsion systems based on nuclear energy sources, fission or (eventually) fusion offer the best prospect for meeting the requirements. The most obvious gain coming from the application of nuclear reactions is the possibility, at least in principle, of obtaining specific impulses a thousandfold greater than can be achieved in chemically energised rockets. However, practical considerations preclude the possibility of exploiting the full potential of nuclear energy sources in any engines conceivable in terms of presently known technology. Achievable propulsive power is a particularly limiting factor, since this determines the acceleration that may be obtained. Conventional chemical rocket engines have specific propulsive powers (power per unit engine mass) in the order of gigawatts per tonne. One cannot envisage the possibility of approaching such a level of performance by orders of magnitude in presently conceivable nuclear propulsive systems. The time taken, under power, to reach a given terminal velocity is proportional to the square of the engine's exhaust velocity and the inverse of its specific power. An assessment of various nuclear propulsion concepts suggests that, even with the most optimistic assumptions, it could take many hundreds of years to attain the velocities necessary to reach the nearest stars. Exploration within a range of the order of a thousand AU, however, would appear to offer viable prospects, even with the low levels of specific power of presently conceivable nuclear engines.

  12. The ESA Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    Heynderickx, D.; Quaghebeur, B.; Evans, H. D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The ESA SPace ENVironment Information System (SPENVIS) provides standardized access to models of the hazardous space environment through a user-friendly WWW interface. The interface includes parameter input with extensive defaulting, definition of user environments, streamlined production of results (both in graphical and textual form), background information, and on-line help. It is available on-line at http://www.spenvis.oma.be/spenvis/. SPENVIS Is designed to help spacecraft engineers perform rapid analyses of environmental problems and, with extensive documentation and tutorial information, allows engineers with relatively little familiarity with the models to produce reliable results. It has been developed in response to the increasing pressure for rapid-response tools for system engineering, especially in low-cost commercial and educational programmes. It is very useful in conjunction with radiation effects and electrostatic charging testing in the context of hardness assurance. SPENVIS is based on internationally recognized standard models and methods in many domains. It uses an ESA-developed orbit generator to produce orbital point files necessary for many different types of problem. It has various reporting and graphical utilities, and extensive help facilities. The SPENVIS radiation module features models of the proton and electron radiation belts, as well as solar energetic particle and cosmic ray models. The particle spectra serve as input to models of ionising dose (SHIELDOSE), Non-Ionising Energy Loss (NIEL), and Single Event Upsets (CREME). Material shielding is taken into account for all these models, either as a set of user-defined shielding thicknesses, or in combination with a sectoring analysis that produces a shielding distribution from a geometric description of the satellite system. A sequence of models, from orbit generator to folding dose curves with a shielding distribution, can be run as one process, which minimizes user interaction and

  13. Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  14. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  15. Enabling the Use of Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    Mike Houts; Melissa Van Dyke; Tom Godfroy; James Martin; Kevin Pedersen; Ricky Dickens; Ivana Hrbud; Leo Bitteker; Bruce Patton; Suman Chakrabarti; Joe Bonometti

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives brief descriptions of advantages of fission technology for reaching any point in the solar system and of earlier efforts to develop space fission propulsion systems, and gives a more detailed description of the safe, affordable fission engine (SAFE) concept being pursued at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center

  16. Status of NASA's Space Launch System

    Honeycutt, John; Lyles, Garry

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) continued to make significant progress in 2015 and 2016, completing hardware and testing that brings NASA closer to a new era of deep space exploration. Programmatically, SLS completed Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015. A team of independent reviewers concluded that the vehicle design is technically and programmatically ready to move to Design Certification Review (DCR) and launch readiness in 2018. Just five years after program start, every major element has amassed development and flight hardware and completed key tests that will lead to an accelerated pace of manufacturing and testing in 2016 and 2017. Key to SLS' rapid progress has been the use of existing technologies adapted to the new launch vehicle. The existing fleet of RS-25 engines is undergoing adaptation tests to prove it can meet SLS requirements and environments with minimal change. The four-segment shuttle-era booster has been modified and updated with a fifth propellant segment, new insulation, and new avionics. The Interim Cryogenic Upper Stage is a modified version of an existing upper stage. The first Block I SLS configuration will launch a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). The vehicle architecture has a clear evolutionary path to more than 100t and, ultimately, to 130t. Among the program's major 2015-2016 accomplishments were two booster qualification hotfire tests, a series of RS-25 adaptation hotfire tests, manufacturing of most of the major components for both core stage test articles and first flight tank, delivery of the Pegasus core stage barge, and the upper stage simulator. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing was completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. This year will see the completion of welding for all qualification and flight EM-1 core stage components and testing of flight avionics, completion of core stage structural test stands, casting of the EM-1 solid rocket motors, additional testing

  17. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Compliance Testing

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) defines an open architecture for software defined radios. This document describes the testing methodology to aid in determining the degree of compliance to the STRS architecture. Non-compliances are reported to the software and hardware developers as well as the NASA project manager so that any non-compliances may be fixed or waivers issued. Since the software developers may be divided into those that provide the operating environment including the operating system and STRS infrastructure (OE) and those that supply the waveform applications, the tests are divided accordingly. The static tests are also divided by the availability of an automated tool that determines whether the source code and configuration files contain the appropriate items. Thus, there are six separate step-by-step test procedures described as well as the corresponding requirements that they test. The six types of STRS compliance tests are: STRS application automated testing, STRS infrastructure automated testing, STRS infrastructure testing by compiling WFCCN with the infrastructure, STRS configuration file testing, STRS application manual code testing, and STRS infrastructure manual code testing. Examples of the input and output of the scripts are shown in the appendices as well as more specific information about what to configure and test in WFCCN for non-compliance. In addition, each STRS requirement is listed and the type of testing briefly described. Attached is also a set of guidelines on what to look for in addition to the requirements to aid in the document review process.

  18. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  19. Supporting Space Systems Design via Systems Dependency Analysis Methodology

    Guariniello, Cesare

    The increasing size and complexity of space systems and space missions pose severe challenges to space systems engineers. When complex systems and Systems-of-Systems are involved, the behavior of the whole entity is not only due to that of the individual systems involved but also to the interactions and dependencies between the systems. Dependencies can be varied and complex, and designers usually do not perform analysis of the impact of dependencies at the level of complex systems, or this analysis involves excessive computational cost, or occurs at a later stage of the design process, after designers have already set detailed requirements, following a bottom-up approach. While classical systems engineering attempts to integrate the perspectives involved across the variety of engineering disciplines and the objectives of multiple stakeholders, there is still a need for more effective tools and methods capable to identify, analyze and quantify properties of the complex system as a whole and to model explicitly the effect of some of the features that characterize complex systems. This research describes the development and usage of Systems Operational Dependency Analysis and Systems Developmental Dependency Analysis, two methods based on parametric models of the behavior of complex systems, one in the operational domain and one in the developmental domain. The parameters of the developed models have intuitive meaning, are usable with subjective and quantitative data alike, and give direct insight into the causes of observed, and possibly emergent, behavior. The approach proposed in this dissertation combines models of one-to-one dependencies among systems and between systems and capabilities, to analyze and evaluate the impact of failures or delays on the outcome of the whole complex system. The analysis accounts for cascading effects, partial operational failures, multiple failures or delays, and partial developmental dependencies. The user of these methods can

  20. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.

    1988-01-01

    Selected systems aspects of a 300 kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been studied. The approach included examination of two candidate missions and their associated spacecraft, and a number of special topics dealing with the power system design and operation. The missions considered were a reusable orbital transfer vehicle and a space-based radar. The special topics included: Power system configuration and scaling, launch vehicle integration, operating altitude, orbital storage, start-up, thawing, control, load following, procedures in case of malfunction, restart, thermal and nuclear radiation to other portions of the spacecraft, thermal stresses between subsystems, boom and cable designs, vibration modes, attitude control, reliability, and survivability. Among the findings are that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly

  1. Scuba Diving and Kinesiology: Development of an Academic Program

    Kovacs, Christopher R.; Walter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The use of scuba diving as a recreational activity within traditional university instructional programs has been well established. Departments focusing on kinesiology, physical education, or exercise science have often provided scuba diving lessons as part of their activity-based course offerings. However, few departments have developed an…

  2. Diving bradycardia: a mechanism of defence against hypoxic damage.

    Alboni, Paolo; Alboni, Marco; Gianfranchi, Lorella

    2011-06-01

    A feature of all air-breathing vertebrates, diving bradycardia is triggered by apnoea and accentuated by immersion of the face or whole body in cold water. Very little is known about the afferents of diving bradycardia, whereas the efferent part of the reflex circuit is constituted by the cardiac vagal fibres. Diving bradycardia is associated with vasoconstriction of selected vascular beds and a reduction in cardiac output. The diving response appears to be more pronounced in mammals than in birds. In humans, the bradycardic response to diving varies greatly from person to person; the reduction in heart rate generally ranges from 15 to 40%, but a small proportion of healthy individuals can develop bradycardia below 20 beats/min. During prolonged dives, bradycardia becomes more pronounced because of activation of the peripheral chemoreceptors by a reduction in the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (O2), responsible for slowing of heart rate. The vasoconstriction is associated with a redistribution of the blood flow, which saves O2 for the O2-sensitive organs, such as the heart and brain. The results of several investigations carried out both in animals and in humans show that the diving response has an O2-conserving effect, both during exercise and at rest, thus lengthening the time to the onset of serious hypoxic damage. The diving response can therefore be regarded as an important defence mechanism for the organism.

  3. 50 CFR 640.22 - Gear and diving restrictions.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear and diving restrictions. 640.22... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.22 Gear and diving restrictions. (a) Prohibited gear and methods. (1) A spiny lobster may not be taken in the EEZ with a spear, hook, or similar device, or gear containing such...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1076 - Qualifications of dive team.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifications of dive team. 1926.1076 Section 1926.1076 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... § 1926.1076 Qualifications of dive team. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under...

  5. Novel Composite Membrane for Space Life Supporting System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either...

  6. Modular Architecture for the Deep Space Habitat Instrumentation System

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is focused on developing a continually evolving modular backbone architecture for the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) instrumentation system by integrating new...

  7. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion in Space Nuclear Reactor Power Systems

    Presby, Andrew L

    2004-01-01

    .... This has potential benefits for space nuclear reactor power systems currently in development. The primary obstacle to space operation of thermophotovoltaic devices appears to be the low heat rejection temperatures which necessitate large radiator areas...

  8. Air Saturation Dive 4 - 8 February 1980, CEDD Test Number 1-80.

    1980-09-01

    cleanliness is the single most important step in the prevention of nosocomial infections . 5.7 FOOD The lounge and galley area will be inspected daily by the...and functional aspects of the specific support systems, and to provide hands -on training:1 of diving personnel in the specific systems involved...water section of the DRF complex during which two specific underwater breathing systems will be employed. Normal daily hygiene and husbandry requirements

  9. Space construction system analysis. Part 2: Cost and programmatics

    Vonflue, F. W.; Cooper, W.

    1980-01-01

    Cost and programmatic elements of the space construction systems analysis study are discussed. The programmatic aspects of the ETVP program define a comprehensive plan for the development of a space platform, the construction system, and the space shuttle operations/logistics requirements. The cost analysis identified significant items of cost on ETVP development, ground, and flight segments, and detailed the items of space construction equipment and operations.

  10. An expert systems application to space base data processing

    Babb, Stephen M.

    1988-01-01

    The advent of space vehicles with their increased data requirements are reflected in the complexity of future telemetry systems. Space based operations with its immense operating costs will shift the burden of data processing and routine analysis from the space station to the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). A research and development project is described which addresses the real time onboard data processing tasks associated with a space based vehicle, specifically focusing on an implementation of an expert system.

  11. Challenges for future space power systems

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Forecasts of space power needs are presented. The needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self-sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations and from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Mars are determined. Future launch cost reductions are predicted. From these projections the performances necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options are identified. The availability of plentiful cost effective electric power and of low cost access to space are identified as crucial factors in the future extension of human presence in space

  12. 'Sea legs': sharpened Romberg test after three days on a live-aboard dive boat.

    Gibbs, Clinton R; Commons, Katherine H; Brown, Lawrence H; Blake, Denise F

    2010-12-01

    The sharpened Romberg test (SRT) is commonly used by diving and hyperbaric physicians as an indicator of neurological decompression illness (DCI). People who spend a prolonged time on a boat at sea experience impairment in their balance on returning to shore, a condition known as mal de debarquement ('sea legs'). This conditioning of the vestibular system to the rocking motion of a boat at sea may impact on the utility of the SRT in assessing a diver with potential DCI after a live-aboard dive trip. To assess the impact 'sea legs' has on the SRT after three days on a live-aboard dive trip. Thirty-nine staff and passengers of a three-day, live-aboard dive trip performed a SRT before and after their journey, with assessment of potential variables, including middle ear barotrauma, alcohol consumption, sea-sickness and occult DCI. There was no statistically significant impact on SRT performance, with 100% completion pre-trip and 35 out of 36 divers (97.2%) post-trip. There were trends towards more attempts being required and time needed for successful SRT post-trip, but these were not statistically significant. There was a small, but noteworthy incidence of middle-ear barotrauma, with seven people affected pre-trip, and 13 post-trip. There was a higher incidence in student divers. Middle-ear barotrauma did not appear to have a direct impact on SRT performance. There was no significant impact on SRT performance resulting from 'sea legs' after three days at sea. Recreational divers, especially dive students, have a substantial incidence of mild middle ear barotrauma.

  13. Quantum Computing in Fock Space Systems

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    1997-04-01

    Fock space system (FSS) has unfixed number (N) of particles and/or degrees of freedom. In quantum computing (QC) main requirement is sustainability of coherent Q-superpositions. This normally favoured by low noise environment. High excitation/high temperature (T) limit is hence discarded as unfeasible for QC. Conversely, if N is itself a quantized variable, the dimensionality of Hilbert basis for qubits may increase faster (say, N-exponentially) than thermal noise (likely, in powers of N and T). Hence coherency may win over T-randomization. For this type of QC speed (S) of factorization of long integers (with D digits) may increase with D (for 'ordinary' QC speed polynomially decreases with D). This (apparent) paradox rests on non-monotonic bijectivity (cf. Georg Cantor's diagonal counting of rational numbers). This brings entire aleph-null structurality ("Babylonian Library" of infinite informational content of integer field) to superposition determining state of quantum analogue of Turing machine head. Structure of integer infinititude (e.g. distribution of primes) results in direct "Platonic pressure" resembling semi-virtual Casimir efect (presure of cut-off vibrational modes). This "effect", the embodiment of Pythagorean "Number is everything", renders Godelian barrier arbitrary thin and hence FSS-based QC can in principle be unlimitedly efficient (e.g. D/S may tend to zero when D tends to infinity).

  14. Rigged Hilbert spaces for chaotic dynamical systems

    Suchanecki, Z.; Antoniou, I.; Bandtlow, O.F.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the problem of rigging for the Koopman operators of the Renyi and the baker maps. We show that the rigged Hilbert space for the Renyi maps has some of the properties of a strict inductive limit and give a detailed description of the rigged Hilbert space for the baker maps. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Planning for a space infrastructure for disposal of nuclear space power systems

    Angelo, J. Jr.; Albert, T.E.; Lee, J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of safe, reliable, and compact power systems is vital to humanity's exploration, development, and, ultimately, civilization of space. Nuclear power systems appear to present to offer the only practical option of compact high-power systems. From the very beginning of US space nuclear power activities, safety has been a paramount requirement. Assurance of nuclear safety has included prelaunch ground handling operations, launch, and space operations of nuclear power sources, and more recently serious attention has been given to postoperational disposal of spent or errant nuclear reactor systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe the progress of a project to utilize the capabilities of an evolving space infrastructure for planning for disposal of space nuclear systems. Project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion - Nuclear) is a project that has been initiated to consider post-operational disposal options for nuclear space power systems. The key finding of Project SIREN was that although no system currently exists to affect the disposal of a nuclear space power system, the requisite technologies for such a system either exist or are planned for part of the evolving space infrastructure

  16. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  17. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  18. Space reactor electric systems: system integration studies, Phase 1 report

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.; Katz, B.; Keshishian, V.; Lillie, A.F.; Thomson, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents the results of preliminary space reactor electric system integration studies performed by Rockwell International's Energy Systems Group (ESG). The preliminary studies investigated a broad range of reactor electric system concepts for powers of 25 and 100 KWe. The purpose of the studies was to provide timely system information of suitable accuracy to support ongoing mission planning activities. The preliminary system studies were performed by assembling the five different subsystems that are used in a system: the reactor, the shielding, the primary heat transport, the power conversion-processing, and the heat rejection subsystems. The subsystem data in this report were largely based on Rockwell's recently prepared Subsystem Technology Assessment Report. Nine generic types of reactor subsystems were used in these system studies. Several levels of technology were used for each type of reactor subsystem. Seven generic types of power conversion-processing subsystems were used, and several levels of technology were again used for each type. In addition, various types and levels of technology were used for the shielding, primary heat transport, and heat rejection subsystems. A total of 60 systems were studied

  19. Ultrastructure and morphology of antennal sensilla of the adult diving beetle Cybister japonicus Sharp.

    Li-Mei Song

    Full Text Available The morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of adult diving beetle Cybister japonicus Sharp (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera, have been examined. Five types of sensilla on the antennae were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Sensilla placodea and elongated s. placodea are the most abundant types of sensilla, distributing only on the flagellum. Both these types of sensilla carry multiple pore systems with a typical function as chemoreceptors. Three types of s. coeloconica (Type I-III were also identified, with the characterization of the pit-in-pit style, and carrying pegs externally different from each other. Our data indicated that both type I and type II of s. coleconica contain two bipolar neurons, while the type III of s. coleconica contains three dendrites in the peg. Two sensory dendrites in the former two sensilla are tightly embedded inside the dendrite sheath, with no space left for sensilla lymph. There are no specific morphological differences in the antennal sensilla observed between males and females, except that the males have longer antennae and more sensilla than the females.

  20. Examination of the Benefits of Standardized Interfaces on Space Systems

    2015-09-01

    them to enter the once impenetrable aerospace market: Elon Musk with Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), Richard Branson with Virgin Galactic, and...systems-engineering- guide/se-life cycle-building-blocks/concept-development/highlevel-conceptual- definition. Musk , Elon . 2009. Risky Business... Musk , 2009) Unknown effects of prolonged exposure to radiation Degraded system capability (JPL 2015) Replenishment of the system capability may

  1. Space Launch System Vibration Analysis Support

    Johnson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal for my efforts during this internship was to help prepare for the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated modal test (IMT) with Rodney Rocha. In 2018, the Structural Engineering Loads and Dynamics Team will have 10 days to perform the IMT on the SLS Integrated Launch Vehicle. After that 10 day period, we will have about two months to analyze the test data and determine whether the integrated vehicle modes/frequencies are adequate for launching the vehicle. Because of the time constraints, NASA must have newly developed post-test analysis methods proven well and with technical confidence before testing. NASA civil servants along with help from rotational interns are working with novel techniques developed and applied external to Johnson Space Center (JSC) to uncover issues in applying this technique to much larger scales than ever before. We intend to use modal decoupling methods to separate the entangled vibrations coming from the SLS and its support structure during the IMT. This new approach is still under development. The primary goal of my internship was to learn the basics of structural dynamics and physical vibrations. I was able to accomplish this by working on two experimental test set ups, the Simple Beam and TAURUS-T, and by doing some light analytical and post-processing work. Within the Simple Beam project, my role involves changing the data acquisition system, reconfiguration of the test set up, transducer calibration, data collection, data file recovery, and post-processing analysis. Within the TAURUS-T project, my duties included cataloging and removing the 30+ triaxial accelerometers, coordinating the removal of the structure from the current rolling cart to a sturdy billet for further testing, preparing the accelerometers for remounting, accurately calibrating, mounting, and mapping of all accelerometer channels, and some testing. Hammer and shaker tests will be performed to easily visualize mode shapes at low frequencies. Short

  2. Description of the skeleton of the fossil beaked whale Messapicetus gregarius: searching potential proxies for deep-diving abilities

    B. Ramassamy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziphiidae (beaked whales are a successful family of medium- to large-sized toothed whales. Their extant members perform regular deep dives beyond the photic zone to forage for cephalopods and fish. Conversely, extinct long-snouted stem ziphiids are interpreted as epipelagic predators. However, some aspects of this hypothesis remain unclear due to the lack of clear morphological proxies for recognizing regular deep divers. We compared the forelimb, neck, and pterygoid sinus system of the fossil ziphiid Messapicetus gregarius with those of other odontocetes to evaluate the potential of these body regions as proxies to assess deep-diving specialization. The reconstructed musculature of the neck and forelimb of M. gregarius was also compared with that of other odontocetes. We also quantified variation in the proportions of the forelimb and the hamular fossa of the pterygoid sinus (HF using 16 linear measurements. The degree of association between diving behaviour in extant odontocetes and these measurements was evaluated with and without phylogenetic correction. Reconstruction of the neck musculature suggests that M. gregarius possessed a neck more flexible than most extant ziphiids due to the lower degree of fusion of the cervical vertebrae and the large insertions for the M. longus colli and Mm. intertransversarii ventrales cervicis. While neck rigidity might be related to deep diving, differences in neck flexibility among extant ziphiids indicate a more complex functional interpretation. The relationship between forelimb morphology and diving behaviour was not significant, both with and without phylogenetic correction, suggesting that it cannot be used to assess deep-diving abilities with the parameters considered here. Measurements of the HF revealed successful to evaluate deep-diving abilities in odontocetes, with an enlargement of this structure in deep divers. Considering other evidence that suggests an epipelagic behaviour, we propose

  3. Space Launch Systems Block 1B Preliminary Navigation System Design

    Oliver, T. Emerson; Park, Thomas; Anzalone, Evan; Smith, Austin; Strickland, Dennis; Patrick, Sean

    2018-01-01

    NASA is currently building the Space Launch Systems (SLS) Block 1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. In parallel, NASA is also designing the Block 1B launch vehicle. The Block 1B vehicle is an evolution of the Block 1 vehicle and extends the capability of the NASA launch vehicle. This evolution replaces the Interim Cryogenic Propulsive Stage (ICPS) with the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). As the vehicle evolves to provide greater lift capability, increased robustness for manned missions, and the capability to execute more demanding missions so must the SLS Integrated Navigation System evolved to support those missions. This paper describes the preliminary navigation systems design for the SLS Block 1B vehicle. The evolution of the navigation hard-ware and algorithms from an inertial-only navigation system for Block 1 ascent flight to a tightly coupled GPS-aided inertial navigation system for Block 1B is described. The Block 1 GN&C system has been designed to meet a LEO insertion target with a specified accuracy. The Block 1B vehicle navigation system is de-signed to support the Block 1 LEO target accuracy as well as trans-lunar or trans-planetary injection accuracy. Additionally, the Block 1B vehicle is designed to support human exploration and thus is designed to minimize the probability of Loss of Crew (LOC) through high-quality inertial instruments and robust algorithm design, including Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) logic.

  4. Challenges for future space power systems

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. The key to success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience was made. These needs fall into three broad categories-survival, self sufficiency and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from low earth orbit (LEO) to Mars was determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options were made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs

  5. Phase-space networks of geometrically frustrated systems.

    Han, Yilong

    2009-11-01

    We illustrate a network approach to the phase-space study by using two geometrical frustration models: antiferromagnet on triangular lattice and square ice. Their highly degenerated ground states are mapped as discrete networks such that the quantitative network analysis can be applied to phase-space studies. The resulting phase spaces share some comon features and establish a class of complex networks with unique Gaussian spectral densities. Although phase-space networks are heterogeneously connected, the systems are still ergodic due to the random Poisson processes. This network approach can be generalized to phase spaces of some other complex systems.

  6. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  7. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  8. Options for development of space fission propulsion systems

    Houts, Mike; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana

    2001-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include high specific power continuous impulse propulsion systems and bimodal nuclear thermal rockets. Despite their tremendous potential for enhancing or enabling deep space and planetary missions, to date space fission systems have only been used in Earth orbit. The first step towards utilizing advanced fission propulsion systems is development of a safe, near-term, affordable fission system that can enhance or enable near-term missions of interest. An evolutionary approach for developing space fission propulsion systems is proposed

  9. Diving response in rats: role of the subthalamic vasodilator area.

    Eugene Golanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diving response is a powerful integrative response targeted toward survival of the hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Being present in all animals and humans it allows to survive adverse conditions like diving. Earlier we discovered that forehead stimulation affords neuroprotective effect decreasing infarction volume triggered by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. We hypothesized that cold stimulation of the forehead induces diving response in rats, which, in turn, exerts neuroprotection. We compared autonomic (AP, HR, CBF and EEG responses to the known diving response-triggering stimulus, ammonia stimulation of the nasal mucosa, cold stimulation of the forehead, and cold stimulation of the glabrous skin of the tail base in anesthetized rats. Responses in AP, HR, CBF and EEG to cold stimulation of the forehead and ammonia vapors instillation into the nasal cavity were comparable and differed significantly from responses to the cold stimulation of the tail base. Excitotoxic lesion of the subthalamic vasodilator area, which is known to participate in CBF regulation and to afford neuroprotection upon excitation, failed to affect autonomic components of the diving response evoked by forehead cold stimulation or nasal mucosa ammonia stimulation. We conclude that cold stimulation of the forehead triggers physiological response comparable to the response evoked by ammonia vapor instillation into the nasal cavity, which considered as stimulus triggering protective diving response. These observations may explain the neuroprotective effect of the forehead stimulation. Data demonstrate that subthalamic vasodilator area does not directly participate in the autonomic adjustments accompanying diving response, however, it is involved in diving-evoked modulation of EEG. We suggest that forehead stimulation can be employed as a stimulus capable of triggering oxygen-conserving diving response and can be used for neuroprotective therapy.

  10. [Diagnosis and treatment of diving accidents. New German guidelines for diving accidents 2014-2017].

    Jüttner, B; Wölfel, C; Liedtke, H; Meyne, K; Werr, H; Bräuer, T; Kemmerer, M; Schmeißer, G; Piepho, T; Müller, O; Schöppenthau, H

    2015-06-01

    In 2015 the German Society for Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine (GTÜM) and the Swiss Underwater and Hyperbaric Medical Society (SUHMS) published the updated guidelines on diving accidents 2014-2017. These multidisciplinary guidelines were developed within a structured consensus process by members of the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DIVI), the Sports Divers Association (VDST), the Naval Medical Institute (SchiffMedInst), the Social Accident Insurance Institution for the Building Trade (BG BAU), the Association of Hyperbaric Treatment Centers (VDD) and the Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (DGAUM). This consensus-based guidelines project (development grade S2k) with a representative group of developers was conducted by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany. It provides information and instructions according to up to date evidence to all divers and other lay persons for first aid recommendations to physician first responders and emergency physicians as well as paramedics and all physicians at therapeutic hyperbaric chambers for the diagnostics and treatment of diving accidents. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose and the following key action statements: on-site 100% oxygen first aid treatment, still patient positioning and fluid administration are recommended. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) recompression remains unchanged the established treatment in severe cases with no therapeutic alternatives. The basic treatment scheme recommended for diving accidents is hyperbaric oxygenation at 280 kPa. For quality management purposes there is a need in the future for a nationwide register of hyperbaric therapy.

  11. Deep-Diving California Sea Lions: Are They Pushing Their Physiological Limit

    2015-09-30

    highly variable. Venous oxygen content can actually increase during short duration dives. This suggests very little muscle blood flow and evven the use...the sea lion, the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri), another animal that dives on inspiration with a large respiratory O2 store, also can...in deep-diving emperor penguins (Wright et al. 2014), and in deep-diving bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), which also dive on inspiration

  12. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems

    Von Tiesenhausen, G.

    1979-01-01

    Nonterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of large space system components from preprocessed lunar materials at a manufacturing site in space is described. Lunar materials mined and preprocessed at the lunar resource complex will be flown to the space manufacturing facility (SMF), where together with supplementary terrestrial materials, they will be final processed and fabricated into space communication systems, solar cell blankets, radio frequency generators, and electrical equipment. Satellite Power System (SPS) material requirements and lunar material availability and utilization are detailed, and the SMF processing, refining, fabricating facilities, material flow and manpower requirements are described.

  13. Tracking Controller Design for Diving Behavior of an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle

    Yi-Hsiang Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study has investigated the almost disturbance decoupling problem of nonlinear uncertain control systems via the fuzzy feedback linearization approach. The significant dedication of this paper is to organize a control algorithm such that the closed-loop system is active for given initial condition and bounded tracking trajectory with the input-to-state stability and almost disturbance decoupling performance. This study presents a feedback linearization controller for diving control of an unmanned underwater vehicle. Unmanned underwater vehicle proposes difficult control subject due to its nonlinear dynamics, uncertain models, and the existence of disturbances that are difficult to measure. In general, while investigating the diving dynamics of an unmanned underwater vehicle, the pitch angle is always assumed to be small. This assumption is a strong restricting constraint in many interesting practical applications and will be relaxed in this study.

  14. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  15. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2: Space projects overview

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  16. Systems and methods for free space optical communication

    Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2011-05-10

    Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

  17. The State of Play: US Space Systems Competitiveness

    Zapata, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    Collects space systems cost and related data (flight rate, payload, etc.) over time. Gathers only public data. Non-recurring and recurring. Minimal data processing. Graph, visualize, add context. Focus on US space systems competitiveness. Keep fresh update as data arises, launches occur, etc. Keep fresh focus on recent data, indicative of the future.

  18. Mechanical design of a lidar system for space applications - LITE

    Crockett, Sharon K.

    1990-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is a Shuttle experiment that will demonstrate the first use of a lidar system in space. Its design process must take into account not only the system design but also the unique design requirements for spaceborne experiment.

  19. Dynamic analysis of space robot remote control system

    Kulakov, Felix; Alferov, Gennady; Sokolov, Boris; Gorovenko, Polina; Sharlay, Artem

    2018-05-01

    The article presents analysis on construction of two-stage remote control for space robots. This control ensures efficiency of the robot control system at large delays in transmission of control signals from the ground control center to the local control system of the space robot. The conditions for control stability of and high transparency are found.

  20. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are available to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions

  1. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  2. Space-Ready Advanced Imaging System, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II effort Toyon will increase the state-of-the-art for video/image systems. This will include digital image compression algorithms as well as system...

  3. Distributed Space System Technology Demonstrations with the Emerald Nanosatellite

    Twiggs, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of Distributed Space System Technologies utilizing the Emerald Nanosatellite is shown. The topics include: 1) Structure Assembly; 2) Emerald Mission; 3) Payload and Mission Operations; 4) System and Subsystem Description; and 5) Safety Integration and Testing.

  4. Design space pruning through hybrid analysis in system-level design space exploration

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system archi- tectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size

  5. Space Industry Commercialization: A Systems Engineering Evaluation of Alternatives

    Dinally, Jihan

    The Constellation Program cancellation reversed the government and commercial space industry's roles and relationships by dedicating the majority of the federal funding and opportunities to the commercial space industry and left the government space industry in search of an approach to collaborate with the dominant organization, the commercial space industry service providers. The space industry government agencies, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had realized that to gain resources in the new commercially oriented economic environment, they had to work together and possess the capabilities aligned with the National Space Policy's documented goals. Multi-organizational collaboration in space industry programs is challenging, as NASA, AFSPC, and commercial providers, follow different [1] enterprise architecture guidance such as the NASA systems engineering Handbook, MIL-STD-499 and "A Guide to the systems engineering Body of Knowledge" by the International Council on systems engineering [2] [3]. A solution to streamline their enterprise architecture documentation and meet National Space Policy goals is the Multi-User Architecture Maturity Model Methodology (MAM3), which offers a tailored systems engineering technique the government agencies and private companies can implement for the program's maturity level. In order to demonstrate the MAM3, a CubeSat motivated study was conducted partnering a commercial provider with a government agency. A survey of the commercial space industry service providers' capabilities was performed to select the private companies for the study. Using the survey results, the commercial space industry service providers were ranked using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) [4]. The AHP is a structured technique for making complex decisions for representing and quantifying its weights, relating those weights to overall goals, and evaluating alternative solutions [5] - [8]. The weights

  6. Electrical Power Systems for NASA's Space Transportation Program

    Lollar, Louis F.; Maus, Louis C.

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) lead center for space transportation systems development. These systems include earth to orbit launch vehicles, as well as vehicles for orbital transfer and deep space missions. The tasks for these systems include research, technology maturation, design, development, and integration of space transportation and propulsion systems. One of the key elements in any transportation system is the electrical power system (EPS). Every transportation system has to have some form of electrical power and the EPS for each of these systems tends to be as varied and unique as the missions they are supporting. The Preliminary Design Office (PD) at MSFC is tasked to perform feasibility analyses and preliminary design studies for new projects, particularly in the space transportation systems area. All major subsystems, including electrical power, are included in each of these studies. Three example systems being evaluated in PD at this time are the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) system, the Human Mission to Mars (HMM) study, and a tether based flight experiment called the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). These three systems are in various stages of definition in the study phase.

  7. The Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology - Toward an International Information System for Space Data

    Rovetto, R.

    2016-09-01

    The orbital space environment is home to natural and artificial satellites, debris, and space weather phenomena. As the population of orbital objects grows so do the potential hazards to astronauts, space infrastructure and spaceflight capability. Orbital debris, in particular, is a universal concern. This and other hazards can be minimized by improving global space situational awareness (SSA). By sharing more data and increasing observational coverage of the space environment we stand to achieve that goal, thereby making spaceflight safer and expanding our knowledge of near-Earth space. To facilitate data-sharing interoperability among distinct orbital debris and space object catalogs, and SSA information systems, I proposed ontology in (Rovetto, 2015) and (Rovetto and Kelso, 2016). I continue this effort toward formal representations and models of the overall domain that may serve to improve peaceful SSA and increase our scientific knowledge. This paper explains the project concept introduced in those publications, summarizing efforts to date as well as the research field of ontology development and engineering. I describe concepts for an ontological framework for the orbital space environment, near-Earth space environment and SSA domain. An ontological framework is conceived as a part of a potential international information system. The purpose of such a system is to consolidate, analyze and reason over various sources and types of orbital and SSA data toward the mutually beneficial goals of safer space navigation and scientific research. Recent internationals findings on the limitations of orbital data, in addition to existing publications on collaborative SSA, demonstrate both the overlap with this project and the need for datasharing and integration.

  8. Research study on antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle

    Auselmi, J. A.; Weinberg, L. W.; Yurczyk, R. F.; Nelson, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A research project to investigate antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle vehicle was conducted. System from the Concorde, Boeing 747, Boeing 737, and Lockheed L-1011 were investigated. The characteristics of the Boeing 737 system which caused it to be selected are described. Other subjects which were investigated are: (1) trade studies of brake control concepts, (2) redundancy requirements trade study, (3) laboratory evaluation of antiskid systems, and (4) space shuttle hardware criteria.

  9. 3D Oscillator and Coulomb Systems reduced from Kahler spaces

    Nersessian, Armen; Yeranyan, Armen

    2003-01-01

    We define the oscillator and Coulomb systems on four-dimensional spaces with U(2)-invariant Kahler metric and perform their Hamiltonian reduction to the three-dimensional oscillator and Coulomb systems specified by the presence of Dirac monopoles. We find the Kahler spaces with conic singularity, where the oscillator and Coulomb systems on three-dimensional sphere and two-sheet hyperboloid are originated. Then we construct the superintegrable oscillator system on three-dimensional sphere and ...

  10. Electrical power systems for Space Station

    Simon, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Major challenges in power system development are described. Evolutionary growth, operational lifetime, and other design requirements are discussed. A pictorial view of weight-optimized power system applications shows which systems are best for missions of various lengths and required power level. Following definition of the major elements of the electrical power system, an overview of element options and a brief technology assessment are presented. Selected trade-study results show end-to-end system efficiencies, required photovoltaic power capability as a function of energy storage system efficiency, and comparisons with other systems such as a solar dynamic power system.

  11. Space transportation systems within ESA programmes: Current status and perspectives

    Delahais, Maurice

    1993-03-01

    An overview of the space transportation aspects of the ESA (European Space Agency) programs as they result from history, present status, and decisions taken at the ministerial level conference in Granada, Spain is presented. The new factors taken into consideration for the long term plan proposed in Munich, Germany, the three strategic options for the reorientation of the ESA long term plan, and the essential elements of space transportation in the Granada long term plan in three areas of space activities, scientific, and commercial launches with expendable launch vehicles, manned flight and in-orbit infrastructure, and future transportation systems are outlined. The new ESA long term plan, in the field of space transportation systems, constitutes a reorientation of the initial program contemplated in previous councils at ministerial level. It aims at balancing the new economic situation with the new avenues of cooperation, and the outcome will be a new implementation of the space transportation systems policy.

  12. Automation and Robotics for Space-Based Systems, 1991

    Williams, Robert L., II (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this in-house workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of automation and robotics for space operations from an LaRC perspective and to identify areas of opportunity for future research. Over half of the presentations came from the Automation Technology Branch, covering telerobotic control, extravehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, hand controllers for teleoperation, sensors, neural networks, and automated structural assembly, all applied to space missions. Other talks covered the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation, space crane work, modeling, simulation, and control of large, flexible space manipulators, and virtual passive controller designs for space robots.

  13. Thermoacoustic power systems for space applications

    Backhaus, S.N.; Tward, E.; Pedach, M.

    2001-01-01

    Future NASA deep-space missions will require radioisotope-powered electric generators that are just as reliable as current RTGs, but more efficient and of higher specific power (W/kg). Thermoacoustic engines can convert high-temperature heat into acoustic, or PV, power without moving parts at 30% efficiency. Consisting of only tubes and a few heat exchangers, these engines are low mass and promise to be highly reliable. Coupling a thermoacoustic engine to a low-mass, highly reliable and efficient linear alternator will create a heat-driven electric generator suitable for deep-space applications. Data will be presented on the first tests of a demonstration thermoacoustic engine designed for the 100-Watt power range.

  14. Environmental effects and large space systems

    Garrett, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    When planning large scale operations in space, environmental impact must be considered in addition to radiation, spacecraft charging, contamination, high power and size. Pollution of the atmosphere and space is caused by rocket effluents and by photoelectrons generated by sunlight falling on satellite surfaces even light pollution may result (the SPS may reflect so much light as to be a nuisance to astronomers). Large (100 Km 2) structures also will absorb the high energy particles that impinge on them. Altogether, these effects may drastically alter the Earth's magnetosphere. It is not clear if these alterations will in any way affect the Earth's surface climate. Large structures will also generate large plasma wakes and waves which may cause interference with communications to the vehicle. A high energy, microwave beam from the SPS will cause ionospheric turbulence, affecting UHF and VHF communications. Although none of these effects may ultimately prove critical, they must be considered in the design of large structures.

  15. Distributed Space Missions for Earth System Monitoring

    2013-01-01

    A key addition to Springer's Space Technology Library series, this edited volume features the work of dozens of authors and offers a wealth of perspectives on distributed Earth observation missions. In sum, it is an eloquent synthesis of the fullest possible range of current approaches to a fast-developing field characterized by growing membership of the 'space club' to include nations formerly regarded as part of the Third World. The volume's four discrete sections focus on the topic's various aspects, including the key theoretical and technical issues arising from the division of payloads onto different satellites. The first is devoted to analyzing distributed synthetic aperture radars, with bi- and multi-static radars receiving separate treatment. This is followed by a full discussion of relative dynamics, guidance, navigation and control. Here, the separate topics of design; establishment, maintenance and control; and measurements are developed with relative trajectory as a reference point, while the dis...

  16. Underwater and Dive Station Work-Site Noise Surveys

    Wolgemuth, Keith S; Cudahy, Edward A; Schwaller, Derek W

    2008-01-01

    Previous work performed by the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL) had developed in-water permissible continuous noise exposure guidance Work performed by the Navy Experimental Diving Unit...

  17. Underwater and Dive Station Work-Site Noise Surveys

    Wolgemuth, Keith S; Cudahy, Edward A; Schwaller, Derek W

    2008-01-01

    ...) data This study extends this previous work by obtaining in-water and in-air noise measurements and a total noise dose for Navy divers during actual diving operations using a portable sound level...

  18. Survey of Current Best Practices for Diving in Contaminated Water

    Steigleman, W

    2002-01-01

    .... Navy divers operating in contaminated water. This survey attempted to identify the current best practices and equipment for diving in contaminated water, including personal protective equipment as well as hazard identification, diver training...

  19. B-type natriuretic peptide secretion following scuba diving

    Passino, Claudio; Franzino, Enrico; Giannoni, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    To examine the neurohormonal effects of a scuba dive, focusing on the acute changes in the plasma concentrations of the different peptide fragments from the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) precursor....

  20. Diving Simulation concerning Adélie Penguin

    Ito, Shinichiro; Harada, Masanori

    Penguins are sea birds that swim using lift and drag forces by flapping their wings like other birds. Although diving data can be obtained using a micro-data logger which has improved in recent years, all the necessary diving conditions for analysis cannot be acquired. In order to determine all these hard-to-get conditions, the posture and lift and drag forces of penguins were theoretically calculated by the technique used in the analysis of the optimal flight path of aircrafts. In this calculation, the actual depth and speed of the dive of an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) were utilized. Then, the calculation result and experimental data were compared, and found to be in good agreement. Thus, it is fully possible to determine the actual conditions of dive by this calculation, even those that cannot be acquired using a data logger.

  1. The closed spiracle phase of discontinuous gas exchange predicts diving duration in the grasshopper Paracinema tricolor.

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2016-08-15

    The discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern of respiration shown by many arthropods includes periods of spiracle closure (C-phase) and is largely thought to serve as a physiological adaptation to restrict water loss in terrestrial environments. One major challenge to this hypothesis is to explain the presence of DGE in insects in moist environments. Here, we show a novel ecological correlate of the C-phase, namely, diving behaviour in mesic Paracinema tricolor grasshoppers. Notably, maximal dive duration is positively correlated with C-phase length, even after accounting for mass scaling and absolute metabolic rate. Here, we propose that an additional advantage of DGE may be conferred by allowing the tracheal system to act as a sealed underwater oxygen reservoir. Spiracle closure may facilitate underwater submersion, which, in turn, may contribute to predator avoidance, the survival of accidental immersion or periodic flooding and the exploitation of underwater resources. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF AUTONOMOUS DIVING ON SENSES AND MENTAL PROCESSES

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Diving is classified within a group of sports accompanied with an increased risk, yet it is a sport of full biological significance. Diving implies change of immediate human environment. Water, as the natural ambient for diving issues specific demands to the organism, which in turn influence decrease in psychophysical abilities when underwater, and in some instances, immediately after emerging from it. The most important factors influencing decrease in psychophysical abilities are: immersion, increased ambient pressure, characteristics of diving equipment and atmosphere separation. The senses and the mental processes of the diver are significantly altered during the autonomous diving. Loss of self-weight perception and pressure put on joints cause disorders in function of kinesthetic senses and vestibular apparatus, which in turn becomes reflected on proprioception. Coldness of water, especially at grater depths, induces decline in pain sensation as well as in aptness and mobility of fingers. Sight remains normal, but the image received is slightly changed due to refraction of light on boundary surfaces. Visual field is narrowed down to fit the limited diving mask field of view. At the same time, diffusion of light and color absorption brings about the loss of both ability to perceive things and contrasts when at depths .Objects tend to appear bigger and closer underwater. Hearing is changed owing to the fact that the sound is not carried through the air but through the water, yet the speed of transmission causes only slight difference of left and right ear stimulation. Mental processes, informationassessment, creation of clear mental images of the actual moment, abstract thinking, decision making, etc. are not effective and precise. This state can be partly ascribed to the above mentioned problems with senses, partly to the greater influence of emotional as opposed to rational, but also to the narcotic effect of nitrogen that is produced while

  3. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma

    Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a pa...

  4. Antioxidants may Attenuate Plasma Erythropoietin Decline after Hyperbaric Oxygen Diving.

    Mutzbauer, T S; Schneider, M; Neubauer, B; Weiss, M; Tetzlaff, K

    2015-11-01

    According to previous studies, plasma erythropoietin (EPO) may decrease after hyperbaric oxygen exposure due to oxidative stress. It is hypothesized that the decrease of EPO can be attenuated by oxygen free radical scavengers.The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether EPO plasma levels can be influenced by oral application of vitamin C and E before repeated hyperbaric oxygen exposure during diving. 16 healthy male police task force divers performed 3 morning dives on oxygen within a regular diving schedule on 3 consecutive days. They were randomized into either the placebo group or the vitamin group, receiving 1 g ascorbic acid and 600 IU D-α-tocopherol orally 60 min before the dive. Blood samples for EPO measurement were taken on days 1, 2, and 3 at T1, T3 and T5 60 min before and at T2, T4 and T6 60 min after each dive, respectively. A moderate decrease of EPO was observed beginning at T3 until T6 in the placebo group. The EPO concentrations in the vitamin group did not show relevant variations compared to baseline. Radical scavenging vitamins C and D may counteract hyperbaric oxygen related mechanisms reducing EPO production in hyperbaric oxygen exposure during diving. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Poor flight performance in deep-diving cormorants.

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Takahashi, Akinori; Sato, Katsufumi; Viviant, Morgane; Bost, Charles-André

    2011-02-01

    Aerial flight and breath-hold diving present conflicting morphological and physiological demands, and hence diving seabirds capable of flight are expected to face evolutionary trade-offs regarding locomotory performances. We tested whether Kerguelen shags Phalacrocorax verrucosus, which are remarkable divers, have poor flight capability using newly developed tags that recorded their flight air speed (the first direct measurement for wild birds) with propeller sensors, flight duration, GPS position and depth during foraging trips. Flight air speed (mean 12.7 m s(-1)) was close to the speed that minimizes power requirement, rather than energy expenditure per distance, when existing aerodynamic models were applied. Flights were short (mean 92 s), with a mean summed duration of only 24 min day(-1). Shags sometimes stayed at the sea surface without diving between flights, even on the way back to the colony, and surface durations increased with the preceding flight durations; these observations suggest that shags rested after flights. Our results indicate that their flight performance is physiologically limited, presumably compromised by their great diving capability (max. depth 94 m, duration 306 s) through their morphological adaptations for diving, including large body mass (enabling a large oxygen store), small flight muscles (to allow for large leg muscles for underwater propulsion) and short wings (to decrease air volume in the feathers and hence buoyancy). The compromise between flight and diving, as well as the local bathymetry, shape the three-dimensional foraging range (<26 km horizontally, <94 m vertically) in this bottom-feeding cormorant.

  6. Multimegawatt nuclear systems for space power

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design and performance capability requirements of multi-MW nuclear powerplants for SDI systems are considered. The candidate powerplant configurations encompass Rankine, Brayton, and thermionic cycles; these respectively provide the lightest to heaviest system masses, since reactor and shield masses represent only 10-30 percent of total closed power system weight for the Rankine and Brayton systems. Many of the gas reactor concepts entertained may be operated in dual mode, thereby furnishing both long term low power and high power for short periods. Heat rejection is identified as the most important technology, since about 50 percent of the total closed mass is constituted by the heat rejection system. 9 references

  7. Dose measurements in space by the Hungarian Pille TLD system

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.; Akatov, Y.A.; Reitz, G.; Arkhanguelski, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of crew, equipment, and experiments to the ambient space radiation environment in low Earth orbit poses one of the most significant problems to long-term space habitation. Accurate dose measurement has become increasingly important during the assembly (extravehicular activity (EVA)) and operation of space stations such as on Space Station Mir. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetry mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. The well-known advantages of passive detector systems are their independence of power supply, small dimensions, high sensitivity, good stability, wide measuring range, resistance to environmental effects, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, they have the general disadvantage that for evaluation purposes they need a laboratory or large--in mass and power consumption--terrestrial equipment, and consequently they cannot provide time-resolved dose data during long-term space flights. KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI) has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosemeter systems for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 10 μGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of bulb dosemeters and a compact, self-contained, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosemeters. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations as well as on the Space Shuttle. A detailed description of the system is given and the comprehensive results of these measurements are summarised

  8. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  9. Alert-derivative bimodal space power and propulsion systems

    Houts, M.G.; Ranken, W.A.; Buksa, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass bimodal space power and propulsion systems could have numerous civilian and military applications. This paper discusses potential bimodal systems that could be derived from the ALERT space fission power supply concept. These bimodal concepts have the potential for providing 5 to 10 kW of electrical power and a total impulse of 100 MN-s at an average specific impulse of 770 s. System mass is on the order of 1000 kg

  10. Biology-Inspired Robust Dive Plane Control of Non-Linear AUV Using Pectoral-Like Fins

    Subramanian Ramasamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a control system for the dive plane control of non-linear biorobotic autonomous underwater vehicles, equipped with pectoral-like fins, is the subject of this paper. Marine animals use pectoral fins for swimming smoothly. The fins are assumed to be oscillating with a combined pitch and heave motion and therefore produce unsteady control forces. The objective is to control the depth of the vehicle. The mean angle of pitch motion of the fin is used as a control variable. A computational-fluid-dynamics-based parameterisation of the fin forces is used for control system design. A robust servo regulator for the control of the depth of the vehicle, based on the non-linear internal model principle, is derived. For the control law derivation, an exosystem of third order is introduced, and the non-linear time-varying biorobotic autonomous underwater vehicle model, including the fin forces, is represented as a non-linear autonomous system in an extended state space. The control system includes the internal model of a k-fold exosystem, where k is a positive integer chosen by the designer. It is shown that in the closed-loop system, all the harmonic components of order up to k of the tracking error are suppressed. Simulation results are presented which show that the servo regulator accomplishes accurate depth control despite uncertainties in the model parameters.

  11. Systems Engineering for Space Exploration Medical Capabilities

    Mindock, Jennifer; Reilly, Jeffrey; Rubin, David; Urbina, Michelle; Hailey, Melinda; Hanson, Andrea; Burba, Tyler; McGuire, Kerry; Cerro, Jeffrey; Middour, Chris; hide

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions that reach destinations beyond low Earth orbit, such as Mars, will present significant new challenges to crew health management. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its goals. This paper discusses the structured and integrative approach that is guiding the medical system technical development. Assumptions for the required levels of care on exploration missions, medical system goals, and a Concept of Operations are early products that capture and clarify stakeholder expectations. Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are then applied to define medical system behavior and architecture. Interfaces to other flight and ground systems, and within the medical system are identified and defined. Initial requirements and traceability are established, which sets the stage for identification of future technology development needs. An early approach for verification and validation, taking advantage of terrestrial and near-Earth exploration system analogs, is also defined to further guide system planning and development.

  12. The unique safety challenges of space reactor systems

    Lanes, S.J.; Marshall, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Compact reactor systems can provide high levels of power for extended periods in space environments. Their relatively low mass and their ability to operate independently of their proximity to the sun make reactor power systems high desirable for many civilian and military space missions. The US Department of Energy is developing reactor system technologies to provide electrical power for space applications. In addition, reactors are now being considered to provide thermal power to a hydrogen propellant for nuclear thermal rocketry. Space reactor safety issues differ from commercial reactor issues, in some areas, because of very different operating requirements and environments. Accidents similar to those postulated for commercial reactors must be considered for space reactors during their operational phase. Safety strategies will need to be established that account for the consequences of the loss of essential power

  13. A reference model for space data system interconnection services

    Pietras, John; Theis, Gerhard

    1993-01-01

    The widespread adoption of standard packet-based data communication protocols and services for spaceflight missions provides the foundation for other standard space data handling services. These space data handling services can be defined as increasingly sophisticated processing of data or information received from lower-level services, using a layering approach made famous in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). The Space Data System Interconnection Reference Model (SDSI-RM) incorporates the conventions of the OSIRM to provide a framework within which a complete set of space data handling services can be defined. The use of the SDSI-RM is illustrated through its application to data handling services and protocols that have been defined by, or are under consideration by, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).

  14. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    Smith, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the Space Commercialization Community with the status and characteristics of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The program is a joint undertaking by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy and NASA. The goal of the program is to develop, validate, and demonstrate the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kWe electric for use in the future civilian and military space missions. Also discussed are mission applications which are enhanced and/or enabled by SP-100 technology and how this technology compares to that of more familiar solar power systems. The mission applications include earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power

  15. Approach to developing reliable space reactor power systems

    Mondt, J.F.; Shinbrot, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Reactor Power System Project is in the engineering development phase of a three-phase program. During Phase II, the Engineering Development Phase, the SP-100 Project has defined and is pursuing a new approach to developing reliable power systems. The approach to developing such a system during the early technology phase is described in this paper along with some preliminary examples to help explain the approach. Developing reliable components to meet space reactor power system requirements is based on a top down systems approach which includes a point design based on a detailed technical specification of a 100 kW power system

  16. Development of laser weld monitoring system for PWR space grid

    Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    1998-06-01

    The laser welding monitoring system was developed to inspect PWR space grid welding for KNFC. The demands for this optical monitoring system were applied to Q.C. and process control in space grid welding. The thermal radiation signal from weld pool can be get the variation of weld pool size. The weld pool size and depth are verified by analyzed wavelength signals from weld pool. Applied this monitoring system in space grid weld, improved the weld productivity. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  17. Facility for the evaluation of space communications and related systems

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Communications Projects Branch has developed a facility for the evaluation of space communications systems and related types of systems, called the Advanced Space Communications (ASC) Laboratory. The ASC Lab includes instrumentation, testbed hardware, and experiment control and monitor software for the evaluation of components, subsystems, systems, and networks. The ASC lab has capabilities to perform radiofrequency (RF), microwave, and millimeter-wave characterizations as well as measurements using low, medium, or high data rate digital signals. In addition to laboratory measurements, the ASC Lab also includes integrated satellite ground terminals allowing experimentation and measurements accessing operational satellites through real space links.

  18. Model space dimensionalities for multiparticle fermion systems

    Draayer, J.P.; Valdes, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    A menu driven program for determining the dimensionalities of fixed-(J) [or (J,T)] model spaces built by distributing identical fermions (electrons, neutrons, protons) or two distinguihable fermion types (neutron-proton and isospin formalisms) among any mixture of positive and negative parity spherical orbitals is presented. The algorithm, built around the elementary difference formula d(J)=d(M=J)-d(M=J+1), takes full advantage of M->-M and particle-hole symmetries. A 96 K version of the program suffices for as compilated a case as d[(+1/2, +3/2, + 5/2, + 7/2-11/2)sup(n-26)J=2 + ,T=7]=210,442,716,722 found in the 0hω valence space of 56 126 Ba 70 . The program calculates the total fixed-(Jsup(π)) or fixed-(Jsup(π),T) dimensionality of a model space generated by distributing a specified number of fermions among a set of input positive and negative parity (π) spherical (j) orbitals. The user is queried at each step to select among various options: 1. formalism - identical particle, neutron-proton, isospin; 2. orbits -bumber, +/-2*J of all orbits; 3. limits -minimum/maximum number of particles of each parity; 4. specifics - number of particles, +/-2*J (total), 2*T; 5. continue - same orbit structure, new case quit. Though designed for nuclear applications (jj-coupling), the program can be used in the atomic case (LS-coupling) so long as half integer spin values (j=l+-1/2) are input for the valnce orbitals. Mutiple occurrences of a given j value are properly taken into account. A minor extension provides labelling information for a generalized seniority classification scheme. The program logic is an adaption of methods used in statistical spectroscopy to evaluate configuration averages. Indeed, the need for fixed symmetry leve densities in spectral distribution theory motivated this work. The methods extend to other group structures where there are M-like additive quantum labels. (orig.)

  19. An Operations Management System for the Space Station

    Rosenthal, H. G.

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the conceptual design of an integrated onboard Operations Management System (OMS). Both hardware and software concepts are presented and the integrated space station network is discussed. It is shown that using currently available software technology, an integrated software solution for Space Station management and control, implemented with OMS software, is feasible.

  20. Probabilistic structural analysis methods for space transportation propulsion systems

    Chamis, C. C.; Moore, N.; Anis, C.; Newell, J.; Nagpal, V.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    Information on probabilistic structural analysis methods for space propulsion systems is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on deterministic certification methods, probability of failure, component response analysis, stress responses for 2nd stage turbine blades, Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) structural durability, and program plans. .

  1. User community development for the space transportation system/Skylab

    Archer, J. L.; Beauchamp, N. A.

    1974-01-01

    The New User Function plan for identifying beneficial uses of space is described. Critical issues such as funding, manpower, and protection of user proprietary rights are discussed along with common barriers which impede the development of a user community. Studies for developing methodologies of identifying new users and uses of the space transportation system are included.

  2. The immune system in space, including Earth-based benefits of space-based research.

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-08-01

    Exposure to space flight conditions has been shown to result in alterations in immune responses. Changes in immune responses of humans and experimental animals have been shown to be altered during and after space flight of humans and experimental animals or cell cultures of lymphoid cells. Exposure of subjects to ground-based models of space flight conditions, such as hindlimb unloading of rodents or chronic bed rest of humans, has also resulted in changes in the immune system. The relationship of these changes to compromised resistance to infection or tumors in space flight has not been fully established, but results from model systems suggest that alterations in the immune system that occur in space flight conditions may be related to decreases in resistance to infection. The establishment of such a relationship could lead to the development of countermeasures that could prevent or ameliorate any compromises in resistance to infection resulting from exposure to space flight conditions. An understanding of the mechanisms of space flight conditions effects on the immune response and development of countermeasures to prevent them could contribute to the development of treatments for compromised immunity on earth.

  3. A new TLD system for space research

    Feher, I.; Deme, S.; Szabo, B.; Vagvoelgyi, J.; Szabo, P.P.; Csoeke, A.; Ranky, M.; Akatov, Yu.A.

    1980-06-01

    A small, portable, vibration and shock resistant thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) system was developed to measure the cosmic radiation dose on board of a spacecraft. The TLD system consists of a special bulb dosemeter and a TLD reader. The measuring dose range of the TLD system is from 10 μGy up to 100 mGy. The TLD reader can operate on a battery; its electrical power consumption is about 5 W, its volume is about 1 dm 3 and its mass is about 1 kg. Details are given of the construction and technical parameters of the dosemeter and reader. (author)

  4. Viability of a Reusable In-Space Transportation System

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Nufer, Brian M.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Merrill, Raymond G.; North, David D.; Martin, John G.; Komar, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing options for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) that expands human presence from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) into the solar system and to the surface of Mars. The Hybrid in-space transportation architecture is one option being investigated within the EMC. The architecture enables return of the entire in-space propulsion stage and habitat to cis-lunar space after a round trip to Mars. This concept of operations opens the door for a fully reusable Mars transportation system from cis-lunar space to a Mars parking orbit and back. This paper explores the reuse of in-space transportation systems, with a focus on the propulsion systems. It begins by examining why reusability should be pursued and defines reusability in space-flight context. A range of functions and enablers associated with preparing a system for reuse are identified and a vision for reusability is proposed that can be advanced and implemented as new capabilities are developed. Following this, past reusable spacecraft and servicing capabilities, as well as those currently in development are discussed. Using the Hybrid transportation architecture as an example, an assessment of the degree of reusability that can be incorporated into the architecture with current capabilities is provided and areas for development are identified that will enable greater levels of reuse in the future. Implications and implementation challenges specific to the architecture are also presented.

  5. Critical Technologies for the Development of Future Space Elevator Systems

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    A space elevator is a tether structure extending through geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) to the surface of the earth. Its center of mass is in GEO such that it orbits the earth in sync with the earth s rotation. In 2004 and 2005, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. worked under a cooperative agreement to research the feasibility of space elevator systems, and to advance the critical technologies required for the future development of space elevators for earth to orbit transportation. The discovery of carbon nanotubes in the early 1990's was the first indication that it might be possible to develop materials strong enough to make space elevator construction feasible. This report presents an overview of some of the latest NASA sponsored research on space elevator design, and the systems and materials that will be required to make space elevator construction possible. In conclusion, the most critical technology for earth-based space elevators is the successful development of ultra high strength carbon nanotube reinforced composites for ribbon construction in the 1OOGPa range. In addition, many intermediate technology goals and demonstration missions for the space elevator can provide significant advancements to other spaceflight and terrestrial applications.

  6. Man--machine interface issues for space nuclear power systems

    Nelson, W.R.; Haugset, K.

    1991-01-01

    The deployment of nuclear reactors in space necessitates an entirely new set of guidelines for the design of the man--machine interface (MMI) when compared to earth-based applications such as commerical nuclear power plants. Although the design objectives of earth- and space-based nuclear power systems are the same, that is, to produce electrical power, the differences in the application environments mean that the operator's role will be significantly different for space-based systems. This paper explores the issues associated with establishing the necessary MMI guidelines for space nuclear power systems. The generic human performance requirements for space-based systems are described, and the operator roles that are utilized for the operation of current and advanced earth-based reactors are briefly summarized. The development of a prototype advanced control room, the Integrated Surveillance and Control System (ISACS) at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Halden Reactor Project is introduced. Finally, preliminary ideas for the use of the ISACS system as a test bed for establishing MMI guidelines for space nuclear systems are presented

  7. Wigner Functions for the Bateman System on Noncommutative Phase Space

    Heng, Tai-Hua; Lin, Bing-Sheng; Jing, Si-Cong

    2010-09-01

    We study an important dissipation system, i.e. the Bateman model on noncommutative phase space. Using the method of deformation quantization, we calculate the Exp functions, and then derive the Wigner functions and the corresponding energy spectra.

  8. Wigner Functions for the Bateman System on Noncommutative Phase Space

    Tai-Hua, Heng; Bing-Sheng, Lin; Si-Cong, Jing

    2010-01-01

    We study an important dissipation system, i.e. the Bateman model on noncommutative phase space. Using the method of deformation quantization, we calculate the Exp functions, and then derive the Wigner functions and the corresponding energy spectra

  9. Real Time Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Systems

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effects that solar particle events can have on operational electronic systems is a significant concern for all missions, but especially for those beyond Low...

  10. Diaphragm Effect of Steel Space Roof Systems in Hall Structures

    Mehmet FENKLİ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hall structures have been used widely for different purposes. They have are reinforced concrete frames and shear wall with steel space roof systems. Earthquake response of hall structures is different from building type structures. One of the most critical nodes is diaphragm effect of steel space roof on earthquake response of hall structures. Diaphragm effect is depending on lateral stiffness capacity of steel space roof system. Lateral stiffness of steel space roof system is related to modulation geometry, support conditions, selected sections and system geometry. In current paper, three representative models which are commonly used in Turkey were taken in to account for investigation. Results of numerical tests were present comparatively

  11. WSN-Based Space Charge Density Measurement System.

    Deng, Dawei; Yuan, Haiwen; Lv, Jianxun; Ju, Yong

    2017-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line endures the drawback of large area, because of which the utilization of cable for space charge density monitoring system is of inconvenience. Compared with the traditional communication network, wireless sensor network (WSN) shows advantages in small volume, high flexibility and strong self-organization, thereby presenting great potential in solving the problem. Additionally, WSN is more suitable for the construction of distributed space charge density monitoring system as it has longer distance and higher mobility. A distributed wireless system is designed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density under HVDC transmission lines, which has been widely applied in both Chinese state grid HVDC test base and power transmission projects. Experimental results of the measuring system demonstrated its adaptability in the complex electromagnetic environment under the transmission lines and the ability in realizing accurate, flexible, and stable demands for the measurement of space charge density.

  12. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  13. The endocrine system in space flight

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    Hormones are important effectors of the body's response to microgravity in the areas of fluid and electrolyte metabolism, erythropoiesis, and calcium metabolism. For many years antidiuretic hormone, cortisol and aldosterone have been considered the hormones most important for regulation of body fluid volume and blood levels of electrolytes, but they cannot account totally for losses of fluid and electrolytes during space flight. We have now measured atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF had decreased by 59%, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell production, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  14. Maui Space Surveillance System Satellite Categorization Laboratory

    Deiotte, R.; Guyote, M.; Kelecy, T.; Hall, D.; Africano, J.; Kervin, P.

    The MSSS satellite categorization laboratory is a fusion of robotics and digital imaging processes that aims to decompose satellite photometric characteristics and behavior in a controlled setting. By combining a robot, light source and camera to acquire non-resolved images of a model satellite, detailed photometric analyses can be performed to extract relevant information about shape features, elemental makeup, and ultimately attitude and function. Using the laboratory setting a detailed analysis can be done on any type of material or design and the results cataloged in a database that will facilitate object identification by "curve-fitting" individual elements in the basis set to observational data that might otherwise be unidentifiable. Currently the laboratory has created, an ST-Robotics five degree of freedom robotic arm, collimated light source and non-focused Apogee camera have all been integrated into a MATLAB based software package that facilitates automatic data acquisition and analysis. Efforts to date have been aimed at construction of the lab as well as validation and verification of simple geometric objects. Simple tests on spheres, cubes and simple satellites show promising results that could lead to a much better understanding of non-resolvable space object characteristics. This paper presents a description of the laboratory configuration and validation test results with emphasis on the non-resolved photometric characteristics for a variety of object shapes, spin dynamics and orientations. The future vision, utility and benefits of the laboratory to the SSA community as a whole are also discussed.

  15. 8th symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Brandhorst, H. W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems

  16. An economically viable space power relay system

    Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussed—those with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

  17. Heroic Reliability Improvement in Manned Space Systems

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    System reliability can be significantly improved by a strong continued effort to identify and remove all the causes of actual failures. Newly designed systems often have unexpected high failure rates which can be reduced by successive design improvements until the final operational system has an acceptable failure rate. There are many causes of failures and many ways to remove them. New systems may have poor specifications, design errors, or mistaken operations concepts. Correcting unexpected problems as they occur can produce large early gains in reliability. Improved technology in materials, components, and design approaches can increase reliability. The reliability growth is achieved by repeatedly operating the system until it fails, identifying the failure cause, and fixing the problem. The failure rate reduction that can be obtained depends on the number and the failure rates of the correctable failures. Under the strong assumption that the failure causes can be removed, the decline in overall failure rate can be predicted. If a failure occurs at the rate of lambda per unit time, the expected time before the failure occurs and can be corrected is 1/lambda, the Mean Time Before Failure (MTBF). Finding and fixing a less frequent failure with the rate of lambda/2 per unit time requires twice as long, time of 1/(2 lambda). Cutting the failure rate in half requires doubling the test and redesign time and finding and eliminating the failure causes.Reducing the failure rate significantly requires a heroic reliability improvement effort.

  18. Misting-cooling systems for microclimatic control in public space

    Nunes, Joao; Zoilo, Inaki; Jacinto, Nuno; Nunes, Ana; Torres-Campos, Tiago; Pacheco, Manuel; Fonseca, David

    2011-01-01

    Misting-cooling systems have been used in outdoor spaces mainly for aesthetic purposes, and punctual cooling achievement. However, they can be highly effective in outdoor spaces’ bioclimatic comfort, in terms of microclimatic control, as an evaporative cooling system. Recent concerns in increasing bioclimatic standards in public outdoor spaces, along with more sustainable practices, gave origin to reasoning where plastic principles are combined with the study of cooling efficacy, in order to ...

  19. System security in the space flight operations center

    Wagner, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Flight Operations Center is a networked system of workstation-class computers that will provide ground support for NASA's next generation of deep-space missions. The author recounts the development of the SFOC system security policy and discusses the various management and technology issues involved. Particular attention is given to risk assessment, security plan development, security implications of design requirements, automatic safeguards, and procedural safeguards.

  20. Lewis Research Center space station electric power system test facilities

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Martin, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center facilities were developed to support testing of the Space Station Electric Power System. The capabilities and plans for these facilities are described. The three facilities which are required in the Phase C/D testing, the Power Systems Facility, the Space Power Facility, and the EPS Simulation Lab, are described in detail. The responsibilities of NASA Lewis and outside groups in conducting tests are also discussed.

  1. Space reflector technology and its system implications

    Billman, K. W.; Gilbreath, W. P.; Bowen, S. W.

    1979-01-01

    The technical feasibility of providing nearly continuous solar energy to a world-distributed set of conversion sites by means of a system of orbiting, large-area, low-areal-density reflecting structures is examined. Requisite mirror area to provide a chosen, year-averaged site intensity is shown. A modeled reflector structure, with suitable planarity and ability to meet operational torques and loads, is discussed. Typical spatial and temporal insolation profiles are presented. These determine the sizing of components and the output electric power from a baselined photovoltaic conversion system. Technical and economic challenges which, if met, would allow the system to provide a large fraction of future world energy needs at costs competitive to circa-1995 fossil and nuclear sources are discussed.

  2. Performance Analysis of Sensor Systems for Space Situational Awareness

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Jo, Jung Hyun; Park, Jang-Hyun; Chung, Taejin; Park, Jaewoo; Jeon, Hocheol; Yun, Ami; Lee, Yonghui

    2017-12-01

    With increased human activity in space, the risk of re-entry and collision between space objects is constantly increasing. Hence, the need for space situational awareness (SSA) programs has been acknowledged by many experienced space agencies. Optical and radar sensors, which enable the surveillance and tracking of space objects, are the most important technical components of SSA systems. In particular, combinations of radar systems and optical sensor networks play an outstanding role in SSA programs. At present, Korea operates the optical wide field patrol network (OWL-Net), the only optical system for tracking space objects. However, due to their dependence on weather conditions and observation time, it is not reasonable to use optical systems alone for SSA initiatives, as they have limited operational availability. Therefore, the strategies for developing radar systems should be considered for an efficient SSA system using currently available technology. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of a radar system in detecting and tracking space objects. With the radar system investigated, the minimum sensitivity is defined as detection of a 1-m2 radar cross section (RCS) at an altitude of 2,000 km, with operating frequencies in the L, S, C, X or Ku-band. The results of power budget analysis showed that the maximum detection range of 2,000 km, which includes the low earth orbit (LEO) environment, can be achieved with a transmission power of 900 kW, transmit and receive antenna gains of 40 dB and 43 dB, respectively, a pulse width of 2 ms, and a signal processing gain of 13.3 dB, at a frequency of 1.3 GHz. We defined the key parameters of the radar following a performance analysis of the system. This research can thus provide guidelines for the conceptual design of radar systems for national SSA initiatives.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope nickel hydrogen battery system briefing

    Nawrocki, David; Saldana, David; Rao, Gopal

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Mission; system constraints; battery specification; battery module; simplified block diagram; cell design summary; present status; voltage decay; system depth of discharge; pressure since launch; system capacity; eclipse time vs. trickle charge; capacity test objectives; and capacity during tests.

  4. Distributed expert systems for ground and space applications

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) concept of the unification of ground and space operations using a distributed approach. SCL is a hybrid software environment borrowing from expert system technology, fifth generation language development, and multitasking operating system environments. Examples of potential uses for the system and current distributed applications of SCL are given.

  5. Space Station Freedom regenerative water recovery system configuration selection

    Reysa, R.; Edwards, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) must recover water from various waste water sources to reduce 90 day water resupply demands for a four/eight person crew. The water recovery system options considered are summarized together with system configuration merits and demerits, resource advantages and disadvantages, and water quality considerations used to select the SSF water recovery system.

  6. Military space power systems technology trends and issues

    Barthelemy, R.R.; Massie, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper assesses baseload and above-baseload (alert, active, pulsed and burst mode) power system options, places them in logical perspective relative to power level and operating time, discusses power systems technology state-of-the-art and trends and finally attempts to project future (post 2000) space power system capabilities

  7. MMIC technology for advanced space communications systems

    Downey, A. N.; Connolly, D. J.; Anzic, G.

    The current NASA program for 20 and 30 GHz monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology is reviewed. The advantages of MMIC are discussed. Millimeter wavelength MMIC applications and technology for communications systems are discussed. Passive and active MMIC compatible components for millimeter wavelength applications are investigated. The cost of a millimeter wavelength MMIC's is projected.

  8. MMIC technology for advanced space communications systems

    Downey, A. N.; Connolly, D. J.; Anzic, G.

    1984-01-01

    The current NASA program for 20 and 30 GHz monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology is reviewed. The advantages of MMIC are discussed. Millimeter wavelength MMIC applications and technology for communications systems are discussed. Passive and active MMIC compatible components for millimeter wavelength applications are investigated. The cost of a millimeter wavelength MMIC's is projected.

  9. Looking toward to the next-generation space weather forecast system. Comments former a former space weather forecaster

    Tomita, Fumihiko

    1999-01-01

    In the 21st century, man's space-based activities will increase significantly and many kinds of space utilization technologies will assume a vital role in the infrastructure, creating new businesses, securing the global environment, contributing much to human welfare in the world. Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been contributing to the safety of human activity in space and to the further understanding of the solar terrestrial environment through the study of space weather, including the upper atmosphere, magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and the sun. The next-generation Space Weather Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS) for future space activities based on the present international space weather forecasting system is introduced in this paper. (author)

  10. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    Phillips, Brandon S.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry (e.g. blocking diodes). Key elements of the space environment which must be accounted for in a PV system design include: Solar Photon Radiation, Charged Particle Radiation, Plasma, and Thermal Cycling. While solar photon radiation is central to generating power in PV systems, the complete spectrum includes short wavelength ultraviolet components, which photo-ionize materials, as well as long wavelength infrared which heat materials. High energy electron radiation has been demonstrated to significantly reduce the output power of III-V type PV cells; and proton radiation damages material surfaces - often impacting coverglasses and antireflective coatings. Plasma environments influence electrostatic charging of PV array materials, and must be understood to ensure that long duration arcs do not form and potentially destroy PV cells. Thermal cycling impacts all components on a PV array by inducing stresses due to thermal expansion and contraction. Given such demanding environments, and the complexity of structures and materials that form a PV array system, mission success can only be ensured through realistic testing in the laboratory. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a broad space environment test capability to allow PV array designers and manufacturers to verify their system's integrity and avoid costly on-orbit failures. The Marshall Space Flight Center test capabilities are available to government, commercial, and university customers. Test solutions are tailored to meet the customer's needs, and can include performance assessments, such as flash testing in the case of PV cells.

  11. Petrochemical Results for Volcanic Rocks recovered from SHINKAI 6500 diving on the Bonin Ridge (27°15'N-28°25'N): submarine extension of Ogasawara forearc volcanism

    Bloomer, S. H.; Kimura, J.; Stern, R. J.; Ohara, Y.; Ishii, T.; Ishizuka, O.; Haraguchi, S.; Machida, S.; Reagan, M.; Kelley, K.; Hargrove, U.; Wortel, M.; Li, Y. B.

    2004-12-01

    Four SHINKAI 6500 submersible dives (dive #823 to #826) were performed along the Bonin Ridge escarpment west of Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands in the West Pacific during May 2004, in the hopes of finding exposures of lower crust of the IBM forearc. The Ogasawara Islands are located on the Bonin ridge, exposing 48-40 Ma boninites on Chichi-jima and depleted arc tholeiite lavas of the same age on Haha-jima. These extremely depleted lavas are believed to have been generated when subduction began beneath the Izu-Bonin-Mariana oceanic arc system. Subsequent rifting (35-30 Ma) formed the Bonin Trough and a 350 km long N-S trending eastern escarpment (Bonin Ridge), where we concentrated our dives. We observed lavas and volcaniclastic sequences by the four SHINKAI dives along the escarpment, and 16 fresh basaltic to andesitic lava samples have been recovered. The first three dives appear to have sampled volcanic constructs, of presumed Oligocene age, along the escarpment, whereas the last dive sampled exposures similar to Eocene rocks of the Bonin islands, including nummulitic limestone. The lava samples were analyzed by ICP-MS at Shimane University for 30 incompatible trace elements. All samples show arc-like chemical signatures, including elevated concentrations of LIL elements, depletions in Ta and Nb, and spikes in Pb, Sr, and Li. All samples show modest enrichments in LREE. A lava sample from the northernmost dive #824 is identical with the depleted tholeiite from Haha-jima Islands at the southernmost end of the Bonin Ridge in terms of trace element characteristics. Other lava samples from northern three dives (#823, #824, #825) have tholeiitic affinities with more elevated highly incompatible elements. This suggests derivation of the series of lavas by different degree of partial melting of a similar source mantle. Samples from southernmost dive site #826, immediately northwest of Chichi-jima Islands, are boninites with U-shaped REE patterns and relatively enriched Zr and

  12. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system must...

  13. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  14. Update of KSC activities for the space transportation system

    Gray, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper is a status report on the facilities and planned operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) that will support Space Shuttle launches. The conversion of KSC facilities to support efficient and economical checkout and launch operations in the era of the Space Shuttle is nearing completion. The driving force behind the KSC effort has been the necessity of providing adequate and indispensable facilities and support systems at minimum cost. This required the optimum utilization of existing buildings, equipment and systems, both at KSC and at Air Force property on Cape Canaveral, as well as the construction of two major new facilities and several minor ones. The entirely new structures discussed are the Shuttle Landing Facility and Orbiter Processing Facility. KSC stands ready to provide the rapid reliable economical landing-to-launch processing needed to ensure the success of this new space transportation system.

  15. Optimization of space system development resources

    Kosmann, William J.; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchi, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    NASA has had a decades-long problem with cost growth during the development of space science missions. Numerous agency-sponsored studies have produced average mission level cost growths ranging from 23% to 77%. A new study of 26 historical NASA Science instrument set developments using expert judgment to reallocate key development resources has an average cost growth of 73.77%. Twice in history, a barter-based mechanism has been used to reallocate key development resources during instrument development. The mean instrument set development cost growth was -1.55%. Performing a bivariate inference on the means of these two distributions, there is statistical evidence to support the claim that using a barter-based mechanism to reallocate key instrument development resources will result in a lower expected cost growth than using the expert judgment approach. Agent-based discrete event simulation is the natural way to model a trade environment. A NetLogo agent-based barter-based simulation of science instrument development was created. The agent-based model was validated against the Cassini historical example, as the starting and ending instrument development conditions are available. The resulting validated agent-based barter-based science instrument resource reallocation simulation was used to perform 300 instrument development simulations, using barter to reallocate development resources. The mean cost growth was -3.365%. A bivariate inference on the means was performed to determine that additional significant statistical evidence exists to support a claim that using barter-based resource reallocation will result in lower expected cost growth, with respect to the historical expert judgment approach. Barter-based key development resource reallocation should work on spacecraft development as well as it has worked on instrument development. A new study of 28 historical NASA science spacecraft developments has an average cost growth of 46.04%. As barter-based key

  16. A Cost Effective System Design Approach for Critical Space Systems

    Abbott, Larry Wayne; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai

    2000-01-01

    NASA-JSC required an avionics platform capable of serving a wide range of applications in a cost-effective manner. In part, making the avionics platform cost effective means adhering to open standards and supporting the integration of COTS products with custom products. Inherently, operation in space requires low power, mass, and volume while retaining high performance, reconfigurability, scalability, and upgradability. The Universal Mini-Controller project is based on a modified PC/104-Plus architecture while maintaining full compatibility with standard COTS PC/104 products. The architecture consists of a library of building block modules, which can be mixed and matched to meet a specific application. A set of NASA developed core building blocks, processor card, analog input/output card, and a Mil-Std-1553 card, have been constructed to meet critical functions and unique interfaces. The design for the processor card is based on the PowerPC architecture. This architecture provides an excellent balance between power consumption and performance, and has an upgrade path to the forthcoming radiation hardened PowerPC processor. The processor card, which makes extensive use of surface mount technology, has a 166 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, 32 Mbytes of error detected and corrected RAM, 8 Mbytes of Flash, and I Mbytes of EPROM, on a single PC/104-Plus card. Similar densities have been achieved with the quad channel Mil-Std-1553 card and the analog input/output cards. The power management built into the processor and its peripheral chip allows the power and performance of the system to be adjusted to meet the requirements of the application, allowing another dimension to the flexibility of the Universal Mini-Controller. Unique mechanical packaging allows the Universal Mini-Controller to accommodate standard COTS and custom oversized PC/104-Plus cards. This mechanical packaging also provides thermal management via conductive cooling of COTS boards, which are typically

  17. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Springer, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

  18. Transition From NASA Space Communication Systems to Commerical Communication Products

    Ghazvinian, Farzad; Lindsey, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Transitioning from twenty-five years of space communication system architecting, engineering and development to creating and marketing of commercial communication system hardware and software products is no simple task for small, high-tech system engineering companies whose major source of revenue has been the U.S. Government. Yet, many small businesses are faced with this onerous and perplexing task. The purpose of this talk/paper is to present one small business (LinCom) approach to taking advantage of the systems engineering expertise and knowledge captured in physical neural networks and simulation software by supporting numerous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) projects, e.g., Space Shuttle, TDRSS, Space Station, DCSC, Milstar, etc. The innovative ingredients needed for a systems house to transition to a wireless communication system products house that supports personal communication services and networks (PCS and PCN) development in a global economy will be discussed. Efficient methods for using past government sponsored space system research and development to transition to VLSI communication chip set products will be presented along with notions of how synergy between government and industry can be maintained to benefit both parties.

  19. A Simple Probabilistic Model for Estimating the Risk of Standard Air Dives

    Van Liew, H. D; Flynn, E. T

    2004-01-01

    ...) to be estimated in air dives. Using logistic regression, we focus on the total times spent at decompression stops For calibration data, we use carefully controlled experimental dives recorded in the U.S...

  20. Desmopression Prevents Immersion Diuresis and Improves Physical Performance After Long Duration Dives

    Nyquist, P. A; Schrot, J; Thomas, J. R; Hyde, D; Taylor, W. R

    2005-01-01

    .... Before the experimental dive, subjects received 40 microg of Desmopressin intranasally. Before and after each dive blood samples were taken, performance assessments were performed, and urine, electrolyte and hematologic values were determined...

  1. Processing of acceleration and dive data on-board satellite relay tags to investigate diving and foraging behaviour in free-ranging marine predators.

    Cox, Sam L; Orgeret, Florian; Gesta, Mathieu; Rodde, Charles; Heizer, Isaac; Weimerskirch, Henri; Guinet, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Biologging technologies are changing the way in which the marine environment is observed and monitored. However, because device retrieval is typically required to access the high-resolution data they collect, their use is generally restricted to those animals that predictably return to land. Data abstraction and transmission techniques aim to address this, although currently these are limited in scope and do not incorporate, for example, acceleration measurements which can quantify animal behaviours and movement patterns over fine-scales.In this study, we present a new method for the collection, abstraction and transmission of accelerometer data from free-ranging marine predators via the Argos satellite system. We test run the technique on 20 juvenile southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina from the Kerguelen Islands during their first months at sea following weaning. Using retrieved archival data from nine individuals that returned to the colony, we compare and validate abstracted transmissions against outputs from established accelerometer processing procedures.Abstracted transmissions included estimates, across five segments of a dive profile, of time spent in prey catch attempt (PrCA) behaviours, swimming effort and pitch. These were then summarised and compared to archival outputs across three dive phases: descent, bottom and ascent. Correlations between the two datasets were variable but generally good (dependent on dive phase, marginal R 2 values of between .45 and .6 to >.9) and consistent between individuals. Transmitted estimates of PrCA behaviours and swimming effort were positively biased to those from archival processing.Data from this study represent some of the first remotely transmitted quantifications from accelerometers. The methods presented and analysed can be used to provide novel insight towards the behaviours and movements of free-ranging marine predators, such as juvenile southern elephant seals, from whom logger retrieval is challenging

  2. A Process for Comparing Dynamics of Distributed Space Systems Simulations

    Cures, Edwin Z.; Jackson, Albert A.; Morris, Jeffery C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a process that was developed for comparing the primary orbital dynamics behavior between space systems distributed simulations. This process is used to characterize and understand the fundamental fidelities and compatibilities of the modeling of orbital dynamics between spacecraft simulations. This is required for high-latency distributed simulations such as NASA s Integrated Mission Simulation and must be understood when reporting results from simulation executions. This paper presents 10 principal comparison tests along with their rationale and examples of the results. The Integrated Mission Simulation (IMSim) (formerly know as the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)) is a NASA research and development project focusing on the technologies and processes that are related to the collaborative simulation of complex space systems involved in the exploration of our solar system. Currently, the NASA centers that are actively participating in the IMSim project are the Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Kennedy Space Center, the Langley Research Center and the Marshall Space Flight Center. In concept, each center participating in IMSim has its own set of simulation models and environment(s). These simulation tools are used to build the various simulation products that are used for scientific investigation, engineering analysis, system design, training, planning, operations and more. Working individually, these production simulations provide important data to various NASA projects.

  3. Alenia Spazio: Space Programs for Solar System Exploration .

    Ferri, A.

    Alenia Spazio is the major Italian space industry and one of the largest in Europe, with 2,400 highly skilled employees and 16,000 square meters of clean rooms and laboratories for advanced technological research that are among the most modern and well-equipped in Europe. The company has wide experience in the design, development, assembly, integration, verification and testing of complete space systems: satellites for telecommunications and navigation, remote sensing, meteorology and scientific applications; manned systems and space infrastructures; launch, transport and re-entry systems, and control centres. Alenia Spazio has contributed to the construction of over 200 satellites and taken part in the most important national and international space programmes, from the International Space Station to the new European global navigation system Galileo. Focusing on Solar System exploration, in the last 10 years the Company took part, with different roles, to the major European and also NASA missions in the field: Rosetta, Mars Express, Cassini; will soon take part in Venus Express, and is planning the future with Bepi Colombo, Solar Orbiter, GAIA and Exomars. In this paper, as in the presentation, a very important Earth Observation mission is also presented: GOCE. All in all, the Earth is by all means part of the Solar system as well and we like to see it as a planet to be explored.

  4. Air liquide's space pulse tube cryocooler systems

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Buquet, J.; Ravex, A.

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to important development efforts completed with ESA funding, Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division (AL/DTA), is now in position to propose two Pulse Tube cooler systems in the 40-80K temperature range for coming Earth Observation missions such as Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), SIFTI, etc… The Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) is lifting up to 2.47W@80K with 50W compressor input power and 10°C rejection temperature. The weight is 2.8 kg. The Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) is providing 2.3W@50K for 160W input power and 10°C rejection temperature. This product is weighing 5.1 kg. The two pulse tube coolers thermo-mechanical units are qualified against environmental constraints as per ECSS-E-30. They are both using dual opposed pistons flexure bearing compressor with moving magnet linear motors in order to ensure very high lifetime. The associated Cooler Drive Electronics is also an important aspect specifically regarding the active control of the cooler thermo-mechanical unit during the launch phase and the active reduction of the vibrations induced by the compressor (partly supported by the French Agency CNES). This paper details the presentation of the two Pulse Tube Coolers together with the Cooler Drive Electronics aspects.

  5. Design of annual storage solar space heating systems

    Hooper, F C; Cook, J D

    1979-11-01

    Design considerations for annual storage solar space heating systems are discussed. A simulation model for the performance of suh systems is described, and a method of classifying system configurations is proposed. It is shown that annual systems sized for unconstrained performance, with no unused collector or storage capacity, and no rejected heat, minimize solar acquisition costs. The optimal performance corresponds to the condition where the marginal storage-to-collector sizing ratio is equal to the corresponding marginal cost ratio.

  6. SpaceCube v2.0 Space Flight Hybrid Reconfigurable Data Processing System

    Petrick, Dave

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the design architecture, design methodology, and the advantages of the SpaceCube v2.0 high performance data processing system for space applications. The purpose in building the SpaceCube v2.0 system is to create a superior high performance, reconfigurable, hybrid data processing system that can be used in a multitude of applications including those that require a radiation hardened and reliable solution. The SpaceCube v2.0 system leverages seven years of board design, avionics systems design, and space flight application experiences. This paper shows how SpaceCube v2.0 solves the increasing computing demands of space data processing applications that cannot be attained with a standalone processor approach.The main objective during the design stage is to find a good system balance between power, size, reliability, cost, and data processing capability. These design variables directly impact each other, and it is important to understand how to achieve a suitable balance. This paper will detail how these critical design factors were managed including the construction of an Engineering Model for an experiment on the International Space Station to test out design concepts. We will describe the designs for the processor card, power card, backplane, and a mission unique interface card. The mechanical design for the box will also be detailed since it is critical in meeting the stringent thermal and structural requirements imposed by the processing system. In addition, the mechanical design uses advanced thermal conduction techniques to solve the internal thermal challenges.The SpaceCube v2.0 processing system is based on an extended version of the 3U cPCI standard form factor where each card is 190mm x 100mm in size The typical power draw of the processor card is 8 to 10W and scales with application complexity. The SpaceCube v2.0 data processing card features two Xilinx Virtex-5 QV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), eight memory modules, a monitor

  7. Dive Tourism and Local Communities: Active Participation or Subject to Impacts?Case Studies from Malaysia

    Daldeniz, Bilge; Hampton, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Dive tourism impacts were examined in three Malaysian islands: Perhentian(backpackers), Redang (package tourism) and Mabul (upmarket dive tourism). Qualitative local participation approaches were applied to investigate whether host communities were merely reactive to dive tourism’s impacts. Dive tourism affected many aspects of community life. Besides physical/environmental impacts (new infrastructure), research found varied economic impacts including employment/business opportunities and dif...

  8. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    Hayrettin Toylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples.

  9. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  10. New Space Weather Systems Under Development and Their Contribution to Space Weather Management

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Schunk, R.; Garrett, H.; Mertens, C.; Bowman, B.

    2008-12-01

    There have been notable successes during the past decade in the development of operational space environment systems. Examples include the Magnetospheric Specification Model (MSM) of the Earth's magnetosphere, 2000; SOLAR2000 (S2K) solar spectral irradiances, 2001; High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) neutral atmosphere densities, 2004; Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) ionosphere specification, 2006; Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry (HAF) solar wind parameters, 2007; Communication Alert and Prediction System (CAPS) ionosphere, high frequency radio, and scintillation S4 index prediction, 2008; and GEO Alert and Prediction System (GAPS) geosynchronous environment satellite charging specification and forecast, 2008. Operational systems that are in active operational implementation include the Jacchia-Bowman 2006/2008 (JB2006/2008) neutral atmosphere, 2009, and the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) aviation radiation model using the Radiation Alert and Prediction System (RAPS), 2010. U.S. national agency and commercial assets will soon reach a state where specification and prediction will become ubiquitous and where coordinated management of the space environment and space weather will become a necessity. We describe the status of the CAPS, GAPS, RAPS, and JB2008 operational development. We additionally discuss the conditions that are laying the groundwork for space weather management and estimate the unfilled needs as we move beyond specification and prediction efforts.

  11. Dive and Explore: An Interactive Web Visualization that Simulates Making an ROV Dive to an Active Submarine Volcano

    Weiland, C.; Chadwick, W. W.

    2004-12-01

    Several years ago we created an exciting and engaging multimedia exhibit for the Hatfield Marine Science Center that lets visitors simulate making a dive to the seafloor with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) named ROPOS. The exhibit immerses the user in an interactive experience that is naturally fun but also educational. The public display is located at the Hatfield Marine Science Visitor Center in Newport, Oregon. We are now completing a revision to the project that will make this engaging virtual exploration accessible to a much larger audience. With minor modifications we will be able to put the exhibit onto the world wide web so that any person with internet access can view and learn about exciting volcanic and hydrothermal activity at Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The modifications address some cosmetic and logistic ISSUES confronted in the museum environment, but will mainly involve compressing video clips so they can be delivered more efficiently over the internet. The web version, like the museum version, will allow users to choose from 1 of 3 different dives sites in the caldera of Axial Volcano. The dives are based on real seafloor settings at Axial seamount, an active submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (NE Pacific) that is also the location of a seafloor observatory called NeMO. Once a dive is chosen, then the user watches ROPOS being deployed and then arrives into a 3-D computer-generated seafloor environment that is based on the real world but is easier to visualize and navigate. Once on the bottom, the user is placed within a 360 degree panorama and can look in all directions by manipulating the computer mouse. By clicking on markers embedded in the scene, the user can then either move to other panorama locations via movies that travel through the 3-D virtual environment, or they can play video clips from actual ROPOS dives specifically related to that scene. Audio accompanying the video clips informs the user where they are

  12. System theory on group manifolds and coset spaces.

    Brockett, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study questions regarding controllability, observability, and realization theory for a particular class of systems for which the state space is a differentiable manifold which is simultaneously a group or, more generally, a coset space. We show that it is possible to give rather explicit expressions for the reachable set and the set of indistinguishable states in the case of autonomous systems. We also establish a type of state space isomorphism theorem. Our objective is to reduce all questions about the system to questions about Lie algebras generated from the coefficient matrices entering in the description of the system and in that way arrive at conditions which are easily visualized and tested.

  13. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-08-01

    Nucler power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper

  14. SP-100 Program: space reactor system and subsystem investigations

    Harty, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    For a space reactor power system, a comprehensive safety program will be required to assure that no undue risk is present. This report summarizes the nuclear safety review/approval process that will be required for a space reactor system. The documentation requirements are presented along with a summary of the required contents of key documents. Finally, the aerospace safety program conducted for the SNAP-10A reactor system is summarized. The results of this program are presented to show the type of program that can be expected and to provide information that could be usable in future programs

  15. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper

  16. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identific...

  17. Space Moves: Adding Movement to Solar System Lessons

    Jenkins, Deborah Bainer; Heidorn, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Earth and space science figure prominently in the National Science Education Standards for levels 5-8 (NRC 1996). The Earth in the Solar System standard focuses on students' ability to understand (1) the composition of the solar system (Earth, Moon, Sun, planets with their moons, and smaller objects like asteroids and comets) and (2) that…

  18. Cooperating expert systems for space station power distribution management

    Nguyen, T.A.; Chiou, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    In a complex system such as the manned Space Station, it is deemed necessary that many expert systems must perform tasks in a concurrent and cooperative manner. An important question to arise is: what cooperative-task-performing models are appropriate for multiple expert systems to jointly perform tasks. The solution to this question will provide a crucial automation design criteria for the Space Station complex systems architecture. Based on a client/server model for performing tasks, the authors have developed a system that acts as a front-end to support loosely-coupled communications between expert systems running on multiple Symbolics machines. As an example, they use the two ART*-based expert systems to demonstrate the concept of parallel symbolic manipulation for power distribution management and dynamic load planner/scheduler in the simulated Space Station environment. This on-going work will also explore other cooperative-task-performing models as alternatives which can evaluate inter and intra expert system communication mechanisms. It will serve as a testbed and a bench-marking tool for other Space Station expert subsystem communication and information exchange

  19. Cooperating Expert Systems For Space Station Power Distribution Management

    Nguyen, T. A.; Chiou, W. C.

    1987-02-01

    In a complex system such as the manned Space Station, it is deem necessary that many expert systems must perform tasks in a concurrent and cooperative manner. An important question arise is: what cooperative-task-performing models are appropriate for multiple expert systems to jointly perform tasks. The solution to this question will provide a crucial automation design criteria for the Space Station complex systems architecture. Based on a client/server model for performing tasks, we have developed a system that acts as a front-end to support loosely-coupled communications between expert systems running on multiple Symbolics machines. As an example, we use two ART*-based expert systems to demonstrate the concept of parallel symbolic manipulation for power distribution management and dynamic load planner/scheduler in the simulated Space Station environment. This on-going work will also explore other cooperative-task-performing models as alternatives which can evaluate inter and intra expert system communication mechanisms. It will be served as a testbed and a bench-marking tool for other Space Station expert subsystem communication and information exchange.

  20. A critical systems perspective on the design of organizational space

    Mobach, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first to introduce critical systems thinking into a new emerging research strand: the design of organizational space. The study revealed two things. First, critical systems thinking provides a thorough framework to understand the possibilities to connect organization and building;

  1. TDA Assessment of Recommendations for Space Data System Standards

    Posner, E. C.; Stevens, R.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is participating in the development of international standards for space data systems. Recommendations for standards thus far developed are assessed. The proposed standards for telemetry coding and packet telemetry provide worthwhile benefit to the DSN; their cost impact to the DSN should be small. Because of their advantage to the NASA space exploration program, their adoption should be supported by TDA, JPL, and OSTDS.

  2. Urban Space Explorer: A Visual Analytics System for Urban Planning.

    Karduni, Alireza; Cho, Isaac; Wessel, Ginette; Ribarsky, William; Sauda, Eric; Dou, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    Understanding people's behavior is fundamental to many planning professions (including transportation, community development, economic development, and urban design) that rely on data about frequently traveled routes, places, and social and cultural practices. Based on the results of a practitioner survey, the authors designed Urban Space Explorer, a visual analytics system that utilizes mobile social media to enable interactive exploration of public-space-related activity along spatial, temporal, and semantic dimensions.

  3. Foraging dives by post-breeding northern pintails

    Miller, Michael R.

    1983-01-01

    Dabbling ducks (Anatini), including Northern Pintails (Anas acuta), typically feed by “tipping-up” (Bellrose, Ducks, Geese, and Swans of North America, Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1976) in shallow water. Pintails are not as adapted for diving as members of Aythyini or Oxyurini (Catlett and Johnston, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 47A:925-931, 1974); however, incidents of foraging dives by small numbers of pintails have been reported (Chapman et al., Br. Birds 52:60, 1959; Bourget and Chapdelaine, Wildfowl 26:55-57, 1975). This paper reports on forage diving by a flock of several hundred pintails. Ecological explanations are suggested to account for the behavior and comparisons with tip-up feeding are presented.

  4. Physiological constraints and energetic costs of diving behaviour in marine mammals: a review of studies using trained Steller sea lions diving in the open ocean.

    Rosen, David A S; Hindle, Allyson G; Gerlinsky, Carling D; Goundie, Elizabeth; Hastie, Gordon D; Volpov, Beth L; Trites, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    Marine mammals are characterized as having physiological specializations that maximize the use of oxygen stores to prolong time spent under water. However, it has been difficult to undertake the requisite controlled studies to determine the physiological limitations and trade-offs that marine mammals face while diving in the wild under varying environmental and nutritional conditions. For the past decade, Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) trained to swim and dive in the open ocean away from the physical confines of pools participated in studies that investigated the interactions between diving behaviour, energetic costs, physiological constraints, and prey availability. Many of these studies measured the cost of diving to understand how it varies with behaviour and environmental and physiological conditions. Collectively, these studies show that the type of diving (dive bouts or single dives), the level of underwater activity, the depth and duration of dives, and the nutritional status and physical condition of the animal affect the cost of diving and foraging. They show that dive depth, dive and surface duration, and the type of dive result in physiological adjustments (heart rate, gas exchange) that may be independent of energy expenditure. They also demonstrate that changes in prey abundance and nutritional status cause sea lions to alter the balance between time spent at the surface acquiring oxygen (and offloading CO 2 and other metabolic by-products) and time spent at depth acquiring prey. These new insights into the physiological basis of diving behaviour further our understanding of the potential scope for behavioural responses of marine mammals to environmental changes, the energetic significance of these adjustments, and the consequences of approaching physiological limits.

  5. A Markovian state-space framework for integrating flexibility into space system design decisions

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    The past decades have seen the state of the art in aerospace system design progress from a scope of simple optimization to one including robustness, with the objective of permitting a single system to perform well even in off-nominal future environments. Integrating flexibility, or the capability to easily modify a system after it has been fielded in response to changing environments, into system design represents a further step forward. One challenge in accomplishing this rests in that the decision-maker must consider not only the present system design decision, but also sequential future design and operation decisions. Despite extensive interest in the topic, the state of the art in designing flexibility into aerospace systems, and particularly space systems, tends to be limited to analyses that are qualitative, deterministic, single-objective, and/or limited to consider a single future time period. To address these gaps, this thesis develops a stochastic, multi-objective, and multi-period framework for integrating flexibility into space system design decisions. Central to the framework are five steps. First, system configuration options are identified and costs of switching from one configuration to another are compiled into a cost transition matrix. Second, probabilities that demand on the system will transition from one mission to another are compiled into a mission demand Markov chain. Third, one performance matrix for each design objective is populated to describe how well the identified system configurations perform in each of the identified mission demand environments. The fourth step employs multi-period decision analysis techniques, including Markov decision processes from the field of operations research, to find efficient paths and policies a decision-maker may follow. The final step examines the implications of these paths and policies for the primary goal of informing initial system selection. Overall, this thesis unifies state-centric concepts of

  6. Dark chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction after successive breath-hold dives in cool water.

    Theunissen, Sigrid; Schumacker, Julie; Guerrero, François; Tillmans, Frauke; Boutros, Antoine; Lambrechts, Kate; Mazur, Aleksandra; Pieri, Massimo; Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a series of successive apnea dives in non-thermoneutral water. Twenty breath-hold divers were divided into two groups: a control group (8 males and 2 females) and a chocolate group (9 males and 1 female). The control group was asked to perform a series of dives to 20 m adding up to 20 min in the quiet diving pool of Conflans-Ste-Honorine (Paris, France), water temperature was 27 °C. The chocolate group performed the dives 1 h after ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), digital photoplethysmography, nitric oxide (NO), and peroxynitrite ONOO−) levels were measured before and after each series of breath-hold dives. A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dives (95.28 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p chocolate group (104.1 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p chocolate group (98.44 ± 31.86 %, p > 0.05). No differences in digital photoplethysmography and peroxynitrites were observed between before and after the dives. Antioxidants contained in dark chocolate scavenge free radicals produced during breath-hold diving. Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 1 h before the dive can thus prevent endothelial dysfunction which can be observed after a series of breath-hold dives.

  7. Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks

    Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert

    2013-01-01

    System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its

  8. X-framework: Space system failure analysis framework

    Newman, John Steven

    Space program and space systems failures result in financial losses in the multi-hundred million dollar range every year. In addition to financial loss, space system failures may also represent the loss of opportunity, loss of critical scientific, commercial and/or national defense capabilities, as well as loss of public confidence. The need exists to improve learning and expand the scope of lessons documented and offered to the space industry project team. One of the barriers to incorporating lessons learned include the way in which space system failures are documented. Multiple classes of space system failure information are identified, ranging from "sound bite" summaries in space insurance compendia, to articles in journals, lengthy data-oriented (what happened) reports, and in some rare cases, reports that treat not only the what, but also the why. In addition there are periodically published "corporate crisis" reports, typically issued after multiple or highly visible failures that explore management roles in the failure, often within a politically oriented context. Given the general lack of consistency, it is clear that a good multi-level space system/program failure framework with analytical and predictive capability is needed. This research effort set out to develop such a model. The X-Framework (x-fw) is proposed as an innovative forensic failure analysis approach, providing a multi-level understanding of the space system failure event beginning with the proximate cause, extending to the directly related work or operational processes and upward through successive management layers. The x-fw focus is on capability and control at the process level and examines: (1) management accountability and control, (2) resource and requirement allocation, and (3) planning, analysis, and risk management at each level of management. The x-fw model provides an innovative failure analysis approach for acquiring a multi-level perspective, direct and indirect causation of

  9. From Living Space to Cultural Space: How a Modern University Academy System Is Possible

    Zhang, Yingqiang; Fang, Hualiang

    2018-01-01

    The reforms on the modern university academy system that preserve certain elements of China's ancient traditional academies have currently encountered a series of difficulties. The crux of the problem is that living and educational spaces were integrated in the traditional academy, while modern school education institution has separated the two.…

  10. Analysis of space systems study for the space disposal of nuclear waste study report. Volume 2: Technical report

    1981-01-01

    Reasonable space systems concepts were systematically identified and defined and a total system was evaluated for the space disposal of nuclear wastes. Areas studied include space destinations, space transportation options, launch site options payload protection approaches, and payload rescue techniques. Systems level cost and performance trades defined four alternative space systems which deliver payloads to the selected 0.85 AU heliocentric orbit destination at least as economically as the reference system without requiring removal of the protective radiation shield container. No concepts significantly less costly than the reference concept were identified.

  11. Designing astrophysics missions for NASA's Space Launch System

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David Alan; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-10-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope was specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultrahigh-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and an LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8- or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45 mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper introduces the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, provides a simple mass allocation recipe for designing large space telescope missions to this capacity, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope, and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  12. Potential large missions enabled by NASA's space launch system

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David A.; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-07-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  13. Potential Large Decadal Missions Enabled by Nasas Space Launch System

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David Alan; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  14. Large-scale extraction of gene interactions from full-text literature using DeepDive.

    Mallory, Emily K; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher; Altman, Russ B

    2016-01-01

    A complete repository of gene-gene interactions is key for understanding cellular processes, human disease and drug response. These gene-gene interactions include both protein-protein interactions and transcription factor interactions. The majority of known interactions are found in the biomedical literature. Interaction databases, such as BioGRID and ChEA, annotate these gene-gene interactions; however, curation becomes difficult as the literature grows exponentially. DeepDive is a trained system for extracting information from a variety of sources, including text. In this work, we used DeepDive to extract both protein-protein and transcription factor interactions from over 100,000 full-text PLOS articles. We built an extractor for gene-gene interactions that identified candidate gene-gene relations within an input sentence. For each candidate relation, DeepDive computed a probability that the relation was a correct interaction. We evaluated this system against the Database of Interacting Proteins and against randomly curated extractions. Our system achieved 76% precision and 49% recall in extracting direct and indirect interactions involving gene symbols co-occurring in a sentence. For randomly curated extractions, the system achieved between 62% and 83% precision based on direct or indirect interactions, as well as sentence-level and document-level precision. Overall, our system extracted 3356 unique gene pairs using 724 features from over 100,000 full-text articles. Application source code is publicly available at https://github.com/edoughty/deepdive_genegene_app russ.altman@stanford.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Channel coding in the space station data system network

    Healy, T.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed discussion of the use of channel coding for error correction, privacy/secrecy, channel separation, and synchronization is presented. Channel coding, in one form or another, is an established and common element in data systems. No analysis and design of a major new system would fail to consider ways in which channel coding could make the system more effective. The presence of channel coding on TDRS, Shuttle, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite Program system, the JSC-proposed Space Operations Center, and the proposed 30/20 GHz Satellite Communication System strongly support the requirement for the utilization of coding for the communications channel. The designers of the space station data system have to consider the use of channel coding.

  16. Expert systems for space power supply: design, analysis, and evaluation

    Cooper, R.S.; Thomson, M.K.; Hoshor, A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors evaluated the feasibility of applying expert systems to the conceptual design, analysis, and evaluation of space power supplies in particular, and complex systems in general. To do this, they analyzed the space power supply design process and in associated knowledge base, and characterized them in a form suitable for computer emulation of a human expert. The existing expert system tools and the results achieved with them were evaluated to assess their applicability to power system design. They applied some new concepts for combining program architectures (modular expert systems and algorithms) with information about the domain to create a deep system for handling the complex design problem. They authors developed, programmed and tested NOVICE, a code to solve a simplified version of a scoping study of a wide variety of power supply types for a broad range of missions, as a concrete feasibility demonstration

  17. Refractory metal alloys and composites for space power systems

    Stephens, J.R.; Petrasek, D.W.; Titran, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Space power requirements for future NASA and other United States missions will range from a few kilowatts to megawatts of electricity. Maximum efficiency is a key goal of any power system in order to minimize weight and size so that the space shuttle may be used a minimum number of times to put the power supply into orbit. Nuclear power has been identified as the primary power source to meet these high levels of electrical demand. One method to achieve maximum efficiency is to operate the power supply, energy conversion system, and related components at relatively high temperatures. NASA Lewis Research Center has undertaken a research program on advanced technology of refractory metal alloys and composites that will provide base line information for space power systems in the 1900's and the 21st century. Basic research on the tensile and creep properties of fibers, matrices, and composites will be discussed

  18. CCSDS telemetry systems experience at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    Carper, Richard D.; Stallings, William H., III

    1990-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designs, builds, manages, and operates science and applications spacecraft in near-earth orbit, and provides data capture, data processing, and flight control services for these spacecraft. In addition, GSFC has the responsibility of providing space-ground and ground-ground communications for near-earth orbiting spacecraft, including those of the manned spaceflight programs. The goal of reducing both the developmental and operating costs of the end-to-end information system has led the GSFC to support and participate in the standardization activities of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), including those for packet telemetry. The environment in which such systems function is described, and the GSFC experience with CCSDS packet telemetry in the context of the Gamma-Ray Observatory project is discussed.

  19. Space systems for disaster warning, response, and recovery

    Madry, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a general overview of the role of satellite applications for disaster mitigation, warning, planning, recovery and response. It covers both the overall role and perspective of the emergency management community as well as the various space applications that support their work. Key insights are provided as to how satellite telecommunications, remote sensing, navigation systems, GIS, and the emerging domain of social media are utilized in the context of emergency management needs and requirements. These systems are now critical in addressing major man-made and natural disasters. International policy and treaties are covered along with various case studies from around the world. These case studies indicate vital lessons that have been learned about how to use space systems more effectively in addressing the so-called “Disaster Cycle.” This book is appropriate for practicing emergency managers, Emergency Management (EM) courses, as well as for those involved in various space applica...

  20. Lie-Hamilton systems on curved spaces: a geometrical approach

    Herranz, Francisco J.; de Lucas, Javier; Tobolski, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    A Lie-Hamilton system is a nonautonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional Lie algebra, a Vessiot-Guldberg Lie algebra, of Hamiltonian vector fields relative to a Poisson structure. Its general solution can be written as an autonomous function, the superposition rule, of a generic finite family of particular solutions and a set of constants. We pioneer the study of Lie-Hamilton systems on Riemannian spaces (sphere, Euclidean and hyperbolic plane), pseudo-Riemannian spaces (anti-de Sitter, de Sitter, and Minkowski spacetimes) as well as on semi-Riemannian spaces (Newtonian spacetimes). Their corresponding constants of motion and superposition rules are obtained explicitly in a geometric way. This work extends the (graded) contraction of Lie algebras to a contraction procedure for Lie algebras of vector fields, Hamiltonian functions, and related symplectic structures, invariants, and superposition rules.

  1. Integrable systems with quadratic nonlinearity in Fourier space

    Marikhin, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    The Lax pair representation in Fourier space is used to obtain a list of integrable scalar evolutionary equations with quadratic nonlinearity. The known systems of this type such as KdV, intermediate long-wave equation (ILW), Camassa-Holm and Degasperis-Procesi systems are represented in this list. Some new systems are obtained as well. Two-dimensional and discrete generalizations are discussed

  2. UniSat-5: a space-based optical system for space debris monitoring

    Di Roberto, Riccardo; Cappelletti, Chantal

    2012-07-01

    Micro-satellite missions, thanks to the miniaturization process of electronic components, now have a broader range of applications. Gauss Group at School of Aerospace Engineering has been a pioneer in educational micro-satellites, namely with UNISAT and EDUSAT missions. Moreover it has been long involved in space debris related studies, such as optical observations as well as mitigation. A new project is under development for a compact digital imaging system. The purpose will be in situ observation of space debris on board Unisat-5 micro-satellite. One of the key elements of observing on orbit is that many atmospheric phenomena would be avoided, such as diffraction and EM absorption. Hence images would gain more contrast and solar spectral irradiance would be higher for the whole visible spectrum Earlier limitations of power and instrument size prevented the inclusion of these payloads in educational satellite missions. The system is composed of an optical tube, a camera, C band and S band transceivers and two antennas. The system is independent from the rest of the spacecraft. The optical tube is a Schmidt-Cassegrain reflector, and the magnitude limit is 13. The camera is equipped with a panchromatic 5Mpix sensor, capable of direct video streaming, as well as local storage of recorded images. The transceivers operate on ISM 2.4GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi bands, and they provide stand-alone communication capabilities to the payload, and Unisat-5 OBDH can switch between the two. Both transceivers are connected to their respective custom-designed patch antenna. The ground segment is constituted of a high gain antenna dish, which will use the same transceiver on board the spacecraft as the feed, in order to establish a TCP/IP wireless link. Every component of this system is a consumer grade product. Therefore price reduction of cutting edge imaging technology now allows the use of professional instruments, that combined with the new wireless technology developed for

  3. Development of a Space Station Operations Management System

    Brandli, A. E.; McCandless, W. T.

    To enhance the productivity of operations aboard the Space Station, a means must be provided to augment, and frequently to supplant, human effort in support of mission operations and management, both on the ground and onboard. The Operations Management System (OMS), under development at the Johnson Space Center, is one such means. OMS comprises the tools and procedures to facilitate automation of station monitoring, control, and mission planning tasks. OMS mechanizes, and hence rationalizes, execution of tasks traditionally performed by mission planners, the mission control center team, onboard System Management software, and the flight crew.

  4. Development of a Space Station Operations Management System

    Brandli, A. E.; Mccandless, W. T.

    1988-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of operations aboard the Space Station, a means must be provided to augment, and frequently to supplant, human effort in support of mission operations and management, both on the ground and onboard. The Operations Management System (OMS), under development at the Johnson Space Center, is one such means. OMS comprises the tools and procedures to facilitate automation of station monitoring, control, and mission planning tasks. OMS mechanizes, and hence rationalizes, execution of tasks traditionally performed by mission planners, the mission control center team, onboard System Management software, and the flight crew.

  5. Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System for the International Space Station

    Williams, David E.; Dick, Brandon; Cook, Tony; Leonard, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) requires stores of Oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2) to provide for atmosphere replenishment, direct crew member usage, and payload operations. Currently, supplies of N2/O2 are maintained by transfer from the Space Shuttle. Following Space Shuttle is retirement in 2010, an alternate means of resupplying N2/O2 to the ISS is needed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has determined that the optimal method of supplying the ISS with O2/N2 is using tanks of high pressure N2/O2 carried to the station by a cargo vehicle capable of docking with the ISS. This paper will outline the architecture of the system selected by NASA and will discuss some of the design challenges associated with this use of high pressure oxygen and nitrogen in the human spaceflight environment.

  6. The Center for Space Telemetering and Telecommunications Systems

    Horan, S.; DeLeon, P.; Borah, D.; Lyman, R.

    2003-01-01

    This report comprises the final technical report for the research grant 'Center for Space Telemetering and Telecommunications Systems' sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. The grant activities are broken down into the following technology areas: (1) Space Protocol Testing; (2) Autonomous Reconfiguration of Ground Station Receivers; (3) Satellite Cluster Communications; and (4) Bandwidth Efficient Modulation. The grant activity produced a number of technical reports and papers that were communicated to NASA as they were generated. This final report contains the final summary papers or final technical report conclusions for each of the project areas. Additionally, the grant supported students who made progress towards their degrees while working on the research.

  7. SPECIAL COLLOQUIUM : Building a Commercial Space Launch System and the Role of Space Tourism in the Future (exceptionally on Tuesday)

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The talk will explore a little of the history of space launch systems and rocketry, will explain why commercial space tourism did not take off after Apollo, and what is happening right now with commercial space systems such as Virgin's, utilising advances in aerospace technology not exploited by conventional ground-based rocket systems. I will then explain the Virgin Galactic technology, its business plan as a US-regulated space tourism company, and the nature of its applications. I will then go on to say a little of how our system can be utilised for sub-orbital space science based on a commercial business plan

  8. War-gaming application for future space systems acquisition

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.

    2016-05-01

    Recently the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) released the Defense Innovation Initiative (DII) [1] to focus DOD on five key aspects; Aspect #1: Recruit talented and innovative people, Aspect #2: Reinvigorate war-gaming, Aspect #3: Initiate long-range research and development programs, Aspect #4: Make DOD practices more innovative, and Aspect #5: Advance technology and new operational concepts. Per DII instruction, this paper concentrates on Aspect #2 and Aspect #4 by reinvigorating the war-gaming effort with a focus on an innovative approach for developing the optimum Program and Technical Baselines (PTBs) and their corresponding optimum acquisition strategies for acquiring future space systems. The paper describes a unified approach for applying the war-gaming concept for future DOD acquisition of space systems. The proposed approach includes a Unified Game-based Acquisition Framework (UGAF) and an Advanced Game-Based Mathematical Framework (AGMF) using Bayesian war-gaming engines to optimize PTB solutions and select the corresponding optimum acquisition strategies for acquiring a space system. The framework defines the action space for all players with a complete description of the elements associated with the games, including Department of Defense Acquisition Authority (DAA), stakeholders, warfighters, and potential contractors, War-Gaming Engines (WGEs) played by DAA, WGEs played by Contractor (KTR), and the players' Payoff and Cost functions (PCFs). The AGMF presented here addresses both complete and incomplete information cases. The proposed framework provides a recipe for the DAA and USAF-Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) to acquire future space systems optimally.

  9. Architecture Design for the Space Situational Awareness System in the Preparedness Plan for Space Hazards of Republic of Korea

    Choi, E.; Cho, S.; Shin, S.; Park, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, D.

    The threat posed by asteroids and comets has become one of the important issues. Jinju meteorite discovered in March 2014 has expanded the interest of the people of the fall of the natural space objects. Furthermore, the growing quantity of space debris is a serious threat to satellites and other spacecraft, which risk being damaged or even destroyed. In May of 2014, Korea established the preparedness plan for space hazards according to the space development promotion act which is amended to take action with respect to hazards from space. This plan is largely composed of 3 items such as system, technology and infrastructure. System is included the establishment and management of national space hazards headquarters at risk situation. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) was designated as a space environment monitoring agency under the ministry of science, ICT and future planning (MSIP). Technology is supposed to develop the space situational awareness system that can monitor and detect space objects. For infrastructure, research and development of core technology will be promoted for capabilities improvement of space hazards preparedness such as software tools, application and data systems. This paper presents the architectural design for building space situational awareness system. The trade-off study of space situational awareness system for the Korea situation was performed. The results have shown the proposed architectural design. The baseline architecture is composed of Integrated Analysis System and Space Objects Monitoring System. Integrated Analysis System collects the status data from Space Objects Monitoring System and analyzes the space risk information through a data processing. For Space Objects Monitoring System, the all-sky surveillance camera, array radar and meteoroid surveillance sensor networks were considered. This system focuses on not only the threat of a large artificial satellite and natural space objects such as asteroids that

  10. A Unique Photon Bombardment System for Space Applications

    Klein, E. J.

    1993-01-01

    The innovative Electromagnetic Radiation Collection and Concentration System (EMRCCS) described is the foundation for the development of a multiplicity of space and terrestrial system formats. The system capability allows its use in the visual, infrared, and ultraviolet ranges of the spectrum for EM collection, concentration, source/receptor tracking, and targeting. The nonimaging modular optical system uses a physically static position aperture for EM radiation collection. Folded optics provide the concentration of the radiation and source autotracking. The collected and concentrated electromagnetic radiation is utilized in many applications, e.g., solar spectrum in thermal and associative photon bombardment applications for hazardous waste management, water purification, metal hardening, hydrogen generation, photovoltaics, etc., in both space and terrestrial segment utilization. Additionally, at the high end of the concentration capability range, i.e., 60,000+, a solar-pulsed laser system is possible.

  11. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  12. Marshall Space Flight Center Ground Systems Development and Integration

    Wade, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Ground Systems Development and Integration performs a variety of tasks in support of the Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) and other Center and Agency projects. These tasks include various systems engineering processes such as performing system requirements development, system architecture design, integration, verification and validation, software development, and sustaining engineering of mission operations systems that has evolved the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) into a leader in remote operations for current and future NASA space projects. The group is also responsible for developing and managing telemetry and command configuration and calibration databases. Personnel are responsible for maintaining and enhancing their disciplinary skills in the areas of project management, software engineering, software development, software process improvement, telecommunications, networking, and systems management. Domain expertise in the ground systems area is also maintained and includes detailed proficiency in the areas of real-time telemetry systems, command systems, voice, video, data networks, and mission planning systems.

  13. Persistent (patent) foramen ovale (PFO): implications for safe diving.

    Germonpré, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Diving medicine is a peculiar specialty. There are physicians and scientists from a wide variety of disciplines with an interest in diving and who all practice 'diving medicine': the study of the complex whole-body physiological changes and interactions upon immersion and emersion. To understand these, the science of physics and molecular gas and fluid movements comes into play. The ultimate goal of practicing diving medicine is to preserve the diver's health, both during and after the dive. Good medicine starts with prevention. For most divers, underwater excursions are not a professional necessity but a hobby; avoidance of risk is generally a much better option than risk mitigation or cure. However, prevention of diving illnesses seems to be even more difficult than treating those illnesses. The papers contained in this issue of DHM are a nice mix of various aspects of PFO that divers are interested in, all of them written by specialist doctors who are avid divers themselves. However, diving medicine should also take advantage of research from the "non-diving" medicine community, and PFO is a prime example. Cardiology and neurology have studied PFO for as long, or even longer than divers have been the subjects of PFO research, and with much greater numbers and resources. Unexplained stroke has been associated with PFO, as has severe migraine with aura. As the association seems to be strong, investigating the effect of PFO closure was a logical step. Devices have been developed and perfected, allowing now for a relatively low-risk procedure to 'solve the PFO problem'. However, as with many things in science, the results have not been as spectacular as hoped for: patients still get recurrences of stroke, still have migraine attacks. The risk-benefit ratio of PFO closure for these non-diving diseases is still debated. For diving, we now face a similar problem. Let there be no doubt that PFO is a pathway through which venous gas emboli (VGE) can arterialize, given

  14. Comments on Current Space Systems Observing the Climate

    Fisk, L. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), which was established in 1992, has been effective in specifying the observations needed for climate studies, and advocating that these observations be made. As a result, there are essential climate variables being observed, particularly from space, and these have formed the basis for our ever-improving models of how the Earth system functions and the human impact on it. We cannot conclude, however, that the current observing system in space is adequate. Climate change is accelerating, and we need to ensure that our observations capture, with completeness and with proper resolution and cadence, the most important changes. Perhaps of most significance, we need to use observations from space to guide the mitigation and adaptation strategies on which at last our civilization seems prepared to embark. And we need to use our observations to educate particularly policy makers on the reality of climate change, so that none deny the need to act. COSPAR is determined to play its part in highlighting the need to strengthen the climate observing system and notably its research component. This is being accomplished through events like the present roundtable, through the work of its Scientific Commission A, its Task Group on GEO (where COSPAR is serving as a member of its Program Board), and by promoting among space agencies and policy-makers the recently released scientific roadmap on Integrated Earth System Science for the period 2016-2025.

  15. Managing Programmatic Risk for Complex Space System Developments

    Panetta, Peter V.; Hastings, Daniel; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Risk management strategies have become a recent important research topic to many aerospace organizations as they prepare to develop the revolutionary complex space systems of the future. Future multi-disciplinary complex space systems will make it absolutely essential for organizations to practice a rigorous, comprehensive risk management process, emphasizing thorough systems engineering principles to succeed. Project managers must possess strong leadership skills to direct high quality, cross-disciplinary teams for successfully developing revolutionary space systems that are ever increasing in complexity. Proactive efforts to reduce or eliminate risk throughout a project's lifecycle ideally must be practiced by all technical members in the organization. This paper discusses some of the risk management perspectives that were collected from senior managers and project managers of aerospace and aeronautical organizations by the use of interviews and surveys. Some of the programmatic risks which drive the success or failure of projects are revealed. Key findings lead to a number of insights for organizations to consider for proactively approaching the risks which face current and future complex space systems projects.

  16. Minimal surfaces in AdS space and integrable systems

    Burrington, Benjamin A.; Gao, Peng

    2010-04-01

    We consider the Pohlmeyer reduction for spacelike minimal area worldsheets in AdS5. The Lax pair for the reduced theory is found, and written entirely in terms of the A3 = D3 root system, generalizing the B2 affine Toda system which appears for the AdS4 string. For the B2 affine Toda system, we show that the area of the worlsheet is obtainable from the moduli space Kähler potential of a related Hitchin system. We also explore the Saveliev-Leznov construction for solutions of the B2 affine Toda system, and recover the rotationally symmetric solution associated to Painleve transcendent.

  17. Static and dynamic high power, space nuclear electric generating systems

    Wetch, J.R.; Begg, L.L.; Koester, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Space nuclear electric generating systems concepts have been assessed for their potential in satisfying future spacecraft high power (several megawatt) requirements. Conceptual designs have been prepared for reactor power systems using the most promising static (thermionic) and the most promising dynamic conversion processes. Component and system layouts, along with system mass and envelope requirements have been made. Key development problems have been identified and the impact of the conversion process selection upon thermal management and upon system and vehicle configuration is addressed. 10 references

  18. Intelligent Chemical Sensor Systems for In-space Safety Applications

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Neudeck, P. G.; Makel, D. B.; Ward, B.; Liu, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-space and lunar operations will require significantly improved monitoring and Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) throughout the mission. In particular, the monitoring of chemical species is an important component of an overall monitoring system for space vehicles and operations. For example, in leak monitoring of propulsion systems during launch, inspace, and on lunar surfaces, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen and other fuels is important to avoid explosive conditions that could harm personnel and damage the vehicle. Dependable vehicle operation also depends on the timely and accurate measurement of these leaks. Thus, the development of a sensor array to determine the concentration of fuels such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine as well as oxygen is necessary. Work has been on-going to develop an integrated smart leak detection system based on miniaturized sensors to detect hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine, and oxygen. The approach is to implement Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors incorporated with signal conditioning electronics, power, data storage, and telemetry enabling intelligent systems. The final sensor system will be self-contained with a surface area comparable to a postage stamp. This paper discusses the development of this "Lick and Stick" leak detection system and it s application to In-Space Transportation and other Exploration applications.

  19. Performance analysis of Brayton cycle system for space power reactor

    Li Zhi; Yang Xiaoyong; Zhao Gang; Wang Jie; Zhang Zuoyi

    2017-01-01

    The closed Brayton cycle system now is the potential choice as the power conversion system for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors because of its high energy conversion efficiency and compact configuration. The helium is the best working fluid for the system for its chemical stability and small neutron absorption cross section. However, the Helium has small mole mass and big specific volume, which would lead to larger pipes and heat exchanger. What's more, the big compressor enthalpy rise of helium would also lead to an unacceptably large number of compressor's stage. For space use, it's more important to satisfy the limit of the system's volume and mass, instead of the requirement of the system's thermal capacity. So Noble-Gas binary mixture of helium and xenon is presented as the working fluid for space Brayton cycle. This paper makes a mathematical model for space Brayton cycle system by Fortran language, then analyzes the binary mixture of helium and xenon's properties and effects on power conversion units of the space power reactor, which would be helpful to understand and design the space power reactor. The results show that xenon would lead to a worse system's thermodynamic property, the cycle's efficiency and specific power decrease as xenon's mole fraction increasing. On the other hand, proper amount of xenon would decrease the enthalpy changes in turbomachines, which would be good for turbomachines' design. Another optimization method – the specific power optimization is also proposed to make a comparison. (author)

  20. System resiliency quantification using non-state-space and state-space analytic models

    Ghosh, Rahul; Kim, DongSeong; Trivedi, Kishor S.

    2013-01-01

    Resiliency is becoming an important service attribute for large scale distributed systems and networks. Key problems in resiliency quantification are lack of consensus on the definition of resiliency and systematic approach to quantify system resiliency. In general, resiliency is defined as the ability of (system/person/organization) to recover/defy/resist from any shock, insult, or disturbance [1]. Many researchers interpret resiliency as a synonym for fault-tolerance and reliability/availability. However, effect of failure/repair on systems is already covered by reliability/availability measures and that of on individual jobs is well covered under the umbrella of performability [2] and task completion time analysis [3]. We use Laprie [4] and Simoncini [5]'s definition in which resiliency is the persistence of service delivery that can justifiably be trusted, when facing changes. The changes we are referring to here are beyond the envelope of system configurations already considered during system design, that is, beyond fault tolerance. In this paper, we outline a general approach for system resiliency quantification. Using examples of non-state-space and state-space stochastic models, we analytically–numerically quantify the resiliency of system performance, reliability, availability and performability measures w.r.t. structural and parametric changes

  1. IEC fusion: The future power and propulsion system for space

    Hammond, Walter E.; Coventry, Matt; Miley, George H.; Nadler, Jon; Hanson, John; Hrbud, Ivana

    2000-01-01

    Rapid access to any point in the solar system requires advanced propulsion concepts that will provide extremely high specific impulse, low specific power, and a high thrust-to-power ratio. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is one of many exciting concepts emerging through propulsion and power research in laboratories across the nation which will determine the future direction of space exploration. This is part of a series of papers that discuss different applications of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion concept for both in-space and terrestrial use. IEC will enable tremendous advances in faster travel times within the solar system. The technology is currently under investigation for proof of concept and transitioning into the first prototype units for commercial applications. In addition to use in propulsion for space applications, terrestrial applications include desalinization plants, high energy neutron sources for radioisotope generation, high flux sources for medical applications, proton sources for specialized medical applications, and tritium production

  2. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS)

    Morton, M.; Roberts, T.

    2011-09-01

    US space capabilities benefit the economy, national security, international relationships, scientific discovery, and our quality of life. Realizing these space responsibilities is challenging not only because the space domain is increasingly congested, contested, and competitive but is further complicated by the legacy space situational awareness (SSA) systems approaching end of life and inability to provide the breadth of SSA and command and control (C2) of space forces in this challenging domain. JMS will provide the capabilities to effectively employ space forces in this challenging domain. Requirements for JMS were developed based on regular, on-going engagement with the warfighter. The use of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products facilitated requirements scoping and understanding and transferred directly to defining and documenting the requirements in the approved Capability Development Document (CDD). As part of the risk reduction efforts, the Electronic System Center (ESC) JMS System Program Office (SPO) fielded JMS Capability Package (CP) 0 which includes an initial service oriented architecture (SOA) and user defined operational picture (UDOP) along with force status, sensor management, and analysis tools. Development efforts are planned to leverage and integrate prototypes and other research projects from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Innovation and Development Center, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratories. JMS provides a number of benefits to the space community: a reduction in operational “transaction time” to accomplish key activities and processes; ability to process the increased volume of metric observations from new sensors (e.g., SBSS, SST, Space Fence), as well as owner/operator ephemerides thus enhancing the high accuracy near-real-time catalog, and greater automation of SSA data sharing supporting collaboration with government, civil, commercial, and foreign

  3. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  4. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  5. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John; Rodela, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., in cooperation with NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), has developed a new Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) controller for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will increase the probability of successfully placing the shuttle into the intended orbit and increase the safety of the Space Transportation System (STS) launches. The AHMS is an upgrade o the current Block II engine controller whose primary component is an improved vibration monitoring system called the Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) that can effectively and reliably monitor the state of the high pressure turbomachinery and provide engine protection through a new synchronous vibration redline which enables engine shutdown if the vibration exceeds predetermined thresholds. The introduction of this system required improvements and modification to the Block II controller such as redesigning the Digital Computer Unit (DCU) memory and the Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS) circuitry, eliminating the existing memory retention batteries, installation of the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology, and installation of a High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) with accompanying outside world connectors. Test stand hot-fire testing along with lab testing have verified successful implementation and is expected to reduce the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the shuttle ascent phase and improve safely by about 23% according to the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS), leading to a safer and more reliable SSME.

  6. The Sun/Earth System and Space Weather

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fox, Nicola; Lucid, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    Solar variability and solar activity are now seen as significant drivers with respect to the Earth and human technology systems. Observations over the last 10 years have significantly advanced our understanding of causes and effects in the Sun/Earth system. On a practical level the interactions between the Sun and Earth dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). This talk will be about the Sun/Earth system: how it changes with time, its magnetic interactions, flares, the solar wind, and how the Sun effects human systems. Data will be presented from some current spacecraft which show, for example, how we are able to currently give warnings to the scientific community, the Government and industry about space storms and how this data has improved our physical understanding of processes on the Sun and in the magnetosphere. The scientific advances provided by our current spacecraft has led to a new program in NASA to develop a 'Space Weather' system called 'Living With a Star'. The current plan for the 'Living With a Star' program will also be presented.

  7. Demands for Space Transportation Systems for the next 30 years

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Demands for Space Transportation Systems for the next 30 years. Meeting the in-house and commercial launch demand for Communication and Remote Sensing spacecraft. Payload capability enhancement for expendable launch vehicles to meet the national needs.

  8. Space charge effects in a bending magnet system

    Lee, E.P.; Close, E.; Smith, L.

    1987-03-01

    In order to examine problems and phenomena associated with space charge in a beam bending system, the beam dynamics code HICURB has been written. Its principal features include momentum variations, vertical and horizontal envelope dynamics coupled to the off-axis centroid, curvature effect on fields, and images. Preliminary results for an achromatic lattice configuration are presented

  9. Dissipative differential systems and the state space H∞ control problem

    Trentelman, H.L.; Willems, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply our very recent results on the synthesis of dissipative linear differential systems to the 'classical' state space H∞ control problem. We first review our general problem set-up, where the problem of rendering a given plant dissipative by general

  10. Integrating Space Systems Operations at the Marine Expeditionary Force Level

    2015-06-01

    Operation ARSST Army Space Support Team BCT Brigade Combat Team BDA Battle Damage Assessment BLOS Beyond Line of Site C2 Command and Control CMCC-CP...accurate imagery of known target locations. Additionally, ISR systems provide a convenient battle damage assessment ( BDA ) option necessary to determine

  11. Safety program considerations for space nuclear reactor systems

    Cropp, L.O.

    1984-08-01

    This report discusses the necessity for in-depth safety program planning for space nuclear reactor systems. The objectives of the safety program and a proposed task structure is presented for meeting those objectives. A proposed working relationship between the design and independent safety groups is suggested. Examples of safety-related design philosophies are given

  12. Space vehicle electromechanical system and helical antenna winding fixture

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Guenther, David; Enemark, Donald; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven

    2017-12-26

    A space vehicle electromechanical system may employ an architecture that enables convenient and practical testing, reset, and retesting of solar panel and antenna deployment on the ground. A helical antenna winding fixture may facilitate winding and binding of the helical antenna.

  13. Evolutionary growth for Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Marshall, Matthew Fisk; Mclallin, Kerry; Zernic, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Over an operational lifetime of at least 30 yr, Space Station Freedom will encounter increased Space Station user requirements and advancing technologies. The Space Station electrical power system is designed with the flexibility to accommodate these emerging technologies and expert systems and is being designed with the necessary software hooks and hardware scars to accommodate increased growth demand. The electrical power system is planned to grow from the initial 75 kW up to 300 kW. The Phase 1 station will utilize photovoltaic arrays to produce the electrical power; however, for growth to 300 kW, solar dynamic power modules will be utilized. Pairs of 25 kW solar dynamic power modules will be added to the station to reach the power growth level. The addition of solar dynamic power in the growth phase places constraints in the initial Space Station systems such as guidance, navigation, and control, external thermal, truss structural stiffness, computational capabilities and storage, which must be planned-in, in order to facilitate the addition of the solar dynamic modules.

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

  15. Designing and Securing an Event Processing System for Smart Spaces

    Li, Zang

    2011-01-01

    Smart spaces, or smart environments, represent the next evolutionary development in buildings, banking, homes, hospitals, transportation systems, industries, cities, and government automation. By riding the tide of sensor and event processing technologies, the smart environment captures and processes information about its surroundings as well as…

  16. Space charge effects in a bending magnet system

    Lee, E.P.; Close, E.; Smith, L.

    1987-01-01

    In order to examine problems and phenomena associated with space charge in a beam bending system, the beam dynamics code HICURB has been written. Its principal features include momentum variations, vertical and horizontal envelope dynamics coupled to the off-axis centroid, curvature effect on fields, and images. Preliminary results for an achromatic lattice configuration are presented

  17. Decision Making Methods in Space Economics and Systems Engineering

    Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews various methods of decision making and the impact that they have on space economics and systems engineering. Some of the methods discussed are: Present Value and Internal Rate of Return (IRR); Cost-Benefit Analysis; Real Options; Cost-Effectiveness Analysis; Cost-Utility Analysis; Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT); and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

  18. An approach to developing user interfaces for space systems

    Shackelford, Keith; McKinney, Karen

    1993-08-01

    Inherent weakness in the traditional waterfall model of software development has led to the definition of the spiral model. The spiral model software development lifecycle model, however, has not been applied to NASA projects. This paper describes its use in developing real time user interface software for an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Process Control Prototype at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Real-space renormalization group approach to driven diffusive systems

    Hanney, T [SUPA and School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Stinchcombe, R B [Theoretical Physics, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-24

    We introduce a real-space renormalization group procedure for driven diffusive systems which predicts both steady state and dynamic properties. We apply the method to the boundary driven asymmetric simple exclusion process and recover exact results for the steady state phase diagram, as well as the crossovers in the relaxation dynamics for each phase.

  20. Real-space renormalization group approach to driven diffusive systems

    Hanney, T; Stinchcombe, R B

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a real-space renormalization group procedure for driven diffusive systems which predicts both steady state and dynamic properties. We apply the method to the boundary driven asymmetric simple exclusion process and recover exact results for the steady state phase diagram, as well as the crossovers in the relaxation dynamics for each phase

  1. Dive In! Immersion in Science Practices for High School Students

    Graham, Karen J.; Gengarelly, Lara M.; Hopkins, Barbara A.; Lombard, Melissa A.

    2017-01-01

    What is it really like to plunge into the world of science learning and teaching? Find out in this unique book. "Dive In!" grew out of a teacher-scientist project at the University of New Hampshire that promoted active learning and using science practices in the classroom. That experience yielded this book's reason for being: to provide…

  2. Carbon Dioxide Changes in Hyperventilation and Breath-hold Diving

    1974-01-05

    Jan 5, 1974 ... South Africa. S. Afr. Med. l., 48, 18 (1974). Under conditions of normal atmospheric pressure, breath- holding results in important changes in the mechanism whereby the CO, is transported ... haemoglobin in the face of falling CO, output to the ... Hong,' in a field study of Korean diving women, noted that they ...

  3. A Measurement of "g" Using Alexander's Diving Bell

    Quiroga, M.; Martinez, S.; Otranto, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a very simple exercise using an inverted test tube pushed straight down into a column of water to determine the free-fall acceleration "g". The exercise employs the ideal gas law and only involves the measurement of the displacement of the bottom of the "diving bell" and the water level inside the tube with respect to the…

  4. Development of Advanced Robotic Hand System for space application

    Machida, Kazuo; Akita, Kenzo; Mikami, Tatsuo; Komada, Satoru

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Robotic Hand System (ARH) is a precise telerobotics system with a semi dexterous hand for future space application. The ARH will be tested in space as one of the missions of the Engineering Tests Satellite 7 (ETS-7) which will be launched in 1997. The objectives of the ARH development are to evaluate the capability of a possible robot hand for precise and delicate tasks and to validate the related technologies implemented in the system. The ARH is designed to be controlled both from ground as a teleoperation and by locally autonomous control. This paper presents the overall system design and the functional capabilities of the ARH as well as its mission outline as the preliminary design has been completed.

  5. NASA/BAE SYSTEMS SpaceWire Effort

    Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments of SpaceWire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements SpaceWire in Register Transfer Level (RTL) VHDL for a SpaceWire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the SpaceWire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for Spaceflight worthy FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented on their .25micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS drivers/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed SpaceWire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for SpaceWire has been identified by both NASA And ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach that works end-to-end. This layer needs to be implemented in hardware to prevent bottlenecks.

  6. Individual Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    Force, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides providing position, navigation, and timing (PNT) to terrestrial users, GPS is currently used to provide for precision orbit determination, precise time synchronization, real-time spacecraft navigation, and three-axis control of Earth orbiting satellites. With additional Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service (GLONASS, Beidou, and Galileo), it will be possible to provide these services by using other GNSS constellations. The paper, "GPS in the Space Service Volume," presented at the ION GNSS 19th International Technical Meeting in 2006 (Ref. 1), defined the Space Service Volume, and analyzed the performance of GPS out to 70,000 km. This paper will report a similar analysis of the performance of each of the additional GNSS and compare them with GPS alone. The Space Service Volume, defined as the volume between 3,000 km altitude and geosynchronous altitude, as compared with the Terrestrial Service Volume between the surface and 3,000 km. In the Terrestrial Service Volume, GNSS performance will be similar to performance on the Earth's surface. The GPS system has established signal requirements for the Space Service Volume. A separate paper presented at the conference covers the use of multiple GNSS in the Space Service Volume.

  7. Estimating inhalation hazards for space nuclear power systems

    Hoover, M.D.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Seiler, F.Z.

    1989-01-01

    Minimizing inhalation hazards is a major consideration in the design, development, transportation, handling, testing, storage, launch, use, and ultimate disposition of nuclear space power systems (NSPSs). An accidental dispersion of 238 Pu is of concern for missions involving the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) or lightweight radioisotope heater units. Materials of concern for missions involving a nuclear reactor might include other radionuclides, such as uranium, or chemically toxic materials, such as beryllium or lithium. This paper provides an overview of some of the current approaches and uncertainties associated with estimating inhalation hazards from potential NSPS accidents. The question of whether inhalation risks can be acceptable for nuclear space power systems is still open and active. The inherently low toxicity of the uranium fuel of a space nuclear reactor is a desirable feature of that option. The extensive engineering and testing that have contributed to the current generation of plutonium RTGs provide a measure of confidence that dispersion of the RTG fuel would be unlikely in an accident. The use of nuclear reactors or RTGs in space, however, requires society to assume a risk (albeit low) for dispersion of the fuel material. It can be argued that any additional risks from the use of nuclear power in space are far less than the risks we face daily

  8. Performance issues in management of the Space Station Information System

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    The onboard segment of the Space Station Information System (SSIS), called the Data Management System (DMS), will consist of a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) token-ring network. The performance of the DMS in scenarios involving two kinds of network management is analyzed. In the first scenario, how the transmission of routine management messages impacts performance of the DMS is examined. In the second scenario, techniques for ensuring low latency of real-time control messages in an emergency are examined.

  9. Reliability issues of free-space communications systems and networks

    Willebrand, Heinz A.

    2003-04-01

    Free space optics (FSO) is a high-speed point-to-point connectivity solution traditionally used in the enterprise campus networking market for building-to-building LAN connectivity. However, more recently some wire line and wireless carriers started to deploy FSO systems in their networks. The requirements on FSO system reliability, meaing both system availability and component reliability, are far more stringent in the carrier market when compared to the requirements in the enterprise market segment. This paper tries to outline some of the aspects that are important to ensure carrier class system reliability.

  10. Highly Adjustable Systems: An Architecture for Future Space Observatories

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Conti, Alberto; Redding, David; Lawrence, Charles R.; Hachkowski, Roman; Laskin, Robert; Steeves, John

    2017-06-01

    Mission costs for ground breaking space astronomical observatories are increasing to the point of unsustainability. We are investigating the use of adjustable or correctable systems as a means to reduce development and therefore mission costs. The poster introduces the promise and possibility of realizing a “net zero CTE” system for the general problem of observatory design and introduces the basic systems architecture we are considering. This poster concludes with an overview of our planned study and demonstrations for proving the value and worth of highly adjustable telescopes and systems ahead of the upcoming decadal survey.

  11. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  12. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    Schoenbauer, B. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Olsen, R. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Hewett, M. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  13. Collaboration support system for "Phobos-Soil" space mission.

    Nazarov, V.; Nazirov, R.; Zakharov, A.

    2009-04-01

    Rapid development of communication facilities leads growth of interactions done via electronic means. However we can see some paradox in this segment in last times: Extending of communication facilities increases collaboration chaos. And it is very sensitive for space missions in general and scientific space mission particularly because effective decision of this task provides successful realization of the missions and promises increasing the ratio of functional characteristic and cost of mission at all. Resolving of this problem may be found by using respective modern technologies and methods which widely used in different branches and not in the space researches only. Such approaches as Social Networking, Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0 look most prospective in this context. The primary goal of the "Phobos-Soil" mission is an investigation of the Phobos which is the Martian moon and particularly its regolith, internal structure, peculiarities of the orbital and proper motion, as well as a number of different scientific measurements and experiments for investigation of the Martian environment. A lot of investigators involved in the mission. Effective collaboration system is key facility for information support of the mission therefore. Further to main goal: communication between users of the system, modern approaches allows using such capabilities as self-organizing community, user generated content, centralized and federative control of the system. Also it may have one unique possibility - knowledge management which is very important for space mission realization. Therefore collaboration support system for "Phobos-Soil" mission designed on the base of multilayer model which includes such levels as Communications, Announcement and Information, Data sharing and Knowledge management. The collaboration support system for "Phobos-Soil" mission will be used as prototype for prospective Russian scientific space missions and the presentation describes its architecture

  14. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Test Requirements for Launch, Upper-Stage and Space Vehicles

    2014-09-05

    Aviation Blvd. El Segundo, CA 90245 4. This standard has been approved for use on all Space and Missile Systems Center/Air Force Program...140 Satellite Hardness and Survivability; Testing Rationale for Electronic Upset and Burnout Effects 30. JANNAF-GL-2012-01-RO Test and Evaluation...vehicle, subsystem, and unit lev- els . Acceptance testing shall be conducted on all subsequent flight items. The protoqualification strategy shall require

  15. Integrated human-machine intelligence in space systems

    Boy, Guy A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of human and machine intelligence in space systems is outlined with respect to the contributions of artificial intelligence. The current state-of-the-art in intelligent assistant systems (IASs) is reviewed, and the requirements of some real-world applications of the technologies are discussed. A concept of integrated human-machine intelligence is examined in the contexts of: (1) interactive systems that tolerate human errors; (2) systems for the relief of workloads; and (3) interactive systems for solving problems in abnormal situations. Key issues in the development of IASs include the compatibility of the systems with astronauts in terms of inputs/outputs, processing, real-time AI, and knowledge-based system validation. Real-world applications are suggested such as the diagnosis, planning, and control of enginnered systems.

  16. 77 FR 64029 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Design Dive Speed

    2012-10-18

    ... after operation of high-speed warning system by application of a load of 1.5g (0.5 acceleration... Series Airplanes; Design Dive Speed AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... airplanes. These design features include a high-speed protection system. The applicable airworthiness...

  17. King penguins adjust their diving behaviour with age.

    Le Vaillant, Maryline; Wilson, Rory P; Kato, Akiko; Saraux, Claire; Hanuise, Nicolas; Prud'homme, Onésime; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2012-11-01

    Increasing experience in long-lived species is fundamental to improving breeding success and ultimately individual fitness. Diving efficiency of marine animals is primarily determined by their physiological and mechanical characteristics. This efficiency may be apparent via examination of biomechanical performance (e.g. stroke frequency and amplitude, change in buoyancy or body angle, etc.), which itself may be modulated according to resource availability, particularly as a function of depth. We investigated how foraging and diving abilities vary with age in a long-lived seabird. During two breeding seasons, small accelerometers were deployed on young (5 year old) and older (8/9 year old) brooding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at the Crozet Archipelago, Indian Ocean. We used partial dynamic body acceleration (PDBA) to quantify body movement during dive and estimate diving cost. During the initial part of the descent, older birds exerted more effort for a given speed but younger penguins worked harder in relation to performance at greater depths. Younger birds also worked harder per unit speed for virtually the whole of the ascent. We interpret these differences using a model that takes into account the upthrust and drag to which the birds are subjected during the dive. From this, we suggest that older birds inhale more at the surface but that an increase in the drag coefficient is the factor leading to the increased effort to swim at a given speed by the younger birds at greater depths. We propose that this higher drag may be the result of young birds adopting less hydrodynamic postures or less direct trajectories when swimming or even having a plumage in poorer condition.

  18. A Review of Tribomaterial Technology for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently proposed a nuclear closed-cycle electric power conversion system for generation of 100-kW of electrical power for space exploration missions. A critical issue is the tribological performance of sliding components within the power conversion unit that will be exposed to neutron radiation. This paper presents a review of the main considerations that have been made in the selection of solid lubricants for similar applications in the past as well as a recommendations for continuing development of the technology.

  19. Expert system isssues in automated, autonomous space vehicle rendezvous

    Goodwin, Mary Ann; Bochsler, Daniel C.

    1987-01-01

    The problems involved in automated autonomous rendezvous are briefly reviewed, and the Rendezvous Expert (RENEX) expert system is discussed with reference to its goals, approach used, and knowledge structure and contents. RENEX has been developed to support streamlining operations for the Space Shuttle and Space Station program and to aid definition of mission requirements for the autonomous portions of rendezvous for the Mars Surface Sample Return and Comet Nucleus Sample return unmanned missions. The experience with REMEX to date and recommendations for further development are presented.

  20. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  1. A logistics model for large space power systems

    Koelle, H. H.

    Space Power Systems (SPS) have to overcome two hurdles: (1) to find an attractive design, manufacturing and assembly concept and (2) to have available a space transportation system that can provide economical logistic support during the construction and operational phases. An initial system feasibility study, some five years ago, was based on a reference system that used terrestrial resources only and was based partially on electric propulsion systems. The conclusion was: it is feasible but not yet economically competitive with other options. This study is based on terrestrial and extraterrestrial resources and on chemical (LH 2/LOX) propulsion systems. These engines are available from the Space Shuttle production line and require small changes only. Other so-called advanced propulsion systems investigated did not prove economically superior if lunar LOX is available! We assume that a Shuttle derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will become available around the turn of the century and that this will be used to establish a research base on the lunar surface. This lunar base has the potential to grow into a lunar factory producing LOX and construction materials for supporting among other projects also the construction of space power systems in geostationary orbit. A model was developed to simulate the logistics support of such an operation for a 50-year life cycle. After 50 years 111 SPS units with 5 GW each and an availability of 90% will produce 100 × 5 = 500 GW. The model comprises 60 equations and requires 29 assumptions of the parameter involved. 60-state variables calculated with the 60 equations mentioned above are given on an annual basis and as averages for the 50-year life cycle. Recycling of defective parts in geostationary orbit is one of the features of the model. The state-of-the-art with respect to SPS technology is introduced as a variable Mg mass/MW electric power delivered. If the space manufacturing facility, a maintenance and repair facility

  2. Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative

    Biringer, K.L.; Bartine, D.E.; Buden, D.; Foreman, J.; Harrison, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs

  3. Multi-User Space Link Extension (SLE) System

    Perkins, Toby

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-User Space (MUS) Link Extension system, a software and data system, provides Space Link Extension (SLE) users with three space data transfer services in timely, complete, and offline modes as applicable according to standards defined by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). MUS radically reduces the schedule, cost, and risk of implementing a new SLE user system, minimizes operating costs with a lights-out approach to SLE, and is designed to require no sustaining engineering expense during its lifetime unless changes in the CCSDS SLE standards, combined with new provider implementations, force changes. No software modification to MUS needs to be made to support a new mission. Any systems engineer with Linux experience can begin testing SLE user service instances with MUS starting from a personal computer (PC) within five days. For flight operators, MUS provides a familiar-looking Web page for entering SLE configuration data received from SLE. Operators can also use the Web page to back up a space mission's entire set of up to approximately 500 SLE service instances in less than five seconds, or to restore or transfer from another system the same amount of data from a MUS backup file in about the same amount of time. Missions operate each MUS SLE service instance independently by sending it MUS directives, which are legible, plain ASCII strings. MUS directives are usually (but not necessarily) sent through a TCP-IP (Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol) socket from a MOC (Mission Operations Center) or POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) system, under scripted control, during "lights-out" spacecraft operation. MUS permits the flight operations team to configure independently each of its data interfaces; not only commands and telemetry, but also MUS status messages to the MOC. Interfaces can use single- or multiple-client TCP/IP server sockets, TCP/IP client sockets, temporary disk files, the system log, or standard in

  4. Enabling autonomous control for space reactor power systems

    Wood, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    The application of nuclear reactors for space power and/or propulsion presents some unique challenges regarding the operations and control of the power system. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of a space reactor power system (SRPS) employed for deep space missions must be able to accommodate unattended operations due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion while adapting to evolving or degraded conditions with no opportunity for repair or refurbishment. Thus, a SRPS control system must provide for operational autonomy. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted an investigation of the state of the technology for autonomous control to determine the experience base in the nuclear power application domain, both for space and terrestrial use. It was found that control systems with varying levels of autonomy have been employed in robotic, transportation, spacecraft, and manufacturing applications. However, autonomous control has not been implemented for an operating terrestrial nuclear power plant nor has there been any experience beyond automating simple control loops for space reactors. Current automated control technologies for nuclear power plants are reasonably mature, and basic control for a SRPS is clearly feasible under optimum circumstances. However, autonomous control is primarily intended to account for the non optimum circumstances when degradation, failure, and other off-normal events challenge the performance of the reactor and near-term human intervention is not possible. Thus, the development and demonstration of autonomous control capabilities for the specific domain of space nuclear power operations is needed. This paper will discuss the findings of the ORNL study and provide a description of the concept of autonomy, its key characteristics, and a prospective

  5. Distributed computing environments for future space control systems

    Viallefont, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of a CNES research project on distributed computing systems. The purpose of this research was to study the impact of the use of new computer technologies in the design and development of future space applications. The first part of this study was a state-of-the-art review of distributed computing systems. One of the interesting ideas arising from this review is the concept of a 'virtual computer' allowing the distributed hardware architecture to be hidden from a software application. The 'virtual computer' can improve system performance by adapting the best architecture (addition of computers) to the software application without having to modify its source code. This concept can also decrease the cost and obsolescence of the hardware architecture. In order to verify the feasibility of the 'virtual computer' concept, a prototype representative of a distributed space application is being developed independently of the hardware architecture.

  6. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  7. TAMU: Blueprint for A New Space Mission Operations System Paradigm

    Ruszkowski, James T.; Meshkat, Leila; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Al; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a System of System (SOS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically disperse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes of products for a broad range of flight projects. Further, TAMU FPP provides for the automatic execution and re-planning of the workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the blueprint for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This blueprint presents a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that results in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during the flight production process. Based on the many years of experience with the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS), the currently cancelled Constellation Program which aimed on returning humans to the moon as a starting point, has been building a modern model-based Systems Engineering infrastructure to Re-engineer the FPP. This infrastructure uses a structured modeling and architecture development approach to optimize the system design thereby reducing the sustaining costs and increasing system efficiency, reliability, robustness and maintainability metrics. With the advent of the new vision for human space exploration, it is now necessary to further generalize this framework to take into consideration a broad range of missions and the participation of multiple organizations outside of the MOD; hence the Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) concept.

  8. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  9. Operationalizing safe operating space for regional social-ecological systems.

    Hossain, Md Sarwar; Dearing, John A; Eigenbrod, Felix; Johnson, Fiifi Amoako

    2017-04-15

    This study makes a first attempt to operationalize the safe operating space concept at a regional scale by considering the complex dynamics (e.g. non-linearity, feedbacks, and interactions) within a systems dynamic model (SD). We employ the model to explore eight 'what if' scenarios based on well-known challenges (e.g. climate change) and current policy debates (e.g. subsidy withdrawal). The findings show that the social-ecological system in the Bangladesh delta may move beyond a safe operating space when a withdrawal of a 50% subsidy for agriculture is combined with the effects of a 2°C temperature increase and sea level rise. Further reductions in upstream river discharge in the Ganges would push the system towards a dangerous zone once a 3.5°C temperature increase was reached. The social-ecological system in Bangladesh delta may be operated within a safe space by: 1) managing feedback (e.g. by reducing production costs) and the slow biophysical variables (e.g. temperature, rainfall) to increase the long-term resilience, 2) negotiating for transboundary water resources, and 3) revising global policies (e.g. withdrawal of subsidy) that negatively impact at regional scales. This study demonstrates how the concepts of tipping points, limits to adaptations, and boundaries for sustainable development may be defined in real world social-ecological systems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of ACC system spacing policy on curved highway

    Ma, Jun; Qian, Kun; Gong, Zaiyan

    2017-05-01

    The paper optimizes the original spacing policy when adopting VTH (Variable Time Headway), proposes to introduce the road curve curvature K to the spacing policy to cope with following the wrong vehicle or failing to follow the vehicle owing to the radar limitation of curve in ACC system. By utilizing MATLAB/Simulink, automobile longitudinal dynamics model is established. At last, the paper sets up such three common cases as the vehicle ahead runs at a uniform velocity, an accelerated velocity and hits the brake suddenly, simulates these cases on the curve with different curvature, analyzes the curve spacing policy in the perspective of safety and vehicle following efficiency and draws the conclusion whether the optimization scheme is effective or not.

  11. Phase space view of quantum mechanical systems and Fisher information

    Nagy, Á.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase-space Fisher information coming from the canonical distribution is derived for the ground state of quantum mechanical systems. • Quantum mechanical phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. • A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator. - Abstract: Pennini and Plastino showed that the form of the Fisher information generated by the canonical distribution function reflects the intrinsic structure of classical mechanics. Now, a quantum mechanical generalization of the Pennini–Plastino theory is presented based on the thermodynamical transcription of the density functional theory. Comparing to the classical case, the phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. However, for the special case of constant temperature, the expression derived bears resemblance to the classical one. A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator.

  12. Dependent Space and Attribute Reduction on Fuzzy Information System

    Shu Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From equivalence relation RBδ on discourse domain U, we can derive equivalence relation Rδ on the attribute set A. From equivalence relation Rδ on discourse domain A, we can derive a congruence relation on the attribute power set P(A and establish an object dependent space. And then,we discuss the reduction method of fuzzy information system on object dependent space. At last ,the example in this paper demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the reduction method based on the congruence relation Tδ providing an insight into the link between equivalence relation and congruence relation of dependent spaces in the rough set. In this way, the paper can provide powerful theoritical support to the combined using of reduction method, so it is of certain practical value.

  13. Phase space view of quantum mechanical systems and Fisher information

    Nagy, Á., E-mail: anagy@madget.atomki.hu

    2016-06-17

    Highlights: • Phase-space Fisher information coming from the canonical distribution is derived for the ground state of quantum mechanical systems. • Quantum mechanical phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. • A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator. - Abstract: Pennini and Plastino showed that the form of the Fisher information generated by the canonical distribution function reflects the intrinsic structure of classical mechanics. Now, a quantum mechanical generalization of the Pennini–Plastino theory is presented based on the thermodynamical transcription of the density functional theory. Comparing to the classical case, the phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. However, for the special case of constant temperature, the expression derived bears resemblance to the classical one. A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator.

  14. Space station automation and robotics study. Operator-systems interface

    1984-01-01

    This is the final report of a Space Station Automation and Robotics Planning Study, which was a joint project of the Boeing Aerospace Company, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, and Boeing Computer Services Company. The study is in support of the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee established by NASA in accordance with a mandate by the U.S. Congress. Boeing support complements that provided to the NASA Contractor study team by four aerospace contractors, the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and the California Space Institute. This study identifies automation and robotics (A&R) technologies that can be advanced by requirements levied by the Space Station Program. The methodology used in the study is to establish functional requirements for the operator system interface (OSI), establish the technologies needed to meet these requirements, and to forecast the availability of these technologies. The OSI would perform path planning, tracking and control, object recognition, fault detection and correction, and plan modifications in connection with extravehicular (EV) robot operations.

  15. Analysis of a space debris laser removal system

    Gjesvold, Evan; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    As long as man ventures into space, he will leave behind debris, and as long as he ventures into space, this debris will pose a threat to him and his projects. Space debris must be located and decommissioned. Lasers may prove to be the ideal method, as they can operate at a distance from the debris, have a theoretically infinite supply of energy from the sun, and are a seemingly readily available technology. This paper explores the requirements and reasoning for such a laser debris removal method. A case is made for the negligibility of eliminating rotational velocity from certain systems, while a design schematic is also presented for the implementation of a cube satellite proof of concept.

  16. Sustaining Air Force Space Systems: A Model for the Global Positioning System

    Snyder, Don; Mills, Patrick; Comanor, Katherine; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ... and sustainment affect the performance of space systems. In this monograph, we develop a pilot framework for analyzing these and related questions in the ground segment of the Global Positioning System and recommend steps for implementing this framework...

  17. Exergy performance of different space heating systems: A theoretical study

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    , the effects of floor covering resistance on the whole system performance were studied using two heat sources; a natural gas fired condensing boiler and an air-source heat pump. The heating systems were also compared in terms of auxiliary exergy use for pumps and fans. The low temperature floor heating system......Three space heating systems (floor heating with different floor covering resistances, radiator heating with different working temperatures, warm-air heating with and without heat recovery) were compared using a natural gas fired condensing boiler as the heat source. For the floor heating systems...... performed better than other systems in terms of exergy demand. The use of boiler as a heat source for a low-exergy floor heating system creates a mismatch in the exergy supply and demand. Although an air-source heat pump could be a better heat source, this depends on the origin of the electricity supplied...

  18. Information management system: A summary discussion. [for use in the space shuttle sortie, modular space station and TDR satellite

    Sayers, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    An information management system is proposed for use in the space shuttle sortie, the modular space station, the tracking data relay satellite and associated ground support systems. Several different information management functions, including data acquisition, transfer, storage, processing, control and display are integrated in the system.

  19. Chronic adaptations of lung function in breath-hold diving fishermen

    Cristiane Diniz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify and analyze the existence of chronic adaptations of lung function in freediving fishermen whose occupation is artisanal fishing. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 11 breath-hold diving fishermen and 10 non-breath-hold diving fishermen (control from the village of Bitupitá in the municipality of Barroquinha (Ceará - Brazil. Anthropometric measurements, chest and abdominal circumferences as well as spirometric and respiratory muscle strength tests were conducted according to the specifications of the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS. In order to compare the measured values versus the predicted values, Student t test was used in the case of parametric test and Wilcoxon test in the case of nonparametric test. To compare the inter-group means Student t test was used for parametric test and Mann-Whitney test for the nonparametric one. The level of significance was set at α = 5%. Results: The forced vital capacity (FVC (4.9±0.6 l vs. 4.3±0.4 l and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 (4.0±0.5 l vs. 3.6±0.3 l were, respectively, higher in the group of divers compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.05. Furthermore, in the group of free divers, the measured FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratios were significantly greater than the predicted ones. No differences were found between the measured respiratory pressures. Conclusions: These results indicate that breath-hold diving seems to produce chronic adaptations of the respiratory system, resulting in elevated lung volumes with no airway obstruction.

  20. The Canadian Diving Symposium (2nd) Held at Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, 31 October - 1 November 1977.

    1977-11-01

    some sort of artificial island or platform will have to * be constructed. I mention this and the other mineral finds to indicate the possible areas in...suspected defects of the drilling system to placement of sandbags and other anti-erosion devices aroua.id the legs of bottom-sii:ting platforms ...attached and the BOP stack wis recovered in three working dives. The drillship was on location a total of wix days including the time required to run

  1. Active charge, passive discharge floor space heating system

    Salt, H.; Mahoney, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    This space heating system has a rockbed beneath and in contact with the floor of a dwelling, which is heated by radiation and convection from the floor. The ability of the heating system to maintain comfort conditions with no additional energy input is discussed and it is shown that the system is more suitable for use in mild climates than severe ones. Experimental work on horizontal air flow rockbeds is reported and shows that shallow beds can be designed in the same way as vertical air flow beds. The influence of natural convection on the effective thermal conductivity of the experimental rockbeds is reported.

  2. Voluble: a space-time diagram of the solar system

    Aguilera, Julieta C.; SubbaRao, Mark U.

    2008-02-01

    Voluble is a dynamic space-time diagram of the solar system. Voluble is designed to help users understand the relationship between space and time in the motion of the planets around the sun. Voluble is set in virtual reality to relate these movements to our experience of immediate space. Beyond just the visual, understanding dynamic systems is naturally associated to the articulation of our bodies as we perform a number of complex calculations, albeit unconsciously, to deal with simple tasks. Such capabilities encompass spatial perception and memory. Voluble investigates the balance between the visually abstract and the spatially figurative in immersive development to help illuminate phenomena that are beyond the reach of human scale and time. While most diagrams, even computer-based interactive ones, are flat, three-dimensional real-time virtual reality representations are closer to our experience of space. The representation can be seen as if it was "really there," engaging a larger number of cues pertaining to our everyday spatial experience.

  3. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  4. Development of space simulation / net-laboratory system

    Usui, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Ogino, T.; Fujimoto, M.; Omura, Y.; Okada, M.; Ueda, H. O.; Murata, T.; Kamide, Y.; Shinagawa, H.; Watanabe, S.; Machida, S.; Hada, T.

    A research project for the development of space simulation / net-laboratory system was approved by Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST) in the category of Research and Development for Applying Advanced Computational Science and Technology(ACT-JST) in 2000. This research project, which continues for three years, is a collaboration with an astrophysical simulation group as well as other space simulation groups which use MHD and hybrid models. In this project, we develop a proto type of unique simulation system which enables us to perform simulation runs by providing or selecting plasma parameters through Web-based interface on the internet. We are also developing an on-line database system for space simulation from which we will be able to search and extract various information such as simulation method and program, manuals, and typical simulation results in graphic or ascii format. This unique system will help the simulation beginners to start simulation study without much difficulty or effort, and contribute to the promotion of simulation studies in the STP field. In this presentation, we will report the overview and the current status of the project.

  5. Economic Analysis of a Postulated space Tourism Transportation System

    Hill, Allan S.

    2002-01-01

    Design concepts and associated costs were defined for a family of launch vehicles supporting a space tourism endeavor requiring the weekly transport of space tourists to and from an Earth- orbiting facility. The stated business goal for the Space Tourist Transportation System (STTS) element of the proposed commercial space venture was to transport and return ~50 passengers a week to LEO at a cost of roughly 50 K per seat commencing in 2005. This paper summarizes the economic analyses conducted within a broader Systems Engineering study of the postulated concept. Parametric costs were derived using TransCostSystems' (TCS) Cost Engineering Handbook, version 7. Costs were developed as a function of critical system characteristics and selected business scenarios. Various economic strategies directed toward achieving a cost of ~50 K per seat were identified and examined. The study indicated that with a `nominal' business scenario, the initial cost for developing and producing a fully reusable, 2-stage STTS element for a baseline of 46-passengers was about 15.5 B assuming a plausible `commercialization factor' of 0.333. The associated per-seat ticket cost was ~890 K, more than an order of magnitude higher than desired. If the system is enlarged to 104 passengers for better efficiency, the STTS initial cost for the nominal business scenario is increased to about 19.8 B and the per-seat ticket cost is reduced to ~530 K. It was concluded that achieving the desired ticket cost of 50 K per seat is not feasible unless the size of the STTS, and therefore of the entire system, is substantially increased. However, for the specified operational characteristics, it was shown that a system capacity of thousands of passengers per week is required. This implies an extremely high total system development cost, which is not very realistic as a commercial venture, especially in the proposed time frame. These results suggested that ambitious commercial space ventures may have to rely on

  6. Need for Cost Optimization of Space Life Support Systems

    Jones, Harry W.; Anderson, Grant

    2017-01-01

    As the nation plans manned missions that go far beyond Earth orbit to Mars, there is an urgent need for a robust, disciplined systems engineering methodology that can identify an optimized Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS) architecture for long duration deep space missions. But unlike the previously used Equivalent System Mass (ESM), the method must be inclusive of all driving parameters and emphasize the economic analysis of life support system design. The key parameter for this analysis is Life Cycle Cost (LCC). LCC takes into account the cost for development and qualification of the system, launch costs, operational costs, maintenance costs and all other relevant and associated costs. Additionally, an effective methodology must consider system technical performance, safety, reliability, maintainability, crew time, and other factors that could affect the overall merit of the life support system.

  7. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Systems Engineering Requirements and Products

    2013-07-01

    MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER Air Force Space Command 483 N. Aviation Blvd. El Segundo, CA 90245 4. This standard has been approved for use on all Space...Any RF receiver with a burnout level of less than 30 dBm (1 mW). b. A summary of all significant areas are addressed in the EMC Control Plan...address 7. Date Submitted 8. Preparing Activity Space and Missile Systems Center AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND 483 N. Aviation Blvd. El Segundo, CA 91245 Attention: SMC/EN February 2013

  8. A simplified classification system for partially edentulous spaces

    Bhandari Aruna J, Bhandari Akshay J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no single universally employed classification system that will specify the exact edentulous situation. Several classification systems exist to group the situation and avoid confusion. Classifications based on edentulous areas, finished restored prostheses, type of direct retainers or fulcrum lines are there. Some are based depending on the placement of the implants. Widely accepted Kennedy Applegate classification does not give any idea about length, span or number of teeth missing. Rule 6 governing the application of Kennedy method states that additional edentulous areas are referred as modification number 1,2 etc. Rule 7 states that extent of the modification is not considered; only the number of edentulous areas is considered. Hence there is a need to modify the Kennedy –Applegate System. Aims: This new classification system is an attempt to modify Kennedy –Applegate System so as to give the exact idea about missing teeth, space, span, side and areas of partially edentulous arches. Methods and Material: This system will provide the information regarding Maxillary or Mandibular partially edentulous arches, Left or Right side, length of the edentulous space, number of teeth missing and whether there will be tooth borne or tooth – tissue borne prosthesis. Conclusions: This classification is easy for application, communication and will also help to design the removable cast partial denture in a better logical and systematic way. Also, this system will give the idea of the edentulous status and the number of missing teeth in fixed, hybrid or implant prosthesis.

  9. Board Diving Regulations in Public Swimming Pools and Risk of Injury.

    Williams, David; Odin, Louise

    2016-06-01

    Public session access to diving boards is one of the stepping stones for those wishing to develop their skills in the sport of diving. The extent to which certain dive forms are considered risky (forward/backward/rotations) and therefore not permitted is a matter for local pool managers. In Study 1, 20 public pools with diving facilities responded to a U.K. survey concerning their diving regulation policy and related injury incidence in the previous year. More restrictive regulation of dive forms was not associated with a decrease in injuries (rs [42] = -0.20, p = 0.93). In Study 2, diving risk perception and attitudes towards regulation were compared between experienced club divers (N = 22) and nondivers (N = 22). Risk was perceived to be lower for those with experience, and these people favored less regulation. The findings are interpreted in terms of a risk thermostat model, where for complex physical performance activities such as diving, individuals may exercise caution in proportion to their ability and previous experience of success and failure related to the activity. Though intuitively appealing, restrictive regulation of public pool diving may be ineffective in practice because risk is not simplistically associated with dive forms, and divers are able to respond flexibly to risk by exercising caution where appropriate. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Short- and long-term effects of diving on pulmonary function

    Kay Tetzlaff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The diving environment provides a challenge to the lung, including exposure to high ambient pressure, altered gas characteristics and cardiovascular effects on the pulmonary circulation. Several factors associated with diving affect pulmonary function acutely and can potentially cause prolonged effects that may accumulate gradually with repeated diving exposure. Evidence from experimental deep dives and longitudinal studies suggests long-term adverse effects of diving on the lungs in commercial deep divers, such as the development of small airways disease and accelerated loss of lung function. In addition, there is an accumulating body of evidence that diving with self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba may not be associated with deleterious effects on pulmonary function. Although changes in pulmonary function after single scuba dives have been found to be associated with immersion, ambient cold temperatures and decompression stress, changes in lung function were small and suggest a low likelihood of clinical significance. Recent evidence points to no accelerated loss of lung function in military or recreational scuba divers over time. Thus, the impact of diving on pulmonary function largely depends on factors associated with the individual diving exposure. However, in susceptible subjects clinically relevant worsening of lung function may occur even after single shallow-water scuba dives.

  11. A Simulation Base Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    NASA's human space program has developed considerable experience with near Earth space operations. Although NASA has experience with deep space robotic missions, NASA has little substantive experience with human deep space operations. Even in the Apollo program, the missions lasted only a few weeks and the communication latencies were on the order of seconds. Human missions beyond the relatively close confines of the Earth-Moon system will involve missions with durations measured in months and communications latencies measured in minutes. To minimize crew risk and to maximize mission success, NASA needs to develop a better understanding of the implications of these types of mission durations and communication latencies on vehicle design, mission design and flight controller interaction with the crew. To begin to address these needs, NASA performed a study using a physics-based subsystem simulation to investigate the interactions between spacecraft crew and a ground-based mission control center for vehicle subsystem operations across long communication delays. The simulation, built with a subsystem modeling tool developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center, models the life support system of a Mars transit vehicle. The simulation contains models of the cabin atmosphere and pressure control system, electrical power system, drinking and waste water systems, internal and external thermal control systems, and crew metabolic functions. The simulation has three interfaces: 1) a real-time crew interface that can be use to monitor and control the vehicle subsystems; 2) a mission control center interface with data transport delays up to 15 minutes each way; 3) a real-time simulation test conductor interface that can be use to insert subsystem malfunctions and observe the interactions between the crew, ground, and simulated vehicle. The study was conducted at the 21st NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission between July 18th and Aug 3rd of year 2016. The NEEMO

  12. From microsystems technology to the Saenger II space transportation system

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    The role of space projects as drivers and catalysts of technology advances is discussed and illustrated from the perspective of the West German aerospace industry, summarizing a talk presented at the 1986 meeting of the German aerospace society DGLR. The history of space-transportation-system (STS) technology since the 1950s is traced, emphasizing the needs for greater payload weights and lower costs, and the design concept of Saenger II, a proposed two-stage ESA STS employing a hypersonic jet transport aircraft as its first stage, is outlined. It is argued that experience gained in developing the rocket-launched Hermes STS will be applicable to the second stage of Saenger II. Recent developments in microsystems (combining microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics), advanced materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, metals, and ceramics), and energy technology (hydrogen-based systems and solar cells) are surveyed, and their applicability to STSs is considered.

  13. Friedrichs systems in a Hilbert space framework: Solvability and multiplicity

    Antonić, N.; Erceg, M.; Michelangeli, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Friedrichs (1958) theory of positive symmetric systems of first order partial differential equations encompasses many standard equations of mathematical physics, irrespective of their type. This theory was recast in an abstract Hilbert space setting by Ern, Guermond and Caplain (2007), and by Antonić and Burazin (2010). In this work we make a further step, presenting a purely operator-theoretic description of abstract Friedrichs systems, and proving that any pair of abstract Friedrichs operators admits bijective extensions with a signed boundary map. Moreover, we provide sufficient and necessary conditions for existence of infinitely many such pairs of spaces, and by the universal operator extension theory (Grubb, 1968) we get a complete identification of all such pairs, which we illustrate on two concrete one-dimensional examples.

  14. A distributed data base management system. [for Deep Space Network

    Bryan, A. I.

    1975-01-01

    Major system design features of a distributed data management system for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) designed for continuous two-way deep space communications are described. The reasons for which the distributed data base utilizing third-generation minicomputers is selected as the optimum approach for the DSN are threefold: (1) with a distributed master data base, valid data is available in real-time to support DSN management activities at each location; (2) data base integrity is the responsibility of local management; and (3) the data acquisition/distribution and processing power of a third-generation computer enables the computer to function successfully as a data handler or as an on-line process controller. The concept of the distributed data base is discussed along with the software, data base integrity, and hardware used. The data analysis/update constraint is examined.

  15. Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems

    Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

    A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

  16. STRUCTURAL AND DESIGN SPECIFICS OF SPACE GRID SYSTEMS

    G. M. Gasii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify main trends in the development of space grid structures. In order to reach the purpose it is necessary to conduct a review of the known structural concepts, nodal connections and specifics of the space grid structures and to make conclusions on feasibility improvement of the considered structural concepts that make it possible to develop new solutions without disadvantages residing in the analogues. Analysis of papers written by foreign and national scientists and devoted to theoretical, numerical and experimental studies of stress-strain state, influence of different factors on it and geometrical optimization and designing of space grid structures has been conducted in order to achieve the objectives. Space grid structures and, in particular, flat double-layer grid and most frequent nodes have been studied in the paper. The paper contains a short review of the history on development of space grid structures. It has been found that a rapid development of structural designs was caused by scientific and technical progress and, in particular, improvement of physical and mechanical properties of materials, development of calculation methods, application of software systems for simulating behavior of the structure under load, which significantly increased the calculation accuracy and reduced complexity of design. It has been also established that main parameters that have influence on effectiveness of a structural design are geometric dimensions of its modular elements, ratio of its depth to the span. The world experience on development of connection components has been studied in the paper. The paper presents general classification of nodal connections. Main advantages and disadvantages of existing space grid structures are highlighted and it allows to determine possible methods for their improvement. Theoretical research has permitted to establish that the main direction of spatial grid structures improvement

  17. Surfacers change their dive tactics depending on the aim of the dive: evidence from simultaneous measurements of breaths and energy expenditure

    Okuyama, Junichi; Tabata, Runa; Nakajima, Kana; Arai, Nobuaki; Kobayashi, Masato; Kagawa, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    Air-breathing divers are assumed to have evolved to apportion their time between surface and underwater periods to maximize the benefit gained from diving activities. However, whether they change their time allocation depending on the aim of the dive is still unknown. This may be particularly crucial for ‘surfacers’ because they dive for various purposes in addition to foraging. In this study, we counted breath events at the surface and estimated oxygen consumption during resting, foraging and other dives in 11 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the wild. Breath events were counted by a head-mounted acceleration logger or direct observation based on an animal-borne video logger, and oxygen consumption was estimated by measuring overall dynamic body acceleration. Our results indicate that green turtles maximized their submerged time, following this with five to seven breaths to replenish oxygen for resting dives. However, they changed their dive tactic during foraging and other dives; they surfaced without depleting their estimated stores of oxygen, followed by only a few breaths for effective foraging and locomotion. These dichotomous surfacing tactics would be the result of behavioural modifications by turtles depending on the aim of each dive. PMID:25297856

  18. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar...

  19. Protecting Commercial Space Systems: A Critical National Security Issue

    1999-04-01

    systems. Part two will describe, at the operational level , this author’s theory for space protection and recommend a course of action to work...minimal loss of life. These factors force us to conclude this is a critical national security issue just as many in high- level government positions...Command and Staff College Operational Forces Coursebook (Academic Year 1999), 35. 3 The USCG is not a Title 10 Service, thus Posse Comitatus is not a

  20. Qualification and issues with space flight laser systems and components

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. B.; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W., Jr.

    2006-02-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 1990's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  1. Visualization of thermal management system in space using neutron radiography

    Nakazawa, Takeshi

    1995-01-01

    The visualizing technique by neutron radiography is effective for visualizing liquid in metals, and the applications in wide fields have been reported. In this paper, as one of the examples of applying the visualizing technique by neutron radiography, the experiment of visualizing the two-phase fluid loop heat removal system for the purpose of using in spatial environment was carried out, and its results are reported. For future large scale space ships and space stations, the heat removal system with two-phase fluid loop which utilizes the phase transformation of heat transport media is regarded as promising. By this system, good heat transfer performance is obtained, transported heat quantity per unit mass of media increases, and pumping power and the weight of the total system are reduced. Temperature can be controlled by system pressure. The two-phase fluid loop for the visualization experiment and the experimental results are reported. By the experiment using the real time NRG system at the JRR-3M, the boiling and evaporation phenomena in the capillary heat transfer tubes were able to be visualized. (K.I.)

  2. Nanobarcode gene expression monitoring system for potential miniaturized space applications

    Ruan, Weiming; Eastman, P. Scott; Cooke, Patrick A.; Park, Jennifer S.; Chu, Julia S. F.; Gray, Joe W.; Li, Song; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    Manned mission to space has been threatened by various cosmos risks including radiation, mirogravity, vacuum, confinement, etc., which may cause genetic variations of astronauts and eventually lead to damages of their health. Thus, the development of small biomedical devices, which can monitor astronaut gene expression changes, is useful for future long-term space missions. Using magnetic microbeads packed with nanocrystal quantum dots at controlled ratios, we were able to generate highly multiplexed nanobarcodes, which can encode a flexible panel of genes. Also, by using a reporter quantum dot, this nanobarcode platform can monitor and quantify gene expression level with improved speed and sensitivity. As a comparison, we studied TGF-β1 induced transcription changes in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with both the nanobarcode microbead system and the Affymetrix GeneChip ® HTA system, which is currently considered as the industrial standard. Though using only 1/20 of the sample RNA, the nanobarcode system showed sensitivity equivalent to Affymetrix GeneChip ® system. The coefficient of variation, dynamic range, and accuracy of the nanobarcodes measurement is equivalent to that of the GeneChip ® HTA system. Therefore, this newly invented nanobarcode microbead platform is thought to be sensitive, flexible, cost-effective and accurate in a level equivalent to the conventional methods. As an extension of the use of this new platform, spacecrafts may carry this miniaturized system as a diagnostic tool for the astronauts.

  3. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  4. Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems

    Ippolito, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds, fog, precipitation, and turbulence causes uncontrolled variations in the signal characteristics. These variations can result in a reduction of the quality and reliability of the transmitted information. Models and other techniques are used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz have been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of precipitation on the Earth/space path, including rain attenuation, and ice particle depolarization. Other factors are sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence. Each of the various propagation factors has an effect on design criteria for communications systems. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contribution, modulation and polarization factors, channel cross talk, error rate, and bandwidth limitations.

  5. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  6. Value-informed space systems design and acquisition

    Brathwaite, Joy

    Investments in space systems are substantial, indivisible, and irreversible, characteristics that make them high-risk, especially when coupled with an uncertain demand environment. Traditional approaches to system design and acquisition, derived from a performance- or cost-centric mindset, incorporate little information about the spacecraft in relation to its environment and its value to its stakeholders. These traditional approaches, while appropriate in stable environments, are ill-suited for the current, distinctly uncertain, and rapidly changing technical and economic conditions; as such, they have to be revisited and adapted to the present context. This thesis proposes that in uncertain environments, decision-making with respect to space system design and acquisition should be value-based, or at a minimum value-informed. This research advances the value-centric paradigm by providing the theoretical basis, foundational frameworks, and supporting analytical tools for value assessment of priced and unpriced space systems. For priced systems, stochastic models of the market environment and financial models of stakeholder preferences are developed and integrated with a spacecraft-sizing tool to assess the system's net present value. The analytical framework is applied to a case study of a communications satellite, with market, financial, and technical data obtained from the satellite operator, Intelsat. The case study investigates the implications of the value-centric versus the cost-centric design and acquisition choices. Results identify the ways in which value-optimal spacecraft design choices are contingent on both technical and market conditions, and that larger spacecraft for example, which reap economies of scale benefits, as reflected by their decreasing cost-per-transponder, are not always the best (most valuable) choices. Market conditions and technical constraints for which convergence occurs between design choices under a cost-centric and a value

  7. Air operations language for military space ground systems

    Davis, P.

    The trends in military space ground system architecture is toward large amounts of software and more widely distributed processors. At the same time, life cycle cost considerations dictate that fewer personnel with minimized skill levels and knowledge operate and support these systems. This squeeze necessitates more human engineering and operational planning into the design of these systems. Several techniques have been developed to satisfy these requirements. An operations language is one of these techniques. It involves a specially defined syntax for control of the system. Individual directives are able to be grouped into operations language procedures. These procedures can be prepared offline ahead of time by more skilled personnel and then used to ensure repeatability of operational sequences and reduce operator errors. The use of an operations language also provides benefits for the handling of contingency operations as well as in the system testing and validation programs.

  8. Circular Orbit Target Capture Using Space Tether-Net System

    Guang Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The space tether-net system for on-orbit capture is proposed in this paper. In order to research the dynamic behaviors during system deployment, both free and nonfree deployment dynamics in circular orbit are developed; the system motion with respect to Local Vertical and Local Horizontal frame is also researched with analysis and simulation. The results show that in the case of free deployment, the capture net follows curve trajectories due to the relative orbit dynamic perturbation, and the initial deployment velocities are planned by state transformation equations for static and floating target captures; in the case of non-free deployment, the system undergoes an altitude libration along the Local Vertical, and the analytical solutions that describe the attitude libration are obtained by using variable separation and integration. Finally, the dynamics of postdeployment system is also proved marginally stable if the critical initial conditions are satisfied.

  9. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2: Technical report

    1982-01-01

    The space option for disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geological repositories is studied. A brief overview of the study background, scope, objective, guidelines and assumptions, and contents is presented. The determination of the effects of variations in the waste mix on the space systems concept to allow determination of the space systems effect on total system risk benefits when used as a complement to the DOE reference mined geological repository is studied. The waste payload system, launch site, launch system, and orbit transfer system are all addressed. Rescue mission requirements are studied. The characteristics of waste forms suitable for space disposal are identified. Trajectories and performance requirements are discussed.

  10. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  11. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  12. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  13. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    Ting, Y.T.D.

    1990-01-01

    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  14. Advanced Thermophotovoltaic Devices for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Wernsman, Bernard; Mahorter, Robert G.; Siergiej, Richard; Link, Samuel D.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Belanger, Sean J.; Fourspring, Patrick; Murray, Susan; Newman, Fred; Taylor, Dan; Rahmlow, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) modules capable of producing > 0.3 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 22% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1228 K and 325 K, respectively, have been made. These advanced TPV modules are projected to produce > 0.9 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 24% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1373 K and 325 K, respectively. Radioisotope and nuclear (fission) powered space systems utilizing these advanced TPV modules have been evaluated. For a 100 We radioisotope TPV system, systems utilizing as low as 2 general purpose heat source (GPHS) units are feasible, where the specific power for the 2 and 3 GPHS unit systems operating in a 200 K environment is as large as ∼ 16 We/kg and ∼ 14 We/kg, respectively. For a 100 kWe nuclear powered (as was entertained for the thermoelectric SP-100 program) TPV system, the minimum system radiator area and mass is ∼ 640 m2 and ∼ 1150 kg, respectively, for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 435 K and 200 K, respectively. Also, for a converter radiator temperature of 1373 K, the converter volume and mass remains less than 0.36 m3 and 640 kg, respectively. Thus, the minimum system radiator + converter (reactor and shield not included) specific mass is ∼ 16 kg/kWe for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 425 K and 200 K, respectively. Under this operating condition, the reactor thermal rating is ∼ 1110 kWt. Due to the large radiator area, the added complexity and mission risk needs to be weighed against reducing the reactor thermal rating to determine the feasibility of using TPV for space nuclear (fission) power systems

  15. System Engineering Processes at Kennedy Space Center for Development of SLS and Orion Launch Systems

    Schafer, Eric; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena

    2013-01-01

    There are over 40 subsystems being developed for the future SLS and Orion Launch Systems at Kennedy Space Center. These subsystems are developed at the Kennedy Space Center Engineering Directorate. The Engineering Directorate at Kennedy Space Center follows a comprehensive design process which requires several different product deliverables during each phase of each of the subsystems. This Presentation describes this process with examples of where the process has been applied.

  16. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    , and cultural differences, to ensure an efficient response to customer issues using a small Customer Service Team (CST) and adaptability, constant communication with customers, technical expertise and knowledge of services, and dedication to customer service. The HOSC Customer Support Team has implemented a variety of processes, and procedures that help to mitigate the potential problems that arise when integrating ground system services for a variety of complex missions and the lessons learned from this experience will lead the future of customer service in the space operations industry.

  17. Brain system for mental orientation in space, time, and person.

    Peer, Michael; Salomon, Roy; Goldberg, Ilan; Blanke, Olaf; Arzy, Shahar

    2015-09-01

    Orientation is a fundamental mental function that processes the relations between the behaving self to space (places), time (events), and person (people). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have hinted at interrelations between processing of these three domains. To unravel the neurocognitive basis of orientation, we used high-resolution 7T functional MRI as 16 subjects compared their subjective distance to different places, events, or people. Analysis at the individual-subject level revealed cortical activation related to orientation in space, time, and person in a precisely localized set of structures in the precuneus, inferior parietal, and medial frontal cortex. Comparison of orientation domains revealed a consistent order of cortical activity inside the precuneus and inferior parietal lobes, with space orientation activating posterior regions, followed anteriorly by person and then time. Core regions at the precuneus and inferior parietal lobe were activated for multiple orientation domains, suggesting also common processing for orientation across domains. The medial prefrontal cortex showed a posterior activation for time and anterior for person. Finally, the default-mode network, identified in a separate resting-state scan, was active for all orientation domains and overlapped mostly with person-orientation regions. These findings suggest that mental orientation in space, time, and person is managed by a specific brain system with a highly ordered internal organization, closely related to the default-mode network.

  18. Adhesive Bonding for Optical Metrology Systems in Space Applications

    Gohlke, Martin; Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Johann, Ulrich; Weise, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Laser based metrology systems become more and more attractive for space applications and are the core elements of planned missions such as LISA (NGO, eLISA) or NGGM where laser interferometry is used for distance measurements between satellites. The GRACE-FO mission will for the first time demonstrate a Laser Ranging Instrument (LRI) in space, starting 2017. Laser based metrology also includes optical clocks/references, either as ultra-stable light source for high sensitivity interferometry or as scientific payload e.g. proposed in fundamental physics missions such as mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research), a mission dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a low-Earth orbit. To enable the use of existing optical laboratory setups, optimization with respect to power consumption, weight and dimensions is necessary. At the same time the thermal and structural stability must be increased. Over the last few years we investigated adhesive bonding of optical components to thermally highly stable glass ceramics as an easy-to-handle assembly integration technology. Several setups were implemented and tested for potential later use in space applications. We realized a heterodyne LISA related interferometer with demonstrated noise levels in the pm-range for translation measurement and nano-radiant-range for tilt measurements and two iodine frequency references on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level with frequency stabilities in the 10 -15 range for longer integration times. The EM setup was thermally cycled and vibration tested. (paper)

  19. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    To develop a strategy for incorporating and demonstrating safety, it is necessary to enumerate the unique aspects of space power reactor systems from a safety standpoint. These features must be differentiated from terrestrial nuclear power plants so that our experience can be applied properly. Some ideas can then be developed on how safe designs can be achieved so that they are safe and perceived to be safe by the public. These ideas include operating only after achieving a stable orbit, developing an inherently safe design, ''designing'' in safety from the start and managing the system development (design) so that it is perceived safe. These and other ideas are explored further in this paper

  20. Random Vibration of Space Shuttle Weather Protection Systems

    Isaac Elishakoff

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with random vibrations of the space shuttle weather protection systems. The excitation model represents a fit to the measured experimental data. The cross-spectral density is given as a convex combination of three exponential functions. It is shown that for the type of loading considered, the Bernoulli-Euler theory cannot be used as a simplified approach, and the structure will be more properly modeled as a Timoshenko beam. Use of the simple Bernoulli-Euler theory may result in an error of about 50% in determining the mean-square value of the bending moment in the weather protection system.

  1. The Deep Space Network information system in the year 2000

    Markley, R. W.; Beswick, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN), the largest, most sensitive scientific communications and radio navigation network in the world, is considered. Focus is made on the telemetry processing, monitor and control, and ground data transport architectures of the DSN ground information system envisioned for the year 2000. The telemetry architecture will be unified from the front-end area to the end user. It will provide highly automated monitor and control of the DSN, automated configuration of support activities, and a vastly improved human interface. Automated decision support systems will be in place for DSN resource management, performance analysis, fault diagnosis, and contingency management.

  2. A new system for the measurement of the space radiation

    Pazmandi, T.; Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Beaujean, R.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation from space mainly consists of charged heavy particles (protons and heavier particles). Due to this fact, the effective dose significantly differs from the physical dose. Current measuring equipment is not fully suitable to measure both of the quantities simultaneously. A combined device for measurement of the mentioned values consists of an on-board thermoluminescence dosimeter reader and a three-axis silicon detector linear energy transfer spectrometer. This paper deals with the main characteristic of the new system. This system can be, applied for dosimetry of air crew as well. (authors)

  3. A new system for measurement of the space radiation

    Pazmandi, T.; Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Beaujean, R.

    2001-01-01

    The space radiation mainly consists of heavy charged particles (protons and heavier particles). Due to this fact its effective dose significantly differs from the physical dose. The recently used measuring equipment is not fully suitable to measure both quantities simultaneously. The combined device for measurement of mentioned values consists of an on board thermoluminescent dosimeter reader and a three axis silicon telescope as a linear energy transfer spectrometer. The paper deals with the main characteristics of the new system. This system can be applied for dosimetry of air-crew as well. (authors)

  4. Power supplies for space systems quality assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    Hannigan, R.L.; Harnar, R.R.

    1976-07-01

    The Sandia Laboratories' participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi-Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High-Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted

  5. Thermal Design of a Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System

    Hyung Suk Yang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System (PSICS cooled by a stirling cryocooler has been designed. The PSICS has an IR sensor inside the cold box which is cooled by a stirling cryocooler with refrigeration capacity of 500mW at 80K in a vacuum vessel. It is important to minimize the heat load so that the background thermal noise can be reduced. In order to design the cryogenic system with low heat load and to reduce the remained heat load, we have performed numerical analyses. In this paper, we present the design factors and the results obtained by the thermal analysis of the PSICS.

  6. Space space space

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  7. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing

    Nance, Donald; Liever, Peter; Nielsen, Tanner

    2015-01-01

    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test, conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center. The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  8. Dynamical tunneling in systems with a mixed phase space

    Loeck, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Tunneling is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics. While the tunneling process in one-dimensional integrable systems is well understood, its quantitative prediction for systems with a mixed phase space is a long-standing open challenge. In such systems regions of regular and chaotic dynamics coexist in phase space, which are classically separated but quantum mechanically coupled by the process of dynamical tunneling. We derive a prediction of dynamical tunneling rates which describe the decay of states localized inside the regular region towards the so-called chaotic sea. This approach uses a fictitious integrable system which mimics the dynamics inside the regular domain and extends it into the chaotic region. Excellent agreement with numerical data is found for kicked systems, billiards, and optical microcavities, if nonlinear resonances are negligible. Semiclassically, however, such nonlinear resonance chains dominate the tunneling process. Hence, we combine our approach with an improved resonance-assisted tunneling theory and derive a unified prediction which is valid from the quantum to the semiclassical regime. We obtain results which show a drastically improved accuracy of several orders of magnitude compared to previous studies. (orig.)

  9. Dynamical tunneling in systems with a mixed phase space

    Loeck, Steffen

    2010-04-22

    Tunneling is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics. While the tunneling process in one-dimensional integrable systems is well understood, its quantitative prediction for systems with a mixed phase space is a long-standing open challenge. In such systems regions of regular and chaotic dynamics coexist in phase space, which are classically separated but quantum mechanically coupled by the process of dynamical tunneling. We derive a prediction of dynamical tunneling rates which describe the decay of states localized inside the regular region towards the so-called chaotic sea. This approach uses a fictitious integrable system which mimics the dynamics inside the regular domain and extends it into the chaotic region. Excellent agreement with numerical data is found for kicked systems, billiards, and optical microcavities, if nonlinear resonances are negligible. Semiclassically, however, such nonlinear resonance chains dominate the tunneling process. Hence, we combine our approach with an improved resonance-assisted tunneling theory and derive a unified prediction which is valid from the quantum to the semiclassical regime. We obtain results which show a drastically improved accuracy of several orders of magnitude compared to previous studies. (orig.)

  10. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing

    Nance, Donald K.; Liever, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT), conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  11. Thermal System Upgrade of the Space Environment Simulation Test Chamber

    Desai, Ashok B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the refurbishing and upgrade of the thermal system for the existing thermal vacuum test facility, the Space Environment Simulator, at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The chamber is the largest such facility at the center. This upgrade is the third phase of the long range upgrade of the chamber that has been underway for last few years. The first phase dealt with its vacuum system, the second phase involved the GHe subsystem. The paper describes the considerations of design philosophy options for the thermal system; approaches taken and methodology applied, in the evaluation of the remaining "life" in the chamber shrouds and related equipment by conducting special tests and studies; feasibility and extent of automation, using computer interfaces and Programmable Logic Controllers in the control system and finally, matching the old components to the new ones into an integrated, highly reliable and cost effective thermal system for the facility. This is a multi-year project just started and the paper deals mainly with the plans and approaches to implement the project successfully within schedule and costs.

  12. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma

    Meenal Nitin Gulve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a part of their jobs or hobbies and their dentists should know the causes of barotrauma. In addition, the clinician must be aware of the possible influence of pressure changes on the retention of dental components.

  13. Development of a Simulation Model for Swimming with Diving Fins

    Motomu Nakashima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The simulation model to assess the performance of diving fin was developed by extending the swimming human simulation model SWUM. A diving fin was modeled as a series of five rigid plates and connected to the human model by springs and dampers. These plates were connected to each other by virtual springs and dampers, and fin’s bending property was represented by springs and dampers as well. An actual diver’s swimming motion with fins was acquired by a motion capture experiment. In order to determine the bending property of the fin, two bending tests on land were conducted. In addition, an experiment was conducted in order to determine the fluid force coefficients in the fluid force model for the fin. Finally, using all measured and identified information, a simulation, in which the experimental situation was reproduced, was carried out. It was confirmed that the diver in the simulation propelled forward in the water successfully.

  14. Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development

    Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station thermal loading conditions represent an order of magnitude increase over current and previous spacecraft such as Skylab, Apollo, Pegasus III, Lunar Rover Vehicle, and Lockheed TRIDENT missiles. Thermal storage units (TSU's) were successfully used on these as well as many applications for ground based solar energy storage applications. It is desirable to store thermal energy during peak loading conditions as an alternative to providing increased radiator surface area which adds to the weight of the system. Basically, TSU's store heat by melting a phase change material (PCM) such as a paraffin. The physical property data for the PCM's used in the design of these TSU's is well defined in the literature. Design techniques are generally well established for the TSU's. However, the Space Station provides a new challenge in the application of these data and techniques because of three factors: the large size of the TSU required, the integration of the TSU for the Space Station thermal management concept with its diverse opportunities for storage application, and the TSU's interface with a two-phase (liquid/vapor) thermal bus/central heat rejection system. The objective in the thermal storage research and development task was to design, fabricate, and test a demonstration unit. One test article was to be a passive thermal storage unit capable of storing frozen food at -20 F for a minimum of 90 days. A second unit was to be capable of storing frozen biological samples at -94 F, again for a minimum of 90 days. The articles developed were compatible with shuttle mission conditions, including safety and handling by astronauts. Further, storage rack concepts were presented so that these units can be integrated into Space Station logistics module storage racks. The extreme sensitivity of spacecraft radiator systems design-to-heat rejection temperature requirements is well known. A large radiator area penalty is incurred if low temperatures are accommodated via a

  15. System Engineering Processes at Kennedy Space Center for Development of the SLS and Orion Launch Systems

    Schafer, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    There are over 40 subsystems being developed for the future SLS and Orion Launch Systems at Kennedy Space Center. These subsystems developed at the Kennedy Space Center Engineering Directorate follow a comprehensive design process which requires several different product deliverables during each phase of each of the subsystems. This Paper describes this process and gives an example of where the process has been applied.

  16. Future space transportation systems systems analysis study, phase 1 technical report

    1975-01-01

    The requirements of projected space programs (1985-1995) for transportation vehicles more advanced than the space shuttle are discussed. Several future program options are described and their transportation needs are analyzed. Alternative systems approaches to meeting these needs are presented.

  17. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  18. Validated TRNSYS Model for Solar Assisted Space Heating System

    Abdalla, Nedal

    2014-01-01

    The present study involves a validated TRNSYS model for solar assisted space heating system as applied to a residential building in Jordan using new detailed radiation models of the TRNSYS 17.1 and geometric building model Trnsys3d for the Google SketchUp 3D drawing program. The annual heating load for a building (Solar House) which is located at the Royal ScientiFIc Society (RS5) in Jordan is estimated under climatological conditions of Amman. The aim of this Paper is to compare measured thermal performance of the Solar House with that modeled using TRNSYS. The results showed that the annual measured space heating load for the building was 6,188 kWh while the heati.ng load for the modeled building was 6,391 kWh. Moreover, the measured solar fraction for the solar system was 50% while the modeled solar fraction was 55%. A comparison of modeled and measured data resulted in percentage mean absolute errors for solar energy for space heating, auxiliary heating and solar fraction of 13%, 7% and 10%, respectively. The validated model will be useful for long-term performance simulation under different weather and operating conditions.(author)

  19. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission

  20. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.