WorldWideScience

Sample records for space derived health

  1. Understanding urban green space as a health resource: a qualitative comparison of visit motivation and derived effects among park users in Sheffield, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Katherine N; Warber, Sara L; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-01-22

    With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users' own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users' responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  2. Understanding Urban Green Space as a Health Resource: A Qualitative Comparison of Visit Motivation and Derived Effects among Park Users in Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Gaston

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users’ own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users’ responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  3. Simple derivation of magnetic space groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaut, E.F.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic translation lattices can be described by invariant wave vectors k. Advantages of the wave vector notation over the notations used by Belov et al. and Opechowski et al. are pointed out. In a one-dimensional real representation a space group element (α/tau(1)) has either the character +1 (symmetry element) or -1 (antisymmetry element). Thus the square of any space group operation must have the character +1 in a one-dimensional real representation. This simple ''square criterion'' is used to limit the admissible k-vectors and to derive the family of magnetic space groups, i.e. the set of all possible magnetic space groups, belonging to the same crystallographic space group. In the discussion some useful side results are obtained. Not only the real one-dimensional representations of point groups are connected to real one-dimensional representations of space groups, but a direct connection is shown to exist between one-dimensional complex representations of the point groups 3, 4 and 6 and one-dimensional real representations, belonging to P[001/2]=Psub(2c)(Psub(c))-lattices with screw axes 3 1 , 3 2 , 4 2 , 6 2 and 6 4 . Rules are derived for finding the Belov symbol when the Opechowski-Guccione symbol of the magnetic space group is known and this opportunity is used for correcting errors in the Opechowski-Guccione tables [fr

  4. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  5. Space-Derived Transparency: Players, Policies, Implications, and Synergies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinnan, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Democratization and globalization, the proliferation of information technologies, the availability of commercial space high-resolution imagery, and the growing influence of NGOs invite this question: What is (space-derived...

  6. Space-Derived Transparency: Players, Policies, Implications, and Synergies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinnan, C

    2001-01-01

    Space-derived transparency will become a common means of monitoring, preventing, and mitigating crises, verifying compliance with treaties and law, and enabling confidence and security building measures...

  7. Chromatic Derivatives, Chromatic Expansions and Associated Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the basic properties of chromatic derivatives and chromatic expansions and provides an appropriate motivation for introducing these notions. Chromatic derivatives are special, numerically robust linear differential operators which correspond to certain families of orthogonal polynomials. Chromatic expansions are series of the corresponding special functions, which possess the best features of both the Taylor and the Shannon expansions. This makes chromatic derivatives and ...

  8. Space education: Deriving benefits from industrial consortia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Page, John R.

    1993-01-01

    As the number of spacefaring nations of the world increases, so does the difficulty of competing in a global economy. The development of high technology products and services for space programs, and the economic exploitation of these technologies for national economic growth, requires professionals versed in both technical and commercial aspects of space. Meeting this requirement academically presents two challenges. On the technical side, enrollment in science and engineering is decreasing in some of the spacefaring nations. From the commerce perspective, very few colleges and universities offer specific courses in space business.

  9. Alert-derivative bimodal space power and propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Ranken, W.A.; Buksa, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass bimodal space power and propulsion systems could have numerous civilian and military applications. This paper discusses potential bimodal systems that could be derived from the ALERT space fission power supply concept. These bimodal concepts have the potential for providing 5 to 10 kW of electrical power and a total impulse of 100 MN-s at an average specific impulse of 770 s. System mass is on the order of 1000 kg

  10. Exact Finite Differences. The Derivative on Non Uniformly Spaced Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Martínez-Pérez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We define a finite-differences derivative operation, on a non uniformly spaced partition, which has the exponential function as an exact eigenvector. We discuss some properties of this operator and we propose a definition for the components of a finite-differences momentum operator. This allows us to perform exact discrete calculations.

  11. State-Space Modelling of Loudspeakers using Fractional Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Alexander Weider; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the use of fractional order derivatives in modeling moving-coil loudspeakers. A fractional order state-space solution is developed, leading the way towards incorporating nonlinearities into a fractional order system. The method is used to calculate the response of a fractio......This work investigates the use of fractional order derivatives in modeling moving-coil loudspeakers. A fractional order state-space solution is developed, leading the way towards incorporating nonlinearities into a fractional order system. The method is used to calculate the response...... of a fractional harmonic oscillator, representing the mechanical part of a loudspeaker, showing the effect of the fractional derivative and its relationship to viscoelasticity. Finally, a loudspeaker model with a fractional order viscoelastic suspension and fractional order voice coil is fit to measurement data...

  12. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A new governance space for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to ‘those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people’. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health – such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm – that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain. PMID:24560259

  14. A new governance space for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to 'those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people'. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health--such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm--that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain.

  15. Generalized fractional Schroedinger equation with space-time fractional derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaowei; Xu Mingyu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the generalized fractional Schroedinger equation with space and time fractional derivatives is constructed. The equation is solved for free particle and for a square potential well by the method of integral transforms, Fourier transform and Laplace transform, and the solution can be expressed in terms of Mittag-Leffler function. The Green function for free particle is also presented in this paper. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the cases of the generalized fractional Schroedinger equation and the ones in standard quantum

  16. Health services at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E. B.; Humbert, P.; Long, I. D.; Tipton, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Comprehensive occupational health services are provided to approximately 17,000 workers at the Kennedy Space Center and an additional 6000 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. These areas cover about 120,000 acres encompassing part of the Merritt Island Wild Life Refuge and wetlands which are the habitat of numerous endangered and protected species of wildlife. The services provided at the Kennedy Space Center optimally assure a safe and healthy working environment for the employees engaged in the preparation and launching of this country's Space Shuttle and other important space exploration programs.

  17. Spatiality of Derivations of Operator Algebras in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanyuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose that A is a transitive subalgebra of B(X and its norm closure A¯ contains a nonzero minimal left ideal I. It is shown that if δ is a bounded reflexive transitive derivation from A into B(X, then δ is spatial and implemented uniquely; that is, there exists T∈B(X such that δ(A=TA−AT for each A∈A, and the implementation T of δ is unique only up to an additive constant. This extends a result of E. Kissin that “if A¯ contains the ideal C(H of all compact operators in B(H, then a bounded reflexive transitive derivation from A into B(H is spatial and implemented uniquely.” in an algebraic direction and provides an alternative proof of it. It is also shown that a bounded reflexive transitive derivation from A into B(X is spatial and implemented uniquely, if X is a reflexive Banach space and A¯ contains a nonzero minimal right ideal I.

  18. The Personal Health Technology Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads

    2016-01-01

    . To enable designers to make informed and well-articulated design decision, the authors propose a design space for personal health technologies. This space consists of 10 dimensions related to the design of data sampling strategies, visualization and feedback approaches, treatment models, and regulatory......Interest is increasing in personal health technologies that utilize mobile platforms for improved health and well-being. However, although a wide variety of these systems exist, each is designed quite differently and materializes many different and more or less explicit design assumptions...

  19. Kennedy Space Center environmental health program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmaro, G.M.; Cardinale, M.A.; Summerfield, B.R.; Tipton, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center's environmental health organization is responsible for programs which assure its employees a healthful workplace under diverse and varied working conditions. These programs encompass the disciplines of industrial hygiene, radiation protection (health physics), and environmental sanitation/pollution control. Activities range from the routine, such as normal office work, to the highly specialized, such as the processing of highly toxic and hazardous materials

  20. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  1. Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V.

    1993-01-01

    The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O 9 m 3 . Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts

  2. Structural alphabets derived from attractors in conformational space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinjung Jens

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical and partially redundant nature of protein structures justifies the definition of frequently occurring conformations of short fragments as 'states'. Collections of selected representatives for these states define Structural Alphabets, describing the most typical local conformations within protein structures. These alphabets form a bridge between the string-oriented methods of sequence analysis and the coordinate-oriented methods of protein structure analysis. Results A Structural Alphabet has been derived by clustering all four-residue fragments of a high-resolution subset of the protein data bank and extracting the high-density states as representative conformational states. Each fragment is uniquely defined by a set of three independent angles corresponding to its degrees of freedom, capturing in simple and intuitive terms the properties of the conformational space. The fragments of the Structural Alphabet are equivalent to the conformational attractors and therefore yield a most informative encoding of proteins. Proteins can be reconstructed within the experimental uncertainty in structure determination and ensembles of structures can be encoded with accuracy and robustness. Conclusions The density-based Structural Alphabet provides a novel tool to describe local conformations and it is specifically suitable for application in studies of protein dynamics.

  3. Earth rotation excitation mechanisms derived from geodetic space observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttl, F.; Schmidt, M.

    2009-04-01

    Earth rotation variations are caused by mass displacements and motions in the subsystems of the Earth. Via the satellite Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field variations can be identified which are caused by mass redistribution in the Earth system. Therefore time variable gravity field models (GFZ RL04, CSR RL04, JPL RL04, ITG-Grace03, GRGS, ...) can be used to derive different impacts on Earth rotation. Furthermore satellite altimetry provides accurate information on sea level anomalies (AVISO, DGFI) which are caused by mass and volume changes of seawater. Since Earth rotation is solely affected by mass variations and motions the volume (steric) effect has to be reduced from the altimetric observations in order to infer oceanic contributions to Earth rotation variations. Therefore the steric effect is estimated from physical ocean parameters such as temperature and salinity changes in the oceans (WOA05, Ishii). In this study specific individual geophysical contributions to Earth rotation variations are identified by means of a multitude of accurate geodetic space observations in combination with a realistic error propagation. It will be shown that due to adjustment of altimetric and/or gravimetric solutions the results for polar motion excitations can be improved.

  4. Women's Health Issues in the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Women have been an integral part of US space crews since Sally Ride's mission in 1983, and a total of 40 women have been selected as US astronauts. The first Russian female cosmonaut flew in 1963. This presentation examines the health care and reproductive aspects of flying women in space. In addition, the reproductive implications of delaying one's childbearing for an astronaut career and the impact of new technology such as assisted reproductive techniques are examined. The reproductive outcomes of the US female astronauts who have become pregnant following space flight exposure are also presented. Since women have gained considerable operational experience on the Shuttle, Mir and during EVA, the unique operational considerations for preflight certification, menstruation control and hygiene, contraception, and urination are discussed. Medical and surgical implications for women on long-duration missions to remote locations are still evolving, and enabling technologies for health care delivery are being developed. There has been considerable progress in the development of microgravity surgical techniques, including laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and laparotomy. The concepts of prevention of illness, conversion of surgical conditions to medically treatable conditions and surgical intervention for women on long duration space flights are considered.

  5. Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckun, Serdar

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

  6. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  7. Higher-derivative superparticle in AdS3 space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-03-01

    Employing the coset approach we construct component actions for a superparticle moving in AdS3 with N =(2 ,0 ), D =3 supersymmetry partially broken to N =2 , d =1 . These actions may contain higher time-derivative terms, which are chosen to possess the same (super)symmetries as the free superparticle. In terms of the nonlinear-realization superfields, the component actions always take a simpler form when written in terms of covariant Cartan forms. We also consider in detail the reduction to the nonrelativistic case and construct the corresponding action of a Newton-Hooke superparticle and its higher-derivative generalizations. The structure of these higher time-derivative generalizations is completely fixed by invariance under the supersymmetric Newton-Hooke algebra extended by two central charges.

  8. Derivatives, forms and vector fields on the κ-deformed Euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, Marija; Moeller, Lutz; Tsouchnika, Efrossini

    2004-01-01

    The model of κ-deformed space is an interesting example of a noncommutative space, since it allows a deformed symmetry. In this paper, we present new results concerning different sets of derivatives on the coordinate algebra of κ-deformed Euclidean space. We introduce a differential calculus with two interesting sets of one-forms and higher-order forms. The transformation law of vector fields is constructed in accordance with the transformation behaviour of derivatives. The crucial property of the different derivatives, forms and vector fields is that in an n-dimensional spacetime there are always n of them. This is the key difference with respect to conventional approaches, in which the differential calculus is (n + 1)-dimensional. This work shows that derivative-valued quantities such as derivative-valued vector fields appear in a generic way on noncommutative spaces

  9. Computational derivation of quantum relativist electromagnetic systems with forward-backward space-time shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of our preceding paper dealing with computational derivation of the Klein-Gordon quantum relativist equation and the Schroedinger quantum equation with forward and backward space-time shifts. The first part introduces forward and backward derivatives for discrete and continuous systems. Generalized complex discrete and continuous derivatives are deduced. The second part deduces the Klein-Gordon equation from the space-time complex continuous derivatives. These derivatives take into account forward-backward space-time shifts related to an internal phase velocity u. The internal group velocity v is related to the speed of light u.v=c 2 and to the external group and phase velocities u.v=v g .v p . Without time shift, the Schroedinger equation is deduced, with a supplementary term, which could represent a reference potential. The third part deduces the Quantum Relativist Klein-Gordon equation for a particle in an electromagnetic field

  10. SLS-Derived Lab: Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2014-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in work and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Robotic missions have successfully demonstrated transportation, entry, landing and surface operations but for human missions there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) are the unanswered questions concerning long-duration exploration beyond low-earth-orbit. The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside earth's protective geo-magnetic field they cannot be resolved on the earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at the relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 meter and 4.3 meter diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit Habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems, solutions are not obvious, and require integrated, iterative, and multi-disciplinary development. A lunar

  11. Derivative financial instruments and nonprofit health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Owhoso, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the extent of derivative financial instrument use among US nonprofit health systems and the impact of these financial instruments on their cash flows, reported operating results, and financial risks. Our examination is conducted through a case study of New Jersey hospitals and health systems. We review the existing literature on interest rate derivative instruments and US hospitals and health systems. This literature describes the design of these derivative financial instruments and the theoretical benefits of their use by large health care provider organizations. Our contribution to the literature is to provide an empirical evaluation of derivative financial instruments usage among a geographically limited sample of US nonprofit health systems. We reviewed the audited financial statements of the 49 community hospitals and multi-hospital health systems operating in the state of New Jersey. We found that 8 percent of New Jersey's nonprofit health providers utilized interest rate derivatives with an aggregate principle value of $229 million. These derivative users combine interest rate swaps and caps to lower the effective interest costs of their long-term debt while limiting their exposure to future interest rate increases. In addition, while derivative assets and liabilities have an immaterial balance sheet impact, derivative related gains and losses are a material component of their reported operating results. We also found that derivative usage among these four health systems was responsible for generating positive cash flows in the range of 1 percent to 2 percent of their total 2001 cash flows from operations. As a result of our admittedly limited samples we conclude that interest rate swaps and caps are effective risk management tools. However, we also found that while these derivative financial instruments are useful hedges against the risks of issuing long-term financing instruments, they also expose derivative users to credit, contract

  12. SLS-Derived Lab- Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand M.; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in the works and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Transportation, entry, landing, and surface operations have been successfully demonstrated for robotic missions. However, for human missions, there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), are the unanswered questions concerning long duration exploration Beyond low Earth Orbit (BEO). The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside of earth's protective geo-magnetic field, they cannot be resolved on Earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at a relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 m and 4.3 m diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems. The solutions to these problems are not obvious; they require integrated, iterative

  13. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  14. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast. Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  15. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Agnes E; Maas, Jolanda; Verheij, Robert A; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2), conducted in 2000-2002. Health measures included: (1) the number of health complaints in the last 14 days; (2) perceived mental health (measured by the GHQ-12); and (3) a single item measure of perceived general health ranging from 'excellent' to 'poor'. Percentages of green space in a 1-km and 3-km radius around the home were derived from the 2001 National Land cover Classification database (LGN4). Data were analysed using multilevel regression analysis, with GP practices as the group-level units. All analyses were controlled for age, gender, income, education level, and level of urbanity. The results show that the relationships of stressful life events with number of health complaints and perceived general health were significantly moderated by amount of green space in a 3-km radius. Respondents with a high amount of green space in a 3-km radius were less affected by experiencing a stressful life event than respondents with a low amount of green space in this radius. The same pattern was observed for perceived mental health, although it was marginally significant. The moderating effects of green space were found only for green space within 3 km, and not for green space within 1 km of residents' homes, presumably because the 3-km indicator is more affected by the presence of larger areas of green space, that are supposed to sustain deeper forms of restoration. These results support the notion that green space can provide a buffer against the negative health impact of stressful life events. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Space transportation. [user needs met by information derived from satellites and the interface with space transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    User-oriented panels were formed to examine practical applications of information or services derived from earth orbiting satellites. Topics discussed include: weather and climate; uses of communication; land use planning; agriculture, forest, and range; inland water resources; retractable resources; environmental quality; marine and maritime uses; and materials processing in space. Emphasis was placed on the interface of the space transportation system (STS) with the applications envisioned by the user panels. User requirements were compared with expected STS capabilities in terms of availability, carrying payload to orbit, and estimated costs per launch. Conclusions and recommendations were reported.

  17. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  18. Space station automation study: Automation requriements derived from space manufacturing concepts,volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Automation reuirements were developed for two manufacturing concepts: (1) Gallium Arsenide Electroepitaxial Crystal Production and Wafer Manufacturing Facility, and (2) Gallium Arsenide VLSI Microelectronics Chip Processing Facility. A functional overview of the ultimate design concept incoporating the two manufacturing facilities on the space station are provided. The concepts were selected to facilitate an in-depth analysis of manufacturing automation requirements in the form of process mechanization, teleoperation and robotics, sensors, and artificial intelligence. While the cost-effectiveness of these facilities was not analyzed, both appear entirely feasible for the year 2000 timeframe.

  19. Derivation of space groups in mm2, 222 and mmm crystal classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigam, G.D.

    1987-08-01

    An algebraic approach is developed to derive space groups using 4x4 Seitz matrices for the crystal classes mm2, 222 and mmm in the orthorhombic system. The advantage of the present method is that it is relatively simple and can be adapted to introduce space groups to beginners. One of the advantages of the present method is that it admits a geometrical visualization of the symmetry elements of space group. The method can easily be extended to other crystal classes in a straightforward way. 16 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Review of the different methods to derive average spacing from resolved resonance parameters sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, E.; Derrien, H.; Lafond, D.

    1979-12-01

    The average spacing of resonances is an important parameter for statistical model calculations, especially concerning non fissile nuclei. The different methods to derive this average value from resonance parameters sets have been reviewed and analyzed in order to tentatively detect their respective weaknesses and propose recommendations. Possible improvements are suggested

  1. A direct derivation of the exact Fisther information matrix of Gaussian vector state space models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.A.B.; Neudecker, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with a direct derivation of Fisher's information matrix of vector state space models for the general case, by which is meant the establishment of the matrix as a whole and not element by element. The method to be used is matrix differentiation, see [4]. We assume the model to be

  2. Space station automation study: Automation requirements derived from space manufacturing concepts. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The electroepitaxial process and the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) circuits (chips) facilities were chosen because each requires a very high degree of automation, and therefore involved extensive use of teleoperators, robotics, process mechanization, and artificial intelligence. Both cover a raw materials process and a sophisticated multi-step process and are therfore highly representative of the kinds of difficult operation, maintenance, and repair challenges which can be expected for any type of space manufacturing facility. Generic areas were identified which will require significant further study. The initial design will be based on terrestrial state-of-the-art hard automation. One hundred candidate missions were evaluated on the basis of automation portential and availability of meaning ful knowldege. The design requirements and unconstrained design concepts developed for the two missions are presented.

  3. Space-Time Fractional Diffusion-Advection Equation with Caputo Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Gómez Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative construction for the space-time fractional diffusion-advection equation for the sedimentation phenomena is presented. The order of the derivative is considered as 0<β, γ≤1 for the space and time domain, respectively. The fractional derivative of Caputo type is considered. In the spatial case we obtain the fractional solution for the underdamped, undamped, and overdamped case. In the temporal case we show that the concentration has amplitude which exhibits an algebraic decay at asymptotically large times and also shows numerical simulations where both derivatives are taken in simultaneous form. In order that the equation preserves the physical units of the system two auxiliary parameters σx and σt are introduced characterizing the existence of fractional space and time components, respectively. A physical relation between these parameters is reported and the solutions in space-time are given in terms of the Mittag-Leffler function depending on the parameters β and γ. The generalization of the fractional diffusion-advection equation in space-time exhibits anomalous behavior.

  4. [Conception of health: space-earth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I B; Orlov, O I; Baevskiĭ, R M; Bersen'ev, E Iu; Chernikova, A G

    2013-01-01

    In article the new approach to an estimation of a health state of cosmonauts, sportsmen, pilots, drivers, operators, persons of dangerous trades is considered. It has been created and developed in Institute of biomedical problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences under the direction of academician A.I. Grigoriev. Results of works of last decade, by the Program of Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences carried out at support of "Fundamental sciences--are submited to medicine". The new system for an estimation of a functional states of an organism at stressful influences in submitted. The methodology of remote studying of influence of ecological factors on health which has begun a new scientific--practical direction--to telemedical ecology is created. In conclusion of the article it is discussed questions of the further introduction of new concept of health and technologies prenosological diagnostics in practice of public health services.

  5. Policy space for health and trade and investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2014-06-01

    New trade agreements affect how governments can regulate for health both within health systems and in addressing health protection, promotion and social determinants of health in other policies. It is essential that those responsible for health understand the impacts of these trade negotiations and agreements on policy space for health at a national and local level. While we know more about implications from negotiations concerning intellectual property rights and trade in goods, this paper provides a screening checklist for less-discussed areas of domestic regulation, services, investment and government procurement. As implications are likely to differ on the basis of the organization and structures of national health systems and policy priorities, the emphasis is on finding out key provisions as well as on how exemptions and exclusions can be used to ensure policy space for health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Transforming Children's Health Spaces into Learning Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisselle, Amy; Green, Julie; Scrimshaw, Chantel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic health conditions can cause children extended school absences, creating significant barriers for continued education. Out-of-school learning environments, such as hospitals, provide opportunities to maintain children's learning identities during school absences. This paper seeks to present an example of hospital-based teaching and…

  7. Green Open Space: Awareness for Health or Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, O. C.; Chairunnisa, I.; Hidayat, T.; Anggraini, M.; Napitupulu, A.

    2018-03-01

    Universitas Indonesia in cooperation with American Red Cross and Indonesian Red Cross have been assisting green open space revitalisation program in 7 locations in Bogor Regency (2016-2017). The program was held under The Urban Disaster Risk Reduction Greater Jakarta Project; an initiative program from American Red Cross Indonesia. This project was not only improving the existing green open space quality, but also creating one adapted from public land. The revitalization project figures what happened on daily basis on the existing land, proposing new programming facilities, community-based construction, monitoring and handing over. This paper discovers the meaning of a green space for the community, whether the community aware of its benefit on human health or environmental sustainability. The research question is does the community aware of green open space benefit for human health or environmental sustainability? Or both? The original data from the community was gathered and grouped based on its relevance with environmental quality and public health.

  8. Decentralisation of Health Services in Fiji: A Decision Space Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Jalal; North, Nicola; Ashton, Toni

    2015-11-15

    Decentralisation aims to bring services closer to the community and has been advocated in the health sector to improve quality, access and equity, and to empower local agencies, increase innovation and efficiency and bring healthcare and decision-making as close as possible to where people live and work. Fiji has attempted two approaches to decentralisation. The current approach reflects a model of deconcentration of outpatient services from the tertiary level hospital to the peripheral health centres in the Suva subdivision. Using a modified decision space approach developed by Bossert, this study measures decision space created in five broad categories (finance, service organisation, human resources, access rules, and governance rules) within the decentralised services. Fiji's centrally managed historical-based allocation of financial resources and management of human resources resulted in no decision space for decentralised agents. Narrow decision space was created in the service organisation category where, with limited decision space created over access rules, Fiji has seen greater usage of its decentralised health centres. There remains limited decision space in governance. The current wave of decentralisation reveals that, whilst the workload has shifted from the tertiary hospital to the peripheral health centres, it has been accompanied by limited transfer of administrative authority, suggesting that Fiji's deconcentration reflects the transfer of workload only with decision-making in the five functional areas remaining largely centralised. As such, the benefits of decentralisation for users and providers are likely to be limited. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  9. Space Life Sciences at NASA: Spaceflight Health Policy and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; House, Nancy G.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2005, the President proposed a new initiative, the Vision for Space Exploration. To accomplish the goals within the vision for space exploration, physicians and researchers at Johnson Space Center are establishing spaceflight health standards. These standards include fitness for duty criteria (FFD), permissible exposure limits (PELs), and permissible outcome limits (POLs). POLs delineate an acceptable maximum decrement or change in a physiological or behavioral parameter, as the result of exposure to the space environment. For example cardiovascular fitness for duty standards might be a measurable clinical parameter minimum that allows successful performance of all required duties. An example of a permissible exposure limit for radiation might be the quantifiable limit of exposure over a given length of time (e.g. life time radiation exposure). An example of a permissible outcome limit might be the length of microgravity exposure that would minimize bone loss. The purpose of spaceflight health standards is to promote operational and vehicle design requirements, aid in medical decision making during space missions, and guide the development of countermeasures. Standards will be based on scientific and clinical evidence including research findings, lessons learned from previous space missions, studies conducted in space analog environments, current standards of medical practices, risk management data, and expert recommendations. To focus the research community on the needs for exploration missions, NASA has developed the Bioastronautics Roadmap. The Bioastronautics Roadmap, NASA's approach to identification of risks to human space flight, revised baseline was released in February 2005. This document was reviewed by the Institute of Medicine in November 2004 and the final report was received in October 2005. The roadmap defines the most important research and operational needs that will be used to set policy, standards (define acceptable risk), and

  10. SpaceDoc-Intelligent Health Management System for Astronauts, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crew health and performance are critical to successful space explorations. However, long duration missions present numerous risks to crew health and performance....

  11. A Modified Groundwater Flow Model Using the Space Time Riemann-Liouville Fractional Derivatives Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of uncertainty in groundwater hydrology is of great importance as it is known to result in misleading output when neglected or not properly accounted for. In this paper we examine this effect in groundwater flow models. To achieve this, we first introduce the uncertainties functions u as function of time and space. The function u accounts for the lack of knowledge or variability of the geological formations in which flow occur (aquifer in time and space. We next make use of Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives that were introduced by Kobelev and Romano in 2000 and its approximation to modify the standard version of groundwater flow equation. Some properties of the modified Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative approximation are presented. The classical model for groundwater flow, in the case of density-independent flow in a uniform homogeneous aquifer is reformulated by replacing the classical derivative by the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives approximations. The modified equation is solved via the technique of green function and the variational iteration method.

  12. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  13. Primary health care reform, dilemmatic space and risk of burnout among health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Labonté, Ronald; Javanparast, Sara; Lawless, Angela

    2018-05-01

    Health system changes may increase primary health care workers' dilemmatic space, created when reforms contravene professional values. Dilemmatic space may be a risk factor for burnout. This study partnered with six Australian primary health care services (in South Australia: four state government-managed services including one Aboriginal health team and one non-government organisation and in Northern Territory: one Aboriginal community-controlled service) during a period of change and examined workers' dilemmatic space and incidence of burnout. Dilemmatic space and burnout were assessed in a survey of 130 staff across the six services (58% response rate). Additionally, 63 interviews were conducted with practitioners, managers, regional executives and health department staff. Dilemmatic space occurred across all services and was associated with higher rates of self-reported burnout. Three conditions associated with dilemmatic space were (1) conditions inherent in comprehensive primary health care, (2) stemming from service provision for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and (3) changes wrought by reorientation to selective primary health care in South Australia. Responses to dilemmatic space included ignoring directives or doing work 'under the radar', undertaking alternative work congruent with primary health care values outside of hours, or leaving the organisation. The findings show that comprehensive primary health care was contested and political. Future health reform processes would benefit from considering alignment of changes with staff values to reduce negative effects of the reform and safeguard worker wellbeing.

  14. A Prognostic Scoring Tool for Cesarean Organ/Space Surgical Site Infections: Derivation and Internal Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawapalanggool, Srisuda; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Arora, Rajin; Suntornlimsiri, Watcharin

    Organ/space surgical site infections (SSIs) are serious complications after cesarean delivery. However, no scoring tool to predict these complications has yet been developed. This study sought to develop and validate a prognostic scoring tool for cesarean organ/space SSIs. Data for case and non-case of cesarean organ/space SSI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 from a tertiary care hospital in Thailand were analyzed. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was used to select the best predictor combination and their coefficients were transformed to a risk scoring tool. The likelihood ratio of positive for each risk category and the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were analyzed on total scores. Internal validation using bootstrap re-sampling was tested for reproducibility. The predictors of 243 organ/space SSIs from 4,988 eligible cesarean delivery cases comprised the presence of foul-smelling amniotic fluid (four points), vaginal examination five or more times before incision (two points), wound class III or greater (two points), being referred from local setting (two points), hemoglobin less than 11 g/dL (one point), and ethnic minorities (one point). The likelihood ratio of cesarean organ/space SSIs with 95% confidence interval among low (total score of 0-1 point), medium (total score of 2-5 points), and high risk (total score of ≥6 points) categories were 0.11 (0.07-0.19), 1.03 (0.89-1.18), and 13.25 (10.87-16.14), respectively. Both AUROCs of the derivation and validation data were comparable (87.57% versus 86.08%; p = 0.418). This scoring tool showed a high predictive ability regarding cesarean organ/space SSIs on the derivation data and reproducibility was demonstrated on internal validation. It could assist practitioners prioritize patient care and management depending on risk category and decrease SSI rates in cesarean deliveries.

  15. Behavioral Health and Performance Operations During the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beven, G.; Holland, A.; Moomaw, R.; Sipes, W.; Vander Ark, S.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the Columbia STS 107 disaster in 2003, the Johnson Space Center s Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) became involved in Space Shuttle Operations on an as needed basis, occasionally acting as a consultant and primarily addressing crew-crew personality conflicts. The BHP group also assisted with astronaut selection at every selection cycle beginning in 1991. Following STS 107, an event that spawned an increased need of behavioral health support to STS crew members and their dependents, BHP services to the Space Shuttle Program were enhanced beginning with the STS 114 Return to Flight mission in 2005. These services included the presence of BHP personnel at STS launches and landings for contingency support, a BHP briefing to the entire STS crew at L-11 months, a private preflight meeting with the STS Commander at L-9 months, and the presence of a BHP consultant at the L-1.5 month Family Support Office briefing to crew and family members. The later development of an annual behavioral health assessment of all active astronauts also augmented BHP s Space Shuttle Program specific services, allowing for private meetings with all STS crew members before and after each mission. The components of each facet of these BHP Space Shuttle Program support services will be presented, along with valuable lessons learned, and with recommendations for BHP involvement in future short duration space missions

  16. Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C.; Fluehr, Jaime M.; McKeon, Thomas; Branas, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over half of the world’s population now lives in urban areas, and this proportion is expected to increase. While there have been numerous reviews of empirical studies on the link between nature and human health, very few have focused on the urban context, and most have examined almost exclusively cross-sectional research. This review is a first step toward assessing the possibility of causal relationships between nature and health in urban settings. Methods: Through systematic review of published literature, we explored the association between urban green space and human health. Results: We found consistent negative association between urban green space exposure and mortality, heart rate, and violence, and positive association with attention, mood, and physical activity. Results were mixed, or no association was found, in studies of urban green space exposure and general health, weight status, depression, and stress (via cortisol concentration). The number of studies was too low to generalize about birth outcomes, blood pressure, heart rate variability, cancer, diabetes, or respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: More studies using rigorous study design are needed to make generalizations, and meta-analyses, of these and other health outcomes possible. These findings may assist urban managers, organizations, and communities in their efforts to increase new or preserve existing green space. PMID:29510520

  17. [An assessment of fiscal space for public health in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus-López, Mauricio; Toledo, Lorena Prieto; Pedraza, Camilo Cid

    2016-08-01

    Objective To assess the fiscal space for public health in Peru so as to attain the goal of raising health spending to 6% of gross domestic product, as agreed upon by member countries of the Pan American Health Organization in 2014. Methods The main sources of fiscal space were identified by means of a thorough literature review. Technical feasibility was determined from statistics and national and international surveys and by reviewing various documents and official reports. Political feasibility was ascertained by studying policy guidelines. Results The sources showing the greatest technical and political feasibility are economic growth, a broadening of the personal income tax base, and an increase in tobacco-specific taxes. Decreasing informality in the job market and increasing contributory coverage are considered to be less politically feasible, but there is ample technical space for these measures. Conclusions There is enough fiscal space to allow for an increase in public health spending. Nevertheless, the 6% target will be reached only if the timeline is extended, tax revenues are increased, and informality in the job market is reduced.

  18. Space Agriculture, Tourism and Health - Lessons from British Imperial History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivier, D. J.

    Advocates of space commercialisation and colonisation have drawn on previous centuries' experience of the exploration and exploitation of terrestrial New Worlds. Although so far chiefly confined to the colonisation of the Americas and exploration of the Antarctic, a proper examination of the problems and solutions faced and found by the late 19th - early 20th century Jamaican tourist trade, mid-Victorian planter agriculturalists in Sri Lanka and the impact of climatic theories of health on early 20th century White colonists in Kenya and Rhodesia, can, if properly applied to today's conditions affecting modern space businesses, offer important insights to the psychological impact and aetiology of disease amongst future space colonists, and the success- ful establishment and management of tourism and agriculture in space. By following the precedents set by the imperial pioneers, it should be possible to apply their founding principles in these sectors successfully, while avoiding the pitfalls and excesses of terrestrial imperialism.

  19. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 4; Health, Performance, and Safety of Space Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, Lawrence F. (Editor); Pestov, Igor D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Volume IV is devoted to examining the medical and associated organizational measures used to maintain the health of space crews and to support their performance before, during, and after space flight. These measures, collectively known as the medical flight support system, are important contributors to the safety and success of space flight. The contributions of space hardware and the spacecraft environment to flight safety and mission success are covered in previous volumes of the Space Biology and Medicine series. In Volume IV, we address means of improving the reliability of people who are required to function in the unfamiliar environment of space flight as well as the importance of those who support the crew. Please note that the extensive collaboration between Russian and American teams for this volume of work resulted in a timeframe of publication longer than originally anticipated. Therefore, new research or insights may have emerged since the authors composed their chapters and references. This volume includes a list of authors' names and addresses should readers seek specifics on new information. At least three groups of factors act to perturb human physiological homeostasis during space flight. All have significant influence on health, psychological, and emotional status, tolerance, and work capacity. The first and most important of these factors is weightlessness, the most specific and radical change in the ambient environment; it causes a variety of functional and structural changes in human physiology. The second group of factors precludes the constraints associated with living in the sealed, confined environment of spacecraft. Although these factors are not unique to space flight, the limitations they entail in terms of an uncomfortable environment can diminish the well-being and performance of crewmembers in space. The third group of factors includes the occupational and social factors associated with the difficult, critical nature of the

  20. Stennis Space Center observes 2009 Safety and Health Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Sue Smith, a medical clinic employee at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, takes the temperature of colleague Karen Badon during 2009 Safety and Health Day activities Oct. 22. Safety Day activities included speakers, informational sessions and a number of displays on safety and health issues. Astronaut Dominic Gorie also visited the south Mississippi rocket engine testing facility during the day to address employees and present several Silver Snoopy awards for outstanding contributions to flight safety and mission success. The activities were part of an ongoing safety and health emphasis at Stennis.

  1. Humanizing outer space: architecture, habitability, and behavioral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2010-03-01

    Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. In our present century professional astronauts and cosmonauts will remain a focus for space architects, but new designs must better accommodate passengers (tourists and industrial workers) and settlers who set forth to establish off-world societies. Psychologists and architects can work together to assure good spaceflight behavioral health, defined by a lack of neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and the presence of high levels of personal adjustment, cordial interpersonal relations, and positive interactions with the physical and social environments. By designing and constructing facilities that are occupant centered and activity oriented, architects increase habitability thereby decreasing environmental challenges to behavioral health. Simulators and spaceflight-analogous environments make it possible to test design solutions prior to their deployment in space. This paper concludes with suggestions for increasing collaboration between architects and psychologists. These include increased sharing of hypotheses and data, articulating complementary research styles, and mutual advocacy for early, potent, and sustained involvement in mission planning and execution.

  2. SP_Ace: a new code to derive stellar parameters and elemental abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Ongoing and future massive spectroscopic surveys will collect large numbers (106-107) of stellar spectra that need to be analyzed. Highly automated software is needed to derive stellar parameters and chemical abundances from these spectra. Aims: We developed a new method of estimating the stellar parameters Teff, log g, [M/H], and elemental abundances. This method was implemented in a new code, SP_Ace (Stellar Parameters And Chemical abundances Estimator). This is a highly automated code suitable for analyzing the spectra of large spectroscopic surveys with low or medium spectral resolution (R = 2000-20 000). Methods: After the astrophysical calibration of the oscillator strengths of 4643 absorption lines covering the wavelength ranges 5212-6860 Å and 8400-8924 Å, we constructed a library that contains the equivalent widths (EW) of these lines for a grid of stellar parameters. The EWs of each line are fit by a polynomial function that describes the EW of the line as a function of the stellar parameters. The coefficients of these polynomial functions are stored in a library called the "GCOG library". SP_Ace, a code written in FORTRAN95, uses the GCOG library to compute the EWs of the lines, constructs models of spectra as a function of the stellar parameters and abundances, and searches for the model that minimizes the χ2 deviation when compared to the observed spectrum. The code has been tested on synthetic and real spectra for a wide range of signal-to-noise and spectral resolutions. Results: SP_Ace derives stellar parameters such as Teff, log g, [M/H], and chemical abundances of up to ten elements for low to medium resolution spectra of FGK-type stars with precision comparable to the one usually obtained with spectra of higher resolution. Systematic errors in stellar parameters and chemical abundances are presented and identified with tests on synthetic and real spectra. Stochastic errors are automatically estimated by the code for all the parameters

  3. Learning strategies of public health nursing students: conquering operational space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjälmhult, Esther

    2009-11-01

    To develop understanding of how public health nursing students learn in clinical practice and explore the main concern for the students and how they acted to resolve this main concern. How professionals perform their work directly affects individuals, but knowledge is lacking in understanding how learning is connected to clinical practice in public health nursing and in other professions. Grounded theory. Grounded theory was used in gathering and analysing data from 55 interviews and 108 weekly reports. The participants were 21 registered nurses who were public health nursing students. The grounded theory of conquering operational space explains how the students work to resolve their main concern. A social process with three identified phases, positioning, involving and integrating, was generated from analysing the data. Their subcategories and dimensions are related to the student role, relations with a supervisor, student activity and the consequences of each phase. Public health nursing students had to work towards gaining independence, often working against 'the system' and managing the tension by taking a risk. Many of them lost, changed and expanded their professional identity during practical placements. Public health nursing students' learning processes in clinical training are complex and dynamic and the theory of 'Conquering operational space' can assist supervisors in further developing their role in relation to guiding students in practice. Relationships are one key to opening or closing access to situations of learning and directly affect the students' achievement of mastering. The findings are pertinent to supervisors and educators as they prepare students for practice. Good relationships are elementary and supervisors can support students in conquering the field by letting students obtain operational space and gain independence. This may create a dialectical process that drives learning forward.

  4. Derivation of a configuration space Hamiltonian for heavy atoms: three body potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittleman, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    A brief history of the difficulties associated with the derivation of a configuration space Hamiltonian is presented. One of the problems encountered is the definition of the projection operators which must occur. A variational definition is obtained and, with simplifying assumptions, the optimum projection operators are those which project onto Hartree-Fock orbitals. This puts many previously performed numerical calculations on a firm footing. The form of the two body interactions is discussed in the context of the gauge freedom. The Coulomb gauge is the favored one but it is pointed out that it has never been proven to be the best one. Finally a form for the relativistic three election potential is given and the possibility of its observation is discussed

  5. A new visco-elasto-plastic model via time-space fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, X.; Chen, W.; Pang, G.; Xiao, R.; Zhang, C.

    2018-02-01

    To characterize the visco-elasto-plastic behavior of metals and alloys we propose a new constitutive equation based on a time-space fractional derivative. The rheological representative of the model can be analogous to that of the Bingham-Maxwell model, while the dashpot element and sliding friction element are replaced by the corresponding fractional elements. The model is applied to describe the constant strain rate, stress relaxation and creep tests of different metals and alloys. The results suggest that the proposed simple model can describe the main characteristics of the experimental observations. More importantly, the model can also provide more accurate predictions than the classic Bingham-Maxwell model and the Bingham-Norton model.

  6. AMTD: update of engineering specifications derived from science requirements for future UVOIR space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Mosier, Gary; Smith, W. Scott; Blaurock, Carl; Ha, Kong; Stark, Christopher C.

    2014-08-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort, initiated in FY12, to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 meter or larger UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND provide a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To give the science community options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. A key task is deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicles and their mass and volume constraints. A key finding of this effort is that the science requires an 8 meter or larger aperture telescope.

  7. Space-Derived Imagery and a Commercial Remote Sensing Industry: Impossible Dream or Inevitable Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Felsher

    Landsat-1 was launched in 1972 as a research satellite. Many of us viewed this satellite as a precursor to remote sensing "commercialization." Indeed since that time, the birth, growth and maturation of a remote sensing "industry" has been an ongoing objective for much of the U.S. private sector engaged in space and ground-segment activities related to the acquisition, analysis, and dissemination of imagery. In September 1999 a U.S. commercial entity, Space Imaging, Inc. launched its 1-meter pan/4-meter multispectral IKONOS sensor. DigitalGlobe, Inc. (nee EarthWatch, Inc.) matched this feat in October 2001. Thus, a full 30 years later, we are finally on the brink of building a true remote sensing information industry based on the global availability of competitively-priced space- derived imagery of the Earth. The upcoming availability of similar imagery from non-U.S. sources as ImageSat and U.S. sources as ORBIMAGE will only strengthen that reality. However, a remote sensing industry can only grow by allowing these entities (in times of peace) unencumbered access to a world market. And that market continues to expand -- up 11% in 2001, with gross revenues of U.S. commercial remote sensing firms alone reaching 2.44 billion, according to a joint NASA/ASPRS industry survey. However, the 30-year gap between the research-labeled Landsat-1 and our current commercial successes was not technology-driven. That lacuna was purely political -- driven by valid concerns related to national security. Although the world's governments have cooperated thoroughly and completely in areas related to satellite telecommunications, cooperation in space-derived image information is still today done cautiously and on a case-by-case basis -- and then only for science- based undertakings. It is still a fact that, except for the United States, all other Earth-imaging satellites/sensors flying today are owned, operated, and their products disseminated, by national governments -- and not private

  8. Portrait of a rural health graduate: exploring alternative learning spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew; Pillay, Daisy

    2015-05-01

    Given that the staffing of rural facilities represents an international challenge, the support, training and development of students of rural origin at institutions of higher learning (IHLs) should be an integral dimension of health care provisioning. International studies have shown these students to be more likely than students of urban origin to return to work in rural areas. However, the crisis in formal school education in some countries, such as South Africa, means that rural students with the capacity to pursue careers in health care are least likely to access the necessary training at an IHL. In addition to challenges of access, throughput is relatively low at IHLs and is determined by a range of learning experiences. Insight into the storied educational experiences of health care professionals (HCPs) of rural origin has the potential to inform the training and development of rural-origin students. Six HCPs of rural origin were purposively selected. Using a narrative inquiry approach, data were generated from long interviews and a range of arts-based methods to create and reconstruct the storied narratives of the six participants. Codes, categories and themes were developed from the reconstructed stories. Reid's four-quadrant model of learning theory was used to focus on the learning experiences of one participant. Alternative learning spaces were identified, which were made available through particular social spaces outwith formal lecture rooms. These offered opportunities for collaboration and for the reconfiguring of the participants' agency to be, think and act differently. Through the practices enacted in particular learning spaces, relationships of caring, sharing, motivating and mentoring were formed, which contributed to personal, social, academic and professional development and success. Learning spaces outwith the formal lecture theatre are critical to the acquisition of good clinical skills and knowledge in the development of socially accountable

  9. Urban green spaces assessment approach to health, safety and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari Neisiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The city is alive with dynamic systems, where parks and urban green spaces have high strategic importance which help to improve living conditions. Urban parks are used as visual landscape with so many benefits such as reducing stress, reducing air pollution and producing oxygen, creating opportunities for people to participate in physical activities, optimal environment for children and decreasing noise pollution. The importance of parks is such extent that are discussed as an indicator of urban development. Hereupon the design and maintenance of urban green spaces requires integrated management system based on international standards of health, safety and the environment. In this study, Nezami Ganjavi Park (District 6 of Tehran with the approach to integrated management systems have been analyzed. In order to identify the status of the park in terms of the requirements of the management system based on previous studies and all Tehran Municipality’s considerations, a check list has been prepared and completed by park survey and interview with green space experts. The results showed that the utility of health indicators were 92.33 % (the highest and environmental and safety indicators were 72 %, 84 % respectively. According to SWOT analysis in Nezami Ganjavi Park some of strength points are fire extinguishers, first aid box, annual testing of drinking water and important weakness is using unseparated trash bins also as an opportunities, there are some interesting factors for children and parents to spend free times. Finally, the most important threat is unsuitable park facilities for disabled.

  10. A space-time hybrid hourly rainfall model for derived flood frequency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Haberlandt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For derived flood frequency analysis based on hydrological modelling long continuous precipitation time series with high temporal resolution are needed. Often, the observation network with recording rainfall gauges is poor, especially regarding the limited length of the available rainfall time series. Stochastic precipitation synthesis is a good alternative either to extend or to regionalise rainfall series to provide adequate input for long-term rainfall-runoff modelling with subsequent estimation of design floods. Here, a new two step procedure for stochastic synthesis of continuous hourly space-time rainfall is proposed and tested for the extension of short observed precipitation time series.

    First, a single-site alternating renewal model is presented to simulate independent hourly precipitation time series for several locations. The alternating renewal model describes wet spell durations, dry spell durations and wet spell intensities using univariate frequency distributions separately for two seasons. The dependence between wet spell intensity and duration is accounted for by 2-copulas. For disaggregation of the wet spells into hourly intensities a predefined profile is used. In the second step a multi-site resampling procedure is applied on the synthetic point rainfall event series to reproduce the spatial dependence structure of rainfall. Resampling is carried out successively on all synthetic event series using simulated annealing with an objective function considering three bivariate spatial rainfall characteristics. In a case study synthetic precipitation is generated for some locations with short observation records in two mesoscale catchments of the Bode river basin located in northern Germany. The synthetic rainfall data are then applied for derived flood frequency analysis using the hydrological model HEC-HMS. The results show good performance in reproducing average and extreme rainfall characteristics as well as in

  11. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John; Rodela, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., in cooperation with NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), has developed a new Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) controller for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will increase the probability of successfully placing the shuttle into the intended orbit and increase the safety of the Space Transportation System (STS) launches. The AHMS is an upgrade o the current Block II engine controller whose primary component is an improved vibration monitoring system called the Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) that can effectively and reliably monitor the state of the high pressure turbomachinery and provide engine protection through a new synchronous vibration redline which enables engine shutdown if the vibration exceeds predetermined thresholds. The introduction of this system required improvements and modification to the Block II controller such as redesigning the Digital Computer Unit (DCU) memory and the Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS) circuitry, eliminating the existing memory retention batteries, installation of the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology, and installation of a High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) with accompanying outside world connectors. Test stand hot-fire testing along with lab testing have verified successful implementation and is expected to reduce the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the shuttle ascent phase and improve safely by about 23% according to the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS), leading to a safer and more reliable SSME.

  12. The Public Health Impact of Pediatric Deep Neck Space Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Eelam; Tarshish, Yael; Roberson, David; Jang, Jisun; Licameli, Greg; Kenna, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    There is little consensus about the best management of pediatric deep neck space infections (DNSIs) and limited information about the national disease burden. The purpose of this study is to examine the health care burden, management, and complications of DNSIs from a national perspective. Retrospective administrative data set review. National pediatric admission database. Pediatric patients diagnosed with a parapharyngeal space and/or retropharyngeal abscess were identified from the 2009 KIDS' Inpatient Database. Patient demographic, hospital, and clinical characteristics were compared between patients who received surgical and nonsurgical management. All results for the analyses were weighted, clustered, and stratified appropriately according to the sampling design of the KIDS' Inpatient Database. The prevalence of DNSIs was 3444 in 2009, and the estimated incidence was 4.6 per 100,000 children. The total hospital charges were >$75 million. The patients who were drained surgically had a 22% longer length of stay (mean = 4.19 days) than that of those who were managed without surgery (mean = 3.44 days). Mean hospital charges for patients who were drained surgically were almost twice those of patients who were managed medically ($28,969 vs $17,022); 165 patients (4.8%) had a complication. There are >3400 admissions for pediatric DNSIs annually, and they account for a significant number of inpatient days and hospital charges. A randomized controlled trial of management may be indicated from a public health perspective. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. The projection operator in a Hilbert space and its directional derivative. Consequences for the theory of projected dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Isac

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper we present a representation theorem for the directional derivative of the metric projection operator in an arbitrary Hilbert space. As a consequence of the representation theorem, we present in the second part the development of the theory of projected dynamical systems in infinite dimensional Hilbert space. We show that this development is possible if we use the viable solutions of differential inclusions. We use also pseudomonotone operators.

  14. Blast resistance of space-induced variants derived from rice cultivar Hanghui 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingxin; Yang Qiyun; Zhu Xiaoyuan; Wang Hui; Zeng Liexian; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Chen Zhiqiang

    2010-01-01

    To screen the resistance lines to rice blast, the blast resistance of SP 3 and SP 4 progenies derived from rice variety Hanghui 7 were evaluated after satellite flight, and the genomic DNA polymorphism of the resistant variants selected from SP 3 was compared with the wild type by microsatellite markers. The results indicated that the SP 3 Variant line H24, which was selected from the 250 space-induced lines ( SP 3 ) with excellent agronomic and economical characters, showed resistance segregation (119R : 108S) against blast isolate GD3286. It was demonstrated that the resistance of H24 might be controlled by two dominant and complementary resistance genes. The resistance of H24 was still segregated in SP 4 , but the resistance spectrum of H24 was 84. 4% in SP 5 , much higher than the wild type, 40. 6%, and H24 especially showed resistant against some blast isolates of broad pathogenic spectrum or specialized pathogenicity; further more, the DNA polymorphism wasn't detected between H24 and its wild type by 229 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers covering the rice genome equally. (authors)

  15. Which benefits and limits derive from ESA membership for European Countries owning ;medium-sized; space agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Giorgio; Bigliardi, Barbara; Galati, Francesco; Petroni, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the benefits and limits deriving from membership with ESA of six medium-sized space agencies in terms of strengthening and development (or not) of space technologies, as well as their contribution to the growth of productive activities and to the increase of services for citizens. This research contributes to the more general issue of the usefulness of space activities, not only for scientific or military-political purposes but also for economic and social development. Results show that, on the one hand, the membership with ESA has allowed smaller Countries to access space programs, to develop advanced technologies and to support the growth of their firms in some significant markets, but, on the other hand, the membership has also limited the access to space to few companies, without encouraging the broad dissemination of technological knowledge.

  16. Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; van Dijk, Terry; Tang, Jianjun; van den Berg, Agnes E

    2015-11-12

    The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents' emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223) of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands. These neighborhoods differ in the perceived and objectively measured accessibility and usability of green spaces, but are matched in the physically available amount of urban green space, as well as in demographic and socio-economic status, and housing conditions. Four dimensions of green space attachment were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: place dependence, affective attachment, place identity and social bonding. The results show greater attachment to local green space and better self-reported mental health in the neighborhood with higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The two neighborhoods did not differ, however, in physical and general health. Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the neighborhood differences in green space attachment and mental health, and also revealed a positive path from green space attachment to mental health. These findings convey the message that we should make green places, instead of green spaces.

  17. Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents’ emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223 of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands. These neighborhoods differ in the perceived and objectively measured accessibility and usability of green spaces, but are matched in the physically available amount of urban green space, as well as in demographic and socio-economic status, and housing conditions. Four dimensions of green space attachment were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: place dependence, affective attachment, place identity and social bonding. The results show greater attachment to local green space and better self-reported mental health in the neighborhood with higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The two neighborhoods did not differ, however, in physical and general health. Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the neighborhood differences in green space attachment and mental health, and also revealed a positive path from green space attachment to mental health. These findings convey the message that we should make green places, instead of green spaces.

  18. Decentralization and health system performance - a focused review of dimensions, difficulties, and derivatives in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Bhuputra; Thakur, Harshad P

    2016-10-31

    One of the principal goals of any health care system is to improve health through the provision of clinical and public health services. Decentralization as a reform measure aims to improve inputs, management processes and health outcomes, and has political, administrative and financial connotations. It is argued that the robustness of a health system in achieving desirable outcomes is contingent upon the width and depth of 'decision space' at the local level. Studies have used different approaches to examine one or more facets of decentralization and its effect on health system functioning; however, lack of consensus on an acceptable framework is a critical gap in determining its quantum and quality. Theorists have resorted to concepts of 'trust', 'convenience' and 'mutual benefits' to explain, define and measure components of governance in health. In the emerging 'continuum of health services' model, the challenge lies in identifying variables of performance (fiscal allocation, autonomy at local level, perception of key stakeholders, service delivery outputs, etc.) through the prism of decentralization in the first place, and in establishing directed relationships among them. This focused review paper conducted extensive web-based literature search, using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines. After screening of key words and study objectives, we retrieved 180 articles for next round of screening. One hundred and four full articles (three working papers and 101 published papers) were reviewed in totality. We attempted to summarize existing literature on decentralization and health systems performance, explain key concepts and essential variables, and develop a framework for further scientific scrutiny. Themes are presented in three separate segments of dimensions, difficulties and derivatives. Evaluation of local decision making and its effect on health system performance has been studied in a compartmentalized manner. There is sparse evidence about innovations

  19. Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen A.; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual’s environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. In this paper we discuss a framework based on the concept of spatial polygamy to demonstrate the need to collect new forms of data on human spatial behavior and contextual exposures across time and space. Adopting new data and methods will be essential if we want to better understand social inequality in terms of exposure to health risks and access to health resources. We discuss the opportunities and challenges focusing on the potential seemingly offered by focusing on human mobility, and specifically the utilization of activity space concepts and data. A goal of the paper is to spatialize social and health science concepts and research practice vis-a-vis the complexity of exposure. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research focusing on theoretical and conceptual development, promoting research on new types of places and human movement, the dynamic nature of contexts, and on training. “When we elect wittingly or unwittingly, to work within a level … we tend to discern or construct – whichever emphasis you prefer – only those kinds of systems whose elements are confined to that level.”Otis Dudley Duncan (1961, p. 141). “…despite the new ranges created by improved transportation, local government units have tended to remain medieval in size.”Torsten Hägerstrand (1970, p.18) “A detective investigating a crime needs both tools and understanding. If he has no fingerprint powder, he will fail to find fingerprints on most surfaces. If he does not understand where the criminal is likely to have put his fingers, he will not

  20. The G′G-expansion method using modified Riemann–Liouville derivative for some space-time fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bekir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fractional partial differential equations are defined by modified Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative. With the help of fractional derivative and traveling wave transformation, these equations can be converted into the nonlinear nonfractional ordinary differential equations. Then G′G-expansion method is applied to obtain exact solutions of the space-time fractional Burgers equation, the space-time fractional KdV-Burgers equation and the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. These results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple in performing a solution to the fractional partial differential equation.

  1. Spatial Rotation of the Fractional Derivative in Two-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Malkawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformations of the partial fractional derivatives under spatial rotation in R2 are derived for the Riemann-Liouville and Caputo definitions. These transformation properties link the observation of physical quantities, expressed through fractional derivatives, with respect to different coordinate systems (observers. It is the hope that such understanding could shed light on the physical interpretation of fractional derivatives. Also it is necessary to be able to construct interaction terms that are invariant with respect to equivalent observers.

  2. Fall 2015 NASA Internship, and Space Radiation Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This fall, I was fortunate enough to have been able to participate in an internship at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. I was placed into the Human Health & Performance Directorate, where I was specifically tasked to work with Dr. Zarana Patel, researching the impacts of cosmic level radiation on human cells. Using different laboratory techniques, we were able to examine the cells to see if any damage had been done due to radiation exposure, and if so, how much damage was done. Cell culture samples were exposed at different doses, and fixed at different time points so that we could accumulate a large pool of quantifiable data. After examining quantifiable results relative to the impacts of space radiation on the human body at the cellular and chromosomal level, researchers can defer to different areas of the space program that have to do with astronaut safety, and research and development (extravehicular mobility unit construction, vehicle design and construction, etc.). This experience has been very eye-opening, and I was able to learn quite a bit. I learned some new laboratory techniques, and I did my best to try and learn new ways to balance such a hectic work and school schedule. I also learned some very intimate thing about working at NASA; I learned that far more people want to watch you succeed, rather than watch you fail, and I also learned that this is a place that is alive with innovators and explorers - people who have a sole purpose of exploring space for the betterment of humanity, and not for any other reason. It's truly inspiring. All of these experiences during my internship have impacted me in a really profound way, so much that my educational and career goals are completely different than when I started. I started out as a biotechnology major, and I discovered recently toward the end of the internship, that I don't want to work in a lab, nor was I as enthralled by biological life sciences as a believed myself to be. Taking that all into

  3. Green Space Attachment and Health : A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yang; van Dijk, Theodorus; Tang, Jianjun; van den Berg, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents’ emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of

  4. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

  5. Space Qualified Non-Destructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring Technology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen Aeronautics is proposing an innovative space qualified non-destructive evaluation and health monitoring technology. The technology is built on concepts...

  6. Understanding and Mitigating Adverse Health Effects in Space Using A System Physiology Software, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision for Space Exploration aims for human interplanetary missions that have significant challenges on crew health and safety including fluid shifts, and...

  7. Onboard Space Autonomy Through Integration of Health Management and Control Reconfiguration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project we propose to integrate spacecraft control and vehicle health functions to improve the robustness and productivity of space operations. The main...

  8. Prognostic value of MRI-derived masticator space involvement in IMRT-treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Youping; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Yunbin; Lin, Shaojun; Chen, Ying; Zong, Jingfeng; Fang, Yanhong; Guo, Qiaojuan; Chen, Bijuan; Tang, Linbo

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study reassessed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), to determine the significance how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived masticator space involvement (MSI) affected patients’ prognosis. One thousand one hundred ninety seven NPC patients who had complete set of MRI and medical records were enrolled. Basing on their MRI findings, the T-categories of tumors were identified according to the seventh edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, which considers MSI a prognostic indicator for NPCs. Rates of overall survival (OS), local relapse-free survival (LRFS), regional relapse-free survival (RRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Log-Rank test compared their differences. Cox regression analysis was employed to evaluate various prognostic factors systematically. Statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS 18.0 software, P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Medial pterygoid muscle (MPM) was involved in 283 (23.64 %) cases, of which lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) was concurrently affected in 181 (15.12 %) and infratemporal fossa (ITF) in 19 (1.59 %). Generally, MSI correlated with an OS, LRFS, and DMFS consistent with a T4-stage diagnosis (P > 0.05). Although different degrees of MSI presented a similar OS and DMFS (P > 0.1), tumors involving LPM had a relatively poorer LRFS than those affected the MPM only (P = 0.027), even for subgroup of patients composed of T3 and T4 classifications (P = 0.035). A tumor involving MPM brought an LRFS consistent with a T2 or T3-stage disease (P > 0.1). If the tumor affected LPM or ITF concurrently, the survival outcomes were more consistent with a T4-stage disease (P > 0.1). Nevertheless, compared to tumor infiltrating MPM, those invading LPM or ITF more frequently spread into other concurrent sites that earned higher T-staging categories. Moreover

  9. Schwarzian导数,几何条件和Qκ空间%Schwarzian derivative, geometric conditions and Qκ spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继振

    2012-01-01

    设Ψ:D→Ω是一个单叶函数,利用Schwarzian导数,本文获得了logΨ'属于Qκ空间的一个充要条件.此外,本文运用了一个几何条件来刻画Qκ空间.%For a univalent function Ψ : D → Ω, we study the membership of logψ' to the space QK in terms of the Schwarzian derivative. We also apply a geometric condition to characterize the space QK.

  10. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  11. Space microgravity drives transdifferentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells from osteogenesis to adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Li, Liang; Jiang, Yuanda; Wang, Cuicui; Geng, Baoming; Wang, Yanqiu; Chen, Jianling; Liu, Fei; Qiu, Peng; Zhai, Guangjie; Chen, Ping; Quan, Renfu; Wang, Jinfu

    2018-03-13

    Bone formation is linked with osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow. Microgravity in spaceflight is known to reduce bone formation. In this study, we used a real microgravity environment of the SJ-10 Recoverable Scientific Satellite to examine the effects of space microgravity on the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). hMSCs were induced toward osteogenic differentiation for 2 and 7 d in a cell culture device mounted on the SJ-10 Satellite. The satellite returned to Earth after going through space experiments in orbit for 12 d, and cell samples were harvested and analyzed for differentiation potentials. The results showed that space microgravity inhibited osteogenic differentiation and resulted in adipogenic differentiation, even under osteogenic induction conditions. Under space microgravity, the expression of 10 genes specific for osteogenesis decreased, including collagen family members, alkaline phosphatase ( ALP), and runt-related transcription factor 2 ( RUNX2), whereas the expression of 4 genes specific for adipogenesis increased, including adipsin ( CFD), leptin ( LEP), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β ( CEBPB), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ( PPARG). In the analysis of signaling pathways specific for osteogenesis, we found that the expression and activity of RUNX2 was inhibited, expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 ( BMP2) and activity of SMAD1/5/9 were decreased, and activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ERK-1/2 declined significantly under space microgravity. These data indicate that space microgravity plays a dual role by decreasing RUNX2 expression and activity through the BMP2/SMAD and integrin/FAK/ERK pathways. In addition, we found that space microgravity increased p38 MAPK and protein kinase B (AKT) activities, which are important for the promotion of adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Space microgravity significantly

  12. Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures for Structural Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubacz, Jacob A [ORNL; Chmielewski, Hana T [ORNL; Pape, Alexander E [ORNL; Depersio, Andrew J [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Boone, Shane [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    A novel method for structural health monitoring (SHM), known as the Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures (PSDM) approach, is proposed and developed. The patented PSDM approach has already been developed and demonstrated for a variety of equipment and biomedical applications. Here, we investigate SHM of bridges via analysis of time serial accelerometer measurements. This work has four aspects. The first is algorithm scalability, which was found to scale linearly from one processing core to four cores. Second, the same data are analyzed to determine how the use of the PSDM approach affects sensor placement. We found that a relatively low-density placement sufficiently captures the dynamics of the structure. Third, the same data are analyzed by unique combinations of accelerometer axes (vertical, longitudinal, and lateral with respect to the bridge) to determine how the choice of axes affects the analysis. The vertical axis is found to provide satisfactory SHM data. Fourth, statistical methods were investigated to validate the PSDM approach for this application, yielding statistically significant results.

  13. Decision Space and Capacities in the Decentralization of Health Services in FijiComment on "Decentralisation of Health Services in Fiji: A Decision Space Analysis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, Thomas J

    2016-05-08

    The study of decentralization in Fiji shows that increasing capacities is not necessarily related to increasing decision space of local officials, which is in contrast with earlier studies in Pakistan. Future studies should address the relationship among decision space, capacities, and health system performance. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  14. On isochronous derivatives of the first and second order in space dynamics tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshiyan, B. T.; Sukhanov, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    The first and second isochronous derivatives are calculated from the vector of state of dynamic system using its initial value. Use is made of the method of finding a fundamental solution of conjugate variational equations. This solution and the corresponding universal relationship for isochronous derivatives are found for the two-body problem in a form which is simple and suitable for computer programming. The form of these relationships was obtained for motion which differs from parabolic motion. Formulas are given for isochronous derivatives using the gravitational parameter in the two-body problem.

  15. Life space and mental health: a study of older community-dwelling persons in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byles, Julie E; Leigh, Lucy; Vo, Kha; Forder, Peta; Curryer, Cassie

    2015-01-01

    The ability of older people to mobilise within and outside their community is dependent on a number of factors. This study explored the relationship between spatial mobility and psychological health among older adults living in Australia. The survey sample consisted of 260 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-80 years, who returned a postal survey measuring spatial mobility (using the Life Space Questionnaire) and psychological health (using the SF36 Health Related Quality of Life Profile). From the Life Space Questionnaire, participants were given a life-space score and multinomial regression was used to explore the potential effect of mental health on life-space score. The study found a significant association between mental health and life space. However, gender, physical functioning, and ability to drive were most strongly associated with the extent of life space and spatial mobility. Compared to men, older women are more likely to experience less spatial mobility and restricted life space, and hence are more vulnerable to social isolation. Mental health and life space were associated for the older people in this study. These findings have important implications for health policy and highlight the need to support older persons to maintain independence and social networks, and to successfully age in place within their community. This study also highlights the utility of the Life Space Questionnaire in terms of identifying older persons at risk of poorer mental health.

  16. Assessing the Associations Between Types of Green Space, Physical Activity, and Health Indicators Using GIS and Participatory Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, A.

    2017-11-01

    This study explores whether specific types of green spaces (i.e. urban green spaces, forests, agricultural lands, rangelands, and wetlands) are associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. A sample of 8,976 respondents from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, conducted in 2006 in Washington State across 291 zip-codes, was analyzed. Measures included physical activity status, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence (i.e. heart attack, angina, and stroke). Percentage of green spaces was derived from the National Land Cover Dataset and measured with Geographical Information System. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data while controlling for age, sex, race, weight, marital status, occupation, income, education level, and zip-code population and socio-economic situation. Regression results reveal that no green space types were associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. On the other hand, the analysis shows that physical activity was associated with general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. The findings suggest that other factors such as size, structure and distribution (sprawled or concentrated, large or small), quality, and characteristics of green space might be important in general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence rather than green space types. Therefore, further investigations are needed.

  17. ASSESSING THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN TYPES OF GREEN SPACE, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AND HEALTH INDICATORS USING GIS AND PARTICIPATORY SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akpinar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores whether specific types of green spaces (i.e. urban green spaces, forests, agricultural lands, rangelands, and wetlands are associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. A sample of 8,976 respondents from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, conducted in 2006 in Washington State across 291 zip-codes, was analyzed. Measures included physical activity status, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence (i.e. heart attack, angina, and stroke. Percentage of green spaces was derived from the National Land Cover Dataset and measured with Geographical Information System. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data while controlling for age, sex, race, weight, marital status, occupation, income, education level, and zip-code population and socio-economic situation. Regression results reveal that no green space types were associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. On the other hand, the analysis shows that physical activity was associated with general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. The findings suggest that other factors such as size, structure and distribution (sprawled or concentrated, large or small, quality, and characteristics of green space might be important in general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence rather than green space types. Therefore, further investigations are needed.

  18. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk.

  19. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk

  20. A new technique for observationally derived boundary conditions for space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Paolo; Mackay, Duncan Hendry; Yeates, Anthony Robinson

    2018-04-01

    Context. In recent years, space weather research has focused on developing modelling techniques to predict the arrival time and properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Earth. The aim of this paper is to propose a new modelling technique suitable for the next generation of Space Weather predictive tools that is both efficient and accurate. The aim of the new approach is to provide interplanetary space weather forecasting models with accurate time dependent boundary conditions of erupting magnetic flux ropes in the upper solar corona. Methods: To produce boundary conditions, we couple two different modelling techniques, MHD simulations and a quasi-static non-potential evolution model. Both are applied on a spatial domain that covers the entire solar surface, although they extend over a different radial distance. The non-potential model uses a time series of observed synoptic magnetograms to drive the non-potential quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field. This allows us to follow the formation and loss of equilibrium of magnetic flux ropes. Following this a MHD simulation captures the dynamic evolution of the erupting flux rope, when it is ejected into interplanetary space. Results.The present paper focuses on the MHD simulations that follow the ejection of magnetic flux ropes to 4 R⊙. We first propose a technique for specifying the pre-eruptive plasma properties in the corona. Next, time dependent MHD simulations describe the ejection of two magnetic flux ropes, that produce time dependent boundary conditions for the magnetic field and plasma at 4 R⊙ that in future may be applied to interplanetary space weather prediction models. Conclusions: In the present paper, we show that the dual use of quasi-static non-potential magnetic field simulations and full time dependent MHD simulations can produce realistic inhomogeneous boundary conditions for space weather forecasting tools. Before a fully operational model can be produced there are a

  1. NASA space communications R and D (Research and Development): Issues, derived benefits, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Space communication is making immense strides since ECHO was launched in 1962. It was a simple passive reflector of signals that demonstrated the concept. Today, satellites incorporating transponders, sophisticated high-gain antennas, and stabilization systems provide voice, video, and data communications to millions of people nationally and worldwide. Applications of emerging technology, typified by NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1992, will use newer portions of the frequency spectrum (the Ka-band at 30/20 GHz), along with antennas and signal-processing that could open yet new markets and services. Government programs, directly or indirectly, are responsible for many space communications accomplishments. They are sponsored and funded in part by NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense since the early 1950s. The industry is growing rapidly and is achieving international preeminence under joint private and government sponsorship. Now, however, the U.S. space communications industry - satellite manufacturers and users, launch services providers, and communications services companies - are being forced to adapt to a different environment. International competition is growing, and terrestrial technologies such as fiber optics are claiming markets until recently dominated by satellites. At the same time, advancing technology is opening up opportunities for new applications and new markets in space exploration, for defense, and for commercial applications of several types. Space communications research, development, and applications (RD and A) programs need to adjust to these realities, be better coordinated and more efficient, and be more closely attuned to commercial markets. The programs must take advantage of RD and A results in other agencies - and in other nations.

  2. Integrated Structural Health Sensors for Inflatable Space Habitats, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna proposes to continue development of integrated high-definition fiber optic sensors (HD-FOS) and carbon nanotube (CNT)-graphene piezoresistive sensors for...

  3. Exposure to Neighborhood Green Space and Mental Health: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. M. Beyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green space is now widely viewed as a health-promoting characteristic of residential environments, and has been linked to mental health benefits such as recovery from mental fatigue and reduced stress, particularly through experimental work in environmental psychology. Few population level studies have examined the relationships between green space and mental health. Further, few studies have considered the role of green space in non-urban settings. This study contributes a population-level perspective from the United States to examine the relationship between environmental green space and mental health outcomes in a study area that includes a spectrum of urban to rural environments. Multivariate survey regression analyses examine the association between green space and mental health using the unique, population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin database. Analyses were adjusted for length of residence in the neighborhood to reduce the impact of neighborhood selection bias. Higher levels of neighborhood green space were associated with significantly lower levels of symptomology for depression, anxiety and stress, after controlling for a wide range of confounding factors. Results suggest that “greening” could be a potential population mental health improvement strategy in the United States.

  4. Correlated histogram representation of Monte Carlo derived medical accelerator photon-output phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schach Von Wittenau, Alexis E.

    2003-01-01

    A method is provided to represent the calculated phase space of photons emanating from medical accelerators used in photon teletherapy. The method reproduces the energy distributions and trajectories of the photons originating in the bremsstrahlung target and of photons scattered by components within the accelerator head. The method reproduces the energy and directional information from sources up to several centimeters in radial extent, so it is expected to generalize well to accelerators made by different manufacturers. The method is computationally both fast and efficient overall sampling efficiency of 80% or higher for most field sizes. The computational cost is independent of the number of beams used in the treatment plan.

  5. Space Medicine: Shuttle - Space Station Crew Health and Safety Challenges for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervay, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation combines some views of the shuttle take off, and the shuttle and space station on orbit, and some views of the underwater astronaut training , with a general discussion of Space Medicine. It begins with a discussion of the some of the physiological issues of space flight. These include: Space Motion Sickness (SMS), Cardiovascular, Neurovestibular, Musculoskeletal, and Behavioral/Psycho-social. There is also discussion of the space environment and the issues that are posed including: Radiation, Toxic products and propellants, Habitability, Atmosphere, and Medical events. Included also is a discussion of the systems and crew training. There are also artists views of the Constellation vehicles, the planned lunar base, and extended lunar settlement. There are also slides showing the size of earth in perspective to the other planets, and the sun and the sun in perspective to other stars. There is also a discussion of the in-flight changes that occur in neural feedback that produces postural imbalance and loss of coordination after return.

  6. Health Physics Innovations Developed During Cassini for Future Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Rodney E.; Rutherford, Theresa M.; Marmaro, George M.

    1999-01-01

    The long history of space flight includes missions that used Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power devices, starting with the Transit 4A Spacecraft (1961), continuing through the Apollo, Pioneer, Viking, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Mars Pathfinder, and most recently, Cassini (1997). All Major Radiological Source (MRS) missions were processed at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station (KSC/CCAS) Launch Site in full compliance with program and regulatory requirements. The cumulative experience gained supporting these past missions has led to significant innovations which will be useful for benchmarking future MRS mission ground processing. Innovations developed during ground support for the Cassini mission include official declaration of sealed-source classifications, utilization of a mobile analytical laboratory, employment of a computerized dosimetry record management system, and cross-utilization of personnel from related disciplines.

  7. Deriving consumer-facing disease concepts for family health histories using multi-source sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Haug, Peter J; Williams, Marc S

    2010-10-01

    The family health history has long been recognized as an effective way of understanding individuals' susceptibility to familial disease; yet electronic tools to support the capture and use of these data have been characterized as inadequate. As part of an ongoing effort to build patient-facing tools for entering detailed family health histories, we have compiled a set of concepts specific to familial disease using multi-source sampling. These concepts were abstracted by analyzing family health history data patterns in our enterprise data warehouse, collection patterns of consumer personal health records, analyses from the local state health department, a healthcare data dictionary, and concepts derived from genetic-oriented consumer education materials. Collectively, these sources yielded a set of more than 500 unique disease concepts, represented by more than 2500 synonyms for supporting patients in entering coded family health histories. We expect that these concepts will be useful in providing meaningful data and education resources for patients and providers alike.

  8. Deriving Sight Distance on a Compound Sag and Circular Curve in a Three Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu, PhD, PE, PTOE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient roadway sight distance (SD may become a contribution factor to traffic collisions or other unsafe traffic maneuvers. The sight distance (SD for a two-dimensional (2-d sag or circular curve has been addressed in detail in various traffic engineering literatures. Although three-dimensional (3-d compound sag and circular curves are often found along ramps, connectors, and mountain roads, the sight distances for these compound curves are yet to be analyzed on an exact analytic setting. By considering human-vehicle-roadway interaction, the formulas for computing the SD on a 3-d curve are derived the first time on a unified analytic framework. The 2-d sag curve SD can also be deduced from these derived formulas as special limiting cases. Practitioners can easily program these formulas or equations on a user-friendly Microsoft Excel spread sheet to calculate 3-d SD on most roadways with roadside clearance. This framework can be extended to estimate SD on roadways with obstacles partially blocking vehicle headlight beams. 6.

  9. Analytical Solutions of a Space-Time Fractional Derivative of Groundwater Flow Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical Darcy law is generalized by regarding the water flow as a function of a noninteger order derivative of the piezometric head. This generalized law and the law of conservation of mass are then used to derive a new equation for groundwater flow. Two methods including Frobenius and Adomian decomposition method are used to obtain an asymptotic analytical solution to the generalized groundwater flow equation. The solution obtained via Frobenius method is valid in the vicinity of the borehole. This solution is in perfect agreement with the data observed from the pumping test performed by the institute for groundwater study on one of their boreholes settled on the test site of the University of the Free State. The test consisted of the pumping of the borehole at the constant discharge rate Q and monitoring the piezometric head for 350 minutes. Numerical solutions obtained via Adomian method are compared with the Barker generalized radial flow model for which a fractal dimension for the flow is assumed. Proposition for uncertainties in groundwater studies was given.

  10. Canonical path integral measures for Holst and Plebanski gravity: I. Reduced phase space derivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, Jonathan; Han Muxin; Thiemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect in defining a path integral quantum theory is the determination of the correct measure. For interacting theories and theories with constraints, this is non-trivial, and is normally not the heuristic 'Lebesgue measure' usually used. There have been many determinations of a measure for gravity in the literature, but none for the Palatini or Holst formulations of gravity. Furthermore, the relations between different resulting measures for different formulations of gravity are usually not discussed. In this paper we use the reduced phase technique in order to derive the path-integral measure for the Palatini and Holst formulation of gravity, which is different from the Lebesgue measure up to local measure factors which depend on the spacetime volume element and spatial volume element. From this path integral for the Holst formulation of general relativity we can also give a new derivation of the Plebanski path integral and discover a discrepancy with the result due to Buffenoir, Henneaux, Noui and Roche whose origin we resolve. This paper is the first in a series that aims at better understanding the relation between canonical loop quantum gravity and the spin-foam approach.

  11. Social space, social class and Bourdieu: health inequalities in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.

  12. Approaching Environmental Health Disparities and Green Spaces: An Ecosystem Services Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities occur when adverse health conditions are unequal across populations due in part to gaps in wealth. These disparities continue to plague global health. Decades of research suggests that the natural environment can play a key role in sustaining the health of the public. However, the influence of the natural environment on health disparities is not well-articulated. Green spaces provide ecosystem services that are vital to public health. This paper discusses the link between green spaces and some of the nation’s leading health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular health, heat-related illness, and psychological health. These associations are discussed in terms of key demographic variables—race, ethnicity, and income. The authors also identify research gaps and recommendations for future research.

  13. HI-STAR. Health Improvements Through Space Technologies and Resources: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finarelli, Margaret G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a global strategy to integrate the use of space technology in the fight against malaria. Given the well-documented relationship between the vector and its environment, and the ability of existing space technologies to monitor environmental factors, malaria is a strong candidate for the application of space technology. The concept of a malaria early warning system has been proposed in the past' and pilot studies have been conducted. The HI-STAR project (Health Improvement through Space Technologies and Resources) seeks to build on this concept and enhance the space elements of the suggested framework. As such, the mission statement for this International Space University design project has been defined as follows: "Our mission is to develop and promote a global strategy to help combat malaria using space technology". A general overview of malaria, aspects of how space technology can be useful, and an outline of the HI-STAR strategy is presented.

  14. Development of an urban green space indicator and the public health rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Uscila, Valdas; Barrdahl, Maria; Kulinkina, Alexandra; Staatsen, Brigit; Swart, Wim; Kruize, Hanneke; Zurlyte, Ingrida; Egorov, Andrey I

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the aim was to develop and test an urban green space indicator for public health, as proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, in order to support health and environmental policies. We defined the indicator of green space accessibility as a proportion of an urban population living within a certain distance from a green space boundary. We developed a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based method and tested it in three case studies in Malmö, Sweden; Kaunas, Lithuania; and Utrecht, The Netherlands. Land use data in GIS from the Urban Atlas were combined with population data. Various population data formats, maximum distances to green spaces, minimum sizes of green spaces, and different definitions of green spaces were studied or discussed. Our results demonstrated that with increasing size of green space and decreased distance to green space, the indicator value decreased. As compared to Malmö and Utrecht, a relatively bigger proportion of the Kaunas population had access to large green spaces, at both shorter and longer distances. Our results also showed that applying the method of spatially aggregated population data was an acceptable alternative to using individual data. Based on reviewing the literature and the case studies, a 300 m maximum linear distance to the boundary of urban green spaces of a minimum size of 1 hectare are recommended as the default options for the indicator. The indicator can serve as a proxy measure for assessing public accessibility to urban green spaces, to provide comparable data across Europe and stimulate policy actions that recognise the importance of green spaces for sustainable public health. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. Sol-gel derived C-SiC composites and protective coatings for sustained durability in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruvy, Yair; Liedtke, Volker

    2003-09-01

    Composites and coatings were produced via the fast sol-gel process of a mixture of alkoxysilane precursors. The composites were comprised of carbon fibers, fabrics, or their precursors as reinforcement, and sol-gel-derived silicon carbide as matrix, aiming at high-temperature stable ceramics that can be utilized for re-entry structures. The protective coatings were comprised of fluorine-rich sol-gel derived resins, which exhibit high flexibility and coherence to provide sustained ATOX protection necessary for LEO space-exposed elements. For producing the composites, the sol-gel-derived resin is cast onto the reinforcement fibers/fabrics mat (carbon or its precursors) to produce a 'green' composite that is being cured. The 'green' composite is converted into a C-SiC composite via a gradual heat-pressure process under inert atmosphere, during which the organic substituents on the silicon atoms undergo internal oxidative pyrolysis via the schematic reaction: (SiRO3/2)n -> SiC + CO2 + H2O. The composition of the resultant silicon-oxi-carbide is tailorable via modifying the composition of the sol-gel reactants. The reinforcement, when made of carbon precursors, is converted into carbon during the heat-and-pressure processing as well. The C-SiC composites thus derived exhibit superior thermal stability and comparable thermal conductivity, combined with good mechanical strength features and failure resistance, which render them greatly applicable for re-entry shielding, heat-exchange pipes, and the like. Fluorine rich sol-gel derived coatings were developed as well, via the use of HF rich sol-gel process. These coatings provide oxidation-protection via the silica formation process, together with flexibility that allows 18,000 repetitive folding of the coating without cracking.

  16. Protecting Neural Structures and Cognitive Function During Prolonged Space Flight by Targeting the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Molecular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. A.; Goodwin, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main activity-dependent neurotrophin in the human nervous system. BDNF is implicated in production of new neurons from dentate gyrus stem cells (hippocampal neurogenesis), synapse formation, sprouting of new axons, growth of new axons, sprouting of new dendrites, and neuron survival. Alterations in the amount or activity of BDNF can produce significant detrimental changes to cortical function and synaptic transmission in the human brain. This can result in glial and neuronal dysfunction, which may contribute to a range of clinical conditions, spanning a number of learning, behavioral, and neurological disorders. There is an extensive body of work surrounding the BDNF molecular network, including BDNF gene polymorphisms, methylated BDNF gene promoters, multiple gene transcripts, varied BDNF functional proteins, and different BDNF receptors (whose activation differentially drive the neuron to neurogenesis or apoptosis). BDNF is also closely linked to mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1alpha, which can influence brain and muscle metabolic efficiency. BDNF AS A HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT COUNTERMEASURE TARGET Earth-based studies reveal that BDNF is negatively impacted by many of the conditions encountered in the space environment, including oxidative stress, radiation, psychological stressors, sleep deprivation, and many others. A growing body of work suggests that the BDNF network is responsive to a range of diet, nutrition, exercise, drug, and other types of influences. This section explores the BDNF network in the context of 1) protecting the brain and nervous system in the space environment, 2) optimizing neurobehavioral performance in space, and 3) reducing the residual effects of space flight on the nervous system on return to Earth

  17. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  18. Refuse-derived fuel as a secondary energy in Taiwan - Using Hotelling space allocation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwodong Wey; Sheueching Hong

    2006-01-01

    Most Taiwanese farmers usually blend rice straws into the soil after harvest. However, rice straws possess great thermal energy, which can be used to produce refuse-derived fuel (RDF-5). As Taiwan faces energy shortage, the development benefits of the RDF-5 industry are tempting. This study employs the Hotelling model to design the locations and the optimal numbers of RDF-5 plants. From the technology and material supply point of view, turning waste rice straws into RDF-5 is feasible in Taiwan. Nevertheless, from the business operation perspective, even if the RDF-5 plant is willing to lower its profit rate, its selling price is still hard to compete with imported RDF-5. If the Taiwanese government decides to pursue RDF-5 as an alternative energy, they might need to take a step further to subsidize entrepreneurs or provide appropriate tax benefits. Otherwise, the RDF-5 industry is hard to survive in Taiwan. (Author)

  19. A space-jump derivation for non-local models of cell-cell adhesion and non-local chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschön, Andreas; Hillen, Thomas; Gerisch, Alf; Painter, Kevin J

    2018-01-01

    Cellular adhesion provides one of the fundamental forms of biological interaction between cells and their surroundings, yet the continuum modelling of cellular adhesion has remained mathematically challenging. In 2006, Armstrong et al. proposed a mathematical model in the form of an integro-partial differential equation. Although successful in applications, a derivation from an underlying stochastic random walk has remained elusive. In this work we develop a framework by which non-local models can be derived from a space-jump process. We show how the notions of motility and a cell polarization vector can be naturally included. With this derivation we are able to include microscopic biological properties into the model. We show that particular choices yield the original Armstrong model, while others lead to more general models, including a doubly non-local adhesion model and non-local chemotaxis models. Finally, we use random walk simulations to confirm that the corresponding continuum model represents the mean field behaviour of the stochastic random walk.

  20. First space-based derivation of the global atmospheric methanol emission fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stavrakou

    2011-05-01

    is unaccounted for in the MEGANv2.1 inventory. The most significant error reductions achieved by the optimization concern the derived biogenic emissions over the Amazon and over the Former Soviet Union. The robustness of the derived fluxes to changes in convective updraft fluxes, in methanol removal processes, and in the choice of the biogenic a priori inventory is assessed through sensitivity inversions. Detailed comparisons of the model with a number of aircraft and surface observations of methanol, as well as new methanol measurements in Europe and in the Reunion Island show that the satellite-derived methanol emissions improve significantly the agreement with the independent data, giving thus credence to the IASI dataset.

  1. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, A.; Mohnen, S.M.; Droomers, M.; Kruize, H.; Gidlow, C.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Andrusaityte, S.; Helbich, M.; Maas, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Triguero-Mas, M.; Masterson, D.; Ellis, N.; Kempen, E. van; Hardyns, W.; Stronks, K.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona

  2. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health : an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain),

  3. Passive Wireless Sensor System for Space and Structural Health Monitoring, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aviana Molecular (Aviana) and the University of Central Florida (UCF) propose to develop a Passive Wireless Sensor System (PWSS) for Structural Health Monitoring...

  4. The Space That Difference Makes: On Marginality, Social Justice and the Future of the Health Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Kevin J; DasGupta, Sayantani

    2016-12-01

    Feminist theorist and educator, bell hooks, asserts that to seek true liberation one must choose marginality. One must choose to occupy the space outside the binary between colonizer-colonized, hegemonic center-periphery, and us-them in order to create a location of possibility. This essay will reveal the practice of social justice as the navigation of the space that difference makes and argue that choosing marginality provides a framework for health humanities work towards social justice in health care. The space of the launderette that is depicted in Hanif Kureishi's 1986 film, My Beautiful Laundrette, provides an example of choosing marginality and illustrates how difference structures both real and imagined spaces, which influences how individuals ultimately perceive one another. We will draw from the work of bell hooks; political geographer, Edward Soja; and Marxist philosopher, Henri Lefebvre, to demonstrate the importance of the health humanities' position at the margin to traditional health care education.

  5. Correspondence: comment on “Green Space, health inequality, and pregnancy.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Yvonne L. Michael; David T. Butry; Amy D. Sullivan; John M. Chase

    2012-01-01

    We read with great interest a recent Environment International article—Green Space, health inequality, and pregnancy—which explores the relationship between greenness around a mother's home, proximity to green space, and pregnancy outcomes in Barcelona (Dadvand et aI., in press). The authors were clearly unaware of a similar study that we recently published on...

  6. Advancing sustainability through urban green space: cultural ecosystem services, equity, and social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Lincoln Larson; Jessica Yun

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants...

  7. Working Safety in Confined Spaces. Module SH-32. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on working safely in confined spaces in one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module explains how to recognize potential hazards in confined spaces, how to deal with these hazards, and how planning can prevent accidents. Following the introduction, 17 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the…

  8. Space-Derived Phenology, Retrieval and Use for Drought and Food Security Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, M.; Kayitakire, F.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Schucknecht, A.; LEO, O.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring vegetation conditions is a critical activity for assessing food security in Africa. Rural populations relying on rain-fed agriculture and livestock grazing are highly exposed to large seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in water availability. Monitoring the state, evolution, and productivity of vegetation, crops and pastures in particular, is important to conduct food emergency responses and plan for a long-term, resilient, development strategy in this area. The timing of onset, the duration, and the intensity of vegetation growth can be retrieved from space observations and used for food security monitoring to assess seasonal vegetation development and forecast the likely seasonal outcome when the season is ongoing. In this contribution we present a set of phenology-based remote sensing studies in support to food security analysis. Key phenological indicators are retrieved using a model-fit approach applied to SOPT-VEGETATION FAPAR time series. Remote-sensing phenology is first used to estimate i) the impact of the drought in the Horn of Africa, ii) crop yield in Tunisia and, iii) rangeland biomass production in Niger. Then the impact of the start and length of vegetation growing period on the total biomass production is assessed over the Sahel. Finally, a probabilistic approach using phenological information to forecast the occurrence of an end-of-season biomass production deficit is applied over the Sahel to map hot-spots of drought-related risk.

  9. Fractional Killing-Yano Tensors and Killing Vectors Using the Caputo Derivative in Some One- and Two-Dimensional Curved Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Malkawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical free Lagrangian admitting a constant of motion, in one- and two-dimensional space, is generalized using the Caputo derivative of fractional calculus. The corresponding metric is obtained and the fractional Christoffel symbols, Killing vectors, and Killing-Yano tensors are derived. Some exact solutions of these quantities are reported.

  10. Green Spaces as an Indicator of Urban Health: Evaluating Its Changes in 28 Mega-Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conghong Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces can yield considerable health benefits to urban residents. Assessing these health benefits is a key step for managing urban green spaces for human health and wellbeing in cities. In this study, we assessed the change of health benefits generated by urban green spaces in 28 megacities worldwide between 2005 and 2015 by using availability and accessibility as proxy indicators. We first mapped land covers of 28 megacities using 10,823 scenes of Landsat images and a random forest classifier running on Google Earth Engine. We then calculated the availability and accessibility of urban green spaces using the land cover maps and gridded population data. The results showed that the mean availability of urban green spaces in these megacities increased from 27.63% in 2005 to 31.74% in 2015. The mean accessibility of urban green spaces increased from 65.76% in 2005 to 72.86% in 2015. The increased availability and accessibility of urban green spaces in megacities have brought more health benefits to their residents.

  11. Innovation spaces: six strategies to inform health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Michael; Griffin, Margaret; Hollin, Ilene; Kachnowski, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Innovation remains an understudied resource within health care. Furthermore, the goals of US health care reform make innovation vitally important, while the time and resource limitations characteristic of health care make new strategies for innovation both necessary and potentially highly meaningful. The purpose of this study was to examine strategies for innovation in various industries and draw lessons for improving innovation in health care. This qualitative study began with literature research that provided a framework for discussion and identified a recurrent challenge in innovation: balancing the freedom to be creative with the need for structured management of ideas. Researchers then identified leading innovative companies and conducted phone interviews with innovation officers and other experts about their strategies for addressing the major innovation challenge. This article breaks out innovation strategies into 6 categories (dedicated times, formal teams, outside ideas, idea-sharing platforms, company/job goals, and incentives) and evaluates them for levels of control, yield, and pervasiveness. Based on this analysis, recommendations are offered for improving innovation in health care, calling for employee time allocated to innovation, dedicated innovation teams, and the incorporation of outside ideas.

  12. Johnson Space Center Health and Medical Technical Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    1.HMTA responsibilities: a) Assure program/project compliance with Agency health and medical requirements at identified key decision points. b) Certify that programs/projects comply with Agency health and medical requirements prior to spaceflight missions. c) Assure technical excellence. 2. Designation of applicable NASA Centers for HMTA implementation and Chief Medical Officer (CMO) appointment. 3. Center CMO responsible for HMTA implementation for programs and projects at the center. JSC HMTA captured in "JSC HMTA Implementation Plan". 4. Establishes specifics of dissenting opinion process consistent with NASA procedural requirements.

  13. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. PMID:26861365

  14. Effects of the space environment on the health and safety of space workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, W. E.

    1980-07-01

    Large numbers of individuals are required to work in space to assemble and operate a Solar Power Satellite. The physiological and behavioral consequences for large groups of men and women who perform complex tasks in the vehicular or extravehicular environments over long periods of orbital stay time were considered. The most disturbing consequences of exposure to the null gravity environment found relate to: (1) a generalized cardiovascular deconditioning along with loss of a significant amount of body fluid volume; (2) loss of bone minerals and muscle mass; and (3) degraded performance of neutral mechanisms which govern equilibrium and spatial orientation.

  15. Effects of the space environment on the health and safety of space workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals are required to work in space to assemble and operate a Solar Power Satellite. The physiological and behavioral consequences for large groups of men and women who perform complex tasks in the vehicular or extravehicular environments over long periods of orbital stay time were considered. The most disturbing consequences of exposure to the null gravity environment found relate to: (1) a generalized cardiovascular deconditioning along with loss of a significant amount of body fluid volume; (2) loss of bone minerals and muscle mass; and (3) degraded performance of neutral mechanisms which govern equilibrium and spatial orientation.

  16. The territory of Bonfim: space of knowledge production in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Lima Simões

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the significance of the territory of Bonfim as an area of knowledge production for students of the Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Espírito Santo, in Vitória-ES, Brazil. Methods: This study conducted a survey of all the works produced by undergraduate and postgraduate students of the health area from that university who investigated the mentioned territory. The field work resulted in the cataloging of eleven studies that had been characterized in accordance with the subject, the investigated problem; the approaches of the study and the year of its production. These works were distributed in two great thematic axis: studies related to the local management of health system and studiesrelating to child and adolescent health, respectively. Results: Surprisingly, we found out that all the works consisted of studies conducted by nursing graduate students. Conclusions: The non-participation of students from other graduation courses and / or post-graduation of that university, in the generation of knowledge that take account of exploring that reality, points to the need of the university community to cross the imaginary line that separates the academy from real world.

  17. Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Kondo; Jaime Fluehr; Thomas McKeon; Charles. Branas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over half of the world's population now lives in urban areas, and this proportion is expected to increase. While there have been numerous reviews of empirical studies on the link between nature and human health, very few have focused on the urban context, and most have examined almost exclusively cross-sectional research. This...

  18. Towards Investigating Global Warming Impact on Human Health Using Derivatives of Photoplethysmogram Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Norton, Ian; Brearley, Matt; Fletcher, Richard R; Abbott, Derek; Lovell, Nigel H; Schuurmans, Dale

    2015-10-14

    Recent clinical studies show that the contour of the photoplethysmogram (PPG) wave contains valuable information for characterizing cardiovascular activity. However, analyzing the PPG wave contour is difficult; therefore, researchers have applied first or higher order derivatives to emphasize and conveniently quantify subtle changes in the filtered PPG contour. Our hypothesis is that analyzing the whole PPG recording rather than each PPG wave contour or on a beat-by-beat basis can detect heat-stressed subjects and that, consequently, we will be able to investigate the impact of global warming on human health. Here, we explore the most suitable derivative order for heat stress assessment based on the energy and entropy of the whole PPG recording. The results of our study indicate that the use Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 7 12777 of the entropy of the seventh derivative of the filtered PPG signal shows promising results in detecting heat stress using 20-second recordings, with an overall accuracy of 71.6%. Moreover, the combination of the entropy of the seventh derivative of the filtered PPG signal with the root mean square of successive differences, or RMSSD (a traditional heart rate variability index of heat stress), improved the detection of heat stress to 88.9% accuracy.

  19. Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Zijlema, Wilma; Vert, Cristina; White, Mathew P; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    A growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence. To systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces. Following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords. In total 35 studies were included in the current systematic review, most of them being classified as of "good quality" (N=22). The balance of evidence suggested a positive association between greater exposure to outdoor blue spaces and both benefits to mental health and well-being (N=12 studies) and levels of physical activity (N=13 studies). The evidence of an association between outdoor blue space exposure and general health (N=6 studies), obesity (N=8 studies) and cardiovascular (N=4 studies) and related outcomes was less consistent. Although encouraging, there remains relatively few studies and a large degree of heterogeneity in terms of study design, exposure metrics and outcome measures, making synthesis difficult. Further research is needed using longitudinal research and natural experiments, preferably across a broader range of countries, to better understand the causal associations between blue spaces, health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Life-Space Predicts Health Care Utilization in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard E; Williams, Courtney P; Sawyer, Patricia; Lo, Alexander X; Connelly, Kay; Nassel, Ariann; Brown, Cynthia J

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether decline in life-space mobility predicts increased health care utilization among community-dwelling older adults. Health care utilization (number of emergency department [ED] visits and hospitalizations) was self-reported during monthly interviews among 419 community-dwelling African American and non-Hispanic White adults aged 75 years and older in The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging II. Life-space was measured using the UAB Life-Space Assessment. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations of life-space at the beginning of each interval with health care utilization over the 1-month interval. Overall, 400 participants were followed for 36 months. A 10-point decrease in life-space was associated with 14% increased odds of an ED visit and/or hospitalization over the next month, adjusting for demographics, transportation difficulty, comorbidity, and having a doctor visit in the last month. Life-space is a practical alternative in predicting future health care utilization to performance-based measures, which can be difficult to incorporate into clinical or public health practice.

  1. Beyond the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Developing a Natural Space Index for population-level health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugel, Emily J; Henderson, Sarah B; Carpiano, Richard M; Brauer, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Natural spaces can provide psychological benefits to individuals, but population-level epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results. Refining current exposure-assessment methods is necessary to advance our understanding of population health and to guide the design of health-promoting urban forms. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive Natural Space Index that robustly models potential exposure based on the presence, form, accessibility, and quality of multiple forms of greenspace (e.g., parks and street trees) and bluespace (e.g., oceans and lakes). The index was developed for greater Vancouver, Canada. Greenness presence was derived from remote sensing (NDVI/EVI); forms were extracted from municipal and private databases; and accessibility was based on restrictions such as private ownership. Quality appraisals were conducted for 200 randomly sampled parks using the Public Open Space Desktop Appraisal Tool (POSDAT). Integrating these measures in GIS, exposure was assessed for 60,242 postal codes using 100- to 1,600-m buffers based on hypothesized pathways to mental health. A single index was then derived using principal component analysis (PCA). Comparing NDVI with alternate approaches for assessing natural space resulted in widely divergent results, with quintile rankings shifting for 22-88% of postal codes, depending on the measure. Overall park quality was fairly low (mean of 15 on a scale of 0-45), with no significant difference seen by neighborhood-level household income. The final PCA identified three main sets of variables, with the first two components explaining 68% of the total variance. The first component was dominated by the percentages of public and private greenspace and bluespace and public greenspace within 250m, while the second component was driven by lack of access to bluespace within 1 km. Many current approaches to modeling natural space may misclassify exposures and have limited specificity. The Natural Space Index

  2. AI mass spectrometers for space shuttle health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The facility Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a mass spectrometer based gas analyzer. Two instruments make up the HGDS, which is installed in a prime/backup arrangement, with the option of using both analyzers on the same sample line, or on two different lines simultaneously. It is used for monitoring the Shuttle during fuel loading, countdown, and drainback, if necessary. The use of complex instruments, operated over many shifts, has caused problems in tracking the status of the ground support equipment (GSE) and the vehicle. A requirement for overall system reliability has been a major force in the development of Shuttle GSE, and is the ultimate driver in the choice to pursue artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for Shuttle and Advanced Launch System (ALS) mass spectrometer systems. Shuttle applications of AI are detailed.

  3. Vitamin G: effects of green space on health, well-being, and social safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Berg, van den A.E.; Vries, de S.; Verheij, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social

  4. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.; Maas, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National

  5. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Agnes E.; Maas, Jolanda; Verheij, Robert A.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National

  6. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Berg, A. van den; Verheij, R.A.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National

  7. Are green cities healthy and equitable? Unpacking the relationship between health, green space and gentrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Helen V S; Garcia Lamarca, Melisa; Connolly, James J T; Anguelovski, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    While access and exposure to green spaces has been shown to be beneficial for the health of urban residents, interventions focused on augmenting such access may also catalyse gentrification processes, also known as green gentrification. Drawing from the fields of public health, urban planning and environmental justice, we argue that public health and epidemiology researchers should rely on a more dynamic model of community that accounts for the potential unintended social consequences of upstream health interventions. In our example of green gentrification, the health benefits of greening can only be fully understood relative to the social and political environments in which inequities persist. We point to two key questions regarding the health benefits of newly added green space: Who benefits in the short and long term from greening interventions in lower income or minority neighbourhoods undergoing processes of revitalisation? And, can green cities be both healthy and just? We propose the Green Gentrification and Health Equity model which provides a framework for understanding and testing whether gentrification associated with green space may modify the effect of exposure to green space on health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.

  9. Evaluation of the efficiency of regional health-preserving educational space formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Akhmedzakievich Kasimov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the urgent problem of preserving children’s health. The author presents detailed characteristics of health-preserving educational space formation. It is regarded as a complex multilevel and multispectral system. The article defines the principles, methods, mechanisms of the health-preserving process on the municipal level. The subject of research includes the background, conditions and resources of health-preserving educational space formation. The participants of educational process (students, teachers, parents and representatives of local authorities are the object of the research. The study aims to evaluate the efficiency of health-preserving educational space formation within various conceptual and methodological approaches and the degree of involvement of the municipal authorities. In the course of the experiment the author tests the method of estimating the models of regional healthpreserving educational space formation and healthy lifestyle training, developed by the author. The article pays considerable attention to the justification of choosing the optimal strategy within the implementation of health preserving technologies on municipal level. It shows the crucial role of constructive inter-agency cooperation between the education system, health care and the authorities for effective and productive activities in this sphere

  10. Space Toxicology: Environmental Health Considerations during Spaceflight Operations and Potential Paths for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen N.; Sundaresan, Alemalu

    2009-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a specialized discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids [1]. Astronaut explorers face unique challenges to their health while working and living with limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. At its core the practice of space toxicology to identify, assess and predict potential chemical contaminants and limit the astronaut s exposure to these environmental factors in order to protect crew health. Space toxicologists are also charged with setting safe exposure limits that will protect the astronaut against a multitude of chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space, toxicological risks are gauged and managed within the context of isolation, continual exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the necessary use of highly toxic compounds required for propulsion. As the space program move towards human presence and exploration other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of unusual and/or reactive mineral dusts must also be analyzed and controlled. Placing humans for long-term presence in space creates several problems and challenges to the long-term health of the crew, such as bone-loss and immunological challenges and has spurred research into acute, chronic and episodic exposure of the pulmonary system to mineral dusts [2]. NASA has demonstrated that lunar soil contains several types of reactive dusts, including an extremely fine respirable component. In order to protect astronaut health, NASA is now investigating the toxicity of this unique class of dusts. Understanding how these reactive components behave "biochemically" in a moisture-rich pulmonary environment will aid in determining how toxic these particles are to humans. The data obtained from toxicological examination of lunar dusts will determine the human risk criteria for lunar

  11. Milk derived bioactive peptides and their impact on human health – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Mohanty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk-derived bioactive peptides have been identified as potential ingredients of health-promoting functional foods. These bioactive peptides are targeted at diet-related chronic diseases especially the non-communicable diseases viz., obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Peptides derived from the milk of cow, goat, sheep, buffalo and camel exert multifunctional properties, including anti-microbial, immune modulatory, anti-oxidant, inhibitory effect on enzymes, anti-thrombotic, and antagonistic activities against various toxic agents. Majority of those regulate immunological, gastrointestinal, hormonal and neurological responses, thereby playing a vital role in the prevention of cancer, osteoporosis, hypertension and other disorders as discussed in this review. For the commercial production of such novel bioactive peptides large scale technologies based on membrane separation and ion exchange chromatography methods have been developed. Separation and identification of those peptides and their pharmacodynamic parameters are necessary to transfer their potent functional properties into food applications. The present review summarizes the preliminary classes of bioactive milk-derived peptides along with their physiological functions, general characteristics and potential applications in health-care.

  12. Towards Investigating Global Warming Impact on Human Health Using Derivatives of Photoplethysmogram Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical studies show that the contour of the photoplethysmogram (PPG wave contains valuable information for characterizing cardiovascular activity. However, analyzing the PPG wave contour is difficult; therefore, researchers have applied first or higher order derivatives to emphasize and conveniently quantify subtle changes in the filtered PPG contour. Our hypothesis is that analyzing the whole PPG recording rather than each PPG wave contour or on a beat-by-beat basis can detect heat-stressed subjects and that, consequently, we will be able to investigate the impact of global warming on human health. Here, we explore the most suitable derivative order for heat stress assessment based on the energy and entropy of the whole PPG recording. The results of our study indicate that the use of the entropy of the seventh derivative of the filtered PPG signal shows promising results in detecting heat stress using 20-second recordings, with an overall accuracy of 71.6%. Moreover, the combination of the entropy of the seventh derivative of the filtered PPG signal with the root mean square of successive differences, or RMSSD (a traditional heart rate variability index of heat stress, improved the detection of heat stress to 88.9% accuracy.

  13. Towards Investigating Global Warming Impact on Human Health Using Derivatives of Photoplethysmogram Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Norton, Ian; Brearley, Matt; Fletcher, Richard R.; Abbott, Derek; Lovell, Nigel H.; Schuurmans, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical studies show that the contour of the photoplethysmogram (PPG) wave contains valuable information for characterizing cardiovascular activity. However, analyzing the PPG wave contour is difficult; therefore, researchers have applied first or higher order derivatives to emphasize and conveniently quantify subtle changes in the filtered PPG contour. Our hypothesis is that analyzing the whole PPG recording rather than each PPG wave contour or on a beat-by-beat basis can detect heat-stressed subjects and that, consequently, we will be able to investigate the impact of global warming on human health. Here, we explore the most suitable derivative order for heat stress assessment based on the energy and entropy of the whole PPG recording. The results of our study indicate that the use of the entropy of the seventh derivative of the filtered PPG signal shows promising results in detecting heat stress using 20-second recordings, with an overall accuracy of 71.6%. Moreover, the combination of the entropy of the seventh derivative of the filtered PPG signal with the root mean square of successive differences, or RMSSD (a traditional heart rate variability index of heat stress), improved the detection of heat stress to 88.9% accuracy. PMID:26473907

  14. The eHealth Enhanced Chronic Care Model: a theory derivation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Perry M; Greenwood, Deborah A; Paterniti, Debora A; Ward, Deborah; Miller, Lisa M Soederberg

    2015-04-01

    Chronic illnesses are significant to individuals and costly to society. When systematically implemented, the well-established and tested Chronic Care Model (CCM) is shown to improve health outcomes for people with chronic conditions. Since the development of the original CCM, tremendous information management, communication, and technology advancements have been established. An opportunity exists to improve the time-honored CCM with clinically efficacious eHealth tools. The first goal of this paper was to review research on eHealth tools that support self-management of chronic disease using the CCM. The second goal was to present a revised model, the eHealth Enhanced Chronic Care Model (eCCM), to show how eHealth tools can be used to increase efficiency of how patients manage their own chronic illnesses. Using Theory Derivation processes, we identified a "parent theory", the Chronic Care Model, and conducted a thorough review of the literature using CINAHL, Medline, OVID, EMBASE PsychINFO, Science Direct, as well as government reports, industry reports, legislation using search terms "CCM or Chronic Care Model" AND "eHealth" or the specific identified components of eHealth. Additionally, "Chronic Illness Self-management support" AND "Technology" AND several identified eHealth tools were also used as search terms. We then used a review of the literature and specific components of the CCM to create the eCCM. We identified 260 papers at the intersection of technology, chronic disease self-management support, the CCM, and eHealth and organized a high-quality subset (n=95) using the components of CCM, self-management support, delivery system design, clinical decision support, and clinical information systems. In general, results showed that eHealth tools make important contributions to chronic care and the CCM but that the model requires modification in several key areas. Specifically, (1) eHealth education is critical for self-care, (2) eHealth support needs to be

  15. Urban Green Space and the Pursuit of Health Equity in Parts of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that inequitable access to green space can relate to health disparities or inequalities. This commentary aims to shift the dialogue to initiatives that have integrated green spaces in projects that may promote health equity in the United States. Specifically, we connect this topic to factors such as community revitalization, affordable housing, neighborhood walkability, food security, job creation, and youth engagement. We provide a synopsis of locations and initiatives in different phases of development along with characteristics to support effectiveness and strategies to overcome challenges. The projects cover locations such as Atlanta (GA, Los Angeles (CA, the District of Columbia (Washington D.C., South Bronx (NY, and Utica (NY. Such insight can develop our understanding of green space projects that support health equity and inform the dialogue on this topic in ways that advance research and advocacy.

  16. Analyzing Social Spaces: Relational Citizenship for Patients Leaving Mental Health Care Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    "Citizenship" is a term from political theory. The term has moved from the relationship between the individual and the state toward addressing the position of 'others' in society. Here, I am concerned with people with long-term mental health problems. I explore the possibilities of ethnographically studying this rather more cultural understanding of citizenship with the use of the concept of relational citizenship, attending to people who leave Dutch institutions for mental health care. Relational citizenship assumes that people become citizens through interactions, whereby they create particular relations and social spaces. Rather than studying the citizen as a particular individual, citizenship becomes a matter of sociality. In this article, I consider what social spaces these relationships create and what values and mechanisms keep people together. I argue that the notion of neighborhood as a form of community, although built implicitly or explicitly into mental health care policy, is no longer the most plausible model to understand social spaces.

  17. Lignin-derived oak phenolics: a theoretical examination of additional potential health benefits of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, William N

    2011-08-01

    Lignin-derived phenolic compounds can be extracted from oak barrels during the aging of red wine, and it is hypothesized that these compounds may contribute to the health benefits of red wine by their antioxidant, radical-scavenging, or chemopreventive activities. Density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G) support the radical-scavenging abilities of the oak phenolics. Sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, syringol, and syringylacetone all have bond dissociation energies that are lower than resveratrol and comparable to the flavonoid catechin. Molecular docking studies of the oak phenolics with known resveratrol protein targets also show that these compounds dock favorably to the protein targets. Thus, lignin-derived oak phenolics, although found in small concentrations, may contribute to the beneficial antioxidant, chemopreventive, and cardioprotective effects of red wine.

  18. Innovative Methods for the Benefit of Public Health Using Space Technologies for Disaster Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinas, Petros C; Mueller, Christian; Clark, Nathan; Elgin, Tim; Nasseri, S Ali; Yaffe, Etai; Madry, Scott; Clark, Jonathan B; Asrar, Farhan

    2015-06-01

    Space applications have evolved to play a significant role in disaster relief by providing services including remote sensing imagery for mitigation and disaster damage assessments; satellite communication to provide access to medical services; positioning, navigation, and timing services; and data sharing. Common issues identified in past disaster response and relief efforts include lack of communication, delayed ordering of actions (eg, evacuations), and low levels of preparedness by authorities during and after disasters. We briefly summarize the Space for Health (S4H) Team Project, which was prepared during the Space Studies Program 2014 within the International Space University. The S4H Project aimed to improve the way space assets and experiences are used in support of public health during disaster relief efforts. We recommend an integrated solution based on nano-satellites or a balloon communication system, mobile self-contained relief units, portable medical scanning devices, and micro-unmanned vehicles that could revolutionize disaster relief and disrupt different markets. The recommended new system of coordination and communication using space assets to support public health during disaster relief efforts is feasible. Nevertheless, further actions should be taken by governments and organizations in collaboration with the private sector to design, test, and implement this system.

  19. Improving forensic mental health care to Indigenous Australians: theorizing the intercultural space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, A; Wynaden, D; O'Kane, M

    2014-05-01

    This paper uses the 'intercultural space' as an educational strategy to prepare nurses to work respectfully with Indigenous patients in a forensic mental health context; offers an educational approach that introduces nurses to Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values, examines power relations in colonized countries between the dominant white cultural group and the Indigenous population and encourages nurses to critically reflect on their health care practice; and explores the intercultural space as a shared space between cultures fostering open and robust inquiry where neither culture dominates and new positions, representations and understandings can emerge. Given the disproportionately high number of Indigenous people imprisoned in colonized countries, this paper responds to research from Western Australia on the need to prepare forensic mental health nurses to deliver care to Indigenous patients with mental health disorders. The paper highlights the nexus between theory, research and education that can inform the design and implementation of programmes to help nurses navigate the complex, layered and contested 'intercultural space' and deliver culturally safe care to Indigenous patients. Nurses are encouraged to critically reflect on how beliefs and values underpinning their cultural positioning impact on health care to Indigenous patients. The paper draws on intercultural theory to offer a pedagogical framework that acknowledges the negative impacts of colonization on Indigenous health and well-being, repositions and revalues Indigenous cultures and knowledges and fosters open and robust inquiry. This approach is seen as a step towards working more effectively in the intercultural space where ultimately binary oppositions that privilege one culture over another and inhibit robust inquiry are avoided, paving the way for new, more inclusive positions, representations and understandings to emerge. While the intercultural space can be a place of struggle, tension

  20. Contextualising renal patient routines: Everyday space-time contexts, health service access, and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuoid, Julia; Jowsey, Tanisha; Talaulikar, Girish

    2017-06-01

    Stable routines are key to successful illness self-management for the growing number of people living with chronic illness around the world. Yet, the influence of chronically ill individuals' everyday contexts in supporting routines is poorly understood. This paper takes a space-time geographical approach to explore the everyday space-time contexts and routines of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We ask: what is the relationship between renal patients' space-time contexts and their ability to establish and maintain stable routines, and, what role does health service access play in this regard? We draw from a qualitative case study of 26 individuals with CKD in Australia. Data comprised self-reported two day participant diaries and semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was guided by an inductive-deductive approach. We examined the embeddedness of routines within the space-time contexts of participants' everyday lives. We found that participants' everyday space-time contexts were highly complex, especially for those receiving dialysis and/or employed, making routines difficult to establish and vulnerable to disruption. Health service access helped shape participants' everyday space-time contexts, meaning that incidences of unpredictability in accessing health services set-off 'ripple effects' within participants' space-time contexts, disrupting routines and making everyday life negotiation more difficult. The ability to absorb ripple effects from unpredictable health services without disrupting routines varied by space-time context. Implications of these findings for the deployment of the concept of routine in health research, the framing of patient success in self-managing illness, and health services design are discussed. In conclusion, efforts to understand and support individuals in establishing and maintaining routines that support health and wellbeing can benefit from approaches that contextualise and de

  1. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J.; Morley, David W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. Methods In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. Results This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. Conclusions These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. PMID:25733559

  2. Space and place for WHO health development dialogues in the African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Dovlo, Delanyo Yao Tsidi

    2016-07-18

    Majority of the countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region are not on track to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals, yet even more ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including SDG 3 on heath, have been adopted. This paper highlights the challenges - amplified by the recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa - that require WHO and other partners' dialogue in support of the countries, and debate on how WHO can leverage the existing space and place to foster health development dialogues in the Region. To realise SDG 3 on ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, the African Region needs to tackle the persistent weaknesses in its health systems, systems that address the social determinants of health and national health research systems. The performance of the third item is crucial for the development and innovation of systems, products and tools for promoting, maintaining and restoring health in an equitable manner. Under its new leadership, the WHO Regional Office for Africa is transforming itself to galvanise existing partnerships, as well as forging new ones, with a view to accelerating the provision of timely and quality support to the countries in pursuit of SDG 3. WHO in the African Region engages in dialogues with various stakeholders in the process of health development. The EVD outbreak in West Africa accentuated the necessity for optimally exploiting currently available space and place for health development discourse. There is urgent need for the WHO Regional Office for Africa to fully leverage the space and place arenas of the World Health Assembly, WHO Regional Committee for Africa, African Union, Regional economic communities, Harmonization for Health in Africa, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, African Development Bank, professional associations, and WHO African Health Forum, when it is created, for dialogues to mobilise the required resources to

  3. Preliminary report on the rice blast resistance of space-induced mutants derived from rice cultivar 'Taihang-68'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingxin; Sun Dayuan; Wang Hui; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Chen Zhiqiang; Yang Qiyun; Zhu Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    To screen the blast resistance mutants, the resistance of SP 1 progenies derived from rice variety Taihang-68 were evaluated after satellite flight by representative blast isolate GD0193 which had a broad pathogenic spectra, and then primary genetic analysis of resistant mutants and mapping of resistance gene, as well as resistance spectra at seedling and neck blast resistance at maturity were performed. The results showed that space-mutation was effective method to change the blast resistance of Taihang-68. The screened resistant mutants TH1 and TH2 showed that resistance to isolate GD0193 no disjunction and separation respectively, and the resistance separation ratio of TH2 indicated that its resistance was controlled by one pair of major genes, which was preliminary mapped on the long arm of chromosome 11. In blast resistance spectra and neck blast resistance, TH1 and TH2 were both enhanced remarkable compared with the wild-type at seedling and maturity, and their resistance could be inherited, the blast resistance of these two mutants were also increased comparing with several main cultivars in South China. (authors)

  4. In yeast redistribution of Sod1 to the mitochondrial intermembrane space provides protection against respiration derived oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöppel, Christine; Michels, Christine; Zimmer, Julia; Herrmann, Johannes M; Riemer, Jan

    2010-12-03

    The antioxidative enzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) is an important cellular defence system against reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the majority of this enzyme is localized to the cytosol, about 1% of the cellular Sod1 is present in the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria. These amounts of mitochondrial Sod1 are increased for certain Sod1 mutants that are linked to the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To date, only little is known about the physiological function of mitochondrial Sod1. Here, we use the model system Saccharomyces cerevisiae to generate cells in which Sod1 is exclusively localized to the IMS. We find that IMS-localized Sod1 can functionally substitute wild type Sod1 and that it even exceeds the protective capacity of wild type Sod1 under conditions of mitochondrial ROS stress. Moreover, we demonstrate that upon expression in yeast cells the common ALS-linked mutant Sod1(G93A) becomes enriched in the mitochondrial fraction and provides an increased protection of cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress. Such an effect cannot be observed for the catalytically inactive mutant Sod1(G85R). Our observations suggest that the targeting of Sod1 to the mitochondrial IMS provides an increased protection against respiration-derived ROS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Health spending, macroeconomics and fiscal space in countries of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines the issues around mobilization of resources for the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), by analysing their macroeconomic situation, health spending, fiscal space and other determinants of health. With the exception of a few, most of these countries have made fair progress on their own Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets of maternal mortality ratio and mortality rate in children aged under 5 years. However, the achieved targets have been very modest - with the exception of Thailand and Sri Lanka - indicating the continued need for additional efforts to improve these indicators. The paper discusses the need for investment, by looking at evidence on economic growth, the availability of fiscal space, and improvements in "macroeconomic-plus" factors like poverty, female literacy, governance and efficiency of the health sector. The analysis indicates that, overall, the countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region are collectively in a position to make the transition from low public spending to moderate or even high health spending, which is required, in turn, for transition from lowcoverage-high out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) to highcoverage-low OOPS. However, explicit prioritization for health within the overall government budget for low spenders would require political will and champions who can argue the case of the health sector. Additional innovative avenues of raising resources, such as earmarked taxes or a health levy can be considered in countries with good macroeconomic fundamentals. With the exception of Thailand, this is applicable for all the countries of the region. However, countries with adverse macroeconomic-plus factors, as well as inefficient health systems, need to be alert to the possibility of overinvesting - and thereby wasting - resources for modest health gains, making the challenge of increasing health sector spending alongside competing demands for spending on other areas of

  6. The sociology of space as a catalyst for innovation in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Trust; de Villiers, Katusha; Douglas, Tania S

    2017-05-01

    This paper reviews the role of space in facilitating innovation. It draws on the sociology of space in exploring the social practices, institutional forces and material complexity of how people and spaces interact. We assess how space influences the development of innovative solutions to challenges in the health sector. Our aim is to advance an understanding of the social production of space for healthcare innovation. We draw empirical examples from the Innovation Hub at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town to illustrate that innovation does not take place in an institutional vacuum, but requires space that facilitates interaction of different players. This paper demonstrates that space matters in promoting innovation, particularly through its influence on social relationships and networks. An attractive and novel space, which is different from the usual workplace, stimulates innovation, mainly through being a base for the creation of an ecosystem for the productive interaction of different players. The interaction is important in inspiring new ideas, facilitating creative thought processes, maintaining the flow of information and bringing innovation to life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deriving a Set of Privacy Specific Heuristics for the Assessment of PHRs (Personal Health Records).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furano, Riccardo F; Kushniruk, Andre; Barnett, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of personal health record (PHR) platforms becoming more widely available, this research focused on the development of privacy heuristics to assess PHRs regarding privacy. Existing sets of heuristics are typically not application specific and do not address patient-centric privacy as a main concern prior to undergoing PHR procurement. A set of privacy specific heuristics were developed based on a scoping review of the literature. An internet-based commercially available, vendor specific PHR application was evaluated using the derived set of privacy specific heuristics. The proposed set of privacy specific derived heuristics is explored in detail in relation to ISO 29100. The assessment of the internet-based commercially available, vendor specific PHR application indicated numerous violations. These violations were noted within the study. It is argued that the new derived privacy heuristics should be used in addition to Nielsen's well-established set of heuristics. Privacy specific heuristics could be used to assess PHR portal system-level privacy mechanisms in the procurement process of a PHR application and may prove to be a beneficial form of assessment to prevent the selection of a PHR platform with a poor privacy specific interface design.

  8. Spaces of hope? Youth perspectives on health and wellness in indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lydia; Kamper, David; Swanson, Kate

    2018-03-01

    This article addresses an apparent paradox between academic and policy depictions of American Indian reservations as "broken" and "unhealthy" places, and Indigenous youth perceptions of reservations as spaces of "health" and "wellness." Public health literature often frames reservations as damaged, health-denying places, chronicling the extraordinarily high rates of suicide, substance abuse, as well as vast health disparities. Despite these dire statistics, our research with Native youth in San Diego County found that young people chose to primarily emphasize their positive experiences with, and attachments to, their reservations. In this article, we share strength- and desire-based narratives to explore how reservations can serve as spaces of wellness for Indigenous youth, despite ongoing settler colonial harm. We seek to expand the discussion on the unintended consequences of deficit-centered scholarship by arguing that health research should also engage with the narratives of hope and desire that are reflective of the way many Native youth feel about their communities. In this article, we urge scholars and practitioners to rethink how we conduct health research to include methodologies that listen to the narratives and experiences of those who, day in and day out, navigate settler colonial landscapes, while continuing to create spaces of hope and healing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced biosensors for monitoring astronauts' health during long-duration space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Aldo; Mirasoli, Mara; Guardigli, Massimo; Zangheri, Martina; Caliceti, Cristiana; Calabria, Donato; Simoni, Patrizia

    2018-07-15

    Long-duration space missions pose important health concerns for astronauts, especially regarding the adverse effects of microgravity and exposure to high-energy cosmic rays. The long-term maintenance of crew health and performance mainly relies on prevention, early diagnoses, condition management, and medical interventions in situ. In-flight biosensor diagnostic devices and medical procedures must use few resources and operate in a microgravity environment, which complicates the collection and management of biological samples. Moreover, the biosensors must be certified for in-flight operation according to strict design and safety regulations. Herein, we report on the state of the art and recent advances in biosensing diagnostic instrumentation for monitoring astronauts' health during long-duration space missions, including portable and wearable biosensors. We discuss perspectives on new-format biosensors in autonomous space clinics. We also describe our own work in developing biosensing devices for non-invasively diagnosing space-related diseases, and how they are used in long-duration missions. Finally, we discuss the benefits of space exploration for Earth-based medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Decentralization and health system performance – a focused review of dimensions, difficulties, and derivatives in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuputra Panda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction One of the principal goals of any health care system is to improve health through the provision of clinical and public health services. Decentralization as a reform measure aims to improve inputs, management processes and health outcomes, and has political, administrative and financial connotations. It is argued that the robustness of a health system in achieving desirable outcomes is contingent upon the width and depth of ‘decision space’ at the local level. Studies have used different approaches to examine one or more facets of decentralization and its effect on health system functioning; however, lack of consensus on an acceptable framework is a critical gap in determining its quantum and quality. Theorists have resorted to concepts of ‘trust’, ‘convenience’ and ‘mutual benefits’ to explain, define and measure components of governance in health. In the emerging ‘continuum of health services’ model, the challenge lies in identifying variables of performance (fiscal allocation, autonomy at local level, perception of key stakeholders, service delivery outputs, etc. through the prism of decentralization in the first place, and in establishing directed relationships among them. Methods This focused review paper conducted extensive web-based literature search, using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines. After screening of key words and study objectives, we retrieved 180 articles for next round of screening. One hundred and four full articles (three working papers and 101 published papers were reviewed in totality. We attempted to summarize existing literature on decentralization and health systems performance, explain key concepts and essential variables, and develop a framework for further scientific scrutiny. Themes are presented in three separate segments of dimensions, difficulties and derivatives. Results Evaluation of local decision making and its effect on health system performance has been

  11. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  12. Multidisciplinary research in public health: a case study of research on access to green space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, A; Green, J; Pinder, R; Wilkinson, P; Grundy, C; Lachowycz, K

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the physical and demographic parameters of access to Thames Chase Community Forest (TCCF), and how these have changed between 1990 and 2003; and qualitative exploration of our understanding of the links between health and the natural environment (TCCF), with a focus on the issue of 'access' to green space. Multimethod design involving both quantitative (analysis of physical access to green space) and qualitative (ethnography) components. Quantitative analysis, using geographical information systems, of physical access to the community forest; and ethnographic research including participant observation, non-participant observation, in-depth interviews and attendance at meetings and conferences. The quantitative analysis showed that public access to green space improved between 1990 and 2003 as a result of the regeneration and acquisition of new areas, and the average reduction in distance to green space was 162 m. However, such improvements were distributed differentially between population groups. In both 1990 and 2003, people from deprived areas and in poorer health had better access to green space than people from less deprived areas, but the greatest improvement in access to green space over this interval occurred in areas of below average deprivation (i.e. in the more affluent areas). The ethnographic research showed different interpretations of the notion of access. Use of TCCF was determined by a variety of factors including whether a person could 'imagine themselves' using such a space, different perceptions of what is actually being accessed (e.g. a place to exercise or a place to socialise), and ideas about using the countryside 'properly'. The health benefits of using a green space, such as TCCF, for walking or exercising are well recognized. However, whether people choose to use local green space may be determined by a variety of factors. These are likely to include physical distance to access of green space, as well as

  13. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent

  14. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestan, Katarina Ana; Eržen, Ivan; Golobič, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1) a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2) behavior observation and mapping and (3) a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups. PMID:25003173

  15. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Ana Lestan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1 a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2 behavior observation and mapping and (3 a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups.

  16. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  17. Assessing government’s fiscal space for moving towards universal health coverage in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouland Thin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In line with the global trend, it becomes clear that the Cambodian government’s policy direction is leaning toward universal health coverage, the agreed target within the newly ratified Sustainable Development Goals. Thus, the health system will need to be further reformed to achieve this target by 2030. To assess if the Cambodian government is able to increase the proportion of health budget out of the total government expenditure, this study will evaluate the government’s fiscal space and propose feasible options where and to what extent new resources can be generated for improving the health system. Design The data used for this analysis were obtained from World Bank online database and a series of Cambodia’s economic updates produced by the World Bank office in Cambodia. We observed the trends over time from 2011 to 2018 to provide insights into the extent to which fiscal space for health can be expanded. Findings By assessing the key fiscal indicators, it is unlikely that the Cambodian government is able to increase the proportion of health budget out of its total budget in the short run. Health budget is increased in absolute terms but not in real terms, which is linked tightly to the predicted 7% economic growth per annum. Conclusion The proportion of health budget from now until 2018 is expected to remain the same, and the revenues raised through pre‐payment mechanisms are still too small to address the pressing issues in the current health system. The Ministry of Health could benefit from putting a much stronger effort on improving efficiency and equity in the distribution of resources, as well as transparency and accountability, to achieve the immediate objectives for universal health coverage.

  18. Propulsion Health Management System Development for Affordable and Reliable Operation of Space Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Maul, William A.; Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique integrated system health management capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays, all require an integrated approach to health management that can span distinct, yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. Propulsion is a critical part of any space exploration mission, and monitoring the health of the propulsion system is an integral part of assuring mission safety and success. Health management is a somewhat ubiquitous technology that encompasses a large spectrum of physical components and logical processes. For this reason, it is essential to develop a systematic plan for propulsion health management system development. This paper provides a high-level perspective of propulsion health management systems, and describes a logical approach for the future planning and early development that are crucial to planned space exploration programs. It also presents an overall approach, or roadmap, for propulsion health management system development and a discussion of the associated roadblocks and challenges.

  19. Vitamin G: effects of green space on health, well-being, and social safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Agnes E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social safety. Methods/design The program consists of three projects at three different scales: at a macro scale using data on the Netherlands as a whole, at an intermediate scale looking into the specific effect of green space in the urban environment, and at micro scale investigating the effects of allotment gardens. The projects are observational studies, combining existing data on land use and health interview survey data, and collecting new data through questionnaires and interviews. Multilevel analysis and GIS techniques will be used to analyze the data. Discussion Previous (experimental research in environmental psychology has shown that a natural environment has a positive effect on well-being through restoration of stress and attentional fatigue. Descriptive epidemiological research has shown a positive relationship between the amount of green space in the living environment and physical and mental health and longevity. The program has three aims. First, to document the relationship between the amount and type of green space in people's living environment and their health, well-being, and feelings of safety. Second, to investigate the mechanisms behind this relationship. Mechanisms relate to exposure (leading to stress reduction and attention restoration, healthy behavior and social integration, and selection. Third, to translate the results into policy on the crossroads of spatial planning, public health, and safety. Strong points of our program are: we study several interrelated dependent variables, in different ordinary settings (as opposed to experimental or extreme settings, focusing on different target groups, using appropriate multilevel

  20. [Social participation in mental health: space of construction of citizenship, policy formulation and decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, José Maria Ximenes; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Maia, Regina Claudia Furtado; de Oliveira, Lucia Conde; Morais, Ana Patrícia Pereira; Lima, Marcos Paulo de Oliveira; Assis, Marluce Maria Araújo; dos Santos, Adriano Maia

    2010-07-01

    The article approaches the comprehension of professionals that act in the mental health area about the movement of construction of social participation in the health system of Fortaleza, Ceará State. The methodology adopted is based upon qualitative approach. The study was developed with semi-structured interviews with 17 mental health professionals of the city above mentioned. The empirical data was analyzed through the technique of thematic content analysis, where it was identified three cores of analysis: social participation as space of citizenship and policy formulation; oriented to attention of collective needs; and decision taking. The study reveals that social participation represents a possibility of amplifying X the relations between the Civil Society and the State, which makes possible the social intervention in proposals of the health policies. It is highlighted the right to health linked to the consolidation of democracy in the attention to the needs and collective edification.

  1. Assessment of zero gravity effects on space worker health and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    One objective of the study is to assess the effects of all currently known deviations from normal of medical, physiological, and biochemical parameters which appear to be due to zero gravity (zero-g) environment and to acceleration and deceleration to be experienced, as outlined in the reference Solar Power Satellite (SPS) design, by space worker. Study results include identification of possible health or safety effects on space workers - either immediate or delayed - due to the zero gravity environment and acceleration and deceleration; estimation of the probability that an individual will be adversely affected; description of the possible consequence to work efficiently in persons adversely affected; and description of the possible/probable consequences to immediate and future health of individuals exposed to this environment. A research plan, which addresses the uncertainties in current knowledge regarding the health and safety hazards to exposed SPS space workers, is presented. Although most adverse affects experienced during space flight soon disappeared upon return to the Earth's environment, there remains a definite concern for the long-term effects to SPS space workers who might spend as much as half their time in space during a possible five-year career period. The proposed 90-day up/90 day down cycle, coupled with the fact that most of the effects of weightlessness may persist throughout the flight along with the realization that recovery may occupy much of the terrestrial stay, may keep the SPS workers in a deviant physical condition or state of flux for 60 to 100% of their five-year career. (JGB)

  2. Assessment of zero gravity effects on space worker health and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    One objective of the study is to assess the effects of all currently known deviations from normal of medical, physiological, and biochemical parameters which appear to be due to zero gravity (zero-g) environment and to acceleration and deceleration to be experienced, as outlined in the references Solar Power Satellites (SPS) design, by space worker. Study results include identification of possible health or safety effects on space workers either immediate or delayed due to the zero gravity environment and acceleration and deceleration; estimation of the probability that an individual will be adversely affected; description of the possible consequence to work efficiency in persons adversely affected; and description of the possible/probable consequences to immediate and future health of individuals exposed to this environment. A research plan, which addresses the uncertainties in current knowledge regarding the health and safety hazards to exposed SPS space workers, is presented. Although most adverse affects experienced during space flight soon disappeared upon return to the Earth's environment, there remains a definite concern for the long-term effects to SPS space workers who might spend as much as half their time in space during a possible five year career period. The proposed 90 day up/90 day down cycle, coupled with the fact that most of the effects of weightlessness may persist throughout the flight along with the realization that recovery may occupy much of the terrestrial stay, may keep the SPS workers in a deviant physical condition or state of flux for 60 to 100% of their five year career.

  3. HI-STAR. Health Improvements through Space Technologies and Resources: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finarelli, Margaret G.

    2002-01-01

    Our mission is to develop and promote a global strategy to help combat malaria using space technology. Like the tiny yet powerful mosquito, HI-STAR (Health Improvements Through Space Technologies and Resources) is a small program that aspires to make a difference. Timely detection of malaria danger zones is essential to help health authorities and policy makers make decisions about how to manage limited resources for combating malaria. In 2001, the technical support network for prevention and control of malaria epidemics published a study. HI-STAR focuses on malaria because it is the most common and deadly of the vector-borne diseases. Malaria also shares many commonalities with other diseases, which means the global strategy developed here may also be applicable to other parasitic diseases. HI-STAR would like to contribute to the many malaria groups already making great strides in the fight against malaria. Some examples include: Roll Back Malaria, The Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM). Other important groups that are among the first to include space technologies in their model include: The Center for Health Application of Aerospace Related Technologies (CHAART) and Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA). Malaria is a complex and multi-faceted disease. Combating it must therefore be equally versatile. HI-STAR incorporates an interdisciplinary, international, intercultural approach.called 'Malaria Early Warning Systems; Concepts, Indicators and Partners.' This study, funded by Roll Back Malaria, a World Health Organization initiative, offers a framework for a monitoring and early warning system. HI-STAR seeks to build on this proposal and enhance the space elements of the suggested framework. It is the work of fifty-three professionals and students from the International Space University's 2002 Summer Session Program held in California, USA.

  4. Designing Clinical Space for the Delivery of Integrated Behavioral Health and Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Rose; Davis, Melinda M; Hall, Jennifer; Heintzman, John; Muench, John; Smeds, Brianna; Miller, Benjamin F; Miller, William L; Gilchrist, Emma; Brown Levey, Shandra; Brown, Jacqueline; Wise Romero, Pam; Cohen, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to describe features of the physical space in which practices integrating primary care and behavioral health care work and to identify the arrangements that enable integration of care. We conducted an observational study of 19 diverse practices located across the United States. Practice-level data included field notes from 2-4-day site visits, transcripts from semistructured interviews with clinicians and clinical staff, online implementation diary posts, and facility photographs. A multidisciplinary team used a 4-stage, systematic approach to analyze data and identify how physical layout enabled the work of integrated care teams. Two dominant spatial layouts emerged across practices: type-1 layouts were characterized by having primary care clinicians (PCCs) and behavioral health clinicians (BHCs) located in separate work areas, and type-2 layouts had BHCs and PCCs sharing work space. We describe these layouts and the influence they have on situational awareness, interprofessional "bumpability," and opportunities for on-the-fly communication. We observed BHCs and PCCs engaging in more face-to-face methods for coordinating integrated care for patients in type 2 layouts (41.5% of observed encounters vs 11.7%; P < .05). We show that practices needed to strike a balance between professional proximity and private work areas to accomplish job tasks. Private workspace was needed for focused work, to see patients, and for consults between clinicians and clinical staff. We describe the ways practices modified and built new space and provide 2 recommended layouts for practices integrating care based on study findings. Physical layout and positioning of professionals' workspace is an important consideration in practices implementing integrated care. Clinicians, researchers, and health-care administrators are encouraged to consider the role of professional proximity and private working space when creating new facilities or redesigning existing space to foster

  5. Shades of green: Measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...

  6. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-11-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Environmental Restoration (ER) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code was used in this evaluation. This code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that following ER action, the site will be used without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the scenario-specific values calculated by this study. Except for the extent of the contaminated zone (which is very conservative), assumptions used are as site-specific as possible, given available information. The derived guidelines are single- radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual residual soil contamination guides for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate, as well as using site-specific inputs to computer models based on data not yet fully determined

  7. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Jeffery C.; Scott, Graham B. I.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:25370382

  8. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery C. Chancellor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO. Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs, but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts.

  9. Life Course, Green Space and Health: Incorporating Place into Life Course Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Pearce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers interested in the relationships between place and health have been slow to incorporate a life course perspective, probably due to the lack of readily available historical environmental data. This hinders the identification of causal relationships. It also restricts our understanding as to whether there are accumulative effects over the life course and if there are critical periods in people’s lives when places are particularly pertinent. This study considers the feasibility of constructing longitudinal data on the availability of urban green space. The suitability of various historical and contemporary data sources is considered, including paper maps, aerial photographs and tabular land use data. Measures of urban green space are created for all neighbourhoods across the Edinburgh region of Scotland at various points during the past 100 years. We demonstrate that it is feasible to develop such measures, but there are complex issues involved in doing so. We also test the utility of the measures via an analysis of how accessibility to green space might alter over the life course of both people, and their residential neighbourhoods. The findings emphasise the potential for utilising historical data to significantly enhance understanding of the relationships between nature and health, and between health and place more generally. We encourage researchers to use data from other locations to consider including a longitudinal perspective to examine relationships between people’s health and their environment.

  10. The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects Ann R. Kennedy Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 195 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, United States 19104-6072 The development of countermeasures for radiation induced adverse health effects is a lengthy process, particularly when the countermeasure/drug has not yet been evaluated in human trials. One example of a drug developed from the bench to the clinic is the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which has been developed as a countermeasure for radiation induced cancer. It was originally identified as a compound/drug that could prevent the radiation induced carcinogenic process in an in vitro assay system in 1975. The first observation that BBI could inhibit carcinogenesis in animals was in 1985. BBI received Investigational New Drug (IND) Status with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 (after several years of negotiation with the FDA about the potential IND status of the drug), and human trials began at that time. Phase I, II and III human trials utilizing BBI have been performed under several INDs with the FDA, and an ongoing Phase III trial will be ending in the very near future. Thus, the drug has been in development for 35 years at this point, and it is still not a prescription drug on the market which is available for human use. A somewhat less time-consuming process is to evaluate compounds that are on the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. These compounds would include some over-the-counter medications, such as antioxidant vitamins utilized in human trials at the levels for which Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been established. To determine whether GRAS substances are able to have beneficial effects on radiation induced adverse health effects, it is still likely to be a lengthy process involving many years to potentially decades of human trial work. The

  11. Benzoporphyrin derivative and light-emitting diode for use in photodynamic therapy: Applications of space light-emitting diode technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, Harry T.; Houle, John M.; Bajic, Dawn M.; Schmidt, Meic H.; Reichert, Kenneth W. II; Meyer, Glenn A.

    1998-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality that recently has been applied as adjuvant therapy for brain tumors. PDT consists of intravenously injecting a photosensitizer, which preferentially accumulates in tumor cells, into a patient and then activating the photosensitizer with a light source. This results in free radical generation followed by cell death. The development of more effective light sources for PDT of brain tumors has been facilitated by applications of space light-emitting diode array technology; thus permitting deeper tumor penetration of light and use of better photosensitizers. Currently, the most commonly used photosensitizer for brain tumor PDT is Photofrin registered . Photofrin registered is a heterogeneous mixture of compounds derived from hematoporphyrin. Photofrin registered is activated with a 630 nm laser light and does destroy tumor cells in animal models and humans. However, treatment failure does occur using this method. Most investigators attribute this failure to the limited penetration of brain tissue by a 630 nm laser light and to the fact that Photofrin registered has only a minor absorption peak at 630 nm, meaning that only a small fraction of the chemical is activated. Benzoporphyrin Derivative Monoacid Ring A (BPD) is a new, second generation photosensitizer that can potentially improve PDT for brain tumors. BPD has a major absorption peak at 690 nm, which gives it two distinct advantages over Photofrin registered . First, longer wavelengths of light penetrate brain tissue more easily so that larger tumors could be treated, and second, the major absorption peak means that a larger fraction of the drug is activated upon exposure to light. In the first part of this project we have studied the tumoricidal effects of BPD in vitro using 2A9 canine glioma and U373 human glioblastoma cell cultures. Using light emitting diodes (LED) with a peak emission of 688 nm as a light source, cell kill of up to 86 percent was

  12. Improving primary health care facility performance in Ghana: efficiency analysis and fiscal space implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novignon, Jacob; Nonvignon, Justice

    2017-06-12

    Health centers in Ghana play an important role in health care delivery especially in deprived communities. They usually serve as the first line of service and meet basic health care needs. Unfortunately, these facilities are faced with inadequate resources. While health policy makers seek to increase resources committed to primary healthcare, it is important to understand the nature of inefficiencies that exist in these facilities. Therefore, the objectives of this study are threefold; (i) estimate efficiency among primary health facilities (health centers), (ii) examine the potential fiscal space from improved efficiency and (iii) investigate the efficiency disparities in public and private facilities. Data was from the 2015 Access Bottlenecks, Cost and Equity (ABCE) project conducted by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. The Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) was used to estimate efficiency of health facilities. Efficiency scores were then used to compute potential savings from improved efficiency. Outpatient visits was used as output while number of personnel, hospital beds, expenditure on other capital items and administration were used as inputs. Disparities in efficiency between public and private facilities was estimated using the Nopo matching decomposition procedure. Average efficiency score across all health centers included in the sample was estimated to be 0.51. Also, average efficiency was estimated to be about 0.65 and 0.50 for private and public facilities, respectively. Significant disparities in efficiency were identified across the various administrative regions. With regards to potential fiscal space, we found that, on average, facilities could save about GH₵11,450.70 (US$7633.80) if efficiency was improved. We also found that fiscal space from efficiency gains varies across rural/urban as well as private/public facilities, if best practices are followed. The matching decomposition showed an efficiency gap of 0.29 between private

  13. Mapping the determinants of health inequalities in social space: can Bourdieu help us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatrell, Anthony C; Popay, Jennie; Thomas, Carol

    2004-09-01

    Considerable research effort has been devoted to describing and explaining, at a variety of spatial scales, geographical inequalities in health outcomes within the developed world. Following Bourdieu, we argue that structures of the social world may be revealed in different kinds of 'social' space. We outline the relational thinking that underlies these ideas. We then 'map', using correspondence analysis (on which Bourdieu himself drew), the structure of social space according to the differential availability of some forms of capital, across four study areas in north-west England. We use logistic regression analysis to explain variation in psychological morbidity (GHQ-score) and then portray the significant predictors of morbidity using multiple correspondence analysis. The area of residence of the survey respondents is used to associate them with particular locations in these social spaces.

  14. Factors influencing publication of scientific articles derived from masters theses in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Malen; Borrell, Carme; Garin, Olatz; Fernández, Esteve; Alonso, Jordi

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate theses of a Masters program in Public Health (MPH), in terms of the students' and theses' characteristics that influence publication of the thesis as a scientific article. Longitudinal study of students who successfully completed the MPH at Universitat Pompeu Fabra and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain) from 2006 to 2010. Participants completed an electronic survey and additional data were gathered from university files. 162 students participated in the study (83 % response rate). 60.5 % had already published an article derived from their thesis at the time of the study or were in process of publishing it. The likelihood of publishing in a peer-reviewed journal was greater among women (aRR = 1.41), among those who had a bachelor's degree in sciences other than health (aRR = 1.40), had completed the MPH on time (aRR = 2.10), had enrolled in a doctoral program after the MPH (aRR = 1.44) or had a masters thesis score of ≥7 (aRR = 1.61). The majority of MPH students published their thesis in a peer-reviewed journal. The strongest predictors of successful publication were related to academic performance.

  15. A socially excluded space: restrictions on access to health care for older women in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Abul; Westhues, Anne

    2010-09-01

    This study was an exploration of the experiences of 17 women, age 60 or more years, from Bangladesh. The women were asked about decision-making processes with respect to their access to health care and whether they perceived that there were differences based on age and sex in the way a household responds to an illness episode. The overall theme that characterized their experiences was "being in a socially excluded space." The themes that explained this perception of social exclusion included gender- and age-based social practices, gender- and class-based economic practices, religious beliefs that restricted the mobility of women, and social constructions of health and illness that led the women to avoid seeking health care. We conclude that the Bangladesh constitutional guarantee that disparities will be eliminated in access to health care between rich and poor, men and women, rural and urban residents, and younger and older citizens has not yet been realized.

  16. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Jenny; Aspinall, Peter A; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2016-07-05

    Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523) to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from "very good" health (people of Indian origin), to "good" health (white British), and "poor" health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups), labelled "Mixed BME" in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness) ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in "Mixed BME". Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME communities since this can play an

  17. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight.

  18. Media education as a system of health personalities software in media-information space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. M. Velykodna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to outline the problems of health and human security in the media­information education space. Media education as a system of values formation under conditions of medial ­ information educational environment focused on developing and providing protective functions in their close interdependence. Training is aimed at creating conditions for the development of spiritual subjects of education, promotion of positive changes in their personal development. Protective aimed at improving the social protection of business education in the destructive tendencies in society , to neutralize the impact of negative factors media. The most important part of media education in the context of ensuring the health of the individual is the formation of values education activity as the basis of spiritual health. It is shown that meaningful use sens formative influence of media­information space determines the priority position of media education as a factor in providing mental health of the individual. Formation of mental health is associated with the conscious assimilation of certain belief systems of the world. According media education focuses not on broadcast ready «moral absolutes «, and the simulation of specific situations in which the individual is necessary to self­determination regarding fundamental values and principles of implementing these values in life.

  19. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

    2014-02-01

    Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition.

  20. Space-time latent component Modeling of Geo-referenced health data

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Andrew B.; Song, Hae-Ryoung; Cai, Bo; Hossain, Md Monir; Huang, Kun

    2010-01-01

    Latent structure models have been proposed in many applications. For space time health data it is often important to be able to find underlying trends in time which are supported by subsets of small areas. Latent structure modeling is one approach to this analysis. This paper presents a mixture-based approach that can be appied to component selction. The analysis of a Georgia ambulatory asthma county level data set is presented and a simulation-based evaluation is made.

  1. Accounting for misclassification in electronic health records-derived exposures using generalized linear finite mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Johnson, Eric; Chubak, Jessica; Wernli, Karen J; Kamineni, Aruna; Bogart, Andy; Rutter, Carolyn M

    2017-06-01

    Exposures derived from electronic health records (EHR) may be misclassified, leading to biased estimates of their association with outcomes of interest. An example of this problem arises in the context of cancer screening where test indication, the purpose for which a test was performed, is often unavailable. This poses a challenge to understanding the effectiveness of screening tests because estimates of screening test effectiveness are biased if some diagnostic tests are misclassified as screening. Prediction models have been developed for a variety of exposure variables that can be derived from EHR, but no previous research has investigated appropriate methods for obtaining unbiased association estimates using these predicted probabilities. The full likelihood incorporating information on both the predicted probability of exposure-class membership and the association between the exposure and outcome of interest can be expressed using a finite mixture model. When the regression model of interest is a generalized linear model (GLM), the expectation-maximization algorithm can be used to estimate the parameters using standard software for GLMs. Using simulation studies, we compared the bias and efficiency of this mixture model approach to alternative approaches including multiple imputation and dichotomization of the predicted probabilities to create a proxy for the missing predictor. The mixture model was the only approach that was unbiased across all scenarios investigated. Finally, we explored the performance of these alternatives in a study of colorectal cancer screening with colonoscopy. These findings have broad applicability in studies using EHR data where gold-standard exposures are unavailable and prediction models have been developed for estimating proxies.

  2. Assessment of the effects of the zero gravity environment on the health and safety of space workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A review was conducted of currently available information relating to adverse effects to the health and safety that space power system (SPS) space workers may experience. Currently available information on the responses of humans to space flight is somewhat limited and was obtained under conditions which are grossly different from conditions to be experienced by future space workers. The limitations in information and differences in conditions were considered in the assessment of potential health and safety hazards to the SPS space workers. The study did not disclose any adverse effects that would result in long term deviations to the medical physiological health of space workers so long as proper preventive or ameliorating action were taken.

  3. Technical Consultation of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) System Health Assessment: Analysis of HST Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Heard, Brent N.; Hodson, Robert F.; Pettit, Duane H.; Pandolf, John E.; Azzolini, John D.; Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Farley, Rodger E.; Kirchman, Frank J.; Spidaliere, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    The NESC conducted an abridged independent examination of available information and personnel interviews to evaluate the current and anticipated state of the spacecraft subsystems and the parameters that describe the HST's health. These examinations included the projected timeliness of a robotic SM and whether the GSFC baseline concept is likely to provide the capability to extend the useful scientific life of the HST by an additional 5 years. The NESC team collected a broad spectrum of pertinent HST Program analyses, reports, briefings, and the results of the IPAO and the Aerospace Corporation AOA assessments as they relate to the degradation of the HST s health. This review included the state of the HST subsystems having the potential to impact the viability of the HST, but will not be serviced under the baseline robotic SM.

  4. Effective medium super-cell approximation for interacting disordered systems: an alternative real-space derivation of generalized dynamical cluster approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, Rostam

    2006-01-01

    We develop a generalized real-space effective medium super-cell approximation (EMSCA) method to treat the electronic states of interacting disordered systems. This method is general and allows randomness both in the on-site energies and in the hopping integrals. For a non-interacting disordered system, in the special case of randomness in the on-site energies, this method is equivalent to the non-local coherent potential approximation (NLCPA) derived previously. Also, for an interacting system the EMSCA method leads to the real-space derivation of the generalized dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) for a general lattice structure. We found that the original DCA and the NLCPA are two simple cases of this technique, so the EMSCA is equivalent to the generalized DCA where there is included interaction and randomness in the on-site energies and in the hopping integrals. All of the equations of this formalism are derived by using the effective medium theory in real space

  5. General Purpose Data-Driven Online System Health Monitoring with Applications to Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, David L.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Schwabacher, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Modern space transportation and ground support system designs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Determining the health state of these systems using traditional parameter limit checking, or model-based or rule-based methods is becoming more difficult as the number of sensors and component interactions grows. Data-driven monitoring techniques have been developed to address these issues by analyzing system operations data to automatically characterize normal system behavior. System health can be monitored by comparing real-time operating data with these nominal characterizations, providing detection of anomalous data signatures indicative of system faults, failures, or precursors of significant failures. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a general purpose, data-driven system health monitoring software tool that has been successfully applied to several aerospace applications and is under evaluation for anomaly detection in vehicle and ground equipment for next generation launch systems. After an introduction to IMS application development, we discuss these NASA online monitoring applications, including the integration of IMS with complementary model-based and rule-based methods. Although the examples presented in this paper are from space operations applications, IMS is a general-purpose health-monitoring tool that is also applicable to power generation and transmission system monitoring.

  6. Application of virtual reality for crew mental health in extended-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Nick; Grimm, Jonathan M.; Horack, John M.; Newton, Elizabeth K.

    2018-05-01

    Human exploration of the solar system brings a host of environmental and engineering challenges. Among the most important factors in crew health and human performance is the preservation of mental health. The mental well-being of astronaut crews is a significant issue affecting the success of long-duration space missions, such as habitation on or around the Moon, Mars exploration, and eventual colonization of the solar system. If mental health is not properly addressed, these missions will be at risk. Upkeep of mental health will be especially difficult on long duration missions because many of the support systems available to crews on shorter missions will not be available. In this paper, we examine the use of immersive virtual reality (VR) simulations to maintain healthy mental states in astronaut crews who are removed from the essential comforts typically associated with terrestrial life. Various methods of simulations and their administration are analyzed in the context of current research and knowledge in the fields of psychology, medicine, and space sciences, with a specific focus on the environment faced by astronauts on long-term missions. The results of this investigation show that virtual reality should be considered a plausible measure in preventing mental state deterioration in astronauts, though more work is needed to provide a comprehensive view of the effectiveness and administration of VR methods.

  7. Assessment of Protective Properties of Optimized Flagellin Derivative Against Biologically Harmful Effects of Ionizing Irradiation During Space Flight, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposal is to explore a novel proprietary biopharmaceutical agent, named deltaFL-AA', a first in the series of innovative radioprotectors to act as...

  8. Empirically derived dietary patterns and health-related quality of life in the SUN project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruano

    Full Text Available The analysis of dietary patterns has become a valuable tool to examine diet-disease relationships but little is known about their effects on quality of life. Our aim was to ascertain the association between major dietary patterns and mental and physical quality of life after 4 years of follow-up.This analysis included 11,128 participants from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN cohort. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Quality of life was measured with the validated Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey.Two major dietary patterns were identified, the 'Western' dietary pattern (rich in red meats, processed pastries and fast-food and the "Mediterranean" dietary pattern (high in fruits, vegetables and olive oil. After controlling for confounders, the Western dietary pattern was associated with quality of life in all domains. The magnitude of these differences between the subjects in the highest (quintile 5 and the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern ranged from -0.8 (for mental health to -3.5 (for vitality. On the contrary, the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with better quality of life domains: differences ranged from +1.3 (for physical functioning to +3.4 (for vitality when comparing extreme quintiles of adherence. Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the reported differences.Whereas baseline adherence to a Western dietary pattern was inversely associated with self-perceived quality of life after 4 years of follow-up, baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was directly associated with better scores in quality of life four years later in the SUN Project.

  9. Plant-Derived Polyphenols in Human Health: Biological Activity, Metabolites and Putative Molecular Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Vicente, Marilo; Barrajon-Catalan, Enrique; Herranz-Lopez, Maria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge; Encinar, Jose Antonio; Micol, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa, Lippia citriodora, Rosmarinus officinalis and Olea europaea, are rich in bioactive compounds that represent most of the phenolic compounds' families and have exhibited potential benefits in human health. These plants have been used in folk medicine for their potential therapeutic properties in human chronic diseases. Recent evidence leads to postulate that polyphenols may account for such effects. Nevertheless, the compounds or metabolites that are responsible for reaching the molecular targets are unknown. data based on studies directly using complex extracts on cellular models, without considering metabolic aspects, have limited applicability. In contrast, studies exploring the absorption process, metabolites in the blood circulation and tissues have become essential to identify the intracellular final effectors that are responsible for extracts bioactivity. Once the cellular metabolites are identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry, docking techniques suppose a unique tool for virtually screening a large number of compounds on selected targets in order to elucidate their potential mechanisms. we provide an updated overview of the in vitro and in vivo studies on the toxicity, absorption, permeability, pharmacokinetics and cellular metabolism of bioactive compounds derived from the abovementioned plants to identify the potential compounds that are responsible for the observed health effects. we propose the use of targeted metabolomics followed by in silico studies to virtually screen identified metabolites on selected protein targets, in combination with the use of the candidate metabolites in cellular models, as the methods of choice for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of these compounds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Empirically derived dietary patterns and health-related quality of life in the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Cristina; Henriquez, Patricia; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of dietary patterns has become a valuable tool to examine diet-disease relationships but little is known about their effects on quality of life. Our aim was to ascertain the association between major dietary patterns and mental and physical quality of life after 4 years of follow-up. This analysis included 11,128 participants from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Quality of life was measured with the validated Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey. Two major dietary patterns were identified, the 'Western' dietary pattern (rich in red meats, processed pastries and fast-food) and the "Mediterranean" dietary pattern (high in fruits, vegetables and olive oil). After controlling for confounders, the Western dietary pattern was associated with quality of life in all domains. The magnitude of these differences between the subjects in the highest (quintile 5) and the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern ranged from -0.8 (for mental health) to -3.5 (for vitality). On the contrary, the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with better quality of life domains: differences ranged from +1.3 (for physical functioning) to +3.4 (for vitality) when comparing extreme quintiles of adherence. Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the reported differences. Whereas baseline adherence to a Western dietary pattern was inversely associated with self-perceived quality of life after 4 years of follow-up, baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was directly associated with better scores in quality of life four years later in the SUN Project.

  11. Humanization of care spaces: a research developed for the Italian Ministry of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Del Nord

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reports methodology, contents and results of the care space research carried out for the Italian Ministry of Health by the Interuniversity Research Centre TESIS University of Florence and the Department DINSE Turin Polytechnic under the responsibility of Professors R. Del Nord and G. Peretti. The aim of the research was to define methodological and operational tools designing social health structures according to quality standards that define user needs in terms of psycho-social and physical well-being as a priority of the design process. The potential users of this research results are the operators involved in the implementation process of social health construction: from local and central decision makers to designers.

  12. Public green spaces and positive mental health - investigating the relationship between access, quantity and types of parks and mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Hooper, Paula; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    Associations between parks and mental health have typically been investigated in relation to the presence or absence of mental illness. This study uses a validated measure of positive mental health and data from RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) Project to investigate the association between the presence, amount and attributes of public green space in new greenfield neighbourhood developments and the mental health of local residents (n = 492). Both the overall number and total area of public green spaces were significantly associated with greater mental wellbeing, and findings support a dose-response relationship. Positive mental health was not only associated with parks with a nature focus, but also with green spaces characterised by recreational and sporting activity. The study demonstrates that adequate provision of public green space in local neighbourhoods and within walking distance is important for positive mental health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Testing an empirically derived mental health training model featuring small groups, distributed practice and patient discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrihy, Rachael C; Byrne, Mitchell K; Gonsalvez, Craig J

    2009-02-01

    Internationally, family doctors seeking to enhance their skills in evidence-based mental health treatment are attending brief training workshops, despite clear evidence in the literature that short-term, massed formats are not likely to improve skills in this complex area. Reviews of the educational literature suggest that an optimal model of training would incorporate distributed practice techniques; repeated practice over a lengthy time period, small-group interactive learning, mentoring relationships, skills-based training and an ongoing discussion of actual patients. This study investigates the potential role of group-based training incorporating multiple aspects of good pedagogy for training doctors in basic competencies in brief cognitive behaviour therapy (BCBT). Six groups of family doctors (n = 32) completed eight 2-hour sessions of BCBT group training over a 6-month period. A baseline control design was utilised with pre- and post-training measures of doctors' BCBT skills, knowledge and engagement in BCBT treatment. Family doctors' knowledge, skills in and actual use of BCBT with patients improved significantly over the course of training compared with the control period. This research demonstrates preliminary support for the efficacy of an empirically derived group training model for family doctors. Brief CBT group-based training could prove to be an effective and viable model for future doctor training.

  14. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-04-22

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people's stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant's home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments.

  15. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine Ward Thompson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people’s stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant’s home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments.

  16. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people’s stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant’s home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments. PMID:27110803

  17. Long-duration space exploration and emotional health: Recommendations for conceptualizing and evaluating risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candice A.; Bower, Joanne L.; Cowie, Jennifer; Lau, Simon; Simpson, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    Spaceflight to Mars will by far exceed the duration of any previous mission. Although behavioral health risks are routinely highlighted among the most serious threats to crew safety, understanding of specific emotional responses most likely to occur and interfere with mission success has lagged in comparison to other risk domains. Even within the domain of behavioral health, emotional constructs remain to be 'unpacked' to the same extent as other factors such as attention and fatigue. The current paper provides a review of previous studies that have examined emotional responses in isolated, confined, extreme environments (ICE) toward informing a needed research agenda. We include research conducted during space flight, long-duration space simulation analogs, and polar environments and utilize a well-established model of emotion and emotion regulation to conceptualize specific findings. Lastly, we propose four specific directions for future research: (1) use of a guiding theoretical framework for evaluating emotion responses in ICE environments; (2) leveraging multi-method approaches to improve the reliability of subjective reports of emotional health; (3) a priori selection of precise emotional constructs to guide measure selection; and (4) focusing on positive in addition to negative emotion in order to provide a more complete understanding of individual risk and resilience.

  18. Multi-Disciplinary Knowledge Synthesis for Human Health Assessment on Earth and in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, G.

    We discuss methodological developments in multi-disciplinary knowledge synthesis (KS) of human health assessment. A theoretical KS framework can provide the rational means for the assimilation of various information bases (general, site-specific etc.) that are relevant to the life system of interest. KS-based techniques produce a realistic representation of the system, provide a rigorous assessment of the uncertainty sources, and generate informative health state predictions across space-time. The underlying epistemic cognition methodology is based on teleologic criteria and stochastic logic principles. The mathematics of KS involves a powerful and versatile spatiotemporal random field model that accounts rigorously for the uncertainty features of the life system and imposes no restriction on the shape of the probability distributions or the form of the predictors. KS theory is instrumental in understanding natural heterogeneities, assessing crucial human exposure correlations and laws of physical change, and explaining toxicokinetic mechanisms and dependencies in a spatiotemporal life system domain. It is hoped that a better understanding of KS fundamentals would generate multi-disciplinary models that are useful for the maintenance of human health on Earth and in Space.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 266 - Health-Based Limits for Exclusion of Waste-Derived Residues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste-Derived Residues* VII Appendix VII to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VII Appendix VII to Part 266—Health...

  20. Assessment of the effects of the zero gravity environment on the health and safety of space workers. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-18

    A review was conducted of currently available information relating to adverse effects to the health and safety that SPS space workers may experience. Currently available information on the responses of humans to space flight is somewhat limited and was obtained under conditions which are grossly different from conditions to be experienced by future space workers. The limitations in information and differences in conditions have been considered in the assessment of potential health and safety hazards to the SPS space workers. The study did not disclose any adverse effects that would result in long term deviations to the medical or physiological health of space workers so long as proper preventive or ameleorating actions were taken.

  1. Application of diet-derived taste active components for clinical nutrition: perspectives from ancient Ayurvedic medical science, space medicine, and modern clinical nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anil D; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Rashid, Muhammad J; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Karkow, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the role of taste and flavor in health from the ancient science of Ayurveda to modern medicine; specifically their mechanisms and roles in space medicine and their clinical relevance in modern heath care. It also describes the brief history of the use of the monosodium glutamate or flavor enhancers ("Umami substance") that improve the quality of food intake by stimulating chemosensory perception. In addition, the dietary nucleotides are known to be the components of "Umami substance" and the benefit of their use has been proposed in various types of patients with cancer, radiation therapy, organ transplantation, and for application in space medicine.

  2. 26 CFR 1.863-8 - Source of income derived from space and ocean activity under section 863(d).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable... from sources without the United States to the extent the income, based on all the facts and... income derived by a CFC is income from sources without the United States to the extent the income, based...

  3. Advanced Data Mining and Deployment for Integrated Vehicle Health Management and the Space Vehicle Lifecycle, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a successful Phase 1 project for NASA SBIR topic A1.05, "Data Mining for Integrated Vehicle Health Management," Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) demonstrated...

  4. Practice nurses mental health provide space to patients to discuss unpleasant emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, E C M; Noordman, J; van Dulmen, S

    2016-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: A core skill of practice nurses' mental health is to recognize and explore patients' unpleasant emotions. Patients rarely express their unpleasant emotions directly and spontaneously, but instead give indirect signs that something is worrying them. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Patients with mild psychosocial and psychological problems provide signs of worrying or express a clear unpleasant emotion in 94% of consultations with a practice nurse mental health. Nurses' responses to patients' signs of worrying or clear unpleasant emotions were mostly characterized by providing space for patients to talk about these emotions, by using minimal responses. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Practice nurses' mental health have passive listening skills, and to a lesser extent, use active listening techniques. Accurate emotion detection and the ability to pick out emotional signs during consultations must also be considered as an important skill for health providers to improve patient-centred communication. Patients with physical problems are known to express their emotional concerns in an implicit way only. Whether the same counts for patients presenting mental health problems in primary care is unknown. This study aims to examine how patients with mild psychosocial and psychological complaints express their concerns during consultations with the practice nurse mental health and how practice nurses respond to these expressions. Fifteen practice nurses mental health working in Dutch general practices participated in the study. Their consultations with 116 patients with mild psychosocial or psychological complaints were video recorded. patients' explicitly expressed emotional concerns and more implicit expressions of underlying emotional problems (cues) as well as nurses' responses to these expressions were rated using the Verona Coding Definition of Emotional Sequences. Almost all consultations contained at least one cue or

  5. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  6. Space-time latent component modeling of geo-referenced health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew B; Song, Hae-Ryoung; Cai, Bo; Hossain, Md Monir; Huang, Kun

    2010-08-30

    Latent structure models have been proposed in many applications. For space-time health data it is often important to be able to find the underlying trends in time, which are supported by subsets of small areas. Latent structure modeling is one such approach to this analysis. This paper presents a mixture-based approach that can be applied to component selection. The analysis of a Georgia ambulatory asthma county-level data set is presented and a simulation-based evaluation is made. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Decentralisation and health services delivery in Tanzania: Analysis of decision space in planning, allocation, and use of financial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigume, Ramadhani; Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter

    2018-04-01

    While decentralisation of health systems has been on the policy agenda in low-income and middle-income countries since the 1970s, many studies have focused on understanding who has more decision-making powers but less attention is paid to understand what those powers encompass. Using the decision space approach, this study aimed to understand the amount of decision-making space transferred from the central government to institutions at the periphery in the decentralised health system in Tanzania. The findings of this study indicated that the decentralisation process in Tanzania has provided authorities with a range of decision-making space. In the areas of priority setting and planning, district health authorities had moderate decision space. However, in the financial resource allocation and expenditure of funds from the central government, the districts had narrow decision-making space. The districts, nevertheless, had wider decision-making space in mobilising and using locally generated financial resources. However, the ability of the districts to allocate and use locally generated resources was constrained by bureaucratic procedures of the central government. The study concludes that decentralisation by devolution which is being promoted in the policy documents in Tanzania is yet to be realised at the district and local levels. The study recommends that the central government should provide more space to the decentralised district health systems to incorporate locally defined priorities in the district health plans. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  9. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronaut's Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will seek to test and validate an electrostatic gossamer structure to provide radiation shielding. It will provide guidelines for energy requirements,...

  10. Effect of space flight on meiosis of pollen mother cells and its derived pollens in impatiens balsamina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zesheng; Yang Jun; Yuan Haiyun; Zhao Yan

    2005-01-01

    Effects of space flight on meiosis of pollen mother cells and meiosis of microspores in Impatiens balsamina were investigated. It was found that meiosis showed abnormal in most plants germinated from seeds after space flight, and chromosome fragment, chromosomal bridge and lagging chromosome were observed in the process of meiosis in these plants. Disproportional segregation of chromosome, multipolar division and multinucleus were also observed in most plants, which developed into paraspores with different chromosome number. Mitosis of microspores was found to be abnormal in most plants, and the number of chromosome in microspore unequal. The fertility of the pollens was tested with iodic solution; it was found that the fertility of pollens varied in different plants. (authors)

  11. Future Challenges in Managing Human Health and Performance Risks for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.; Barratt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. To enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration, we must pool global resources to understand and mitigate human health & performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. Consensus on the largest risks to humans during exploration is required to develop an integrated approach to mitigating risks. International collaboration in human space flight research will focus research on characterizing the effects of spaceflight on humans and the development of countermeasures or systems. Sharing existing data internationally will facilitate high quality research and sufficient power to make sound recommendations. Efficient utilization of ISS and unique ground-based analog facilities allows greater progress. Finally, a means to share results of human research in time to influence decisions for follow-on research, system design, new countermeasures and medical practices should be developed. Although formidable barriers to overcome, International working groups are working to define the risks, establish international research opportunities, share data among partners, share flight hardware and unique analog facilities, and establish forums for timely exchange of results. Representatives from the ISS partnership research and medical communities developed a list of the top ten human health & performance risks and their impact on exploration missions. They also drafted a multilateral data sharing plan to establish guidelines and principles for sharing human spaceflight data. Other working groups are also developing methods to promote international research solicitations. Collaborative use of analog facilities and shared development of space flight research and medical hardware continues. Establishing a forum for exchange of results between researchers, aerospace physicians

  12. Sexual health promotion on social networking sites: a process evaluation of The FaceSpace Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong; Gold, Judy; Pedrana, Alisa; Chang, Shanton; Howard, Steve; Ilic, Olivia; Hellard, Margaret; Stoove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This article reports findings from an evaluation of reach and engagement of The FaceSpace Project, a novel sexual health promotion project delivered through social networking sites that targeted young people aged 16-29 years. Multiple methods were used to evaluate project reach and engagement. The evaluation focussed on quantitative data (online usage statistics, online surveys), complemented by available qualitative data (project team meeting notes). The project reached 900 fans who were mostly between 18 and 34 years of age. The most successful ways of increasing audience reach were via Facebook advertisements and tagging photos of young people attending a music festival on the project Facebook page. Peaks in Facebook page interactions (comments and "likes") coincided with recruitment peaks and when videos were posted. However, video views varied greatly between postings. Feedback from the project team for increasing engagement in future social networking site interventions included having one centralized Facebook page and using episodic videos. This evaluation is among the first to assess the use of social networking sites for sexual health promotion and provides information to inform the implementation and evaluation of future projects using new media. Social networking sites offer great potential to reach and engage young people for sexual health promotion. However, further work is required to improve implementation and promote audience reach and engagement as well as to determine effectiveness of social networking sites in changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adoption Space and the Idea-to-Market Process of Health Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranummi, Niilo; Beuscart, Regis; Black, Norman; Maglaveras, Nicos; Strano, Chiara; Karavidopoulou, Youla

    2016-01-01

    Although Europe 'produces' excellent science, it has not been equally successful in translating scientific results into commercially successful companies in spite of European and national efforts invested in supporting the translation process. The Idea-to-Market process is highly complex due to the large number of actors and stakeholders. ITECH was launched to propose recommendations which would accelerate the Idea-to-Market process of health technologies leading to improvements in the competitiveness of the European health technology industry in the global markets. The project went through the following steps: defining the Idea-to-Market process model; collection and analysis of funding opportunities; identification of 12 gaps and barriers in the Idea-to-Market process; a detailed analysis of these supported by interviews; a prioritization process to select the most important issues; construction of roadmaps for the prioritized issues; and finally generating recommendations and associated action plans. Seven issues were classified as in need of actions. Three of these are part of the ongoing Medical Device Directive Reform (MDR), namely health technology assessment, post-market surveillance and regulatory process, and therefore not within the scope of ITECH. Recommendations were made for eHealth taxonomy; Education and training; Clinical trials and Adoption space and Human Factors Engineering (HFE).

  14. Improving imperfect data from health management information systems in Africa using space-time geostatistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Gething

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and timely information on disease-specific treatment burdens within a health system is critical for the planning and monitoring of service provision. Health management information systems (HMIS exist to address this need at national scales across Africa but are failing to deliver adequate data because of widespread underreporting by health facilities. Faced with this inadequacy, vital public health decisions often rely on crudely adjusted regional and national estimates of treatment burdens.This study has taken the example of presumed malaria in outpatients within the largely incomplete Kenyan HMIS database and has defined a geostatistical modelling framework that can predict values for all data that are missing through space and time. The resulting complete set can then be used to define treatment burdens for presumed malaria at any level of spatial and temporal aggregation. Validation of the model has shown that these burdens are quantified to an acceptable level of accuracy at the district, provincial, and national scale.The modelling framework presented here provides, to our knowledge for the first time, reliable information from imperfect HMIS data to support evidence-based decision-making at national and sub-national levels.

  15. Deriving Biomonitoring Equivalents for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers for public health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka; Ball, Nicholas; Hays, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    Glycol ethers are a widely used class of solvents that may lead to both workplace and general population exposures. Biomonitoring studies are available that have quantified glycol ethers or their metabolites in blood and/or urine amongst exposed populations. These biomonitoring levels indicate exposures to the glycol ethers, but do not by themselves indicate a health hazard risk. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) have been created to provide the ability to interpret human biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. The BE is defined as the concentration of a chemical or metabolite in a biological fluid (blood or urine) that is consistent with exposures at a regulatory derived safe exposure limit, such as a tolerable daily intake (TDI). In this exercise, we derived BEs for general population exposures for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers based on their respective derived no effect levels (DNELs). Selected DNELs have been derived as part of respective Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Regulation of Chemicals (REACh) regulation dossiers in the EU. The BEs derived here are unique in the sense that they are the first BEs derived for urinary excretion of compounds following inhalation exposures. The urinary mass excretion fractions (Fue) of the acetic acid metabolites for the E-series GEs range from approximately 0.2 to 0.7. The Fues for the excretion of the parent P-series GEs range from approximately 0.1 to 0.2, with the exception of propylene glycol methyl ether and its acetate (Fue = 0.004). Despite the narrow range of Fues, the BEs exhibit a larger range, resulting from the larger range in DNELs across GEs. The BEs derived here can be used to interpret human biomonitoring data for inhalation exposures to GEs amongst the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Roe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523 to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from “very good” health (people of Indian origin, to ”good” health (white British, and ”poor” health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups, labelled ”Mixed BME” in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in ”Mixed BME”. Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME

  17. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Jenny; Aspinall, Peter A.; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523) to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from “very good” health (people of Indian origin), to ”good” health (white British), and ”poor” health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups), labelled ”Mixed BME” in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness) ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in ”Mixed BME”. Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME communities since this

  18. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Magdalena; van Poppel, Mireille; van Kamp, Irene; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Ellis, Naomi; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Smith, Graham; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; de Wit, Puck; van Mechelen, Willem; Gidlow, Christopher; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Maas, Jolanda

    2016-03-01

    Many epidemiological studies have found that people living in environments with more green space report better physical and mental health than those with less green space. However, the association between visits to green space and mental health has seldom been studied. The current study explored the associations between time spent in green spaces by purposeful visits and perceived mental health and vitality in four different European cities, and to what extent gender, age, level of education, attitude towards nature and childhood nature experience moderate these associations. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered in four European cities (total n=3748). Multilevel analyses showed significant positive associations between time spent visiting green spaces and mental health and vitality in the pooled data, as well as across the four cities. Significant effect modification was found for level of education and childhood nature experience. The findings confirm the hypothesis that more time spent in green space is associated with higher scores on mental health and vitality scales, independent of cultural and climatic contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding PSA and its derivatives in prediction of tumor volume: Addressing health disparities in prostate cancer risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinea, Felix M; Lyapichev, Kirill; Epstein, Jonathan I; Kwon, Deukwoo; Smith, Paul Taylor; Pollack, Alan; Cote, Richard J; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2017-03-28

    To address health disparities in risk stratification of U.S. Hispanic/Latino men by characterizing influences of prostate weight, body mass index, and race/ethnicity on the correlation of PSA derivatives with Gleason score 6 (Grade Group 1) tumor volume in a diverse cohort. Using published PSA density and PSA mass density cutoff values, men with higher body mass indices and prostate weights were less likely to have a tumor volume PSA derivatives when predicting for tumor volume. In receiver operator characteristic analysis, area under the curve values for all PSA derivatives varied across race/ethnicity with lower optimal cutoff values for Hispanic/Latino (PSA=2.79, PSA density=0.06, PSA mass=0.37, PSA mass density=0.011) and Non-Hispanic Black (PSA=3.75, PSA density=0.07, PSA mass=0.46, PSA mass density=0.008) compared to Non-Hispanic White men (PSA=4.20, PSA density=0.11 PSA mass=0.53, PSA mass density=0.014). We retrospectively analyzed 589 patients with low-risk prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. Pre-operative PSA, patient height, body weight, and prostate weight were used to calculate all PSA derivatives. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for each PSA derivative per racial/ethnic group to establish optimal cutoff values predicting for tumor volume ≥0.5 cm3. Increasing prostate weight and body mass index negatively influence PSA derivatives for predicting tumor volume. PSA derivatives' ability to predict tumor volume varies significantly across race/ethnicity. Hispanic/Latino and Non-Hispanic Black men have lower optimal cutoff values for all PSA derivatives, which may impact risk assessment for prostate cancer.

  20. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  1. Evolution of the phase-space density and the Jeans scale for dark matter derived from the Vlasov-Einstein equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piattella, O.F.; Rodrigues, D.C.; Fabris, J.C.; Pacheco, J.A. de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    We discuss solutions of Vlasov-Einstein equation for collisionless dark matter particles in the context of a flat Friedmann universe. We show that, after decoupling from the primordial plasma, the dark matter phase-space density indicator Q = ρ/(σ 1D 2 ) 3/2 remains constant during the expansion of the universe, prior to structure formation. This well known result is valid for non-relativistic particles and is not ''observer dependent'' as in solutions derived from the Vlasov-Poisson system. In the linear regime, the inclusion of velocity dispersion effects permits to define a physical Jeans length for collisionless matter as function of the primordial phase-space density indicator: λ J = (5π/G) 1/2 Q −1/3 ρ dm −1/6 . The comoving Jeans wavenumber at matter-radiation equality is smaller by a factor of 2-3 than the comoving wavenumber due to free-streaming, contributing to the cut-off of the density fluctuation power spectrum at the lowest scales. We discuss the physical differences between these two scales. For dark matter particles of mass equal to 200 GeV, the derived Jeans mass is 4.3 × 10 −6 M ⊙

  2. Claim Your Space: Leadership Development as a Research Capacity Building Goal in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Williams, Natasha; Zizi, Freddy; Okuyemi, Kolawole

    2016-04-01

    As the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) rises in settings with an equally high burden of infectious diseases in the Global South, a new sense of urgency has developed around research capacity building to promote more effective and sustainable public health and health care systems. In 2010, NCDs accounted for more than 2.06 million deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Available evidence suggests that the number of people in sub-Saharan Africa with hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, will increase by 68% from 75 million in 2008 to 126 million in 2025. Furthermore, about 27.5 million people currently live with diabetes in Africa, and it is estimated that 49.7 million people living with diabetes will reside in Africa by 2030. It is therefore necessary to centralize leadership as a key aspect of research capacity building and strengthening in the Global South in ways that enables researchers to claim their spaces in their own locations. We believe that building capacity for transformative leadership in research will lead to the development of effective and appropriate responses to the multiple burdens of NCDs that coexist with infectious diseases in Africa and the rest of the Global South. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. Health Promoting Effects of Brassica-Derived Phytochemicals: From Chemopreventive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities to Epigenetic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Eva Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high intake of brassica vegetables may be associated with a decreased chronic disease risk. Health promoting effects of Brassicaceae have been partly attributed to glucosinolates and in particular to their hydrolyzation products including isothiocyanates. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest a chemopreventive activity of isothiocyanates through the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Furthermore, studies in cultured cells, in laboratory rodents, and also in humans support an anti-inflammatory effect of brassica-derived phytochemicals. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these compounds mediate their health promoting effects are yet not fully understood. Recent findings suggest that brassica-derived compounds are regulators of epigenetic mechanisms. It has been shown that isothiocyanates may inhibit histone deacetylase transferases and DNA-methyltransferases in cultured cells. Only a few papers have dealt with the effect of brassica-derived compounds on epigenetic mechanisms in laboratory animals, whereas data in humans are currently lacking. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the biological activities of brassica-derived phytochemicals regarding chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, and epigenetic pathways.

  4. Air quality and health effects of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from urban green spaces and the mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yuan; Qu, Zelong; Du, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ronghua; Ma, Danping; Yang, Guofu; Shi, Yan; Fan, Xing; Tani, Akira; Guo, Peipei; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions lead to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone pollution, and are harmful to human health, especially in urban areas. However, most BVOCs estimations ignored the emissions from urban green spaces, causing inaccuracies in the understanding of regional BVOCs emissions and their environmental and health effects. In this study, we used the latest local vegetation datasets from our field survey and applied an estimation model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns, air quality impacts, health damage and mitigating strategies of BVOCs emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. Results showed that: (1) the urban core was the hotspot of regional BVOCs emissions for the highest region-based emission intensity (3.0 g C m −2 yr −1 ) among the 11 sub-regions; (2) urban green spaces played much more important roles (account for 62% of total health damage) than rural forests in threating human health; (3) BVOCs emissions from green spaces will more than triple by 2050 due to urban area expansion, tree growth and environmental changes; and (4) adopting proactive management (e.g. adjusting tree species composition) can reduce 61% of the BVOCs emissions and 50% of the health damage related to BVOCs emissions by 2050. - Highlights: • Urban core is the hotspot of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. • Neglecting BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces leads to a 62% underestimation of the related health damage. • BVOCs contribute significantly to ozone pollution while make limited contribution to PM 2.5 pollution. • BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces will triple by 2050, and 61% of these emissions can be reduced through management. - Although BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces make limited contribution to regional emissions, their health impacts could be significant in urban areas.

  5. New Applications for Detecting Natural Hazards Using Ground and Space-Based GNSS-Derived Ionospheric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjathy, A.; Butala, M.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Wilson, B. D.; Iijima, B.; Akopian, V.; Mannucci, A.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and University of Southern California (USC) have jointly developed the Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) to monitor space weather, study storm effects, and provide ionospheric calibration for various customers including NASA flight projects. JPL/USC GAIM is a physics-based 3D data assimilation model using 4DVAR and Kalman filter approaches to solve for ion and electron density states and other key ionospheric drivers. The JPL/USC GAIM technologies, now operating in real-time and post-processing modes, can routinely accept as input ground GPS TEC data from 1200+ sites including streaming and hourly GPS stations, occultation links from CHAMP, SAC-C, COSMIC and C/NOFS satellites, UV limb and nadir scans. In the presentation, first we will discuss recent advances in our assimilating ground-based GPS, C/NOFS and COSMIC occultation measurements using our GAIM system characterizing the ionosphere in 3D. We will elaborate on our improved space-based bias estimation techniques to generate high precision calibrated TEC measurements to be assimilated into GAIM. We will discuss the benefits of adding GLONASS measurements to our GIM and GAIM processing technologies. New and upcoming applications and first results will be shown for estimating very high precision TEC perturbations using real-time and post-processed GNSS observations from GEONET and IGS networks. We will demonstrate initial steps on how to integrate this GNSS ionosphere-based technology into a global tsunami warning system. Additional potential applications might include the remote sensing of ionospheric TEC perturbations generated by other natural hazards such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and human-made events such as nuclear tests.

  6. Volumetrically-Derived Global Navigation Satellite System Performance Assessment from the Earths Surface through the Terrestrial Service Volume and the Space Service Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is participating in the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) (ICG)'s efforts towards demonstrating the benefits to the space user from the Earth's surface through the Terrestrial Service Volume (TSV) to the edge of the Space Service Volume (SSV), when a multi-GNSS solution space approach is utilized. The ICG Working Group: Enhancement of GNSS Performance, New Services and Capabilities has started a three phase analysis initiative as an outcome of recommendations at the ICG-10 meeting, in preparation for the ICG-11 meeting. The first phase of that increasing complexity and fidelity analysis initiative was recently expanded to compare nadir-facing and zenith-facing user hemispherical antenna coverage with omnidirectional antenna coverage at different distances of 8,000 km altitude and 36,000 km altitude. This report summarizes the performance using these antenna coverage techniques at distances ranging from 100 km altitude to 36,000 km to be all encompassing, as well as the volumetrically-derived system availability metrics.

  7. Condition Based Maintenance of Space Exploration Vehicles Using Structural Health Monitoring, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acellent Technologies proposes to develop an autonomous and automated diagnostic system for condition based maintenance (CBM) of safety critical structures for space...

  8. Physical activity as a possible mechanism behind the relationship between green space and health: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreeuwenberg Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (in general, and more specifically, walking and cycling during leisure time and for commuting purposes, sports and gardening is an underlying mechanism in the relationship between the amount of green space in people's direct living environment and self-perceived health. To study this, we first investigated whether the amount of green space in the living environment is related to the level of physical activity. When an association between green space and physical activity was found, we analysed whether this could explain the relationship between green space and health. Methods The study includes 4.899 Dutch people who were interviewed about physical activity, self-perceived health and demographic and socioeconomic background. The amount of green space within a one-kilometre and a three-kilometre radius around the postal code coordinates was calculated for each individual. Multivariate multilevel analyses and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed at two levels and with controls for socio-demographic characteristics and urbanicity. Results No relationship was found between the amount of green space in the living environment and whether or not people meet the Dutch public health recommendations for physical activity, sports and walking for commuting purposes. People with more green space in their living environment walked and cycled less often and fewer minutes during leisure time; people with more green space garden more often and spend more time on gardening. Furthermore, if people cycle for commuting purposes they spend more time on this if they live in a greener living environment. Whether or not people garden, the time spent on gardening and time spent on cycling for commuting purposes did not explain the relationship between green space and health. Conclusion Our study indicates that the amount of green space in the living environment is

  9. A structure-preserving method for a class of nonlinear dissipative wave equations with Riesz space-fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Díaz, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    In this manuscript, we consider an initial-boundary-value problem governed by a (1 + 1)-dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equation with constant damping that generalizes many nonlinear wave equations from mathematical physics. The model considers the presence of a spatial Laplacian of fractional order which is defined in terms of Riesz fractional derivatives, as well as the inclusion of a generic continuously differentiable potential. It is known that the undamped regime has an associated positive energy functional, and we show here that it is preserved throughout time under suitable boundary conditions. To approximate the solutions of this model, we propose a finite-difference discretization based on fractional centered differences. Some discrete quantities are proposed in this work to estimate the energy functional, and we show that the numerical method is capable of conserving the discrete energy under the same boundary conditions for which the continuous model is conservative. Moreover, we establish suitable computational constraints under which the discrete energy of the system is positive. The method is consistent of second order, and is both stable and convergent. The numerical simulations shown here illustrate the most important features of our numerical methodology.

  10. Evidence of quantum phase transition in real-space vacuum entanglement of higher derivative scalar quantum field theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Santhosh; Shankaranarayanan, S

    2017-11-17

    In a bipartite set-up, the vacuum state of a free Bosonic scalar field is entangled in real space and satisfies the area-law- entanglement entropy scales linearly with area of the boundary between the two partitions. In this work, we show that the area law is violated in two spatial dimensional model Hamiltonian having dynamical critical exponent z = 3. The model physically corresponds to next-to-next-to-next nearest neighbour coupling terms on a lattice. The result reported here is the first of its kind of violation of area law in Bosonic systems in higher dimensions and signals the evidence of a quantum phase transition. We provide evidence for quantum phase transition both numerically and analytically using quantum Information tools like entanglement spectra, quantum fidelity, and gap in the energy spectra. We identify the cause for this transition due to the accumulation of large number of angular zero modes around the critical point which catalyses the change in the ground state wave function due to the next-to-next-to-next nearest neighbor coupling. Lastly, using Hubbard-Stratanovich transformation, we show that the effective Bosonic Hamiltonian can be obtained from an interacting fermionic theory and provide possible implications for condensed matter systems.

  11. Derivation of Human Chromatic Discrimination Ability from an Information-Theoretical Notion of Distance in Color Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, María; Samengo, Inés

    2016-12-01

    The accuracy with which humans detect chromatic differences varies throughout color space. For example, we are far more precise when discriminating two similar orange stimuli than two similar green stimuli. In order for two colors to be perceived as different, the neurons representing chromatic information must respond differently, and the difference must be larger than the trial-to-trial variability of the response to each separate color. Photoreceptors constitute the first stage in the processing of color information; many more stages are required before humans can consciously report whether two stimuli are perceived as chromatically distinguishable. Therefore, although photoreceptor absorption curves are expected to influence the accuracy of conscious discriminability, there is no reason to believe that they should suffice to explain it. Here we develop information-theoretical tools based on the Fisher metric that demonstrate that photoreceptor absorption properties explain about 87% of the variance of human color discrimination ability, as tested by previous behavioral experiments. In the context of this theory, the bottleneck in chromatic information processing is determined by photoreceptor absorption characteristics. Subsequent encoding stages modify only marginally the chromatic discriminability at the photoreceptor level.

  12. What Threats to Human Health Does Space Radiation Pose in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Semones, Eddie; Weyland, Mark; Zapp, Neal; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program spanned more than the entire length of a solar cycle. Investigations aimed towards understanding the health risks of the astronauts from exposures to space radiation involved mostly physical measurements of the dose and the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. Measurement of the dose rate on the Shuttle provided invariable new data for different periods of the solar cycle, whereas measurement of the LET spectrum using the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) produced the most complete mapping of the radiation environment of the low Earth orbits (LEO). Exposures to the Shuttle astronauts were measured by the personal dosimeter worn by the crewmembers. Analysis of over 300 personal dosimeter readings indicated a dependence on the mission duration, the altitude and inclination of the orbit, and the solar cycle, with the crewmembers on the launch and repair of the Hubble telescope receiving the highest doses due to the altitude of the mission. Secondary neutrons inside the Shuttle were determined by recoil protons or with Bonner spheres, and may contribute significantly to the risks of the crewmembers. In addition, the skin dose and the doses received at different organs were compared using a human phantom onboard a Shuttle mission. A number of radiobiology investigations wer e also performed. The biological doses were determined on six astronauts/cosmonauts on long-duration Shuttle/Mir missions and on two crewmembers on a Hubble repair mission by analyzing the damages in the chromosomes of the crewmembers? white blood cells. Several experiments were also conducted to address the question of possible synergistic effects of spaceflight, microgravity in particular, on the repair of radiation-induced DNA damages. The experimental design included exposure of cells before launch, during flight, or after landing. These physical and biological studies were invaluable in predicting the health risks for astronauts on ISS and future

  13. Public health within the EU policy space: a qualitative study of Organized Civil Society (OCS) and the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, P K

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews how Organized Civil Society (OCS) groups in the field of public health work across the boundaries between European institutions and policy areas. In particular, it explores 1) how the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is conducted by these groups informally within the formal governance structures, and 2) how this advocacy work creates space for public health within the broader political determinants of health. A qualitative mixed-methods framework. Political ethnography, including 20 semi-structured interviews conducted with EU health strategy stakeholders and participant observations in public health events (n = 22) in Brussels over a three-year period (2012-2015), as well as four interviews with EU Member State representatives. Three additional semi-structured interviews were conducted with World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe staff members who had been involved in the drafting of the Health 2020 framework and strategy and the accompanying main implementation pillar, European Action Plan for Strengthening Public Health Capacities and Services (EAP-PHS). The findings provide an insight into OCS work in the field of European public health, offering an account of the experiences of HiAP work conducted by the research participants. The OCS groups perceive themselves as communicators between policy areas within European institutions and between local and supranational levels. The structures and political determinants of health that impose limitations on a public institution can at points be transcended by stakeholders, who conduct HiAP work at supranational level, thus negotiating space for public health within the competitive, globalized policy space. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CyAN satellite-derived Cyanobacteria products in support of Public Health Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The timely distribution of satellite-derived cyanoHAB data is necessary for adaptive water quality management decision-making and for targeted deployment of existing government and non-government water quality monitoring resources. The Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN) is a...

  15. Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles using a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mamouri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present initial aerosol validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP -onboard the CALIPSO satellite- Level 1 attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles, using coincident observations performed with a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E. A multi-wavelength ground-based backscatter/Raman lidar system is operating since 2000 at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA in the framework of the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork (EARLINET, the first lidar network for tropospheric aerosol studies on a continental scale. Since July 2006, a total of 40 coincidental aerosol ground-based lidar measurements were performed over Athens during CALIPSO overpasses. The ground-based measurements were performed each time CALIPSO overpasses the station location within a maximum distance of 100 km. The duration of the ground–based lidar measurements was approximately two hours, centred on the satellite overpass time. From the analysis of the ground-based/satellite correlative lidar measurements, a mean bias of the order of 22% for daytime measurements and of 8% for nighttime measurements with respect to the CALIPSO profiles was found for altitudes between 3 and 10 km. The mean bias becomes much larger for altitudes lower that 3 km (of the order of 60% which is attributed to the increase of aerosol horizontal inhomogeneity within the Planetary Boundary Layer, resulting to the observation of possibly different air masses by the two instruments. In cases of aerosol layers underlying Cirrus clouds, comparison results for aerosol tropospheric profiles become worse. This is attributed to the significant multiple scattering effects in Cirrus clouds experienced by CALIPSO which result in an attenuation which is less than that measured by the ground-based lidar.

  16. Sacred spaces in public places: religious and spiritual plurality in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Sharma, Sonya; Pesut, Barb; Sawatzky, Richard; Meyerhoff, Heather; Cochrane, Marie

    2012-09-01

    Several intriguing developments mark the role and expression of religion and spirituality in society in recent years. In what were deemed secular societies, flows of increased sacralization (variously referred to as 'new', 'alternative', 'emergent' and 'progressive' spiritualities) and resurgent globalizing religions (sometimes with fundamentalist expressions) are resulting in unprecedented plurality. These shifts are occurring in conjunction with increasing ethnic diversity associated with global migration, as well as other axes of difference within contemporary society. Democratic secular nations such as Canada are challenged to achieve social cohesion in the face of growing religious, spiritual and ethnic diversity. These challenges are evident in the high-paced, demanding arena of Health care. Here, religious and spiritual plurality enter in, sometimes resulting in conflict between medical services and patients' beliefs, other times provoking uncertainties on the part of healthcare professionals about what to do with their own religiously or spiritually grounded values and beliefs. In this paper, we present selected findings from a 3-year study that examined the negotiation of religious and spiritual pluralism in Health care. Our focus is on the themes of 'sacred' and 'place', exploring how the sacred - that which is attributed as special and set apart as it pertains to the divine, transcendence, God or higher power - takes form in social and material spaces in hospitals. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronauts Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the research completed during 2011 for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project. The research is motivated by the desire to safely send humans in deep space missions and to keep radiation exposures within permitted limits. To this end current material shielding, developed for low earth orbit missions, is not a viable option due to payload and cost penalties. The active radiation shielding is the path forward for such missions. To achieve active space radiation shielding innovative large lightweight gossamer space structures are used. The goal is to deflect enough positive ions without attracting negatively charged plasma and to investigate if a charged Gossamer structure can perform charge deflections without significant structural instabilities occurring. In this study different innovative configurations are explored to design an optimum active shielding. In addition, to establish technological feasibility experiments are performed with up to 10kV of membrane charging, and an electron flux source with up to 5keV of energy and 5mA of current. While these charge flux energy levels are much less than those encountered in space, the fundamental coupled interaction of charged Gossamer structures with the ambient charge flux can be experimentally investigated. Of interest are, will the EIMS remain inflated during the charge deflections, and are there visible charge flux interactions. Aluminum coated Mylar membrane prototype structures are created to test their inflation capability using electrostatic charging. To simulate the charge flux, a 5keV electron emitter is utilized. The remaining charge flux at the end of the test chamber is measured with a Faraday cup mounted on a movable boom. A range of experiments with this electron emitter and detector were performed within a 30x60cm vacuum chamber with vacuum environment capability of 10-7 Torr. Experiments are performed with the charge flux aimed at the electrostatically inflated

  18. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  19. Gels and gel-derived glasses in the Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 system. [containerless melting in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    The containerless melting of high-purity multicomponent homogeneous gels and gel-monoliths offers a unique approach to making ultrapure multicomponent optical glasses in the reduced gravity environment of space. Procedures for preparing and characterizing gels and gel-derived glasses in the Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 system are described. Preparation is based on the polymerization reactions of alkoxysilane with trimethyl borate or boric acid and a suitable sodium compound. The chemistry of the gelling process is discussed in terms of process parameters and the gel compositions. The physicochemical nature of gels prepared by three different procedures were found to be significantly different. IR absorption spectra indicate finite differences in the molecular structures of the different gels. The melting of the gel powders and the transformation of porous gel-monoliths to transparent 'glass' without melting are described.

  20. Improved identification of the solution space of aerosol microphysical properties derived from the inversion of profiles of lidar optical data, part 3: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolgotin, Alexei; Müller, Detlef; Chemyakin, Eduard; Romanov, Anton; Alehnovich, Valentin

    2018-04-01

    We conclude our series of publications on the development of the gradient correlation method (GCM), which can be used for an improved stabilization of the solution space of particle microphysical parameters derived from measurements with multiwavelength Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidar (3 backscatter +2 extinction coefficients). We show results of three cases studies. The data were taken with a ground-based multiwavelength Raman lidar during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in the Cape Verde Islands (North Atlantic). These cases describe mixtures of dust with smoke. For our data analysis we separated the contribution of smoke to the total signal and only used these optical profiles for the test of GCM. The results show a significant stabilization of the solution space of the particle microphysical parameter retrieval on the particle radius domain from 0.03 to 10 μm, the real part of the complex refractive index domain from 1.3 to 1.8, and the imaginary part from 0 to 0.1. This new method will be included in the Tikhonov Advanced Regularization Algorithm, which is a fully automated, unsupervised algorithm that is used for the analysis of data collected with the worldwide first airborne 3 backscatter +2 extinction high-spectral-resolution lidar developed by NASA Langley Research Center.

  1. Defining information need in health - assimilating complex theories derived from information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Paula

    2011-03-01

    Key policy drivers worldwide include optimizing patients' roles in managing their care; focusing services around patients' needs and preferences; and providing information to support patients' contributions and choices. The term information need penetrates many policy documents. Information need is espoused as the foundation from which to develop patient-centred or patient-led services. Yet there is no clear definition as to what the term means or how patients' information needs inform and shape information provision and patient care. The assimilation of complex theories originating from information science has much to offer considerations of patient information need within the context of health care. Health-related research often focuses on the content of information patients prefer, not why they need information. This paper extends and applies knowledge of information behaviour to considerations of information need in health, exposing a working definition for patient information need that reiterates the importance of considering the patient's goals and understanding the patient's context/situation. A patient information need is defined as 'recognition that their knowledge is inadequate to satisfy a goal, within the context/situation that they find themselves at a specific point in the time'. This typifies the key concepts of national/international health policy, the centrality and importance of the patient. The proposed definition of patient information need provides a conceptual framework to guide health-care practitioners on what to consider and why when meeting the information needs of patients in practice. This creates a solid foundation from which to inform future research. © 2010 The Author. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Age Weights for Health Services Derived from the Relative Social Willingness-to-Pay Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jeff; McKie, John; Iezzi, Angelo; Maxwell, Aimee

    2017-04-01

    The effect of a patient's age on the social valuation of health services remains controversial, with empirical results varying in magnitude and implying a different age-value profile. This article employs a new methodology to re-examine these questions. Data were obtained from 2 independent Web-based surveys that administered the Relative Social Willingness to Pay instrument. In the first survey, the age of the patient receiving a life-saving service was varied. Patients were left with either poor mental or physical health. In the second survey, patient age was varied for a service that fully cured the patient's poor mental or physical health. In total, therefore, 4 sets of age weights were obtained: weights for life-extending services with poor physical or mental health outcomes and weights for quality-of-life improvement for patients in poor mental or physical health. Results were consistent. Increasing age was associated in each case with a monotonic decrease in the social valuation of the services. The decrease in value was quantitatively small until age 60 years. By age 80 years, the social value of services had declined by about 50%. The decline commenced at an earlier age in the context of physical health, although the magnitude of the decrement by age 80 years was unrelated to the type of service. With 1 exception, there was little difference in the valuation of services by the age of the survey respondent. Respondents aged >60 years placed a lower, not higher, value on quality-of-life improvement for elderly individuals than other respondents. There was no difference in the valuation of life-extending services.

  3. Air quality and health effects of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from urban green spaces and the mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Qu, Zelong; Du, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ronghua; Ma, Danping; Yang, Guofu; Shi, Yan; Fan, Xing; Tani, Akira; Guo, Peipei; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions lead to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone pollution, and are harmful to human health, especially in urban areas. However, most BVOCs estimations ignored the emissions from urban green spaces, causing inaccuracies in the understanding of regional BVOCs emissions and their environmental and health effects. In this study, we used the latest local vegetation datasets from our field survey and applied an estimation model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns, air quality impacts, health damage and mitigating strategies of BVOCs emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. Results showed that: (1) the urban core was the hotspot of regional BVOCs emissions for the highest region-based emission intensity (3.0 g C m -2 yr -1 ) among the 11 sub-regions; (2) urban green spaces played much more important roles (account for 62% of total health damage) than rural forests in threating human health; (3) BVOCs emissions from green spaces will more than triple by 2050 due to urban area expansion, tree growth and environmental changes; and (4) adopting proactive management (e.g. adjusting tree species composition) can reduce 61% of the BVOCs emissions and 50% of the health damage related to BVOCs emissions by 2050. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of spaced education as a learning methodology for in-service training of health workers in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Tulenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Participation in in-service training can be a challenge for health workers, especially those stationed in remote areas. Spaced education is an innovative learning methodology that can be delivered electronically by Internet or mobile smartphone. This pilot study, which followed a convenience sample of 37 Ethiopian nationals enrolled in a spaced education course over a six-month period, attempted to determine the acceptability and effectiveness of the methodology in a low-resource context. The course content was co-developed by Ethiopian and international nutrition experts and focused on the recently revised Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH guidelines on the feeding of infants of HIV-positive mothers. Conducted by the US Agency for International Development (USAID-funded CapacityPlus project, led by IntraHealth International, the study suggests that the Internet-based spaced education methodology is acceptable and effective for the acquisition of knowledge in a low-resource context for course participants with a clinical or public health background and moderately reliable Internet access. More research is needed to test the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of the methodology among a wider population of health workers in developing countries, and particularly among government and volunteer health workers in rural and remote settings.

  5. Space Qualified Non-Destructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring Technology, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Encouraged by Phase I accomplishments, the proposed Phase II program will significantly mature and align the development of a Space Qualified Non-Destructive...

  6. Male and female differences in health benefits derived from physical activity: implications for exercise prescription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hands, Beth; Larkin, Dawne; Cantell, Marja Helena; Rose, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Males are consistently reported as more physically active than females regardless of age or measure. Often, this difference results in females identified as under active and at risk of longterm poor health outcomes. In this paper a different perspective drawing on evidence from many sources is

  7. Functional Properties of Human Stem Cell-Derived Neurons in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Weick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-derived neurons from various source materials present unique model systems to examine the fundamental properties of central nervous system (CNS development as well as the molecular underpinnings of disease phenotypes. In order to more accurately assess potential therapies for neurological disorders, multiple strategies have been employed in recent years to produce neuronal populations that accurately represent in vivo regional and transmitter phenotypes. These include new technologies such as direct conversion of somatic cell types into neurons and glia which may accelerate maturation and retain genetic hallmarks of aging. In addition, novel forms of genetic manipulations have brought human stem cells nearly on par with those of rodent with respect to gene targeting. For neurons of the CNS, the ultimate phenotypic characterization lies with their ability to recapitulate functional properties such as passive and active membrane characteristics, synaptic activity, and plasticity. These features critically depend on the coordinated expression and localization of hundreds of ion channels and receptors, as well as scaffolding and signaling molecules. In this review I will highlight the current state of knowledge regarding functional properties of human stem cell-derived neurons, with a primary focus on pluripotent stem cells. While significant advances have been made, critical hurdles must be overcome in order for this technology to support progression toward clinical applications.

  8. Narratives of community engagement: a systematic review-derived conceptual framework for public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Ginny; Thomas, James; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Jamal, Farah; Oliver, Sandy; Kavanagh, Josephine

    2017-12-11

    Government policy increasingly supports engaging communities to promote health. It is critical to consider whether such strategies are effective, for whom, and under what circumstances. However, 'community engagement' is defined in diverse ways and employed for different reasons. Considering the theory and context we developed a conceptual framework which informs understanding about what makes an effective (or ineffective) community engagement intervention. We conducted a systematic review of community engagement in public health interventions using: stakeholder involvement; searching, screening, appraisal and coding of research literature; and iterative thematic syntheses and meta-analysis. A conceptual framework of community engagement was refined, following interactions between the framework and each review stage. From 335 included reports, three products emerged: (1) two strong theoretical 'meta-narratives': one, concerning the theory and practice of empowerment/engagement as an independent objective; and a more utilitarian perspective optimally configuring health services to achieve defined outcomes. These informed (2) models that were operationalized in subsequent meta-analysis. Both refined (3) the final conceptual framework. This identified multiple dimensions by which community engagement interventions may differ. Diverse combinations of intervention purpose, theory and implementation were noted, including: ways of defining communities and health needs; initial motivations for community engagement; types of participation; conditions and actions necessary for engagement; and potential issues influencing impact. Some dimensions consistently co-occurred, leading to three overarching models of effective engagement which either: utilised peer-led delivery; employed varying degrees of collaboration between communities and health services; or built on empowerment philosophies. Our conceptual framework and models are useful tools for considering appropriate and

  9. Improving spatio-temporal model estimation of satellite-derived PM2.5 concentrations: Implications for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, M. G.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Yang, C. A.; Coffield, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-derived environmental data, available in a range of spatio-temporal scales, are contributing to the growing use of health impact assessments of air pollution in the public health sector. Models developed using correlation of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with ground measurements of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) are widely applied to measure PM2.5 spatial and temporal variability. In the public health sector, associations of PM2.5 with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are often investigated to quantify air quality impacts on these health concerns. In order to improve predictability of PM2.5 estimation using correlation models, we have included meteorological variables, higher-resolution AOD products and instantaneous PM2.5 observations into statistical estimation models. Our results showed that incorporation of high-resolution (1-km) Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC)-generated MODIS AOD, meteorological variables and instantaneous PM2.5 observations improved model performance in various parts of California (CA), USA, where single variable AOD-based models showed relatively weak performance. In this study, we further asked whether these improved models actually would be more successful for exploring associations of public health outcomes with estimated PM2.5. To answer this question, we geospatially investigated model-estimated PM2.5's relationship with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as asthma, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, heart attack and stroke in CA using health data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). PM2.5 estimation from these improved models have the potential to improve our understanding of associations between public health concerns and air quality.

  10. Development and Provision of Functional Foods to Promote Health on Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Aguirre, D.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    During long-duration NASA space missions, such as proposed missions to Mars, astronauts may experience negative physiological effects such as bone loss. Functional foods such as high-lycopene, high-flavonoids and high-omega-3 products and fruits and vegetables may mitigate the negative effects of spaceflight on physiological factors including the bone health of crewmembers. Previous studies showed that current ISS provisions provide high-lycopene and high-omega-3 food items but the variety is limited, which could promote menu fatigue. Bioactive compounds can degrade like other chemical compounds and lose functionality. The native concentrations and stability of bioactive compounds have never been determined in spaceflight foods, and adequate information is not available for commercial products for the storage durations required for space exploration (5 years). The purpose of this task is to develop new spaceflight foods that are high in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, or flavonoids, identify commercial products with these bioactive compounds that meet spaceflight requirements, and define the stability of these nutrients in storage to enable purposeful functional food incorporation into the space food system. The impact of storage temperature on the stability of lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene, omega-3 fatty acids, phenolics, anthocyanins and sterols is being studied in 12 ISS menu items stored at three different temperatures (4, 21, 35 degree C) over 2 years. Additionally, nutrient and quality stability are being assessed on a larger food set stored at 21 degree C over 2 years that contains twelve newly developed foods, 10 commercial products repackaged to spaceflight requirements, and another 5 current ISS menu items expected to be good sources of omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, or flavonoids. All items were shipped overnight to the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (Corvalis, OR) after processing and 1-year of storage and analyzed for bioactive

  11. Space, Odor, and Health in Toluca at the End of the Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen León García

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on late eighteenth-century Toluca as an example in order to account for changes in olfactory perception as an aspect of the process of civilization. A number of examples derived from notary documents illustrate the institutional steps taken in the urbanization of Toluca in the late eighteenth century. Although it is important to consider the role of state initiatives and scientific arguments in triggering such a change, the case of Manuel Lechuga y Diego de Ortiz shows two characteristic aspects of the  social response facing sanitary reforms. The  first refers to the legal issues involved, the tradition of “good administration” (buen  gobierno, whose  attribution is to dictate laws geared toward common wellbeing. Hence Ortiz's phrasing of his argument regarding the injustice done to his zahurdas, since the best laws of the  kingdom were those  that were passed  after the pleas of cities' procurators were taken into account, men knowledgeable of everyday reality, “given that  those in power cannot guess the particular situation and individual  circumstances pertaining to each country  and trade”.  The  second  aspect involves the change of customs and perceptions, as well as the slow rate at which the health and urbanization measures that were enforced more strictly from the government were incorporated to everyday life, beginning at the period of Bourbon reforms.

  12. Development of a Flexible Lead-Free Piezoelectric Transducer for Health Monitoring in the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Laurenti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the fabrication process for the development of a flexible piezopolymeric transducer for health monitoring applications, based on lead-free, piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO thin films. All the selected materials are compatible with the space environment and were deposited by the RF magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature, in view of preserving the total flexibility of the structures, which is an important requirement to guarantee coupling with cylindrical fuel tanks whose integrity we want to monitor. The overall transducer architecture was made of a c-axis-oriented ZnO thin film coupled to a pair of flexible Polyimide foils coated with gold (Au electrodes. The fabrication process started with the deposition of the bottom electrode on Polyimide foils. The ZnO thin film and the top electrode were then deposited onto the Au/Polyimide substrates. Both the electrodes and ZnO layer were properly patterned by wet-chemical etching and optical lithography. The assembly of the final structure was then obtained by gluing the upper and lower Polyimide foils with an epoxy resin capable of guaranteeing low outgassing levels, as well as adequate thermal and electrical insulation of the transducers. The piezoelectric behavior of the prototypes was confirmed and evaluated by measuring the mechanical displacement induced from the application of an external voltage.

  13. Performance Data Report: Space Medicine Division, Human Research Program, Behavioural Health and Performance Research Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Camille; Keeton, Kathryn E.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley J.; Patterson, Holly N.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Holland, Albert W.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a collaborative effort between NASA?s Behavioral Health & Performance (BHP) Research and Operations Group to investigate and determine the availability of data pertaining to behavioral performance (and other pertinent variables) that have been collected by the laboratories at NASA?s Johnson Space Center. BHP?s Operations and Research groups collaborated to systematically identify what types of performance data are needed in relevant BHP performance domains and also to conduct structured interviews with NASA personnel to identify which data do or do not exist currently (and for instances where such data exist, to evaluate the type, quality, accessibility, and confidentiality of those data). The authors defined outcome categories of performance that encapsulate BHP performance domains, mapped BHP Research Risks and Gaps onto those performance outcome categories, and identified and prioritized indicators for each outcome category. The team identified key points of contact (subject matter experts [SMEs]) as potential interviewees, created a template for structured interview questions about sources and accessibility of performance data, and coordinated and conducted structured interviews with the SMEs. The methodology, results, and implications of this effort, as well as forward work needed, are discussed in this report.

  14. NASA Stennis Space Center Integrated System Health Management Test Bed and Development Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Holland, Randy; Coote, David

    2006-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is a capability that focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex System (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, prognosis of future anomalies), and provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK)-not just data-to control systems for safe and effective operation. This capability is currently done by large teams of people, primarily from ground, but needs to be embedded on-board systems to a higher degree to enable NASA's new Exploration Mission (long term travel and stay in space), while increasing safety and decreasing life cycle costs of spacecraft (vehicles; platforms; bases or outposts; and ground test, launch, and processing operations). The topics related to this capability include: 1) ISHM Related News Articles; 2) ISHM Vision For Exploration; 3) Layers Representing How ISHM is Currently Performed; 4) ISHM Testbeds & Prototypes at NASA SSC; 5) ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL); 6) ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL) and Technology Readiness Level (TRL); 7) Core Elements: Capabilities Needed; 8) Core Elements; 9) Open Systems Architecture for Condition-Based Maintenance (OSA-CBM); 10) Core Elements: Architecture, taxonomy, and ontology (ATO) for DIaK management; 11) Core Elements: ATO for DIaK Management; 12) ISHM Architecture Physical Implementation; 13) Core Elements: Standards; 14) Systematic Implementation; 15) Sketch of Work Phasing; 16) Interrelationship Between Traditional Avionics Systems, Time Critical ISHM and Advanced ISHM; 17) Testbeds and On-Board ISHM; 18) Testbed Requirements: RETS AND ISS; 19) Sustainable Development and Validation Process; 20) Development of on-board ISHM; 21) Taxonomy/Ontology of Object Oriented Implementation; 22) ISHM Capability on the E1 Test Stand Hydraulic System; 23) Define Relationships to Embed Intelligence; 24) Intelligent Elements Physical and Virtual; 25) ISHM Testbeds and Prototypes at SSC Current Implementations; 26) Trailer

  15. Looking to the future of new media in health marketing: deriving propositions based on traditional theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J; Eroglu, Dogan; Bernhardt, Jay M; Edgerton, Erin; Nall, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Market trend data show that the media marketplace continues to rapidly evolve. Recent research shows that substantial portions of the U.S. media population are "new media" users. Today, more than ever before, media consumers are exposed to multiple media at the same point in time, encouraged to participate in media content generation, and challenged to learn, access, and use the new media that are continually entering the market. These media trends have strong implications for how consumers of health information access, process, and retain health-related knowledge. In this article we review traditional information processing models and theories of interpersonal and mass media access and consumption. We make several theory-based propositions for how traditional information processing and media consumption concepts will function as new media usage continues to increase. These propositions are supported by new media usage data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's entry into the new media market (e.g., podcasting, virtual events, blogging, and webinars). Based on these propositions, we conclude by presenting both opportunities and challenges that public health communicators and marketers will face in the future.

  16. Exploring the Functioning of Decision Space: A Review of the Available Health Systems Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlyn Eslie Roman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The concept of decision space holds appeal as an approach to disaggregating the elements that may influence decision-making in decentralized systems. This narrative review aims to explore the functioning of decision space and the factors that influence decision space. Methods A narrative review of the literature was conducted with searches of online databases and academic journals including PubMed Central, Emerald, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Sage. The articles were included in the review based on the criteria that they provided insight into the functioning of decision space either through the explicit application of or reference to decision space, or implicitly through discussion of decision-making related to organizational capacity or accountability mechanisms. Results The articles included in the review encompass literature related to decentralisation, management and decision space. The majority of the studies utilise qualitative methodologies to assess accountability mechanisms, organisational capacities such as finance, human resources and management, and the extent of decision space. Of the 138 articles retrieved, 76 articles were included in the final review. Conclusion The literature supports Bossert’s conceptualization of decision space as being related to organizational capacities and accountability mechanisms. These functions influence the decision space available within decentralized systems. The exact relationship between decision space and financial and human resource capacities needs to be explored in greater detail to determine the potential influence on system functioning.

  17. BlueHealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe's blue spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellier, James; White, Mathew P; Albin, Maria; Bell, Simon; Elliott, Lewis R; Gascón, Mireia; Gualdi, Silvio; Mancini, Laura; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sarigiannis, Denis A; van den Bosch, Matilda; Wolf, Tanja; Wuijts, Susanne; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-06-14

    Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe's coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with 'blue space' (eg, coasts, rivers, lakes) are often considered solely in terms of risk (eg, drowning, microbial pollution). Exposure to blue space can, however, promote health and well-being and prevent disease, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The BlueHealth project aims to understand the relationships between exposure to blue space and health and well-being, to map and quantify the public health impacts of changes to both natural blue spaces and associated urban infrastructure in Europe, and to provide evidence-based information to policymakers on how to maximise health benefits associated with interventions in and around aquatic environments. To achieve these aims, an evidence base will be created through systematic reviews, analyses of secondary data sets and analyses of new data collected through a bespoke international survey and a wide range of community-level interventions. We will also explore how to deliver the benefits associated with blue spaces to those without direct access through the use of virtual reality. Scenarios will be developed that allow the evaluation of health impacts in plausible future societal contexts and changing environments. BlueHealth will develop key inputs into policymaking and land/water-use planning towards more salutogenic and sustainable uses of blue space, particularly in urban areas. Throughout the BlueHealth project, ethics review and approval are obtained for all relevant aspects of the study by the local ethics committees prior to any work being initiated and an ethics expert has been appointed to the project advisory board. So far, ethical approval has been obtained for the BlueHealth International Survey and

  18. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Science Applications Program: Exploring Partnerships to Enhance Decision Making in Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi S.; Venezia, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Earth Science Enterprise is engaged in applications of NASA Earth science and remote sensing technologies for public health. Efforts are focused on establishing partnerships with those agencies and organizations that have responsibility for protecting the Nation's Health. The program's goal is the integration of NASA's advanced data and technology for enhanced decision support in the areas of disease surveillance and environmental health. A focused applications program, based on understanding partner issues and requirements, has the potential to significantly contribute to more informed decision making in public health practice. This paper intends to provide background information on NASA's investment in public health and is a call for partnership with the larger practice community.

  19. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Space flight calcium: implications for astronaut health, spacecraft operations, and Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; McCoy, Torin; Gazda, Daniel; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R

    2012-12-18

    The space flight environment is known to induce bone loss and, subsequently, calcium loss. The longer the mission, generally the more bone and calcium are lost. This review provides a history of bone and calcium studies related to space flight and highlights issues related to calcium excretion that the space program must consider so that urine can be recycled. It also discusses a novel technique using natural stable isotopes of calcium that will be helpful in the future to determine calcium and bone balance during space flight.

  1. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

  2. BlueHealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe’s blue spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mathew P; Albin, Maria; Bell, Simon; Elliott, Lewis R; Gascón, Mireia; Gualdi, Silvio; Mancini, Laura; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sarigiannis, Denis A; van den Bosch, Matilda; Wolf, Tanja; Wuijts, Susanne; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe’s coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with ‘blue space’ (eg, coasts, rivers, lakes) are often considered solely in terms of risk (eg, drowning, microbial pollution). Exposure to blue space can, however, promote health and well-being and prevent disease, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Aims and methods The BlueHealth project aims to understand the relationships between exposure to blue space and health and well-being, to map and quantify the public health impacts of changes to both natural blue spaces and associated urban infrastructure in Europe, and to provide evidence-based information to policymakers on how to maximise health benefits associated with interventions in and around aquatic environments. To achieve these aims, an evidence base will be created through systematic reviews, analyses of secondary data sets and analyses of new data collected through a bespoke international survey and a wide range of community-level interventions. We will also explore how to deliver the benefits associated with blue spaces to those without direct access through the use of virtual reality. Scenarios will be developed that allow the evaluation of health impacts in plausible future societal contexts and changing environments. BlueHealth will develop key inputs into policymaking and land/water-use planning towards more salutogenic and sustainable uses of blue space, particularly in urban areas. Ethics and dissemination Throughout the BlueHealth project, ethics review and approval are obtained for all relevant aspects of the study by the local ethics committees prior to any work being initiated and an ethics expert has been appointed to the project advisory board. So far, ethical approval

  3. An Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio Database Derived from the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network: Applications for Space-based Lidar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Spinhime, James D.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Holben, Brent; Tsay, Si-Chee; Bucholtz, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Backscatter lidar signals are a function of both backscatter and extinction. Hence, these lidar observations alone cannot separate the two quantities. The aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio, S, is the key parameter required to accurately retrieve extinction and optical depth from backscatter lidar observations of aerosol layers. S is commonly defined as 4*pi divided by the product of the single scatter albedo and the phase function at 180-degree scattering angle. Values of S for different aerosol types are not well known, and are even more difficult to determine when aerosols become mixed. Here we present a new lidar-sunphotometer S database derived from Observations of the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET). MPLNET is a growing worldwide network of eye-safe backscatter lidars co-located with sunphotometers in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Values of S for different aerosol species and geographic regions will be presented. A framework for constructing an S look-up table will be shown. Look-up tables of S are needed to calculate aerosol extinction and optical depth from space-based lidar observations in the absence of co-located AOD data. Applications for using the new S look-up table to reprocess aerosol products from NASA's Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) will be discussed.

  4. Managing customization in health care: a framework derived from the services sector literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minvielle, Etienne; Waelli, Mathias; Sicotte, Claude; Kimberly, John R

    2014-08-01

    Organizations that provide health services are increasingly in need of systems and approaches that will enable them to be more responsive to the needs and wishes of their clients. Two recent trends, namely, patient-centered care (PCC) and personalized medicine, are first steps in the customization of care. PCC shifts the focus away from the disease to the patient. Personalized medicine, which relies heavily on genetics, promises significant improvements in the quality of healthcare through the development of tailored and targeted drugs. We need to understand how these two trends can be related to customization in healthcare delivery and, because customization often entails extra costs, to define new business models. This article analyze how customization of the care process can be developed and managed in healthcare. Drawing on relevant literature from various services sectors, we have developed a framework for the implementation of customization by the hospital managers and caregivers involved in care pathways. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring the Functioning of Decision Space: A Review of the Available Health Systems Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Tamlyn Eslie; Cleary, Susan; McIntyre, Diane

    2017-02-27

    The concept of decision space holds appeal as an approach to disaggregating the elements that may influence decision-making in decentralized systems. This narrative review aims to explore the functioning of decision space and the factors that influence decision space. A narrative review of the literature was conducted with searches of online databases and academic journals including PubMed Central, Emerald, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Sage. The articles were included in the review based on the criteria that they provided insight into the functioning of decision space either through the explicit application of or reference to decision space, or implicitly through discussion of decision-making related to organizational capacity or accountability mechanisms. The articles included in the review encompass literature related to decentralisation, management and decision space. The majority of the studies utilise qualitative methodologies to assess accountability mechanisms, organisational capacities such as finance, human resources and management, and the extent of decision space. Of the 138 articles retrieved, 76 articles were included in the final review. The literature supports Bossert's conceptualization of decision space as being related to organizational capacities and accountability mechanisms. These functions influence the decision space available within decentralized systems. The exact relationship between decision space and financial and human resource capacities needs to be explored in greater detail to determine the potential influence on system functioning. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  6. Environmental changes and microbiological health risks. Satellite-derived turbidity: an indicator of "health hazard" for surface water in West Africa (Bagre lake, Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, E.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Martinez, J.; Pinet, S.; Gal, L.; Soumaguel, N.

    2015-12-01

    A significant correlation exists between the concentration of parasites, bacteria and some water quality parameters including surface suspended solids (SSS) and turbidity. Suspended particles can carry viruses and pathogenic bacteria affecting human health and foster their development. High SSS, associated with high turbidity, can therefore be considered as a vector of microbiological contaminants, causing diarrheal diseases. Few studies have focused on the turbidity parameter in rural Africa, while many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, lakes, and rivers. Monitoring turbidity may therefore contribute to health hazard monitoring. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and is known to impact water reflectance in the visible and near-infrared domain. Ideally, its spatial and temporal variability requires the use of high temporal resolution (MODIS) and spatial resolution (Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2). Here we investigate turbidity in West-Africa. Various algorithms and indices proposed in the literature for inland waters are applied to MODIS series and to Landsat 7 and 8 CDR images, and SPOT5 images. The data and algorithms are evaluated with field measurements: turbidity, SSS, and hyperspectral ground radiometry. We show that turbidity of the Bagre Lake displays a strong increase over 2000-2015, associated with the corresponding increase of the red and NIR reflectances, as well as a reduction of the seasonal variations. Water level derived from the Jason 2 altimeter does not explain such variations. The most probable hypothesis is a change in land use (increase in bare and degraded soils), that leads to an increase in the particles transported by surface runoff to the lake. Such an increase in turbidity reinforces the health risk. We will discuss the link between turbidity and health in view of data from health centers on diarrheal diseases as well as data on practices and uses of populations.

  7. Creating Office Spaces in the Mediterranean. The importance of well-being, health and performance of office users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mateo-Cecilia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has studied the influence of office buildings indoor environment quality (IEQ on employees’ well-being, health and performance. However, it seems that it has not been explicitly explored what are the appropriate environmental conditions to different work patterns that coexist in these spaces. This paper presents results of an empirical research, based on the synchronized measurements of different IEQ parameters (i.e., noise, lighting and temperature, and well-being, health and performance of 71 employees in twelve office spaces in the Valencian Community along three periods, considering winter and summer conditions. Findings of the first winter period data, suggest the existence of different ideal parameters for different levels of task complexity (one of the dimensions that characterizes work patterns in the Mediterranean climate; and open new avenues of research to build up a specific Smart and Sustainable Offices (SSO model and further systemic design-support tools.

  8. Creating Welcoming Spaces for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Patients: An Evaluation of the Health Care Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Zachary; Hawkins, Linda A; Yehia, Baligh R

    2016-01-01

    Health outcomes are affected by patient, provider, and environmental factors. Previous studies have evaluated patient-level factors; few focusing on environment. Safe clinical spaces are important for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities. This study evaluates current models of LGBT health care delivery, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and makes recommendations for LGBT spaces. Models are divided into LGBT-specific and LGBT-embedded care delivery. Advantages to both models exist, and they provide LGBT patients different options of healthcare. Yet certain commonalities must be met: a clean and confidential system. Once met, LGBT-competent environments and providers can advocate for appropriate care for LGBT communities, creating environments where they would want to seek care.

  9. Assessment of the Space Weather Effect on Human Health in the Arctic Zone Using the Example of Tiksi Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena A. Strekalovskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the space weather effect on the well-being and health of people with cardiovascular pathology in Arctic conditions, we carried out the processing and analysis of space weather parameters and the electronic database of patients with cardiovascular diseases at the Central District Hospital in Tiksi settlement (the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia (RS(Y. Patients visited the polyclinic or requested an ambulance because their health had deteriorated. As a result of our research, we found some conjunctions of trends in the change in geomagnetic disturbances (Kp-index and the number of patients' visits to medical institutions for arterial hypertension (AH in 2015, 2016 and 2017. It can therefore be concluded that geomagnetic disturbances have an impact on the cardiovascular system of a person living at high latitudes.

  10. An interdisciplinary space of scientific communication in Collective (Public) Health: the journal interface--Communication, Health, Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrino, Antonio Pithon; Lima, Elizabeth Araújo; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Teixeira, Ricardo Rodrigues; Foresti, Miriam Celí Pimentel Porto; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2015-07-01

    This is a reflection upon 17 years of experience in the production of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, the publication "Interface: Communication, Health, Education," whose scope is in the fields of Collective (Public) Health, Education and Communication. It also examines retrospectively the themes published by the journal, seeking to identify them in different sections of this publication. Finally, the evolution of the journal is analyzed.

  11. Deep Space Spaceflight Hazards Effects on Cognition, Behavioral Health, and Behavioral Biomarkers in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. J.; Norsk, P.; Zwart, S.; Crucian, B.; Simonsen, L. C.; Antonsen, E.

    2018-02-01

    Deep Space Gateway missions provide testing grounds to identify the risk of both behavioral performance and cognitive perturbations caused by stressors of spaceflight such as radiation, fluid shifts, sleep deprivation, chronic stress, and others.

  12. Variation in primary and culture-expanded cells derived from connective tissue progenitors in human bone marrow space, bone trabecular surface and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadan, Maha A; Piuzzi, Nicolas S; Boehm, Cynthia; Bova, Wesley; Moos, Malcolm; Midura, Ronald J; Hascall, Vincent C; Malcuit, Christopher; Muschler, George F

    2018-03-01

    Connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) embody the heterogeneous stem and progenitor cell populations present in native tissue. CTPs are essential to the formation and remodeling of connective tissue and represent key targets for tissue-engineering and cell-based therapies. To better understand and characterize CTPs, we aimed to compare the (i) concentration and prevalence, (ii) early in vitro biological behavior and (iii) expression of surface-markers and transcription factors among cells derived from marrow space (MS), trabecular surface (TS), and adipose tissues (AT). Cancellous-bone and subcutaneous-adipose tissues were collected from 8 patients. Cells were isolated and cultured. Colony formation was assayed using Colonyze software based on ASTM standards. Cell concentration ([Cell]), CTP concentration ([CTP]) and CTP prevalence (P CTP ) were determined. Attributes of culture-expanded cells were compared based on (i) effective proliferation rate and (ii) expression of surface-markers CD73, CD90, CD105, SSEA-4, SSEA-3, SSEA-1/CD15, Cripto-1, E-Cadherin/CD324, Ep-CAM/CD326, CD146, hyaluronan and transcription factors Oct3/4, Sox-2 and Nanog using flow cytometry. Mean [Cell], [CTP] and P CTP were significantly different between MS and TS samples (P = 0.03, P = 0.008 and P= 0.0003), respectively. AT-derived cells generated the highest mean total cell yield at day 6 of culture-4-fold greater than TS and more than 40-fold greater than MS per million cells plated. TS colonies grew with higher mean density than MS colonies (290 ± 11 versus 150 ± 11 cell per mm 2 ; P = 0.0002). Expression of classical-mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) markers was consistently recorded (>95%) from all tissue sources, whereas all the other markers were highly variable. The prevalence and biological potential of CTPs are different between patients and tissue sources and lack variation in classical MSC markers. Other markers are more likely to discriminate differences

  13. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the

  14. Does office space occupation matter? The role of the number of persons per enclosed office space, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction in the physical and mental health of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, B; Schneider, A; Nowak, D

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effects of office space occupation, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction on physical and mental health of office workers in small-sized and open-plan offices as well as possible underlying mechanisms. Office space occupation was characterized as number of persons per one enclosed office space. A total of 207 office employees with similar jobs in offices with different space occupation were surveyed regarding their work situation (psychosocial work characteristics, satisfaction with privacy, acoustics, and control) and health (psychosomatic complaints, irritation, mental well-being, and work ability). Binary logistic and linear regression analyses as well as bootstrapped mediation analyses were used to determine associations and underlying mechanisms. Employee health was significantly associated with all work characteristics. Psychosocial work stressors had the strongest relation to physical and mental health (OR range: 1.66-3.72). The effect of office space occupation on employee health was mediated by stressors and environmental satisfaction, but not by psychosocial work resources. As assumed by sociotechnical approaches, a higher number of persons per enclosed office space was associated with adverse health effects. However, the strongest associations were found with psychosocial work stressors. When revising office design, a holistic approach to work (re)design is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A steady state solution for ditch drainage problem with special reference to seepage face and unsaturated zone flow contribution: Derivation of a new drainage spacing eqaution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Ammar; Mechergui, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    al. (2001). In this work, a novel solution based on theoretical approach will be adapted to incorporate both the seepage face and the unsaturated zone flow contribution for solving ditch drained aquifers problems. This problem will be tackled on the basis of the approximate 2D solution given by Castro-Orgaz et al. (2012). This given solution yields the generalized water table profile function with a suitable boundary condition to be determined and provides a modified DF theory which permits as an outcome the analytical determination of the seepage face. To assess the ability of the developed equation for water-table estimations, the obtained results were compared with numerical solutions to the 2-D problem under different conditions. It is shown that results are in fair agreement and thus the resulting model can be used for designing ditch drainage systems. With respect to drainage design, the spacings calculated with the newly derived equation are compared with those computed from the DF theory. It is shown that the effect of the unsaturated zone flow contribution is limited to sandy soils and The calculated maximum increase in drain spacing is about 30%. Keywords: subsurface ditch drainage; unsaturated zone; seepage face; water-table, ditch spacing equation

  16. Release of bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesive systems available on the European market as a potential health risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Małkiewicz

    2015-02-01

    1 In conditions of the current experiment it was demonstrated that most of the assessed orthodontic adhesive resins available on the European market and released into the outside environment – biologically harmful bisphenol A or its derivatives, posing a potential threat to the patients’ health. 2 Release of BPA and its derivatives into aqueous solutions is the highest in the early stages of sample incubation.

  17. Healthcare in the Pocket: Mapping the Space of Mobile-Phone Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasnja, Predrag; Pratt, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming an increasingly important platform for the delivery of health interventions. In recent years, researchers have used mobile phones as tools for encouraging physical activity and healthy diets, for symptom monitoring in asthma and heart disease, for sending patients reminders about upcoming appointments, for supporting smoking cessation, and for a range of other health problems. This paper provides an overview of this rapidly growing body of work. We describe the features of mobile phones that make them a particularly promising platform for health interventions, and we identify five basic intervention strategies that have been used in mobile-phone health applications across different health conditions. Finally, we outline the directions for future research that could increase our understanding of functional and design requirements for the development of highly effective mobile-phone health interventions. PMID:21925288

  18. Masticator space abscess derived from odontogenic infection: imaging manifestation and pathways of extension depicted by CT and MR in 30 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuknecht, B.; Stergiou, G.; Graetz, K.

    2008-01-01

    Propagation of odontogenic masticator space abscesses is insufficiently understood. The purpose was to analyse pathways of spread in 30 patients with odontogenic masticator space abscess. The imaging findings in 30 patients (CT in 30, MR in 16 patients) were retrospectively analysed. CT and MR imaging depicted a masticator space abscess within: medial pterygoid muscle in 13 patients (43.3%), lateral masseter and/or pterygoid muscle in 14 (46.7%) and superficial temporal muscle in 3 patients (10%). In the lateral masticator space intra-spatial abscess extension occurred in 7 of 14 patients (50%). The sub-masseteric space provided a pathway in seven (70%). Extra-spatial extension involved the submandibular space only in 3 of 14 patients (21.4%). Medial masticator space abscesses exhibited extra-spatial spread only. Extension affected the parapharyngeal space and/or soft palate in 7 of 13 lesions (53.8%). MR imaging in comparison to CT increased the number of abscess locations from 18 to 23 (27.8%) and regions affected by a cellular infiltrate from 12 to 16 (33.3%). The sub-masseteric space served as a previously underestimated pathway for intra-spatial propagation of lateral masticator abscesses. Medial masticator space abscesses tend to display early extra-spatial parapharyngeal space and/or soft palate extension. (orig.)

  19. Aluminum smelter-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and flatfish health in the Kitimat marine ecosystem, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lyndal L; Ylitalo, Gina M; Myers, Mark S; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Buzitis, Jon; Collier, Tracy K

    2015-04-15

    From 2000-2004 a monitoring study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of aluminum smelter-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the health of fish in the marine waters of Kitimat, British Columbia, Canada. These waters are part of the historical fishing grounds of the Haisla First Nation, and since the 1950s the Alcan Primary Metal Company has operated an aluminum smelter at the head of the Kitimat Arm embayment. As a result, adjacent marine and estuarine sediments have been severely contaminated with a mixture of smelter-associated PAHs in the range of 10,000-100,000 ng/g dry wt. These concentrations are above those shown to cause adverse effects in fish exposed to PAHs in urban estuaries, but it was uncertain whether comparable effects would be seen at the Kitimat site due to limited bioavailability of smelter-derived PAHs. Over the 5-year study we conducted biennial collections of adult English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and sediment samples at the corresponding capture sites. Various tissue samples (e.g. liver, kidney, gonad, stomach contents) and bile were taken from each animal to determine levels of exposure and biological effects, and compare the uptake and toxicity of smelter-derived PAHs with urban mixtures of PAHs. Results showed significant intersite differences in concentrations of PAHs. Sole collected at sites nearest the smelter showed increased PAH exposure, as well as significantly higher prevalences of PAH-associated liver disease, compared to sites within Kitimat Arm that were more distant from the smelter. However, measures of PAH exposure (e.g., bile metabolites) were surprisingly high in sole from the reference sites outside of Kitimat Arm, though sediment and dietary PAHs at these sites were low, and fish from the areas showed no biological injury. PAH uptake, exposure, and biological effects in Kitimat English sole were relatively lower when compared to English sole collected from urban sites contaminated with PAH mixtures from

  20. Effect of anterior crowding or spacing on oral health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan AH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ali H Hassan,1 Nour M Hobani,2 Sara M Almokri,3 Nour M Almokri,1 Faiza G Alotibi,4 Ehab N Alshouibi5 1Department of Orthodontics, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Periodontolgy, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Saudi Board of Prosthodontics, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Orthodontics, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Dental Public Health, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL involves many aspects such as chewing ability, sleeping, social interactions, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life and oral health. The increasing research interest in OHRQoL began only after the shortcomings of previous approaches of treating symptoms only and neglecting the patient’s self-perception were revealed.Patients and methods: The current study design is a cross-sectional study of patients who attended King Abdulaziz University Dental Hospital (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and King Saud University Dental Hospital (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. After obtaining their verbal consent, young adult and adult patients (mean age 25.19±7.29 years old with anterior spacing or crowding were recruited to participate in the study. They filled the Arabic short version of the oral-health impact profile-14 questionnaire after a clinical evaluation of the severity of their spacing or crowding. Parameters of spacing/crowding severity assessment were as follows: <4, mild; 4–8, moderate; and >8, severe. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test in SPSS statistical package. The level of significance was set to <0.05.Results: The sample size of this study was 308 subjects. Findings indicated a statistically significant (p=0.001 association between anterior spacing malocclusion (ASM with Q5 “self-consciousness”, since 64.2% of

  1. Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between Public Open Space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Wood, Lisa J; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2012-05-01

    Mental health is a public health priority globally. Public Open Space (POS) may enhance mental health by facilitating contact with nature and the development of supportive relationships. Despite growing interest in the influence of the built environment on mental health, associations between POS attributes and mental health remain relatively unexplored. In particular, few studies have examined the relative effects of the quantity and quality of POS within a neighbourhood on mental health. Guided by a social-ecological framework, this study investigated the relationship between POS attributes (i.e., quantity and quality) and better mental health (i.e., low risk of psychological distress) in residents of new housing developments in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. The extent to which relationships between POS attributes and mental health were confounded by psychosocial factors (e.g., social support, sense of community) and frequent use of POS was also explored. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey (n = 911), a POS audit, and Geographical Information Systems, and was analysed using logistic regression. Approximately 80% of survey participants were at low risk of psychological distress. Residents of neighbourhoods with high quality POS had higher odds of low psychosocial distress than residents of neighbourhoods with low quality POS. This appeared to be irrespective of whether or not they used POS. However, the quantity of neighbourhood POS was not associated with low psychological distress. From a mental health perspective, POS quality within a neighbourhood appears to be more important than POS quantity. This finding has policy implications and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-U.S. Public Health Service Health Evaluation and Enhancement Program - Summary of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbeck, D. C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Schacter, J.; Haskell, W. L.; Payne, G. H.; Moxley, R. T., III; Nemiroff, M.; Limoncelli, D. D.; Arnoldi, L. B.; Fox, S. M., III

    1972-01-01

    An exercise program was initiated in a federal agency to assess the feasibility of such a program, and to identify the factors that influenced joining, adherence to, and effectiveness of the program. The program was utilized by 237 of the 998 eligible federal employees; mean attendance rate was 1.3 days/week. Those who volunteered perceived a need for increased physical activity, believed they had sufficient time to participate and derived subjective as well as objective benefits. Significant improvements were found in heart rate response to the standard exercise test, body weight, skinfold measurements and triglyceride levels.

  3. Possible links between extreme levels of space weather changes and human health state in middle latitudes: direct and indirect indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin

    The Sun is the main driver of space weather. The possibility that solar activity variations and related changes in the Earth's magnetosphere can affect human life and health has been debated for many decades. This problem is being studied extensively in the late 20th and early 21st centuries and it is still being contradictory in some cases. The relations between space weather changes and the human health have global implications, but they are especially significant for habitants living at high geomagnetic latitudes where the geomagnetic disturbances have larger amplitudes. Nevertheless, the relevant researches are also important for humans living at any geomagnetic latitudes with different levels of geomagnetic activity; recent researches show that weak geomagnetic disturbances can also have adverse effects. Unfortunately, limited comparison of results of investigations on possible effects to humans from geomagnetic activity exists between studies conducted in high, middle and low latitudes. Knowledge about the relationship between solar and geomagnetic activity and the human health would allow to get better prepared beforehand for any future geomagnetic event and its impacts anywhere. For these purposes there are conducted collaborative (jointly with scientists from Israel, Bulgaria, Russia and Belgium) and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences for revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems in different phases of solar cycle 23. This paper describes some recently obtained results of the complex (theoretical, experimental and statistical) studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray activities upon human cardio-health state as well as human physiological and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe

  4. HPE Teachers' Negotiation of Environmental Health Spaces: Discursive Positions, Embodiment and Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicole; Wright, Jan; O'Flynn, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    A National Curriculum in Health and Physical Education (HPE) has recently been developed in Australia. This new curriculum reflects, among other educational priorities, both environmental sensitivities and a commitment to the enhancement of young people's health and wellbeing. HPE is one of the key sites in the curriculum where a focused…

  5. Claim Your Space: Leadership Development as a Research Capacity Building Goal in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Williams, Natasha; Zizi, Freddy; Okuyemi, Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    As the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) rises in settings with an equally high burden of infectious diseases in the Global South, a new sense of urgency has developed around research capacity building to promote more effective and sustainable public health and health care systems. In 2010, NCDs accounted for more than 2.06 million deaths…

  6. Disease and Health: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebarger, Bill

    Medicine and the concept of good health has a rich history from Hippocrates to the present. People have relied on herbs, magic, and many folk cures in the past, and only in the last few centuries have people understood the sciences of health including physiology, medicine, chemistry and many other associated sciences. The discussion in this…

  7. Volume transmission in health and disease: communication via the brain extracellular space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2003), s. 2 ISSN 0022-3042. [Meeting of the European Society for Neurochemistry /14./. Varšava, 01.06.2003-04.06.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : volume transmission * extracellular space Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.825, year: 2003

  8. Negotiating power relations, gender equality, and collective agency: are village health committees transformative social spaces in northern India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kerry; George, Asha S; Harvey, Steven A; Mondal, Shinjini; Patel, Gupteswar; Sheikh, Kabir

    2017-09-15

    Participatory health initiatives ideally support progressive social change and stronger collective agency for marginalized groups. However, this empowering potential is often limited by inequalities within communities and between communities and outside actors (i.e. government officials, policymakers). We examined how the participatory initiative of Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) can enable and hinder the renegotiation of power in rural north India. Over 18 months, we conducted 74 interviews and 18 focus groups with VHSNC members (including female community health workers and local government officials), non-VHSNC community members, NGO staff, and higher-level functionaries. We observed 54 VHSNC-related events (such as trainings and meetings). Initial thematic network analysis supported further examination of power relations, gendered "social spaces," and the "discourses of responsibility" that affected collective agency. VHSNCs supported some re-negotiation of intra-community inequalities, for example by enabling some women to speak in front of men and perform assertive public roles. However, the extent to which these new gender dynamics transformed relations beyond the VHSNC was limited. Furthermore, inequalities between the community and outside stakeholders were re-entrenched through a "discourse of responsibility": The comparatively powerful outside stakeholders emphasized community responsibility for improving health without acknowledging or correcting barriers to effective VHSNC action. In response, some community members blamed peers for not taking up this responsibility, reinforcing a negative collective identity where participation was futile because no one would work for the greater good. Others resisted this discourse, arguing that the VHSNC alone was not responsible for taking action: Government must also intervene. This counter-narrative also positioned VHSNC participation as futile. Interventions to strengthen

  9. A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, W. Wallace; Strow, L. Larrabee; Revercomb, H.; Knuteson, R.; Thompson, A.

    2003-01-01

    This final report summarizes all research activities and publications undertaken as part of NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Analysis Program (ACMAP) Grant NAG-1-2022, 'A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra'. Major project accomplishments include: (1) analysis of more than 300,000 AERI spectra from the ARM SGP site yielding a 5-year (1998-2002) timeseries of CO retrievals from the Lamont, OK AERI; (2) development of a prototype CO profile retrieval algorithm for AERI spectra; (3) validation and publication of the first CO retrievals from the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS); and (4) development of a prototype AERI tropospheric O3 retrieval algorithm. Compilation and publication of the 5-year Lamont, OK timeseries is underway including a new collaboration with scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Public access to this data will be provided upon article submission. A comprehensive CO analysis of the archive of HIS spectra of remains as the only originally proposed activity with little progress. The greatest challenge faced in this project was motivating the University of Wisconsin Co-Investigators to deliver their archived HIS and AERIOO data along with the requisite temperature and water vapor profiles in a timely manner. Part of the supplied HIS dataset from ASHOE may be analyzed as part of a Master s Thesis under a separate project. Our success with the SAFARI 2000 SHIS CO analysis demonstrates the utility of such aircraft remote sensing data given the proper support from the instrument investigators. In addition to the PI and Co-I s, personnel involved in this CO climatology project include one Post Doctoral Fellow, one Research Scientist, two graduate students, and two undergraduate students. A total of fifteen presentations regarding research related to this

  10. Adaptive filtering of GOCE-derived gravity gradients of the disturbing potential in the context of the space-wise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piretzidis, Dimitrios; Sideris, Michael G.

    2017-09-01

    Filtering and signal processing techniques have been widely used in the processing of satellite gravity observations to reduce measurement noise and correlation errors. The parameters and types of filters used depend on the statistical and spectral properties of the signal under investigation. Filtering is usually applied in a non-real-time environment. The present work focuses on the implementation of an adaptive filtering technique to process satellite gravity gradiometry data for gravity field modeling. Adaptive filtering algorithms are commonly used in communication systems, noise and echo cancellation, and biomedical applications. Two independent studies have been performed to introduce adaptive signal processing techniques and test the performance of the least mean-squared (LMS) adaptive algorithm for filtering satellite measurements obtained by the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) mission. In the first study, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed in order to gain insights about the implementation of the LMS algorithm on data with spectral behavior close to that of real GOCE data. In the second study, the LMS algorithm is implemented on real GOCE data. Experiments are also performed to determine suitable filtering parameters. Only the four accurate components of the full GOCE gravity gradient tensor of the disturbing potential are used. The characteristics of the filtered gravity gradients are examined in the time and spectral domain. The obtained filtered GOCE gravity gradients show an agreement of 63-84 mEötvös (depending on the gravity gradient component), in terms of RMS error, when compared to the gravity gradients derived from the EGM2008 geopotential model. Spectral-domain analysis of the filtered gradients shows that the adaptive filters slightly suppress frequencies in the bandwidth of approximately 10-30 mHz. The limitations of the adaptive LMS algorithm are also discussed. The tested filtering algorithm can be

  11. Health care logistics and space: accounting for the physical build environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hartmann, Timo; Larqoque, C.; Himmelspach, J.; Pasupathy, R.; Rose, O.; Uhrmacher, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Planning and scheduling of health care processes has improved considerably using operations research techniques. Besides analytical and optimization tools, a substantial amount of sophisticated discrete event simulation tools supporting (re-)design of existing logistical processes in and around

  12. Considering space weather forces interaction on human health: the equilibrium paradigm in clinical cosmobiology - is it equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliyahu

    2015-03-01

    We are constantly affected by changes in space weather. The principal "players" are solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA) and antagonistic to them, cosmic ray activity (CRA) and high energy proton flux. CRA is measured by neutron activity on the earth's surface in imp/min. SA and GMA are linked and serve as a shield for the earth from CRA. For a long time SA and GMA were the main areas of studies. The aim of this study was to compare some effects of the mentioned forces and discuss the temporal distribution of both groups of space weather, in relation to their effects on humans. The time distribution of GMA storms (daily) was compared with quiet (low) GMA, with higher CRA (neutron activity). Space weather data were obtained from the USA, Russia and Finland. A total of 4383 days were analyzed in the years 2000-2012. A total of 71 days (1.62%) of geomagnetic storms (GS) and 2753 days (63.8%) of quiet (I0) GMA were registered. A second study was provided including the years 1983-2007 (9131 days); here 3800 days (41.62%) were quiet GMA days and 400 storm days (4.38%). According to publications in the medical literature, many phenomena are connected with the extremes of space weather. Despite a great number of publications and the significant role of GS, it is a relatively rare event and most medical emergencies and deaths occur on days of low GMA, accompanied by higher CRA (neutron activity). High neutron activity deserves more attention when analyzing space effects on human health and their mechanism of action.

  13. Deep Space Exploration: Will We Be Ready? Infectious Diseases, Microgravity and Other Forces Affecting Health Pose Challenges for Humans Planning to Explore Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocco, Mark T.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1999-01-01

    In contemplating space travel beyond earth orbits, we humans face significant barriers and major challenges. Although researchers involved in several scientific subdisciplines, including space medicine and space life sciences, may provide insights to help overcome those barriers, their efforts are at an early stage of development, leaving open many questions of potentially major consequence.

  14. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas. PMID:28594390

  15. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-06-08

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  16. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002, Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989, Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847, and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933 as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  17. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  18. Holding Firm: Power, Push-Back, and Opportunities in Navigating the Liminal Space of Critical Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Corinne; Poole, Jennifer M; Facey, Marcia E; Parsons, Janet A

    2017-10-01

    Critical qualitative health researchers typically occupy and navigate liminal academic spaces and statuses, with one foot planted in the arts and social sciences and the other in biomedical science. We are at once marginalized and empowered, and this liminality presents both challenges and opportunities. In this article, we draw on our experiences of being (often the lone) critical qualitative health scholars on thesis advisory committees and dissertation examinations, as well as our experiences of publishing and securing funding, to illuminate how power and knowledge relations create conditions that shape the nature of our roles. We share strategies we have developed for standing our theoretical and methodological ground. We discuss how we use the power of our liminality to hold firm, push back, and push forward, to ensure that critical qualitative research is not further relegated to the margins and its quality and integrity sustained.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n=377 adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37% in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54–1.90 (P<0.0001 overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39–1.94, Chinese, 1.39 (1.06–1.83, African, 1.67 (1.37–2.02, and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65. Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91–2.87 for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46–2.20 for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC remained associated with CVD events (HR=1.21, 95%CI 1.12–1.32 overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR

  20. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.12-1.39) and African Americans (HR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.32). Finally, when using a binary definition of MetS-PC (cut point 0.505) designed to match the NCEP definition in terms of prevalence in the Health ABC cohort (35

  1. Development of a training program to support health care professionals to deliver the SPACE for COPD self-management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackmore C

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Claire Blackmore,1 Vicki L Johnson-Warrington,2 Johanna EA Williams,2 Lindsay D Apps,2 Hannah ML Young,2 Claire LA Bourne,2 Sally J Singh2 1Kettering General Hospital National Health Service (NHS Trust, Kettering, Northamptonshire, 2Centre for Exercise and Rehabilitation Science, Leicester Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK Background: With the growing burden of COPD and associated morbidity and mortality, a need for self-management has been identified. The Self-management Programme of ­Activity, Coping and Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPACE for COPD manual was developed to support self-management in COPD patients. Currently, there is no literature available regarding health care professionals’ training needs when supporting patients with COPD on self-management.Aim: This study sought to identify these needs to inform, design and develop a training program for health care professionals being trained to deliver a self-management program in COPD.Methods: Fourteen health care professionals from both primary and secondary care COPD services participated in face-to-face semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to produce a framework and identify training needs and views on delivery of the SPACE for COPD self-management program. Components of training were web-based knowledge training, with pre- and posttraining knowledge questionnaires, and a 1-day program to introduce the self-management manual. Feedback was given after training to guide the development of the training program.Results: Health care professionals were able to identify areas where they required increased knowledge to support patients. This was overwhelming in aspects of COPD seen to be outside of their current clinical role. Skills in goal setting and behavioral change were not elicited as a training need, suggesting a lack of understanding of components of supporting self

  2. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  3. The Integrated Medical Model - Optimizing In-flight Space Medical Systems to Reduce Crew Health Risk and Mission Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric; Walton, Marlei; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; Myers, Jerry; Butler, Doug; Lyengar, Sriram; Fitts, Mary; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool used by medical system planners and designers as they prepare for exploration planning activities of the Constellation program (CxP). IMM provides an evidence-based approach to help optimize the allocation of in-flight medical resources for a specified level of risk within spacecraft operational constraints. Eighty medical conditions and associated resources are represented in IMM. Nine conditions are due to Space Adaptation Syndrome. The IMM helps answer fundamental medical mission planning questions such as What medical conditions can be expected? What type and quantity of medical resources are most likely to be used?", and "What is the probability of crew death or evacuation due to medical events?" For a specified mission and crew profile, the IMM effectively characterizes the sequence of events that could potentially occur should a medical condition happen. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew attributes, medical conditions and incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential clinical and crew health end states are established to generate end state probabilities. A Monte Carlo computational method is used to determine the probable outcomes and requires up to 25,000 mission trials to reach convergence. For each mission trial, the pharmaceuticals and supplies required to diagnose and treat prevalent medical conditions are tracked and decremented. The uncertainty of patient response to treatment is bounded via a best-case, worst-case, untreated case algorithm. A Crew Health Index (CHI) metric, developed to account for functional impairment due to a medical condition, provides a quantified measure of risk and enables risk comparisons across mission scenarios. The use of historical in-flight medical data, terrestrial surrogate data as appropriate, and space medicine subject matter expertise has enabled the development of a probabilistic, stochastic decision support tool capable of

  4. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  5. Medical technology advances from space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  6. Practice nurses mental health provide space to patients to discuss unpleasant emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, E.C.; Noordman, J.; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: A core skill of practice nurses' mental health is to recognize and explore patients' unpleasant emotions. Patients rarely express their unpleasant emotions directly and spontaneously, but instead give indirect signs that something is worrying them. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS

  7. Practice nurses mental health provide space to patients to discuss unpleasant emotions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, E.C.M.; Noordman, J.; Dulmen, A.M. van

    2016-01-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? A core skill of practice nurses' mental health is to recognize and explore patients' unpleasant emotions. Patients rarely express their unpleasant emotions directly and spontaneously, but instead give indirect signs that something is worrying them.

  8. Public Park Spaces as a Platform to Promote Healthy Living: Introducing a HealthPark Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Bond, Samantha; O'Neill, Robert; Laddu, Deepika R; Hills, Andrew P; Lavie, Carl J; McNeil, Amy

    The concept of Healthy Living (HL) as a primary medical intervention continues to gain traction, and rightfully so. Being physically active, consuming a nutritious diet, not smoking and maintaining an appropriate body weight constitute the HL polypill, the foundation of HL medicine (HLM). Daily use of the HL polypill, working toward optimal dosages, portends profound health benefits, substantially reducing the risk of chronic disease [i.e., cardiovascular disease (CVD), pulmonary disease, metabolic syndromes, certain cancers, etc.] and associated adverse health consequences. To be effective and proactive, our healthcare system must rethink where its primary intervention, HLM, is delivered. Waiting for individuals to come to the traditional outpatient setting is an ineffective approach as poor lifestyle habits are typically well established by the time care is initiated. Ideally, HLM should be delivered where individuals live, work and go to school, promoting immersion in a culture of health and wellness. To this end, there is a growing interest in the use of public parks as a platform to promote the adoption of HL behaviors. The current perspectives paper provides a brief literature review on the use of public parks for HL interventions and introduces a new HealthPark model being developed in Chicago. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prioritizing the mHealth Design Space: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Smokers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Andrea Lisabeth; BlueSpruce, June; Catz, Sheryl L; McClure, Jennifer B

    2016-08-05

    Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Therefore, researchers are constantly exploring new ways to promote smoking cessation. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies could be effective cessation tools. Despite the availability of commercial quit-smoking apps, little research to date has examined smokers' preferred treatment intervention components (ie, design features). Honoring these preferences is important for designing programs that are appealing to smokers and may be more likely to be adopted and used. The aim of this study was to understand smokers' preferred design features of mHealth quit-smoking tools. We used a mixed-methods approach consisting of focus groups and written surveys to understand the design preferences of adult smokers who were interested in quitting smoking (N=40). Focus groups were stratified by age to allow differing perspectives to emerge between older (>40 years) and younger (design options for communicating with smokers, providing social support, and incentivizing program use. Participants rated the importance of preselected design features on an exit survey. Qualitative analyses examined emergent discussion themes and quantitative analyses compared feature ratings to determine which were perceived as most important. Participants preferred a highly personalized and adaptive mHealth experience. Their ideal mHealth quit-smoking tool would allow personalized tracking of their progress, adaptively tailored feedback, and real-time peer support to help manage smoking cravings. Based on qualitative analysis of focus group discussion, participants preferred pull messages (ie, delivered upon request) over push messages (ie, sent automatically) and preferred interaction with other smokers through closed social networks. Preferences for entertaining games or other rewarding incentives to encourage program use differed by age group. Based on quantitative analysis of surveys, participants rated the

  10. Making lemonade from lemons: a case study on loss of space at the Dolph Briscoe, Jr. Library, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Rajia C; Feldman, Jonquil D

    2010-01-01

    The setting for this case study is the Dolph Briscoe, Jr. Library, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, a health sciences campus with medical, dental, nursing, health professions, and graduate schools. During 2008-2009, major renovations to the library building were completed including office space for a faculty development department, multipurpose classrooms, a 24/7 study area, study rooms, library staff office space, and an information commons. The impetus for changes to the library building was the decreasing need to house collections in an increasingly electronic environment, the need for office space for other departments, and growth of the student body. About 40% of the library building was remodeled or repurposed, with a loss of approximately 25% of the library's original space. Campus administration proposed changes to the library building, and librarians worked with administration, architects, and construction managers to seek renovation solutions that meshed with the library's educational mission.

  11. Pedestrian paths: why path-dependence theory leaves health policy analysis lost in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence D

    2010-08-01

    Path dependence, a model first advanced to explain puzzles in the diffusion of technology, has lately won allegiance among analysts of the politics of public policy, including health care policy. Though the central premise of the model--that past events and decisions shape options for innovation in the present and future--is indisputable (indeed path dependence is, so to speak, too shallow to be false), the approach, at least as applied to health policy, suffers from ambiguities that undercut its claims to illuminate policy projects such as managed care, on which this article focuses. Because path dependence adds little more than marginal value to familiar images of the politics of policy--incrementalism, for one--analysts might do well to put it on the back burner and pursue instead "thick descriptions" that help them to distinguish different degrees of openness to exogenous change among diverse policy arenas.

  12. From Sanctuaries to Prefigurative Social Change: Creating Health-Enabling Spaces in East London Community Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine A. Guerlain

    2016-05-01

    for effective community mobilization. AIDS Care, 22(Suppl. 2, 1569-1579; and a discussion of how creating these spaces is an act of prefigurative social change. Our findings suggest that in East London, participation in community gardens is not based on a common political intention or self-conscious motive to prefigure a new society, but instead on the shared practice of gardening. This results in unintended benefits that often address participants’ personal adversities in ways that contribute to the material, relational and symbolic deprivation of their daily lives – opening up new possibilities for being, seeing and doing. In this sense, community gardens in East London offer an alternative to traditional notions of prefigurative social action that are predicated on strategic intention. We argue for an understanding of prefiguration that better accounts for what participants themselves would like to achieve in their own lives, rather than in relation to externally imposed notions of what counts as political change.

  13. Information requirements of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's safety, environmental health, and occupational medicine programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of the internal and external reporting and recordkeeping procedures of these programs was conducted and the major problems associated with them are outlined. The impact of probable future requirements on existing information systems is evaluated. This report also presents the benefits of combining the safety and health information systems into one computerized system and recommendations for the development and scope of that system.

  14. Fiscal space for domestic funding of health and other social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meheus, Filip; McIntyre, Di

    2017-04-01

    To progress toward universal health coverage and promote inclusive social and economic development, it will be necessary to strengthen domestic resource mobilization for health. In this paper, we examine options for increasing domestic government revenue in low- and middle-income countries. We analyze the relationship between level of economic development and levels of government revenue and expenditure, and show that a country's level of economic development does not predetermine its spending levels. Government revenue can be increased through improved tax compliance and efficiency in revenue collection, maximizing revenue from mineral and other natural resources, and increasing tax rates where appropriate. The emphasis should be on increasing revenue through the most progressive means possible; the purpose of raising government spending on health would be defeated if that spending were funded by increasing the relative tax burden of those who are meant to benefit. Increasing government revenue through taxation or other sources is first and foremost a fiscal policy choice or political decision and should be supported through concerted global action.

  15. Space, place and (waiting) time: reflections on health policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Sally

    2018-02-19

    Health systems have repeatedly addressed concerns about efficiency and equity by employing trans-national comparisons to draw out the strengths and weaknesses of specific policy initiatives. This paper demonstrates the potential for explicit historical analysis of waiting times for hospital treatment to add value to spatial comparative methodologies. Waiting times and the size of the lists of waiting patients have become key operational indicators. In the United Kingdom, as National Health Service (NHS) financial pressures intensified from the 1970s, waiting times have become a topic for regular public and political debate. Various explanations for waiting times include the following: hospital consultants manipulate NHS waiting lists to maintain their private practice; there is under-investment in the NHS; and available (and adequate) resources are being used inefficiently. Other countries have also experienced ongoing tensions between the public and private delivery of universal health care in which national and trans-national comparisons of waiting times have been regularly used. The paper discusses the development of key UK policies, and provides a limited Canadian comparative perspective, to explore wider issues, including whether 'waiting crises' were consciously used by policymakers, especially those brought into government to implement new economic and managerial strategies, to diminish the autonomy and authority of the medical professional in the hospital environment.

  16. Operations research to add postpartum family planning to maternal and neonatal health to improve birth spacing in Sylhet District, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Norton, Maureen; Williams, Emma; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Shah, Rasheduzzaman; Begum, Nazma; Mungia, Jaime; Lefevre, Amnesty; Al-Kabir, Ahmed; Winch, Peter J; McKaig, Catharine; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2013-08-01

    Short birth intervals are associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal health (MNH) outcomes. Improving postpartum contraceptive use is an important programmatic strategy to improve the health and well-being of women, newborns, and children. This article documents the intervention package and evaluation design of a study conducted in a rural district of Bangladesh to evaluate the effects of an integrated, community-based MNH and postpartum family planning program on contraceptive use and birth-interval lengths. The study integrated family planning counseling within 5 community health worker (CHW)-household visits to pregnant and postpartum women, while a community mobilizer (CM) led community meetings on the importance of postpartum family planning and pregnancy spacing for maternal and child health. The CM and the CHWs emphasized 3 messages: (1) Use of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) during the first 6 months postpartum and transition to another modern contraceptive method; (2) Exclusive, rather than fully or nearly fully, breastfeeding to support LAM effectiveness and good infant breastfeeding practices; (3) Use of a modern contraceptive method after a live birth for at least 24 months before attempting another pregnancy (a birth-to-birth interval of about 3 years) to support improved infant health and nutrition. CHWs provided only family planning counseling in the original study design, but we later added community-based distribution of methods, and referrals for clinical methods, to meet women's demand. Using a quasi-experimental design, and relying primarily on pre/post-household surveys, we selected pregnant women from 4 unions to receive the intervention (n = 2,280) and pregnant women from 4 other unions (n = 2,290) to serve as the comparison group. Enrollment occurred between 2007 and 2009, and data collection ended in January 2013. Formative research showed that women and their family members generally did not perceive

  17. Evaluating energy, health and carbon co-benefits from improved domestic space heating: A randomised community trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preval, Nick; Chapman, Ralph; Pierse, Nevil; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

    2010-01-01

    In order to value the costs and benefits associated with improved space heating we analysed the Housing, Heating and Health Study, a randomised community trial involving installation of energy efficient and healthy heaters (heat pump, wood pellet burner or flued gas heater) in homes with basic insulation and poor heating, occupied by households which included a child with asthma. We compared the initial purchase and installation cost of heaters with changes in the number of visits to health professionals, time off work/school, caregiving, and pharmaceutical use for household members and changes in total household energy use and carbon emissions following the intervention. We used two scenarios to analyse the results over the predicted 12-year life-span of the heaters. The targeted approach (Scenario A - assuming high rates of household asthma throughout the period of analysis) produced enough health-related benefits to offset the cost of the heaters, and when total energy use and carbon emission savings were included in the analysis the ratio of benefits to costs was 1.09:1. The untargeted approach (Scenario B - assuming typical New Zealand asthma rates throughout the period of analysis) had a ratio of total benefits to costs of 0.31:1.

  18. Evaluating energy, health and carbon co-benefits from improved domestic space heating. A randomised community trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preval, Nick; Pierse, Nevil; Howden-Chapman, Philippa [He Kainga Oranga/Housing and Health Research Programme, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington South (New Zealand); Chapman, Ralph [School of Geography, Graduate Programme in Environmental Studies, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2010-08-15

    In order to value the costs and benefits associated with improved space heating we analysed the Housing, Heating and Health Study, a randomised community trial involving installation of energy efficient and healthy heaters (heat pump, wood pellet burner or flued gas heater) in homes with basic insulation and poor heating, occupied by households which included a child with asthma. We compared the initial purchase and installation cost of heaters with changes in the number of visits to health professionals, time off work/school, caregiving, and pharmaceutical use for household members and changes in total household energy use and carbon emissions following the intervention. We used two scenarios to analyse the results over the predicted 12-year life-span of the heaters. The targeted approach (Scenario A - assuming high rates of household asthma throughout the period of analysis) produced enough health-related benefits to offset the cost of the heaters, and when total energy use and carbon emission savings were included in the analysis the ratio of benefits to costs was 1.09:1. The untargeted approach (Scenario B - assuming typical New Zealand asthma rates throughout the period of analysis) had a ratio of total benefits to costs of 0.31:1. (author)

  19. Evaluating energy, health and carbon co-benefits from improved domestic space heating: A randomised community trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preval, Nick [He Kainga Oranga/Housing and Health Research Programme, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington South (New Zealand); Chapman, Ralph, E-mail: Ralph.chapman@vuw.ac.n [School of Geography, Graduate Programme in Environmental Studies, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Pierse, Nevil; Howden-Chapman, Philippa [He Kainga Oranga/Housing and Health Research Programme, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington South (New Zealand)

    2010-08-15

    In order to value the costs and benefits associated with improved space heating we analysed the Housing, Heating and Health Study, a randomised community trial involving installation of energy efficient and healthy heaters (heat pump, wood pellet burner or flued gas heater) in homes with basic insulation and poor heating, occupied by households which included a child with asthma. We compared the initial purchase and installation cost of heaters with changes in the number of visits to health professionals, time off work/school, caregiving, and pharmaceutical use for household members and changes in total household energy use and carbon emissions following the intervention. We used two scenarios to analyse the results over the predicted 12-year life-span of the heaters. The targeted approach (Scenario A - assuming high rates of household asthma throughout the period of analysis) produced enough health-related benefits to offset the cost of the heaters, and when total energy use and carbon emission savings were included in the analysis the ratio of benefits to costs was 1.09:1. The untargeted approach (Scenario B - assuming typical New Zealand asthma rates throughout the period of analysis) had a ratio of total benefits to costs of 0.31:1.

  20. Structural health monitoring using DOG multi-scale space: an approach for analyzing damage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian; Xu, Zili

    2018-03-01

    Measurement noise is inevitable in practice; thus, it is difficult to identify defects, cracks or damage in a structure while suppressing noise simultaneously. In this work, a novel method is introduced to detect multiple damage in noisy environments. Based on multi-scale space analysis for discrete signals, a method for extracting damage characteristics from the measured displacement mode shape is illustrated. Moreover, the proposed method incorporates a data fusion algorithm to further eliminate measurement noise-based interference. The effectiveness of the method is verified by numerical and experimental methods applied to different structural types. The results demonstrate that there are two advantages to the proposed method. First, damage features are extracted by the difference of the multi-scale representation; this step is taken such that the interference of noise amplification can be avoided. Second, a data fusion technique applied to the proposed method provides a global decision, which retains the damage features while maximally eliminating the uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulations are utilized to validate that the proposed method has a higher accuracy in damage detection.

  1. Cosmic rays and other space weather effects influenced on satellite operation, technologies, biosphere and people health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Satellite anomalies (or malfunctions), including total distortion of electronics and loose of some satellites cost for Insurance Companies billions dollars per year. During especially active periods the probability of big satellite anomalies and their loosing increased very much. Now, when a great number of civil and military satellites are continuously worked for our practice life, the problem of satellite anomalies became very important. Many years ago about half of satellite anomalies were caused by technical reasons (for example, for Russian satellites Kosmos), but with time with increasing of production quality, this part became smaller and smaller. The other part, which now is dominated, caused by different space weather effects (energetic particles of CR and generated/trapped in the magnetosphere, and so on). We consider only satellite anomalies not caused by technical reasons: the total number of such anomalies about 6000 events, and separately for high and low altitude orbit satellites (5000 and about 800 events, correspondingly for high and low altitude satellites). No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and solar proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (railway operation (possible, through induction currents), catastrophes in long-distance electric power lines and transformators, and in other ground technologies.

  2. Health promoting outdoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigsdotter, Anna Ulrika Karlsson; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between green space and health, health-related quality of life and stress, respectively. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2005 Danish Health Interview Survey and are based on a region-stratified random sample of 21,832 adults. Data were collected via face......-to-face interviews followed by a self-administered questionnaire, including the SF-36, which measures eight dimensions of health and the Perceived Stress Scale, which measures self-reported stress. A total of 11,238 respondents completed the interview and returned the questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed to investigate the association between distance to green space and self-perceived stress. RESULTS: Danes living more than 1 km away from the nearest green space report poorer health and health-related quality of life, i.e. lower mean scores on all eight SF-36 dimensions of health...

  3. The effect of interest rate derivative transactions on debt savings for not-for-profit health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Prakash; Johnson, Tricia; O'Neil, Patricia; Poindexter, Victoria; Rooney, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The utilization of interest rate derivative instruments in US for-profit companies has grown exponentially since the early 1980s. International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. (ISDA), reported that the amount of outstanding standard swaps grew by 25 percent during the first six months of 2003. The growth rate of all interest rate derivatives, which includes single-currency interest rate swaps, cross-currency interest rate swaps, and interest rate options, grew by 24 percent during the same period. The total outstanding amount of interest rate derivatives now totals $123.9 trillion compared to $99.9 trillion at the end of 2002 (Dodd, 2003). This explosion in usage is a testament to the efficacy and flexibility of the instruments and the increased appreciation by financial managers of the importance of financial risk management in a volatile interest rate environment.

  4. Probiotics in the Space Food System: Delivery, Microgravity Effects, and the Potential Benefit to Crew Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    As mission distance and duration increase, the need grows for non-invasive disease prevention and immunomodulation, especially given the limited medical response capability expected for these missions and the immune dysregulation documented in crew. Additionally, changes in diet, lifestyle, antibiotic usage, and the environmental stresses during spaceflight may alter crewmembers' intestinal microbiome. The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers, with the potential to counteract the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Based on previous studies that demonstrated unique microbiological responses to the low shear environment of spaceflight, probiotic organisms hold the potential to induce enhanced beneficial responses through mechanisms, such as beneficial interactions with human immune cells and repression of colonization of pathogens on the mucosa. The work presented here will begin to address two research gaps related to providing probiotics in spaceflight: 1) delivery, and 2) the effect of the low shear microgravity environment on probiotic attributes. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected for investigation due to its wide commercial use and documented benefits that include inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens and mucosal stimulation of immune cells. The delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. In order to demonstrate the potential of the space food system to deliver viable probiotic bacteria to crewmembers, the probiotic L. acidophilus was packaged in high barrier flight packaging in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) or retained in commercial capsule form. Viable cells were enumerated over 8 months of storage at 22, 4, and -80ºC. The survival of L. acidophilus rehydrated in NFDM

  5. Changing communities, changing spaces: the challenges of health promotion outreach in cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Jonathan; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce; Langdon, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This article is a case study of an Internet chat room outreach project in Perth, Western Australia. The CyberReach project sought to adapt current peer based health promotion outreach, training and supervision frameworks to an online outreach setting in a way that was effective and supported by the online community. It targeted marginalised groups to trial the provision of online mental and sexual health promotion incorporating a participatory action research model into its development and implementation. Three 6-week trial periods were conducted and significant changes were made in response to changes in the online environment and to improve sustainability and effectiveness of the protocols. Four themes arose from CyberReach's experience: online group processes are unique due to the creation of extensive personal networks and occurrence of disclosure without face-to-face contact across potentially large geographic barriers; flexibility is required to adapt to technological changes and online community flux; enforcing boundaries and delineating peer education from therapeutic support can be challenging when only using text-based communication; and Internet outreach can be time intensive with small returns in actual community engagement and constant technological up-skilling of staff may be required. Based on the project's experiences we offer the following recommendations when planning similar Internet outreach strategies: Funding and planning groups need to be aware that the Internet environment is constantly changing and planning and funding arrangements need to reflect a capacity to remain flexible; Programs need to be firmly connected to the communities they are outreaching therefore a peer-based education component is strongly encouraged; Careful consideration should be taken regarding data collection so that the environment and the individuals within are respected; Further research needs to be conducted to understand the styles and approaches of different

  6. Environmental health of Spanish parks: An approach to the allergenic potential of urban green spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Cariñanos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks are green infrastructure elements that should contribute to improving the quality of life and well-being of citizens. In this work there are presented the results of applying a new index to estimate the potential allergenicity of parks located in 20 Spanish cities. This index, which considers intrinsic biological and biometric parameters of existing plant species in parks, allows the allergenic risk thereof to be calculated on a scale ranging from 0 to 1, depending on whether to the park’s allergenicity is zero or has a high risk for the population. The parks selected for this study have different typologies, sizes, species richness and biodiversities, which has yielded highly variable index values. Almost half of the analysed parks have an index value higher than 0.30, a threshold considered having a moderate to high risk, and therefore, enough to cause allergy symptoms in the population. Conversely, most of the parks had an index value below this threshold, so that the risk of suffering allergies is low or very low. The formula also allows the species that most contribute to the resulting value for allergenicity to be known, which are those having an anemophilous strategy of pollination, extended periods of flowering, and a referenced high allergenicity. These requirements are met by all species of the Betulaceae, Cupressaceae and Moraceae families, and to a lesser extent by Oleaceae and Platanaceae. It can be concluded that the development of an index to estimate the allergenicity of urban green spaces constitutes a useful tool to minimize the impact of pollen allergy on the population.

  7. Interprofessional Learning as a Third Space: Rethinking Health Profession Students’ Development and Identity through the Concepts of Homi Bhabha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Sterrett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Homi K. Bhabha is a post-colonial and cultural theorist who describes the emergence of new cultural forms from multiculturalism. When health profession students enculturated into their profession discuss patient care in an interprofessional group, their unilateral view is challenged. The students are in that ambiguous area, or Third Space, where statements of their profession’s view of the patient enmesh and an interprofessional identity begins to form. The lessons learned from others ways of assessing and treating a patient, seen through the lens of hybridity allow for the development of a richer, interprofessional identity. This manuscript will seek out the ways Bhabha’s views of inbetweenness enhance understanding of the student’s development of an interprofessional viewpoint or identity, and deepen the author’s developing framework of an Interprofessional Community of Practice.

  8. A GIS-based human health risk assessment for urban green space planning--an example from Grugliasco (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Vrscaj, Borut

    2009-11-15

    The need to develop approaches for risk-based management of soil contamination, as well as the integration of the assessment of the human health risk (HHR) due to the soil contamination in the urban planning procedures has been the subject of recent attention of scientific literature and policy makers. The spatial analysis of environmental data offers multiple advantages for studying soil contamination and HHR assessment, facilitating the decision making process. The aim of this study was to explore the possibilities and benefits of spatial implementation of a quantitative HHR assessment methodology for a planning case in a typical urban environment where the soil is contaminated. The study area is located in the city of Grugliasco a part of the Turin (Italy) metropolitan area. The soils data were derived from a site specific soil survey and the land-use data from secondary sources. In the first step the soil contamination data were geo-statistically analysed and a spatial soil contamination data risk modelling procedure designed. In order to spatially assess the HHR computer routines were developed using GIS raster tools. The risk was evaluated for several different land uses for the planned naturalistic park area. The HHR assessment indicated that the contamination of soils with heavy metals in the area is not sufficient to induce considerable health problems due to typical human behaviour within the variety of urban land uses. An exception is the possibility of direct ingestion of contaminated soil which commonly occurs in playgrounds. The HHR evaluation in a planning case in the Grugliasco Municipality confirms the suitability of the selected planning option. The construction of the naturalistic park presents one solution for reducing the impacts of soil contamination on the health of citizens. The spatial HHR evaluation using GIS techniques is a diagnostic procedure for assessing the impacts of urban soil contamination, with which one can verify planning

  9. Trust between patients and health websites: a review of the literature and derived outcomes from empirical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Laurian C.; Montague, Enid; DeHart, Tom

    2012-01-01

    With the exploding growth of the web, health websites have become a dominant force in the realm of health care. Technically savvy patients have been using the web not only to self inform but to self diagnose. In this paper we examine the trust relationship between humans and health websites by outlining the existing literature on trust in health websites. A total of forty-nine papers were examined using a meta-analytical framework. Using this framework, each paper was coded for the antecedents and facets that comprise user trust in health websites. Our findings show that there is little consensus regarding the defining characteristics of the construct of trust in health websites. Further research in this field should focus on collaboratively defining trust and what factors affect trust in health web sites. PMID:22288026

  10. Food insufficiency, housing and health-related quality of life: results from the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Fielden, Sarah; Globerman, Jason; Koornstra, J J Jay; Hambly, Keith; Walker, Glen; Sobota, Michael; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Watson, James; Bekele, Tsegaye; Greene, Saara; Tucker, Ruthann; Hwang, Stephen W; Rourke, Sean B; Healthy Places Team, The Positive Spaces

    2015-01-01

    Studies of people living with HIV who are homeless or unstably housed show a high prevalence of food insufficiency (>50%) and associated poor health outcomes; however, most evidence is in the form of cross-sectional studies. To better understand this issue, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the impact of food insufficiency and housing instability on overall physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV in Ontario. Six hundred and two adults living with HIV were enrolled in the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study and followed from 2006 to 2009. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used, and generalized linear mixed-effects models constructed to examine longitudinal associations between food insufficiency, housing instability and physical and mental HRQoL. At baseline, 57% of participants were classified as food insufficient. After adjusting for potential confounders, longitudinal analyses revealed a significant, negative association between food insufficiency and physical and mental HRQoL outcomes, respectively [effect size (ES) with 95% confidence interval (CI): (ES = -2.1, CI = -3.9,-0.3); (ES = -3.5, CI = -6.1,-1.5)]. Furthermore, difficulties meeting housing costs were shown to have additional negative impacts on mental HRQoL. Food insufficiency is highly prevalent among people living with HIV in Ontario, particularly for those with unstable housing. This vulnerable group of individuals is in urgent need of changes to current housing programmes, services and policies, as well as careful consideration of their unmet nutritional needs.

  11. Experts’ analysis of the improvement spaces of the first phase of reform in health system financial management: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bastani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health financial reforms began in 2005 through four phases in order to achieve the maximum efficiency and effectiveness in this sector. The first phase was accrual accounting implementation instead of cash method. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the most important improvement spaces of the first phase of reform in financial management (accrual accounting in the viewpoints of financial experts employed in middle and operational levels of Universities of Medical Sciences. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in Universities of Medical Sciences in 2013 using non-probability sampling method (snowball. Saturation was achieved only after 25 semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using content analysis by Kruger model. Findings: Seven areas of improvement including staffs, managers, information system, organizational culture, structure, process, and financial were identified as main themes. Each theme contained several sub-themes. Conclusion: Attempts and planning should be considered by decision makers in order to improve modifiable determinants through practical mechanisms in the first phase of health system financial management.

  12. Design study of RL10 derivatives. Volume 3, part 2: Operational and flight support plan. [analysis of transportation requirements for rocket engine in support of space tug program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Transportation requirements are considered during the engine design layout reviews and maintenance engineering analyses. Where designs cannot be influenced to avoid transportation problems, the transportation representative is advised of the problems permitting remedies early in the program. The transportation representative will monitor and be involved in the shipment of development engine and GSE hardware between FRDC and vehicle manufacturing plant and thereby will be provided an early evaluation of the transportation plans, methods and procedures to be used in the space tug support program. Unanticipated problems discovered in the shipment of development hardware will be known early enough to permit changes in packaging designs and transportation plans before the start of production hardware and engine shipments. All conventional transport media can be used for the movement of space tug engines. However, truck transport is recommended for ready availability, variety of routes, short transit time, and low cost.

  13. Mental health benefits of neighbourhood green space are stronger among physically active adults in middle-to-older age: evidence from 260,061 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-11-01

    While many studies report that green spaces promote mental health, some suggest the psychological benefits of physical activity are amplified if participation occurs within greener environs. We investigated whether this relationship could be observed among adults in middle-to-older age. Multilevel logit regression was used to investigate association between green space and psychological distress (Kessler scores of 22+) among 260,061 Australians over 45 years old living in New South Wales (2006-2009). Physical activity was measured using the Active Australia survey. Percentage green space was estimated within a 1-kilometre of residence. In comparison to residents of the least green areas, those in the greenest neighbourhoods were at a lower risk of psychological distress (Odds Ratio 0.83, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92) and were less sedentary (0.81: 0.77, 0.87). An interaction was observed between physical activity and green space (p=0.0028). More green space did not appear to benefit mental health among the least active (0.99: 0.85, 1.15), but there was a protective association for the more physically active (0.82: 0.67, 0.99). For adults in middle-to-older age, green spaces are not only important for promoting physical activity, but the mental health benefits of greener environs appear contingent upon those active lifestyles. © 2013.

  14. Population norms for the AQoL derived from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Graeme; Korn, Sam; Richardson, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    To provide Australian health-related quality of life (HRQoL) population norms, based on utility scores from the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) measure, a participant-reported outcomes (PRO) instrument. The data were from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. AQoL scores were analysed by age cohorts, gender, other demographic characteristics, and mental and physical health variables. The AQoL utility score mean was 0.81 (95%CI 0.81-0.82), and 47% obtained scores indicating a very high HRQoL (>0.90). HRQoL gently declined by age group, with older adults' scores indicating lower HRQoL. Based on effect sizes (ESs), there were small losses in HRQoL associated with other demographic variables (e.g. by lack of labour force participation, ES(median) : 0.27). Those with current mental health syndromes reported moderate losses in HRQoL (ES(median) : 0.64), while those with physical health conditions generally also reported moderate losses in HRQoL (ES(median) : 0.41). This study has provided contemporary Australian population norms for HRQoL that may be used by researchers as indicators allowing interpretation and estimation of population health (e.g. estimation of the burden of disease), cross comparison between studies, the identification of health inequalities, and to provide benchmarks for health care interventions. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. Method and Circuit for In-Situ Health Monitoring of Solar Cells in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Norman F.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation represents a method and circuit realization of a system designed to make in-situ measurements of test solar-cell operational parameters on orbit using readily available high-temperature and high-ionizing-radiation- tolerant electronic components. This innovation enables on-orbit in-situ solar-array health monitoring and is in response to a need recognized by the U.S. Air Force for future solar arrays for unmanned spacecraft. This system can also be constructed out of commercial-grade electronics and can be embedded into terrestrial solar power system as a diagnostics instrument. This innovation represents a novel approach to I-V curve measurement that is radiation and temperature hard, consumes very few system resources, is economical, and utilizes commercially available components. The circuit will also operate at temperatures as low as 55 C and up to +225 C, allowing it to reside close to the array in direct sunlight. It uses a swept mode transistor functioning as a resistive load while utilizing the solar cells themselves as the biasing device, so the size of the instrument is small and there is no danger of over-driving the cells. Further, this innovation utilizes nearly universal spacecraft bus resources and therefore can be readily adapted to any spacecraft bus allowing for ease of retrofit, or designed into new systems without requiring the addition of infrastructure. One unique characteristic of this innovation is that it effects the measurement of I-V curves without the use of large resistor arrays or active current sources normally used to characterize cells. A single transistor is used as a variable resistive load across the cell. This multi-measurement instrument was constructed using operational amplifiers, analog switches, voltage regulators, MOSFETs, resistors, and capacitors. The operational amplifiers, analog switches, and voltage regulators are silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology known for its hardness to the effects of ionizing

  16. Space-time distribution of the ALS incident cases by onset type in the Health District of Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, V; Della Coletta, E; Cesnik, E; Casetta, I; Tugnoli, V; Granieri, E

    2015-04-01

    An ecological study in the resident population of the Health District (HD) of Ferrara, Italy, has been carried out to establish the distribution in space and time of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incident cases according to the disease onset type and gender in the period 1964-2009. The hypothesis of a uniform distribution was assumed. The incident cases of spinal onset ALS and bulbar onset ALS were evenly distributed in space and time in both men and women. The spinal onset ALS incident cases distribution according to gender was significantly different from the expected in the extra-urban population (20 observed cases in men 95% Poisson confidence interval 12.22-30.89, expected cases in men 12.19; six observed cases in women 95% Poisson confidence interval 2.20-13.06, expected cases in women 13.81), whereas no difference was found in the urban population. The spinal onset ALS incidence was higher in men than in women in the extra-urban population (difference between the rates = 1.53, 95% CI associated with the difference 0.52-2.54), whereas no difference between sexes was found in the urban population. The uneven distribution according to gender of the spinal onset ALS incident cases only in the extra-urban population suggests the involvement of a gender related environmental risk factor associated with the extra-urban environment. Despite some limits of the spatial analysis in the study of rare diseases, the results appear consistent with the literature data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Decentralisation, Decision Space and Directions for Future Research; Comment on “Decentralisation of Health Services in Fiji: A Decision Space Analysis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zahmatkesh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Decentralisation continues to re-appear in health system reform across the world. Evaluation of these reforms reveals how research on decentralisation continues to evolve. In this paper, we examine the theoretical foundations and empirical references which underpin current approaches to studying decentralisation in health systems.

  18. Absence of a space-charge-derived enhancement of ionic conductivity in β|γ- heterostructured 7H- and 9R-AgI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, B J; Madden, P A

    2012-01-01

    Extreme room temperature conductivity enhancements have been reported for nanocrystalline AgI of up to × 10 4 relative to bulk β-AgI (Guo et al 2005 Adv. Mater. 17 2815-9). These samples were identified as possessing 7H and 9R polytype structures, which can be considered as heterostructures composed of thin, commensurate layers in the β (wurtzite) and γ (zincblende) phases. It has been proposed that space-charge layer formation at β|γ-interfaces causes near complete disordering of the Ag + sublattice in these polytypes, resulting in a massive intrinsic enhancement of ionic conductivity. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of β- and γ-AgI and mixed β|γ superlattices, to study the effect of heterostructuring on intrinsic defect populations and Ag + transport. The ionic conductivities and Ag + diffusion coefficients vary as β > 7H ≈ 9R ≈ 10L > γ. The β|γ-heterostructured polytypes show no enhancement in defect populations or Ag + mobilities relative to the β-AgI phase, and instead behave as simple composites of β- and γ-AgI. This contradicts the proposal that the extreme conductivity enhancement observed for 7H and 9R polytypes is explained by extensive space-charge formation. (paper)

  19. An efficient approach for surveillance of childhood diabetes by type derived from electronic health record data: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Victor W; Obeid, Jihad S; Craig, Jean B; Pfaff, Emily R; Thomas, Joan; Jaacks, Lindsay M; Beavers, Daniel P; Carey, Timothy S; Lawrence, Jean M; Dabelea, Dana; Hamman, Richard F; Bowlby, Deborah A; Pihoker, Catherine; Saydah, Sharon H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop an efficient surveillance approach for childhood diabetes by type across 2 large US health care systems, using phenotyping algorithms derived from electronic health record (EHR) data. Materials and Methods Presumptive diabetes cases diabetes-related billing codes, patient problem list, and outpatient anti-diabetic medications. EHRs of all the presumptive cases were manually reviewed, and true diabetes status and diabetes type were determined. Algorithms for identifying diabetes cases overall and classifying diabetes type were either prespecified or derived from classification and regression tree analysis. Surveillance approach was developed based on the best algorithms identified. Results We developed a stepwise surveillance approach using billing code–based prespecified algorithms and targeted manual EHR review, which efficiently and accurately ascertained and classified diabetes cases by type, in both health care systems. The sensitivity and positive predictive values in both systems were approximately ≥90% for ascertaining diabetes cases overall and classifying cases with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. About 80% of the cases with “other” type were also correctly classified. This stepwise surveillance approach resulted in a >70% reduction in the number of cases requiring manual validation compared to traditional surveillance methods. Conclusion EHR data may be used to establish an efficient approach for large-scale surveillance for childhood diabetes by type, although some manual effort is still needed. PMID:27107449

  20. Ex-ante assessment of the Spanish Occupational Health and Safety Strategy (2007–2012) using a State Space framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnero, María del Carmen; Pedregal, Diego José

    2013-01-01

    Spain is above the EU-27, EU-25 and EU-15 average in the number of serious work accidents, and it is estimated that Spain is five years behind the rest of Europe in reducing such accidents. To address the problem of the high number of occupational accidents, in 2007 the Spanish Occupational Health and Safety Strategy (SOHSS, 2007–2012) was launched, with the general aim of achieving a continuous and significant reduction in work accidents, approaching the EU average in occupational accidents and illness. This article is an attempt to assess the extent to which the aims of the SOHSS have been satisfied by predicting incidence rates for different levels of accident severity (slight, serious and fatal), accidents that do not require sick leave, and commuting accidents (slight, serious and fatal). With these objectives in mind, both Univariate and Multivariate Unobserved Components models are used in an enhanced State Space framework in order to deal with the irregular sampling interval of the data from 1998 to 2010.

  1. A note on the relevance of human population genetic variation and molecular epidemiology to assessing radiation health risk for space travellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackley, M.E.; Curry, J.; Glickman, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the relevance to space medicine of studies concerning human genetic variation and consequent variable disease susceptibility or sensitivity between individuals. The size of astronaut and cosmonaut populations is both presently and cumulatively small, and despite the launch of the International Space Station, unlikely to increase by orders of magnitude within the foreseeable future. In addition, astronauts-cosmonauts constitute unrepresentative samples of their national populations. While the context of exposure for the astronaut-cosmonaut group is one unlikely to be replicated elsewhere than in space, aspects of specific exposures may be simulated by events such as occupational radiation exposure or radiation therapy. Hence, population-based studies of genetic susceptibility or sensitivity to disease, especially where it is precipitated by events that may simulate consequences of the space environment, likely will prove of value in assessing long-term health risks

  2. Derivation and validation of the automated search algorithms to identify cognitive impairment and dementia in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amra, Sakusic; O'Horo, John C; Singh, Tarun D; Wilson, Gregory A; Kashyap, Rahul; Petersen, Ronald; Roberts, Rosebud O; Fryer, John D; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Gajic, Ognjen

    2017-02-01

    Long-term cognitive impairment is a common and important problem in survivors of critical illness. We developed electronic search algorithms to identify cognitive impairment and dementia from the electronic medical records (EMRs) that provide opportunity for big data analysis. Eligible patients met 2 criteria. First, they had a formal cognitive evaluation by The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Second, they were hospitalized in intensive care unit at our institution between 2006 and 2014. The "criterion standard" for diagnosis was formal cognitive evaluation supplemented by input from an expert neurologist. Using all available EMR data, we developed and improved our algorithms in the derivation cohort and validated them in the independent validation cohort. Of 993 participants who underwent formal cognitive testing and were hospitalized in intensive care unit, we selected 151 participants at random to form the derivation and validation cohorts. The automated electronic search algorithm for cognitive impairment was 94.3% sensitive and 93.0% specific. The search algorithms for dementia achieved respective sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 99%. EMR search algorithms significantly outperformed International Classification of Diseases codes. Automated EMR data extractions for cognitive impairment and dementia are reliable and accurate and can serve as acceptable and efficient alternatives to time-consuming manual data review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydraulic Properties of Closely Spaced Dipping Open Fractures Intersecting a Fluid-Filled Borehole Derived From Tube Wave Generation and Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Shohei; Ghose, Ranajit; Tsuji, Takeshi; Ikeda, Michiharu; Onishi, Kozo

    2017-10-01

    Fluid-filled fractures and fissures often determine the pathways and volume of fluid movement. They are critically important in crustal seismology and in the exploration of geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs. We introduce a model for tube wave scattering and generation at dipping, parallel-wall fractures intersecting a fluid-filled borehole. A new equation reveals the interaction of tube wavefield with multiple, closely spaced fractures, showing that the fracture dip significantly affects the tube waves. Numerical modeling demonstrates the possibility of imaging these fractures using a focusing analysis. The focused traces correspond well with the known fracture density, aperture, and dip angles. Testing the method on a VSP data set obtained at a fault-damaged zone in the Median Tectonic Line, Japan, presents evidences of tube waves being generated and scattered at open fractures and thin cataclasite layers. This finding leads to a new possibility for imaging, characterizing, and monitoring in situ hydraulic properties of dipping fractures using the tube wavefield.

  4. Occurrence and human health risk of wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in a drinking water source for Shanghai, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Ling; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Duan, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zeng-Sheng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceuticals are heavily used to improve human and animal health, resulting in the frequent contamination of aquatic environments with pharmaceutical residues, which has raised considerable concern in recent years. When inadequately removed from drinking water in water treatment plants, pharmaceuticals can have potential toxic effects on human health. This study investigated the spatial distributions and seasonal variations of five pharmaceuticals, including ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprofen (KEP), naproxen (NPX), diclofenac (DFC), and clofibric acid (CA), in the Huangpu River system (a drinking water source for Shanghai) over a period of almost two years as well as the associated risk to human health for different age groups. All of the targets were ubiquitous in the river water, with levels decreasing in the following order: KEP (mean: 28.6 ng/L)≈IBP (23.3 ng/L)>DFC (13.6 ng/L)≈NPX (12.3 ng/L)>CA (1.6ng/L). The concentrations of all of the investigated compounds were at the low or medium end of the global range. The upstream tributaries contained lower IBP but higher NPX than did the mainstream and downstream tributaries. However, no significant variations were found in the levels of KEP, DFC, or CA at the different sampling sites. Except for CA in the mainstream, significantly higher pharmaceutical levels were observed in the dry season than in the wet season. Overall, a very low risk of the selected pharmaceuticals for human health via drinking water was observed, but future studies are needed to examine the fate and chronic effects of all pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the human health risk of pharmaceuticals in raw drinking water in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New models to support the professional education of health visitors: A qualitative study of the role of space and place in creating 'community of learning hubs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donetto, Sara; Malone, Mary; Sayer, Lynn; Robert, Glenn

    2017-07-01

    In response to a policy-driven workforce expansion in England new models of preparing health visitors for practice have been implemented. 'Community of Learning hubs' (COLHs) are one such model, involving different possible approaches to student support in clinical practice placements (for example, 'long arm mentoring' or 'action learning set' sessions). Such models present opportunities for studying the possible effects of spatiality on the learning experiences of students and newly qualified health visitors, and on team relationships more broadly. To explore a 'community of learning hub' model in health visitor education and reflect on the role of space and place in the learning experience and professional identity development of student health visitors. Qualitative research conducted during first year of implementation. Three 'community of learning hub' projects based in two NHS community Trusts in London during the period 2013-2015. Managers and leads (n=7), practice teachers and mentors (n=6) and newly qualified and student health visitors (n=16). Semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews analysed thematically. Participants had differing views as to what constituted a 'hub' in their projects. Two themes emerged around the spaces that shape the learning experience of student and newly qualified health visitors. Firstly, a generalised need for a 'quiet place' which allows pause for reflection but also for sharing experiences and relieving common anxieties. Secondly, the role of physical arrangements in open-plan spaces to promote access to support from more experienced practitioners. Attention to spatiality can shed light on important aspects of teaching and learning practices, and on the professional identities these practices shape and support. New configurations of time and space as part of educational initiatives can surface new insights into existing practices and learning models. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Occupational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  7. Utilization of O4 Slant Column Density to Derive Aerosol Layer Height from a Space-Borne UV-Visible Hyperspectral Sensor: Sensitivity and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Torres, Omar; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Sang Deok

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using the simulated radiances by a radiative transfer model, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT), and the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. The sensitivities of the O4 index (O4I), which is defined as dividing O4 SCD by 10(sup 40) molecules (sup 2) per centimeters(sup -5), to aerosol types and optical properties are also evaluated and compared. Among the O4 absorption bands at 340, 360, 380, and 477 nanometers, the O4 absorption band at 477 nanometers is found to be the most suitable to retrieve the aerosol effective height. However, the O4I at 477 nanometers is significantly influenced not only by the aerosol layer effective height but also by aerosol vertical profiles, optical properties including single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size, and surface albedo. Overall, the error of the retrieved aerosol effective height is estimated to be 1276, 846, and 739 meters for dust, non-absorbing, and absorbing aerosol, respectively, assuming knowledge on the aerosol vertical distribution shape. Using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a new algorithm is developed to derive the aerosol effective height over East Asia after the determination of the aerosol type and AOD from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). About 80 percent of retrieved aerosol effective heights are within the error range of 1 kilometer compared to those obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements on thick aerosol layer cases.

  8. Has Underreporting of Cigarette Consumption Changed Over Time? Estimates Derived From US National Health Surveillance Systems Between 1965 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Warner, Kenneth E

    2018-01-01

    According to survey data, the prevalence of Americans' self-reported cigarette smoking is dropping steadily. However, the accuracy of national surveys has been questioned because of declining response rates and the increasing stigmatization of smoking. We used data from 2 repeated, cross-sectional, nationally representative health surveys (National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 1979-2014; and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 1965-2015) to determine whether self-reported cigarette consumption has changed over time as a proportion of federally taxed cigarette sales. From each survey, we calculated national equivalents of annual cigarette consumption. From 1979 to 1997, the amount of cigarettes that NSDUH and NHIS respondents reported corresponded to an average of 59.5% (standard deviation (SD), 2.3%) and 65.6% (SD, 3.2%), respectively, of taxed cigarette sales. After 1997, respondents' reported smoking data corresponded to the equivalent of an average of 64.2% (SD, 5.9%) and 63.3% (SD, 2.5%), respectively, of taxed cigarette sales. NHIS figures remained steady throughout the latter period, with a decline during 2013-2015 from 65.9% to 61.1%. NSDUH figures increased steadily, exceeding those of the NHIS after 2002. Given the consistent underreporting of cigarette consumption over time, these surveys are likely not less accurate than they were previously. The recent decrease in NHIS accuracy, however, gives pause about the magnitude of the reported decline in smoking prevalence in 2014 and 2015. Improvement in the accuracy of NSDUH data is encouraging. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mission-X Child Health Promotion Program in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jungwon; Tan, Zhengqi; Abadie, Laurie; Townsend, Scott; Xue, Hong; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effects of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mission-X: Train Like an Astronaut program (MX) on children's health-related knowledge and behaviors of a sample of US participants. A nonexperimental pilot intervention study in 5 cities with a pre-post comparison of children's health-related knowledge and behaviors in the United States in 2014 and 2015. Children (n = 409) with a mean age (standard deviation) of 10.1 (1.7) years. Children answered pre- and postintervention questionnaires. We measured the differences in children's health knowledge on nutrition and physical fitness and behaviors on diet and physical activity as scores. A 6-week web- and school-based intervention for a healthier lifestyle by introducing physical fitness and science activities based on actual astronaut training under a teacher's supervision. Nonparametric analysis and logistic regression models. Participants significantly improved both of their health behaviors on physical activity ( P < .001) and diet ( P = .06) and their health knowledge regarding nutrition ( P < .001) and physical fitness ( P < .001) after the intervention. The improvement in children's behaviors ( P < .001), knowledge ( P < .001), and the total score ( P < .001) after intervention did not significantly vary by sex or age, after adjusting for year of participation and state of residency. The MX seems effective in improving health behaviors and health knowledge of participating children, which may serve as a model for sustainable global child health promotion program. Further research is needed to test its long-term effects on child health.

  10. Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Food Products: Public Health Perspectives of Their Co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2017-08-23

    Cereal grains and their processed food products are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. Among many, five major mycotoxins of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause adverse effects in humans. Being airborne or soilborne, the cosmopolitan nature of mycotoxigenic fungi contribute to the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins. On the basis of the global occurrence data reported during the past 10 years, the incidences and maximum levels in raw cereal grains were 55% and 1642 μg/kg for aflatoxins, 29% and 1164 μg/kg for ochratoxin A, 61% and 71,121 μg/kg for fumonisins, 58% and 41,157 μg/kg, for deoxynivalenol, and 46% and 3049 μg/kg for zearalenone. The concentrations of mycotoxins tend to be lower in processed food products; the incidences varied depending on the individual mycotoxins, possibly due to the varying stability during processing and distribution of mycotoxins. It should be noted that more than one mycotoxin, produced by a single or several fungal species, may occur in various combinations in a given sample or food. Most studies reported additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures may pose a significant threat to public health, particularly to infants and young children. Therefore, information on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and their interactive toxicity is summarized in this paper.

  11. Health and environmental effects of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production and RDF/coal co-firing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, J.J.; Wessels, T.E.; Lynch, J.F.; Fassel, V.A.; Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Norton, G.A.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.; Dekalb, E.L.; Dobosy, R.J.

    1981-10-01

    Six facilities, representing the scope of different co-firing techniques with their associated RDF production systems were reviewed in detail for combustion equipment, firing modes, emission control systems, residue handling/disposal, and effluent wastewater treatment. These facilities encompass all currently operational or soon to be operational co-firing plants and associated RDF production systems. Occupational health and safety risks for these plants were evaluated on the basis of fatal and nonfatal accidents and disease arising from the respective fuel cycles, coal and RDF. Occupational risks include exposure to pathogenic organisms in the workplace. Unusual events that are life threatening in the RDF processing industry (e.g., explosions) are also discussed and remedial and safety measures reviewed. 80 refs., 4 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. An empirically-derived approach for investigating Health Information Technology: the Elementally Entangled Organisational Communication (EEOC) framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna I; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-07-12

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the Elementally Entangled Organisational Communication (EEOC) framework by drawing on a set of three case studies which assessed the impact of new Health Information Technology (HIT) on a pathology service. The EEOC framework was empirically developed as a tool to tackle organisational communication challenges in the implementation and evaluation of health information systems. The framework was synthesised from multiple research studies undertaken across a major metropolitan hospital pathology service during the period 2005 to 2008. These studies evaluated the impact of new HIT systems in pathology departments (Laboratory Information System) and an Emergency Department (Computerised Provider Order Entry) located in Sydney, Australia. Key dimensions of EEOC are illustrated by the following case studies: 1) the communication infrastructure between the Blood Bank and the ward for the coordination and distribution of blood products; 2) the organisational environment in the Clinical Chemistry and Haematology departments and their attempts to organise, plan and control the processing of laboratory specimens; and 3) the temporal make up of the organisation as revealed in changes to the way the Central Specimen Reception allocated, sequenced and synchronised work tasks. The case studies not only highlight the pre-existing communication architecture within the organisation but also the constitutive role communication plays in the way organisations go about addressing their requirements. HIT implementation involves a mutual transformation of the organisation and the technology. This is a vital consideration because of the dangers associated with poor organisational planning and implementation of HIT, and the potential for unintended adverse consequences, workarounds and risks to the quality and safety of patient care. The EEOC framework aims to account for the complex range of contextual factors and triggers that play a role in the

  13. Release of bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesive systems available on the European market as a potential health risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Małkiewicz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances requires the application of adhesive systems to enable secure fastening of brackets and retainers to the surface of tooth enamel. The orthodontic bonding systems are similar in terms of chemical composition to dental filling materials, the chemical stability of which is not satisfactory. Particularly alarming is the release of bisphenol A and its derivatives to the external environment, which has been well-documented for materials used in conservative dentistry. [b]Objectives[/b]. The aim of the study was an in vitro assessment of the release of biologically harmful bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesives available on the European market, as a potential health risk factor for orthodontic patients. [b]Material and methods[/b]. The study assessed levels of BPA, BPA polymers and Bis-GMA resin in eluates of six commonly used orthodontic adhesives: Light Bond, Transbond XT, Resilence, Aspire, GrĕnGloo and ConTec LC, obtained after one hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 31 days of material sample storage in water. The presence and concentration of the studied chemicals in the obtained solutions were identified using the HPLC method. [b]Results[/b]. The highest (p≤0.05 concentration of BPA at 32.10µg/ml was observed in the Resilence material eluates. The highest concentration of poly-bisphenol A was found in solutions obtained after incubation of ConTec LC adhesive at 371.90µg/ml, whereas the highest amount of Bis-GMA resin (425.07µg/ml was present in Aspire material eluates. [b]Conclusions[/b]. 1 In conditions of the current experiment it was demonstrated that most of the assessed orthodontic adhesive resins available on the European market and released into the outside environment – biologically harmful bisphenol A or its derivatives, posing a potential threat to the patients’ health. 2 Release of BPA and its derivatives into aqueous solutions is the highest in the

  14. Does expanding fiscal space lead to improved funding of the health sector in developing countries?: lessons from Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jane; Kirigia, Doris; Okoli, Chijioke; Chuma, Jane; Ezumah, N; Ichoku, Hyacinth; Hanson, Kara; McIntyre, Diane

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The global focus on promoting Universal Health Coverage has drawn attention to the need to increase public domestic funding for health care in low- and middle-income countries. Objectives: This article examines whether increased tax revenue in the three territories of Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa was accompanied by improved resource allocation to their public health sectors, and explores the reasons underlying the observed trends. Methods: Three case studies were conducted by different research teams using a common mixed methods approach. Quantitative data were extracted from official government financial reports and used to describe trends in general tax revenue, total government expenditure and government spending on the health sector and other sectors in the first decade of this century. Twenty-seven key informant interviews with officials in Ministries of Health and Finance were used to explore the contextual factors, actors and processes accounting for the observed trends. A thematic content analysis allowed this qualitative information to be compared and contrasted between territories. Findings: Increased tax revenue led to absolute increases in public health spending in all three territories, but not necessarily in real per capita terms. However, in each of the territories, the percentage of the government budget allocated to health declined for much of the period under review. Factors contributing to this trend include: inter-sectoral competition in priority setting; the extent of fiscal federalism; the Ministry of Finance’s perception of the health sector’s absorptive capacity; weak investment cases made by the Ministry of Health; and weak parliamentary and civil society involvement. Conclusion: Despite dramatic improvements in tax revenue collection, fiscal space for health in the three territories did not improve. Ministries of Health must strengthen their ability to motivate for larger allocations from

  15. Does expanding fiscal space lead to improved funding of the health sector in developing countries?: lessons from Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jane; Kirigia, Doris; Okoli, Chijioke; Chuma, Jane; Ezumah, N; Ichoku, Hyacinth; Hanson, Kara; McIntyre, Diane

    2018-01-01

    The global focus on promoting Universal Health Coverage has drawn attention to the need to increase public domestic funding for health care in low- and middle-income countries. This article examines whether increased tax revenue in the three territories of Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa was accompanied by improved resource allocation to their public health sectors, and explores the reasons underlying the observed trends. Three case studies were conducted by different research teams using a common mixed methods approach. Quantitative data were extracted from official government financial reports and used to describe trends in general tax revenue, total government expenditure and government spending on the health sector and other sectors in the first decade of this century. Twenty-seven key informant interviews with officials in Ministries of Health and Finance were used to explore the contextual factors, actors and processes accounting for the observed trends. A thematic content analysis allowed this qualitative information to be compared and contrasted between territories. Increased tax revenue led to absolute increases in public health spending in all three territories, but not necessarily in real per capita terms. However, in each of the territories, the percentage of the government budget allocated to health declined for much of the period under review. Factors contributing to this trend include: inter-sectoral competition in priority setting; the extent of fiscal federalism; the Ministry of Finance's perception of the health sector's absorptive capacity; weak investment cases made by the Ministry of Health; and weak parliamentary and civil society involvement. Despite dramatic improvements in tax revenue collection, fiscal space for health in the three territories did not improve. Ministries of Health must strengthen their ability to motivate for larger allocations from government revenue through demonstrating improved performance and the

  16. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  17. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J; Jones, Bryan D; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E J; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M; Iverson, Don C

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (pdisadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (pdisadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  18. Is All Urban Green Space the Same? A Comparison of the Health Benefits of Trees and Grass in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Colleen E; Clougherty, Jane E; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2017-11-18

    Living near vegetation, often called "green space" or "greenness", has been associated with numerous health benefits. We hypothesized that the two key components of urban vegetation, trees and grass, may differentially affect health. We estimated the association between near-residence trees, grass, and total vegetation (from the 2010 High Resolution Land Cover dataset for New York City (NYC)) with self-reported health from a survey of NYC adults (n = 1281). We found higher reporting of "very good" or "excellent" health for respondents with the highest, compared to the lowest, quartiles of tree (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.06-1.44) but not grass density (relative risk (RR) = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.86-1.17) within 1000 m buffers, adjusting for pertinent confounders. Significant positive associations between trees and self-reported health remained after adjustment for grass, whereas associations with grass remained non-significant. Adjustment for air pollutants increased beneficial associations between trees and self-reported health; adjustment for parks only partially attenuated these effects. Results were null or negative using a 300 m buffer. Findings imply that higher exposure to vegetation, particularly trees outside of parks, may be associated with better health. If replicated, this may suggest that urban street tree planting may improve population health.

  19. Deep Space Environmental Effects on Immune, Oxidative Stress and Damage, and Health and Behavioral Biomarkers in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B.; Zwart, S.; Smith, S. M.; Simonsen, L. C.; Williams, T.; Antonsen, E.

    2018-02-01

    Biomarkers will be assessed in biological samples (saliva, blood, urine, feces) collected from crewmembers and returned to Earth at various intervals, mirroring (where feasible) collection timepoints used on the International Space Station (ISS).

  20. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  1. Derivation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, University of California, Davis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1993-04-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for strontium-90 and cesium-137 were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; this code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site will be utilized without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded within 1,000 years for either strontium-90 or cesium-137, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the following levels: 71,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 91 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario A (researcher: the expected scenario); 160,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 220 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); and 37 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 32 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the contaminated area: a plausible scenario). The derived guidelines are single-radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual strontium-90 and cesium-137 guidelines for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate

  2. Reducing residential solid fuel combustion through electrified space heating leads to substantial air quality, health and climate benefits in China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    During periods of high pollution in winter, household space heating can contribute more than half of PM2.5 concentrations in China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. The majority of rural households and some urban households in the region still heat with small stoves and solid fuels such as raw coal, coal briquettes and biomass. Thus, reducing emissions from residential space heating has become a top priority of the Chinese government's air pollution mitigation plan. Electrified space heating is a promising alternative to solid fuel. However, there is little analysis of the air quality and climate implications of choosing various electrified heating devices and utilizing different electricity sources. Here we conduct an integrated assessment of the air quality, human health and climate implications of various electrified heating scenarios in the BTH region using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry. We use the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China for the year 2012 as our base case and design two electrification scenarios in which either direct resistance heaters or air source heat pumps are installed to replace all household heating stoves. We initially assume all electrified heating devices use electricity from supercritical coal-fired power plants. We find that installing air source heat pumps reduces CO2 emissions and premature deaths due to PM2.5 pollution more than resistance heaters, relative to the base case. The increased health and climate benefits of heat pumps occur because they have a higher heat conversion efficiency and thus require less electricity for space heating than resistance heaters. We also find that with the same heat pump installation, a hybrid electricity source (40% of the electricity generated from renewable sources and the rest from coal) further reduces both CO2 emissions and premature deaths than using electricity only from coal. Our study demonstrates the air pollution and CO2 mitigation potential and

  3. The Nature and Variability of Automated Practice Alerts Derived from Electronic Health Records in a U.S. Nationwide Critical Care Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthin, Cody; Pannu, Sonal; Khan, Akram; Gong, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    The nature, variability, and extent of early warning clinical practice alerts derived from automated query of electronic health records (e-alerts) currently used in acute care settings for clinical care or research is unknown. To describe e-alerts in current use in acute care settings at medical centers participating in a nationwide critical care research network. We surveyed investigators at 38 institutions involved in the National Institutes of Health-funded Clinical Trials Network for the Prevention and Early Treatment of Acute Lung Injury (PETAL) for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Thirty sites completed the survey (79% response rate). All sites used electronic health record systems. Epic Systems was used at 56% of sites; the others used alternate commercially available vendors or homegrown systems. Respondents at 57% of sites represented in this survey used e-alerts. All but 1 of these 17 sites used an e-alert for early detection of sepsis-related syndromes, and 35% used an e-alert for pneumonia. E-alerts were triggered by abnormal laboratory values (37%), vital signs (37%), or radiology reports (15%) and were used about equally for clinical decision support and research. Only 59% of sites with e-alerts have evaluated them either for accuracy or for validity. A majority of the research network sites participating in this survey use e-alerts for early notification of potential threats to hospitalized patients; however, there was significant variability in the nature of e-alerts between institutions. Use of one common electronic health record vendor at more than half of the participating sites suggests that it may be possible to standardize e-alerts across multiple sites in research networks, particularly among sites using the same medical record platform.

  4. Higher derivatives in gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogilidze, S.A.; Sanadze, V.V.; Tkebuchava, F.G.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of appearance of highher derivatives of coordinates in the symmetry transformation law of the second Noether's theorem is established. It is shown that the corresponding transformations are canonical in the extended phase space. 15 refs

  5. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  6. Financial Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Janečková, Alena

    2011-01-01

    1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...

  7. Deriving pragmatic factors behind geo-spatial variation of public sanitation relating to health: A case from a mega-city in lower-middle income developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, R.; Arya, K.; Deshpande, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Sanitation is the daily water-human interaction, but Billions of people are still far away from access to improved public sanitation - mostly in developing countries. This challenges Millennium Development Goals across the globe. Economic growth with provision of basic services is unable to assure improvements in sanitation & health. Policymakers & researchers often focus on building infrastructural-capacity without considering empirical factors behind poor sanitation. What are these driving factors? Is there a nexus between sanitation & health? How it is spatially distributed? We have conducted geo-spatial assessment and exploratory regression to interpret spatial-distribution data and deriving influential pragmatic factors in the process. Mumbai is our test-bed, where we have accumulated and applied a total of 40 ward-wise-attributes related to socio-demographic, spatial, services, diseases and infrastructural data. The results indicate that: higher population per toilet-seat, numerous toilet-issues, low toilet density and poor/moderate toilet-condition may be the reason behind the spread of Diarrhoea. On the other hand, illiteracy, per capita waste generation, excreta overflow to open gutter/nallah from toilets and poor/moderate toilet-condition may be the reasons for the spread of Malaria. Strong correlation or associations observed, as in our Malaria-model has an adjusted R2 of 0.65 and the Diarrhoea-model has 0.76. The identified variables are significant enough, since the p-value is public sanitation & excessive waste generation along with Malaria & Diarrhoea disease-cases. This study and its methods contribute to the advancement of scientific method as a tool that may be useful for researchers, stakeholders and policymakers to conduct further scientific studies in analogous cities. This also permits us to model them to explore policy amendments to mitigate poor sanitation practices that affect public health in contemporary societies.

  8. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  9. Physical activity as a possible mechanism behind the relationship between green space and health: a multilevel analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (in general, and more specifically, walking and cycling during leisure time and for commuting purposes, sports and gardening) is an underlying mechanism in the relationship between the amount of green space in people's

  10. Space Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  11. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using a semi-analytical algorithm for Southern Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic) waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S. B.; Bricaud, A.; Gentili, B.; Babin, M.

    2012-10-01

    A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM) was developed for Southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows to separate colored detrital matter (CDM) into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP) by determining NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, that were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and turbid waters, respectively. In situ measurements showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption (r2 = 0.97). By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the Southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  12. Social media as a space for support: Young adults' perspectives on producing and consuming user-generated content about diabetes and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona

    2016-12-01

    Social media offer opportunities to both produce and consume content related to health experiences. However, people's social media practices are likely to be influenced by a range of individual, social and environmental factors. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how engagement with user-generated content can support people with long-term health conditions, and what limits users' adoption of these technologies in the everyday experience of their health condition. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults, aged between 18 and 30 years, with experience of diabetes or a common mental health disorder (CMHD). We found that the online activities of these young adults were diverse; they ranged from regular production and consumption ('prosumption') of health-related user-generated content to no engagement with such content. Our analysis suggested three main types of users: 'prosumers'; 'tacit consumers' and 'non-engagers'. A key determinant of participants' engagement with resources related to diabetes and CMHDs in the online environment was their offline experiences of support. Barriers to young adults' participation in online interaction, and sharing of content related to their health experiences, included concerns about compromising their presentation of identity and adherence to conventions about what content is most appropriate for specific social media spaces. Based on our analysis, we suggest that social media do not provide an unproblematic environment for engagement with health content and the generation of supportive networks. Rather, producing and consuming user-generated content is an activity embedded within individuals' specific health experiences and is impacted by offline contexts, as well as their daily engagement with, and expectations, of different social media platforms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The combinatorial derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Protasov

    2013-09-01

    $\\Delta(A=\\{g\\in G:|gA\\cap A|=\\infty\\}$. The mapping $\\Delta:\\mathcal{P}_G\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_G$, $A\\mapsto\\Delta(A$, is called a combinatorial derivation and can be considered as an analogue of the topological derivation $d:\\mathcal{P}_X\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_X$, $A\\mapsto A^d$, where $X$ is a topological space and $A^d$ is the set of all limit points of $A$. Content: elementary properties, thin and almost thin subsets, partitions, inverse construction and $\\Delta$-trajectories,  $\\Delta$ and $d$.

  14. Comparing dietary patterns derived by two methods and their associations with obesity in Polish girls aged 13-21 years: the cross-sectional GEBaHealth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadolowska, Lidia; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2017-05-01

    To compare dietary patterns (DPs) derived by two methods and their assessment as a factor of obesity in girls aged 13-21 years. Data from a cross-sectional study conducted among the representative sample of Polish females ( n = 1,107) aged 13-21 years were used. Subjects were randomly selected. Dietary information was collected using three short-validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) regarding fibre intake, fat intake and overall food intake variety. DPs were identified by two methods: a priori approach (a priori DPs) and cluster analysis (data-driven DPs). The association between obesity and DPs and three single dietary characteristics was examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Four data-driven DPs were obtained: 'Low-fat-Low-fibre-Low-varied' (21.2%), 'Low-fibre' (29.1%), 'Low-fat' (25.0%) and 'High-fat-Varied' (24.7%). Three a priori DPs were pre-defined: 'Non-healthy' (16.6%), 'Neither-pro-healthy-nor-non-healthy' (79.1%) and 'Pro-healthy' (4.3%). Girls with 'Low-fibre' DP were less likely to have central obesity (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17, 0.75) than girls with 'Low-fat-Low-fibre-Low-varied' DP (reference group, OR = 1.00). No significant associations were found between a priori DPs and overweight including obesity or central obesity. The majority of girls with 'Non-healthy' DP were also classified as 'Low-fibre' DP in the total sample, in girls with overweight including obesity and in girls with central obesity (81.7%, 80.6% and 87.3%, respectively), while most girls with 'Pro-healthy' DP were classified as 'Low-fat' DP (67.8%, 87.6% and 52.1%, respectively). We found that the a priori approach as well as cluster analysis can be used to derive opposite health-oriented DPs in Polish females. Both methods have provided disappointing outcomes in explaining the association between obesity and DPs. The cluster analysis, in comparison with the a priori approach, was more useful for finding any

  15. The Role of Quality Health Services and Discussion about Birth Spacing in Postpartum Contraceptive Use in Sindh, Pakistan: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Tappis

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth, stagnant contraceptive prevalence, and high unmet need for family planning present significant challenges for meeting Pakistan's national and international development goals. Although health behaviors are shaped by multiple social and environmental factors, research on contraceptive uptake in Pakistan has focused on individual and household determinants, and little attention has been given to community characteristics that may affect access to services and reproductive behavior.Individual and community determinants of contraceptive use were identified using multivariable multilevel logistic regression to analyze data from a 2014 cross-sectional survey of 6,200 mothers in 503 communities in Sindh, Pakistan.Only 27% of women who had given birth in the two years before the study reported using contraceptives. After adjusting for individual and community characteristics, there was no difference in the odds of contraceptive use between urban and rural women. Women who had delivered at a health facility had 1.4 times higher odds of contraceptive use than women who delivered at home. Those who received information about birth spacing from a doctor or relatives/friends had 1.81 and 1.38 times higher odds of contraceptive use, respectively, than those who did not. Living in a community where a higher proportion of women received quality antenatal care and where discussion of birth spacing was more common was significantly associated with contraceptive use. Community-wide poverty lowered contraceptive use.Quality of care at the community level has strong effects on contraceptive use, independent of the characteristics of individual households or women. These findings suggest that powerful gains in contraceptive use may be realized by improving the quality of antenatal care in Pakistan. Community health workers should focus on generating discussion of birth spacing in the community. Outreach efforts should target communities where

  16. The Role of Quality Health Services and Discussion about Birth Spacing in Postpartum Contraceptive Use in Sindh, Pakistan: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappis, Hannah; Kazi, Anis; Hameed, Waqas; Dahar, Zaib; Ali, Anayat; Agha, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Rapid population growth, stagnant contraceptive prevalence, and high unmet need for family planning present significant challenges for meeting Pakistan's national and international development goals. Although health behaviors are shaped by multiple social and environmental factors, research on contraceptive uptake in Pakistan has focused on individual and household determinants, and little attention has been given to community characteristics that may affect access to services and reproductive behavior. Individual and community determinants of contraceptive use were identified using multivariable multilevel logistic regression to analyze data from a 2014 cross-sectional survey of 6,200 mothers in 503 communities in Sindh, Pakistan. Only 27% of women who had given birth in the two years before the study reported using contraceptives. After adjusting for individual and community characteristics, there was no difference in the odds of contraceptive use between urban and rural women. Women who had delivered at a health facility had 1.4 times higher odds of contraceptive use than women who delivered at home. Those who received information about birth spacing from a doctor or relatives/friends had 1.81 and 1.38 times higher odds of contraceptive use, respectively, than those who did not. Living in a community where a higher proportion of women received quality antenatal care and where discussion of birth spacing was more common was significantly associated with contraceptive use. Community-wide poverty lowered contraceptive use. Quality of care at the community level has strong effects on contraceptive use, independent of the characteristics of individual households or women. These findings suggest that powerful gains in contraceptive use may be realized by improving the quality of antenatal care in Pakistan. Community health workers should focus on generating discussion of birth spacing in the community. Outreach efforts should target communities where the demand for

  17. Monitoring and modeling crop health and water use via in-situ, airborne and space-based platforms

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew; Houborg, Rasmus; Jensen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helene

    2014-01-01

    The accurate retrieval of plant water use, health and function together with soil state and condition, represent key objectives in the management and monitoring of large-scale agricultural production. In regions of water shortage or stress

  18. Evaluation of prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) pack for use by the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the prototype Advanced Life Support (ALS) Pack which was developed for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). This pack will enable the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) to have ready access to advanced life support supplies and equipment for time critical responses to any situation within the Space Station Freedom. The objectives are: (1) to evaluate the design of the pack; and (2) to collect comments for revision to the design of the pack. The in-flight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic test flight to simulate weightlessness are presented.

  19. Accelerometer-Derived Pattern of Sedentary and Physical Activity Time in Persons with Mobility Disability: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Patricia; Ezeugwu, Victor; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Vallance, Jeff; Healy, Genevieve N

    2015-07-01

    To describe objectively determined sedentary and activity outcomes (volume and pattern) and their associations with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in individuals with and without mobility disability. Cross-sectional. Population based. Community-dwelling older adults (≥60) living in the United States who were participants in the 2003 to 2004 or 2005 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified as with or without mobility disability according to responses to self-reported questions about ability to walk, climb stairs, and/or use of ambulatory aids. Accelerometer-derived sedentary and activity variables for volume (time in sedentary (activity and pattern (number of breaks from sedentary time, duration of sedentary bouts, duration of activity bouts). Survey-weighted regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, and smoking, were used to examine the associations between pattern of activity and cardiometabolic health risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Of the 2,017 participants, 547 were classified as having a mobility disability. Participants with mobility disability had more sedentary time and less active time than those without. Sedentary bouts were longer and active bouts shorter in those with disability. The total number of sedentary breaks (transitions from sedentary to nonsedentary) differed between groups after adjustment for total sedentary time. Fewer breaks, longer sedentary bouts, and shorter activity bouts were associated with higher average waist circumference regardless of disability status. This study provides rationale for the development and testing of interventions to change the pattern of activity (e.g., include more breaks and longer activity bout durations) in older adults with mobility disability. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Golden

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its well-established role in nerve cell survival and adaptive plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is also involved in energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Although BDNF is present in the systemic circulation, it is unknown whether plasma BDNF correlates with circulating markers of dysregulated metabolism and an adverse cardiovascular profile.To determine whether circulating BDNF correlates with indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health, we measured plasma BDNF levels in 496 middle-age and elderly subjects (mean age approximately 70, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, regardless of age. In females, BDNF was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and inversely correlated with folate. In males, BDNF was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, free thiiodo-thyronine (FT3, and bioavailable testosterone, and inversely correlated with sex-hormone binding globulin, and adiponectin.Plasma BDNF significantly correlates with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular dysfunction. Whether BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or functions in adaptive responses to cellular stress (as occurs in the brain remains to be determined.

  1. Temporal Dietary Patterns Derived among the Adult Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 Are Associated with Diet Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Khanna, Nitin; Boushey, Carol J; Gelfand, Saul B; Delp, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    Temporal dietary patterns, the distribution of energy or nutrient intakes observed over a period of time, is an emerging area of dietary patterns research that incorporates time of dietary intake with frequency and amount of intake to determine population clusters that may have similar characteristics or outcomes related to diet quality. We examined whether differences in diet quality were present between clusters of individuals with similar daily temporal dietary patterns. The first-day 24-hour dietary recall data from the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004, were used to determine proportional energy intake, time of intake, frequency of intake occasions, and mean diet quality. Data from 9,326 US adults aged 20 to 65 years were included. The mean diet quality, classified by the Healthy Eating Index-2005, of participant clusters with similar temporal dietary patterns derived on the basis of individual proportional energy intake, time of intake, and frequency of intake, were inferentially compared using multiple linear regression that controlled for potential confounders and other covariates (PDiet quality differences were present between US population clusters exhibiting similar daily temporal dietary patterns (Pdiet quality, demonstrating that elements beyond food and nutrient intake, such as time, can be incorporated with dietary patterns to determine links to diet quality that enhance knowledge of the complicated interplay of time and dietary patterns. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section 1203.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The application of...

  3. Mapping spaces and automorphism groups of toric noncommutative spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gwendolyn E.; Schenkel, Alexander; Szabo, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    We develop a sheaf theory approach to toric noncommutative geometry which allows us to formalize the concept of mapping spaces between two toric noncommutative spaces. As an application, we study the `internalized' automorphism group of a toric noncommutative space and show that its Lie algebra has an elementary description in terms of braided derivations.

  4. A cyborg ontology in health care: traversing into the liminal space between technology and person-centred practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapum, Jennifer; Fredericks, Suzanne; Beanlands, Heather; McCay, Elizabeth; Schwind, Jasna; Romaniuk, Daria

    2012-10-01

    Person-centred practice indubitably seems to be the antithesis of technology. The ostensible polarity of technology and person-centred practice is an easy road to travel down and in their various forms has been probably travelled for decades if not centuries. By forging ahead or enduring these dualisms, we continue to approach and recede, but never encounter the elusive and the liminal space between technology and person-centred practice. Inspired by Haraway's work, we argue that healthcare practitioners who critically consider their cyborg ontology may begin the process to initiate and complicate the liminal and sought after space between technology and person-centred practice. In this paper, we draw upon Haraway's idea that we are all materially and ontologically cyborgs. Cyborgs, the hybridity of machine and human, are part of our social reality and embedded in our everyday existence. By considering our cyborg ontology, we suggest that person-centred practice can be actualized in the contextualized, embodied and relational spaces of technology. It is not a question of espousing technology or person-centred practice. Such dualisms have been historically produced and reproduced over many decades and prevented us from recognizing our own cyborg ontology. Rather, it is salient that we take notice of our own cyborg ontology and how technological, habitual ways of being may prevent (and facilitate) us to recognize the embodied and contextualized experiences of patients. A disruption and engagement with the habitual can ensure we are not governed by technology in our logics and practices of care and can move us to a conscious and critical integration of person-centred practice in the technologized care environments. By acknowledging ourselves as cyborgs, we can recapture and preserve our humanness as caregivers, as well as thrive as we proceed in our technological way of being. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Toxicity assessment strategies, data requirements, and risk assessment approaches to derive health based guidance values for non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Melching-Kollmuss, Stephanie; Kalberlah, Fritz

    2010-03-01

    In Europe, limits for tolerable concentrations of "non-relevant metabolites" for active ingredients (AI) of plant protection products in drinking water between 0.1 and 10 microg/L are discussed depending on the toxicological information available. "Non-relevant metabolites" are degradation products of AIs, which do not or only partially retain the targeted toxicities of AIs. For "non-relevant metabolites" without genotoxicity (to be confirmed by testing in vitro), the application of the concept of "thresholds of toxicological concern" results in a health-based drinking water limit of 4.5 microg/L even for Cramer class III compounds, using the TTC threshold of 90 microg/person/day (divided by 10 and 2). Taking into account the thresholds derived from two reproduction toxicity data bases a drinking water limit of 3.0 microg/L is proposed. Therefore, for "non-relevant metabolites" whose drinking water concentration is below 3.0 microg/L, no toxicity testing is necessary. This work develops a toxicity assessment strategy as a basis to delineate health-based limits for "non-relevant metabolites" in ground and drinking water. Toxicological testing is recommended to investigate, whether the metabolites are relevant or not, based on the hazard properties of the parent AIs, as outlined in the SANCO Guidance document. Also, genotoxicity testing of the water metabolites is clearly recommended. In this publication, tiered testing strategies are proposed for non-relevant metabolites, when drinking water concentrations >3.0 microg/L will occur. Conclusions based on structure-activity relationships and the detailed toxicity database on the parent AI should be included. When testing in animals is required for risk assessment, key aspects are studies along OECD-testing guidelines with "enhanced" study designs addressing additional endpoints such as reproductive toxicity and a developmental screening test to derive health-based tolerable drinking water limits with a limited number

  6. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  7. Sharing and Empathy in Digital Spaces: Qualitative Study of Online Health Forums for Breast Cancer and Motor Neuron Disease (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Sarah; Bath, Peter A; Duffin, Suzanne; Ellis, Julie

    2018-06-14

    The availability of an increasing number of online health forums has altered the experience of living with a health condition, as more people are now able to connect and support one another. Empathy is an important component of peer-to-peer support, although little is known about how empathy develops and operates within online health forums. The aim of this paper is to explore how empathy develops and operates within two online health forums for differing health conditions: breast cancer and motor neuron disease (MND), also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This qualitative study analyzed data from two sources: interviews with forum users and downloaded forum posts. Data were collected from two online health forums provided by UK charities: Breast Cancer Care and the Motor Neurone Disease Association. We analyzed 84 threads from the breast cancer forum and 52 from the MND forum. Threads were purposively sampled to reflect varied experiences (eg, illness stages, topics of conversation, and user characteristics). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 Breast Cancer Care forum users and five users of the MND forum. All datasets were analyzed thematically using Braun and Clarke's six-phase approach and combined to triangulate the analysis. We found that empathy develops and operates through shared experiences and connections. The development of empathy begins outside the forum with experiences of illness onset and diagnosis, creating emotional and informational needs. Users came to the forum and found their experiences and needs were shared and understood by others, setting the empathetic tone and supportive ethos of the forum. The forum was viewed as both a useful and meaningful space in which they could share experiences, information, and emotions, and receive empathetic support within a supportive and warm atmosphere. Empathy operated through connections formed within this humane space based on similarity, relationships, and shared feelings. Users

  8. Derivative chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂ μ φ∂ μ φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂ μ φ∂ μ φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type

  9. Derivative chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.noller08@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  10. Understanding the space of nursing practice in Colombia: A critical reflection on the effects of health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Plazas, Pilar

    2018-04-11

    Worldwide, healthcare has been touched by neoliberal policies to the extent that it has some of its characteristics, such as being asymmetrical, competitive, dehumanized, and profit driven. In Colombia, Law 100/93 was created as an ambitious reform aimed at integrating the social security and public sectors of healthcare in order to create universal access, and at the same time to generate market competence with the objective of improving effectiveness and responsiveness. Instead, however, Colombian health reform has served to generate competition which has aggravated inequalities among people. Within this context, we practice nursing. As nurses, our responsibility is to advocate for our patients. We cannot ignore what is happening worldwide in hospitals and community health settings because our responsibility is to promote health, prevent disease, and care for human beings. So, today, when the world pushes for economical profit and competence on one hand, and, on the other, for moral compromises to care, respect, and advocacy for all human beings, being a nurse in the Colombian health system represents a challenge for us. This challenge is especially significant because harm and benefit, justice and injustice, respect and disrespect are separated by a fine line that is easy to transgress. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Space flight research relevant to health, physical education, and recreation: With particular reference to Skylab's life science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhuss, W. D.; Heusner, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    Data collected in the Skylab program relating to physiological stresses is presented. Included are routine blood measures used in clinical medicine as research type endocrine analyses to investigate the metabolic/endocrine responses to weightlessness. The daily routine of physical exercise, coupled with appropriate dietary intake, sleep, work, and recreation periods were considered essential in maintaining the crew's health and well being.

  12. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using a semi-analytical algorithm for southern Beaufort Sea waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S. B.; Bricaud, A.; Gentili, B.; Babin, M.

    2013-02-01

    A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM) was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM) into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP) through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012) showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r2 = 0.97). By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  13. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM using a semi-analytical algorithm for southern Beaufort Sea waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matsuoka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012 showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r2 = 0.97. By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  14. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  15. Mediating the spaces of diet and health: A critical analysis of reporting on nutrition and colorectal cancer in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, R.

    2017-01-01

    The media are one of the main arenas in which nutrition information is framed and developed. Research has shown a predominantly individualistic framing of diet-related health issues such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in international media coverage. These issues are framed as personal, 'lifestyle' issues rather than requiring policy or structural change. In addition, research has shown a tendency in nutrition research and media coverage of it, to emphasize individual ...

  16. Monitoring and modeling crop health and water use via in-situ, airborne and space-based platforms

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    The accurate retrieval of plant water use, health and function together with soil state and condition, represent key objectives in the management and monitoring of large-scale agricultural production. In regions of water shortage or stress, understanding the sustainable use of available water supplies is critical. Unfortunately, this need is all too often limited by a lack of reliable observations. Techniques that balance the demand for reliable ground-based data with the rapid retrieval of spatially distributed crop characteristics represent a needed line of research. Data from in-situ monitoring coupled with advances in satellite retrievals of key land surface variables, provide the information necessary to characterize many crop health and water use features, including evaporation, leaf-chlorophyll and other common vegetation indices. With developments in UAV and quadcopter solutions, the opportunity to bridge the spatio-temporal gap between satellite and ground based sensing now exists, along with the capacity for customized retrievals of crop information. While there remain challenges in the routine application of autonomous airborne systems, the state of current technology and sensor developments provide the capacity to explore the operational potential. While this presentation will focus on the multi-scale estimation of crop-water use and crop-health characteristics from satellite-based sensors, the retrieval of high resolution spatially distributed information from near-surface airborne and ground-based systems will also be examined.

  17. Monitoring and Modeling Crop Health and Water Use via in-situ, Airborne and Space-based Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    The accurate retrieval of plant water use, health and function together with soil state and condition, represent key objectives in the management and monitoring of large-scale agricultural production. In regions of water shortage or stress, understanding the sustainable use of available water supplies is critical. Unfortunately, this need is all too often limited by a lack of reliable observations. Techniques that balance the demand for reliable ground-based data with the rapid retrieval of spatially distributed crop characteristics represent a needed line of research. Data from in-situ monitoring coupled with advances in satellite retrievals of key land surface variables, provide the information necessary to characterize many crop health and water use features, including evaporation, leaf-chlorophyll and other common vegetation indices. With developments in UAV and quadcopter solutions, the opportunity to bridge the spatio-temporal gap between satellite and ground based sensing now exists, along with the capacity for customized retrievals of crop information. While there remain challenges in the routine application of autonomous airborne systems, the state of current technology and sensor developments provide the capacity to explore the operational potential. While this presentation will focus on the multi-scale estimation of crop-water use and crop-health characteristics from satellite-based sensors, the retrieval of high resolution spatially distributed information from near-surface airborne and ground-based systems will also be examined.

  18. Impact of contact on adolescents' mental health literacy and stigma: the SchoolSpace cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Katharine; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Jenkinson, David; Birchwood, Max

    2016-02-19

    To investigate whether intergroup contact in addition to education is more effective than education alone in reducing stigma of mental illness in adolescents. A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial compared education alone with education plus contact. Blocking was used to randomly stratify classes within schools to condition. Random allocation was concealed, generated by a computer algorithm, and undertaken after pretest. Data was collected at pretest and 2-week follow-up. Analyses use an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary schools in Birmingham, UK. The parents and guardians of all students in year 8 (age 12-13 years) were approached to take part. A 1-day educational programme in each school led by mental health professional staff. Students in the 'contact' condition received an interactive session with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. The primary outcome was students' attitudinal stigma of mental illness. Secondary outcomes included knowledge-based stigma, mental health literacy, emotional well-being and resilience, and help-seeking attitudes. Participants were recruited between 1 May 2011 and 30 April 2012. 769 participants completed the pretest and were randomised to condition. 657 (85%) provided follow-up data. At 2-week follow-up, attitudinal stigma improved in both conditions with no significant effect of condition (95% CI -0.40 to 0.22, p=0.5, d=0.01). Significant improvements were found in the education-alone condition compared with the contact and education condition for the secondary outcomes of knowledge-based stigma, mental health literacy, emotional well-being and resilience, and help-seeking attitudes. Contact was found to reduce the impact of the intervention for a number of outcomes. Caution is advised before employing intergroup contact with younger student age groups. The education intervention appeared to be successful in reducing stigma, promoting mental health knowledge, and increasing mental health literacy, as

  19. Impact of contact on adolescents’ mental health literacy and stigma: the SchoolSpace cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Katharine; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Jenkinson, David; Birchwood, Max

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether intergroup contact in addition to education is more effective than education alone in reducing stigma of mental illness in adolescents. Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial compared education alone with education plus contact. Blocking was used to randomly stratify classes within schools to condition. Random allocation was concealed, generated by a computer algorithm, and undertaken after pretest. Data was collected at pretest and 2-week follow-up. Analyses use an intention-to-treat basis. Setting Secondary schools in Birmingham, UK. Participants The parents and guardians of all students in year 8 (age 12–13 years) were approached to take part. Interventions A 1-day educational programme in each school led by mental health professional staff. Students in the ‘contact’ condition received an interactive session with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Outcomes The primary outcome was students’ attitudinal stigma of mental illness. Secondary outcomes included knowledge-based stigma, mental health literacy, emotional well-being and resilience, and help-seeking attitudes. Results Participants were recruited between 1 May 2011 and 30 April 2012. 769 participants completed the pretest and were randomised to condition. 657 (85%) provided follow-up data. At 2-week follow-up, attitudinal stigma improved in both conditions with no significant effect of condition (95% CI −0.40 to 0.22, p=0.5, d=0.01). Significant improvements were found in the education-alone condition compared with the contact and education condition for the secondary outcomes of knowledge-based stigma, mental health literacy, emotional well-being and resilience, and help-seeking attitudes. Conclusions Contact was found to reduce the impact of the intervention for a number of outcomes. Caution is advised before employing intergroup contact with younger student age groups. The education intervention appeared to be successful in

  20. The sexual and reproductive rights and benefit derived from sexual and reproductive health services of people with physical disabilities in South Africa: beliefs of non-disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Xanthe; Carew, Mark T; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Swartz, Leslie; Chiwaula, Mussa; Rohleder, Poul

    2017-05-01

    There is a body of theoretical work, and some empirical research, which suggests that non-disabled people assume people with physical disabilities are not suitable romantic partners, do not have sexual drives or desires, or are not sexually active. It has also been proposed that people with physical disabilities face barriers to sexual healthcare access which are structural as well as social. The present paper explores non-disabled South Africans' beliefs concerning the degree to which non-disabled respondents enjoy sexual and reproductive rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare, compared to people without disability. Using a survey, we asked 1989 South Africans to estimate the degree to which people with physical disabilities and people without disability have sexual rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare services, respectively. Respondents were more likely to support the idea that the population without disability were deserving of sexual rights compared to people with physical disabilities. Respondents were more likely to rate the degree to which people with physical disability benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare as less than that for people without physical disabilities. These findings provide some of the first empirical support that non-disabled people perceive people with physical disabilities as having fewer sexual and reproductive rights, and deriving less benefit from sexual and reproductive health services, than the population without disability. To have diminished sexual rights, and benefit less from sexual and reproductive healthcare, we suggest, evinces a negation of the sexual and reproductive needs and capacity of people with physical disabilities.

  1. On the use of Space Station Freedom in support of the SEI - Life science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, K.; Volosin, J.; Cookson, S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) for life sciences research is evaluated from the standpoint of requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). SEI life sciences research encompasses: (1) biological growth and development in space; (2) life support and environmental health; (3) physiological/psychological factors of extended space travel; and (4) space environmental factors. The platforms required to support useful study in these areas are listed and include ground-based facilities, permanently manned spacecraft, and the Space Shuttle. The SSF is shown to be particularly applicable to the areas of research because its facilities can permit the study of gravitational biology, life-support systems, and crew health. The SSF can serve as an experimental vehicle to derive the required knowledge needed to establish a commitment to manned Mars missions and colonization plans.

  2. FDA-EPA Public Health Guidance on Fish Consumption: A Case Study on Informal Interagency Cooperation in "Shared Regulatory Space".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This article is a case study on how administrative agencies interact with each other in cases of shared regulatory jurisdiction. The theoretical literature on the topic of overlapping jurisdiction both (1) makes predictions about how agencies are expected to behave when they share jurisdiction, and (2) in recent iterations argues that overlapping jurisdiction can confer unique policymaking benefits. Through the lens of that theoretical literature, this article examines the relations between the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding the public health risks posed by mercury in fish. It concludes that the FDA-EPA case study (1) corroborates the extant theoretical accounts of how agencies behave in cases of overlapping jurisdiction, (2) supports the conclusion of the recent scholarship that overlapping jurisdiction can confer unique policy benefits, and (3) reveals a few wrinkles not given adequate treatment in the extant literature.

  3. Public authority responses to marine stinger public health risks: a scenario analysis of the Irukandji health threat in controlled spaces at public beaches in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley-Cyr, Lynda

    2012-12-01

    This scenario analysis was undertaken to anticipate the likelihood of public authority liability for negligence arising from harm associated with the relatively new phenomenon of the Irukandji marine stinger health threat in Australia. The tort of negligence is about allocating liability for wrongs typically committed by one person or entity against another. The author questions whether a person who enters a marine stinger enclosure at one of Australia's patrolled and flagged beaches and suffers serious injury from an Irukandji sting can seek compensation or damages in negligence against government. It is argued that as the law currently stands, an injured bather without adequate warning could successfully sue a local authority for creating a false perception of safety and therefore inducing risky behaviour. Changes in ecology and climate variability are relevant considerations. This is a novel issue not previously dealt with in Australian courts.

  4. [What can be done and by who in Public Health? Professional competencies as a base for the design of University degrees curricula in the European Space for Higher Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó, Mari Carmen; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ronda, Elena; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa

    2009-01-01

    To conform a frame of reference for the organization of the public health teaching in university degrees in Spain, in agreement with the directives of the European Space for Higher Education. Specific professional competencies in public health have been extracted from the Libros blancos published by the ANECA (National Agency of Quality Evaluation) for the degrees on medicine, pharmacy, nursing, human nutrition and dietetics, optics and optometry, veterinary, social work, occupational relations, teacher training, and environmental sciences. Following the framework proposed by the Working Group on professional competencies in public health in Spain, we have selected those competences that enable future professionals to participate in the development of the public health from their field of activity. We have also identified and correlated the specific competences of each degree with the corresponding activities and functions. All the studied degrees have competences in public health functions. The majority has also defined activities in community health analysis, design and implementation of health interventions and programmes, promotion of social participation and citizen's control of their own health. There is academic space for the multidisciplinary development of the public health in Spain beyond the health professions. The identification of the specific competencies of each degree related with activities on public health reveal what are the contents to be in included in each syllabus.

  5. Life into Space: Space Life Sciences Experiments, Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center, 1991-1998, Including Profiles of 1996-1998 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kenneth (Editor); Etheridge, Guy (Editor); Callahan, Paul X. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    We have now conducted space life sciences research for more than four decades. The continuing interest in studying the way living systems function in space derives from two main benefits of that research. First, in order for humans to engage in long-term space travel, we must understand and develop measures to counteract the most detrimental effects of space flight on biological systems. Problems in returning to the conditions of Earth must be kept to a manageable level. Second, increasing our understanding of how organisms function in the absence of gravity gives us new understanding of fundamental biological processes. This information can be used to improve human health and the quality of life on Earth.

  6. Radiation environment in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goka, Tateo; Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Komiyama, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) had been build into the International Space Station (ISS), which is a multipurpose manned facility and laboratory and is operated in orbit at about 400 km in altitude. Two Japanese astronauts stayed in the ISS for long time (4.5 and 5.5 months) for the first time. Space radiation exposure is one of the biggest safety issues for astronauts to stay for such a long duration in space. This special paper is presenting commentary on space radiation environment in ISS, neutrons measurements and light particles (protons and electrons) measurements, the instruments, radiation exposure management for Japanese astronauts and some comments in view of health physics. (author)

  7. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  8. Distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities; Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; delay of applicability date. Final rule; delay of applicability date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2008, the applicability date of a certain requirement of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720) (the final rule). The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The provisions of the final rule became effective on December 4, 2000, except for certain provisions whose effective or applicability dates were delayed in five subsequent Federal Register notices, until December 1, 2006. The provision with the delayed applicability date would prohibit wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that meet the definition of a "health care entity." In the Federal Register of February 1, 2006 (71 FR 5200), FDA published a proposed rule specific to the distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities (the proposed rule). The proposed rule would amend certain limited provisions of the final rule to allow certain registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities to distribute blood derivatives. In response to the proposed rule, FDA received substantive comments. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document, further delaying the applicability of Sec. 203.3(q) (21 CFR 203.3(q)) to the wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by health care entities is necessary to give the agency additional time to address comments on the proposed rule, consider whether regulatory changes are appropriate, and, if so, to initiate such changes.

  9. Computer program to fit a hyperellipse to a set of phase-space points in as many as six dimensions. [HELIPS, and COFAC to determine derivatives of determinants, in FORTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadlinger, E.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program that will fit a hyperellipse to a set of phase-space points in as many as 6 dimensions was written and tested. The weight assigned to the phase-space points can be varied as a function of their distance from the centroid of the distribution. Varying the weight enables determination of whether there is a difference in ellipse orientation between inner and outer particles. This program should be useful in studying the effects of longitudinal and transverse phase-space couplings.

  10. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  11. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  12. [Application of precursor ion scanning method in rapid screening of illegally added phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and their unknown derivatives in Chinese traditional patent medicines and health foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Cao, Ling; Feng, Youlong; Tan, Li

    2014-11-01

    The compounds with similar structure often have similar pharmacological activities. So it is a trend for illegal addition that new derivatives of effective drugs are synthesized to avoid the statutory test. This bring challenges to crack down on illegal addition behavior, however, modified derivatives usually have similar product ions, which allow for precursor ion scanning. In this work, precursor ion scanning mode of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was first applied to screen illegally added drugs in complex matrix such as Chinese traditional patent medicines and healthy foods. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors were used as experimental examples. Through the analysis of the structure and mass spectrum characteristics of the compounds, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors were classified, and their common product ions were screened by full scan of product ions of typical compounds. Then high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method with precursor ion scanning mode was established based on the optimization of MS parameters. The effect of mass parameters and the choice of fragment ions were also studied. The method was applied to determine actual samples and further refined. The results demonstrated that this method can meet the need of rapid screening of unknown derivatives of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in complex matrix, and prevent unknown derivatives undetected. This method shows advantages in sensitivity, specificity and efficiency, and is worth to be further investigated.

  13. Using of the herb in space foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    The astronaut must do much work in a short time. The astronaut is exposed to much stress. For examples; Break of the hormone balance, Inappetence, Sleep shortage. Therefore the role that the meal serves as becomes big. It greatly participates in not only the health maintenance but also the mental health to consume a meal. Most of space foods are freeze dry, and the mineral is abundant, but it is necessary for the vitamins to add it particularly. When I think about it, the cultivation of the fresh vegetables with the spaceship is necessary. The Asian project team suggested cultivation of the herb in the space. The herbs were sweet basil, Dukung Abak, Hempedu Bumi and Chinese holly basil. Each herb has a fragrance ingredient. The fragrance ingredient stimulates human sense of smell. The fragrance ingredient increases an appetite. The good fragrance derives a good sleep. I can feel passage of time by observing a plant being brought up. It helps mental health to bring up a plant. We try that we bring up herb under a condition of the space. Because an experiment on the ground was over, we report it. The sweet basil which a germination rate has good is the first candidate when we think about temperature and light quantity in the space. Three kinds of other herbs are slow-growing and germination-rate is lower than sweet basil. We think that probably we will send a sweet basil to the spaceship in space. After a sweet basil grew up in a spaceship, we analyze a fragrance ingredient. We will cook the sweeter basil and want to eat.

  14. On Hilbert space of paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.; Kolerov, G.I.

    1980-01-01

    A Hilbert space of paths, the elements of which are determined by trigonometric series, was proposed and used recently by Truman. This space is shown to consist precisely of all absolutely continuous paths ending in the origin with square-integrable derivatives

  15. Plant-derived nanostructures: types and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-derived nanostructures and nanoparticles (NPs) have functional applications in numerous disciplines such as health care, food and feed, cosmetics, biomedical science, energy science, drug-gene delivery, environmental health, and so on. Consequently, it is imperative for res...

  16. Space-Charge Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented. (author)

  17. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N.

    2013-12-16

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  18. Quantum mechanics on Laakso spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Christopher J.; Kesler, Robert M.; Parshall, Amanda G.; Stamey, Evelyn A.; Steinhurst, Benjamin A.

    2012-04-01

    We first review the spectrum of the Laplacian operator on a general Laakso space before considering modified Hamiltonians for the infinite square well, parabola, and Coulomb potentials. Additionally, we compute the spectrum for the Laplacian and its multiplicities when certain regions of a Laakso space are compressed or stretched and calculate the Casimir force experienced by two uncharged conducting plates by imposing physically relevant boundary conditions and then analytically regularizing the resulting zeta function. Lastly, we derive a general formula for the spectral zeta function and its derivative for Laakso spaces with strict self-similar structure before listing explicit spectral values for some special cases

  19. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  20. Modification of Time-dependent Schrodinger Equation in Quantum Mechanics by Adding Derivations of Time's Flow (Relative Time) with Respect of the Both Space and Time Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    In Sadra's theory, the relative time for an atom (body) which is varying continuously becomes momentums of its involved fundamental particles (strings), (time's relativity) [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Einstein's theory of special relativity might be special form of Sadra's theory. ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, the one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places'' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. Sadra separated the nature of time from nature of space. Therefore we can match these two natures on wave-particle duality. It means that the nature of time might be wavy-like and the nature of space might be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources for particle(s)' flow with respect of its two natures such as potential of flow and relative time which vary with respect of both space and time. Consequently we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation: H⌢ Ψ +tp ∇t' = ih/2 π ∂/∂t Ψ +tp∂/∂t t' , where tp is Planck's time and t' is relative time: t' = f (m , v , t) = t +/- Δt , in which t is time, m is mass and vis speed of particle . AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  1. Modification of Schrodinger Equation in Quantum Mechanics by Adding Derivations of Time's Flow (Relative Time) with Respect of the Both Space and Time Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-05-01

    ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other one is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places'' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. These two separated natures of space-time are matched on wave-particle duality. Therefore, the nature of time can be wavy-like and the nature of space can be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources of particle(s)' flow while they are match exactly with each other. These two sources are potential of flow and potential of time (relative time) which vary with respect to both space and time. Here, we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation with respect to relative time: HΨ + ∇t' = EΨ + ∂t' / ∂t , where t is time and t' is relative time: t' = t +/- Δt [Gholibeigian et al., APS March Meeting 2016], which for each atom becomes: tatom = ∑mnucleons + ∑melectrons where m is momentum [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Using time's relativity in Schrodinger equation will give us more precious results. AmirKabir University of Technology,Tehran, Iran.

  2. The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: a multi-level framework on maternal, paternal, and child health disparities derived by community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Schafer, Peter; DeClerque, Julia L; Lanzi, Robin G; Hobel, Calvin; Shalowitz, Madeleine; Chinchilli, Vern; Raju, Tonse N K

    2015-04-01

    Emerging evidence supports the theoretical and clinical importance of the preconception period in influencing pregnancy outcomes and child health. Collectively, this evidence affirms the need for a novel, integrative theoretical framework to design future investigations, integrate new findings, and identify promising, evidence-informed interventions to improve intergenerational health and reduce disparities. This article presents a transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network (CCHN) through community-based participatory research processes. CCHN developed a Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways (PSRP) model by building local and multi-site community-academic participatory partnerships that established guidelines for research planning and decision-making; reviewed relevant findings diverse disciplinary and community perspectives; and identified the major themes of stress and resilience within the context of families and communities. The PSRP model focuses on inter-relating the multiple, complex, and dynamic biosocial influences theoretically linked to family health disparities. The PSRP model borrowed from and then added original constructs relating to developmental origins of lifelong health, epigenetics, and neighborhood and community influences on pregnancy outcome and family functioning (cf. MCHJ 2014). Novel elements include centrality of the preconception/inter-conception period, role of fathers and the parental relationship, maternal allostatic load (a composite biomarker index of cumulative wear-and-tear of stress), resilience resources of parents, and local neighborhood and community level influences (e.g., employment, housing, education, health care, and stability of basic necessities). CCHN's integrative framework embraces new ways of thinking about how to improve outcomes for future generations, by starting before conception, by including all family members, and by engaging the community vigorously at multiple

  3. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  4. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall: (a) Observe and respect original... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings...

  5. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  6. Space life sciences: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The scientific research and supporting technology development conducted in the Space Life Sciences Program is described. Accomplishments of the past year are highlighted. Plans for future activities are outlined. Some specific areas of study include the following: Crew health and safety; What happens to humans in space; Gravity, life, and space; Sustenance in space; Life and planet Earth; Life in the Universe; Promoting good science and good will; Building a future for the space life sciences; and Benefits of space life sciences research.

  7. In defense of derivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.

  8. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  9. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  10. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  11. Space physiology and medicine, 2nd ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicogossian, A.E.; Huntoon, C.L.; Pool, S.L.; Johnson, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Physiological Adaptation to Space Flight: Overall Adaptation to Space Flight and Implications; The Neurovestibular System; Performance; The Cardiopulmonary System; Nutrition; Bone and Mineral Metabolism; Hematology, Immunology, Endocrinology, and Biochemistry; Microgravity: Stimulations and Analogs; Health Maintenance of Space Crewmemebers: Medical Evaluation for Astronaut Selection and Longitudinal Studies; Biomedical Training of Space Crews; Ground-Based Medical Programs; Countermeasures to Space Deconditioning; Medical Problems of Space Flight: Toxic Hazards in Space Operations; Radiation Exposure Issues and Medical Care and Health Maintenance in Flight

  12. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  13. On the differentiability of space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.J.S.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the differentiability of a space-time is implied by that of its Riemann tensor, assuming a priori only boundedness of the first derivations of the metric. Consequently all the results on space-time singularities proved in earlier papers by the author hold true in C 2- space-times. (author)

  14. Space 2000 Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Space 2000 Symposium is to present the creativity and achievements of key figures of the 20th century. It offers a retrospective discussion on space exploration. It considers the future of the enterprise, and the legacy that will be left for future generations. The symposium includes panel discussions, smaller session meetings with some panelists, exhibits, and displays. The first session entitled "From Science Fiction to Science Facts" commences after a brief overview of the symposium. The panel discussions include talks on space exploration over many decades, and the missions of the millennium to search for life on Mars. The second session, "Risks and Rewards of Human Space Exploration," focuses on the training and health risks that astronauts face on their exploratory mission to space. Session three, "Messages and Messengers Informing and Inspire Space Exploration and the Public," focuses on the use of TV medium by educators and actors to inform and inspire a wide variety of audiences with adventures of space exploration. Session four, "The Legacy of Carl Sagan," discusses the influences made by Sagan to scientific research and the general public. In session five, "Space Exploration for a new Generation," two student speakers and the NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin address the group. Session six, "Destiny or Delusion? -- Humankind's Place in the Cosmos," ends the symposium with issues of space exploration and some thought provoking questions. Some of these issues and questions are: what will be the societal implications if we discover the origin of the universe, stars, or life; what will be the impact if scientists find clear evidence of life outside the domains of the Earth; should there be limits to what humans can or should learn; and what visionary steps should space-faring people take now for future generations.

  15. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to mechanically separated meat (MSM) derived from poultry and swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    The purpose of this assessment was to identify public health risks linked to mechanically separated meat (MSM) types from pork and poultry and compare them with fresh meat, minced meat and meat preparations (non-MSM); and to select, rank and suggest objective measurement methods and values...... is a promising method for distinction of MSM types, but further validation is needed. In order to improve methods for MSM identification, specifically designed studies for the collection of data obtained by standardised methods on indicators such as calcium and cholesterol should be undertaken, while studies...

  16. Advantages and Limitations of Anticipating Laboratory Test Results from Regression- and Tree-Based Rules Derived from Electronic Health-Record Data

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Fahim; Theisen-Toupal, Jesse C.; Arnaout, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory testing is the single highest-volume medical activity, making it useful to ask how well one can anticipate whether a given test result will be high, low, or within the reference interval ("normal"). We analyzed 10 years of electronic health records--a total of 69.4 million blood tests--to see how well standard rule-mining techniques can anticipate test results based on patient age and gender, recent diagnoses, and recent laboratory test results. We evaluated rules according to thei...

  17. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  18. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  19. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  20. Evaluating the comparative effectiveness of different demand side interventions to increase maternal health service utilization and practice of birth spacing in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: an innovative, mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbaugh, Mari; Bapolisi, Wyvine; van de Weerd, Jennie; Zabiti, Michel; Mommers, Paula; Balaluka, Ghislain Bisimwa; Merten, Sonja

    2017-07-03

    In this protocol we describe a mixed methods study in the province of South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo evaluating the effectiveness of different demand side strategies to increase maternal health service utilization and the practice of birth spacing. Conditional service subsidization, conditional cash transfers and non-monetary incentives aim to encourage women to use maternal health services and practice birth spacing in two different health districts. Our methodology will comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches against each other and no intervention. This study comprises four main research activities: 1) Formative qualitative research to determine feasibility of planned activities and inform development of the quantitative survey; 2) A community-based, longitudinal survey; 3) A retrospective review of health facility records; 4) Qualitative exploration of intervention acceptability and emergent themes through in-depth interviews with program participants, non-participants, their partners and health providers. Female community health workers are engaged as core members of the research team, working in tandem with female survey teams to identify women in the community who meet eligibility criteria. Female community health workers also act as key informants and community entry points during methods design and qualitative exploration. Main study outcomes are completion of antenatal care, institutional delivery, practice of birth spacing, family planning uptake and intervention acceptability in the communities. Qualitative methods also explore decision making around maternal health service use, fertility preference and perceptions of family planning. The innovative mixed methods design allows quantitative data to inform the relationships and phenomena to be explored in qualitative collection. In turn, qualitative findings will be triangulated with quantitative findings. Inspired by the principles of grounded theory, qualitative

  1. General Purpose Data-Driven System Monitoring for Space Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern space propulsion and exploration system designs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Determining the health state of these systems using...

  2. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China.We conducted a validation study by comparing women's self-reported coverage of MNCH interventions relating to antenatal and postnatal care, mode of delivery, and child vaccinations in a community survey with their paper- and electronic-based health care records, treating the health care records as the reference standard. Of 936 women recruited, 914 (97.6% completed the survey. Results show that self-reported coverage of these interventions had moderate to high sensitivity (0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50-0.63] to 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00] and low to high specificity (0 to 0.83 [95% CI: 0.80-0.86]. Despite varying overall validity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ranging between 0.49 [95% CI: 0.39-0.57] and 0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92], bias in the coverage estimates at the population level was small to moderate, with the test to actual positive (TAP ratio ranging between 0.8 and 1.5 for 24 of the 28 indicators examined. Our ability to accurately estimate validity was affected by several caveats associated with the reference standard. Caution should be exercised when generalizing the results to other settings.The overall validity of self-reported coverage was moderate across selected MNCH indicators. However, at the population level, self-reported coverage appears to have small to moderate degree of bias. Accuracy of the coverage was particularly high for indicators with high recorded coverage or low recorded coverage but high specificity. The study provides insights into the accuracy of

  3. Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donckt, van der.

    1976-01-01

    The article is a critical review of the work group VI ''health'' in the ''sages report'', the criteria of total body dosis for radionuclides as strontium 90 and iodine 131 are discussed. It emphasizes the lack of adequate solution for the effluents as carbon-14, tritium and iodine 129 as well as for the high radioactivity waste management: the toxicity of plutonium and its cancerous properties are recalled. The risks of accidents in the nuclear facilities and their effect on the population in the proximity of the power plant and the contamination from cooling media are considered as well as sabotage risks. (A.F.)

  4. Space dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical methods for Space Dynamics of fission reactors, are presented. It is shown how a few sample problems in space dynamics can be solved, within the one and two group diffusion model, by purely analytical tools, essentially based on Laplace transform and complex Green function techniques. A quite suggestive generalization of this approach, applicable to the fluid core reactors, whose fuel is undergoing a violent mixing, is reported and briefly discussed. (author)

  5. Toward a More Robust and Efficient Usability Testing Method of Clinical Decision Support for Nurses Derived From Nursing Electronic Health Record Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Karen Dunn; Febretti, Alessandro; Stifter, Janet; Johnson, Andrew; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail

    2017-10-01

    To develop methods for rapid and simultaneous design, testing, and management of multiple clinical decision support (CDS) features to aid nurse decision-making. We used quota sampling, think-aloud and cognitive interviews, and deductive and inductive coding of synchronized audio video data and archival libraries. Our methods and organizational tools allowed us to rapidly improve the usability, understandability, and usefulness of CDS in a generalizable sample of practicing nurses. The method outlined allows the rapid integration of nursing terminology based electronic health record data into routine workflow and holds strong potential for improving patient outcomes. The methods and organizational tools for development of multiple CDS system features can be used to translate knowledge into practice. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  6. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    level factors on birth spacing behaviour in Uganda and Zimbabwe, to ... environments as potential influences on birth spacing ..... health: multivariable cross-country analysis, MACRO ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  7. Derivation and validation of a risk standardization model for benchmarking hospital performance for health-related quality of life outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Masoudi, Frederick A; Rumsfeld, John S; Li, Yan; Jones, Philip G; Spertus, John A

    2014-01-21

    Before outcomes-based measures of quality can be used to compare and improve care, they must be risk-standardized to account for variations in patient characteristics. Despite the importance of health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), no risk-standardized models have been developed. We assessed disease-specific HRQL using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire at baseline and 1 year later in 2693 unselected AMI patients from 24 hospitals enrolled in the Translational Research Investigating Underlying disparities in acute Myocardial infarction Patients' Health status (TRIUMPH) registry. Using 57 candidate sociodemographic, economic, and clinical variables present on admission, we developed a parsimonious, hierarchical linear regression model to predict HRQL. Eleven variables were independently associated with poor HRQL after AMI, including younger age, previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery, depressive symptoms, and financial difficulties (R(2)=20%). The model demonstrated excellent internal calibration and reasonable calibration in an independent sample of 1890 AMI patients in a separate registry, although the model slightly overpredicted HRQL scores in the higher deciles. Among the 24 TRIUMPH hospitals, 1-year unadjusted HRQL scores ranged from 67-89. After risk-standardization, HRQL score variability narrowed substantially (range=79-83), and the group of hospital performance (bottom 20%/middle 60%/top 20%) changed in 14 of the 24 hospitals (58% reclassification with risk-standardization). In this predictive model for HRQL after AMI, we identified risk factors, including economic and psychological characteristics, associated with HRQL outcomes. Adjusting for these factors substantially altered the rankings of hospitals as compared with unadjusted comparisons. Using this model to compare risk-standardized HRQL outcomes across hospitals may identify processes of care that maximize this important patient

  8. Laplacian eigenmodes for spherical spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, M; Caillerie, S

    2005-01-01

    The possibility that our space is multi-rather than singly-connected has gained renewed interest after the discovery of the low power for the first multipoles of the CMB by WMAP. To test the possibility that our space is a multi-connected spherical space, it is necessary to know the eigenmodes of such spaces. Except for lens and prism space, and to some extent for dodecahedral space, this remains an open problem. Here we derive the eigenmodes of all spherical spaces. For dodecahedral space, the demonstration is much shorter, and the calculation method much simpler than before. We also apply our method to tetrahedric, octahedric and icosahedric spaces. This completes the knowledge of eigenmodes for spherical spaces, and opens the door to new observational tests of the cosmic topology. The vector space V k of the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian on the 3-sphere S 3 , corresponding to the same eigenvalue λ k = -k(k + 2), has dimension (k + 1) 2 . We show that the Wigner functions provide a basis for such a space. Using the properties of the latter, we express the behaviour of a general function of V k under an arbitrary rotation G of SO(4). This offers the possibility of selecting those functions of V k which remain invariant under G. Specifying G to be a generator of the holonomy group of a spherical space X, we give the expression of the vector space V x k of the eigenfunctions of X. We provide a method to calculate the eigenmodes up to an arbitrary order. As an illustration, we give the first modes for the spherical spaces mentioned

  9. Why Not Space Tethers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Noble H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System Space Shuttle missions, TSS-1 in 1993 and TSS-1R in 1996, were the height of space tether technology development. Since NASA's investment of some $200M and two Shuttle missions in those two pioneering missions, there have been several smaller tether flight experiments, but interest in this promising technology has waned within NASA as well as the DOD agencies. This is curious in view of the unique capabilities of space tether systems and the fact that they have been flight validated and shown to perform as, or better than, expected in earth orbit. While it is true that the TSS-1, TSS-1R and SEDS-2 missions experienced technical difficulties, the causes of these early developmental problems are now known to be design or materials flaws that are (1) unrelated to the basic viability of space tether technology, and (2) they are readily corrected. The purpose of this paper is to review the dynamic and electrodynamic fundamentals of space tethers and the unique capabilities they afford (that are enabling to certain types of space missions); to elucidate the nature, cause, and solution of the early developmental problems; and to provide an update on progress made in development of the technology. Finally, it is shown that (1) all problems experienced during early development of the technology now have solutions; and (2) the technology has been matured by advances made in strength and robustness of tether materials, high voltage engineering in the space environment, tether health and status monitoring, and the elimination of the broken tether hazard. In view of this, it is inexplicable why this flight-validated technology has not been utilized in the past decade, considering the powerful and unique capabilities that space tethers can afford that are, not only required to carryout, otherwise, unobtainable missions, but can also greatly reduce the cost of certain on-going space operations.

  10. Longitudinal Phase Space Tomography with Space Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, S; Lindroos, M

    2000-01-01

    Tomography is now a very broad topic with a wealth of algorithms for the reconstruction of both qualitative and quantitative images. In an extension in the domain of particle accelerators, one of the simplest algorithms has been modified to take into account the non-linearity of large-amplitude synchrotron motion. This permits the accurate reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density from one-dimensional bunch profile data. The method is a hybrid one which incorporates particle tracking. Hitherto, a very simple tracking algorithm has been employed because only a brief span of measured profile data is required to build a snapshot of phase space. This is one of the strengths of the method, as tracking for relatively few turns relaxes the precision to which input machine parameters need to be known. The recent addition of longitudinal space charge considerations as an optional refinement of the code is described. Simplicity suggested an approach based on the derivative of bunch shape with the properties of...

  11. Physical activity derived from questionnaires and wrist-worn accelerometers: comparability and the role of demographic, lifestyle, and health factors among a population-based sample of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koolhaas CM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chantal M Koolhaas,1 Frank JA van Rooij,1 Magda Cepeda,1 Henning Tiemeier,1–3 Oscar H Franco,1 Josje D Schoufour1 1Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Background: Agreement between questionnaires and accelerometers to measure physical activity (PA differs between studies and might be related to demographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics, including disability and depressive symptoms.Methods: We included 1,410 individuals aged 51–94 years from the population-based Rotterdam Study. Participants completed the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore a wrist-worn accelerometer on the nondominant wrist for 1 week thereafter. We compared the Spearman correlation and disagreement (level and direction for total PA across levels of demographic, lifestyle, and health variables. The level of disagreement was defined as the absolute difference between questionnaire- and accelerometer-derived PA, whereas the direction of disagreement was defined as questionnaire PA minus accelerometer PA. We used linear regression analyses with the level and direction of disagreement as outcome, including all demographic, lifestyle, and health variables in the model.Results: We observed a Spearman correlation of 0.30 between questionnaire- and accelerometer-derived PA in the total population. The level of disagreement (ie, absolute difference was 941.9 (standard deviation [SD] 747.0 minutes/week, and the PA reported by questionnaire was on average 529.4 (SD 1,079.5 minutes/week lower than PA obtained by the accelerometer. The level of disagreement decreased with higher educational levels. Additionally, participants with obesity, higher disability scores, and more depressive symptoms underestimated their self-reported PA more than their

  12. Housing characteristics and their influence on health-related quality of life in persons living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: results from the positive spaces, healthy places study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, Sean B; Bekele, Tsegaye; Tucker, Ruthann; Greene, Saara; Sobota, Michael; Koornstra, Jay; Monette, LaVerne; Bacon, Jean; Bhuiyan, Shafi; Rueda, Sergio; Watson, James; Hwang, Stephen W; Dunn, James; Hambly, Keith

    2012-11-01

    Although lack of housing is linked with adverse health outcomes, little is known about the impacts of the qualitative aspects of housing on health. This study examined the association between structural elements of housing, housing affordability, housing satisfaction and health-related quality of life over a 1-year period. Participants were 509 individuals living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between housing variables and physical and mental health-related quality of life. We found significant cross-sectional associations between housing and neighborhood variables-including place of residence, housing affordability, housing stability, and satisfaction with material, meaningful and spatial dimensions of housing-and both physical and mental health-related quality of life. Our analyses also revealed longitudinal associations between housing and neighborhood variables and health-related quality of life. Interventions that enhance housing affordability and housing satisfaction may help improve health-related quality of life of people living with HIV.

  13. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.

  14. Space tether dynamics: an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2018-05-01

    The dynamics of orbiting tethers (space elevators and skyhooks) is developed from an unusual direction: Lagrangian rather than Newtonian mechanics. These basic results are derived among others: space elevator required length with and without counterweight, location and magnitude of maximum tether tension, skyhook orbital parameters and tether tension. These conceptual devices are being increasingly discussed as technologically feasible; here they make an interesting pedagogical application of Lagrangian mechanics suitable for undergraduate physics students.

  15. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  16. Space Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  17. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  18. Advantages and limitations of anticipating laboratory test results from regression- and tree-based rules derived from electronic health-record data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Mohammad

    Full Text Available Laboratory testing is the single highest-volume medical activity, making it useful to ask how well one can anticipate whether a given test result will be high, low, or within the reference interval ("normal". We analyzed 10 years of electronic health records--a total of 69.4 million blood tests--to see how well standard rule-mining techniques can anticipate test results based on patient age and gender, recent diagnoses, and recent laboratory test results. We evaluated rules according to their positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV and area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (ROC AUCs. Using a stringent cutoff of PPV and/or NPV≥0.95, standard techniques yield few rules for sendout tests but several for in-house tests, mostly for repeat laboratory tests that are part of the complete blood count and basic metabolic panel. Most rules were clinically and pathophysiologically plausible, and several seemed clinically useful for informing pre-test probability of a given result. But overall, rules were unlikely to be able to function as a general substitute for actually ordering a test. Improving laboratory utilization will likely require different input data and/or alternative methods.

  19. Advantages and limitations of anticipating laboratory test results from regression- and tree-based rules derived from electronic health-record data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Fahim; Theisen-Toupal, Jesse C; Arnaout, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory testing is the single highest-volume medical activity, making it useful to ask how well one can anticipate whether a given test result will be high, low, or within the reference interval ("normal"). We analyzed 10 years of electronic health records--a total of 69.4 million blood tests--to see how well standard rule-mining techniques can anticipate test results based on patient age and gender, recent diagnoses, and recent laboratory test results. We evaluated rules according to their positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) and area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (ROC AUCs). Using a stringent cutoff of PPV and/or NPV≥0.95, standard techniques yield few rules for sendout tests but several for in-house tests, mostly for repeat laboratory tests that are part of the complete blood count and basic metabolic panel. Most rules were clinically and pathophysiologically plausible, and several seemed clinically useful for informing pre-test probability of a given result. But overall, rules were unlikely to be able to function as a general substitute for actually ordering a test. Improving laboratory utilization will likely require different input data and/or alternative methods.

  20. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female, 35 ± 7 years old. We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions.

  1. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  2. Identification of Pulmonary Hypertension Caused by Left-Sided Heart Disease (World Health Organization Group 2) Based on Cardiac Chamber Volumes Derived From Chest CT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Galit; Rozenbaum, Zach; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Berliner, Shlomo; Topilsky, Yan; Fleischmann, Dominik; Sung, Yon K; Zamanian, Roham T; Guo, Haiwei Henry

    2017-10-01

    Evaluations of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) commonly include chest CT imaging. We hypothesized that cardiac chamber volumes calculated from the same CT scans can yield additional information to distinguish PH related to left-sided heart disease (World Health Organization group 2) from other PH subtypes. Patients who had PH confirmed by right heart catheterization and contrast-enhanced chest CT studies were enrolled in this retrospective multicenter study. Cardiac chamber volumes were calculated using automated segmentation software and compared between group 2 and non-group 2 patients with PH. This study included 114 patients with PH, 27 (24%) of whom were classified as group 2 based on their pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Patients with group 2 PH exhibited significantly larger median left atrial (LA) volumes (118 mL vs 63 mL; P volumes (90 mL vs 76 mL; P = .02), and smaller median right ventricular (RV) volumes (173 mL vs 210 mL; P = .005) than did non-group 2 patients. On multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure, group 2 PH was significantly associated with larger median LA and LV volumes (P volume ratios of RA/LA, RV/LV, and RV/LA (P = .001, P = .004, and P volumes demonstrated a high discriminatory ability for group 2 PH (area under the curve, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.870-0.968). Volumetric analysis of the cardiac chambers from nongated chest CT scans, particularly with findings of an enlarged left atrium, exhibited high discriminatory ability for identifying patients with PH due to left-sided heart disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Derivation and Validation of a Risk Standardization Model for Benchmarking Hospital Performance for Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne V.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Rumsfeld, John S.; Li, Yan; Jones, Philip G.; Spertus, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Before outcomes-based measures of quality can be used to compare and improve care, they must be risk-standardized to account for variations in patient characteristics. Despite the importance of health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), no risk-standardized models have been developed. Methods and Results We assessed disease-specific HRQL using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire at baseline and 1 year later in 2693 unselected AMI patients from 24 hospitals enrolled in the TRIUMPH registry. Using 57 candidate sociodemographic, economic, and clinical variables present on admission, we developed a parsimonious, hierarchical linear regression model to predict HRQL. Eleven variables were independently associated with poor HRQL after AMI, including younger age, prior CABG, depressive symptoms, and financial difficulties (R2=20%). The model demonstrated excellent internal calibration and reasonable calibration in an independent sample of 1890 AMI patients in a separate registry, although the model slightly over-predicted HRQL scores in the higher deciles. Among the 24 TRIUMPH hospitals, 1-year unadjusted HRQL scores ranged from 67–89. After risk-standardization, HRQL scores variability narrowed substantially (range=79–83), and the group of hospital performance (bottom 20%/middle 60%/top 20%) changed in 14 of the 24 hospitals (58% reclassification with risk-standardization). Conclusions In this predictive model for HRQL after AMI, we identified risk factors, including economic and psychological characteristics, associated with HRQL outcomes. Adjusting for these factors substantially altered the rankings of hospitals as compared with unadjusted comparisons. Using this model to compare risk-standardized HRQL outcomes across hospitals may identify processes of care that maximize this important patient-centered outcome. PMID:24163068

  4. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles

    2005-03-01

    A total of more than 240 human space flights hav