DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard
2011-01-01
Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...
Penland, Patrick R.
Three papers are presented which delineate the foundation of theory and principles which underlie the research and instructional approach to communications at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Pittsburgh. Cybernetic principles provide the integration, and validation is based in part on a situation-producing…
Goldie, Charles M
1991-01-01
This book is an introduction, for mathematics students, to the theories of information and codes. They are usually treated separately but, as both address the problem of communication through noisy channels (albeit from different directions), the authors have been able to exploit the connection to give a reasonably self-contained treatment, relating the probabilistic and algebraic viewpoints. The style is discursive and, as befits the subject, plenty of examples and exercises are provided. Some examples and exercises are provided. Some examples of computer codes are given to provide concrete illustrations of abstract ideas.
Coiera, Enrico
2014-01-01
Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.
Activity Theory, Hybrid Experience Space Design and Cultural Heritage Communication at Lindholm Høje
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Veirum, Niels Einar
This paper deals with the questions of how to address the communication of cultural heritage in the post-industrialized societies of the globalized economy. The last two or three decades have radically changed the relationship between the individual and the national institutions, encompassing...... the institutions of cultural heritage, museums and foundations. From an expert founded representation of facts, based on a rational and linear understanding of knowledge being presented to a mass customer, to a situation where an individualized customer, accustomed to a range of choices and the ability to interact...
A Future of Communication Theory: Systems Theory.
Lindsey, Georg N.
Concepts of general systems theory, cybernetics and the like may provide the methodology for communication theory to move from a level of technology to a level of pure science. It was the purpose of this paper to (1) demonstrate the necessity of applying systems theory to the construction of communication theory, (2) review relevant systems…
Free space optical communication
Kaushal, Hemani; Kar, Subrat
2017-01-01
This book provides an in-depth understanding of free space optical (FSO) communication with a particular emphasis on optical beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. The book is structured in such a way that it provides a basic framework for the beginners and also gives a concise description from a designer’s perspective. The book provides an exposure to FSO technology, fundamental limitations, design methodologies, system trade-offs, acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) techniques and link-feasibility analysis. The contents of this book will be of interest to professionals and researchers alike. The book may also be used as a textbook for engineering coursework and professional training.
Shiozaki, Toru; Győrffy, Werner; Celani, Paolo; Werner, Hans-Joachim
2011-08-01
The extended multireference quasi-degenerate perturbation theory, proposed by Granovsky [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 214113 (2011)], is combined with internally contracted multi-state complete active space second-order perturbation theory (XMS-CASPT2). The first-order wavefunction is expanded in terms of the union of internally contracted basis functions generated from all the reference functions, which guarantees invariance of the theory with respect to unitary rotations of the reference functions. The method yields improved potentials in the vicinity of avoided crossings and conical intersections. The theory for computing nuclear energy gradients for MS-CASPT2 and XMS-CASPT2 is also presented and the first implementation of these gradient methods is reported. A number of illustrative applications of the new methods are presented.
Silicon Photonics for Space Communications
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is aimed to address level two "Optical Communication and Navigation" needs within the "5.0 Communications, Navigation, and Orbital Debris Tracking and...
Toward a Unified Communication Theory.
McMillan, Saundra
After discussing the nature of theory itself, the author explains her concept of the Unified Communication Theory, which rests on the assumption that there exists in all living structures a potential communication factor which is delimited by species and ontogeny. An organism develops "symbol fixation" at the level where its perceptual abilities…
Social theories for strategic communication
Ihlen, Ø.; Verhoeven, P.; Holtzhausen, D.; Zerfass, A.
2015-01-01
Social theory provides strategic communication with a basic understanding of the societal role of the practice, and its ethical and political consequences. This chapter draws out some key conclusions based on a wide reading of social theory approaches. First of all, building on social theory means
Optical space communication: An overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, V.K.
1994-01-01
In this paper, importance of the optical space communication has been highlighted. Its merits and demerits over the conventional microwave system has been presented. In contrast to coherent systems, use of an optical preamplifier in direct detection system has been emphasized. Status of some of the ongoing/future space communication projects has been given. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs
Practical communication theory
Adamy, Dave
2014-01-01
This book enables the reader to quickly and easily generate the answers to real-world problems encountered in specifying, testing, and fielding any type of systems that involve radio propagation. It deals with free space radio propagation and propagation near the ground and over the ridge lines.
Linear spaces: history and theory
Albrecht Beutelspracher
1990-01-01
Linear spaces belong to the most fundamental geometric and combinatorial structures. In this paper I would like to give an onerview about the theory of embedding finite linear spaces in finite projective planes.
Triebel, Hans
1983-01-01
The book deals with the two scales Bsp,q and Fsp,q of spaces of distributions, where -8spaces, such as Hölder spaces, Zygmund classes, Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, Bessel-potential spaces, Hardy spaces and spaces of BMO-type. It is the main aim of this book to give a unified treatment of the corresponding spaces on the Euclidean n-space Rn in the framework of Fourier analysis, which is based on the technique of maximal functions, Fourier multipliers and interpolation assertions. These topics are treated in Chapter 2, which is the heart
Ramsey theory for product spaces
Dodos, Pandelis
2016-01-01
Ramsey theory is a dynamic area of combinatorics that has various applications in analysis, ergodic theory, logic, number theory, probability theory, theoretical computer science, and topological dynamics. This book is devoted to one of the most important areas of Ramsey theory-the Ramsey theory of product spaces. It is a culmination of a series of recent breakthroughs by the two authors and their students who were able to lift this theory to the infinite-dimensional case. The book presents many major results and methods in the area, such as Szemerédi's regularity method, the hypergraph removal lemma, and the density Hales-Jewett theorem. This book addresses researchers in combinatorics but also working mathematicians and advanced graduate students who are interested in Ramsey theory. The prerequisites for reading this book are rather minimal: it only requires familiarity, at the graduate level, with probability theory and real analysis. Some familiarity with the basics of Ramsey theory would be beneficial, ...
The Nonlinear Field Space Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mielczarek, Jakub, E-mail: jakub.mielczarek@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Trześniewski, Tomasz, E-mail: tbwbt@ift.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland)
2016-08-10
In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the “Principle of finiteness” of physical theories, which once motivated the Born–Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.
The Nonlinear Field Space Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz
2016-01-01
In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the “Principle of finiteness” of physical theories, which once motivated the Born–Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.
Space Shuttle Underside Astronaut Communications Performance Evaluation
Hwu, Shian U.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Kroll, Quin D.; Sham, Catherine C.
2005-01-01
The Space Shuttle Ultra High Frequency (UHF) communications system is planned to provide Radio Frequency (RF) coverage for astronauts working underside of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) for thermal tile inspection and repairing. This study is to assess the Space Shuttle UHF communication performance for astronauts in the shadow region without line-of-sight (LOS) to the Space Shuttle and Space Station UHF antennas. To insure the RF coverage performance at anticipated astronaut worksites, the link margin between the UHF antennas and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Astronauts with significant vehicle structure blockage was analyzed. A series of near-field measurements were performed using the NASA/JSC Anechoic Chamber Antenna test facilities. Computational investigations were also performed using the electromagnetic modeling techniques. The computer simulation tool based on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) was used to compute the signal strengths. The signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the propagation paths between the transmitting and receiving antennas. Based on the results obtained in this study, RF coverage for UHF communication links was determined for the anticipated astronaut worksite in the shadow region underneath the Space Shuttle.
Albiac, Fernando
2016-01-01
This text provides the reader with the necessary technical tools and background to reach the frontiers of research without the introduction of too many extraneous concepts. Detailed and accessible proofs are included, as are a variety of exercises and problems. The two new chapters in this second edition are devoted to two topics of much current interest amongst functional analysts: Greedy approximation with respect to bases in Banach spaces and nonlinear geometry of Banach spaces. This new material is intended to present these two directions of research for their intrinsic importance within Banach space theory, and to motivate graduate students interested in learning more about them. This textbook assumes only a basic knowledge of functional analysis, giving the reader a self-contained overview of the ideas and techniques in the development of modern Banach space theory. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the classical Lebesgue spaces Lp (and their sequence space analogues) and spaces of continuous f...
Introduction to operator space theory
Pisier, Gilles
2003-01-01
An introduction to the theory of operator spaces, emphasising examples that illustrate the theory and applications to C*-algebras, and applications to non self-adjoint operator algebras, and similarity problems. Postgraduate and professional mathematicians interested in functional analysis, operator algebras and theoretical physics will find the book has much to offer.
Space weather effects on communications
Lanzerotti, Louis J.
In the 150 years since the advent of the first electrical communication system - the electrical telegraph - the diversity of communications technologies that are embedded within space-affected environments have vastly increased. The increasing sophistication of these communications technologies, and how their installation and operations may relate to the environments in which they are embedded, requires ever more sophisticated understanding of natural physical phenomena. At the same time, the business environment for most present-day communications technologies that are affected by space phenomena is very dynamic. The commercial and national security deployment and use of these technologies do not wait for optimum knowledge of possible environmental effects to be acquired before new technological embodiments are created, implemented, and marketed. Indeed, those companies that might foolishly seek perfectionist understanding of natural effects can be left behind by the marketplace. A well-considered balance is needed between seeking ever deeper understanding of physical phenomena and implementing `engineering' solutions to current crises. The research community must try to understand, and operate in, this dynamic environment.
Karl Marx & Communication @ 200: Towards a Marxian Theory of Communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Fuchs
2018-05-01
Full Text Available This contribution takes Marx’s bicentenary as occasion for reflecting on foundations of a Marxian theory of communication. It aims to show that Marx provides a consistent account as foundation for a critical, dialectical theory of communication. The article first discusses the relationship of communication and materialism in order to ground a communicative materialism that avoids the dualist assumption that communication is a superstructure erected on a material base. Second, the paper provides an overview of how Marx’s approach helps us to understand the role of the means of communication and communicative labour in capitalism. Third, it conceives of ideology as a form of fetishised communication and fetishism as ideological communication. Given that communicative capitalism is a significant dimension of contemporary society, it is about time to develop a Marxian theory of communication.
Climate change communication: what can we learn from communication theory?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ballantyne, Anne Gammelgaard
2016-01-01
the field of communication theory are highlighted and discussed in the context of communicating climate change. Rooted in the interaction paradigm, the article proposes a meta‐theoretical framework that conceptualizes communication as a constitutive process of producing and reproducing shared meanings...... as a theoretical construct. In some instances, communication theory appears reduced to an ‘ad hoc’ toolbox, from which theories are randomly picked to provide studies with a fitting framework. Inspired by the paradigm shift from transmission to interaction within communication theory, potential lessons from...
Diversity in Mass Communication Theory Courses.
Lasorsa, Dominic L.
2002-01-01
Shows how prominent mass communication theories can be employed to further knowledge of diversity-related issues. Provides examples of how diversity-related issues can be addressed in mass communication theory courses. Concludes that, by definition, mass communication must take into account diversity. (PM)
Quantum communication, reference frames, and gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enk, S. J. van
2006-01-01
We consider quantum communication in the case that the communicating parties not only do not share a reference frame but use imperfect quantum communication channels, in that each channel applies some fixed but unknown unitary rotation to each qubit. We discuss similarities and differences between reference frames within that quantum communication model and gauge fields in gauge theory. We generalize the concept of refbits and analyze various quantum communication protocols within the communication model
Contemporary Advertising and Mass Communications Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diogo Rógora Kawano
2008-08-01
Full Text Available From readings of classic works on communications theories, presented in Wolf (2005 and Mattelart and Mattelart (2000, in this work are presented the main theoretical reflections on communications theories that have contributed for the understanding of the processes in advertising and propaganda, in order to observe the most used theoretical lines in the area, as well as to point out other theories and less worked hypotheses in the studies of communication.
Systems Theory and Communication. Annotated Bibliography.
Covington, William G., Jr.
This annotated bibliography presents annotations of 31 books and journal articles dealing with systems theory and its relation to organizational communication, marketing, information theory, and cybernetics. Materials were published between 1963 and 1992 and are listed alphabetically by author. (RS)
The Forgotten Marxist Theory of Communication & Society
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Horst Holzer
2017-07-01
Horst Holzer (1935-2000 was a German sociologist and communication theorist. He contributed to the formation and development of the critique of the political economy of media and communication in the German-speaking world. Holzer used Marxist theory for the analysis of the relationship between capitalism and communication. Given his pioneering intellectual role in the development of the critique of the political economy of communication in the German-speaking world, it is not an understatement to say that Horst Holzer is Germany’s Dallas Smythe. Holzer lived and worked in Munich and published twenty German books. The focus of Holzer’s writings was in general on communication theory, the sociology of communication, as well as on capitalism and communication. In particular, his books were about the ideology and political economy of magazines, newspapers, radio and television; public sphere theory, sociological theories, children and television, and surveillance.
Practical impact of group communication theory
Schiper, A.
2003-01-01
Practical impact of group communication theory Andre Schiper Group communication is an important topic in fault-tolerant distributed applications. The paper summarizes the main contributions of practical importance that contributed to our current understanding of group communication. These contributions are classified into ''abstractions'' and ''specifications'', ''paradigms'', ''system models'', ''algorithms'', and ''theoretical results''. Some open issues are discussed at the end of the ...
A communication-theory based view on telemedical communication.
Schall, Thomas; Roeckelein, Wolfgang; Mohr, Markus; Kampshoff, Joerg; Lange, Tim; Nerlich, Michael
2003-01-01
Communication theory based analysis sheds new light on the use of health telematics. This analysis of structures in electronic medical communication shows communicative structures with special features. Current and evolving telemedical applications are analyzed. The methodology of communicational theory (focusing on linguistic pragmatics) is used to compare it with its conventional counterpart. The semiotic model, the roles of partners, the respective message and their relation are discussed. Channels, sender, addressee, and other structural roles are analyzed for different types of electronic medical communication. The communicative processes are shown as mutual, rational action towards a common goal. The types of communication/texts are analyzed in general. Furthermore the basic communicative structures of medical education via internet are presented with their special features. The analysis shows that electronic medical communication has special features compared to everyday communication: A third participant role often is involved: the patient. Messages often are addressed to an unspecified partner or to an unspecified partner within a group. Addressing in this case is (at least partially) role-based. Communication and message often directly (rather than indirectly) influence actions of the participants. Communication often is heavily regulated including legal implications like liability, and more. The conclusion from the analysis is that the development of telemedical applications so far did not sufficiently take communicative structures into consideration. Based on these results recommendations for future developments of telemedical applications/services are given.
Space industrialization - Education. [via communication satellites
Joels, K. M.
1978-01-01
The components of an educational system based on, and perhaps enhanced by, space industrialization communications technology are considered. Satellite technology has introduced a synoptic distribution system for various transmittable educational media. The cost of communications satellite distribution for educational programming has been high. It has, therefore, been proposed to utilize Space Shuttle related technology and Large Space Structures (LSS) to construct a system with a quantum advancement in communication capability and a quantum reduction in user cost. LSS for communications purposes have three basic advantages for both developed and emerging nations, including the ability to distribute signals over wide geographic areas, the reduced cost of satellite communications systems versus installation of land based systems, and the ability of a communication satellite system to create instant educational networks.
Communication Theory and the Consumer Movement-
Newsom, Doug
1977-01-01
Defines and traces the origins of the consumer movement and uses communication theories to explain the effects of the movement. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)
Space-bounded communication complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brody, Joshua Eric; Chen, Shiteng; Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.
2013-01-01
communicate his entire input. However, what if the players are limited in their ability to recall parts of their interaction? We introduce memory models for 2-party communication complexity. Our general model is as follows: two computationally unrestricted players, Alice and Bob, each have s(n) bits of memory....... When a player receives a bit of communication, he "compresses" his state. This compression may be an arbitrary function of his current memory contents, his input, and the bit of communication just received; the only restriction is that the compression must return at most s(n) bits. We obtain memory...... controls two types of memory: (i) a large, oblivious memory, where updates are only a function of the received bit and the current memory content, and (ii) a smaller, non-oblivious/general memory, where updates can be a function of the input given to Bob. We exhibit natural protocols where this semi...
The human communication space towards I-centric communications
Arbanowski, S; Steglich, S; Popescu-Zeletin, R
2001-01-01
A variety of concepts for service integration and corresponding systems have been developed. On one hand, they aim for the interworking and integration of classical telecommunications and data communications services. On the other, they are focusing on universal service access from a variety of end-user systems. Many of the technical problems, resulting from service integration and service personalisation, have been solved. However, all these systems are driven by the concept of providing several technologies to users by keeping the peculiarity of each service. Looking at human communication behaviour and communication space, it is obvious that human beings interact habitually in a set of contexts with their environment. The individual information preferences and needs, persons to interact with, and the set of devices controlled by each individual define their personal communication space. Following this view, a new approach is to build communication systems not on the basis of specific technologies, but on t...
Noncommutative induced gauge theories on Moyal spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallet, J-C
2008-01-01
Noncommutative field theories on Moyal spaces can be conveniently handled within a framework of noncommutative geometry. Several renormalisable matter field theories that are now identified are briefly reviewed. The construction of renormalisable gauge theories on these noncommutative Moyal spaces, which remains so far a challenging problem, is then closely examined. The computation in 4-D of the one-loop effective gauge theory generated from the integration over a scalar field appearing in a renormalisable theory minimally coupled to an external gauge potential is presented. The gauge invariant effective action is found to involve, beyond the expected noncommutative version of the pure Yang-Mills action, additional terms that may be interpreted as the gauge theory counterpart of the harmonic term, which for the noncommutative ψ 4 -theory on Moyal space ensures renormalisability. A class of possible candidates for renormalisable gauge theory actions defined on Moyal space is presented and discussed
Transition From NASA Space Communication Systems to Commerical Communication Products
Ghazvinian, Farzad; Lindsey, William C.
1994-01-01
Transitioning from twenty-five years of space communication system architecting, engineering and development to creating and marketing of commercial communication system hardware and software products is no simple task for small, high-tech system engineering companies whose major source of revenue has been the U.S. Government. Yet, many small businesses are faced with this onerous and perplexing task. The purpose of this talk/paper is to present one small business (LinCom) approach to taking advantage of the systems engineering expertise and knowledge captured in physical neural networks and simulation software by supporting numerous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) projects, e.g., Space Shuttle, TDRSS, Space Station, DCSC, Milstar, etc. The innovative ingredients needed for a systems house to transition to a wireless communication system products house that supports personal communication services and networks (PCS and PCN) development in a global economy will be discussed. Efficient methods for using past government sponsored space system research and development to transition to VLSI communication chip set products will be presented along with notions of how synergy between government and industry can be maintained to benefit both parties.
The theory of space, time and gravitation
Fock, V
2015-01-01
The Theory of Space, Time, and Gravitation, 2nd Revised Edition focuses on Relativity Theory and Einstein's Theory of Gravitation and correction of the misinterpretation of the Einsteinian Gravitation Theory. The book first offers information on the theory of relativity and the theory of relativity in tensor form. Discussions focus on comparison of distances and lengths in moving reference frames; comparison of time differences in moving reference frames; position of a body in space at a given instant in a fixed reference frame; and proof of the linearity of the transformation linking two iner
Geometry of Theory Space and RG Flows
Kar, Sayan
The space of couplings of a given theory is the arena of interest in this article. Equipped with a metric ansatz akin to the Fisher information matrix in the space of parameters in statistics (similar metrics in physics are the Zamolodchikov metric or the O'Connor-Stephens metric) we investigate the geometry of theory space through a study of specific examples. We then look into renormalisation group flows in theory space and make an attempt to characterise such flows via its isotropic expansion, rotation and shear. Consequences arising from the evolution equation for the isotropic expansion are discussed. We conclude by pointing out generalisations and pose some open questions.
Non-Gaussian Statistical Communication Theory
Middleton, David
2012-01-01
The book is based on the observation that communication is the central operation of discovery in all the sciences. In its "active mode" we use it to "interrogate" the physical world, sending appropriate "signals" and receiving nature's "reply". In the "passive mode" we receive nature's signals directly. Since we never know a prioriwhat particular return signal will be forthcoming, we must necessarily adopt a probabilistic model of communication. This has developed over the approximately seventy years since it's beginning, into a Statistical Communication Theory (or SCT). Here it is the set or
Free Space Optical Communication for Tactical Operations
2016-09-01
higher energy level to a lower energy level. The photons are focused to optical lenses before transmission into the air medium. The primary purpose...Security of a free space optical transmission . (n.d.). SONA Optical Wireless , [Online]. Available: http://htcbn.com/HTC_Profile_CD/fSONA/APPNOTE...almost always require on-the-move wireless communications. Radio frequency (RF) communication is used to fill the gap, but RF systems are hard pressed to
Information theory and rate distortion theory for communications and compression
Gibson, Jerry
2013-01-01
This book is very specifically targeted to problems in communications and compression by providing the fundamental principles and results in information theory and rate distortion theory for these applications and presenting methods that have proved and will prove useful in analyzing and designing real systems. The chapters contain treatments of entropy, mutual information, lossless source coding, channel capacity, and rate distortion theory; however, it is the selection, ordering, and presentation of the topics within these broad categories that is unique to this concise book. While the cover
Religion and Communication Spaces. A Semio-pragmatic Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roger Odin
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Following the reflection initiated in his book The Spaces of Communication, Roger Odin suggests a new distinction between physical communication spaces and mental communication spaces (spaces that we have inside us. The suggestion is exemplified by three film analyses dedicated to the relationships between religion and communication.
Infrared Free Space Communication - The Autonomous Testing of Free Space Infrared Communication
Heldman, Christopher
2017-01-01
Fiber optics has been a winning player in the game of high-speed communication and data transfer in cable connections. Yet, in free space RF has been the repeated choice of communication medium of the space industry. Investigating the benefits of free space optical communication over radio frequency is worthwhile. An increase in science data rate return capabilities could occur if optical communication is implemented. Optical communication systems also provide efficiencies in power, mass, and volume over RF systems1. Optical communication systems have been demonstrated from a satellite in orbit with the moon to earth, and resulted in the highest data rates ever seen through space (622Mbps)2. Because of these benefits, optical communication is far superior to RF. The HiDRA (High Data Rate Architecture) project is researching Passive Misalignment Mitigation of Dynamic Free Apace Optical Communication Links. The goal of this effort is to enable gigabit per second transmission of data in short range dynamic links (less than 100 meters). In practice this would enhance data rates between sites on the International Space Station with minimal size, weight, and power requirements. This paper will focus on an autonomous code and a hardware setup that will be used to fulfill the next step in the research being conducted. The free space optical communications pointing downfalls will be investigated. This was achieved by creating 5 python programs and a top-level code to automate this test.
Moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wendland, K.
2000-08-01
We investigate various features of moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories. A geometric characterization of rational toroidal conformal field theories in arbitrary dimensions is presented and discussed in relation to singular tori and those with complex multiplication. We study the moduli space M 2 of unitary two-dimensional conformal field theories with central charge c = 2. All the 26 non-exceptional non-isolated irreducible components of M 2 are constructed that may be obtained by an orbifold procedure from toroidal theories. The parameter spaces and partition functions are calculated explicitly. All multicritical points and lines are determined, such that all but three of these 26 components are directly or indirectly connected to the space of toroidal theories in M 2 . Relating our results to those by Dixon, Ginsparg, Harvey on the classification of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories, we give geometric interpretations to all non-isolated orbifolds discussed by them and correct their statements on multicritical points within the moduli space of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories. In the main part of this work, we investigate the moduli space M of N = (4, 4) superconformal field theories with central charge c = 6. After a slight emendation of its global description we give generic partition functions for models contained in M. We explicitly determine the locations of various known models in the component of M associated to K3 surfaces
NASA's current activities in free space optical communications
Edwards, Bernard L.
2017-11-01
NASA and other space agencies around the world are currently developing free space optical communication systems for both space-to-ground links and space-to-space links. This paper provides an overview of NASA's current activities in free space optical communications with a focus on Near Earth applications. Activities to be discussed include the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration, the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration, and the commercialization of the underlying technology. The paper will also briefly discuss ongoing efforts and studies for Deep Space optical communications. Finally the paper will discuss the development of international optical communication standards within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems.
Downlink Fiber Laser Transmitter for Deep Space Communication, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) roadmap, calls for an integrated network approach to communication and navigation needs for robotic and human space...
Asynchronous communication in real space process algebra
Baeten, J.C.M.; Bergstra, J.A.
1991-01-01
A version of classical real space process algebra is given in which messages travel with constant speed through a three-dimensional medium. It follows that communication is asynchronous and has a broadcasting character. A state operator is used to describe asynchronous message transfer and a
Asynchronous communication in real space process algebra
Bergstra, J.A.; Baeten, J.C.M.
1992-01-01
A version of classical real space process algebra is given in which messages travel with constant speed through a three-dimensional medium. It follows that communication is asynchronous and has a broadcasting character. A state operator is used to describe asynchronous message transfer and a
National Aeronautics and Space Administration plans for space communication technology
Alexovich, R. E.
1979-01-01
A program plan is presented for a space communications application utilizing the 30/20 GHz frequency bands (30 GHz uplink and 20 GHz downlink). Results of market demand studies and spacecraft systems studies which significantly affect the supporting research and technology program are also presented, along with the scheduled activities of the program plan.
Phase-space quantization of field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.
1999-01-01
In this lecture, a limited introduction of gauge invariance in phase-space is provided, predicated on canonical transformations in quantum phase-space. Exact characteristic trajectories are also specified for the time-propagating Wigner phase-space distribution function: they are especially simple--indeed, classical--for the quantized simple harmonic oscillator. This serves as the underpinning of the field theoretic Wigner functional formulation introduced. Scalar field theory is thus reformulated in terms of distributions in field phase-space. This is a pedagogical selection from work published and reported at the Yukawa Institute Workshop ''Gauge Theory and Integrable Models'', 26-29 January, 1999
Fixed point theory in metric type spaces
Agarwal, Ravi P; O’Regan, Donal; Roldán-López-de-Hierro, Antonio Francisco
2015-01-01
Written by a team of leading experts in the field, this volume presents a self-contained account of the theory, techniques and results in metric type spaces (in particular in G-metric spaces); that is, the text approaches this important area of fixed point analysis beginning from the basic ideas of metric space topology. The text is structured so that it leads the reader from preliminaries and historical notes on metric spaces (in particular G-metric spaces) and on mappings, to Banach type contraction theorems in metric type spaces, fixed point theory in partially ordered G-metric spaces, fixed point theory for expansive mappings in metric type spaces, generalizations, present results and techniques in a very general abstract setting and framework. Fixed point theory is one of the major research areas in nonlinear analysis. This is partly due to the fact that in many real world problems fixed point theory is the basic mathematical tool used to establish the existence of solutions to problems which arise natur...
Coset space dimensional reduction of gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kapetanakis, D. (Physik Dept., Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)); Zoupanos, G. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland))
1992-10-01
We review the attempts to construct unified theories defined in higher dimensions which are dimensionally reduced over coset spaces. We employ the coset space dimensional reduction scheme, which permits the detailed study of the resulting four-dimensional gauge theories. In the context of this scheme we present the difficulties and the suggested ways out in the attempts to describe the observed interactions in a realistic way. (orig.).
Coset space dimensional reduction of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.
1992-01-01
We review the attempts to construct unified theories defined in higher dimensions which are dimensionally reduced over coset spaces. We employ the coset space dimensional reduction scheme, which permits the detailed study of the resulting four-dimensional gauge theories. In the context of this scheme we present the difficulties and the suggested ways out in the attempts to describe the observed interactions in a realistic way. (orig.)
Quantum theory in complex Hilbert space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, C.S.
1988-01-01
The theory of complexification of a real Hilbert space as developed by the author is scrutinized with the aim of explaining why quantum theory should be done in a complex Hilbert space in preference to real Hilbert space. It is suggested that, in order to describe periodic motions in stationary states of a quantum system, the mathematical object modelling a state of a system should have enough points in it to be able to describe explicit time dependence of a periodic motion without affecting the probability distributions of observables. Heuristic evidence for such an assumption comes from Dirac's theory of interaction between radiation and matter. If the assumption is adopted as a requirement on the mathematical model for a quantum system, then a real Hilbert space is ruled out in favour of a complex Hilbert space for a possible model for such a system
Abelian gauge theories on homogeneous spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vassilevich, D.V.
1992-07-01
An algebraic technique of separation of gauge modes in Abelian gauge theories on homogeneous spaces is proposed. An effective potential for the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory on S 3 is calculated. A generalization of the Chern-Simons action is suggested and analysed with the example of SU(3)/U(1) x U(1). (author). 11 refs
de Boer, J.
2000-01-01
In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop
Challenges of Integrating NASA's Space Communications Networks
Reinert, Jessica; Barnes, Patrick
2013-01-01
The transition to new technology, innovative ideas, and resistance to change is something that every industry experiences. Recent examples of this shift are changing to using robots in the assembly line construction of automobiles or the increasing use of robotics for medical procedures. Most often this is done with cost-reduction in mind, though ease of use for the customer is also a driver. All industries experience the push to increase efficiency of their systems; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the commercial space industry are no different. NASA space communication services are provided by three separately designed, developed, maintained, and operated communications networks known as the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN). The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program is pursuing integration of these networks and has performed a variety of architecture trade studies to determine what integration options would be the most effective in achieving a unified user mission support organization, and increase the use of common operational equipment and processes. The integration of multiple, legacy organizations and existing systems has challenges ranging from technical to cultural. The existing networks are the progeny of the very first communication and tracking capabilities implemented by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) more than 50 years ago and have been customized to the needs of their respective user mission base. The technical challenges to integrating the networks are many, though not impossible to overcome. The three distinct networks provide the same types of services, with customizable data rates, bandwidth, frequencies, and so forth. The differences across the networks have occurred in effort to satisfy their user missions' needs. Each new requirement has made the networks more unique and harder to integrate. The cultural challenges, however, have proven to be a
Challenges of Integrating NASAs Space Communication Networks
Reinert, Jessica M.; Barnes, Patrick
2013-01-01
The transition to new technology, innovative ideas, and resistance to change is something that every industry experiences. Recent examples of this shift are changing to using robots in the assembly line construction of automobiles or the increasing use of robotics for medical procedures. Most often this is done with cost-reduction in mind, though ease of use for the customer is also a driver. All industries experience the push to increase efficiency of their systems; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the commercial space industry are no different. NASA space communication services are provided by three separately designed, developed, maintained, and operated communications networks known as the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN). The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program is pursuing integration of these networks and has performed a variety of architecture trade studies to determine what integration options would be the most effective in achieving a unified user mission support organization, and increase the use of common operational equipment and processes. The integration of multiple, legacy organizations and existing systems has challenges ranging from technical to cultural. The existing networks are the progeny of the very first communication and tracking capabilities implemented by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) more than 50 years ago and have been customized to the needs of their respective user mission base. The technical challenges to integrating the networks are many, though not impossible to overcome. The three distinct networks provide the same types of services, with customizable data rates, bandwidth, frequencies, and so forth. The differences across the networks have occurred in effort to satisfy their user missions' needs. Each new requirement has made the networks more unique and harder to integrate. The cultural challenges, however, have proven to be a
Theories of informetrics and scholarly communication
2016-01-01
Scientometrics have become an essential element in the practice and evaluation of science and research, including both the evaluation of individuals and national assessment exercises. This book brings together the theories that guide informetrics and scholarly communication research. It is a timely and much needed compilation by leading scholars in the field, and covers all aspects that guide our understanding of authorship, citing, and impact.
Universal moduli space and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwarz, A.S.
1989-09-01
The construction of the universal supermoduli space is given. The super-Mumford form (the holomorphic square root from the string measure) is extended to the universal supermoduli space and expressed through the superanalog of Sato's τ-function. The hidden N=2 superconformal symmetry in the string theory is considered. (author). 13 refs
Internal space decimation for lattice gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flyvbjerg, H.
1984-01-01
By a systematic decimation of internal space lattice gauge theories with continuous symmetry groups are mapped into effective lattice gauge theories with finite symmetry groups. The decimation of internal space makes a larger lattice tractable with the same computational resources. In this sense the method is an alternative to Wilson's and Symanzik's programs of improved actions. As an illustrative test of the method U(1) is decimated to Z(N) and the results compared with Monte Carlo data for Z(4)- and Z(5)-invariant lattice gauge theories. The result of decimating SU(3) to its 1080-element crystal-group-like subgroup is given and discussed. (orig.)
Spectral Theory of Operators on Hilbert Spaces
Kubrusly, Carlos S
2012-01-01
This work is a concise introduction to spectral theory of Hilbert space operators. Its emphasis is on recent aspects of theory and detailed proofs, with the primary goal of offering a modern introductory textbook for a first graduate course in the subject. The coverage of topics is thorough, as the book explores various delicate points and hidden features often left untreated. Spectral Theory of Operators on Hilbert Space is addressed to an interdisciplinary audience of graduate students in mathematics, statistics, economics, engineering, and physics. It will also be useful to working mathemat
Alabiso, Carlo
2015-01-01
This book is an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, a fundamental tool for non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Linear, topological, metric, and normed spaces are all addressed in detail, in a rigorous but reader-friendly fashion. The rationale for an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, rather than a detailed study of Hilbert space theory itself, resides in the very high mathematical difficulty of even the simplest physical case. Within an ordinary graduate course in physics there is insufficient time to cover the theory of Hilbert spaces and operators, as well as distribution theory, with sufficient mathematical rigor. Compromises must be found between full rigor and practical use of the instruments. The book is based on the author's lessons on functional analysis for graduate students in physics. It will equip the reader to approach Hilbert space and, subsequently, rigged Hilbert space, with a more practical attitude. With respect to the original lectures, the mathematical flavor in all sub...
Diamond Electron-Spin Clocks For Space Navigation and Communication
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision clocks are needed in a broad range of applications, including satellite communication, high-bandwidth wireless communication, computing systems, and...
Deep space optical communication via relay satellite
Dolinar, S.; Vilnrotter, V.; Gagliardi, R.
1981-01-01
The application of optical communications for a deep space link via an earth-orbiting relay satellite is discussed. The system uses optical frequencies for the free-space channel and RF links for atmospheric transmission. The relay satellite is in geostationary orbit and contains the optics necessary for data processing and formatting. It returns the data to earth through the RF terrestrial link and also transmits an optical beacon to the satellite for spacecraft return pointing and for the alignment of the transmitting optics. Future work will turn to modulation and coding, pointing and tracking, and optical-RF interfacing.
Digital communication constraints in prior space missions
Yassine, Nathan K.
2004-01-01
Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this
PUTTING COMMUNICATION FRONT AND CENTER IN INSTITUTIONAL THEORY AND ANALYSIS
Cornelissen, J.P.; Durand, R.; Fiss, P.C.; Lammers, J.C.; Vaara, E.
2015-01-01
We conceptualize the roots of cognitive, linguistic, and communicative theories of institutions and outline the promise and potential of a stronger communication focus for institutional theory. In particular, we outline a theoretical approach that puts communication at the heart of theories of
Asynchronous communication in real space process algebra
Baeten, JCM Jos; Bergstra, JA Jan
1990-01-01
A version of classical real space process algebra is given in which messages travel with constant speed through a three-dimensional medium. It follows that communication is asynchronous and has a broadcasting character. A state operator is used to describe asynchronous message transfer and a priority mechanism allows to express the broadcasting mechanism. As an application, a protocol is specified in which the receiver moves with respect to the sender.
Elements of Hilbert spaces and operator theory
Vasudeva, Harkrishan Lal
2017-01-01
The book presents an introduction to the geometry of Hilbert spaces and operator theory, targeting graduate and senior undergraduate students of mathematics. Major topics discussed in the book are inner product spaces, linear operators, spectral theory and special classes of operators, and Banach spaces. On vector spaces, the structure of inner product is imposed. After discussing geometry of Hilbert spaces, its applications to diverse branches of mathematics have been studied. Along the way are introduced orthogonal polynomials and their use in Fourier series and approximations. Spectrum of an operator is the key to the understanding of the operator. Properties of the spectrum of different classes of operators, such as normal operators, self-adjoint operators, unitaries, isometries and compact operators have been discussed. A large number of examples of operators, along with their spectrum and its splitting into point spectrum, continuous spectrum, residual spectrum, approximate point spectrum and compressio...
Quantum group gauge theory on quantum spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brzezinski, T.; Majid, S.
1993-01-01
We construct quantum group-valued canonical connections on quantum homogeneous spaces, including a q-deformed Dirac monopole on the quantum sphere of Podles quantum differential coming from the 3-D calculus of Woronowicz on SU q (2). The construction is presented within the setting of a general theory of quantum principal bundles with quantum group (Hopf algebra) fiber, associated quantum vector bundles and connection one-forms. Both the base space (spacetime) and the total space are non-commutative algebras (quantum spaces). (orig.)
Free-space communication with over 100 spatial modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Rosales-Guzmán, C
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Congress 2016: Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL); Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications (LS&C), 30 October - 3 November 2016, Boston, Massachusetts, United States Free-space communication with over 100 spatial modes...
Quantum field theory in generalised Snyder spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meljanac, S.; Meljanac, D.; Mignemi, S.; Štrajn, R.
2017-01-01
We discuss the generalisation of the Snyder model that includes all possible deformations of the Heisenberg algebra compatible with Lorentz invariance and investigate its properties. We calculate perturbatively the law of addition of momenta and the star product in the general case. We also undertake the construction of a scalar field theory on these noncommutative spaces showing that the free theory is equivalent to the commutative one, like in other models of noncommutative QFT.
Quantum field theory in generalised Snyder spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meljanac, S.; Meljanac, D. [Rudjer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Mignemi, S., E-mail: smignemi@unica.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Štrajn, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)
2017-05-10
We discuss the generalisation of the Snyder model that includes all possible deformations of the Heisenberg algebra compatible with Lorentz invariance and investigate its properties. We calculate perturbatively the law of addition of momenta and the star product in the general case. We also undertake the construction of a scalar field theory on these noncommutative spaces showing that the free theory is equivalent to the commutative one, like in other models of noncommutative QFT.
Configuration spaces geometry, topology and representation theory
Cohen, Frederick; Concini, Corrado; Feichtner, Eva; Gaiffi, Giovanni; Salvetti, Mario
2016-01-01
This book collects the scientific contributions of a group of leading experts who took part in the INdAM Meeting held in Cortona in September 2014. With combinatorial techniques as the central theme, it focuses on recent developments in configuration spaces from various perspectives. It also discusses their applications in areas ranging from representation theory, toric geometry and geometric group theory to applied algebraic topology.
Conformal field theory in conformal space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preitschopf, C.R.; Vasiliev, M.A.
1999-01-01
We present a new framework for a Lagrangian description of conformal field theories in various dimensions based on a local version of d + 2-dimensional conformal space. The results include a true gauge theory of conformal gravity in d = (1, 3) and any standard matter coupled to it. An important feature is the automatic derivation of the conformal gravity constraints, which are necessary for the analysis of the matter systems
Grassmann phase space theory for fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalton, Bryan J. [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); Jeffers, John [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G4 ONG (United Kingdom); Barnett, Stephen M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)
2017-06-15
A phase space theory for fermions has been developed using Grassmann phase space variables which can be used in numerical calculations for cold Fermi gases and for large fermion numbers. Numerical calculations are feasible because Grassmann stochastic variables at later times are related linearly to such variables at earlier times via c-number stochastic quantities. A Grassmann field version has been developed making large fermion number applications possible. Applications are shown for few mode and field theory cases. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Theory of linear operators in Hilbert space
Akhiezer, N I
1993-01-01
This classic textbook by two mathematicians from the USSR's prestigious Kharkov Mathematics Institute introduces linear operators in Hilbert space, and presents in detail the geometry of Hilbert space and the spectral theory of unitary and self-adjoint operators. It is directed to students at graduate and advanced undergraduate levels, but because of the exceptional clarity of its theoretical presentation and the inclusion of results obtained by Soviet mathematicians, it should prove invaluable for every mathematician and physicist. 1961, 1963 edition.
Constructivist Learning Theory and Climate Science Communication
Somerville, R. C.
2012-12-01
Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate
Implementation of a Space Communications Cognitive Engine
Hackett, Timothy M.; Bilen, Sven G.; Ferreira, Paulo Victor R.; Wyglinski, Alexander M.; Reinhart, Richard C.
2017-01-01
Although communications-based cognitive engines have been proposed, very few have been implemented in a full system, especially in a space communications system. In this paper, we detail the implementation of a multi-objective reinforcement-learning algorithm and deep artificial neural networks for the use as a radio-resource-allocation controller. The modular software architecture presented encourages re-use and easy modification for trying different algorithms. Various trade studies involved with the system implementation and integration are discussed. These include the choice of software libraries that provide platform flexibility and promote reusability, choices regarding the deployment of this cognitive engine within a system architecture using the DVB-S2 standard and commercial hardware, and constraints placed on the cognitive engine caused by real-world radio constraints. The implemented radio-resource allocation-management controller was then integrated with the larger spaceground system developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC).
Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hilbert space; Koopman–von Neumann theory; classical electrodynamics. PACS No. 03.50. ... The paper is divided into four sections. Section 2 .... construction of Sudarshan is to be contrasted with that of Koopman and von Neumann. ..... ture from KvN and [16] in this formulation is to define new momentum and coordinate.
Leilei, Sun; Liang, Zhang; Bing, Chen; Hong, Xi
2017-11-01
This thesis is to analyze the basic pattern hierarchy of communication space by using the theory of environmental psychology and behavior combined with relevant principles in architecture, to evaluate the design and improvement of communication space in specific meaning, and to bring new observation ideas and innovation in design methods to the system of space, environment and behavior.
Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication
Noland, Carey
2014-01-01
The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…
The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces
Castro, C
2004-01-01
A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ( $C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incoporate the lines, areas, volumes, .... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, ... dynamics of the $p$-loop histories (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incoporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, superluminal propagation, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed ) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, in a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the inva...
A homology theory for smale spaces
Putnam, Ian F
2014-01-01
The author develops a homology theory for Smale spaces, which include the basics sets for an Axiom A diffeomorphism. It is based on two ingredients. The first is an improved version of Bowen's result that every such system is the image of a shift of finite type under a finite-to-one factor map. The second is Krieger's dimension group invariant for shifts of finite type. He proves a Lefschetz formula which relates the number of periodic points of the system for a given period to trace data from the action of the dynamics on the homology groups. The existence of such a theory was proposed by Bowen in the 1970s.
47 CFR 25.273 - Duties regarding space communications transmissions.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duties regarding space communications transmissions. 25.273 Section 25.273 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.273 Duties regarding space...
Research in space commercialization, technology transfer and communications, vol. 2
Dunn, D. A.; Agnew, C. E.
1983-01-01
Spectrum management, models for evaluating communications systems, and implications of communications regulations for NASA are considered as major parts of communications policy. Marketing LANDSAT products in developing countries, a political systems analysis of LANDSAT, and private financing and operation of the space operations center (space station) are discussed. Investment requirements, risks, government support, and other primary business and management considerations are examined.
Optical wireless communications: Theory and applications
Aminikashani, Mohammadreza
This dissertation focuses on optical communications having recently attracted sig- nificant attentions as a promising complementary technique for radio frequency (RF) in both short- and long-range communications. These systems offer signifi- cant technical and operational advantages such as higher capacity, virtually unlim- ited reuse, unregulated spectrum and robustness to electromagnetic interference. Optical wireless communication (OWC) can be used both indoors and outdoors. Part of the dissertation contains novel results on terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communications. FSO communication is a line-of sight technique that uses lasers for high rate wireless communication over distances up to several kilometers. In comparison to RF counterparts, a FSO link has a very high optical bandwidth available, allowing aggregate data rates on the order of Tera bits per second (1 Tera bits per second is 1000 Giga bites per second). However, FSO suffers limitations. The major limitation of the terrestrial FSO communication systems is the atmo- spheric turbulence, which produces fluctuations in the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam, as a result of random variations in the refractive index through the link. The existence of atmospheric-induced turbulence degrades the performance of FSO links particularly with a transmission distance longer than 1 kilometer. The identification of a tractable probability density function (pdf) to describe at- mospheric turbulence under all irradiance fluctuation regimes is crucial in order to study the reliability of a terrestrial FSO system. This dissertation addresses this daunting problem and proposes a novel statistical model that accurately de- scribes turbulence-induced fading under all irradiance conditions and unifies most of the proposed statistical models derived until now in the literature. The proposed model is important for the research community working on FSO communications because it allows them to fully capitalize
A Comparative Study in Communication Texts & Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahdi Mohsenian Rad
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The present article is to study the characteristics and general nature of audience and is described it as "Audience phantasm" in developing countries. It firstly notes that there will be consequences such as audience distancing themselves from local and official media if policy makers and media officials' imaginations of audiences become far from related bare facts have happened in the era of global media and the nature of audiences. Knowing and analyzing the image of audiences presented in new communication theories. Accordingly, as the abovementioned authorities’ viewpoint of audiences exposed to media messages keeps distance from the true nature of media activities, media‐message receivers and their current position in the booming market of media, as termed by Mohsenyan Rad as “Message Bazaar”, there will possibly be disastrous social, cultural, political, and even economic consequences with regard to media uses.Then the history and definitions of “audience”, "uses & gratifications theory" and the concept of "Audience Phantasm" is described. After that, based on those and the increased options as well as the right of selecting of today-audience in the situation of message bazaar, as a result the characteristics of them are explained.
Quantum holonomy theory and Hilbert space representations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aastrup, Johannes [Mathematisches Institut, Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Moeller Grimstrup, Jesper [QHT Gruppen, Copenhagen Area (Denmark)
2016-11-15
We present a new formulation of quantum holonomy theory, which is a candidate for a non-perturbative and background independent theory of quantum gravity coupled to matter and gauge degrees of freedom. The new formulation is based on a Hilbert space representation of the QHD(M) algebra, which is generated by holonomy-diffeomorphisms on a 3-dimensional manifold and by canonical translation operators on the underlying configuration space over which the holonomy-diffeomorphisms form a non-commutative C*-algebra. A proof that the state that generates the representation exist is left for later publications. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Gauge and integrable theories in loop spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, L.A.; Luchini, G.
2012-01-01
We propose an integral formulation of the equations of motion of a large class of field theories which leads in a quite natural and direct way to the construction of conservation laws. The approach is based on generalized non-abelian Stokes theorems for p-form connections, and its appropriate mathematical language is that of loop spaces. The equations of motion are written as the equality of a hyper-volume ordered integral to a hyper-surface ordered integral on the border of that hyper-volume. The approach applies to integrable field theories in (1+1) dimensions, Chern-Simons theories in (2+1) dimensions, and non-abelian gauge theories in (2+1) and (3+1) dimensions. The results presented in this paper are relevant for the understanding of global properties of those theories. As a special byproduct we solve a long standing problem in (3+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, namely the construction of conserved charges, valid for any solution, which are invariant under arbitrary gauge transformations.
Discovery deep space optical communications (DSOC) transceiver
Roberts, W. Thomas
2017-02-01
NASA's 22 cm diameter Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) Transceiver is designed to provide a bidirectional optical link between a spacecraft in the inner solar system and an Earth-based optical ground station. This design, optimized for operation across a wide range of illumination conditions, is focused on minimizing blinding from stray light, and providing reliable, accurate attitude information to point its narrow communication beam accurately to the future location of the ground terminal. Though our transceiver will transmit in the 1550 nm waveband and receive in the 1064 nm waveband, the system design relies heavily on reflective optical elements, extending flexibility to be modified for use at different wavebands. The design makes use of common path propagation among transmit, receive and pointing verification optical channels to maintain precise alignment among its components, and to naturally correct for element misalignment resulting from launch or thermal element perturbations. This paper presents the results of trade studies showing the evolution of the design, unique operational characteristics of the design, elements that help to maintain minimal stray light contamination, and preliminary results from development and initial testing of a functional aluminum test model.
Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Bondyopadhyay, P.; Shaw, Roland
1994-01-01
A communications experiment is described as a link between the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Breadboarding for this experiment has led to two items with potential for commercial application: a 1-Watt Ka-band amplifier and a Ka-band, circularly polarized microstrip antenna. Results of the hybrid Ka-band amplifier show gain at 30 dB and a saturated output power of 28.5 dBm. A second version comprised of MMIC amplifiers is discussed. Test results of the microstrip antenna subarray show a gain of approximately 13 dB and excellent circular polarization.
Theory, Method and Games in Communication.
MacLean, Malcolm S., Jr.
The thesis that the methods in mass communication research for collecting, analyzing and interpreting data should relate directly to the theoretical models of communication is argued in this speech. Communication models indicate that a source can usually communicate more effectively in the presence of feedback from relevant receivers on their…
Hengst, Julie A
2015-01-01
This article proposes distributed communication as a promising theoretical framework for building supportive environments for child language development. Distributed communication is grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and theories of communicative practices that argue for integrating accounts of language, cognition and culture. The article first defines and illustrates through selected research articles, three key principles of distributed communication: (a) language and all communicative resources are inextricably embedded in activity; (b) successful communication depends on common ground built up through short- and long-term histories of participation in activities; and (c) language cannot act alone, but is always orchestrated with other communicative resources. It then illustrates how these principles are fully integrated in everyday interactions by drawing from my research on Cindy Magic, a verbal make-believe game played by a father and his two daughters. Overall, the research presented here points to the remarkably complex communicative environments and sophisticated forms of distributed communication children routinely engage in as they interact with peer and adult communication partners in everyday settings. The article concludes by considering implications of these theories for, and examples of, distributed communication relevant to clinical intervention. Readers will learn about (1) distributed communication as a conceptual tool grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory and theories of communicative practices and (2) how to apply distributed communication to the study of child language development and to interventions for children with communication disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Theories of Matter, Space and Time, Volume 2; Quantum theories
Evans, N.; King, S. F.
2018-06-01
This book and its prequel Theories of Matter Space and Time: Classical Theories grew out of courses that we have both taught as part of the undergraduate degree program in Physics at Southampton University, UK. Our goal was to guide the full MPhys undergraduate cohort through some of the trickier areas of theoretical physics that we expect our undergraduates to master. Here we teach the student to understand first quantized relativistic quantum theories. We first quickly review the basics of quantum mechanics which should be familiar to the reader from a prior course. Then we will link the Schrödinger equation to the principle of least action introducing Feynman's path integral methods. Next, we present the relativistic wave equations of Klein, Gordon and Dirac. Finally, we convert Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism to a wave equation for photons and make contact with quantum electrodynamics (QED) at a first quantized level. Between the two volumes we hope to move a student's understanding from their prior courses to a place where they are ready, beyond, to embark on graduate level courses on quantum field theory.
Bylund, Carma L.; Peterson, Emily B.; Cameron, Kenzie A.
2011-01-01
Objective To provide a brief overview of selected interpersonal theories and models, and to present examples of their use in healthcare communication research. Results Nine interpersonal communication theories and their application to healthcare communication are discussed. Conclusion As healthcare communication interactions often occur at an interpersonal level, familiarity with theories of interpersonal communication may reinforce existing best practices and lead to the development of novel communication approaches with patients. Practice Implications This article serves as an introductory primer to theories of interpersonal communication that have been or could be applied to healthcare communication research. Understanding key constructs and general formulations of these theories may provide practitioners with additional theoretical frameworks to use when interacting with patients. PMID:22112396
Bylund, Carma L; Peterson, Emily B; Cameron, Kenzie A
2012-06-01
To provide a brief overview of selected interpersonal theories and models, and to present examples of their use in healthcare communication research. Nine interpersonal communication theories and their application to healthcare communication are discussed. As healthcare communication interactions often occur at an interpersonal level, familiarity with theories of interpersonal communication may reinforce existing best practices and lead to the development of novel communication approaches with patients. This article serves as an introductory primer to theories of interpersonal communication that have been or could be applied to healthcare communication research. Understanding key constructs and general formulations of these theories may provide practitioners with additional theoretical frameworks to use when interacting with patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Applying Distributed Learning Theory in Online Business Communication Courses.
Walker, Kristin
2003-01-01
Focuses on the critical use of technology in online formats that entail relatively new teaching media. Argues that distributed learning theory is valuable for teachers of online business communication courses for several reasons. Discusses the application of distributed learning theory to the teaching of business communication online. (SG)
Resonances, scattering theory and rigged Hilbert spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parravicini, G.; Gorini, V.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1979-01-01
The problem of decaying states and resonances is examined within the framework of scattering theory in a rigged Hilbert space formalism. The stationary free, in, and out eigenvectors of formal scattering theory, which have a rigorous setting in rigged Hilbert space, are considered to be analytic functions of the energy eigenvalue. The value of these analytic functions at any point of regularity, real or complex, is an eigenvector with eigenvalue equal to the position of the point. The poles of the eigenvector families give origin to other eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian; the singularities of the out eigenvector family are the same as those of the continued S matrix, so that resonances are seen as eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian with eigenvalue equal to their location in the complex energy plane. Cauchy theorem then provides for expansions in terms of complete sets of eigenvectors with complex eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian. Applying such expansions to the survival amplitude of a decaying state, one finds that resonances give discrete contributions with purely exponential time behavior; the background is of course present, but explicitly separated. The resolvent of the Hamiltonian, restricted to the nuclear space appearing in the rigged Hilbert space, can be continued across the absolutely continuous spectrum; the singularities of the continuation are the same as those of the out eigenvectors. The free, in and out eigenvectors with complex eigenvalues and those corresponding to resonances can be approximated by physical vectors in the Hilbert space, as plane waves can. The need for having some further physical information in addition to the specification of the total Hamiltonian is apparent in the proposed framework. The formalism is applied to the Lee-Friedrichs model. 48 references
High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...
High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...
Recasting Communication Theory and Research: A Cybernetic Approach.
Hill, Gary A.
The author's main concern is to provide a research format which will supply a unitary conception of communication. The wide range of complex topics and variety of concepts embraced by communication theory and the rather disparate set of phenomena encompassed by communication research create this need for a unitary study approach capable of linking…
Why practitioners do (not) apply crisis communication theory in practice
Claeys, An-Sofie; Opgenhaffen, Michaël
2016-01-01
Twenty-five in-depth interviews with Belgian crisis communication practitioners were conducted to examine the gap between theory and practice. Crisis communication has become an important research area within public relations. Several studies have resulted in theories and guidelines regarding the effective use of communication during organizational crises. Unfortunately, these findings are not always put into practice. This study examines to what extent public relations practitioners apply th...
Coset space dimension reduction of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farakos, K.; Kapetanakis, D.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Zoupanos, G.
1989-01-01
A very interesting approach in the attempts to unify all the interactions is to consider that a unification takes place in higher than four dimensions. The most ambitious program based on the old Kaluza-Klein idea is not able to reproduce the low energy chiral nature of the weak interactions. A suggested way out was the introduction of Yang-Mills fields in the higher dimensional theory. From the particle physics point of view the most important question is how such a theory behaves in four dimensions and in particular in low energies. Therefore most of our efforts concern studies of the properties of an attractive scheme, the Coset-Space-Dimensional-Reduction (C.S.D.R.) scheme, which permits the study of the effective four dimensional theory coming from a gauge theory defined in higher dimensions. Here we summarize the C.S.D.R. procedure the main the rems which are obeyed and to present a realistic model which is the result of the model building efforts that take into account all the C.S.D.R. properties. (orig./HSI)
Multiple scattering theory for space filling potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butler, W.H.; Brown, R.G.; Nesbet, R.K.
1990-01-01
Multiple scattering theory (MST) provides an efficient technique for solving the wave equation for the special case of muffin-tin potentials. Here MST is extended to treat space filling non-muffin tin potentials and its validity, accuracy and efficiency are tested by application of the two dimensional empty lattice test. For this test it is found that the traditional formulation of MST does not coverage as the number of partial waves is increased. A simple modification of MST, however, allows this problem to be solved exactly and efficiently. 15 refs., 3 tabs
Scalar Dark Matter From Theory Space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birkedal-Hansen, Andreas; Wacker, Jay G.
2003-12-26
The scalar dark matter candidate in a prototypical theory space little Higgs model is investigated. We review all details of the model pertinent to a relic density calculation. We perform a thermal relic density calculation including couplings to the gauge and Higgs sectors of the model. We find two regions of parameter space that give acceptable dark matter abundances. The first region has a dark matter candidate with a mass {Omicron}(100 GeV), the second region has a candidate with a mass greater than {Omicron}(500 GeV). The dark matter candidate in either region is an admixture of an SU(2) triplet and an SU(2) singlet, thereby constituting a possible WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle).
Scalar dark matter from theory space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birkedal-Hansen, Andreas; Wacker, Jay G.
2004-01-01
The scalar dark matter candidate in a prototypical theory space little Higgs model is investigated. We review all details of the model pertinent to a relic density calculation. We perform a thermal relic density calculation including couplings to the gauge and Higgs sectors of the model. We find two regions of parameter space that give acceptable dark matter abundances. The first region has a dark matter candidate with a mass O(100 GeV), the second region has a candidate with a mass greater than O(500 GeV). The dark matter candidate in either region is an admixture of an SU(2) triplet and an SU(2) singlet, thereby constituting a possible weakly interacting massive particle
Theories of Matter, Space and Time; Classical theories
Evans, N.; King, S. F.
2017-12-01
This book and its sequel ('Theories of Matter Space and Time: Quantum Theories') are taken from third and fourth year undergraduate Physics courses at Southampton University, UK. The aim of both books is to move beyond the initial courses in classical mechanics, special relativity, electromagnetism, and quantum theory to more sophisticated views of these subjects and their interdependence. The goal is to guide undergraduates through some of the trickier areas of theoretical physics with concise analysis while revealing the key elegance of each subject. The first chapter introduces the key areas of the principle of least action, an alternative treatment of Newtownian dynamics, that provides new understanding of conservation laws. In particular, it shows how the formalism evolved from Fermat's principle of least time in optics. The second introduces special relativity leading quickly to the need and form of four-vectors. It develops four-vectors for all kinematic variables and generalize Newton's second law to the relativistic environment; then returns to the principle of least action for a free relativistic particle. The third chapter presents a review of the integral and differential forms of Maxwell's equations before massaging them to four-vector form so that the Lorentz boost properties of electric and magnetic fields are transparent. Again, it then returns to the action principle to formulate minimal substitution for an electrically charged particle.
Securing Data for Space Communications, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision of data exchange between space and ground nodes would involve the space network accessing public infrastructure such as the internet. Hence, advanced...
The topology of moduli space and quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montano, D.; Sonnenschein, J.
1989-01-01
We show how an SO(2,1) gauge theory with a fermionic symmetry may be used to describe the topology of the moduli space of curves. The observables of the theory correspond to the generators of the cohomology of moduli space. This is an extension of the topological quantum field theory introduced by Witten to investigate the cohomology of Yang-Mills instanton moduli space. We explore the basic structure of topological quantum field theories, examine a toy U(1) model, and then realize a full theory of moduli space topology. We also discuss why a pure gravity theory, as attempted in previous work, could not succeed. (orig.)
Communicating space weather to policymakers and the wider public
Ferreira, Bárbara
2014-05-01
As a natural hazard, space weather has the potential to affect space- and ground-based technological systems and cause harm to human health. As such, it is important to properly communicate this topic to policymakers and the general public alike, informing them (without being unnecessarily alarmist) about the potential impact of space-weather phenomena and how these can be monitored and mitigated. On the other hand, space weather is related to interesting phenomena on the Sun such as coronal-mass ejections, and incorporates one of the most beautiful displays in the Earth and its nearby space environment: aurora. These exciting and fascinating aspects of space weather should be cultivated when communicating this topic to the wider public, particularly to younger audiences. Researchers have a key role to play in communicating space weather to both policymakers and the wider public. Space scientists should have an active role in informing policy decisions on space-weather monitoring and forecasting, for example. And they can exercise their communication skills by talking about space weather to school children and the public in general. This presentation will focus on ways to communicate space weather to wider audiences, particularly policymakers. It will also address the role researchers can play in this activity to help bridge the gap between the space science community and the public.
Fractal Point Process and Queueing Theory and Application to Communication Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wornel, Gregory
1999-01-01
.... A unifying theme in the approaches to these problems has been an integration of interrelated perspectives from communication theory, information theory, signal processing theory, and control theory...
Hiding in plain sight: communication theory in implementation science.
Manojlovich, Milisa; Squires, Janet E; Davies, Barbara; Graham, Ian D
2015-04-23
Poor communication among healthcare professionals is a pressing problem, contributing to widespread barriers to patient safety. The word "communication" means to share or make common. In the literature, two communication paradigms dominate: (1) communication as a transactional process responsible for information exchange, and (2) communication as a transformational process responsible for causing change. Implementation science has focused on information exchange attributes while largely ignoring transformational attributes of communication. In this paper, we debate the merits of encompassing both paradigms. We conducted a two-staged literature review searching for the concept of communication in implementation science to understand how communication is conceptualized. Twenty-seven theories, models, or frameworks were identified; only Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations theory provides a definition of communication and includes both communication paradigms. Most models (notable exceptions include Diffusion of Innovations, The Ottawa Model of Research Use, and Normalization Process Theory) describe communication as a transactional process. But thinking of communication solely as information transfer or exchange misrepresents reality. We recommend that implementation science theories (1) propose and test the concept of shared understanding when describing communication, (2) acknowledge that communication is multi-layered, identify at least a few layers, and posit how identified layers might affect the development of shared understanding, (3) acknowledge that communication occurs in a social context, providing a frame of reference for both individuals and groups, (4) acknowledge the unpredictability of communication (and healthcare processes in general), and (5) engage with and draw on work done by communication theorists. Implementation science literature has conceptualized communication as a transactional process (when communication has been mentioned at all), thereby
Japan's telecommunications - New initiatives in space communications
Iida, T.
1992-04-01
Despite recent advances in optical transmission technology, intensive R&D work in the field of satellite communications is now being undertaken in Japan. It is believed that satellites offer advantages in several important areas, including wide coverage broadcasting, immediacy of service, suitability for the implementation of HDTV, and advantages in disaster communications and other social services. Here, some experimental projects in the field of satellite communications planned in Japan for the 1990s are summarized. In particular, attention is given to broadcast satellite development, intersatellite links, advanced mobile communication concepts, large antenna assembly experiment, small satellite R&D, and Pan-Pacific information network experiment.
Toon, Kellie L.; Wright, Courtney N.
2013-01-01
Social influence is presented throughout the communication curriculum, from the introductory public speaking course to upper-level courses devoted to communication theory and advanced study of persuasion. Within the progression of these courses, there is often a shift in emphasis from practice to theory. For example, the public speaking course is…
Kerczewski, Robert J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Fabian, Theodore P.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Richard, Alan M.
1999-01-01
The continuing technological advances in satellite communications and global networking have resulted in commercial systems that now can potentially provide capabilities for communications with space-based science platforms. This reduces the need for expensive government owned communications infrastructures to support space science missions while simultaneously making available better service to the end users. An interactive, high data rate Internet type connection through commercial space communications networks would enable authorized researchers anywhere to control space-based experiments in near real time and obtain experimental results immediately. A space based communications network architecture consisting of satellite constellations connecting orbiting space science platforms to ground users can be developed to provide this service. The unresolved technical issues presented by this scenario are the subject of research at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Assessment of network architectures, identification of required new or improved technologies, and investigation of data communications protocols are being performed through testbed and satellite experiments and laboratory simulations.
Space Power Theory: Controlling the Medium Without Weapons in Space
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wilkerson, Don L
2008-01-01
.... strategic space assets and the ability to negate enemy space systems is essential to U.S. space strategy in controlling the geographical environment of space, predominately in the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO...
Pure Relationality as a Sociological Theory of Communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sam Whimster
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In order to explain the success of populist politicians use of social media, we need to subtract the social from relationality and separate social relationships from network theory applications. A pure theory of relationality is suggested by Werner Heisenberg’s breakthrough in quantum mechanics. It is argued that sociology, to its detriment, has failed to incorporate a theory of communication, one adequate to the explosion of social media and the recent rise of populist politics, here instanced by Donald Trump. Realizing the underlying importance of communication technology in all social relationships, and treating these two aspects in a complementary fashion, is the purpose of this essay in sociological theory.
Risk communication: Framing versus interdependence theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawless, W.F.; Burns, Chad W.
1992-01-01
Prospect theory has gained wide acceptance since its introduction by Kahneman and Tversky, especially where it has been applied extensively by DOE and others. But as conceived, it is a static process theory that may not apply to dynamic environments or dynamic processes; indeed, the recent extension to group situations by one of its authors modified the original conclusions. Although most social science research is static in nature, if prospect theory is to apply to human behavior, as the authors do with their sweeping generalizations about human irrationality, because behavior is dynamic and not static, then the challenge is to study prospect theory in a dynamic environment. This study will briefly review prospect and interdependence theories, representative evidence that distinguishes between the two theories, and the implications for DOE nuclear waste management. (author)
User Needs and Advances in Space Wireless Sensing and Communications
Kegege, Obadiah
2017-01-01
Decades of space exploration and technology trends for future missions show the need for new approaches in space/planetary sensor networks, observatories, internetworking, and communications/data delivery to Earth. The User Needs to be discussed in this talk includes interviews with several scientists and reviews of mission concepts for the next generation of sensors, observatories, and planetary surface missions. These observatories, sensors are envisioned to operate in extreme environments, with advanced autonomy, whereby sometimes communication to Earth is intermittent and delayed. These sensor nodes require software defined networking capabilities in order to learn and adapt to the environment, collect science data, internetwork, and communicate. Also, some user cases require the level of intelligence to manage network functions (either as a host), mobility, security, and interface data to the physical radio/optical layer. For instance, on a planetary surface, autonomous sensor nodes would create their own ad-hoc network, with some nodes handling communication capabilities between the wireless sensor networks and orbiting relay satellites. A section of this talk will cover the advances in space communication and internetworking to support future space missions. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program continues to evolve with the development of optical communication, a new vision of the integrated network architecture with more capabilities, and the adoption of CCSDS space internetworking protocols. Advances in wireless communications hardware and electronics have enabled software defined networking (DVB-S2, VCM, ACM, DTN, Ad hoc, etc.) protocols for improved wireless communication and network management. Developing technologies to fulfil these user needs for wireless communications and adoption of standardized communication/internetworking protocols will be a huge benefit to future planetary missions, space observatories, and manned missions
Learning Theories Applied to the Teaching of Business Communication.
Hart, Maxine Barton
1980-01-01
Reviews major learning theories that can be followed by business communication instructors, including those by David Ausubel, Albert Bandura, Kurt Lewin, Edward Thorndike, B.F. Skinner, and Robert Gagne. (LRA)
Information theory and its application to optical communication
Willems, F.M.J.
2017-01-01
The lecture focusses on the foundations of communication which were developed within the field of information theory. Enumerative shaping techniques and the so-called squareroot transform will be discussed in detail.
Facility for the evaluation of space communications and related systems
Kerczewski, Robert J.; Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.
1995-01-01
NASA Lewis Research Center's Communications Projects Branch has developed a facility for the evaluation of space communications systems and related types of systems, called the Advanced Space Communications (ASC) Laboratory. The ASC Lab includes instrumentation, testbed hardware, and experiment control and monitor software for the evaluation of components, subsystems, systems, and networks. The ASC lab has capabilities to perform radiofrequency (RF), microwave, and millimeter-wave characterizations as well as measurements using low, medium, or high data rate digital signals. In addition to laboratory measurements, the ASC Lab also includes integrated satellite ground terminals allowing experimentation and measurements accessing operational satellites through real space links.
Exploring the architectural trade space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program
Sanchez, M.; Selva, D.; Cameron, B.; Crawley, E.; Seas, A.; Seery, B.
NASAs Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Program is responsible for providing communication and navigation services to space missions and other users in and beyond low Earth orbit. The current SCaN architecture consists of three independent networks: the Space Network (SN), which contains the TDRS relay satellites in GEO; the Near Earth Network (NEN), which consists of several NASA owned and commercially operated ground stations; and the Deep Space Network (DSN), with three ground stations in Goldstone, Madrid, and Canberra. The first task of this study is the stakeholder analysis. The goal of the stakeholder analysis is to identify the main stakeholders of the SCaN system and their needs. Twenty-one main groups of stakeholders have been identified and put on a stakeholder map. Their needs are currently being elicited by means of interviews and an extensive literature review. The data will then be analyzed by applying Cameron and Crawley's stakeholder analysis theory, with a view to highlighting dominant needs and conflicting needs. The second task of this study is the architectural tradespace exploration of the next generation TDRSS. The space of possible architectures for SCaN is represented by a set of architectural decisions, each of which has a discrete set of options. A computational tool is used to automatically synthesize a very large number of possible architectures by enumerating different combinations of decisions and options. The same tool contains models to evaluate the architectures in terms of performance and cost. The performance model uses the stakeholder needs and requirements identified in the previous steps as inputs, and it is based in the VASSAR methodology presented in a companion paper. This paper summarizes the current status of the MIT SCaN architecture study. It starts by motivating the need to perform tradespace exploration studies in the context of relay data systems through a description of the history NASA's space communicati
Spectrum Scarcity and Free Space Optical Communications
Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
Exact and asymptotic studies of the average error probability of wireless communication systems over generalized fading channels have been extensively pursued over the last two decades. In contrast, studies and results dealing with the channel
Toward a Theory of Strategic Communication: A Relationship Management Approach
2012-03-22
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense, Aug. 15, 2009), 5. 31 Ibid. 32 Ibid., 6. 33 Ibid. 34 Severin Peters, Strategic Communication for Crisis ...Relations, ed. Robert L. Heath (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001), 128. 76 W. Timothy Coombs , “Interpersonal Communication and Public Relations...Toward a Theory of Strategic Communication : A Relationship Management Approach by Lieutenant Colonel Cheryl D. Phillips
Towards a mathematical theory of meaningful communication
Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fortuny, Jordi; Solé, Ricard V.
2014-04-01
Meaning has been left outside most theoretical approaches to information in biology. Functional responses based on an appropriate interpretation of signals have been replaced by a probabilistic description of correlations between emitted and received symbols. This assumption leads to potential paradoxes, such as the presence of a maximum information associated to a channel that creates completely wrong interpretations of the signals. Game-theoretic models of language evolution and other studies considering embodied communicating agents show that the correct (meaningful) match resulting from agent-agent exchanges is always achieved and natural systems obviously solve the problem correctly. Inspired by the concept of duality of the communicative sign stated by the swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, here we present a complete description of the minimal system necessary to measure the amount of information that is consistently decoded. Several consequences of our developments are investigated, such as the uselessness of a certain amount of information properly transmitted for communication among autonomous agents.
Relevance Theory as model for analysing visual and multimodal communication
Forceville, C.; Machin, D.
2014-01-01
Elaborating on my earlier work (Forceville 1996: chapter 5, 2005, 2009; see also Yus 2008), I will here sketch how discussions of visual and multimodal discourse can be embedded in a more general theory of communication and cognition: Sperber and Wilson’s Relevance Theory/RT (Sperber and Wilson
Rube Goldberg Salad System: Teaching Systems Theory in Communication
Linabary, Jasmine R.; Long, Ziyu; Mouton, Ashton; Rao, Ranjani L.; Buzzanell, Patrice M.
2016-01-01
Systems theory has been a staple in organizational communication textbooks since the field's inception (Miller, 2015; Poole, 2014). Nevertheless, the authors' classroom experiences have revealed that systems theory may not seem applicable to students due to its complicated nature. While examples and cases can help students make sense of the…
Do We Need Separate Space Theory: The Lessons of History
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Marheine, Fred
2001-01-01
.... Professionals throughout the Department of Defense and other branches of the US government have long debated the need to produce separate space theory or whether a modified version of air theory...
The museum foyer as a transformative space of communication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laursen, Ditte; Kristiansen, Erik; Drotner, Kirsten
2016-01-01
has four transformative functions, and we ask the following question: How do people entering the museum practise these transformative functions so as to become visitors – and become non-visitors again on leaving? Answers are provided through an empirical analysis of the foyer as a transformative...... communicative space. Based on qualitative studies of four divergent Danish museums and a science centre, we demonstrate that the foyer’s communicative space supports transformative functions consisting of multiple phases before and after the visit itself, namely arrival–orientation–service–preparation (before......This article explores how we may study physical museum foyers as multilayered spaces of communication. Based on a critical examination of ways in which the museum foyer is conceptualised in the research literature, we define the foyer as a transformative space of communication for visitors which...
Precoded generalized space shift keying for indoor visible light communications
Kadampot, Ishaque Ashar; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
We consider a visible light communication system with 2 transmit light emitting diodes (LED) and nr receive photodiodes. An optical generalized space shift keying modulation scheme is considered for the transmission of bits where each LED can
Exotic Optical Beam Classes for Free-Space Communication
2016-03-24
wandering of an optical vortex is one of the significant problems with the application of vortex beams to FSO applications. From a geometrical optics ...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0131 Exotic optical beam classes for free-space communication Greg Gbur UNIVERSITY OF NOTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Final Report...12-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exotic optical beam classes for free-space communication 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0009 5c
Eigenfunction expansions and scattering theory in rigged Hilbert spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez-Cubillo, F [Dpt. de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid. Facultad de Ciencias, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: fgcubill@am.uva.es
2008-08-15
The work reviews some mathematical aspects of spectral properties, eigenfunction expansions and scattering theory in rigged Hilbert spaces, laying emphasis on Lippmann-Schwinger equations and Schroedinger operators.
Agenda Setting and Mass Communication Theory.
Shaw, Eugene F.
The agenda-setting concept in mass communication asserts that the news media determine what people will include or exclude in their cognition of public events. Findings in uses and gratification research provide the foundation for this concept: an initial focus on people's needs, particularly the need for information. The agenda-setting concept…
Assessment of visual communication by information theory
Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.
1994-01-01
This assessment of visual communication integrates the optical design of the image-gathering device with the digital processing for image coding and restoration. Results show that informationally optimized image gathering ordinarily can be relied upon to maximize the information efficiency of decorrelated data and the visual quality of optimally restored images.
Action theory and communication research: An introduction
McQuail, D.; Renckstorf, K.; Renckstorf, K.; McQuail, D.; Rosenbaum, J.E.; Schaap, G.J.
2004-01-01
The action theoretical approach has already proved its value as a framework for communication research, most especially in the study of media audiences and media use. It has deep roots in Weberian sociology, symbolic interactionism and phenomenology and it has been a robust survivor of the various
An Emerging Interactional Theory of Communication.
Malone, Martin J.
An interactional model of communication can be based on Erving Goffman's concept of the "interaction order" and the conversation analytic focus on meaning. Three sets of related ideas provide the intellectual foundations for this approach: actions are designed for recipients; talk is multi-functional; and self presentation is semiotic.…
CULTURAL GLOBALISATION AND CHALLENGES TO TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION THEORIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lauren Movius
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This article reviews existing traditional media theories, and analyses the challenges that the current developments of globalisation present to them. The article provides a short history of the concept of globalisation, and reviews the primary theoretical approaches to globalisation that are critical to communication scholars. The article also examines how globalisation challenges the ways in which media and communication have traditionally been theorised. Specifically, the cultural imperialism theory is discussed, as well as the main challenges to the theory. Audience reception studies, which focus on how audiences negotiate meaning differently in specific cultural contexts, are highlighted as the key critique of cultural imperialism
Diaspora: Multilingual and Intercultural Communication across Time and Space
Wei, Li; Hua, Zhu
2013-01-01
The nature of diaspora is changing in the 21st century. Yet many of the communication issues remain the same. At the heart of it is multilingual and intercultural communication across time and space. There is much that applied linguists can contribute to the understanding of diaspora in the era of globalization. This article discusses some of the…
Spin Gauge Theory of Gravity in Clifford Space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavsic, Matej
2006-01-01
A theory in which 16-dimensional curved Clifford space (C-space) provides a realization of Kaluza-Klein theory is investigated. No extra dimensions of spacetime are needed: 'extra dimensions' are in C-space. We explore the spin gauge theory in C-space and show that the generalized spin connection contains the usual 4-dimensional gravity and Yang-Mills fields of the U(1) x SU(2) x SU(3) gauge group. The representation space for the latter group is provided by 16-component generalized spinors composed of four usual 4-component spinors, defined geometrically as the members of four independent minimal left ideals of Clifford algebra
Space Communications Capability Roadmap Interim Review
Spearing, Robert; Regan, Michael
2005-01-01
Contents include the following: Identify the need for a robust communications and navigation architecture for the success of exploration and science missions. Describe an approach for specifying architecture alternatives and analyzing them. Establish a top level architecture based on a network of networks. Identify key enabling technologies. Synthesize capability, architecture and technology into an initial capability roadmap.
Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals
Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg
2007-01-01
The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.
Space communication and radar with lasers
Witteman, W.J.
2005-01-01
Sensitive heterodyne detection with lasers applied .to radar and satellite communication is seriously hampered by the large electronic bandwidth due to random Doppler shift and frequency instability. These drawbacks can be circumvented by dual signal heterodyne detection. The system consists of
MMIC technology for advanced space communications systems
Downey, A. N.; Connolly, D. J.; Anzic, G.
The current NASA program for 20 and 30 GHz monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology is reviewed. The advantages of MMIC are discussed. Millimeter wavelength MMIC applications and technology for communications systems are discussed. Passive and active MMIC compatible components for millimeter wavelength applications are investigated. The cost of a millimeter wavelength MMIC's is projected.
MMIC technology for advanced space communications systems
Downey, A. N.; Connolly, D. J.; Anzic, G.
1984-01-01
The current NASA program for 20 and 30 GHz monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology is reviewed. The advantages of MMIC are discussed. Millimeter wavelength MMIC applications and technology for communications systems are discussed. Passive and active MMIC compatible components for millimeter wavelength applications are investigated. The cost of a millimeter wavelength MMIC's is projected.
Space Shuttle Communications Coverage Analysis for Thermal Tile Inspection
Kroll, Quin D.; Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Boster, John P.; Chavez, Mark A.
2009-01-01
The space shuttle ultra-high frequency Space-to-Space Communication System has to provide adequate communication coverage for astronauts who are performing thermal tile inspection and repair on the underside of the space shuttle orbiter (SSO). Careful planning and quantitative assessment are necessary to ensure successful system operations and mission safety in this work environment. This study assesses communication systems performance for astronauts who are working in the underside, non-line-of-sight shadow region on the space shuttle. All of the space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) transmitting antennas are blocked by the SSO structure. To ensure communication coverage at planned inspection worksites, the signal strength and link margin between the SSO/ISS antennas and the extravehicular activity astronauts, whose line-of-sight is blocked by vehicle structure, was analyzed. Investigations were performed using rigorous computational electromagnetic modeling techniques. Signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the signal propagation paths between transmitting and receiving antennas. Radio frequency (RF) coverage was determined for thermal tile inspection and repair missions using the results of this computation. Analysis results from this paper are important in formulating the limits on reliable communication range and RF coverage at planned underside inspection and repair worksites.
Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael; Denke, Claudia
2013-01-01
In the philosophical theory of communicative action, rationality refers to interpersonal communication rather than to a knowing subject. Thus, a social view of rationality is suggested. The theory differentiates between two kinds of rationality, the emancipative communicative and the strategic or instrumental reasoning. Using experimental designs in an fMRI setting, recent studies explored similar questions of reasoning in the social world and linked them with a neural network including prefrontal and parietal brain regions. Here, we employed an fMRI approach to highlight brain areas associated with strategic and communicative reasoning according to the theory of communicative action. Participants were asked to assess different social scenarios with respect to communicative or strategic rationality. We found a network of brain areas including temporal pole, precuneus, and STS more activated when participants performed communicative reasoning compared with strategic thinking and a control condition. These brain regions have been previously linked to moral sensitivity. In contrast, strategic rationality compared with communicative reasoning and control was associated with less activation in areas known to be related to moral sensitivity, emotional processing, and language control. The results suggest that strategic reasoning is associated with reduced social and emotional cognitions and may use different language related networks. Thus, the results demonstrate experimental support for the assumptions of the theory of communicative action.
Brief communication. An indefinite Sturm theory
Portaluri, Alessandro
2008-01-01
Sturm theory for second order differential equations was generalized to systems and higher order equations with positive leading coefficient by several authors. Here we propose a Sturm oscillation theorem for indefinite systems of even order and with Dirichlet boundary conditions having strongly indefinite leading term.
Translation as secondary communication. The relevance theory ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Ernst-August Gutt started one of the greatest translation debates of the past ten years when he suggested that relevance theory holds the key to providing a unified account of translation. The bulk of the debate has been between practitioners of functional equivalence and advocates of a relevance theoretic approach to ...
Systems and methods for free space optical communication
Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA
2011-05-10
Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.
Unified Communications for Space Inventory Management
Gifford, Kevin K.; Fink, Patrick W.; Barton, Richard; Ngo, Phong H.
2009-01-01
To help assure mission success for long-duration exploration activities, NASA is actively pursuing wireless technologies that promote situational awareness and autonomy. Wireless technologies are typically extensible, offer freedom from wire tethers, readily support redundancy, offer potential for decreased wire weight, and can represent dissimilar implementation for increased reliability. In addition, wireless technologies can enable additional situational awareness that otherwise would be infeasible. For example, addition of wired sensors, the need for which might not have been apparent at the outset of a program, night be extremely costly due in part to the necessary routing of cables through the vehicle. RFID, or radio frequency identification, is a wireless technology with the potential for significant savings and increased reliability and safety in space operations. Perhaps the most obvious savings relate to the application of inventory management. A fully automated inventory management system is highly desirable for long-term sustaining operations in space environments. This assertion is evidenced by inventory activities on the International Space Station, which represents the most extensive inventory tracking experience base in the history of space operations. In the short tern, handheld RFID readers offer substantial savings owing to reduced crew time for inventory audits. Over the long term, a combination of improved RFID technology and operational concepts modified to fully utilize the technology should result in space based inventory management that is highly reliable and requires very little crew time. In addition to inventory management, RFID is likely to find space applications in real-time location and tracking systems. These could vary from coarse-resolution RFID portals to the high resolution afforded by ultra-wideband (UWB) RFID. Longer range RFID technologies that leverage passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are being investigated to
Beaconless Pointing for Deep-Space Optical Communication
Swank, Aaron J.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Le, Dzu K.; Sands, Obed S.; Wroblewski, Adam
2016-01-01
Free space optical communication is of interest to NASA as a complement to existing radio frequency communication methods. The potential for an increase in science data return capability over current radio-frequency communications is the primary objective. Deep space optical communication requires laser beam pointing accuracy on the order of a few microradians. The laser beam pointing approach discussed here operates without the aid of a terrestrial uplink beacon. Precision pointing is obtained from an on-board star tracker in combination with inertial rate sensors and an outgoing beam reference vector. The beaconless optical pointing system presented in this work is the current approach for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC) project.
Architectural Options for a Future Deep Space Optical Communications Network
Edwards, B. L.; Benjamin, T.; Scozzafava, J.; Khatri, F.; Sharma, J.; Parvin, B.; Liebrecht, P. E.; Fitzgerald, R. J.
2004-01-01
This paper provides an overview of different options at Earth to provide Deep Space optical communication services. It is based mainly on work done for the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration (MLCD) Project, a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). It also reports preliminary conclusions from the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Continuation Study at GSFC. A lasercom flight terminal will be flown on the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) to be launched by NASA in 2009, and will be the first high rate deep space demonstration of this revolutionary technology.
Atmospheric free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics
Ting, Chueh; Zhang, Chengyu; Yang, Zikai
2017-02-01
Free-space coherent optical communications have a potential application to offer last mile bottleneck solution in future local area networks (LAN) because of their information carrier, information security and license-free status. Coherent optical communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation are successfully demonstrated in a long-haul tens Giga bits via optical fiber, but they are not yet available in free space due to atmospheric turbulence-induced channel fading. Adaptive optics is recognized as a promising technology to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence in free-space optics. In this paper, a free-space coherent optical communication system using an OFDM digital modulation scheme and adaptive optics (FSO OFDM AO) is proposed, a Gamma-Gamma distribution statistical channel fading model for the FSO OFDM AO system is examined, and FSO OFDM AO system performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus various propagation distances.
FUEL HANDLING FACILITY BACKUP CENTRAL COMMUNICATIONS ROOM SPACE REQUIREMENTS CALCULATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SZALEWSKI, B.
2005-01-01
The purpose of the Fuel Handling Facility Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements Calculation is to determine a preliminary estimate of the space required to house the backup central communications room in the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF). This room provides backup communications capability to the primary communication systems located in the Central Control Center Facility. This calculation will help guide FHF designers in allocating adequate space for communications system equipment in the FHF. This is a preliminary calculation determining preliminary estimates based on the assumptions listed in Section 4. As such, there are currently no limitations on the use of this preliminary calculation. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Design and Engineering and are intended solely for the use of Design and Engineering in its work regarding the FHF Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from Design and Engineering should be consulted before the use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Design and Engineering
What Communication Theories Can Teach the Designer of Computer-Based Training.
Larsen, Ronald E.
1985-01-01
Reviews characteristics of computer-based training (CBT) that make application of communication theories appropriate and presents principles from communication theory (e.g., general systems theory, symbolic interactionism, rule theories, and interpersonal communication theories) to illustrate how CBT developers can profitably apply them to…
Open superstring field theory on the restricted Hilbert space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopka, Sebastian; Sachs, Ivo
2016-01-01
It appears that the formulation of an action for the Ramond sector of open superstring field theory requires to either restrict the Hilbert space for the Ramond sector or to introduce auxiliary fields with picture −3/2. The purpose of this note is to clarify the relation of the restricted Hilbert space with other approaches and to formulate open superstring field theory entirely in the small Hilbert space.
Price competition, level-k theory and communication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wengström, Erik Roland
2008-01-01
This paper analyzes communication in a price competition game using the level-$k$ theory of bounded rationality. The level-k analysis predicts prices to be higher with communication than without. Our experimental evidence lends support to the view that communication affects subjects in a way...... that is compatible with the level-k model, indicating that people lie in order to fool other players that they believe do less thinking. Moreover, the results indicate that the predictive power of the level-k model does crucially depend on the possibility for high level players to form homogenous beliefs about...
A convergence theory for probabilistic metric spaces | Jäger ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We develop a theory of probabilistic convergence spaces based on Tardiff's neighbourhood systems for probabilistic metric spaces. We show that the resulting category is a topological universe and we characterize a subcategory that is isomorphic to the category of probabilistic metric spaces. Keywords: Probabilistic metric ...
Free-space communication based on quantum cascade laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Chuanwei; Zhai Shenqiang; Zhang Jinchuan; Zhou Yuhong; Jia Zhiwei; Liu Fengqi; Wang Zhanguo
2015-01-01
A free-space communication based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) is presented. A room-temperature continuous-wave distributed-feedback (DFB) QCL combined with a mid-infrared detector comprise the basic unit of the communication system. Sinusoidal signals at a highest frequency of 40 MHz and modulated video signals with a carrier frequency of 30 MHz were successfully transmitted with this experimental setup. Our research has provided a proof-of-concept demonstration of space optical communication application with QCL. The highest operation frequency of our setup was determined by the circuit-limited modulation bandwidth. A high performance communication system can be obtained with improved modulation circuit system. (paper)
Software Defined Radio Architecture Contributions to Next Generation Space Communications
Kacpura, Thomas J.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John
2015-01-01
Space communications architecture concepts, comprising the elements of the system, the interactions among them, and the principles that govern their development, are essential factors in developing National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) future exploration and science missions. Accordingly, vital architectural attributes encompass flexibility, the extensibility to insert future capabilities, and to enable evolution to provide interoperability with other current and future systems. Space communications architectures and technologies for this century must satisfy a growing set of requirements, including those for Earth sensing, collaborative observation missions, robotic scientific missions, human missions for exploration of the Moon and Mars where surface activities require supporting communications, and in-space observatories for observing the earth, as well as other star systems and the universe. An advanced, integrated, communications infrastructure will enable the reliable, multipoint, high-data-rate capabilities needed on demand to provide continuous, maximum coverage for areas of concentrated activity. Importantly, the cost/value proposition of the future architecture must be an integral part of its design; an affordable and sustainable architecture is indispensable within anticipated future budget environments. Effective architecture design informs decision makers with insight into the capabilities needed to efficiently satisfy the demanding space-communication requirements of future missions and formulate appropriate requirements. A driving requirement for the architecture is the extensibility to address new requirements and provide low-cost on-ramps for new capabilities insertion, ensuring graceful growth as new functionality and new technologies are infused into the network infrastructure. In addition to extensibility, another key architectural attribute of the space communication equipment's interoperability with other NASA communications
Security Policy for a Generic Space Exploration Communication Network Architecture
Ivancic, William D.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Vaden, Karl R.
2016-01-01
This document is one of three. It describes various security mechanisms and a security policy profile for a generic space-based communication architecture. Two other documents accompany this document- an Operations Concept (OpsCon) and a communication architecture document. The OpsCon should be read first followed by the security policy profile described by this document and then the architecture document. The overall goal is to design a generic space exploration communication network architecture that is affordable, deployable, maintainable, securable, evolvable, reliable, and adaptable. The architecture should also require limited reconfiguration throughout system development and deployment. System deployment includes subsystem development in a factory setting, system integration in a laboratory setting, launch preparation, launch, and deployment and operation in space.
Spectrum Scarcity and Free Space Optical Communications
Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-06
Exact and asymptotic studies of the average error probability of wireless communication systems over generalized fading channels have been extensively pursued over the last two decades. In contrast, studies and results dealing with the channel capacity in these environments have been more scarce. In the first part of this talk, we present a generic moment generating function-based approach for the exact computation of the channel capacity in such kind of environments. The resulting formulas are applicable to systems having channel state information (CSI) at the receiver and employing maximal-ratio combining or equal-gain combining multichannel reception. The analysis covers the case where the combined paths are not necessarily independent or identically distributed. In all cases, the proposed approach leads to an expression of the ergodic capacity involving a single finite-range integral, which can be easily computed numerically. In the second part of the talk, we focus on the asymptotic analysis of the capacity in the high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. More specifically, we offer new simple closed-form formulas that give an intuitive understanding of the capacity behavior at these two extreme regimes. Our characterization covers not only the case where the CSI is available only at the receiver but also the case where the CSI is available at both the transmitter and receiver.
Using the Outdoor Scavenger Hunt to Teach Theories of Organizational Communication
Tipton, Whitney L.; Kupritz, Virginia W.
2017-01-01
Courses: Communication Theory, Organizational Communication, Strategic Communication. Objectives: Students will identify and categorize organizational discourses on their campuses; students will become aware of the ethical considerations of communication; students will recognize the different perceptions of organizational culture on campus.
Space Mobile Network: A Near Earth Communication and Navigation Architecture
Israel, Dave J.; Heckler, Greg; Menrad, Robert J.
2016-01-01
This paper describes a Space Mobile Network architecture, the result of a recently completed NASA study exploring architectural concepts to produce a vision for the future Near Earth communications and navigation systems. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) incorporates technologies, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) and optical communications, and new operations concepts, such as User Initiated Services, to provide user services analogous to a terrestrial smartphone user. The paper will describe the SMN Architecture, envisioned future operations concepts, opportunities for industry and international collaboration and interoperability, and technology development areas and goals.
Theories in Developing Oral Communication for Specific Learner Group
Hadi, Marham Jupri
2016-01-01
The current article presents some key theories most relevant to the development of oral communication skills in an Indonesian senior high school. Critical analysis on the learners' background is employed to figure out their strengths and weaknesses. The brief overview of the learning context and learners' characteristic are used to identify which…
Applying Mediationist Theory to Communication about Terrorism and War.
Coufal, Kathy L.
2002-01-01
This introductory article to a forum on contemporary issues discusses the importance of communication in the transmission of social values and attitudes and applies mediation theory to the role of parents and teachers in assisting children to understand the images and rhetoric they encounter. (Contains 3 references.) (Author/DB)
Complex networks in the Euclidean space of communicability distances
Estrada, Ernesto
2012-06-01
We study the properties of complex networks embedded in a Euclidean space of communicability distances. The communicability distance between two nodes is defined as the difference between the weighted sum of walks self-returning to the nodes and the weighted sum of walks going from one node to the other. We give some indications that the communicability distance identifies the least crowded routes in networks where simultaneous submission of packages is taking place. We define an index Q based on communicability and shortest path distances, which allows reinterpreting the “small-world” phenomenon as the region of minimum Q in the Watts-Strogatz model. It also allows the classification and analysis of networks with different efficiency of spatial uses. Consequently, the communicability distance displays unique features for the analysis of complex networks in different scenarios.
Communications among elements of a space construction ensemble
Davis, Randal L.; Grasso, Christopher A.
1989-01-01
Space construction projects will require careful coordination between managers, designers, manufacturers, operators, astronauts, and robots with large volumes of information of varying resolution, timeliness, and accuracy flowing between the distributed participants over computer communications networks. Within the CSC Operations Branch, we are researching the requirements and options for such communications. Based on our work to date, we feel that communications standards being developed by the International Standards Organization, the CCITT, and other groups can be applied to space construction. We are currently studying in depth how such standards can be used to communicate with robots and automated construction equipment used in a space project. Specifically, we are looking at how the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) and the Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS), which tie together computers and machines in automated factories, might be applied to space construction projects. Together with our CSC industrial partner Computer Technology Associates, we are developing a MAP/MMS companion standard for space construction and we will produce software to allow the MAP/MMS protocol to be used in our CSC operations testbed.
Making sense of social media communications with chaos theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia
, offering a few conceptual papers which adopt complexity theories to describe destination development patterns (Russel & Faulkner, 2000, 2004; Zahra & Ryan 2007). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the validity of chaos theory in the context of strategic communications, where new (social) media has...... changed the marketing landscape beyond recognition. The exponential growth of social media platforms has led to weakened marketer control (and greater consumer sovereignty) over information about organisations and their products. In this new communications paradigm (Muniz & Schau 2007), information...... media channels. Social media users serve as gatekeepers, opting for which fluctuations to pay attention to, which to ignore. The challenge is then to establish a framework of unfolding communication patterns on social media which can eventually explain the collective behaviour of bloggers, twitters...
Research into command, control, and communications in space construction
Davis, Randal
1990-01-01
Coordinating and controlling large numbers of autonomous or semi-autonomous robot elements in a space construction activity will present problems that are very different from most command and control problems encountered in the space business. As part of our research into the feasibility of robot constructors in space, the CSC Operations Group is examining a variety of command, control, and communications (C3) issues. Two major questions being asked are: can we apply C3 techniques and technologies already developed for use in space; and are there suitable terrestrial solutions for extraterrestrial C3 problems? An overview of the control architectures, command strategies, and communications technologies that we are examining is provided and plans for simulations and demonstrations of our concepts are described.
Two theorems on flat space-time gravitational theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castagnino, M.; Chimento, L.
1980-01-01
The first theorem states that all flat space-time gravitational theories must have a Lagrangian with a first term that is an homogeneous (degree-1) function of the 4-velocity usup(i), plus a functional of nsub(ij)usup(i)usup(j). The second theorem states that all gravitational theories that satisfy the strong equivalence principle have a Lagrangian with a first term gsub(ij)(x)usup(i)usup(j) plus an irrelevant term. In both cases the theories must issue from a unique variational principle. Therefore, under this condition it is impossible to find a flat space-time theory that satisfies the strong equivalence principle. (author)
Information theory, animal communication, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence
Doyle, Laurance R.; McCowan, Brenda; Johnston, Simon; Hanser, Sean F.
2011-02-01
We present ongoing research in the application of information theory to animal communication systems with the goal of developing additional detectors and estimators for possible extraterrestrial intelligent signals. Regardless of the species, for intelligence (i.e., complex knowledge) to be transmitted certain rules of information theory must still be obeyed. We demonstrate some preliminary results of applying information theory to socially complex marine mammal species (bottlenose dolphins and humpback whales) as well as arboreal squirrel monkeys, because they almost exclusively rely on vocal signals for their communications, producing signals which can be readily characterized by signal analysis. Metrics such as Zipf's Law and higher-order information-entropic structure are emerging as indicators of the communicative complexity characteristic of an "intelligent message" content within these animals' signals, perhaps not surprising given these species' social complexity. In addition to human languages, for comparison we also apply these metrics to pulsar signals—perhaps (arguably) the most "organized" of stellar systems—as an example of astrophysical systems that would have to be distinguished from an extraterrestrial intelligence message by such information theoretic filters. We also look at a message transmitted from Earth (Arecibo Observatory) that contains a lot of meaning but little information in the mathematical sense we define it here. We conclude that the study of non-human communication systems on our own planet can make a valuable contribution to the detection of extraterrestrial intelligence by providing quantitative general measures of communicative complexity. Studying the complex communication systems of other intelligent species on our own planet may also be one of the best ways to deprovincialize our thinking about extraterrestrial communication systems in general.
Information Theoretic Characterization of Physical Theories with Projective State Space
Zaopo, Marco
2015-08-01
Probabilistic theories are a natural framework to investigate the foundations of quantum theory and possible alternative or deeper theories. In a generic probabilistic theory, states of a physical system are represented as vectors of outcomes probabilities and state spaces are convex cones. In this picture the physics of a given theory is related to the geometric shape of the cone of states. In quantum theory, for instance, the shape of the cone of states corresponds to a projective space over complex numbers. In this paper we investigate geometric constraints on the state space of a generic theory imposed by the following information theoretic requirements: every non completely mixed state of a system is perfectly distinguishable from some other state in a single shot measurement; information capacity of physical systems is conserved under making mixtures of states. These assumptions guarantee that a generic physical system satisfies a natural principle asserting that the more a state of the system is mixed the less information can be stored in the system using that state as logical value. We show that all theories satisfying the above assumptions are such that the shape of their cones of states is that of a projective space over a generic field of numbers. Remarkably, these theories constitute generalizations of quantum theory where superposition principle holds with coefficients pertaining to a generic field of numbers in place of complex numbers. If the field of numbers is trivial and contains only one element we obtain classical theory. This result tells that superposition principle is quite common among probabilistic theories while its absence gives evidence of either classical theory or an implausible theory.
Theory and design methods of special space orbits
Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun
2017-01-01
This book focuses on the theory and design of special space orbits. Offering a systematic and detailed introduction to the hovering orbit, spiral cruising orbit, multi-target rendezvous orbit, initiative approaching orbit, responsive orbit and earth pole-sitter orbit, it also discusses the concept, theory, design methods and application of special space orbits, particularly the design and control method based on kinematics and astrodynamics. In addition the book presents the latest research and its application in space missions. It is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates, especially those working in the fields of orbit design and control, as well as space-mission planning and research.
Real-variable theory of Musielak-Orlicz Hardy spaces
Yang, Dachun; Ky, Luong Dang
2017-01-01
The main purpose of this book is to give a detailed and complete survey of recent progress related to the real-variable theory of Musielak–Orlicz Hardy-type function spaces, and to lay the foundations for further applications. The real-variable theory of function spaces has always been at the core of harmonic analysis. Recently, motivated by certain questions in analysis, some more general Musielak–Orlicz Hardy-type function spaces were introduced. These spaces are defined via growth functions which may vary in both the spatial variable and the growth variable. By selecting special growth functions, the resulting spaces may have subtler and finer structures, which are necessary in order to solve various endpoint or sharp problems. This book is written for graduate students and researchers interested in function spaces and, in particular, Hardy-type spaces.
Research on optic antenna of space laser communication networking
Meng, Li-Xin; Li, Long; Zhang, Li-zhong; Zhao, Shan-shan; Jiang, Hui-lin
2013-08-01
With the highlights of the high transmission rate, large capacity, strong anti-interference and anti-capture ability, good security and small light, space laser communication becomes an important hotspot. At present, the focus of research of the laser communication system is point to point communication structure. However, from the application point of view, both the realization of space laser communication among multiple points and the establishment of the information transmission network can really have the practical value. Aiming at the problem of space laser communication network, this article puts forward the general idea about optical antenna to achieve multiple tracking goals at the same time. Through the analysis of the optical antenna, and the comparing of the current commonly used mirror driving mechanism, a new mirror driving mechanism is designed. The azimuth motion, containing circular grating feedback, is driven by torque motor，voice coil motor of fan produces pitch motion that has fan-shaped grating feedback, so that compression of the structure size to improve the efficiency of the reflector assembly. Through the establishment of the driving mechanism and the kinematic model of 3D entity, the relationship between the single drive azimuth and pitch angle following the angle of incident light is explained. The biggest ideal view area affecting the optical antenna is obtained by the simulation analysis of the kinematics model using MATLAB. The several factors of field overlap area and blind area offers a theoretical basis for structure optimization and control system for the subsequent optical antenna design.
Kaluza-Klein theories and the space-time signature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aref'eva, I.Y.; Volovich, I.V.
1985-01-01
Vacuum solutions in Kaluza-Klein theories are constructed with additional compactified time dimensions, for which the zeroth-order modes do not contain ghosts. Compact spaces of negative curvature are used
Introduction to Hilbert space and the theory of spectral multiplicity
Halmos, Paul R
2017-01-01
Concise introductory treatment consists of three chapters: The Geometry of Hilbert Space, The Algebra of Operators, and The Analysis of Spectral Measures. A background in measure theory is the sole prerequisite. 1957 edition.
Unitarity in three-dimensional flat space higher spin theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grumiller, D.; Riegler, M.; Rosseel, J.
2014-01-01
We investigate generic flat-space higher spin theories in three dimensions and find a no-go result, given certain assumptions that we spell out. Namely, it is only possible to have at most two out of the following three properties: unitarity, flat space, non-trivial higher spin states. Interestingly, unitarity provides an (algebra-dependent) upper bound on the central charge, like c=42 for the Galilean W_4"("2"−"1"−"1") algebra. We extend this no-go result to rule out unitary “multi-graviton” theories in flat space. We also provide an example circumventing the no-go result: Vasiliev-type flat space higher spin theory based on hs(1) can be unitary and simultaneously allow for non-trivial higher-spin states in the dual field theory.
Free Space Optics Communication for Mobile Military Platforms
2003-12-01
Federal Communications Commission FDA Food and Drug Administration FOV Field-of-View FSO Free Space Optics FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum Gbps...Physique et de Métrologie des Oscillateurs (LPMO) du CNRS UPR3203, associé à l’Université de Franche -Comté, 15 March 2002 [Schenk 2000] H. Schenk
Robust free-space optical communication for indoor information environment
Nakada, Toyohisa; Itoh, Hideo; Kunifuji, Susumu; Nakashima, Hideyuki
2003-10-01
The purpose of our study is to establish a robust communication, while keeping security and privacy, between a handheld communicator and the surrounding information environment. From the viewpoint of low power consumption, we have been developing a reflectivity modulating communication module composed of a liquid crystal light modulator and a corner-reflecting mirror sheet. We installed a corner-reflecting sheet instead of light scattering sheet in a handheld videogame machine with a display screen with a reflection-type liquid crystal. Infrared (IR) LED illuminator attached next to the IR camera of a base station illuminates all the room, and the terminal send their data to the base station by switching ON and OFF of the reflected IR beam. Intensity of reflected light differs with the position and the direction of the terminal, and sometimes the intensity of OFF signal at a certain condition is brighter than that of ON signal at another condition. To improve the communication quality, use of machine learning technique is a possibility of the solution. In this paper, we compare various machine learning techniques for the purpose of free space optical communication, and propose a new algorithm that improves the robustness of the data link. Evaluation using an actual free-space communication system is also described.
Quantum field theory in curved space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davies, P C.W. [King' s Coll., London (UK)
1976-09-30
It is stated that recent theoretical developments indicate that the presence of gravity (curved space-time) can give rise to important new quantum effects, such as cosmological particle production and black-hole evaporation. These processes suggest intriguing new relations between quantum theory, thermodynamics and space-time structure and encourage the hope that a better understanding of a full quantum theory of gravity may emerge from this approach.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
THIS REPORT DEFINES AND ANALYZES POTENTIAL ASPECTS OF WORLDWIDE COMMUNICATION BY SATELLITE, LISTS TECHNICAL PROBLEMS, AND SUGGESTS USES OF SPACE COMMUNICATION TO PROMOTE EDUCATION, CULTURAL EXCHANGE, AND INFORMATION FLOW. IT IS AVAILABLE FOR $0.50 FROM NATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS OF UNESCO PUBLICATIONS, OR FROM UNESCO, PLACE DE FONTENDOY, PARIS-7E,…
Establishing a conceptual framework for handoffs using communication theory.
Mohorek, Matthew; Webb, Travis P
2015-01-01
A significant consequence of the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty hour restrictions has been the dramatic increase in patient care handoffs. Ineffective handoffs have been identified as the third most common cause of medical error. However, research into health care handoffs lacks a unifying foundational structure. We sought to identify a conceptual framework that could be used to critically analyze handoffs. A scholarly review focusing on communication theory as a possible conceptual framework for handoffs was conducted. A PubMed search of published handoff research was also performed, and the literature was analyzed and matched to the most relevant theory for health care handoff models. The Shannon-Weaver Linear Model of Communication was identified as the most appropriate conceptual framework for health care handoffs. The Linear Model describes communication as a linear process. A source encodes a message into a signal, the signal is sent through a channel, and the signal is decoded back into a message at the destination, all in the presence of internal and external noise. The Linear Model identifies 3 separate instances in handoff communication where error occurs: the transmitter (message encoding), channel, and receiver (signal decoding). The Linear Model of Communication is a suitable conceptual framework for handoff research and provides a structured approach for describing handoff variables. We propose the Linear Model should be used as a foundation for further research into interventions to improve health care handoffs. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krein Spaces in de Sitter Quantum Theories
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gazeau, J.P.; Siegl, Petr; Youssef, A.
2010-01-01
Roč. 6, - (2010), 011/1-011/23 ISSN 1815-0659 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : de Sitter group * undecomposable representations * Krein spaces Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.856, year: 2010
Quantum relativity theory and quantum space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banai, M.
1984-01-01
A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is shown that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in another paper is formulated in terms of Davis's quantum relativity. The recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce, in a consistent way, the quantum space-time model (the quantum substitute of Minkowski space) of Banai proposed in the paper mentioned. The goal of quantum mechanics of quantum relativistic particles living in this model of space-time is to predict the rest mass system properties of classically relativistic (massive) quantum particles (''elementary particles''). The main new aspect of this quantum mechanics is that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem, and that the excited mass states of quantum relativistic particles can be interpreted as elementary particles. The question of field theory over quantum relativistic model of space-time is also discussed. Finally it is suggested that ''quarks'' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)
Introducing the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martini, Luiz Cesar
2013-01-01
This article is an introduction to a new theory. The name of the theory is justified by the dimensional description of the continuous space-time of the matter, energy and empty space, that gathers all the real things that exists in the universe. The theory presents itself as the consolidation of the classical, quantum and relativity theories. A basic equation that describes the formation of the Universe, relating time, space, matter, energy and movement, is deduced. The four fundamentals physics constants, light speed in empty space, gravitational constant, Boltzmann's constant and Planck's constant and also the fundamentals particles mass, the electrical charges, the energies, the empty space and time are also obtained from this basic equation. This theory provides a new vision of the Big-Bang and how the galaxies, stars, black holes and planets were formed. Based on it, is possible to have a perfect comprehension of the duality between wave-particle, which is an intrinsic characteristic of the matter and energy. It will be possible to comprehend the formation of orbitals and get the equationing of atomics orbits. It presents a singular comprehension of the mass relativity, length and time. It is demonstrated that the continuous space-time is tridimensional, inelastic and temporally instantaneous, eliminating the possibility of spatial fold, slot space, worm hole, time travels and parallel universes. It is shown that many concepts, like dark matter and strong forces, that hypothetically keep the cohesion of the atomics nucleons, are without sense.
Research progress of free space coherent optical communication
Tan, Zhenkun; Ke, Xizheng
2018-02-01
This paper mainly introduces the research progress of free space coherent optical communication in Xi'an University of Technology. In recent years, the research on the outer modulation technology of the laser, free-space-to-fiber coupling technique, the design of transmitting and receiving optical antenna, adaptive optical technology with or without wave-front sensor, automatic polarization control technology, frequency stabilization technology, heterodyne detection technology and high speed signal processing technology. Based on the above related research, the digital signal modulation, transmission, detection and data recovery are realized by the heterodyne detection technology in the free space optical communication system, and finally the function of smooth viewing high-definition video is realized.
What Renaissance Literary Theory Tells us about Climate Communication
Guenther, G. J.
2017-12-01
Many current debates in climate communication-to convey the consensus or not to convey the consensus; to frighten people or encourage them-seem to center on the question of how to discuss climate science and its ability to predict climate impacts. By examining the Renaissance literary theory that represents poets as better teachers than philosophers and scientists, this paper argues that climate advocates should redefine climate communication to include a variety of artistic discourses that make meaning in order to inspire people into political action.
Kinetic theory in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, H.E.
1989-01-01
A vanishing directional derivative of a scalar field along particle trajectories in maximal acceleration invariant phase space is identical in form to the ordinary covariant Vlasov equation in curved spacetime in the presence of both gravitational and nongravitational forces. A natural foundation is thereby provided for a covariant kinetic theory of particles in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space. (orig.)
Holographic representation of space-variant systems: system theory.
Marks Ii, R J; Krile, T F
1976-09-01
System theory for holographic representation of linear space-variant systems is derived. The utility of the resulting piecewise isoplanatic approximation (PIA) is illustrated by example application to the invariant system, ideal magnifier, and Fourier transformer. A method previously employed to holographically represent a space-variant system, the discrete approximation, is shown to be a special case of the PIA.
Stochastic space-time and quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frederick, C.
1976-01-01
Much of quantum mechanics may be derived if one adopts a very strong form of Mach's principle such that in the absence of mass, space-time becomes not flat, but stochastic. This is manifested in the metric tensor which is considered to be a collection of stochastic variables. The stochastic-metric assumption is sufficient to generate the spread of the wave packet in empty space. If one further notes that all observations of dynamical variables in the laboratory frame are contravariant components of tensors, and if one assumes that a Lagrangian can be constructed, then one can obtain an explanation of conjugate variables and also a derivation of the uncertainty principle. Finally the superposition of stochastic metrics and the identification of root -g in the four-dimensional invariant volume element root -g dV as the indicator of relative probability yields the phenomenon of interference as will be described for the two-slit experiment
A Cp-theory problem book compactness in function spaces
Tkachuk, Vladimir V
2015-01-01
This third volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory problems applies all modern methods of Cp-theory to study compactness-like properties in function spaces and introduces the reader to the theory of compact spaces widely used in Functional Analysis. The text is designed to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research covering a wide variety of topics in Cp-theory and general topology at the professional level. The first volume, Topological and Function Spaces © 2011, provided an introduction from scratch to Cp-theory and general topology, preparing the reader for a professional understanding of Cp-theory in the last section of its main text. The second volume, Special Features of Function Spaces © 2014, continued from the first, giving reasonably complete coverage of Cp-theory, systematically introducing each of the major topics and providing 500 carefully selected problems and exercises with complete solutions. This third volume is self-contained...
A Hub Matrix Theory and Applications to Wireless Communications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kung HT
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers communications and network systems whose properties are characterized by the gaps of the leading eigenvalues of for a matrix . It is shown that a sufficient and necessary condition for a large eigen-gap is that is a "hub" matrix in the sense that it has dominant columns. Some applications of this hub theory in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO wireless systems are presented.
Overview of some projects of SNPS for global space communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, E.; Ghitaykin, V.; Ionkin, V.; Dubinin, A.; Pyshko, A.
2001-01-01
In this presentation we focused on three variants of prospective concepts of SNPS. They are intended to solve tasks of global space communication (GSC) as nearest future tasks in space. Modern concepts of the application of power technology in space believe in using an onboard source of energy for maintenance of self-transportation of the vehicle into geostationary orbit (GSO). There are three more prospective systems as follows: gas cooled nuclear reactor with hybrid thermal engine and machine power converter; nuclear reactor cooled by liquid metal and with a thermoelectric power generating system; nuclear reactor with Li cooling and a thermionic and thermoelectric power generator on board. The choice of a concept must fit strong requirements such as: space nuclear power unit is aimed to be used in a powerful mission; space power unit must be able to maintain the dual - mode regime of vehicle operation (self - transportation and long life in geosynchronous orbit [GEO]); nuclear rector of unit must be safety and it must be designed in such a way that it will ensure minimum size of the complete system; the elements of the considered technology can be used for the creation of NPPI and with other sources of heat (for example, radioisotope); the degree of technical and technological readiness of units of the thermal and power circuit of installation is estimated to be high and is defined by a number of technological developments in air, space and nuclear branches; nuclear reactor and heat transfer equipment should work in a normal mode, which can be very reliably confirmed for other high-temperature nuclear systems. Considering these concepts we practically consider one of possible strategy of developing of complex system of nuclear power engineering. It is the strategy of step-by-step development of space engineering with real application of them in commercial, scientific and other powerful missions in the nearest and deep space. As starting point of this activity is
An Introduction to Free-space Optical Communications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Henniger
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Over the last two decades free-space optical communication (FSO has become more and more interesting as an adjunct or alternative to radio frequency communication. This article gives an overview of the challenges a system designer has to consider while implementing an FSO system. Typical gains and losses along the path from the transmitter through the medium to the receiver are introduced in this article. Detailed discussions of these topics can be found in this special issue of the Radioengineering Journal.
Distress detection, location, and communications using advanced space technology
Sivertson, W. E., Jr.
1977-01-01
This paper briefly introduces a concept for low-cost, global, day-night, all-weather disaster warning and assistance. Evolving, advanced space technology with passive radio frequency reflectors in conjunction with an imaging synthetic aperture radar is employed to detect, identify, locate, and provide passive communication with earth users in distress. This concept evolved from a broad NASA research on new global search and rescue techniques. Appropriate airborne radar test results from this research are reviewed and related to potential disaster applications. The analysis indicates the approach has promise for disaster communications relative to floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms.
Laser guide stars for optical free-space communications
Mata-Calvo, Ramon; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Barrios, Ricardo; Centrone, Mauro; Giggenbach, Dirk; Lombardi, Gianluca; Becker, Peter; Zayer, Igor
2017-02-01
The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) performed a measurement campaign together in April and July 2016 at Teide-Observatory (Tenerife), with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), to investigate the use of laser guide stars (LGS) in ground to space optical communications. Atmospheric turbulence causes strong signal fluctuations in the uplink, due to scintillation and beam wander. In space communications, the use of the downlink channel as reference for pointing and for pre-distortion adaptive optics is limited by the size of the isokinetic and isoplanatic angle in relation to the required point-ahead angle. Pointing and phase errors due to the decorrelation between downward and upward beam due to the point-ahead angle may have a severe impact on the required transmit power and the stability of the communications link. LGSs provide a self-tailored reference to any optical ground-to-space link, independently of turbulence conditions and required point-ahead angle. In photon-starved links, typically in deep-space scenarios, LGSs allow dedicating all downlink received signal to communications purposes, increasing the available link margin. The scope of the joint DLR-ESO measurement campaign was, first, to measure the absolute value of the beam wander (uplink-tilt) using a LGS, taking a natural star as a reference, and, second, to characterize the decrease of correlation between uplink-tilt and downlink-tilt with respect to the angular separation between both sources. This paper describes the experiments performed during the measurement campaigns, providing an overview of the measured data and the first outcomes of the data post-processing.
Classical field theory in the space of reference frames. [Space-time manifold, action principle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toller, M [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Libera Universita, Trento (Italy)
1978-03-11
The formalism of classical field theory is generalized by replacing the space-time manifold M by the ten-dimensional manifold S of all the local reference frames. The geometry of the manifold S is determined by ten vector fields corresponding to ten operationally defined infinitesimal transformations of the reference frames. The action principle is written in terms of a differential 4-form in the space S (the Lagrangian form). Densities and currents are represented by differential 3-forms in S. The field equations and the connection between symmetries and conservation laws (Noether's theorem) are derived from the action principle. Einstein's theory of gravitation and Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism are reformulated in this language. The general formalism can also be used to formulate theories in which charge, energy and momentum cannot be localized in space-time and even theories in which a space-time manifold cannot be defined exactly in any useful way.
General Systems Theory: Application To The Design Of Speech Communication Courses
Tucker, Raymond K.
1971-01-01
General systems theory can be applied to problems in the teaching of speech communication courses. The author describes general systems theory as it is applied to the designing, conducting and evaluation of speech communication courses. (Author/MS)
Technicolor and Beyond: Unification in Theory Space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
The salient features of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking are reviewed. The ideal walking idea is introduced according to which one should carefully take into account the effects of the extended technicolor dynamics on the technicolor dynamics itself. The effects amount at the enh......The salient features of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking are reviewed. The ideal walking idea is introduced according to which one should carefully take into account the effects of the extended technicolor dynamics on the technicolor dynamics itself. The effects amount...... supersymmetry and technicolor. The reason is to provide a unification of different extensions of the standard model. For example, this means that one can recover, according to the parameters and spectrum of the theory distinct extensions of the standard model, from supersymmetry to technicolor and unparticle...
Study on a phase space representation of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranaivoson, R.T.R; Raoelina Andriambololona; Hanitriarivo, R.; Raboanary, R.
2013-01-01
A study on a method for the establishment of a phase space representation of quantum theory is presented. The approach utilizes the properties of Gaussian distribution, the properties of Hermite polynomials, Fourier analysis and the current formulation of quantum mechanics which is based on the use of Hilbert space and linear operators theory. Phase space representation of quantum states and wave functions in phase space are introduced using properties of a set of functions called harmonic Gaussian functions. Then, new operators called dispersion operators are defined and identified as the operators which admit as eigenstates the basis states of the phase space representation. Generalization of the approach for multidimensional cases is shown. Examples of applications are given.
Street, Richard L.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.
2013-01-01
Because quality health care delivery requires effective clinician-patient communication, successful training of health professionals requires communication skill curricula of the highest quality. Two approaches for developing medical communication curricula are a consensus approach and a theory
James Absher
1998-01-01
Studies that employ communication theories are rare in recreation resource management. One reason may be unfamiliarity with communication theories and their potential to provide useful results. A two-dimensional metatheoretical plane is proposed, selected recreation and communication theories are located in it, and functional comparisons are made among eight disparate...
Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks
Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert
2013-01-01
System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its
Monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology for advanced space communication
Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.
1988-01-01
Future Space Communications subsystems will utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC's) to reduce volume, weight, and cost and to enhance system reliability. Recent advances in GaAs MMIC technology have led to high-performance devices which show promise for insertion into these next generation systems. The status and development of a number of these devices operating from Ku through Ka band will be discussed along with anticipated potential applications.
A general-model-space diagrammatic perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hose, G.; Kaldor, U.
1980-01-01
A diagrammatic many-body perturbation theory applicable to arbitrary model spaces is presented. The necessity of having a complete model space (all possible occupancies of the partially-filled shells) is avoided. This requirement may be troublesome for systems with several well-spaced open shells, such as most atomic and molecular excited states, as a complete model space spans a very broad energy range and leaves out states within that range, leading to poor or no convergence of the perturbation series. The method presented here would be particularly useful for such states. The solution of a model problem (He 2 excited Σ + sub(g) states) is demonstrated. (Auth.)
Technicolor and Beyond: Unification in Theory Space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
I will briefly review the salient features of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking together with the traditional extensions needed to provide masses to the standard model fermions in absence of fundamental scalars. The idea walking idea is introduced according to which one should carefully take into account the effects of the extended technicolor dynamics on the technicolor dynamics itself. The interplay between the four fermion interactions stemming from the extended technicolor interactions and the technicolor model can strongly enhance the anomalous dimension of the mass of the techniquarks allowing to decouple the Flavor Changing Neutral Currents problem from the one of the generation of the large top mass. I will also review the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) models. In the second part of this review I consider the interesting possibility to marry supersymmetry and technicolor. The reason is to provide a unification of different extensions of the standard model. For example, this means that one can recover, according to the parameters and spectrum of the theory distinct extensions of the standard model, from supersymmetry to technicolor and unparticle physiscs. A surprising result is that a minimal (in terms of the smallest number of fields) supersymmetrization of the MWT model leads to the maximal supersymmetry in four dimensions, i.e. N = 4 SYM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Peng; Yuan Xiuhua; Zeng Yanan; Zhao Ming; Luo Hanjun
2011-01-01
In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received signal, affecting link performance. Most theoretical treatments have been described by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model through weak turbulence with constant wind speed. However, several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly, especially through the strong turbulence with variable wind speed, which is known to contribute significantly to the turbulence in the atmosphere. We present an optical turbulence model that incorporates into variable wind speed instead of constant value, a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. The free space optical communication performance for a Gaussian beam wave of scintillation index, mean signal-to-noise ratio , and mean bit error rate , have been derived by extended Rytov theory in non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. And then the influence of wind speed variations on free space optical communication performance has been analyzed under different atmospheric turbulence intensities. The results suggest that the effects of wind speed variation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence on communication performance are more severe in many situations and need to be taken into account in free space optical communication. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of free space optical communication performance considering wind speed under severe weather condition in the strong atmospheric turbulence.
Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication
Lee, Charles H.; Cheung, Kar-Ming
2013-01-01
Optimal planning and scheduling for a communication network was created where the nodes within the network are communicating at the highest possible rates while meeting the mission requirements and operational constraints. The planning and scheduling problem was formulated in the framework of Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) to introduce a special penalty function to convert the MIP problem into a continuous optimization problem, and to solve the constrained optimization problem using heuristic optimization. The communication network consists of space and ground assets with the link dynamics between any two assets varying with respect to time, distance, and telecom configurations. One asset could be communicating with another at very high data rates at one time, and at other times, communication is impossible, as the asset could be inaccessible from the network due to planetary occultation. Based on the network's geometric dynamics and link capabilities, the start time, end time, and link configuration of each view period are selected to maximize the communication efficiency within the network. Mathematical formulations for the constrained mixed integer optimization problem were derived, and efficient analytical and numerical techniques were developed to find the optimal solution. By setting up the problem using MIP, the search space for the optimization problem is reduced significantly, thereby speeding up the solution process. The ratio of the dimension of the traditional method over the proposed formulation is approximately an order N (single) to 2*N (arraying), where N is the number of receiving antennas of a node. By introducing a special penalty function, the MIP problem with non-differentiable cost function and nonlinear constraints can be converted into a continuous variable problem, whose solution is possible.
The space-time model according to dimensional continuous space-time theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martini, Luiz Cesar
2014-01-01
This article results from the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory for which the introductory theoretician was presented in [1]. A theoretical model of the Continuous Space-Time is presented. The wave equation of time into absolutely stationary empty space referential will be described in detail. The complex time, that is the time fixed on the infinite phase time speed referential, is deduced from the New View of Relativity Theory that is being submitted simultaneously with this article in this congress. Finally considering the inseparable Space-Time is presented the duality equation wave-particle.
Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems
Ippolito, L. J.
1981-01-01
The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds, fog, precipitation, and turbulence causes uncontrolled variations in the signal characteristics. These variations can result in a reduction of the quality and reliability of the transmitted information. Models and other techniques are used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz have been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of precipitation on the Earth/space path, including rain attenuation, and ice particle depolarization. Other factors are sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence. Each of the various propagation factors has an effect on design criteria for communications systems. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contribution, modulation and polarization factors, channel cross talk, error rate, and bandwidth limitations.
Space Mobile Network: A Near Earth Communications and Navigation Architecture
Israel, David J.; Heckler, Gregory W.; Menrad, Robert J.
2016-01-01
This paper shares key findings of NASA's Earth Regime Network Evolution Study (ERNESt) team resulting from its 18-month effort to define a wholly new architecture-level paradigm for the exploitation of space by civil space and commercial sector organizations. Since the launch of Sputnik in October 1957 spaceflight missions have remained highly scripted activities from launch through disposal. The utilization of computer technology has enabled dramatic increases in mission complexity; but, the underlying premise that the diverse actions necessary to meet mission goals requires minute-by-minute scripting, defined weeks in advance of execution, for the life of the mission has remained. This archetype was appropriate for a "new frontier" but now risks overtly constraining the potential market-based opportunities for the innovation considered necessary to efficiently address the complexities associated with meeting communications and navigation requirements projected to be characteristics of the next era of space exploration: a growing number of missions in simultaneous execution, increased variance of mission types and growth in location/orbital regime diversity. The resulting ERNESt architectural cornerstone - the Space Mobile Network (SMN) - was envisioned as critical to creating an environment essential to meeting these future challenges in political, programmatic, technological and budgetary terms. The SMN incorporates technologies such as: Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) and optical communications, as well as new operations concepts such as User Initiated Services (UIS) to provide user services analogous to today's terrestrial mobile network user. Results developed in collaboration with NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Division and field centers are reported on. Findings have been validated via briefings to external focus groups and initial ground-based demonstrations. The SMN opens new niches for exploitation by the marketplace of mission
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Pleios
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Communication is examined in the realm of Marxist theory not as an autonomous social field, but as a component in the total social structure. It is argued that there was a shift from the initial Marxist idea of forms of communication as relations of production to communication as part of the superstructure, and that this view has prevailed in Marxist theory for a long period of time. In the work of later Marxists, we can spot a re-connection of communication with the capitalist mode of production, but not with the process of structuration and changing of relations of production. In my view, first we must connect these modifications in Marxist theory with the changes in the capitalist mode of production itself and secondly we must seek the role of communication primarily in the production process. We stress that at the end of the 19th century there was a shift from extensive to intensive forms of surplus value which was tightly interconnected with the mass (enlarged consumption of symbolic commodities and commodities – symbols as stimulus for the intensive production. In this way capitalism was transformed to symbolic capitalism. In the ‘60s, the symbolic logic of enlarged consumption led to the need for diverse and flexible production and therefore to the deep information – symbolic changes in technology and social organization of the labour. Thus the logic of consumption became logic of production. This made possible on one hand the shrinkage of the enlarged consumption and on the other the high productivity of the economic systems. This was the rise of a new, deep symbolic capitalism, which made possible the social change without seizing the power. Therefore, the recent developments in the capitalist mode of production takes us back to the primary Marxist notion of communication forms as relations of production and make possible to change the laters by changing the first.
High-capacity Free-space Optical Communications with Orbital Angular Momentum
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the demand for high data returns from space science missions continues, significant improvements over the current radiofrequency (RF) communications architectures...
APPROPRIATIZING POLITENESS THEORY FOR INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN ELT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahmat Yusny
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The theory of politeness suggests strategies in social interaction by which a person can use to save the hearer’s face upon the effect of face-threatening acts or FTAs. Face threatening acts are described by Brown and Levinson as the acts that infringe the hearer’s need of maintaining his/her self-esteem and be respected. Brown and Levinson accepted that the notion of face is respected as universal norms or values subscribed to by the members of the society. In that regard, this article provides a discussion about various viewpoints on the debate of universality of politeness theory and criticisms addressed by eastern-pragmaticists that this theory should not be seen as universally applicable. Cultural differences, as suggested by non-western pragmaticists, accord what is accepted in the context of face in western culture to be not accepted in other cultures. Therefeore, although we accept that Brown & Levinson’s theory has made a significant breakthrough in elaborating politeness, appropriation of this theory should be accounted in intercultural communication instead to accept it as universal.
Construction of non-Abelian gauge theories on noncommutative spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurco, B.; Schupp, P.; Moeller, L.; Wess, J.; Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen; Humboldt-Univ., Berlin; Schraml, S.; Humboldt-Univ., Berlin
2001-01-01
We present a formalism to explicitly construct non-Abelian gauge theories on noncommutative spaces (induced via a star product with a constant Poisson tensor) from a consistency relation. This results in an expansion of the gauge parameter, the noncommutative gauge potential and fields in the fundamental representation, in powers of a parameter of the noncommutativity. This allows the explicit construction of actions for these gauge theories. (orig.)
Construction of non-Abelian gauge theories on noncommutative spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurco, B.; Schupp, P. [Sektion Physik, Muenchen Univ. (Germany); Moeller, L.; Wess, J. [Sektion Physik, Muenchen Univ. (Germany); Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Schraml, S. [Sektion Physik, Muenchen Univ. (Germany)
2001-06-01
We present a formalism to explicitly construct non-Abelian gauge theories on noncommutative spaces (induced via a star product with a constant Poisson tensor) from a consistency relation. This results in an expansion of the gauge parameter, the noncommutative gauge potential and fields in the fundamental representation, in powers of a parameter of the noncommutativity. This allows the explicit construction of actions for these gauge theories. (orig.)
Intersection spaces, spatial homology truncation, and string theory
Banagl, Markus
2010-01-01
Intersection cohomology assigns groups which satisfy a generalized form of Poincaré duality over the rationals to a stratified singular space. The present monograph introduces a method that assigns to certain classes of stratified spaces cell complexes, called intersection spaces, whose ordinary rational homology satisfies generalized Poincaré duality. The cornerstone of the method is a process of spatial homology truncation, whose functoriality properties are analyzed in detail. The material on truncation is autonomous and may be of independent interest to homotopy theorists. The cohomology of intersection spaces is not isomorphic to intersection cohomology and possesses algebraic features such as perversity-internal cup-products and cohomology operations that are not generally available for intersection cohomology. A mirror-symmetric interpretation, as well as applications to string theory concerning massless D-branes arising in type IIB theory during a Calabi-Yau conifold transition, are discussed.
Development of the Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS)
Jeganathan, M.; Mecherle, G.; Lesh, J.
1998-01-01
The Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide mission planners, systems engineers and communications engineers with an easy to use tool to analyze optical communications link.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blanchard, P [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Seneor, R [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique, 75 - Paris (France). Centre de Physique Theorique)
1975-01-01
With the method of perturbative renormalization developed by Epstein and Glaser it is shown that Green's functions exist for theories with massless particles such as Q.E.D. and lambda:PHI/sup 2n/ theories. Growth properties are given in momentum space. In the case of Q.E.D., it is also shown that one can perform the physical mass renormalization.
On the invariant theory of Weingarten surfaces in Euclidean space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganchev, Georgi; Mihova, Vesselka
2010-01-01
On any Weingarten surface in Euclidean space (strongly regular or rotational), we introduce locally geometric principal parameters and prove that such a surface is determined uniquely up to a motion by a special invariant function, which satisfies a natural nonlinear partial differential equation. This result can be interpreted as a solution to the Lund-Regge reduction problem for Weingarten surfaces in Euclidean space. We apply this theory to fractional-linear Weingarten surfaces and obtain the nonlinear partial differential equations describing them.
University Teaching of Communication Theory in Europe and Latin America
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Vicente-Mariño, Ph.D.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Communication Theories are one of the main pillars of many higher education studies that, placing communication as its core topic, have raised public presence during the last two decades at universities worldwide. However, this ongoing process of consolidation inside the scholar field is not walking together with an objective analysis of the ontological and epistemological positions serving as milestones for Communication Theories’ courses. Taking an international online survey as the initial source of information, completed by professors and lectures working at different European and Latin American countries, this paper collects some useful information about the positions and the content of these courses, bringing some light in a confusing fieldwork. If the goal of a common higher education area is real, then deep comparative studies like this must be carried out. Results appeal to a clear dominance of Mass Communications as the main topic inside these courses, although there is a high level of interdisciplinary approaches. Some of the requirements established by the new European Higher Education Area are not implemented in the expected competencies for the students, although they are all present in the courses’ objectives. Professors and lecturers are conscious about the new standard set by the Bologna Process, but this consciousness has not arrived to the classrooms yet.
Space-Time Diffeomorphisms in Noncommutative Gauge Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Román Juarez
2008-07-01
Full Text Available In previous work [Rosenbaum M. et al., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 (2007, 10367–10382] we have shown how for canonical parametrized field theories, where space-time is placed on the same footing as the other fields in the theory, the representation of space-time diffeomorphisms provides a very convenient scheme for analyzing the induced twisted deformation of these diffeomorphisms, as a result of the space-time noncommutativity. However, for gauge field theories (and of course also for canonical geometrodynamics where the Poisson brackets of the constraints explicitely depend on the embedding variables, this Poisson algebra cannot be connected directly with a representation of the complete Lie algebra of space-time diffeomorphisms, because not all the field variables turn out to have a dynamical character [Isham C.J., Kuchar K.V., Ann. Physics 164 (1985, 288–315, 316–333]. Nonetheless, such an homomorphic mapping can be recuperated by first modifying the original action and then adding additional constraints in the formalism in order to retrieve the original theory, as shown by Kuchar and Stone for the case of the parametrized Maxwell field in [Kuchar K.V., Stone S.L., Classical Quantum Gravity 4 (1987, 319–328]. Making use of a combination of all of these ideas, we are therefore able to apply our canonical reparametrization approach in order to derive the deformed Lie algebra of the noncommutative space-time diffeomorphisms as well as to consider how gauge transformations act on the twisted algebras of gauge and particle fields. Thus, hopefully, adding clarification on some outstanding issues in the literature concerning the symmetries for gauge theories in noncommutative space-times.
Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palazuelos, Carlos; Vidick, Thomas
2016-01-01
This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states
Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palazuelos, Carlos, E-mail: cpalazue@mat.ucm.es [Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vidick, Thomas, E-mail: vidick@cms.caltech.edu [Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)
2016-01-15
This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.
Space-Time, Phenomenology, and the Picture Theory of Language
Grelland, Hans Herlof
To estimate Minkowski's introduction of space-time in relativity, the case is made for the view that abstract language and mathematics carries meaning not only by its connections with observation but as pictures of facts. This view is contrasted to the more traditional intuitionism of Hume, Mach, and Husserl. Einstein's attempt at a conceptual reconstruction of space and time as well as Husserl's analysis of the loss of meaning in science through increasing abstraction is analysed. Wittgenstein's picture theory of language is used to explain how meaning is conveyed by abstract expressions, with the Minkowski space as a case.
Communicating through Probabilities: Does Quantum Theory Optimize the Transfer of Information?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William K. Wootters
2013-08-01
Full Text Available A quantum measurement can be regarded as a communication channel, in which the parameters of the state are expressed only in the probabilities of the outcomes of the measurement. We begin this paper by considering, in a non-quantum-mechanical setting, the problem of communicating through probabilities. For example, a sender, Alice, wants to convey to a receiver, Bob, the value of a continuous variable, θ, but her only means of conveying this value is by sending Bob a coin in which the value of θ is encoded in the probability of heads. We ask what the optimal encoding is when Bob will be allowed to flip the coin only a finite number of times. As the number of tosses goes to infinity, we find that the optimal encoding is the same as what nature would do if we lived in a world governed by real-vector-space quantum theory. We then ask whether the problem might be modified, so that the optimal communication strategy would be consistent with standard, complex-vector-space quantum theory.
Quantum field theory with a momentum space of constant curvature (perturbation theory)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mir-Kasimov, R.M.
1978-01-01
In the framework of the field-theoretical approach in which the off-the-mass shell extension proceeds in the p-space of constant curvature, the perburbation theory is developed. The configurational representation of the de Sitter space is introduced with the help of the Fourier transformation of the group of motions. On the basis of a natural generalization of the Bogolyubov causality condition to the case of the new configurational representation a perturbation theory is constructed with the local in xi space Lagrangian density fucntion. The obtained S matrix obeys the reguirement of translation invariance. The S matrix elements are given by convergent expressions
Free-Space Quantum Communication with a Portable Quantum Memory
Namazi, Mehdi; Vallone, Giuseppe; Jordaan, Bertus; Goham, Connor; Shahrokhshahi, Reihaneh; Villoresi, Paolo; Figueroa, Eden
2017-12-01
The realization of an elementary quantum network that is intrinsically secure and operates over long distances requires the interconnection of several quantum modules performing different tasks. In this work, we report the realization of a communication network functioning in a quantum regime, consisting of four different quantum modules: (i) a random polarization qubit generator, (ii) a free-space quantum-communication channel, (iii) an ultralow-noise portable quantum memory, and (iv) a qubit decoder, in a functional elementary quantum network possessing all capabilities needed for quantum-information distribution protocols. We create weak coherent pulses at the single-photon level encoding polarization states |H ⟩ , |V ⟩, |D ⟩, and |A ⟩ in a randomized sequence. The random qubits are sent over a free-space link and coupled into a dual-rail room-temperature quantum memory and after storage and retrieval are analyzed in a four-detector polarization analysis akin to the requirements of the BB84 protocol. We also show ultralow noise and fully portable operation, paving the way towards memory-assisted all-environment free-space quantum cryptographic networks.
The space-time operator product expansion in string theory duals of field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar
2008-01-01
We study the operator product expansion (OPE) limit of correlation functions in field theories which possess string theory duals, from the point of view of the string worldsheet. We show how the interesting ('single-trace') terms in the OPE of the field theory arise in this limit from the OPE of the worldsheet theory of the string dual, using a dominant saddle point which appears in computations of worldsheet correlation functions in the space-time OPE limit. The worldsheet OPE generically contains only non-physical operators, but all the non-physical contributions are resummed by the saddle point to a contribution similar to that of a physical operator, which exactly matches the field theory expectations. We verify that the OPE limit of the worldsheet theory does not have any other contributions to the OPE limit of space-time correlation functions. Our discussion is completely general and applies to any local field theory (conformal at high energies) that has a weakly coupled string theory dual (with arbitrary curvature). As a first application, we compare our results to a proposal of R. Gopakumar for the string theory dual of free gauge theories
Intensity position modulation for free-space laser communication system
Jangjoo, Alireza; Faghihi, F.
2004-12-01
In this research a novel modulation technique for free-space laser communication system called Intensity Position Modulation (IPM) is carried out. According to TEM00 mode of a laser beam and by linear fitting on the Gaussian function as an approximation, the variation of linear part on the reverse biased pn photodiode produced alternating currents which contain the information. Here, no characteristic property of the beam as intensity or frequency is changed and only the beam position moves laterally. We demonstrated that in this method no bandwidth is required, so it is possible to reduce the background radiation noise by narrowband filtering of the carrier. The fidelity of the analog voice communication system which is made upon the IPM is satisfactory and we are able to transmit the audio signals up to 1Km.
Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication
D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.
2006-01-01
An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pons, Josep M
2003-01-01
Relying on known results of the Noether theory of symmetries extended to constrained systems, it is shown that there exists an obstruction that prevents certain tangent-space diffeomorphisms being projectable to phase space, for generally covariant theories. This main result throws new light on the old fact that the algebra of gauge generators in the phase space of general relativity, or other generally covariant theories, only closes as a soft algebra and not as a Lie algebra. The deep relationship between these two issues is clarified. In particular, we see that the second one may be understood as a side effect of the procedure to solve the first. It is explicitly shown how the adoption of specific metric-dependent diffeomorphisms, as a way to achieve projectability, causes the algebra of gauge generators (constraints) in phase space not to be a Lie algebra -with structure constants - but a soft algebra - with structure functions
Conformal higher spin theory and twistor space actions
Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan
2017-12-01
We consider the twistor description of conformal higher spin theories and give twistor space actions for the self-dual sector of theories with spin greater than two that produce the correct flat space-time spectrum. We identify a ghost-free subsector, analogous to the embedding of Einstein gravity with cosmological constant in Weyl gravity, which generates the unique spin-s three-point anti-MHV amplitude consistent with Poincaré invariance and helicity constraints. By including interactions between the infinite tower of higher-spin fields we give a geometric interpretation to the twistor equations of motion as the integrability condition for a holomorphic structure on an infinite jet bundle. Finally, we conjecture anti-self-dual interaction terms which give an implicit definition of a twistor action for the full conformal higher spin theory.
Convex analysis and monotone operator theory in Hilbert spaces
Bauschke, Heinz H
2017-01-01
This reference text, now in its second edition, offers a modern unifying presentation of three basic areas of nonlinear analysis: convex analysis, monotone operator theory, and the fixed point theory of nonexpansive operators. Taking a unique comprehensive approach, the theory is developed from the ground up, with the rich connections and interactions between the areas as the central focus, and it is illustrated by a large number of examples. The Hilbert space setting of the material offers a wide range of applications while avoiding the technical difficulties of general Banach spaces. The authors have also drawn upon recent advances and modern tools to simplify the proofs of key results making the book more accessible to a broader range of scholars and users. Combining a strong emphasis on applications with exceptionally lucid writing and an abundance of exercises, this text is of great value to a large audience including pure and applied mathematicians as well as researchers in engineering, data science, ma...
Theory of hypernumbers and extrafunctions: Functional spaces and differentiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark Burgin
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The theory of hypernumbers and extrafunctions is a novel approach in functional analysis aimed at problems of mathematical and computational physics. The new technique allows operations with divergent integrals and series and makes it possible to distinct different kinds of convergence and divergence. Although, it resembles nonstandard analysis, there are several distinctions between these theories. For example, while nonstandard analysis changes spaces of real and complex numbers by injecting into them infinitely small numbers and other nonstandard entities, the theory of extrafunctions does not change the inner structure of spaces of real and complex numbers, but adds to them infinitely big and oscillating numbers as external objects. In this paper, we consider a simplified version of hypernumbers, but a more general version of extrafunctions and their extraderivatives in comparison with previous works.
Quantum field theory on discrete space-time. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, H.
1985-01-01
A quantum field theory of bosons and fermions is formulated on discrete Lorentz space-time of four dimensions. The minimum intervals of space and time are assumed to have different values in this paper. As a result the difficulties encountered in the previous paper (complex energy, incompleteness of solutions, and inequivalence between phase representation and momentum representation) are removed. The problem in formulating a field theory of fermions is solved by introducing a new operator and considering a theorem of translation invariance. Any matrix element given by a Feynman diagram is calculated in this theory to give a finite value regardless of the kinds of particles concerned (massive and/or massless bosons and/or fermions)
The master space of N = 1 gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forcella, Davide; Hanany, Amihay; He Yanghui; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2008-01-01
The full moduli space M of a class of N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories is studied. For gauge theories living on a stack of D3-branes at Calabi-Yau singularities X, M is a combination of the mesonic and baryonic branches. In consonance with the mathematical literature, the single brane moduli space is called the master space F b . Illustrating with a host of explicit examples, we exhibit many algebro-geometric properties of the master space such as when F b is toric Calabi-Yau, behaviour of its Hilbert series, its irreducible components and its symmetries. In conjunction with the plethystic programme, we investigate the counting of BPS gauge invariants, baryonic and mesonic, using the geometry of F b and show how its refined Hilbert series not only engenders the generating functions for the counting but also beautifully encode 'hidden' global symmetries of the gauge theory which manifest themselves as symmetries of the complete moduli space M for N number of branes.
Schneider, Claudia; Arnot, Madeleine
2018-01-01
This article explores the modes of school communication associated with language and cultural diversity, demonstrating how organisational communication theory can be applied to the analysis of schools' communication responses to the presence of pupils who have English as an additional language (EAL). The article highlights three analytical…
Planets as background noise sources in free space optical communications
Katz, J.
1986-01-01
Background noise generated by planets is the dominant noise source in most deep space direct detection optical communications systems. Earlier approximate analyses of this problem are based on simplified blackbody calculations and can yield results that may be inaccurate by up to an order of magnitude. Various other factors that need to be taken into consideration, such as the phase angle and the actual spectral dependence of the planet albedo, in order to obtain a more accurate estimate of the noise magnitude are examined.
Video semaphore decoding for free-space optical communication
Last, Matthew; Fisher, Brian; Ezekwe, Chinwuba; Hubert, Sean M.; Patel, Sheetal; Hollar, Seth; Leibowitz, Brian S.; Pister, Kristofer S. J.
2001-04-01
Using teal-time image processing we have demonstrated a low bit-rate free-space optical communication system at a range of more than 20km with an average optical transmission power of less than 2mW. The transmitter is an autonomous one cubic inch microprocessor-controlled sensor node with a laser diode output. The receiver is a standard CCD camera with a 1-inch aperture lens, and both hardware and software implementations of the video semaphore decoding algorithm. With this system sensor data can be reliably transmitted 21 km form San Francisco to Berkeley.
Space station communications and tracking equipment management/control system
Kapell, M. H.; Seyl, J. W.
1982-01-01
Design details of a communications and tracking (C and T) local area network and the distribution system requirements for the prospective space station are described. The hardware will be constructed of LRUs, including those for baseband, RF, and antenna subsystems. It is noted that the C and T equipment must be routed throughout the station to accommodate growth of the station. Configurations of the C and T modules will therefore be dependent on the function of the space station module where they are located. A block diagram is provided of a sample C and T hardware distribution configuration. A topology and protocol will be needed to accommodate new terminals, wide bandwidths, bidirectional message transmission, and distributed functioning. Consideration will be given to collisions occurring in the data transmission channels.
Challenges for deep space communications in the 1990s
Dumas, Larry N.; Hornstein, Robert M.
1991-01-01
The discussion of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) examines the evolving character of aerospace missions and the corresponding changes in the DSN architecture. Deep space missions are reviewed, and it is noted that the two 34-m and the 70-m antenna subnets of the DSN are heavily loaded and more use is expected. High operational workload and the challenge of network cross-support are the design drivers for a flexible DSN architecture configuration. Incorporated in the design are antenna arraying for aperture augmentation, beam-waveguide antennas for frequency agility, and connectivity with non-DSN sites for cross-support. Compatibility between spacecraft and ground-facility designs is important for establishing common international standards of communication and data-system specification.
Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASAs Future Space Communications Infrastructure
Clark, Gilbert J., III; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David
2016-01-01
Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, MEO, GEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes architecture features of cognitive networking within the future NASA space communications infrastructure, and interacting with the legacy systems and infrastructure in the meantime. The paper begins by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system collaboration. This discussion motivates the features of an architecture including cognitive networking for future missions and relays, interoperating with both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture as a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.
Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASA's Future Space Communications Infrastructure
Clark, Gilbert; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David
2016-01-01
Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, GEO, MEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes an architecture enabling the development and deployment of cognitive networking capabilities into the envisioned future NASA space communications infrastructure. We begin by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system discovery and collaboration. This discussion frames the requirements for an architecture supporting cognitive networking for future missions and relays, including both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture, and results of implementation and initial testing of a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.
Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors for High-Data-Rate Deep-Space Optical Communication
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High data rate deep space optical communication (DSOC) links for manned and unmanned space exploration have been identified by NASA as a critical future capability,...
Haag-Ruelle scattering theory as a scattering theory in different spaces of states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshmanenko, V.D.
1979-01-01
The aim of the paper is the extraction of the abstract content from the Haag-Ruelle theory, i.e. to find out the total mathematical scheme of the theory without the account of physical axiomatics. It is shown that the Haag-Ruelle scattering theory may be naturally included into the scheme of the abstract theory of scattering with the pair of spaces, the wave operators being determined by the method of bilinear functionals. A number of trivial features of the scattering operator is found in the abstract theory. The concrete prospects of the application of the data obtained are outlined in the problem of the scattering of the field quantum theory
A new theory of space-time and gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.
1982-01-01
Field theory of gravitation is constructed. It uses a symmetrical second rank tensor field in pseudoeuclidean space-time for describing the gravitational field. The theory is based on the condition of the presence of conservation laws for gravitational field and matter taken together and on the geometrization principle. The field theory of gravitation has the same post-newtonian parame-- ters as the general relativity theory (GRT) which implies that both theories are indistinguishable from the viewpoint of any post- newtonian experiment. The description of the effects in strong gravitational fields as well as properties of gravitational waves in the field theory of gravitation and GRT differ significantly from each other. The distinctions between two theories include also the itational red shifti curving of light trajectories and timabsence in the field theory of gravitation of the effects of grav.. delay/ in processes of propagation of gravitational waves in external fields. These distinctions made it possible to suggest a number of experiments with gravitational waves in which the predictions of the field theory of gravitation can be compared with those of the GRT. Model of the Universe in the field theory of gravitation makes it possible to describe the cosmological red shift of the frequency. Character of the evolution in this mode is determined by the delay parameter q 0 : at q 0 0 >4-3/2xα the ''expansion'' at some moment will ''change'' to contraction'' and the Universe will return to the singular state, where α=8πepsilon 0 /3M 2 (H is the Hubble constant) [ru
Nonperturbative studies of quantum field theories on noncommutative spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volkholz, J.
2007-11-16
This work deals with three quantum field theories on spaces with noncommuting position operators. Noncommutative models occur in the study of string theories and quantum gravity. They usually elude treatment beyond the perturbative level. Due to the technique of dimensional reduction, however, we are able to investigate these theories nonperturbatively. This entails translating the action functionals into a matrix language, which is suitable for numerical simulations. First we explore the {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} model on a noncommutative plane. We investigate the continuum limit at fixed noncommutativity, which is known as the double scaling limit. Here we focus especially on the fate of the striped phase, a phase peculiar to the noncommutative version of the regularized {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} model. We find no evidence for its existence in the double scaling limit. Next we examine the U(1) gauge theory on a four-dimensional spacetime, where two spatial directions are noncommutative. We examine the phase structure and find a new phase with a spontaneously broken translation symmetry. In addition we demonstrate the existence of a finite double scaling limit which confirms the renormalizability of the theory. Furthermore we investigate the dispersion relation of the photon. In the weak coupling phase our results are consistent with an infrared instability predicted by perturbation theory. If the translational symmetry is broken, however, we find a dispersion relation corresponding to a massless particle. Finally, we investigate a supersymmetric theory on the fuzzy sphere, which features scalar neutral bosons and Majorana fermions. The supersymmetry is exact in the limit of infinitely large matrices. We investigate the phase structure of the model and find three distinct phases. Summarizing, we study noncommutative field theories beyond perturbation theory. Moreover, we simulate a supersymmetric theory on the fuzzy sphere, which might provide an alternative to attempted
Nonperturbative studies of quantum field theories on noncommutative spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkholz, J.
2007-01-01
This work deals with three quantum field theories on spaces with noncommuting position operators. Noncommutative models occur in the study of string theories and quantum gravity. They usually elude treatment beyond the perturbative level. Due to the technique of dimensional reduction, however, we are able to investigate these theories nonperturbatively. This entails translating the action functionals into a matrix language, which is suitable for numerical simulations. First we explore the λφ 4 model on a noncommutative plane. We investigate the continuum limit at fixed noncommutativity, which is known as the double scaling limit. Here we focus especially on the fate of the striped phase, a phase peculiar to the noncommutative version of the regularized λφ 4 model. We find no evidence for its existence in the double scaling limit. Next we examine the U(1) gauge theory on a four-dimensional spacetime, where two spatial directions are noncommutative. We examine the phase structure and find a new phase with a spontaneously broken translation symmetry. In addition we demonstrate the existence of a finite double scaling limit which confirms the renormalizability of the theory. Furthermore we investigate the dispersion relation of the photon. In the weak coupling phase our results are consistent with an infrared instability predicted by perturbation theory. If the translational symmetry is broken, however, we find a dispersion relation corresponding to a massless particle. Finally, we investigate a supersymmetric theory on the fuzzy sphere, which features scalar neutral bosons and Majorana fermions. The supersymmetry is exact in the limit of infinitely large matrices. We investigate the phase structure of the model and find three distinct phases. Summarizing, we study noncommutative field theories beyond perturbation theory. Moreover, we simulate a supersymmetric theory on the fuzzy sphere, which might provide an alternative to attempted lattice formulations. (orig.)
Quantum cryptography for secure free-space communications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.
1999-01-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as key material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg's uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). The authors have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. The authors have developed and tested a free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system over an outdoor optical path of ∼1 km at Los Alamos National Laboratory under nighttime conditions. Results show that free-space QKD can provide secure real-time key distribution between parties who have a need to communicate secretly. Finally, they examine the feasibility of surface to satellite QKD
Novel Photon-Counting Detectors for Free-Space Communication
Krainak, Michael A.; Yang, Guan; Sun, Xiaoli; Lu, Wei; Merritt, Scott; Beck, Jeff
2016-01-01
We present performance data for novel photon counting detectors for free space optical communication. NASA GSFC is testing the performance of three novel photon counting detectors 1) a 2x8 mercury cadmium telluride avalanche array made by DRS Inc. 2) a commercial 2880 silicon avalanche photodiode array and 3) a prototype resonant cavity silicon avalanche photodiode array. We will present and compare dark count, photon detection efficiency, wavelength response and communication performance data for these detectors. We discuss system wavelength trades and architectures for optimizing overall communication link sensitivity, data rate and cost performance. The HgCdTe APD array has photon detection efficiencies of greater than 50 were routinely demonstrated across 5 arrays, with one array reaching a maximum PDE of 70. High resolution pixel-surface spot scans were performed and the junction diameters of the diodes were measured. The junction diameter was decreased from 31 m to 25 m resulting in a 2x increase in e-APD gain from 470 on the 2010 array to 1100 on the array delivered to NASA GSFC. Mean single photon SNRs of over 12 were demonstrated at excess noise factors of 1.2-1.3.The commercial silicon APD array has a fast output with rise times of 300ps and pulse widths of 600ps. Received and filtered signals from the entire array are multiplexed onto this single fast output. The prototype resonant cavity silicon APD array is being developed for use at 1 micron wavelength.
The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changjiang Zheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.
Sol Invictus - Heliophilic Elements in Early Russian Space Flight Theory
Tolkowsky, G.
Common historiographic theory refers to the space age as an extrapolation of the Age of the Enlightenment. According to this thesis, the Copernican transformation of man's place in the universe, and the gradual divergence of science away from Judeo-Christian theology, paved the road to the application of scientific and technological methodologies to the age-old notion of space travel. As an anti-thesis to this historiographic tradition, and in particular reference to the Russian case, one can point at the influence of certain metaphysical elements alien to the Enlightenment, some of which were pagan, on the birth of the space age. At the centre of this metaphysical foundation of astronautics stands the heliophilic motif, namely - the attribution of monistic potency to the sun, and the pursuit of an anthropo-solar affinity by way of space travel.
Duarte, F. J.
2016-12-01
The history of the probability amplitude equation | ψ > = ( | x , y > - | y , x > ) applicable to quanta pairs, propagating in different directions with entangled polarizations, is reviewed and traced back to the 1947-1949 period. The interferometric Dirac foundations common to | ψ > = ( | x , y > - | y , x > ) and the generalized N-slit interferometric equation, for indistinguishable quanta, are also described. The results from a series of experiments on N-slit laser interferometers, with intra interferometric propagation paths up to 527 m, are reviewed. Particular attention is given to explain the generation of interferometric characters, for secure space-to-space communications, which immediately collapse on attempts of interception. The design of a low divergence N-slit laser interferometer for low Earth orbit-low Earth orbit (LEO-LEO), and LEO-geostationary Earth orbit (LEO-GEO), secure interferometric communications is described and a weight assessment is provided.
P-adic space-time and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volovich, I.V.
1987-01-01
Arguments for the possibility of a p-adic structure of space-time are advanced. The p-adic analog of the Veneziano amplitude is proposed, and this permits a start to be made on the construction of the theory of p-adic strings. The same questions are considered over Galois fields, for which the analog of the Veneziano amplitude is a Jacobi sum that can be expressed in terms of p-adic cohomologies of Fermat curves. An explicit expression for the vertex operator of the corresponding string theory is given
Induced gravity in quantum theory in a curved space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etim, E.
1983-01-01
The reason for interest in the unorthodox view of first order (about R(x)) gravity as a matter-induced quantum effect is really to find an argument not to quantise it. According to this view quantum gravity should be constructed with an action which is, at least, quadratic in the scalar curvature R(x). Such a theory will not contain a dimensional parameter, like Newton's constant, and would probably be renormalisable. This lecture is intended to acquaint the non-expert with the phenomenon of induction of the scalar curvature term in the matter Lagrangian in a curved space in both relativistic and non-relativistic quantum theories
Aspects of quantum field theory in curved space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fulling, S.A.
1989-01-01
The theory of quantum fields on curved spacetimes has attracted great attention since the discovery, by Stephen Hawking, of black-hole evaporation. It remains an important subject for the understanding of such contemporary topics as inflationary cosmology, quantum gravity and superstring theory. The topics covered include normal-mode expansions for a general elliptic operator, Fock space, the Casimir effect, the Klein 'paradox', particle definition and particle creation in expanding universes, asymptotic expansion of Green's functions and heat kernels, and renormalization of the stress tensor. (author)
Aspects of quantum field theory in curved space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fulling, S.A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)
1989-01-01
The theory of quantum fields on curved spacetimes has attracted great attention since the discovery, by Stephen Hawking, of black-hole evaporation. It remains an important subject for the understanding of such contemporary topics as inflationary cosmology, quantum gravity and superstring theory. The topics covered include normal-mode expansions for a general elliptic operator, Fock space, the Casimir effect, the Klein 'paradox', particle definition and particle creation in expanding universes, asymptotic expansion of Green's functions and heat kernels, and renormalization of the stress tensor. (author).
From the Weyl theory to a theory of locally anisotropic space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogoslovsky, G.Yu.
1991-01-01
It is shown that Weyl ideas, pertaining to local conformal invariance, find natural embodiment within the framework of a relativistic theory based on a viable Finslerian model of space-time. This is associated with the peculiar property of the conformal invariant Finslerian metric which describes a locally anisotropic space of events. The local conformal transformations of the Riemannian metric tensor leave invariant rest masses as well as all observables and thus appear as local gauge transformations. The corresponding Finslerian theory of gravitation turns out, as a result, to be an Abelian gauge theory. It satisfies the principle of correspondence with Einstein theory and predicts a number of nontrivial physical effects accessible for experimental test under laboratory conditions. 13 refs
Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalton, B.J., E-mail: bdalton@swin.edu.au [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Jeffers, J. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4ONG (United Kingdom); Barnett, S.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.
Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalton, B.J.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S.M.
2017-01-01
In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.
The new Big Bang Theory according to dimensional continuous space-time theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martini, Luiz Cesar
2014-01-01
This New View of the Big Bang Theory results from the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory, for which the introduction was presented in [1]. This theory is based on the concept that the primitive Universe before the Big Bang was constituted only from elementary cells of potential energy disposed side by side. In the primitive Universe there were no particles, charges, movement and the Universe temperature was absolute zero Kelvin. The time was always present, even in the primitive Universe, time is the integral part of the empty space, it is the dynamic energy of space and it is responsible for the movement of matter and energy inside the Universe. The empty space is totally stationary; the primitive Universe was infinite and totally occupied by elementary cells of potential energy. In its event, the Big Bang started a production of matter, charges, energy liberation, dynamic movement, temperature increase and the conformation of galaxies respecting a specific formation law. This article presents the theoretical formation of the Galaxies starting from a basic equation of the Dimensional Continuous Space-time Theory.
The New Big Bang Theory according to Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory
Martini, Luiz Cesar
2014-04-01
This New View of the Big Bang Theory results from the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory, for which the introduction was presented in [1]. This theory is based on the concept that the primitive Universe before the Big Bang was constituted only from elementary cells of potential energy disposed side by side. In the primitive Universe there were no particles, charges, movement and the Universe temperature was absolute zero Kelvin. The time was always present, even in the primitive Universe, time is the integral part of the empty space, it is the dynamic energy of space and it is responsible for the movement of matter and energy inside the Universe. The empty space is totally stationary; the primitive Universe was infinite and totally occupied by elementary cells of potential energy. In its event, the Big Bang started a production of matter, charges, energy liberation, dynamic movement, temperature increase and the conformation of galaxies respecting a specific formation law. This article presents the theoretical formation of the Galaxies starting from a basic equation of the Dimensional Continuous Space-time Theory.
Which theory of communication is “political correctness”?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Nnamdi Konye
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on ‟political correctness”, which has become a late 20th century catch-phrase in Western European and North American liberal democracies but also has found currency in the political climate of the Asian and Eastern countries. A historical and multi-cultural review is intended as an introduction to a broader philosophical analysis of the Marxist backgrounds of political correctness and its neo-Marxist theoretical correctives in Jürgen Habermas’s theory of communicative action. My aim is to draw out both the educational and cultural implications of laying out the ethos of contemporary discourse on the foundations of the evolving dynamics of the rhetoric of political correctness.
Space/time non-commutative field theories and causality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozkaya, H.; Fischer, P.; Pitschmann, M.; Schweda, M.; Grosse, H.; Putz, V.; Wulkenhaar, R.
2003-01-01
As argued previously, amplitudes of quantum field theories on non-commutative space and time cannot be computed using naive path integral Feynman rules. One of the proposals is to use the Gell-Mann-Low formula with time-ordering applied before performing the integrations. We point out that the previously given prescription should rather be regarded as an interaction-point time-ordering. Causality is explicitly violated inside the region of interaction. It is nevertheless a consistent procedure, which seems to be related to the interaction picture of quantum mechanics. In this framework we compute the one-loop self-energy for a space/time non-commutative φ 4 theory. Although in all intermediate steps only three-momenta play a role, the final result is manifestly Lorentz covariant and agrees with the naive calculation. Deriving the Feynman rules for general graphs, we show, however, that such a picture holds for tadpole lines only. (orig.)
Quantum moduli spaces of N=1 string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banks, T.; Dine, M.
1996-01-01
Generically, string models with N=1 supersymmetry are not expected to have moduli beyond perturbation theory; stringy nonperturbative effects as well as low energy field-theoretic phenomena such as gluino condensation will lift any flat directions. In this work, we describe models where some subspace of the moduli space survives nonperturbatively. Discrete R symmetries forbid any inherently stringy effects, and dynamical considerations control the field-theoretic effects. The surviving subspace is a space of high symmetry; the system is attracted to this subspace by a potential which we compute. Models of this type may be useful for considerations of duality and raise troubling cosmological questions about string theory. Our considerations also suggest a mechanism for fixing the expectation value of the dilaton. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Research on Retro-reflecting Modulation in Space Optical Communication System
Zhu, Yifeng; Wang, Guannan
2018-01-01
Retro-reflecting modulation space optical communication is a new type of free space optical communication technology. Unlike traditional free space optical communication system, it applys asymmetric optical systems to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of the system and can effectively solve the limits of traditional free space optical communication system application, so it can achieve the information transmission. This paper introduces the composition and working principle of retro-reflecting modulation optical communication system, analyzes the link budget of this system, reviews the types of optical system and optical modulator, summarizes this technology future research direction and application prospects.
Higgsless theory of electroweak symmetry breaking from warped space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, Yasunori
2003-01-01
We study a theory of electroweak symmetry breaking without a Higgs boson, recently suggested by Csaki et al. The theory is formulated in 5D warped space with the gauge bosons and matter fields propagating in the bulk. In the 4D dual picture, the theory appears as the standard model without a Higgs field, but with an extra gauge group G which becomes strong at the TeV scale. The strong dynamics of G breaks the electroweak symmetry, giving the masses for the W and Z bosons and the quarks and leptons. We study corrections in 5D which are logarithmically enhanced by the large mass ratio between the Planck and weak scales, and show that they do not destroy the structure of the electroweak gauge sector at the leading order. We introduce a new parameter, the ratio between the two bulk gauge couplings, into the theory and find that it allows us to control the scale of new physics. We also present a potentially realistic theory accommodating quarks and leptons and discuss its implications, including the violation of universality in the W and Z boson couplings to matter and the spectrum of the Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge bosons. The theory reproduces many successful features of the standard model, although some cancellations may still be needed to satisfy constraints from the precision electroweak data. (author)
Game theory in communication networks cooperative resolution of interactive networking scenarios
Antoniou, Josephina
2012-01-01
A mathematical tool for scientists and researchers who work with computer and communication networks, Game Theory in Communication Networks: Cooperative Resolution of Interactive Networking Scenarios addresses the question of how to promote cooperative behavior in interactive situations between heterogeneous entities in communication networking scenarios. It explores network design and management from a theoretical perspective, using game theory and graph theory to analyze strategic situations and demonstrate profitable behaviors of the cooperative entities. The book promotes the use of Game T
Theory and experiments in model-based space system anomaly management
Kitts, Christopher Adam
This research program consists of an experimental study of model-based reasoning methods for detecting, diagnosing and resolving anomalies that occur when operating a comprehensive space system. Using a first principles approach, several extensions were made to the existing field of model-based fault detection and diagnosis in order to develop a general theory of model-based anomaly management. Based on this theory, a suite of algorithms were developed and computationally implemented in order to detect, diagnose and identify resolutions for anomalous conditions occurring within an engineering system. The theory and software suite were experimentally verified and validated in the context of a simple but comprehensive, student-developed, end-to-end space system, which was developed specifically to support such demonstrations. This space system consisted of the Sapphire microsatellite which was launched in 2001, several geographically distributed and Internet-enabled communication ground stations, and a centralized mission control complex located in the Space Technology Center in the NASA Ames Research Park. Results of both ground-based and on-board experiments demonstrate the speed, accuracy, and value of the algorithms compared to human operators, and they highlight future improvements required to mature this technology.
Light-front higher-spin theories in flat space
Ponomarev, Dmitry; Skvortsov, Evgeny
2017-03-01
We revisit the problem of interactions of higher-spin fields in flat space. We argue that all no-go theorems can be avoided by the light-cone approach, which results in more interaction vertices as compared to the usual covariant approaches. It is stressed that there exist two-derivative gravitational couplings of higher-spin fields. We show that some reincarnation of the equivalence principle still holds for higher-spin fields—the strength of gravitational interaction does not depend on spin. Moreover, it follows from the results by Metsaev that there exists a complete chiral higher-spin theory in four dimensions. We give a simple derivation of this theory and show that the four-point scattering amplitude vanishes. Also, we reconstruct the quartic vertex of the scalar field in the unitary higher-spin theory, which turns out to be perturbatively local.
Light-front higher-spin theories in flat space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponomarev, Dmitry; Skvortsov, Evgeny
2017-01-01
We revisit the problem of interactions of higher-spin fields in flat space. We argue that all no-go theorems can be avoided by the light-cone approach, which results in more interaction vertices as compared to the usual covariant approaches. It is stressed that there exist two-derivative gravitational couplings of higher-spin fields. We show that some reincarnation of the equivalence principle still holds for higher-spin fields—the strength of gravitational interaction does not depend on spin. Moreover, it follows from the results by Metsaev that there exists a complete chiral higher-spin theory in four dimensions. We give a simple derivation of this theory and show that the four-point scattering amplitude vanishes. Also, we reconstruct the quartic vertex of the scalar field in the unitary higher-spin theory, which turns out to be perturbatively local. (paper)
Hiding in plain sight: communication theory in implementation science
Manojlovich, Milisa; Squires, Janet E; Davies, Barbara; Graham, Ian D
2015-01-01
Background Poor communication among healthcare professionals is a pressing problem, contributing to widespread barriers to patient safety. The word ?communication? means to share or make common. In the literature, two communication paradigms dominate: (1) communication as a transactional process responsible for information exchange, and (2) communication as a transformational process responsible for causing change. Implementation science has focused on information exchange attributes while la...
System theory on group manifolds and coset spaces.
Brockett, R. W.
1972-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study questions regarding controllability, observability, and realization theory for a particular class of systems for which the state space is a differentiable manifold which is simultaneously a group or, more generally, a coset space. We show that it is possible to give rather explicit expressions for the reachable set and the set of indistinguishable states in the case of autonomous systems. We also establish a type of state space isomorphism theorem. Our objective is to reduce all questions about the system to questions about Lie algebras generated from the coefficient matrices entering in the description of the system and in that way arrive at conditions which are easily visualized and tested.
Precoded generalized space shift keying for indoor visible light communications
Kadampot, Ishaque Ashar
2014-09-01
We consider a visible light communication system with 2 transmit light emitting diodes (LED) and nr receive photodiodes. An optical generalized space shift keying modulation scheme is considered for the transmission of bits where each LED can be either in ON state or OFF state at a given time. With this set-up, we design in this paper a precoder for this modulation scheme given the channel state information to improve the bit error rate performance of the system. As conventional precoding techniques for radio frequency at the transmitter cannot be applied to the optical intensity channel, we formulate an optimization problem with constraints for this specific channel. An analytical solution for the precoder is derived and the system performance is compared with and without precoder.
Precision time distribution within a deep space communications complex
Curtright, J. B.
1972-01-01
The Precision Time Distribution System (PTDS) at the Golstone Deep Space Communications Complex is a practical application of existing technology to the solution of a local problem. The problem was to synchronize four station timing systems to a master source with a relative accuracy consistently and significantly better than 10 microseconds. The solution involved combining a precision timing source, an automatic error detection assembly and a microwave distribution network into an operational system. Upon activation of the completed PTDS two years ago, synchronization accuracy at Goldstone (two station relative) was improved by an order of magnitude. It is felt that the validation of the PTDS mechanization is now completed. Other facilities which have site dispersion and synchronization accuracy requirements similar to Goldstone may find the PTDS mechanization useful in solving their problem. At present, the two station relative synchronization accuracy at Goldstone is better than one microsecond.
An Array of Optical Receivers for Deep-Space Communications
Vilnrotter, Chi-Wung; Srinivasan, Meera; Andrews, Kenneth
2007-01-01
An array of small optical receivers is proposed as an alternative to a single large optical receiver for high-data-rate communications in NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN). Because the telescope for a single receiver capable of satisfying DSN requirements must be greater than 10 m in diameter, the design, building, and testing of the telescope would be very difficult and expensive. The proposed array would utilize commercially available telescopes of 1-m or smaller diameter and, therefore, could be developed and verified with considerably less difficulty and expense. The essential difference between a single-aperture optical-communications receiver and an optical-array receiver is that a single-aperture receiver focuses all of the light energy it collects onto the surface of an optical detector, whereas an array receiver focuses portions of the total collected energy onto separate detectors, optically detects each fractional energy component, then combines the electrical signal from the array of detector outputs to form the observable, or "decision statistic," used to decode the transmitted data. A conceptual block diagram identifying the key components of the optical-array receiver suitable for deep-space telemetry reception is shown in the figure. The most conspicuous feature of the receiver is the large number of small- to medium-size telescopes, with individual apertures and number of telescopes selected to make up the desired total collecting area. This array of telescopes is envisioned to be fully computer- controlled via the user interface and prediction-driven to achieve rough pointing and tracking of the desired spacecraft. Fine-pointing and tracking functions then take over to keep each telescope pointed toward the source, despite imperfect pointing predictions, telescope-drive errors, and vibration caused by wind.
Fast QC-LDPC code for free space optical communication
Wang, Jin; Zhang, Qi; Udeh, Chinonso Paschal; Wu, Rangzhong
2017-02-01
Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication systems use the atmosphere as a propagation medium. Hence the atmospheric turbulence effects lead to multiplicative noise related with signal intensity. In order to suppress the signal fading induced by multiplicative noise, we propose a fast Quasi-Cyclic (QC) Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) code for FSO Communication systems. As a linear block code based on sparse matrix, the performances of QC-LDPC is extremely near to the Shannon limit. Currently, the studies on LDPC code in FSO Communications is mainly focused on Gauss-channel and Rayleigh-channel, respectively. In this study, the LDPC code design over atmospheric turbulence channel which is nether Gauss-channel nor Rayleigh-channel is closer to the practical situation. Based on the characteristics of atmospheric channel, which is modeled as logarithmic-normal distribution and K-distribution, we designed a special QC-LDPC code, and deduced the log-likelihood ratio (LLR). An irregular QC-LDPC code for fast coding, of which the rates are variable, is proposed in this paper. The proposed code achieves excellent performance of LDPC codes and can present the characteristics of high efficiency in low rate, stable in high rate and less number of iteration. The result of belief propagation (BP) decoding shows that the bit error rate (BER) obviously reduced as the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) increased. Therefore, the LDPC channel coding technology can effectively improve the performance of FSO. At the same time, the BER, after decoding reduces with the increase of SNR arbitrarily, and not having error limitation platform phenomenon with error rate slowing down.
Learning Theory Bases of Communicative Methodology and the Notional/Functional Syllabus
Jacqueline D., Beebe
1992-01-01
This paper examines the learning theories that underlie the philosophy and practices known as communicative language teaching methodology. These theories are identified first as a reaction against the behavioristic learning theory of audiolingualism. Approaches to syllabus design based on both the "weak" version of communicative language teaching-learning to use the second language-and the "strong" version-using the second language to learn it-are examined. The application of cognitive theory...
Tensor algebra over Hilbert space: Field theory in classical phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matos Neto, A.; Vianna, J.D.M.
1984-01-01
It is shown using tensor algebras, namely Symmetric and Grassmann algebras over Hilbert Space that it is possible to introduce field operators, associated to the Liouville equation of classical statistical mechanics, which are characterized by commutation (for Symmetric) and anticommutation (for Grassmann) rules. The procedure here presented shows by construction that many-particle classical systems admit an algebraic structure similar to that of quantum field theory. It is considered explicitly the case of n-particle systems interacting with an external potential. A new derivation of Schoenberg's result about the equivalence between his field theory in classical phase space and the usual classical statistical mechanics is obtained as a consequence of the algebraic structure of the theory as introduced by our method. (Author) [pt
Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gogniat Guy
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.
Kirschbaum, Kristin
2012-01-01
Communication variables that are associated with face-negotiation theory were examined in a sample of operating-room physicians. A survey was administered to anesthesiologists and surgeons at a teaching hospital in the southwestern United States to measure three variables commonly associated with face-negotiation theory: conflict-management style, face concern, and self-construal. The survey instrument that was administered to physicians includes items that measured these three variables in previous face-negotiation research with slight modification of item wording for relevance in the medical setting. The physician data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson's correlations, and t-tests. Results of this initial investigation showed that variables associated with face-negotiation theory were evident in the sample physician population. In addition, the correlations were similar among variables in the medical sample as those found in previous face-negotiation research. Finally, t-tests suggest variance between anesthesiologists and surgeons on specific communication variables. These findings suggest three implications that warrant further investigation with expanded sample size: (1) An intercultural communication theory and instrument can be utilized for health communication research; (2) as applied in a medical context, face-negotiation theory can be expanded beyond traditional intercultural communication boundaries; and (3) theoretically based communication structures applied in a medical context could help explain physician miscommunication in the operating room to assist future design of communication training programs for operating-room physicians.
Quantum field theory in curved space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Najmi, A.-H.
1982-09-01
The problem of constructing states for quantum field theories in nonstationary background space-times is set out. A formalism in which the problem of constructing states can be attacked more easily than at present is presented. The ansatz of energy-minimization as a means of constructing states is formulated in this formalism and its general solution for the free scalar field is found. It has been known, in specific cases, that such states suffer from the problem of unitary inequivalence (the pathology). An example in Minowski space-time is presented in which global operators, such as the particle-number operator, do not exist but all physical observables, such as the renormalized energy density are finite. This model has two Fock-sectors as its space of physical states. A simple extension of this model, i.e. enlarging the Fock-space of states is found not to remedy the pathology: in a Robertson-Walker space-time the quantum field acquires an infinite amount of renormalized energy density to the future of the hypersurface on which the energy density is minimized. Finally, the solution of the ansatz of energy minimization for the free, massive Hermitian fermion field is presented. (author)
Connections on the state-space over conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranganathan, K.; Sonoda, H.; Zwiebach, B.
1994-01-01
Motivated by the problem of background independence of closed string field theory we study geometry on the infinite vector bundle of local fields over the space of conformal field theories (CFTs). With any connection we can associate an excluded domain D for the integral of marginal operators, and an operator one-form ω μ . The pair (D, ω μ ) determines the covariant derivative of any correlator of local fields. We obtain interesting classes of connections in which ω μ 's can be written in terms of CFT data. For these connections we compute their curvatures in terms of four-point correlators, D, and ω μ . Among these connections three are of particular interest. A flat, metric compatible connection Γ, and connections c and c with non-vanishing curvature, with the latter metric compatible. The flat connection cannot be used to do parallel transport over a finite distance. Parallel transport with either c or c, however, allows us to construct a CFT in the state-space of another CFT a finite distance away. The construction is given in the form of perturbation theory manifestly free of divergences. (orig.)
Heim, R
1991-07-01
In his Theory of Communicative Action (1981) Jürgen Habermas attempted to base the critique of society on a universalized pragmatics. Heim attempts to derive a new metatheory of psychoanalysis from the theory of communicative action. In doing so he concentrates on the actual models of interpretation in psychoanalysis (Lacan, Marcuse, Lorenzer).
山口,生史
2002-01-01
This study is based on organizational justice theory. Although organizational justice theory is useful for explaining organizational behavior, it has not focused on motivation, per se. ln this study, the linkage between organizational justice and motivation is explored with the mediating effect of interpersonal communication in an organization (i.e.，organizational communication).
2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication
2017-05-01
Table of Content Preface 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication “Space Science for Sustainability” The present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series represents contributions from participants of the 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication (IconSpace2017) held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from May 3-5, 2017. The conference was organized by Space Science Centre (ANGKASA), Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) with a theme on “Space Science for Sustainability”. IconSpace2017 is the fifth series of conferences devoted to bringing researchers from around the world together to present and discuss their recent research results related to space science and communication, and also to provide an international platform for future research collaborations. This biennial international conference is an open forum where members in the field and others can meet in one place to discuss their current research findings. The technical program of this conference includes four keynote speakers, invited speakers, and the presentation of papers and poster. The track of the session includes Astrophysics and Astronomy, Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Sciences, Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Satellite and Communication Technology, and Interdisciplinary Space Science. Apart from the main conference, there will be a special talk on “Space Exploration & Updates” on 5 May 2017. More than 100 scientists and engineers from various academic, government, and industrial institutions in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas attended the conference. The papers for this conference were selected after a rigorous review process. The papers were all evaluated by international and local reviewers and at least two reviewers were required to evaluate each paper. We should like to offer our thanks for the professionalism of the organizing committee, authors, reviewers, and volunteers deserve much
2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-01-01
Table of Content Preface 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication “Space Science for Sustainability” The present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series represents contributions from participants of the 2017 International Conference on Space Science and Communication (IconSpace2017) held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from May 3-5, 2017. The conference was organized by Space Science Centre (ANGKASA), Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) with a theme on “Space Science for Sustainability”. IconSpace2017 is the fifth series of conferences devoted to bringing researchers from around the world together to present and discuss their recent research results related to space science and communication, and also to provide an international platform for future research collaborations. This biennial international conference is an open forum where members in the field and others can meet in one place to discuss their current research findings. The technical program of this conference includes four keynote speakers, invited speakers, and the presentation of papers and poster. The track of the session includes Astrophysics and Astronomy, Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Sciences, Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Satellite and Communication Technology, and Interdisciplinary Space Science. Apart from the main conference, there will be a special talk on “Space Exploration and Updates” on 5 May 2017. More than 100 scientists and engineers from various academic, government, and industrial institutions in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas attended the conference. The papers for this conference were selected after a rigorous review process. The papers were all evaluated by international and local reviewers and at least two reviewers were required to evaluate each paper. We should like to offer our thanks for the professionalism of the organizing committee, authors, reviewers, and volunteers deserve much
Programmable High-Rate Multi-Mission Receiver for Space Communications, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and upcoming NASA space links require both highly reliable low-rate communications links supporting critical TT&C, ranging and voice services and highly...
High-Efficiency, High-Power Laser Transmitter for Deep-Space Communication, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is demand for vastly improved deep space satellite communications links. As data rates dramatically increase due to new sensor technologies and the desire to...
Highly Sensitive Photon Counting Detectors for Deep Space Optical Communications, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of a photon-counting photodetector is proposed to advance the state-of the-art in deep space optical communications technology. The proposed detector...
Programmable High-Rate Multi-Mission Receiver for Space Communications, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and upcoming NASA space links require both highly reliable low-rate communications links supporting critical TT&C, ranging and voice services and highly...
Real analysis measure theory, integration, and Hilbert spaces
Stein, Elias M
2005-01-01
Real Analysis is the third volume in the Princeton Lectures in Analysis, a series of four textbooks that aim to present, in an integrated manner, the core areas of analysis. Here the focus is on the development of measure and integration theory, differentiation and integration, Hilbert spaces, and Hausdorff measure and fractals. This book reflects the objective of the series as a whole: to make plain the organic unity that exists between the various parts of the subject, and to illustrate the wide applicability of ideas of analysis to other fields of mathematics and science. After
Stochastic integration in Banach spaces theory and applications
Mandrekar, Vidyadhar
2015-01-01
Considering Poisson random measures as the driving sources for stochastic (partial) differential equations allows us to incorporate jumps and to model sudden, unexpected phenomena. By using such equations the present book introduces a new method for modeling the states of complex systems perturbed by random sources over time, such as interest rates in financial markets or temperature distributions in a specific region. It studies properties of the solutions of the stochastic equations, observing the long-term behavior and the sensitivity of the solutions to changes in the initial data. The authors consider an integration theory of measurable and adapted processes in appropriate Banach spaces as well as the non-Gaussian case, whereas most of the literature only focuses on predictable settings in Hilbert spaces. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers in stochastic (partial) differential equations, mathematical finance and non-linear filtering and assumes a knowledge of the required integrati...
Exploring perturbative conformal field theory in Mellin space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nizami, Amin A. [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, TIFR,Hesaraghatta, Hubli, Bengaluru-560089 (India); Rudra, Arnab [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP), Department of Physics,University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Sarkar, Sourav [Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, IRIS-Adlershof,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Verma, Mritunjay [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, TIFR,Hesaraghatta, Hubli, Bengaluru-560089 (India); Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad-211019 (India)
2017-01-24
We explore the Mellin representation of correlation functions in conformal field theories in the weak coupling regime. We provide a complete proof for a set of Feynman rules to write the Mellin amplitude for a general tree level Feynman diagram involving only scalar operators. We find a factorised form involving beta functions associated to the propagators, similar to tree level Feynman rules in momentum space for ordinary QFTs. We also briefly consider the case where a generic scalar perturbation of the free CFT breaks conformal invariance. Mellin space still has some utility and one can consider non-conformal Mellin representations. In this context, we find that the beta function corresponding to conformal propagator uplifts to a hypergeometric function.
Correlation dimension and phase space contraction via extreme value theory
Faranda, Davide; Vaienti, Sandro
2018-04-01
We show how to obtain theoretical and numerical estimates of correlation dimension and phase space contraction by using the extreme value theory. The maxima of suitable observables sampled along the trajectory of a chaotic dynamical system converge asymptotically to classical extreme value laws where: (i) the inverse of the scale parameter gives the correlation dimension and (ii) the extremal index is associated with the rate of phase space contraction for backward iteration, which in dimension 1 and 2, is closely related to the positive Lyapunov exponent and in higher dimensions is related to the metric entropy. We call it the Dynamical Extremal Index. Numerical estimates are straightforward to obtain as they imply just a simple fit to a univariate distribution. Numerical tests range from low dimensional maps, to generalized Henon maps and climate data. The estimates of the indicators are particularly robust even with relatively short time series.
Theories and models on the biological of cells in space
Todd, P.; Klaus, D. M.
1996-01-01
A wide variety of observations on cells in space, admittedly made under constraining and unnatural conditions in may cases, have led to experimental results that were surprising or unexpected. Reproducibility, freedom from artifacts, and plausibility must be considered in all cases, even when results are not surprising. The papers in symposium on 'Theories and Models on the Biology of Cells in Space' are dedicated to the subject of the plausibility of cellular responses to gravity -- inertial accelerations between 0 and 9.8 m/sq s and higher. The mechanical phenomena inside the cell, the gravitactic locomotion of single eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, and the effects of inertial unloading on cellular physiology are addressed in theoretical and experimental studies.
Dynamical 3-Space Gravity Theory: Effects on Polytropic Solar Models
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May R. D.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Numerous experiments and observations have confirmed the existence of a dynamical 3-space, detectable directly by light-speed anisotropy experiments, and indirectly by means of novel gravitational effects, such as bore hole g anomalies, predictable black hole masses, flat spiral-galaxy rotation curves, and the expansion of the universe, all without dark matter and dark energy. The dynamics for this 3-space follows from a unique generalisation of Newtonian gravity, once that is cast into a velocity formalism. This new theory of gravity is applied to the solar model of the sun to compute new density, pressure and temperature profiles, using polytrope modelling of the equation of state for the matter. These results should be applied to a re-analysis of solar neutrino production, and to stellar evolution in general.
Imagined Affordance: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Nagy
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology studies, emerging theories of materiality, affect, and mediation all necessitate a richer and more nuanced definition for affordance than the field currently uses. To solve this, we develop the concept of imagined affordance. Imagined affordances emerge between users’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations; between the materiality and functionality of technologies; and between the intentions and perceptions of designers. We use imagined affordance to evoke the importance of imagination in affordances—expectations for technology that are not fully realized in conscious, rational knowledge. We also use imagined affordance to distinguish our process-oriented, socio-technical definition of affordance from the “imagined” consensus of the field around a flimsier use of the term. We also use it in order to better capture the importance of mediation, materiality, and affect. We suggest that imagined affordance helps to theorize the duality of materiality and communication technology: namely, that people shape their media environments, perceive them, and have agency within them because of imagined affordances.
Sex Differences in Technical Communication: A Perspective from Social Role Theory
Thompson, Isabelle
2004-01-01
This article interprets technical communication research about sex differences according to social role theory, which argues that sex differences are enculturated through experiences associated with social positions in the family and the workplace. It reevaluates technical communication research about sex differences in communicative and…
Koepf, Gerhard A.; Begley, David L.
1988-01-01
The present conference discusses topics in free-space laser communications, laser link characteristics, satellite laser communication systems, optoelectronic components for laser communications, and space laser subsystem technologies. Attention is given to Space Station-based deep-space communication experiments, the application of intersatellite links to operational satellite systems, high-power 0.87 micron channel substrate planar lasers for spaceborne communications, a ground experiment using a CO2 laser transceiver for free-space communications, studies of laser ranging to the TOPEX satellite, diffraction-limited tracking for space communications, and the compact implementation of a real-time, acoustooptic SAR processor.
Grassmann phase space theory and the Jaynes–Cummings model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalton, B.J.; Garraway, B.M.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S.M.
2013-01-01
coupled equations for the new c-number functions–that are also equivalent to the canonical Grassmann distribution function–to be solved analytically, based on an ansatz from an earlier paper by Stenholm. It is then shown that the distribution function is exactly the same as that determined from the well-known solution based on coupled amplitude equations. In quantum–atom optics theories for many atom bosonic and fermionic systems are needed. With large atom numbers, treatments must often take into account many quantum modes—especially for fermions. Generalisations of phase space distribution functions of phase space variables for a few modes to phase space distribution functionals of field functions (which represent the field operators, c-number fields for bosons, Grassmann fields for fermions) are now being developed for large systems. For the fermionic case, the treatment of the simple two mode problem represented by the Jaynes–Cummings model is a useful test case for the future development of phase space Grassmann distribution functional methods for fermionic applications in quantum–atom optics. -- Highlights: •Novel phase space theory of the Jaynes–Cummings model using Grassmann variables. •Fokker–Planck equations solved analytically. •Results agree with the standard quantum optics treatment. •Grassmann phase space theory applicable to fermion many-body problems
Scattering theory of space-time non-commutative abelian gauge field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rim, Chaiho; Yee, Jaehyung
2005-01-01
The unitary S-matrix for space-time non-commutative quantum electrodynamics is constructed using the *-time ordering which is needed in the presence of derivative interactions. Based on this S-matrix, we formulate the perturbation theory and present the Feynman rule. We then apply this perturbation analysis to the Compton scattering process to the lowest order and check the gauge invariance of the scattering amplitude at this order.
Quantum Limits of Space-to-Ground Optical Communications
Hemmati, H.; Dolinar, S.
2012-01-01
For a pure loss channel, the ultimate capacity can be achieved with classical coherent states (i.e., ideal laser light): (1) Capacity-achieving receiver (measurement) is yet to be determined. (2) Heterodyne detection approaches the ultimate capacity at high mean photon numbers. (3) Photon-counting approaches the ultimate capacity at low mean photon numbers. A number of current technology limits drive the achievable performance of free-space communication links. Approaching fundamental limits in the bandwidth-limited regime: (1) Heterodyne detection with high-order coherent-state modulation approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser phase noise, adaptive optics systems for atmospheric transmission would help. (2) High-order intensity modulation and photon-counting can approach heterodyne detection within approximately a factor of 2. This may have advantages over coherent detection in the presence of turbulence. Approaching fundamental limits in the photon-limited regime (1) Low-duty cycle binary coherent-state modulation (OOK, PPM) approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser extinction ratio, receiver dark noise, jitter, and blocking would help. (2) In some link geometries (near field links) number-state transmission could improve over coherent-state transmission
Topological field theories and quantum mechanics on commutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefrancois, M.
2005-12-01
In particle physics, the Standard Model describes the interactions between fundamental particles. However, it was not able till now to unify quantum field theory and general relativity. This thesis focuses on two different unification approaches, though they might show some compatibility: topological field theories and quantum mechanics on non-commutative space. Topological field theories have been introduced some twenty years ago and have a very strong link to mathematics: their observables are topological invariants of the manifold they are defined on. In this thesis, we first give interest to topological Yang-Mills. We develop a superspace formalism and give a systematic method for the determination of the observables. This approach allows, once projected on a particular super gauge (of Wess-Zumino type), to recover the existing results but it also gives a generalisation to the case of an unspecified super-gauge. We have then be able to show that the up-to-now known observables correspond to the most general form of the solutions. This superspace formalism can be applied to more complex models; the case of topological gravity is given here in example. Quantum mechanics on noncommutative space provides an extension of the Heisenberg algebra of ordinary quantum mechanics. What differs here is that the components of the position or momentum operators do not commute with each other anymore. This implies to introduce a fundamental length. The second part of this thesis focuses on the description of the commutation algebra. Applications are made to low-dimensional quantum systems (Landau system, harmonic oscillator...) and to supersymmetric systems. (author)
Subjective Vertical Conflict Theory and Space Motion Sickness.
Chen, Wei; Chao, Jian-Gang; Wang, Jin-Kun; Chen, Xue-Wen; Tan, Cheng
2016-02-01
Space motion sickness (SMS) remains a troublesome problem during spaceflight. The subjective vertical (SV) conflict theory postulates that all motion sickness provoking situations are characterized by a condition in which the SV sensed from gravity and visual and idiotropic cues differs from the expected vertical. This theory has been successfully used to predict motion sickness in different vehicles on Earth. We have summarized the most outstanding and recent studies on the illusions and characteristics associated with spatial disorientation and SMS during weightlessness, such as cognitive map and mental rotation, the visual reorientation and inversion illusions, and orientation preferences between visual scenes and the internal z-axis of the body. The relationships between the SV and the incidence of and susceptibility to SMS as well as spatial disorientation were addressed. A consistent framework was presented to understand and explain SMS characteristics in more detail on the basis of the SV conflict theory, which is expected to be more advantageous in SMS prediction, prevention, and training.
Evaluating Risk Communication After the Fukushima Disaster Based on Nudge Theory.
Murakami, Michio; Tsubokura, Masaharu
2017-03-01
Using nudge theory and some examples of risk communication that followed the Fukushima disaster, this article discusses the influences and justifications of risk communication, in addition to how risk communication systems are designed. To assist people in making decisions based on their own value systems, we provide three suggestions, keeping in mind that people can be influenced (ie, "nudged") depending on how risk communication takes place: (1) accumulate knowledge on the process of evaluating how the method of risk communication and a system's default design could impact people; (2) clarify the purpose and outcomes of risk communication; and (3) see what risk communication might be ethically unjustifiable. Quantitative studies on risk communication and collective narratives will provide some ideas for how to design better risk communication systems and to help people make decisions. Furthermore, we have shown examples of unjustifiable risk communication.
The pairing theory of polarons in real- and impulse spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzhumanov, S.; Abboudy, S.; Baratov, A.A.
1995-07-01
A consistent pairing theory of carriers in real- and impulse spaces is developed. The pairing of different free (F), delocalized (D) and self-trapped (S) carriers in real-space, leading to the formation of various bipolaronic states are considered within the continuum model and adiabatic approximation taking into account the combined effect of the short- and long-range components of electron-lattice interaction with and without electron correlation. The formation possibility of D- and S-bipolarons as a function of ε ∞ /ε 0 are shown. The pairing scenarios of carriers in k-space leading to the formation of different bipolarons (including also Cooper pairs dynamic bipolarons) are considered within the generalized BCS-like model taking into account the combined phonon and polaron-bag mediated processes. It is shown that the pure BCS pairing picture is the particular case of the general BCS-like one. The possible relevance of the obtained results to high-T c superconductors is discussed in details in the framework of a novel two-stage Fermi-Bose-liquid scenarios of superconductivity which is caused by single particle and pair condensation of an attracting bipolarons. (author). 51 refs, 6 figs
Feature extraction algorithm for space targets based on fractal theory
Tian, Balin; Yuan, Jianping; Yue, Xiaokui; Ning, Xin
2007-11-01
In order to offer a potential for extending the life of satellites and reducing the launch and operating costs, satellite servicing including conducting repairs, upgrading and refueling spacecraft on-orbit become much more frequently. Future space operations can be more economically and reliably executed using machine vision systems, which can meet real time and tracking reliability requirements for image tracking of space surveillance system. Machine vision was applied to the research of relative pose for spacecrafts, the feature extraction algorithm was the basis of relative pose. In this paper fractal geometry based edge extraction algorithm which can be used in determining and tracking the relative pose of an observed satellite during proximity operations in machine vision system was presented. The method gets the gray-level image distributed by fractal dimension used the Differential Box-Counting (DBC) approach of the fractal theory to restrain the noise. After this, we detect the consecutive edge using Mathematical Morphology. The validity of the proposed method is examined by processing and analyzing images of space targets. The edge extraction method not only extracts the outline of the target, but also keeps the inner details. Meanwhile, edge extraction is only processed in moving area to reduce computation greatly. Simulation results compared edge detection using the method which presented by us with other detection methods. The results indicate that the presented algorithm is a valid method to solve the problems of relative pose for spacecrafts.
Gerber, C. R.
1972-01-01
The design and development of the communications terminal breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) history of communications terminal breadboard, (2) requirements analysis, (3) technology goals in terminal design, and (4) communications terminal board integration tests.
Taking the Politics Out of Satellite and Space-Based Communications Protocols
Ivancic, William D.
2006-01-01
After many years of studies, experimentation, and deployment, large amounts of misinformation and misconceptions remain regarding applicability of various communications protocols for use in satellite and space-based networks. This paper attempts to remove much of the politics, misconceptions, and misinformation that have plagued spacebased communications protocol development and deployment. This paper provides a common vocabulary for communications; a general discussion of the requirements for various communication environments; an evaluation of tradeoffs between circuit and packet-switching technologies, and the pros and cons of various link, network, transport, application, and security protocols. Included is the applicability of protocol enhancing proxies to NASA, Department of Defense (DOD), and commercial space communication systems.
Application of spinal code for performance improvement in free-space optical communications
Saiki, Naoya; Okamoto, Eiji; Takenaka, Hideki; Toyoshima, Morio
2017-09-01
In recent years, the demand for high-capacity communication has grown, and fiber-optic transmission is being used in wired communications to meet this demand. Similarly, free-space optics (FSO), which is an optical wireless communication technology that uses laser light, has attracted much attention and has been considered as a suitable alternative to satisfy this demand in wireless communications. Free-space optical communication uses a hundred THz frequency band and allows for high-speed and radio-regulation free transmission, which may provide a solution for the current shortage of radio frequency bands.
Liu, Wei; Yao, Kainan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Danian; Cao, Jingtai; Gu, Haijun
2018-03-01
Based-on the previous study on the theory of the sequential pyramid wavefront sensor (SPWFS), in this paper, the SPWFS is first applied to the coherent free space optical communications (FSOC) with more flexible spatial resolution and higher sensitivity than the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and with higher uniformity of intensity distribution and much simpler than the pyramid wavefront sensor. Then, the mixing efficiency (ME) and the bit error rate (BER) of the coherent FSOC are analyzed during the aberrations correction through numerical simulation with binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, an experimental AO system based-on SPWFS is setup, and the experimental data is used to analyze the ME and BER of homodyne detection with BPSK modulation. The results show that the AO system based-on SPWFS can increase ME and decrease BER effectively. The conclusions of this paper provide a new method of wavefront sensing for designing the AO system for a coherent FSOC system.
Heine, F.; Zech, H.; Motzigemba, M.
2017-12-01
Space based laser communication is supporting earth observation and science missions with Gbps data download capabilities. Currently the Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 spacecrafts from the Copernicus earth observation program of the European Commission are using the Gbps laser communication links developed by Tesat Spacecom to download low latency data products via a commercial geostationary laser relay station- the European Data Relay Service- (EDRS) as a standard data path, in parallel to the conventional radio frequency links. The paper reports on the status of high bandwidth space laser communication as an enabler for small and large space science missions ranging from cube sat applications in low earth orbit to deep space missions. Space based laser communication has left the experimental phase and will support space science missions with unprecedented data rates.
Science communication: Bridging the gap between theory and practise
2001-01-01
The 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology network conference will be held at CERN on 1-3 Febraury 2001. Scientists and communication professionals will analyse the state of the art of science communication and the new perception people have about science in the media from newspapers to the Web. Will communication be able to bridge the gap between Science and Society? What is the impact of science communication on the public? How do novel means of communications change the perception of science for the general public? These and other interesting questions will be addressed at the 6th Public Communication of Science and Technology Meeting, to be held at CERN on 1-3 February 2001. More than 250 people from all over the world are expected to attend the conference which will be an important meeting place for communication professionals covering the social, political, technical and cultural aspects of science and technology communication. Georges Boixader after Gary Larsson. The conferenc...
Structure-Interaction Theory: Conceptual, Contextual and Strategic Influences on Human Communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Стивен А Биби
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses Structure-Interaction Theory (SIT, a theoretical framework that both describes communication messages as well as assists in making predictions about how human communication can be improved based on listener preferences for message structure or interaction. Communication messages may be characterized as existing on a continuum of structure-interaction. Communication structure is the inherent way information in a message is organized. A highly structured message is one in which the message is strategically organized using a planned arrangement of symbols to create meaning. Communication interaction is a way of viewing a message with give-and-take, less sustained “notes,” more change in note sequence and briefer notes. SIT seeks to provide a framework to assist communicators in appropriately adapting a message for maximum effectiveness. Although Structure-Interaction Theory newly articulated here, it is anchored in both classic ways of describing communication, such as rhetoric and dialectic (Aristotle, 1959, as well as more contemporary communication theories (Salem, 2012; Littlejohn & Foss, 2008. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of the theory and its conceptual assumptions, identifies how the theory can help explain and predict communication in several communication contexts (interpersonal, group, public communication, and suggests how SIT may help identify strategies to enhance human development. Structure-Interaction Theory is based on an assumption that a human communication message which is understood, achieves the intended effect of the communicator, and is ethical, requires an appropriate balance of two things: structure and interaction. Communication structure is the inherent way a message is constructed to provide a sustained direction to present information to another person. In linking structure and interaction to Aristotle’s description of messages, rhetoric is a more structured, sustained speech
THE PUBLIC SPHERE OF POLITICS: THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL DIMENSION IN CONTEMPORARY COMMUNICATIVE THEORY
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O. A. Tretyak
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction. According to Jürgen Habermas, a contradiction between the system and the life-world signifies a need for a concept that would describe the projective space of a relaxed and undistorted human communicative activity. Communicative action as a societal basis of the public sphere links this concept to the pragmatic principles of human existence in modern society. The public sphere is important in the age of the cyber revolution and the rule of networking technologies and it gets an anthropological dimension in its definition of the modern individual. Reviewed from the view of the interdisciplinary scientific community the public sphere as a dimension of human identity that is manifested in standardized terms of communicative interactions. The paper suggests that the public sphere has lost its conflict mode in respect to power and the tech-savvy social system. Purpose. The paper aims to establish the specifics of the anthropological interpretation of the public sphere in the contemporary philosophical tradition. Methodology. General scientific and special methods of philosophical research are used for conducting this study. The author has used the descriptive method to define the subject area of the anthropic measurement of the public sphere of politics. The method of logical synthesis allows to combine the abstract and specific content of the anthropological dimension of publicity. A retrospective analysis allows to determine the temporal peculiarities of the anthropic meaning of the public sphere. The comparative method gives an opportunity to compare the empirical manifestations of social and political publicity and compare anthropological effects of the media and interpersonal communication activities of modern people. Theoretical basis and results. The article examines the anthropological content of the public sphere of politics as one of the key concepts of communicative theory paying attention to the modification of the nature
van Nes, A.
2017-01-01
This contribution shows various approaches from the theory of science for revealing the explanatory power of the Space Syntax. In this contribution Bhaskar's critical realistic model of science and Georg Henrik von Wright's account of explanation and understanding are used to assess the explanatory power of Space Syntax research. In essence subsequent considerations distinguishes between a theory able to offer an explanation of phenomena and a theory proposing an understanding thereof. It wil...
On some problems of descriptive set theory in topological spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choban, M M
2005-01-01
Problems concerning the structure of Borel sets, their classification, and invariance of certain properties of sets under maps of given types arose in the first half of the previous century in the works of A. Lebesgue, R. Baire, N. N. Luzin, P. S. Alexandroff, P. S. Urysohn, P. S. Novikov, L. V. Keldysh, and A. A. Lyapunov and gave rise to many investigations. In this paper some results related to questions of F. Hausdorff, Luzin, Alexandroff, Urysohn, M. Katetov, and A. H. Stone are obtained. In 1934 Hausdorff posed the problem of invariance of the property of being an absolute B-set (that is, a Borel set in some complete separable metric space) under open continuous maps. By a theorem of Keldysh, the answer to this question is negative in general. The present paper gives additional conditions under which the answer to Hausdorff's question is positive. Some general problems of the theory of operations on sets are also treated
3D RISM theory with fast reciprocal-space electrostatics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heil, Jochen; Kast, Stefan M., E-mail: stefan.kast@tu-dortmund.de [Physikalische Chemie III, Technische Universität Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 6, 44227 Dortmund (Germany)
2015-03-21
The calculation of electrostatic solute-solvent interactions in 3D RISM (“three-dimensional reference interaction site model”) integral equation theory is recast in a form that allows for a computational treatment analogous to the “particle-mesh Ewald” formalism as used for molecular simulations. In addition, relations that connect 3D RISM correlation functions and interaction potentials with thermodynamic quantities such as the chemical potential and average solute-solvent interaction energy are reformulated in a way that calculations of expensive real-space electrostatic terms on the 3D grid are completely avoided. These methodical enhancements allow for both, a significant speedup particularly for large solute systems and a smoother convergence of predicted thermodynamic quantities with respect to box size, as illustrated for several benchmark systems.
3D RISM theory with fast reciprocal-space electrostatics.
Heil, Jochen; Kast, Stefan M
2015-03-21
The calculation of electrostatic solute-solvent interactions in 3D RISM ("three-dimensional reference interaction site model") integral equation theory is recast in a form that allows for a computational treatment analogous to the "particle-mesh Ewald" formalism as used for molecular simulations. In addition, relations that connect 3D RISM correlation functions and interaction potentials with thermodynamic quantities such as the chemical potential and average solute-solvent interaction energy are reformulated in a way that calculations of expensive real-space electrostatic terms on the 3D grid are completely avoided. These methodical enhancements allow for both, a significant speedup particularly for large solute systems and a smoother convergence of predicted thermodynamic quantities with respect to box size, as illustrated for several benchmark systems.
3D RISM theory with fast reciprocal-space electrostatics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heil, Jochen; Kast, Stefan M.
2015-01-01
The calculation of electrostatic solute-solvent interactions in 3D RISM (“three-dimensional reference interaction site model”) integral equation theory is recast in a form that allows for a computational treatment analogous to the “particle-mesh Ewald” formalism as used for molecular simulations. In addition, relations that connect 3D RISM correlation functions and interaction potentials with thermodynamic quantities such as the chemical potential and average solute-solvent interaction energy are reformulated in a way that calculations of expensive real-space electrostatic terms on the 3D grid are completely avoided. These methodical enhancements allow for both, a significant speedup particularly for large solute systems and a smoother convergence of predicted thermodynamic quantities with respect to box size, as illustrated for several benchmark systems
Velocity space ring-plasma instability, magnetized, Part I: Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J.K.; Birdsall, C.K.
1979-01-01
The interaction of magnetized monoenergetic ions (a ring in velocity space) with a homogeneous Maxwellian target plasma is studied numerically using linear Vlasov theory. The ring may be produced when an energetic beam is injected perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field. In addition to yielding the previously known results, the present study classifies this flute-like instability into three distinct regimes based on the beam density relative to the plasma density, where many features such as physical mechanisms, dispersion diagrams, and maximum growth rates are quite different. The effects of electron dynamics, plasma or ring thermal spread, the ratio of ω/sub p//ω/sub c/ for plasma ions, and electromagnetic modifications are also considered
Complex space source theory of partially coherent light wave.
Seshadri, S R
2010-07-01
The complex space source theory is used to derive a general integral expression for the vector potential that generates the extended full Gaussian wave in terms of the input value of the vector potential of the corresponding paraxial beam. The vector potential and the fields are assumed to fluctuate on a time scale that is large compared to the wave period. The Poynting vector in the propagation direction averaged over a wave period is expressed in terms of the cross-spectral density of the fluctuating vector potential across the input plane. The Schell model is assumed for the cross-spectral density. The radiation intensity distribution and the power radiated are determined. The effect of spatial coherence on the radiation intensity distribution and the radiated power are investigated for different values of the physical parameters. Illustrative numerical results are provided to bring out the effect of spatial coherence on the propagation characteristics of the fluctuating light wave.
Construction of spaces of kinematic quantum states for field theories via projective techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okołów, Andrzej
2013-01-01
We present a method of constructing a space of quantum states for a field theory: given phase space of a theory, we define a family of physical systems each possessing a finite number of degrees of freedom, next we define a space of quantum states for each finite system, finally using projective techniques we organize all these spaces into a space of quantum states which corresponds to the original phase space. This construction is kinematic in this sense that it bases merely on the structure of the phase space of a theory and does not take into account possible constraints on the space. The construction is a generalization of a construction by Kijowski—the latter one is limited to theories of linear phase spaces, while the former one is free of this limitation. The method presented in this paper enables to construct a space of quantum states for the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity. (paper)
Yang-Mills theory in null path space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kent, S.L.
1982-01-01
A reformulation of classical GL(n,c) Yang-Mills theory is presented. The reformulation is in terms of a single matrix-valued function G on a six-dimensional subspace of the space of paths in Minkowski space, M. This subspace is defined as the null paths beginning at each point, (X/sup a/), of M and ending at future null infinity. A convenient parametrization of these paths is to give the Minkowski coordinates x/sup a/ of the starting point and the (complex) stereographic coordinates (xi, antixi) on S 2 which label the light cone generators of x/sup a/. A path is thus labeled by (x/sup a/,xi, antixi). The function G(x/sup a/,xi, antixi) is defined by the parallel propagation (with a given connection) of n linearly independent fiber vectors from x/sup a/ to null infinity along the (xi, antixi) generator. From knowledge of G(x/sup a/,xi, antixi) the connection one-form γ/sub a/ at the point x/sup a/ can be obtained is shown. Furthermore how the vacuum Yang-Mills equations can be imposed on the G is shown. This results in a rather complicated integro-differential equation for G which involves the characteristic initial data (essentially the radiation field) acting as the driving term. Two simple special cases are immediately obtainable; in the case of self-dual (or anti-self dual) fields the author obtains a simple derivation of the Sparling equation, namely delta G = -GA, while for Abelian (Maxwell) theories obtained the equation delta anti delta log G = -anti delta A-anti delta A, where A and its conjugate anti A are the characteristic free data given on null infinity. The latter equation is equivalent to the vacuum Maxwell equations
Street, Richard L; De Haes, Hanneke C J M
2013-10-01
Because quality health care delivery requires effective clinician-patient communication, successful training of health professionals requires communication skill curricula of the highest quality. Two approaches for developing medical communication curricula are a consensus approach and a theory driven approach. We propose a theory-driven, communication function framework for identifying important communication skills, one that is focused on the key goals and outcomes that need to be accomplished in clinical encounters. We discuss 7 communication functions important to medical encounters and the types of skills needed to accomplish each. The functional approach has important pedagogical implications including the importance of distinguishing the performance of a behavior (capacity) from the outcome of that behavior in context (effectiveness) and the recognition that what counts as effective communication depends on perspective (e.g., observer, patient). Consensus and theory-driven approaches to medical communication curricula are not necessarily contradictory and can be integrated to further enhance ongoing development and improvements in medical communication education. A functional approach should resonate with practicing clinicians and continuing education initiatives in that it is embraces the notion that competent communication is situation-specific as clinicians creatively use communicative skills to accomplish the key goals of the encounter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Open problems in Banach spaces and measure theory | Rodríguez ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We collect several open questions in Banach spaces, mostly related to measure theoretic aspects of the theory. The problems are divided into five categories: miscellaneous problems in Banach spaces (non-separable Lp spaces, compactness in Banach spaces, w*-null sequences in dual spaces), measurability in Banach ...
Toward a Communication Theory Focused on Humankind's Future.
Ternent, William A.; Ternent, Janet A.
This speech presents a model of human communication which integrates the existential philosophy of Martin Buber with the communication views of Jonas Salk. In his book, "The Survival of the Wisest," Salk characterizes an "Epoch A" to describe the values and behaviors of the past and an "Epoch B" to describe the necessary values and behaviors for…
What have we learned from quantum field theory in curved space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fulling, S.A.
1984-01-01
The paper reviews the quantum field theory in curved space-time. Field quantization in gravitational backgrounds; particle creation by black holes; Hawking radiation; quantum field theory in curved space-time; covariant renormalization of the stress-energy-momentum tensor; quantum field theory and quantum gravity; are all discussed. (U.K.)
Looking at the ICF and human communication through the lens of classification theory.
Walsh, Regina
2011-08-01
This paper explores the insights that classification theory can provide about the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to communication. It first considers the relationship between conceptual models and classification systems, highlighting that classification systems in speech-language pathology (SLP) have not historically been based on conceptual models of human communication. It then overviews the key concepts and criteria of classification theory. Applying classification theory to the ICF and communication raises a number of issues, some previously highlighted through clinical application. Six focus questions from classification theory are used to explore these issues, and to propose the creation of an ICF-related conceptual model of communicating for the field of communication disability, which would address some of the issues raised. Developing a conceptual model of communication for SLP purposes closely articulated with the ICF would foster productive intra-professional discourse, while at the same time allow the profession to continue to use the ICF for purposes in inter-disciplinary discourse. The paper concludes by suggesting the insights of classification theory can assist professionals to apply the ICF to communication with the necessary rigour, and to work further in developing a conceptual model of human communication.
de Sitter Space in Non-Critical String Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silverstein, Eva M
2002-08-13
Supercritical string theories in D > 10 dimensions with no moduli are described, generalizing the asymmetric orientifold construction of one of the authors [1]. By taking the number of dimensions to be large and turning on fluxes, dilaton potentials are generated with nontrivial minima at arbitrarily small cosmological constant and D-dimensional string coupling, separated by a barrier from a flat-space linear dilaton region, but possibly suffering from strong coupling problems. The general issue of the decay of a de Sitter vacuum to flat space is discussed. For relatively small barriers, such decays are described by gravitational instantons. It is shown that for a sufficiently large potential barrier, the bubble wall crosses the horizon. At the same time the instanton decay time exceeds the Poincare recurrence time. It is argued that the inclusion of such instantons is neither physically meaningful nor consistent with basic principles such as causality. This raises the possibility that such de Sitter vacua are effectively stable. In the case of the supercritical flux models, decays to the linear dilaton region can be forbidden by such large barriers, but decays to lower flux vacua including AdS minima nevertheless proceed consistently with this criterion. These models provide concrete examples in which cosmological constant reduction by flux relaxation can be explored.
Free Space Optical Communication in the Military Environment
2014-09-01
Charles River [6]. Even much earlier than Paul Revere’s ride, optical communication had developed into the semaphore or optical telegraph. The...forms of basic optical communication that are still commonplace today include semaphore flags and signal lamps utilized by navies around the world
Space-Time Code Designs for Broadband Wireless Communications
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Xia, Xiang-Gen
2005-01-01
The goal of this research is to design new space AND time codes, such as complex orthogonal space AND time block codes with rate above 1/2 from complex orthogonal designs for QAM, PSK, and CPM signals...
Unified Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Space Communication Networks and Systems
Barritt, Brian; Bhasin, Kul; Eddy, Wesley; Matthews, Seth
2010-01-01
Network simulator software tools are often used to model the behaviors and interactions of applications, protocols, packets, and data links in terrestrial communication networks. Other software tools that model the physics, orbital dynamics, and RF characteristics of space systems have matured to allow for rapid, detailed analysis of space communication links. However, the absence of a unified toolset that integrates the two modeling approaches has encumbered the systems engineers tasked with the design, architecture, and analysis of complex space communication networks and systems. This paper presents the unified approach and describes the motivation, challenges, and our solution - the customization of the network simulator to integrate with astronautical analysis software tools for high-fidelity end-to-end simulation. Keywords space; communication; systems; networking; simulation; modeling; QualNet; STK; integration; space networks
Critical reflections on the theory versus practice debate in communication for development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linje Manyozo
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Even though the cliché ‘theory is practice’ registers in most communication for development debates, available evidence seems to suggest there is a growing chasm between the theory and practice of communication for development. This discussion argues that, with the increasing demand by governments and organisations for communication for development specialists, universities and training providers should rethink their graduate curricula. As course content, teaching methodologies and theoretical paradigms are revisited, trainers need to grill students on how the contestation of power is central to the application of communication in development. This paper advances two arguments. The first is that communication for development training has to begin listening to the innovative thinking that is shaping practice on the ground if the curriculum is to stay relevant. The second is that such programmes have forge strong linkages with development studies departments to ensure that students are well-grounded in development theory and practice.
Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei; Gu, Haijun
2018-03-01
A wavefront sensor is one of most important units for an adaptive optics system. Based on our previous works, in this paper, we discuss the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of coherent free space optical communication systems with a focal-plane-based wavefront sensor. Firstly, the theory of a focal-plane-based wavefront sensor is given. Then the relationship between the BER and the mixing efficiency with a homodyne receiver is discussed on the basis of binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, the numerical simulation results are shown that the BER will be decreased obviously after aberrations correction with the focal-plane-based wavefront sensor. In addition, the BER will decrease along with increasing number of photons received within a single bit. These analysis results will provide a reference for the design of the coherent Free space optical communication (FSOC) system.
Iris Transponder-Communications and Navigation for Deep Space
Duncan, Courtney B.; Smith, Amy E.; Aguirre, Fernando H.
2014-01-01
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Iris CubeSat compatible deep space transponder for INSPIRE, the first CubeSat to deep space. Iris is 0.4 U, 0.4 kg, consumes 12.8 W, and interoperates with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) on X-Band frequencies (7.2 GHz uplink, 8.4 GHz downlink) for command, telemetry, and navigation. This talk discusses the Iris for INSPIRE, it's features and requirements; future developments and improvements underway; deep space and proximity operations applications for Iris; high rate earth orbit variants; and ground requirements, such as are implemented in the DSN, for deep space operations.
平澤 敦
2017-01-01
Researchers have shown an increased interest in crisis communication as well as crisis management. Crisis communication became an established corporate discipline in the last 20 years. Because of the recent rash of corporate (organizational) scandals, natural disasters and so on, importance of crisis communication (management) attracts much more attention than the past.Crisis communication is used to help governments and companies organizations to respond to and recover from a crisis. Crisis ...
Ferreira, Hendrik C; Newbury, John; Swart, Theo G
2010-01-01
Power Line Communications (PLC) is a promising emerging technology, which has attracted much attention due to the wide availability of power distribution lines. This book provides a thorough introduction to the use of power lines for communication purposes, ranging from channel characterization, communications on the physical layer and electromagnetic interference, through to protocols, networks, standards and up to systems and implementations. With contributions from many of the most prominent international PLC experts from academia and industry, Power Line Communications brings togeth
Toward Theory-Based Research in Political Communication.
Simon, Adam F.; Iyengar, Shanto
1996-01-01
Praises the theoretical and methodological potential of the field of political communication. Calls for greater interaction and cross fertilization among the fields of political science, sociology, economics, and psychology. Briefly discusses relevant research methodologies. (MJP)
A Study for Optimum Space-to-Ground Communication Concept for CubeSat and SmallSat Platforms
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study is to explore the communication architecture for future space-to-ground CubeSat/SmallSat communication, through simulations, analyses, and identifying...
Nursing communication in nursing care to mastectomized women: a grounded theory study.
de Almeida Araújo, Iliana Maria; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães; Bonfim, Isabela Melo; Fernandes, Ana Fátima Carvalho
2010-01-01
The goal was to understand the nurse/patient communication process, emphasizing nursing care to mastectomized women. Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory were used to interview eight nurses from a referral institution in cancer treatment, using the guiding question: how do nurses perceive their communication process with mastectomized women? Data analysis allowed for the creation of a central theory: the meaning of communication in nursing care to women, constituted by three distinct but inter-related phenomena: perceiving communication, the relationship nurse/mastectomized woman and rethinking the communication nurse/mastectomized woman. With a view to satisfactory communication, professionals need to get involved and believe that their presence is as important as the performance of technical procedures that relieve situations of stress.
The N=4 supersymmetric E8 gauge theory and coset space dimensional reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olive, D.; West, P.
1983-01-01
Reasons are given to suggest that the N=4 supersymmetric E 8 gauge theory be considered as a serious candidate for a physical theory. The symmetries of this theory are broken by a scheme based on coset space dimensional reduction. The resulting theory possesses four conventional generations of low-mass fermions together with their mirror particles. (orig.)
Advanced Theory of Mind in Children Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication
Sundqvist, Anett; Ronnberg, Jerker
2010-01-01
This study focused on the attainment of Theory of Mind (ToM) in children (aged 6 to 13) with complex communication needs who used augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The AAC group (n = 14) was matched to a younger group, without disabilities, vis-a-vis nonverbal mental age. A second comparison group consisting of children with mild…
Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.
Bittner, John R.
From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…
Aristotelian Rhetorical Theory as a Framework for Teaching Scientific and Technical Communication.
Newman, Sara
1999-01-01
Describes an upper level rhetorical theory course for Scientific and Technical Communication majors (developed and taught by the author) that is grounded in Aristotle's "On Rhetoric" and in his understanding that effective communication is a systematic "tekhne"/art. Describes how the course uses Aristotle's work as a…
Limit Formulae and Jump Relations of Potential Theory in Sobolev Spaces
Raskop, Thomas; Grothaus, Martin
2009-01-01
In this article we combine the modern theory of Sobolev spaces with the classical theory of limit formulae and jump relations of potential theory. Also other authors proved the convergence in Lebesgue spaces for integrable functions. The achievement of this paper is the L2 convergence for the weak derivatives of higher orders. Also the layer functions F are elements of Sobolev spaces and a two dimensional suitable smooth submanifold in R3, called regular Cm-surface. We are considering the pot...
Haider, O.; Groemer, G.
2014-01-01
In September 2011, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Space Agency (DLR) organized the first European SpaceTweetup during the German Aerospace day. One of the authors was one of 60 participants at this SpaceTweetup in Cologne and experienced the concept of a Tweetup and the engagement of the participants from the inside view. Building upon this experience, the Austrian Space Forum (OeWF) organized the first Austrian MarsTweetup during the “Dachstein Mars analog simulation”. Between 27 Apr,2001 and May,2012, a five day Mars simulation was conducted by the Austrian Space Forum and international research partners at the Giant Ice caves at the Dachstein region in Austria. During this field test, the Aouda.X spacesuit simulator and selected geophysical and life-science related experiments were conducted. In this paper we outline the potential and limitations of social media and how to engage the general public to participate and communicate about space projects through their own experience. We show examples of material SpaceTweetup participants produced e.g. hundreds of tweets during the actual event, blog entries, photo galleries and how space communication can benefit from it. Our considerations on organizing a SpaceTweetup are complemented with a section on lessons learned.
Williams, Miriam F.
2012-01-01
The author uses game theoretical models to identify technical communication breakdowns encountered during the notoriously confusing Texas Two-Step voting and caucusing process. Specifically, the author uses narrative theory and game theory to highlight areas where caucus participants needed instructions to better understand the rules of the game…
Characterization of the Marine Atmosphere for Free-Space Optical Communication
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Thomas, Linda M. Wasiczko; Moore, Christopher I; Burris, Harris R; Suite, Michele; Stell, Mena; Murphy, James; Gilbreath, G. C; Rabinovich, William; Scharpf, William
2006-01-01
The Chesapeake Bay Detachment of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL-CBD) provides an ideal environment for characterizing the effects of the marine atmosphere on free space optical communication links...
Communications Relay and Human-Assisted Sample Return from the Deep Space Gateway
Cichan, T.; Hopkins, J. B.; Bierhaus, B.; Murrow, D. W.
2018-02-01
The Deep Space Gateway can enable or enhance exploration of the lunar surface through two capabilities: 1. communications relay, opening up access to the lunar farside, and 2. sample return, enhancing the ability to return large sample masses.
On the performance of free-space optical communication systems with multiuser diversity
Yang, Liang; Gao, Xiqi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
Free space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD
Performance of Cat's Eye Modulating Retro-Reflectors for Free-Space Optical Communications
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rabinovich, W. S; Goetz, P. G; Mahon, R; Swingen, L; Murphy, J; Gilbreath, G. C; Binari, S; Waluschka, E
2004-01-01
Modulating retro-reflectors (MRR) couple passive optical retro-reflectors with electro-optic modulators to allow free-space optical communication with a laser and pointing/acquisition/tracking system required on only one end of the link...
Compact antennas for wireless communications and terminals theory and design
Laheurte, Jean-Marc
2012-01-01
Compact Antennas for Wireless Communications and Terminals deals with compact microwave antennas and, more specifically, with the planar version of these antennas. Planar antennas are the most appropriate type of antenna in modern communication systems and more generally in all applications requiring miniaturization, integration and conformation such as in mobile phone handsets.The book is suitable for students, engineers and scientists eager to understand the principles of planar and small antennas, their design and fabrication issues, and modern aspects such as UWB antennas, recon
A Third-Rank Tensor Field Based on a U(1) Gauge Theory in Loop Space
Shinichi, DEGUCHI; Tadahito, NAKAJIMA; Department of Physics and Atomic Energy Research Institute College of Science and Technology; Department of Physics and Atomic Energy Research Institute College of Science and Technology
1995-01-01
We derive the Stueckelberg formalism extended to a third-rank tensor field from a U(1) gauge theory in loop space, the space of all loops in space-time. The third-rank tensor field is regarded as a constrained U(1) gauge field on the loop space.
Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication
Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria
2005-01-01
The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.
Economic benefits of the Space Station to commercial communication satellite operators
Price, Kent M.; Dixson, John E.; Weyandt, Charles J.
1987-01-01
The economic and financial aspects of newly defined space-based activities, procedures, and operations (APOs) and associated satellite system designs are presented that have the potential to improve economic performance of future geostationary communications satellites. Launch insurance, launch costs, and the economics of APOs are examined. Retrieval missions and various Space Station scenarios are addressed. The potential benefits of the new APOs to the commercial communications satellite system operator are quantified.
A review on channel models in free space optical communication systems
Anbarasi, K.; Hemanth, C.; Sangeetha, R. G.
2017-12-01
Free Space Optical communication (FSO) is a wireless communication technology which uses light to transmit the data in free space. FSO has advantages like unlicensed spectrum and higher bandwidth. In this paper FSO system merits and demerits, challenges in FSO, and various channel models are discussed. To mitigate the turbulence in FSO the mitigation techniques like relaying, diversity schemes and adopting different modulation techniques used in different channels are discussed and its performance comparison is given.
Accommodating Twitter: Communication Accommodation Theory and Classroom Interactions
Parcha, Joshua M.
2014-01-01
Research finds that student effectiveness can be related to how well a student interacts and communicates in the classroom, supporting the notion that student-student interaction is important (Frymier, 2005; Poulou, 2009). According to Sidelinger and Booth-Butterfield (2010), student-student connectedness (defined as "a supportive and…
Transformations and Message Linkages for a Theory of Communication Coorientation.
Monge, Peter R.; Farace, Richard V.
Systems analysis has the advantage for the study of communications relations of incorporating both the interactive relations and the broader context in which the relations occur. Applying this approach to the coorientation model led to the development of a set of transformations of the relations between individuals A and B and object X, from which…
Movies as Political Communication: A Theory of Popular Representation.
Combs, James
To understand film as a form of political communication, movies must be regarded as an art form made both with commercial and aesthetic considerations and with cultural, industrial, and artistic traditions in mind. Filmmaking must also be viewed as a process or as a temporal activity of a culture. Through political mediation, or the process of…
On the assessment of visual communication by information theory
Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.
1993-01-01
This assessment of visual communication integrates the optical design of the image-gathering device with the digital processing for image coding and restoration. Results show that informationally optimized image gathering ordinarily can be relied upon to maximize the information efficiency of decorrelated data and the visual quality of optimally restored images.
Action theory and communication research: Recent developments in Europe
Renckstorf, K.; McQuail, D.; Rosenbaum, J.E.; Schaap, G.J.
2004-01-01
The action theoretical approach has already proved its value as a framework for communication research, most especially in the study of media audiences and media use. It has deep roots in Weberian sociology, symbolic interactionism and phenomenology and it has been a robust survivor of the various
Communicative language teaching in Georgia : from theory to practice
Edisherashvili, Natalia
2014-01-01
In a globalizing world, the majority of language learners need to study foreign languages for real-life purposes, in order to be able to communicate beyond the bounds of their own country. This is especially important for the populations of smaller countries such as Georgia, whose native language is
Persuasion: The Theory and Practice of Manipulative Communication.
Gordon, George N.
Drawing together both the history of persuasion as an historical facet of civilization and current practice, and speculation concerning its many manifestation in modern life, this book attempts to review persuasive communication--interpersonal, social, and mass-oriented--from the influences of society to the influences of the mass media. The first…
Lay Theories Regarding Computer-Mediated Communication in Remote Collaboration
Parke, Karl; Marsden, Nicola; Connolly, Cornelia
2017-01-01
Computer-mediated communication and remote collaboration has become an unexceptional norm as an educational modality for distance and open education, therefore the need to research and analyze students' online learning experience is necessary. This paper seeks to examine the assumptions and expectations held by students in regard to…
Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study. [for space shuttles
Huth, G. K.
1976-01-01
The results of several studies Space Shuttle communication system are summarized. These tasks can be divided into the following categories: (1) phase multiplexing for two- and three-channel data transmission, (2) effects of phase noise on the performance of coherent communication links, (3) analysis of command system performance, (4) error correcting code tradeoffs, (5) signal detection and angular search procedure for the shuttle Ku-band communication system, and (6) false lock performance of Costas loop receivers.
Forecast of space shuttle flight requirements for launch of commercial communications satellites
1977-01-01
The number of communication satellites required over the next 25 years to support domestic and regional communication systems for telephony, telegraphy and other low speed data; video teleconferencing, new data services, direct TV broadcasting; INTELSAT; and maritime and aeronautical services was estimated to determine the number of space shuttle flights necessary for orbital launching.
Li, Xin; Hong, Yifeng; Wang, Jinfang; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xun; Li, Mi
2018-01-01
Numerous communication techniques and optical devices successfully applied in space optical communication system indicates a good portability of it. With this good portability, typical coherent demodulation technique of Costas loop can be easily adopted in space optical communication system. As one of the components of pointing error, the effect of jitter plays an important role in the communication quality of such system. Here, we obtain the probability density functions (PDF) of different jitter degrees and explain their essential effect on the bit error rate (BER) space optical communication system. Also, under the effect of jitter, we research the bit error rate of space coherent optical communication system using Costas loop with different system parameters of transmission power, divergence angle, receiving diameter, avalanche photodiode (APD) gain, and phase deviation caused by Costas loop. Through a numerical simulation of this kind of communication system, we demonstrate the relationship between the BER and these system parameters, and some corresponding methods of system optimization are presented to enhance the communication quality.
Theory as metaphor: clinical knowledge and its communication.
Colman, Warren
2009-04-01
This paper investigates the relationship between clinical knowledge and psychological theory and considers the implications for clinical writing. I argue that clinical knowledge is a way of understanding rather than a body of facts and compare clinical material to 'texts' that generate multiple and indeterminate meanings. Analytic theories, which represent the crystallization of ways of understanding clinical phenomena, have an inherently metaphorical 'as if' quality since they are derived from and adapted to the clinical process of making meaning by representing psychic states in symbolic form. Thus good clinical writing demonstrates an integration of theory and clinical material into a unified network of symbolic meanings. Redfearn's paper, 'The captive, the treasure, the hero and the "anal" stage of development' (1979), is discussed as an exemplar of such integration. It is suggested that clinical knowledge is equivalent to the skill of making effective interpretations.
Analyzing resilience with communicative systems theory an example from European fisheries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wilson, Douglas Clyde; Jacobsen, Rikke Becker
2013-01-01
The present paper argues that our understanding of the resilience of social-ecological systems can be improved by considering “communicative resilience” based on Communicative Systems Theory, which focuses on communicative action oriented to achieving mutual understandings. It further argues...... that it is possible to theorise and analyse resilience within complex social-ecological systems from this communicative perspective in a way that is very different from, but complementary to, agent-based approaches focussed on incentives. The paper presents data from multispecies mixed fisheries in Europe...
Giambra, Barbara K; Broome, Marion E; Sabourin, Teresa; Buelow, Janice; Stiffler, Deborah
The purpose of this qualitative research study was to expand our understanding of the process of communication between parents of hospitalized technology dependent children and their nurses originally detailed in the Theory of Shared Communication (TSC). This grounded theory study was conducted with five parents of technology dependent children hospitalized in a large Midwestern children's hospital and nine nurses who care for technology dependent children admitted to the same hospital during July and August 2013. Semi-structured interviews and journals (parents only), field notes and a demographic survey were used to collect data which was analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Parents verified the concepts of the TSC and relationships among them. Nurses' perceptions of communication with parents reflected the same parent identified and verified concepts upon which the TSC was originally grounded including respect for own and other's expertise, asking, listening, explaining, advocating, verifying understanding and negotiating roles to achieve mutual understanding of the child's plan of care. The nurses' perceptions differed stylistically but not categorically from those of the parents. The addition of the nurse's perspectives to the verified TSC expands our understanding of this process of communication. With the integration of nurse and parent perspectives, the TSC can be used to enhance communication and care for hospitalized technology dependent children and their families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
White space communication advances, developments and engineering challenges
Johnson, David
2015-01-01
This monograph presents a collection of major developments leading toward the implementation of white space technology - an emerging wireless standard for using wireless spectrum in locations where it is unused by licensed users. Some of the key research areas in the field are covered. These include emerging standards, technical insights from early pilots and simulations, software defined radio platforms, geo-location spectrum databases and current white space spectrum usage in India and South Africa.
New theory of space-time and gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.
1982-01-01
It is shown that the general theory of relativity is not satisfactory physical theory, since in it there are no laws of conservation for the matter and gravitational field taken together and it does not satisfy the principle of correspondence with Newton's theory. In the present paper, we construct a new theory of gravitation which possesses conservation laws, can describe all the existing gravitational experiments, satisfies the correspondence principle, and predicts a number of fundamental consequences
Local field theory on κ-Minkowski space, star products and noncommutative translations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosinski, P.; Maslanka, P.; Lukierski, J.
2000-01-01
We consider local field theory on κ-deformed Minkowski space which is an example of solvable Lie-algebraic noncommutative structure. Using integration formula over κ-Minkowski space and κ-deformed Fourier transform, we consider for deformed local fields the reality conditions as well as deformation of action functionals in standard Minkowski space. We present explicit formulas for two equivalent star products describing CBH quantization of field theory on κ-Minkowski space. We express also via star product technique the noncommutative translations in κ-Minkowski space by commutative translations in standard Minkowski space. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bach, A.
1981-01-01
A representation of quantum mechanics in terms of classical probability theory by means of integration in Hilbert space is discussed. This formal hidden-variables representation is analysed in the context of impossibility proofs concerning hidden-variables theories. The structural analogy of this formulation of quantum theory with classical statistical mechanics is used to elucidate the difference between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. (author)
Teaching Method in Situational Crisis Communication Theory: A Literature Review
Proud Arunrangsiwed
2016-01-01
Crisis management strategies could be found in various curriculums, not only in schools of business, but also schools of communication. Young students, such as freshmen and sophomores of undergraduate schools, may not care about learning crisis management strategies. Moreover, crisis management strategies are not a topic art students are familiar with. The current paper discusses a way to adapt entertainment media into a crisis management lesson, and the importance of learning crisis manageme...
Multiple-User Quantum Information Theory for Optical Communication Channels
2008-06-01
to this day. He later encouraged (and trained) me to participate in the Physics Olympiad, which led me to make it through all the levels of selection...optimal, homodyne, and hetero- dyne reception versus transmitter power P , with P0 ≡ 2π~c2L2/ AtAr used for the reference power...the constraints on the available physical resources. In most communication systems, the transfer of information is done by superimposing the
Communication: Random phase approximation renormalized many-body perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, Jefferson E.; Furche, Filipp
2013-01-01
We derive a renormalized many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) starting from the random phase approximation (RPA). This RPA-renormalized perturbation theory extends the scope of single-reference MBPT methods to small-gap systems without significantly increasing the computational cost. The leading correction to RPA, termed the approximate exchange kernel (AXK), substantially improves upon RPA atomization energies and ionization potentials without affecting other properties such as barrier heights where RPA is already accurate. Thus, AXK is more balanced than second-order screened exchange [A. Grüneis et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 154115 (2009)], which tends to overcorrect RPA for systems with stronger static correlation. Similarly, AXK avoids the divergence of second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) theory for small gap systems and delivers a much more consistent performance than MP2 across the periodic table at comparable cost. RPA+AXK thus is an accurate, non-empirical, and robust tool to assess and improve semi-local density functional theory for a wide range of systems previously inaccessible to first-principles electronic structure calculations
Space Link Extension (SLE) Emulation for High-Throughput Network Communication
Murawski, Robert W.; Tchorowski, Nicole; Golden, Bert
2014-01-01
As the data rate requirements for space communications increases, significant stress is placed not only on the wireless satellite communication links, but also on the ground networks which forward data from end-users to remote ground stations. These wide area network (WAN) connections add delay and jitter to the end-to-end satellite communication link, effects which can have significant impacts on the wireless communication link. It is imperative that any ground communication protocol can react to these effects such that the ground network does not become a bottleneck in the communication path to the satellite. In this paper, we present our SCENIC Emulation Lab testbed which was developed to test the CCSDS SLE protocol implementations proposed for use on future NASA communication networks. Our results show that in the presence of realistic levels of network delay, high-throughput SLE communication links can experience significant data rate throttling. Based on our observations, we present some insight into why this data throttling happens, and trace the probable issue back to non-optimal blocking communication which is sup-ported by the CCSDS SLE API recommended practices. These issues were presented as well to the SLE implementation developers which, based on our reports, developed a new release for SLE which we show fixes the SLE blocking issue and greatly improves the protocol throughput. In this paper, we also discuss future developments for our end-to-end emulation lab and how these improvements can be used to develop and test future space communication technologies.
Space Communications and Data Systems Technologies for Next Generation Earth Science Measurements
Bauer, Robert A.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Hilderman, Don R.; Paulsen, Phillip E.
2003-01-01
The next generation of Earth observing satellites and sensor networks will face challenges in supporting robust high rate communications links from the increasingly sophisticated onboard instruments. Emerging applications will need data rates forecast to be in the 100's to 1000's of Mbps. As mission designers seek smaller spacecraft, challenges exist in reducing the size and power requirements while increasing the capacity of the spacecraft's communications technologies. To meet these challenges, this work looks at three areas of selected space communications and data services technologies, specifically in the development of reflectarray antennas, demonstration of space Internet concepts, and measurement of atmospheric propagation effects on Ka-band signal transmitted from LEO.
Levy, Rachael
2008-01-01
Based on Moje et al.'s (2004) conceptions of "third space theory", this article describes how five nursery-aged children created a "third space" between home and school, in order to find continuity between home and school constructions of reading. This article describes how the children used various aspects of their home…
Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology for space communications applications
Connolly, Denis J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Romanofsky, Robert R.
1987-01-01
Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. For the more distant future pseudomorphic indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other advanced III-V materials offer the possibility of MMIC subsystems well up into the millimeter wavelength region. All of these technology elements are in NASA's MMIC program. Their status is reviewed.
The ethics of communicative process: Discourse, otherness, and public space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reflect on ethical-moral questions that are present in different dimensions of the contemporary communicative processes. At a first moment, I explain how Habermas defines the concept of discourse ethics witch is capable to allow the articulation and negotiation among the plurality of points of view and citizens in the current societies. In addition, I confer prominence to the role media play in the interconnection of different audiences and dispersed speeches in order to guarantee possibilities of renewal of collective debates in the public sphere. I therefore propose that an ethics of communication instead of be restrained to media devices and its operative dynamics, should consider their connections with citizens’ concrete practices and experiences.
Space Communications Artificial Intelligence for Link Evaluation Terminal (SCAILET)
Shahidi, Anoosh
1991-01-01
A software application to assis end-users of the Link Evaluation Terminal (LET) for satellite communication is being developed. This software application incorporates artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and will be deployed as an interface to LET. The high burst rate (HBR) LET provides 30 GHz transmitting/20 GHz receiving, 220/110 Mbps capability for wideband communications technology experiments with the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The HBR LET and ACTS are being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The HBR LET can monitor and evaluate the integrity of the HBR communications uplink and downlink to the ACTS satellite. The uplink HBR transmission is performed by bursting the bit-pattern as a modulated signal to the satellite. By comparing the transmitted bit pattern with the received bit pattern, HBR LET can determine the bit error rate BER) under various atmospheric conditions. An algorithm for power augmentation is applied to enhance the system's BER performance at reduced signal strength caused by adverse conditions. Programming scripts, defined by the design engineer, set up the HBR LET terminal by programming subsystem devices through IEEE488 interfaces. However, the scripts are difficult to use, require a steep learning curve, are cryptic, and are hard to maintain. The combination of the learning curve and the complexities involved with editing the script files may discourage end-users from utilizing the full capabilities of the HBR LET system. An intelligent assistant component of SCAILET that addresses critical end-user needs in the programming of the HBR LET system as anticipated by its developers is described. A close look is taken at the various steps involved in writing ECM software for a C&P, computer and at how the intelligent assistant improves the HBR LET system and enhances the end-user's ability to perform the experiments.
Aspects of scintillation modelling in LEO-ground free-space optical communications
Moll, Florian
2017-10-01
Free-space optical communications can be used to transmit data from low Earth orbit satellites to ground with very high data rate. In the last section of the downlink, the electro-magnetic wave propagates through the turbulent atmosphere which is characterized by random index of refraction fluctuations. The propagating wave experiences phase distortions that lead to intensity scintillation in the aperture plane of the receiving telescope. For quantification, an appropriate scintillation model is needed. Approaches to analytically model the scintillation exist. Parameterization of the underlying turbulence profile (Cn2 profile) is however difficult. The Cn2 profiles are often site-specific and thus inappropriate or generic and thus too complex for a feasible deployment. An approach that directly models the scintillation effect based on measurements without claiming to be generic is therefore more feasible. Since measurements are sparse, a combination with existing theoretical framework is feasible to develop a new scintillation model that focuses on low earth orbit to ground free-space optical communications link design with direct detection. The paper addresses several questions one has to answer while analyzing the measurements data and selection of the theoretical models for the LEO downlink scenario. The first is the question of a suitable yet ease to use simple Cn2 profile. The HAP model is analyzed for its feasibility in this scenario since it includes a more realistic boundary layer profile decay than the HV model. It is found that the HAP model needs to be modified for a feasible deployment in the LEO downlink scenario for night time. The validity of the plane wave assumption in the downlink is discussed by model calculations of the scintillation index for a plane and Gaussian beam wave. Inaccuracies when using the plane earth model instead of the spherical earth model are investigated by analyzing the Rytov index. Impact of beam wander and non
A critical assessment of theories/models used in health communication for HIV/AIDS.
Airhihenbuwa, C O; Obregon, R
2000-01-01
Most theories and models used to develop human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) communication are based on social psychology that emphasizes individualism. Researchers including communication and health scholars are now questioning the presumed global relevance of these models and thus the need to develop innovative theories and models that take into account regional contexts. In this paper, we discuss the commonly used theories and models in HIV/AIDS communication. Furthermore, we argue that the flaws in the application of the commonly used "classical" models in health communication are because of contextual differences in locations where these models are applied. That is to say that these theories and models are being applied in contexts for which they were not designed. For example, the differences in health behaviors are often the function of culture. Therefore, culture should be viewed for its strength and not always as a barrier. The metaphorical coupling of "culture" and "barrier" needs to be exposed, deconstructed, and reconstructed so that new, positive, cultural linkages can be forged. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has served as a flashpoint to either highlight the importance or deny the relevance of theories and models while at the same time addressing the importance of culture in the development and implementation of communication programs.
User manual of the CATSS system (version 1.0) communication analysis tool for space station
Tsang, C. S.; Su, Y. T.; Lindsey, W. C.
1983-01-01
The Communication Analysis Tool for the Space Station (CATSS) is a FORTRAN language software package capable of predicting the communications links performance for the Space Station (SS) communication and tracking (C & T) system. An interactive software package was currently developed to run on the DEC/VAX computers. The CATSS models and evaluates the various C & T links of the SS, which includes the modulation schemes such as Binary-Phase-Shift-Keying (BPSK), BPSK with Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (PN/BPSK), and M-ary Frequency-Shift-Keying with Frequency Hopping (FH/MFSK). Optical Space Communication link is also included. CATSS is a C & T system engineering tool used to predict and analyze the system performance for different link environment. Identification of system weaknesses is achieved through evaluation of performance with varying system parameters. System tradeoff for different values of system parameters are made based on the performance prediction.
Polarization tracking system for free-space optical communication, including quantum communication
Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Hughes, Richard John
2018-01-09
Quantum communication transmitters include beacon lasers that transmit a beacon optical signal in a predetermined state of polarization such as one of the states of polarization of a quantum communication basis. Changes in the beacon polarization are detected at a receiver, and a retarder is adjusted so that the states of polarization in a received quantum communication optical signal are matched to basis polarizations. The beacon and QC signals can be at different wavelengths so that the beacon does not interfere with detection and decoding of the QC optical signal.
Complexity theory in the management of communicable diseases.
Simmons, Mike
2003-06-01
In nature, apparently complex behavioural patterns are the result of repetitive simple rules. Complexity science studies the application of these rules and looks for applications in society. Complexity management opportunities have developed from this science and are providing a revolutionary approach in the constantly changing workplace. This article discusses how complexity management techniques have already been applied to communicable disease management in Wales and suggests further developments. A similar approach is recommended to others in the field, while complexity management probably has wider applications in the NHS, not least in relation to the developing managed clinical networks.
Phase space properties of charged fields in theories of local observables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchholz, D.; D'Antoni, C.
1994-10-01
Within the setting of algebraic quantum field theory a relation between phase-space properties of observables and charged fields is established. These properties are expressed in terms of compactness and nuclarity conditions which are the basis for the characterization of theories with physically reasonable causal and thermal features. Relevant concepts and results of phase space analysis in algebraic qunatum field theory are reviewed and the underlying ideas are outlined. (orig.)
Conformally invariant amplitudes and field theory in a space-time of constant curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drummond, I.T.
1977-02-01
The problem of calculating the ultra violet divergences of a field theory in a spherical space-time is reduced to analysing the pole structure of conformally invariant integrals which are analogous to amplitudes which occur in the theory of dual models. The calculations are illustrated with phi 3 -theory in six-dimensions. (author)
Quantum scattering theory of a single-photon Fock state in three-dimensional spaces.
Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Yu, Zongfu
2016-09-15
A quantum scattering theory is developed for Fock states scattered by two-level systems in three-dimensional free space. It is built upon the one-dimensional scattering theory developed in waveguide quantum electrodynamics. The theory fully quantizes the incident light as Fock states and uses a non-perturbative method to calculate the scattering matrix.
Face threatening acts in familiar communicational space in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Such a constitution of face is referred to as a Face Threatening Act. This paper studies the face threatening acts in the interactional space among characters in Adichie's Purple Hibiscus and establishes how those acts aid or mar the illocutionary goals of participants. The study concludes that the 'face' is inseparable from ...
DD-Amp for Deep Space Communications, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AlGaN/GaN MMICs on SiC substrates will be utilized to achieve Power Added Efficiencies (PAE) in excess of 60%. These wide band-gap solid-state semiconductors will be...
Nano-Particle Scandate Cathode for Space Communications Phase 2, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an improved cathode based on our novel theory of the role of scandium oxide in enhancing emission in tungsten-impregnated cathodes. Recent results have...
Topological vector spaces admissible in economic equilibrium theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keiding, Hans
2009-01-01
In models of economic equilibrium in markets with infinitely many commodities, the commodity space is an ordered topological vector space endowed with additional structure. In the present paper, we consider ordered topological vector spaces which are admissible (for equilibrium analysis) in the s......) in the sense that every economy which is reasonably well behaved posesses an equilibrium. It turns out that this condition may be characterized in terms of topology and order. This characterization implies that the commodity space has the structure of a Kakutani space....
Exact Solutions of the Field Equations for Empty Space in the Nash Gravitational Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew T. Aadne
2017-02-01
Full Text Available John Nash has proposed a new theory of gravity. We define a Nash-tensor equal to the curvature tensor appearing in the Nash field equations for empty space, and calculate its components for two cases: 1. A static, spherically symmetric space; and 2. The expanding, homogeneous and isotropic space of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW universe models. We find the general, exact solution of Nash’s field equations for empty space in the static case. The line element turns out to represent the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. Also we find the simplest non-trivial solution of the field equations in the cosmological case, which gives the scale factor corresponding to the de Sitter spacetime. Hence empty space in the Nash theory corresponds to a space with Lorentz Invariant Vacuum Energy (LIVE in the Einstein theory. This suggests that dark energy may be superfluous according to the Nash theory. We also consider a radiation filled universe model in an effort to find out how energy and matter may be incorporated into the Nash theory. A tentative interpretation of the Nash theory as a unified theory of gravity and electromagnetism leads to a very simple form of the field equations in the presence of matter. It should be noted, however, that the Nash theory is still unfinished. A satisfying way of including energy momentum into the theory has yet to be found.
Power Line Communication (PLC) in Space - Current Status and Outlook
Wolf, J.
2012-05-01
The Power Line Communication (PLC) technology as known from various terrestrial applications, e.g. in building automation, in the automotive sector and on aircraft, appears to be a promising technology for the use on spacecraft. Starting from a critical overview on existing terrestrial PLC applications with their pros and cons, the paper gives a motivation for the introduction of the PLC technology on spacecraft, discusses the potential areas where it can be applied and is highlighting the potential problem areas. A short overview of on-going ESA PLC activities is provided and an outlook is given.
Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Shiozaki, Toru
2016-08-09
We report the development of the theory and computer program for analytical nuclear energy gradients for (extended) multistate complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The vertical shifts are also considered in this work. This is an extension of the fully internally contracted CASPT2 nuclear gradient program recently developed for a state-specific variant by us [MacLeod and Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 051103]; in this extension, the so-called λ equation is solved to account for the variation of the multistate CASPT2 energies with respect to the change in the amplitudes obtained in the preceding state-specific CASPT2 calculations, and the Z vector equations are modified accordingly. The program is parallelized using the MPI3 remote memory access protocol that allows us to perform efficient one-sided communication. The optimized geometries of the ground and excited states of a copper corrole and benzophenone are presented as numerical examples. The code is publicly available under the GNU General Public License.
Space Communication Artificial Intelligence for Link Evaluation Terminal (SCAILET)
Shahidi, Anoosh K.; Schlegelmilch, Richard F.; Petrik, Edward J.; Walters, Jerry L.
1992-01-01
A software application to assist end-users of the high burst rate (HBR) link evaluation terminal (LET) for satellite communications is being developed. The HBR LET system developed at NASA Lewis Research Center is an element of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project. The HBR LET is divided into seven major subsystems, each with its own expert. Programming scripts, test procedures defined by design engineers, set up the HBR LET system. These programming scripts are cryptic, hard to maintain and require a steep learning curve. These scripts were developed by the system engineers who will not be available for the end-users of the system. To increase end-user productivity a friendly interface needs to be added to the system. One possible solution is to provide the user with adequate documentation to perform the needed tasks. With the complexity of this system the vast amount of documentation needed would be overwhelming and the information would be hard to retrieve. With limited resources, maintenance is another reason for not using this form of documentation. An advanced form of interaction is being explored using current computer techniques. This application, which incorporates a combination of multimedia and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to provided end-users with an intelligent interface to the HBR LET system, is comprised of an intelligent assistant, intelligent tutoring, and hypermedia documentation. The intelligent assistant and tutoring systems address the critical programming needs of the end-user.
Reinhart, Richard C.; Sankovic, John M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Lux, James P.; Chelmins, David T.
2014-01-01
Flexible and extensible space communications architectures and technology are essential to enable future space exploration and science activities. NASA has championed the development of the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) software defined radio (SDR) standard and the application of SDR technology to reduce the costs and risks of using SDRs for space missions, and has developed an on-orbit testbed to validate these capabilities. The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed (previously known as the Communications, Navigation, and Networking reConfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT)) is advancing SDR, on-board networking, and navigation technologies by conducting space experiments aboard the International Space Station. During its first year(s) on-orbit, the SCaN Testbed has achieved considerable accomplishments to better understand SDRs and their applications. The SDR platforms and software waveforms on each SDR have over 1500 hours of operation and are performing as designed. The Ka-band SDR on the SCaN Testbed is NASAs first space Ka-band transceiver and is NASA's first Ka-band mission using the Space Network. This has provided exciting opportunities to operate at Ka-band and assist with on-orbit tests of NASA newest Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). During its first year, SCaN Testbed completed its first on-orbit SDR reconfigurations. SDR reconfigurations occur when implementing new waveforms on an SDR. SDR reconfigurations allow a radio to change minor parameters, such as data rate, or complete functionality. New waveforms which provide new capability and are reusable across different missions provide long term value for reconfigurable platforms such as SDRs. The STRS Standard provides guidelines for new waveform development by third parties. Waveform development by organizations other than the platform provider offers NASA the ability to develop waveforms itself and reduce its dependence and costs on the platform developer. Each of these
The Effects of Space Environment on Wireless Communication Devices' Performance
Landon, Hillyard; Dennison, JR
2012-01-01
This project evaluates the effects of the space environment on small radio hardware devices called Bluetooth (a proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances) chips (hoovers). When electronics are exposed to the harsh environment outside the Earth's atmosphere, they sometimes do not perform as expected. The USU Getaway Away Special (GAS) team is now in the design stages of launching a CubeSat (a 10 cm cubed autonomous satellite to fly in Low Earth Orbi...
Vessel noise cuts down communication space for vocalizing fish and marine mammals.
Putland, Rosalyn L; Merchant, Nathan D; Farcas, Adrian; Radford, Craig A
2018-04-01
Anthropogenic noise across the world's oceans threatens the ability of vocalizing marine species to communicate. Some species vocalize at key life stages or whilst foraging, and disruption to the acoustic habitat at these times could lead to adverse consequences at the population level. To investigate the risk of these impacts, we investigated the effect of vessel noise on the communication space of the Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni, an endangered species which vocalizes at low frequencies, and bigeye Pempheris adspersa, a nocturnal fish species which uses contact calls to maintain group cohesion while foraging. By combining long-term acoustic monitoring data with AIS vessel-tracking data and acoustic propagation modelling, the impact of vessel noise on their communication space was determined. Routine vessel passages cut down communication space by up to 61.5% for bigeyes and 87.4% for Bryde's whales. This influence of vessel noise on communication space exceeded natural variability for between 3.9 and 18.9% of the monitoring period. Additionally, during the closest point of approach of a large commercial vessel, communication space of both species was reduced by a maximum of 99% compared to the ambient soundscape. These results suggest that vessel noise reduces communication space beyond the evolutionary context of these species and may have chronic effects on these populations. To combat this risk, we propose the application or extension of ship speed restrictions in ecologically significant areas, since our results indicate a reduction in sound source levels for vessels transiting at lower speeds. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Two mode optical fiber in space optics communication
Hampl, Martin
2017-11-01
In our contribution we propose to use of a two-mode optical fiber as a primary source in a transmitting optical head instead of the laser diode. The distribution of the optical intensity and the complex degree of the coherence on the output aperture of the lens that is irradiated by a step-index weakly guiding optical fiber is investigated. In our treatment we take into account weakly guided modes with polarization corrections to the propagation constant and unified theory of second order coherence and polarization of electromagnetic beams.
Theories of Space and the Nineteenth-Century Novel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isobel Armstrong
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This article explores the construction of a spatial and interspatial subject in the nineteenth-century novel, examining initially the epistemologies of space developed by Kant and Hegel, and concluding with discussion of two further theorists of space, Bachelard and Lefebvre. It deploys this rich array of theorization to illuminate strategies through which the nineteenth-century novelist creates situatedness in language, asking how 'does' the novel represent space, and arguing that if we take away this almost miraculous verbal construction of space there is not much left to the novel.
Methods and Devices for Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beams
Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)
2018-01-01
Light is used to communicate between objects separated by a large distance. Light beams are received in a telescopic lens assembly positioned in front of a cat's-eye lens. The light can thereby be received at various angles to be output by the cat's-eye lens to a focal plane of the cat's-eye lens, the position of the light beams upon the focal plane corresponding to the angle of the beam received. Lasers and photodetectors are distributed along this focal plane. A processor receives signals from the photodetectors, and selectively signal lasers positioned proximate the photodetectors detecting light, in order to transmit light encoding data through the cat's-eye lens and also through a telescopic lens back in the direction of the received light beams, which direction corresponds to a location upon the focal plane of the transmitting lasers.
Integrating Space Communication Network Capabilities via Web Portal Technologies
Johnston, Mark D.; Lee, Carlyn-Ann; Lau, Chi-Wung; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Levesque, Michael; Carruth, Butch; Coffman, Adam; Wallace, Mike
2014-01-01
We have developed a service portal prototype as part of an investigation into the feasibility of using Java portlet technology as a means of providing integrated access to NASA communications network services. Portal servers provide an attractive platform for this role due to the various built-in collaboration applications they can provide, combined with the possibility to develop custom inter-operating portlets to extent their functionality while preserving common presentation and behavior. This paper describes various options for integration of network services related to planning and scheduling, and results based on use of a popular open-source portal framework. Plans are underway to develop an operational SCaN Service Portal, building on the experiences reported here.
Storytelling/narrative theory to address health communication with minority populations.
Lee, Haeok; Fawcett, Jacqueline; DeMarco, Rosanna
2016-05-01
To explain the development and application of storytelling/narrative theory in health disparities intervention research as a way to promote health communication and behavior change among racial, ethnic, and minority populations. The proposed storytelling theory helps explain that storytelling affects changes in attitude and health behavior of the viewer through realism, identification, and transportation. The proposed storytelling/narrative theory can be a guide to develop culturally grounded narrative interventions that have the ability to connect with hard-to-reach populations. Narrative communication is context-dependent because it derives meaning from the surrounding situation and provides situation-based stories that are a pathway to processing story content. Although storytelling is grounded in nursing practice and education, it is underutilized in nursing interventional research. Future efforts are needed to extend theory-based narrative intervention studies designed to change attitude and behaviors that will reduce health disparities among minorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leydesdorff, L.
2010-01-01
I elaborate on the tension between Luhmann’s social systems theory and Habermas’ theory of communicative action, and argue that this tension can be resolved by focusing on language as the interhuman medium of the communication which enables us to develop symbolically generalized media of
Tobiska, W. Kent
2008-01-01
Adverse space weather affects operational activities in aviation and satellite systems. For example, large solar flares create highly variable enhanced neutral atmosphere and ionosphere electron density regions. These regions impact aviation communication frequencies as well as precision orbit determination. The natural space environment, with its dynamic space weather variability, is additionally changed by human activity. The increase in orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO), combined with lower atmosphere CO2 that rises into the lower thermosphere and causes increased cooling that results in increased debris lifetime, adds to the environmental hazards of navigating in near-Earth space. This is at a time when commercial space endeavors are posed to begin more missions to LEO during the rise of the solar activity cycle toward the next maximum (2012). For satellite and aviation operators, adverse space weather results in greater expenses for orbit management, more communication outages or aviation and ground-based high frequency radio used, and an inability to effectively plan missions or service customers with space-based communication, imagery, and data transferal during time-critical activities. Examples of some revenue-impacting conditions and solutions for mitigating adverse space weather are offered.
Clausewitz on Space: Developing Military Space Theory Through a Comparative Analysis
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Streland, Arnold
1999-01-01
.... Our commercial space industry has become a huge economic center of gravity for our nation. Our enemies are discovering the benefits of space by developing their own systems and purchasing commercial space services...
[Shared decision-making and communication theory: grounding the tango].
Kasper, Jürgen; Légaré, France; Scheibler, Fülöp; Geiger, Friedemann
2010-01-01
Shared decision-making (SDM) has the potential to overcome outdated social role models in the health care system. The concept, however, adheres to archaic epistemological assumptions as can be inferred from the rudimentary stage of the measurement methods used and from the information monopoly that the physician still holds in this concept. Advantages of an up-to-date model of knowledge for understanding and operationalising SDM are outlined. To this purpose, essential definitions of the concept are reflected in terms of epistemology. Accordingly, information emerges through a process of social construction. Likewise, interpersonal relations do not represent a static condition; rather, they develop anew with each interaction. Therefore, constructs suitable to focus on dyadic interaction processes can be used as indicators of sharing in SDM. Theories and methods of the interpersonal paradigm are advocated. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Entropy in quantum information theory - Communication and cryptography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Majenz, Christian
in quantum Shannon theory. While immensely more entanglement-consuming, the variant of port based teleportation is interesting for applications like instantaneous non-local computation and attacks on quantum position-based cryptography. Port based teleportation cannot be implemented perfectly......, for vanishing error. As a byproduct, a new lower bound for the size of the program register for an approximate universal programmable quantum processor is derived. Finally, the mix is completed with a result in quantum cryptography. While quantum key distribution is the most well-known quantum cryptographic...... protocol, there has been increased interest in extending the framework of symmetric key cryptography to quantum messages. We give a new denition for information-theoretic quantum non-malleability, strengthening the previous denition by Ambainis et al. We show that quantum non-malleability implies secrecy...
Reliability issues of free-space communications systems and networks
Willebrand, Heinz A.
2003-04-01
Free space optics (FSO) is a high-speed point-to-point connectivity solution traditionally used in the enterprise campus networking market for building-to-building LAN connectivity. However, more recently some wire line and wireless carriers started to deploy FSO systems in their networks. The requirements on FSO system reliability, meaing both system availability and component reliability, are far more stringent in the carrier market when compared to the requirements in the enterprise market segment. This paper tries to outline some of the aspects that are important to ensure carrier class system reliability.
Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication Networks
Lee, Charles H.; Cheung, Kar-Ming
2012-01-01
In this paper, we propose to solve the constrained optimization problem in two phases. The first phase uses heuristic methods such as the ant colony method, particle swarming optimization, and genetic algorithm to seek a near optimal solution among a list of feasible initial populations. The final optimal solution can be found by using the solution of the first phase as the initial condition to the SQP algorithm. We demonstrate the above problem formulation and optimization schemes with a large-scale network that includes the DSN ground stations and a number of spacecraft of deep space missions.
Using Information Theory to Assess the Communicative Capacity of Circulating MicroRNA
Finn, Nnenna A.; Searles, Charles D.
2013-01-01
The discovery of extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) and their transport modalities (i.e. microparticles, exosomes, proteins and lipoproteins) has sparked theories regarding their role in intercellular communication. Here, we assessed the information transfer capacity of different miRNA transport modalities in human serum by utilizing basic principles of information theory. Zipf Statistics were calculated for each of the miRNA transport modalities identified in human serum. Our analyses revealed...
Rules of performance in the nursing home: A grounded theory of nurse-CNA communication.
Madden, Connie; Clayton, Margaret; Canary, Heather E; Towsley, Gail; Cloyes, Kristin; Lund, Dale
This study offers an initial theoretical understanding of nurse-CNA communication processes from the perspectives of nurses and CNAs who are providing direct care to residents in nursing homes. A grounded theory approach provided an understanding of nurse-CNA communication process within the complexities of the nursing home setting. Four themes (maintaining information flow, following procedure, fostering collegiality, and showing respect) describe the "rules of performance" that intertwine in nuanced relationships to guide nurse-CNA communication processes. Understanding how these rules of performance guide nurse-CNA communication processes, and how they are positively and negatively influenced, suggests that nurse-CNA communication during direct care of nursing home residents could be improved through policy and education that is specifically designed to be relevant and applicable to direct care providers in the nursing home environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Near Earth Architectural Options for a Future Deep Space Optical Communications Network
Edwards, B. L.; Liebrecht, P. E.; Fitzgerald, R. J.
2004-01-01
In the near future the National Aeronautics and Space Administration anticipates a significant increase in demand for long-haul communications services from deep space to Earth. Distances will range from 0.1 to 40 AU, with data rate requirements in the 1's to 1000's of Mbits/second. The near term demand is driven by NASA's Space Science Enterprise which wishes to deploy more capable instruments onboard spacecraft and increase the number of deep space missions. The long term demand is driven by missions with extreme communications challenges such as very high data rates from the outer planets, supporting sub-surface exploration, or supporting NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise beyond Earth orbit. Laser communications is a revolutionary communications technology that will dramatically increase NASA's ability to transmit information across the solar system. Lasercom sends information using beams of light and optical elements, such as telescopes and optical amplifiers, rather than RF signals, amplifiers, and antennas. This paper provides an overview of different network options at Earth to meet NASA's deep space lasercom requirements. It is based mainly on work done for the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration Project, a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). It reports preliminary conclusions from the Mars Lasercom Study conducted at MIT/LL and on additional work done for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Continuation Study at GSFC. A lasercom flight terminal will be flown on the Mars Telesat Orbiter (MTO) to be launched by NASA in 2009, and will be the first high rate deep space demonstration of this revolutionary technology.
Communicating with the public: space of nuclear technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maffei, Patricia Martinez; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues; Gordon, Ana Maria Pinho Leite; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de; Padua, Rafael Vicente de; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: pmaffei@ipen.br, E-mail: araquino@usp.br, E-mail: amgordon@ipen.br, E-mail: rloliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: rpadua@ipen.br, E-mail: mmvieira@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2011-07-01
For two decades the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) has been developing activities for popularization of its R and D activities in the nuclear field. Some of the initiatives already undertaken by IPEN are lectures at schools, guided visits to IPEN facilities, printed informative material, FAQ page in the Web, and displays in annual meetings and technology fairs highlighting its achievements. In order to consolidate these initiatives, IPEN is planning to have a permanent Space of Nuclear Technology (SNT), aiming at introducing students, teachers and the general public to the current applications of nuclear technology in medicine, industry, research, electric power generation, etc. It is intended as an open room to the public and will have a permanent exhibit with historical, scientific, technical and cultural developments of nuclear technology and will also feature temporary exhibitions about specific themes. The space will display scientific material in different forms to allow conducting experiments to demonstrate some of the concepts associated with the properties of nuclear energy, hands-on programs and activities that can be customized to the students' grade level and curriculum. (author)
Communicating with the public: space of nuclear technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maffei, Patricia Martinez; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues; Gordon, Ana Maria Pinho Leite; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de; Padua, Rafael Vicente de; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Vicente, Roberto
2011-01-01
For two decades the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) has been developing activities for popularization of its R and D activities in the nuclear field. Some of the initiatives already undertaken by IPEN are lectures at schools, guided visits to IPEN facilities, printed informative material, FAQ page in the Web, and displays in annual meetings and technology fairs highlighting its achievements. In order to consolidate these initiatives, IPEN is planning to have a permanent Space of Nuclear Technology (SNT), aiming at introducing students, teachers and the general public to the current applications of nuclear technology in medicine, industry, research, electric power generation, etc. It is intended as an open room to the public and will have a permanent exhibit with historical, scientific, technical and cultural developments of nuclear technology and will also feature temporary exhibitions about specific themes. The space will display scientific material in different forms to allow conducting experiments to demonstrate some of the concepts associated with the properties of nuclear energy, hands-on programs and activities that can be customized to the students' grade level and curriculum. (author)
Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L
2014-12-01
Traditional communication theory and research methods provide valuable guidance about designing and evaluating health communication programs. However, efforts to use health communication programs to educate, motivate, and support people to adopt healthy behaviors often fail to meet the desired goals. One reason for this failure is that health promotion issues are complex, changeable, and highly related to the specific needs and contexts of the intended audiences. It is a daunting challenge to effectively influence health behaviors, particularly culturally learned and reinforced behaviors concerning lifestyle factors related to diet, exercise, and substance (such as alcohol and tobacco) use. Too often, program development and evaluation are not adequately linked to provide rapid feedback to health communication program developers so that important revisions can be made to design the most relevant and personally motivating health communication programs for specific audiences. Design science theory and methods commonly used in engineering, computer science, and other fields can address such program and evaluation weaknesses. Design science researchers study human-created programs using tightly connected build-and-evaluate loops in which they use intensive participatory methods to understand problems and develop solutions concurrently and throughout the duration of the program. Such thinking and strategies are especially relevant to address complex health communication issues. In this article, the authors explore the history, scientific foundation, methods, and applications of design science and its potential to enhance health communication programs and their evaluation.
TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN THE GLOBAL INTERACTIVE SPACE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Kochkina
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The article identifies trends in the development of marketing communications in the global interactive space by analyzing the factors of their functioning and researching motivation of viral audience. It is revealed the prevalence of interactive technologies in today's information space and the growth dynamics of interactive advertising market. It is proved that favorable conditions for marketing communications' functioning forms the basis for the development of viral advertising as an effective communication tool for untraditional impact on potential customers. The popularity of social networks as a major source of viral messages is determined. The motivation of YouTube audience, which provides a resonant video viewing and retransmission, is investigated. Gender and age differences that stipulate communication affect on consumers are identified. Cyclic social consciousness is observed that demands further research of viral audience, including constructing scenarios of viral behavior.
Aspects of quantum field theory in curved space-time
Fulling, Stephen A
1989-01-01
The theory of quantum fields on curved spacetimes has attracted great attention since the discovery, by Stephen Hawking, of black-hole evaporation. It remains an important subject for the understanding of such contemporary topics as inflationary cosmology
Dynamic Theory: a new view of space, time, and matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, P.E.
1980-12-01
The theory presented represents a different approach toward unification of the various branches of physics. The foundation of the theory rests upon generalizations of the classical laws of thermodynamics, particularly Caratheodory's abstract statement of the second law. These adopted laws are shown to produce, as special cases, current theories such as Einstein's General and Special Relativity, Maxwell's electromagnetism, classical thermodynamics, and quantum principles. In addition to this unification, the theory provides predictions that may be experimentally investigated. Some of the predictions are a limiting rate of mass conversion, reduced pressures in electromagnetically contained plasmas, increased viscous effects in shocked materials, a finite self-energy for a charged particle, and the possible creation of particles with velocities greater than the speed of light. 8 figures
1989-02-01
Space communication is making immense strides since ECHO was launched in 1962. It was a simple passive reflector of signals that demonstrated the concept. Today, satellites incorporating transponders, sophisticated high-gain antennas, and stabilization systems provide voice, video, and data communications to millions of people nationally and worldwide. Applications of emerging technology, typified by NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1992, will use newer portions of the frequency spectrum (the Ka-band at 30/20 GHz), along with antennas and signal-processing that could open yet new markets and services. Government programs, directly or indirectly, are responsible for many space communications accomplishments. They are sponsored and funded in part by NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense since the early 1950s. The industry is growing rapidly and is achieving international preeminence under joint private and government sponsorship. Now, however, the U.S. space communications industry - satellite manufacturers and users, launch services providers, and communications services companies - are being forced to adapt to a different environment. International competition is growing, and terrestrial technologies such as fiber optics are claiming markets until recently dominated by satellites. At the same time, advancing technology is opening up opportunities for new applications and new markets in space exploration, for defense, and for commercial applications of several types. Space communications research, development, and applications (RD and A) programs need to adjust to these realities, be better coordinated and more efficient, and be more closely attuned to commercial markets. The programs must take advantage of RD and A results in other agencies - and in other nations.
Obstacle evasion in free-space optical communications utilizing Airy beams
Zhu, Guoxuan; Wen, Yuanhui; Wu, Xiong; Chen, Yujie; Liu, Jie; Yu, Siyuan
2018-03-01
A high speed free-space optical communication system capable of self-bending signal transmission around line-of-sight obstacles is proposed and demonstrated. Airy beams are generated and controlled to achieve different propagating trajectories, and the signal transmission characteristics of these beams around the obstacle are investigated. Our results confirm that, by optimising their ballistic trajectories, Airy beams are able to bypass obstacles with more signal energy and thus improve the communication performance compared with normal Gaussian beams.
Quantum field theory in Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boulware, D.G.
1975-01-01
The problem of defining a scalar quantum field in the space-times described by the Schwarzschild and Rindler metrics is discussed. The matrix elements of the field operators are found by calculating the Green's functions for the fields. The requirement of positive frequencies for asymptotic timelike separations combined with a careful analysis of the continuity conditions at the event horizons yields a unique prescription for the Green's function. This in turn defines the vacuum state. In the Schwarzschild space the vacuum is shown to be stable and the lowest-energy state. In the Rindler space the quantization procedure yields the same results as quantization in Minkowski coordinates
Preface to the special issue on ;Optical Communications Exploiting the Space Domain;
Wang, Jian; Yu, Siyuan; Li, Guifang
2018-02-01
The demand for high capacity optical communications will continue to be driven by the exponential growth of global internet traffic. Optical communications are about the exploitation of different physical dimensions of light waves, including complex amplitude, frequency (or wavelength), time, polarization, etc. Conventional techniques such as wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), time-division multiplexing (TDM) and polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) have almost reached their scalability limits. Space domain is the only known physical dimension left and space-division multiplexing (SDM) seems the only option to further scale the transmission capacity and spectral efficiency of optical communications. In recent years, few-mode fiber (FMF), multi-mode fiber (MMF), multi-core fiber (MCF) and few-mode multi-core fiber (FM-MCF) have been widely explored as promising candidates for fiber-based SDM. The challenges for SDM include efficient (de)multiplexer, amplifiers, and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. Photonic integration will also be a key technology to SDM. Meanwhile, free-space and underwater optical communications have also exploited the space domain to increase the transmission capacity and spectral efficiency. The challenges include long-distance transmission limited by propagation loss, divergence, scattering and turbulence. Very recently, helically phased light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have also seen potential applications both in free-space, underwater and fiber-based optical communications. Actually, different mode bases such as linearly polarized (LP) modes and OAM modes can be employed for SDM. Additionally, SDM could be used in chip-scale photonic interconnects and data center optical interconnects. Quantum processing exploiting the space domain is of great interest. The information capacity limit and physical layer security in SDM optical communications systems are important
Communication: On the diffusion tensor in macroscopic theory of cavitation
Shneidman, Vitaly A.
2017-08-01
The classical description of nucleation of cavities in a stretched fluid relies on a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) in the space of their sizes r, with the diffusion coefficient D(r) constructed for all r from macroscopic hydrodynamics and thermodynamics, as shown by Zeldovich. When additional variables (e.g., vapor pressure) are required to describe the state of a bubble, a similar approach to construct a diffusion tensor D ^ generally works only in the direct vicinity of the thermodynamic saddle point corresponding to the critical nucleus. It is shown, nevertheless, that "proper" kinetic variables to describe a cavity can be selected, allowing to introduce D ^ in the entire domain of parameters. In this way, for the first time, complete FPE's are constructed for viscous volatile and inertial fluids. In the former case, the FPE with symmetric D ^ is solved numerically. Alternatively, in the case of an inertial fluid, an equivalent Langevin equation is considered; results are compared with analytics. The suggested approach is quite general and can be applied beyond the cavitation problem.
Space Theory and Strategy: War From the High Ground Down
2016-06-01
M.V. “COYOTE” SMITH (Date) __________________________________________ COLONEL TIMOTHY CULLEN (Date) iii...reader, Colonel Timothy Cullen , I would like to express my gratitude for the insightful suggestions to this work. To the ultimate sounding board... William L. Shelton, “Military Space: A Strategic Crossroad,” Air & Space Power Journal (September-October 2013): 5-6, War From the High Ground Down
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serhii Kovbasiuk
2017-04-01
Full Text Available One of the reasons for the decrease of efficiency in low-speed communication systems, satellite communication, which are based on nanoplatform is a high degree of operational planning centralisation. To overcome this problem the method which carries out the distribution of tasks of communications operational planning minimizing the exchange of information between spatially remote sites, and takes into account the computing performance of software and hardware was developed. The technique is based on the use of methods of structural and parametric synthesis, simulation and statistical analysis of the results. Its use allows to obtain the optimal structure of the automated system of operational planning in low-space communication system messaging evaluation of efficiency in terms of fixed communication of information load.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, Shelley
2008-01-01
This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse and for t......This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...
Deane, William H; Fain, James A
2016-03-01
With the increased life expectancy, older adults will interact with multiple health care providers to manage acute and chronic conditions. These interactions include nursing students who use various health care settings to meet the clinical practicum requirements of their programs. Nursing faculty are charged with facilitating students' learning throughout the program from basic human needs, to holistic communication, to advanced medical surgical concepts. Despite educating students on holistic communication, there remains a lack of a reliable framework to undertake the task of teaching holistic communication skills. Nursing students preparing to function as licensed practitioners need to develop appropriate knowledge to holistically care for older adults. The purpose of this article is to examine Hildegard Peplau's interpersonal relations theory as a framework to assist nursing students to understand holistic communication skills during their encounters with older adults. Peplau's theory provides nursing a useful set of three interlocking and oftentimes overlapping working phases for nurses' interaction with patients in the form of the nurse-patient relationship. Nursing education could adopt the three phases of Peplau's interpersonal relations theory to educate students on holistically communicating with older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.
Chaos and Crisis: Propositions for a General Theory of Crisis Communication.
Seeger, Matthew W.
2002-01-01
Presents key concepts of chaos theory (CT) as a general framework for describing organizational crisis and crisis communication. Discusses principles of predictability, sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation as system breakdown, emergent self-organization, and fractals and strange attractors as principles of organization. Explores…
Can Collaborative Consultation, Based on Communicative Theory, Promote an Inclusive School Culture?
von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée
2017-01-01
This article contributes to furthering our knowledge of how collaborative consultation, based on communicative theory, can make teachers' learning from, and with, each other an inclusive process, and thus promote an inclusive school culture. The aim is to study special education professionals' experiences of, and reflections on, leading…
Hiemstra, J.M.; Otten, R.; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to test whether maternal smoking-specific communication and parental smoking related to smoking cognitions (i.e. attitude, self-efficacy and social norm) derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour in association with smoking onset during preadolescence. A total of 1478
Uzun, N. Bilge; Aktas, Mehtap; Asiret, Semih; Yormaz, Seha
2018-01-01
The goal of this study is to determine the reliability of the performance points of dentistry students regarding communication skills and to examine the scoring reliability by generalizability theory in balanced random and fixed facet (mixed design) data, considering also the interactions of student, rater and duty. The study group of the research…
Groves, Patricia S; Bunch, Jacinda L
2018-05-18
The aim of this paper is discussion of a new middle-range theory of patient safety goal priming via safety culture communication. Bedside nurses are key to safe care, but there is little theory about how organizations can influence nursing behavior through safety culture to improve patient safety outcomes. We theorize patient safety goal priming via safety culture communication may support organizations in this endeavor. According to this theory, hospital safety culture communication activates a previously held patient safety goal and increases the perceived value of actions nurses can take to achieve that goal. Nurses subsequently prioritize and are motivated to perform tasks and risk assessment related to achieving patient safety. These efforts continue until nurses mitigate or ameliorate identified risks and hazards during the patient care encounter. Critically, this process requires nurses to have a previously held safety goal associated with a repertoire of appropriate actions. This theory suggests undergraduate educators should foster an outcomes focus emphasizing the connections between nursing interventions and safety outcomes, hospitals should strategically structure patient safety primes into communicative activities, and organizations should support professional development including new skills and the latest evidence supporting nursing practice for patient safety. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Assessment of Theory of Mind in Children with Communication Disorders: Role of Presentation Mode
van Buijsen, Marit; Hendriks, Angelique; Ketelaars, Mieke; Verhoeven, Ludo
2011-01-01
Children with communication disorders have problems with both language and social interaction. The theory-of-mind hypothesis provides an explanation for these problems, and different tests have been developed to test this hypothesis. However, different modes of presentation are used in these tasks, which make the results difficult to compare. In…
Coombs, W. Timothy; Holladay, Sherry J.
2002-01-01
Explains a comprehensive, prescriptive, situational approach for responding to crises and protecting organizational reputation: the situational crisis communication theory (SCCT). Notes undergraduate students read two crisis case studies from a set of 13 cases and responded to questions following the case. Validates a key assumption in SCCT and…
Communicating the Nature of Science through "The Big Bang Theory": Evidence from a Focus Group Study
Li, Rashel; Orthia, Lindy A.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a little-studied means of communicating about or teaching the nature of science (NOS)--through fiction television. We report some results of focus group research which suggest that the American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory" (2007-present), whose main characters are mostly working scientists, has influenced…
Overview of some projects of SNPS for global space communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, E.; Ghitajkin, V.; Ionkin, V.; Dubinin, A.; Pyshko, A.
2000-01-01
Modem concepts of the application of power technology in space believe in using an onboard source of energy for maintenance of self-transportation of the vehicle into working geosynchronous orbit (GEO). This can result in reduction of the cost of all installation and the number of rocket starts. There we present several conceptual projects of nuclear power installations. Power units developed with, IPPE's participation are intended for long term supply of electricity to the vehicle in GEO and to maintain self-transportation of capabilities. Considered units include a tiny, fast neutron nuclear reactor, radiation shield, control system, cooling system (radiator) and power conversion system. Additionally, they must also include a rocket engine to maintain the dual-mode regime. This may be an electric-stationary ion jet (with Xe as working body) and a thermal engine such as hybrid or NRE. There are three more prospective systems as follows: (a) gas cooled nuclear reactor with hybrid thermal engine and machine power converter; (b) nuclear reactor cooled by liquid metal and with a thermoelectric power generating system; (c) nuclear reactor with Li cooling and a thermionic and thermoelectric power generator on board. All considered schemes have two thermal circuits and use thermal pipes in the radiator. Two final concepts are based on a Xe electric jet; these differ from first concept by having a lower working body mass but a longer transportation period from basic orbit into GEO. (authors)
Arshad, Kashif; Poedts, Stefaan; Lazar, Marian
2017-04-01
ring shape morphology of a beam with orbital angular momentum (OAM) is ideal for the observation of solar corona around the sun where the intensity of the beam is minimum at the center, in solar experiments, and Earth's ionosphere. The twisted plasma modes carrying OAM are mostly studied either by the fluid theory or Maxwellian distributed Kinetic Theory. But most of the space plasmas and some laboratory plasmas have non-thermal distributions due to super-thermal population of the plasma particles. Therefore the Kinetic Theory of twisted plasma modes carrying OAM are recently studied using non-thermal (kappa) distribution of the super-thermal particles in the presence of the helical electric field and significant change in the damping rates are observed by tuning appropriate parameters.
Quantum theory of spinor field in four-dimensional Riemannian space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shavokhina, N.S.
1996-01-01
The review deals with the spinor field in the four-dimensional Riemannian space-time. The field beys the Dirac-Fock-Ivanenko equation. Principles of quantization of the spinor field in the Riemannian space-time are formulated which in a particular case of the plane space-time are equivalent to the canonical rules of quantization. The formulated principles are exemplified by the De Sitter space-time. The study of quantum field theory in the De Sitter space-time is interesting because it itself leads to a method of an invariant well for plane space-time. However, the study of the quantum spinor field theory in an arbitrary Riemannian space-time allows one to take into account the influence of the external gravitational field on the quantized spinor field. 60 refs
Open branes in space-time non-commutative little string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harmark, T.
2001-01-01
We conjecture the existence of two new non-gravitational six-dimensional string theories, defined as the decoupling limit of NS5-branes in the background of near-critical electrical two- and three-form RR fields. These theories are space-time non-commutative Little String Theories with open branes. The theory with (2,0) supersymmetry has an open membrane in the spectrum and reduces to OM theory at low energies. The theory with (1,1) supersymmetry has an open string in the spectrum and reduces to (5+1)-dimensional NCOS theory for weak NCOS coupling and low energies. The theories are shown to be T-dual with the open membrane being T-dual to the open string. The theories therefore provide a connection between (5+1)-dimensional NCOS theory and OM theory. We study the supergravity duals of these theories and we consider a chain of dualities that shows how the T-duality between the two theories is connected with the S-duality between (4+1)-dimensional NCOS theory and OM theory
Müller Neto, Júlio Strubing; Artmann, Elizabeth
2012-12-01
The article discusses the appropriation of the theory developed by Habermas to analyze health policies and management. The fundamental concepts of the discursive theory of democracy as a deliberative policy, procedural democracy, the public sphere and civil society are analyzed. An attempt is made to demonstrate that the concepts of deliberative policies are grounded on basic theoretical categories of Habermas's conception of language, namely the theory of communicative action (TCA): lifeworld and system; communicative action and discourse; the ideal speech situation. The possibility of translating the categories presented in analytical categories, such as the experiences of social participation in deliberative forums and the results for the formulation and implementation of policies and health management is discussed. The conclusion drawn is that the theoretical categories reveal great explanatory potential and analytical categories are important provided that they are mediated and contextualized.
Sustainable Innovation: Eco-development tendencies and Theory of Communicative Action Standpoint
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dany Flávio Tonelli
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The paper aims to show new production tendencies, trying to find out if they can be seen under a sustainable innovation perspective and if their logical action presents a connection to Habermas’ Theory of Communicative Action. Considering the current innovation theories it is worth saying that specific approaches facing environmental sustainability are not common. Based on such scope, Industrial Ecology and Integrated Production Systems are highlighted. They are in the mainstream because they try to guide themselves not just by economic concerns, but also considering the articulation demand among different subjective and objective elements. The tendencies draw proposals to policies’ transformations – regarding production methods – by placing economical, social and environmental dimensions in an inseparable way. However, even though after analyzing systems we did not identify any relation to the “Theory of Communicative Action”, the habermasian approach is recognized as useful to innovation processes once achieved by consensus and mutual understanding.
Quantum Field Theory with a Minimal Length Induced from Noncommutative Space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Bing-Sheng; Chen Wei; Heng Tai-Hua
2014-01-01
From the inspection of noncommutative quantum mechanics, we obtain an approximate equivalent relation for the energy dependence of the Planck constant in the noncommutative space, which means a minimal length of the space. We find that this relation is reasonable and it can inherit the main properties of the noncommutative space. Based on this relation, we derive the modified Klein—Gordon equation and Dirac equation. We investigate the scalar field and ϕ 4 model and then quantum electrodynamics in our theory, and derive the corresponding Feynman rules. These results may be considered as reasonable approximations to those of noncommutative quantum field theory. Our theory also shows a connection between the space with a minimal length and the noncommutative space. (physics of elementary particles and fields)
The method of rigged spaces in singular perturbation theory of self-adjoint operators
Koshmanenko, Volodymyr; Koshmanenko, Nataliia
2016-01-01
This monograph presents the newly developed method of rigged Hilbert spaces as a modern approach in singular perturbation theory. A key notion of this approach is the Lax-Berezansky triple of Hilbert spaces embedded one into another, which specifies the well-known Gelfand topological triple. All kinds of singular interactions described by potentials supported on small sets (like the Dirac δ-potentials, fractals, singular measures, high degree super-singular expressions) admit a rigorous treatment only in terms of the equipped spaces and their scales. The main idea of the method is to use singular perturbations to change inner products in the starting rigged space, and the construction of the perturbed operator by the Berezansky canonical isomorphism (which connects the positive and negative spaces from a new rigged triplet). The approach combines three powerful tools of functional analysis based on the Birman-Krein-Vishik theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators, the theory of singular quadra...
Concepts of space the history of theories of space in physics
Jammer, Max
1993-01-01
Historical surveys consider Judeo-Christian notions of space, Newtonian absolute space, perceptions from 18th century to the present, more. Numerous quotations and references. "Admirably compact and swiftly paced style." - Philosophy of Science.
Yang, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Tzu-Fan
2017-01-01
Visual communication design (VCD) is a form of nonverbal communication. The application of relevant linguistic or semiotic theories to VCD education renders graphic design an innovative and scientific discipline. In this study, actual teaching activities were examined to verify the feasibility of applying narrative theory to graphic design…
Some aspects of quantum field theory in non-Minkowskian space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toms, D.J.
1980-01-01
Several aspects of quantum field theory in space-times which are different from Minkowski space-time, either because of the presence of a non-zero curvature or as a consequence of the topology of the manifold, are discussed. The Casimir effect is a quantum field theory in a space-time which has a different topology. A short review of some of its popular derivations is presented with comments. Renormalization of interacting scalar field theories in a flat space-time with a non-Minkowskian topology is considered. The presence of a non-trivial topology can lead to additional non-local divergent terms in the Schwinger-Dyson equations for a general scalar field theory; however, the theory may be renormalized with the same choice of counterterms as in Minkowski space-time. Propagators can develop poles corresponding to the generation of a topological mass. Zeta-function regularization is shown to fit naturally into the functional approach to the effective potential. This formalism is used to calculate the effective potential for some scalar field theories in non-Minkowskian space-times. Topological mass generation is discussed, and it is shown how radiative corrections can lead to spontaneous symmetry breaking. One- and two-loop contributions to the vacuum energy density are obtained for both massless and massive fields. In the massive case the role of renormalization in removing non-local divergences is discussed
van Nes, A.
2017-01-01
This contribution shows various approaches from the theory of science for revealing the explanatory power of the Space Syntax. In this contribution Bhaskar's critical realistic model of science and Georg Henrik von Wright's account of explanation and understanding are used to assess the
Babidge, S.; Cokley, J.; Gordon, F.; Louw, E.
2005-10-01
As humans expand into space communities will form. These have already begun to form in small ways, such as long-duration missions on the International Space Station and the space shuttle, and small-scale tourist excursions into space. Social, behavioural and communications data emerging from such existing communities in space suggest that the physically-bounded, work-oriented and traditionally male-dominated nature of these extremely remote groups present specific problems for the resident astronauts, groups of them viewed as ‘communities’, and their associated groups who remain on Earth, including mission controllers, management and astronauts’ families. Notionally feminine group attributes such as adaptive competence, social adaptation skills and social sensitivity will be crucial to the viability of space communities and in the absence of gender equity, ‘staying in touch’ by means of ‘news from home’ becomes more important than ever. A template of news and media forms and technologies is suggested to service those needs and enhance the social viability of future terraforming activities.
Aspects of high-dimensional theories in embedding spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maia, M.D.; Mecklenburg, W.
1983-01-01
The question of whether physical meaning may be attributed to the extra dimensions provided by embedding procedures as applied to physical space-times is discussed. The similarities and differences of the present picture to that of conventional Kaluza-Klein pictures are commented. (Author) [pt
Quantum correlations in Newtonian space and time: arbitrarily fast communication or nonlocality
Gisin, Nicolas
2013-03-01
Experimental violations of Bell inequalities using space-like separated measurements precludes the explanation of quantum correlations through causal influences propagating at subluminal speed. Yet, ``everything looks as if the two parties somehow communicate behind the scene.'' We investigate the assumption that they do so at a speed faster than light, though finite. Such an assumption doesn't respect the spirit of Einstein relativity. However, it is not crystal clear that such ``communication behind the scene'' would contradict relativity. Indeed, one could imagine that this communication remains for ever hidden to humans, i.e. that it could not be controlled by humans, only Nature exploits it to produce correlations that can't be explained by usual common causes. To define faster than light hidden communication requires a universal privileged reference frame in which this faster than light speed is defined. Again, such a universal privileged frame is not in the spirit of relativity, but it is also clearly not in contradiction: for example the reference frame in which the cosmic microwave background radiation is isotropic defines such a privileged frame. Hence, a priori, a hidden communication explanation is not more surprising than nonlocality. We prove that for any finite speed, such models predict correlations that can be exploited for faster-than-light communication. This superluminal communication doesn't require access to any hidden physical quantities, but only the manipulation of measurement devices at the level of our present-day description of quantum experiments. Consequently, all possible explanations of quantum correlations that satisfy the principle of continuity, which states that everything propagates gradually and continuously through space and time, or in other words, all combination of local common causes and direct causes that reproduce quantum correlations, lead to faster than light communication. Accordingly, either there is superluminal
Christoffel symbols and inertia in flat space-time theory. [Curvilinear coordinate systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krause, J [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas
1976-11-01
A necessary and sufficient criterion of inertia is presented, for the flat space-time theory of general frames of reference, in terms of the vanishing of some typical components of the affine connection pertaining to curvilinear coordinate systems. The physical identification of inertial forces thus arises in the context of the special theory of relativity.
Yang, Liang; Gao, Xiqi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
Free-space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short-range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD
Is long distance free space quantum communication with the OAM state of light feasible [Presentation
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Hamadou Ibrahim, A
2013-06-01
Full Text Available -space quantum communication with the OAM state of light feasible? A. HAMADOU IBRAHIM1,2, F.S. ROUX1, M. McLAREN1,3 , A. FORBES1,2,3 & T. KONRAD2 1. CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 2. School of Physics, University of Kwazulu...
Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications, Towards the Speeds of Wireline Networks
Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2015-01-01
in the recent past, is not anymore a viable solution to fulfill the demand for more wireless applications and higher data rates. Among the many proposed solutions, optical wireless communication or free-space optical (FSO) systems have gained an increasing
Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications
Ooi, Boon S.
2017-01-30
We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.
Spectral space-time coding for optical communications through a multimode fiber
Alonso, A.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Danckaert, J.; Desmet, L.
2001-01-01
We propose a method for coding the mode structure of a multimode optical fiber by spectral coding mixed with space-time modulation. With this system we can improve the data carrying capacity of a multimode fiber for optical communications and optical interconnects, and encode and decode the
The Association of Schools of Journalism and mass communication journalist-in-space project
1986-01-01
During the summer of 1985, NASA asked the Association of Schools of Journalism and Mass Communication (ASJMC) to select a U. S. journalist who could ride aboard the space shuttle and report the experience to the American public. Eligibility critieria and selection procedures are discussed. The forty semifinalists are listed.
Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges
Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny
2014-01-01
In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…
Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications
Ooi, Boon S.
2017-01-01
We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.
Anomaly matching conditions and the moduli space of supersymmetric gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dotti, G.; Manohar, A.V.
1998-01-01
The structure of the moduli space of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories is analyzed from an algebraic geometric viewpoint. The connection between the fundamental fields of the ultraviolet theory, and the gauge-invariant composite fields of the infrared theory is explained in detail. The results are then used to prove an anomaly matching theorem. The theorem is used to study anomaly matching for supersymmetric QCD, and can explain all the known anomaly matching results for this case. (orig.)
Nonrelativistic multichannel quantum scattering theory in a two Hilbert space formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandler, C.
1977-08-01
A two-Hilbert-space form of an abstract scattering theory specifically applicable to multichannel quantum scattering problems is outlined. General physical foundations of the theory are reviewed. Further topics discussed include the invariance principle, asymptotic completeness of the wave operators, representations of the scattering operator in terms of transition operators and fundamental equations that these transition operators satisfy. Outstanding problems, including the difficulties of including Coulomb interactions in the theory, are pointed out. (D.P.)
A SIMPLIFIED FORMULATION OF SPACE-ENERGY CELL THEORY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cady, K. B.; MacVean, C. R.
1963-11-15
A simple formulation of polyenergetic thermal utilization theory for heterogeneous lattices is proposed. The main ideas are those of Leslie, who postulated an infinite moderator region with a fictitious, energy dependent absorption which includes all heterogeneous properties of the lattice, and those of Amouyal, Benoist, and Horowitz who postulated absorption rates in terms of fuel and moderator escape probabilities. Simple approximations to energy dependent escape probabilities are discussed and lattice spectra are calculated for several light water lattices. (auth)
The Process of Science Communications at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center
Horack, John M.; Treise, Deborah
1998-01-01
The communication of new scientific knowledge and understanding is an integral component of science research, essential for its continued survival. Like any learning- based activity, science cannot continue without communication between and among peers so that skeptical inquiry and learning can take place. This communication provides necessary organic support to maintain the development of new knowledge and technology. However, communication beyond the peer-community is becoming equally critical for science to survive as an enterprise into the 21st century. Therefore, scientists not only have a 'noble responsibility' to advance and communicate scientific knowledge and understanding to audiences within and beyond the peer-community, but their fulfillment of this responsibility is necessary to maintain the survival of the science enterprise. Despite the critical importance of communication to the viability of science, the skills required to perform effective science communications historically have not been taught as a part of the training of scientist, and the culture of science is often averse to significant communication beyond the peer community. Thus scientists can find themselves ill equipped and uncomfortable with the requirements of their job in the new millennium. At NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, we have developed and implemented an integrated science communications process, providing an institutional capability to help scientist accurately convey the content and meaning of new scientific knowledge to a wide variety of audiences, adding intrinsic value to the research itself through communication, while still maintaining the integrity of the peer-review process. The process utilizes initial communication through the world-wide web at the site http://science.nasa.gov to strategically leverage other communications vehicles and to reach a wide-variety of audiences. Here we present and discuss the basic design of the science communications process, now in
Human sensorimotor communication: a theory of signaling in online social interactions.
Pezzulo, Giovanni; Donnarumma, Francesco; Dindo, Haris
2013-01-01
Although the importance of communication is recognized in several disciplines, it is rarely studied in the context of online social interactions and joint actions. During online joint actions, language and gesture are often insufficient and humans typically use non-verbal, sensorimotor forms of communication to send coordination signals. For example, when playing volleyball, an athlete can exaggerate her movements to signal her intentions to her teammates (say, a pass to the right) or to feint an adversary. Similarly, a person who is transporting a table together with a co-actor can push the table in a certain direction to signal where and when he intends to place it. Other examples of "signaling" are over-articulating in noisy environments and over-emphasizing vowels in child-directed speech. In all these examples, humans intentionally modify their action kinematics to make their goals easier to disambiguate. At the moment no formal theory exists of these forms of sensorimotor communication and signaling. We present one such theory that describes signaling as a combination of a pragmatic and a communicative action, and explains how it simplifies coordination in online social interactions. We cast signaling within a "joint action optimization" framework in which co-actors optimize the success of their interaction and joint goals rather than only their part of the joint action. The decision of whether and how much to signal requires solving a trade-off between the costs of modifying one's behavior and the benefits in terms of interaction success. Signaling is thus an intentional strategy that supports social interactions; it acts in concert with automatic mechanisms of resonance, prediction, and imitation, especially when the context makes actions and intentions ambiguous and difficult to read. Our theory suggests that communication dynamics should be studied within theories of coordination and interaction rather than only in terms of the maximization of information
Human sensorimotor communication: a theory of signaling in online social interactions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Pezzulo
Full Text Available Although the importance of communication is recognized in several disciplines, it is rarely studied in the context of online social interactions and joint actions. During online joint actions, language and gesture are often insufficient and humans typically use non-verbal, sensorimotor forms of communication to send coordination signals. For example, when playing volleyball, an athlete can exaggerate her movements to signal her intentions to her teammates (say, a pass to the right or to feint an adversary. Similarly, a person who is transporting a table together with a co-actor can push the table in a certain direction to signal where and when he intends to place it. Other examples of "signaling" are over-articulating in noisy environments and over-emphasizing vowels in child-directed speech. In all these examples, humans intentionally modify their action kinematics to make their goals easier to disambiguate. At the moment no formal theory exists of these forms of sensorimotor communication and signaling. We present one such theory that describes signaling as a combination of a pragmatic and a communicative action, and explains how it simplifies coordination in online social interactions. We cast signaling within a "joint action optimization" framework in which co-actors optimize the success of their interaction and joint goals rather than only their part of the joint action. The decision of whether and how much to signal requires solving a trade-off between the costs of modifying one's behavior and the benefits in terms of interaction success. Signaling is thus an intentional strategy that supports social interactions; it acts in concert with automatic mechanisms of resonance, prediction, and imitation, especially when the context makes actions and intentions ambiguous and difficult to read. Our theory suggests that communication dynamics should be studied within theories of coordination and interaction rather than only in terms of the
Dependence and caring in clinical communication: the relevance of attachment and other theories.
Salmon, Peter; Young, Bridget
2009-03-01
Clinical relationships are usually asymmetric, being defined by patients' dependence and practitioners' care. Our aims are to: (i) identify literature that can contribute to theory for researching and teaching clinical communication from this perspective; (ii) highlight where theoretical development is needed; and (iii) test the utility of the emerging theory by identifying whether it leads to implications for educational practice. Selective and critical review of research concerned with dependence and caring in clinical and non-clinical relationships. Attachment theory helps to understand patients' need to seek safety in relationships with expert and authoritative practitioners but is of limited help in understanding practitioners' caring. Different theories that formulate practitioners' care as altruistic, rewarded by personal connection or as a contract indicate the potential importance of practitioners' emotions, values and sense of role in understanding their clinical communication. Extending the theoretical grounding of clinical communication can accommodate patients' dependence and practitioners' caring without return to medical paternalism. A broader theoretical base will help educators to address the inherent subjectivity of clinical relationships, and researchers to distinguish scientific questions about how patients and clinicians are from normative questions about how they should be.
Mothers "Google It Up:" Extending Communication Channel Behavior in Diffusion of Innovations Theory.
Sundstrom, Beth
2016-01-01
This study employed qualitative methods, conducting 44 in-depth interviews with biological mothers of newborns to understand women's perceptions and use of new media, mass media, and interpersonal communication channels in relation to health issues. Findings contribute to theoretical and practical understandings of the role of communication channels in diffusion of innovations theory. In particular, this study provides a foundation for the use of qualitative research to advance applications of diffusion of innovations theory. Results suggest that participants resisted mass media portrayals of women's health. When faced with a health question, participants uniformly started with the Internet to "Google it up." Findings suggest new media comprise a new communication channel with new rules, serving the functions of both personal and impersonal influence. In particular, pregnancy and the postpartum period emerged as a time when campaign planners can access women in new ways online. As a result, campaign planners could benefit from introducing new ideas online and capitalizing on the strength of weak ties favored in new media. Results expand the innovativeness/needs paradox in diffusion of innovations theory by elaborating on the role of new media to reach underserved populations. These findings provide an opportunity to better understand patient information seeking through the lens of diffusion of innovations theory.
Dependence and caring in clinical communication: The relevance of attachment and other theories
Salmon, Peter; Young, Bridget
2009-01-01
Objective Clinical relationships are usually asymmetric, being defined by patients’ dependence and practitioners’ care. Our aims are to: (i) identify literature that can contribute to theory for researching and teaching clinical communication from this perspective; (ii) highlight where theoretical development is needed; and (iii) test the utility of the emerging theory by identifying whether it leads to implications for educational practice. Methods Selective and critical review of research concerned with dependence and caring in clinical and non-clinical relationships. Results Attachment theory helps to understand patients’ need to seek safety in relationships with expert and authoritative practitioners but is of limited help in understanding practitioners’ caring. Different theories that formulate practitioners’ care as altruistic, rewarded by personal connection or as a contract indicate the potential importance of practitioners’ emotions, values and sense of role in understanding their clinical communication. Conclusion Extending the theoretical grounding of clinical communication can accommodate patients’ dependence and practitioners’ caring without return to medical paternalism. Practice implications A broader theoretical base will help educators to address the inherent subjectivity of clinical relationships, and researchers to distinguish scientific questions about how patients and clinicians are from normative questions about how they should be. PMID:19157761
Quantum theory of space charge limited current in solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
González, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.gonzalez@uaslp.mx [Cátedras Conacyt, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí 78000, Mexico and Coordinación para la Innovación y la Aplicación de la Ciencia y la Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí 78000 (Mexico)
2015-02-28
We present a quantum model of space charge limited current transport inside trap-free solids with planar geometry in the mean field approximation. We use a simple transformation which allows us to find the exact analytical solution for the steady state current case. We use our approach to find a Mott-Gurney like behavior and the mobility for single charge carriers in the quantum regime in solids.
Green's functions for spin half field theory in Rindler space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iyer, B.R.; Kumar, Arvind
1977-01-01
The solutions of Dirac equation in different regions of the complete extension of Rindler space are obtained near the event horizons and in the asymptotic limits. Continuity of these solutions across the event horizons is established. The Green's functions are written down in the two casually disconnected regions, continued in the future (F) and past (P) regions using the techniques a la Boulware and a consistent scheme of Green's functions in all regions is exhibited. (author)
Green's functions for spin half field theory in Rindler space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iyer, B R; Kumar, Arvind [Birla Inst. of Tech., Ranchi (India). Dept. of Physics
1977-11-01
The solutions of Dirac equation in different regions of the complete extension of Rindler space are obtained near the event horizons and in the asymptotic limits. Continuity of these solutions across the event horizons is established. The Green's functions are written down in the two casually disconnected regions, continued in the future (F) and past (P) regions using the techniques a la Boulware and a consistent scheme of Green's functions in all regions is exhibited.
The crystallographic space groups and Heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naschie, M.S.
2009-01-01
While the 17 planar crystallographic groups were shown to correspond to 17 two and three Stein spaces with a total dimension equal to DimE12=5α-bar o ≅685, the present work reveals that the corresponding 219 three dimensional groups leads to a total dimensionality equal to N o ≅8872 which happens to be the exact total number of massless states of the transfinite version of Heterotic super string spectrum.
McLelland, Douglas; VanRullen, Rufin
2016-10-01
Several theories have been advanced to explain how cross-frequency coupling, the interaction of neuronal oscillations at different frequencies, could enable item multiplexing in neural systems. The communication-through-coherence theory proposes that phase-matching of gamma oscillations between areas enables selective processing of a single item at a time, and a later refinement of the theory includes a theta-frequency oscillation that provides a periodic reset of the system. Alternatively, the theta-gamma neural code theory proposes that a sequence of items is processed, one per gamma cycle, and that this sequence is repeated or updated across theta cycles. In short, both theories serve to segregate representations via the temporal domain, but differ on the number of objects concurrently represented. In this study, we set out to test whether each of these theories is actually physiologically plausible, by implementing them within a single model inspired by physiological data. Using a spiking network model of visual processing, we show that each of these theories is physiologically plausible and computationally useful. Both theories were implemented within a single network architecture, with two areas connected in a feedforward manner, and gamma oscillations generated by feedback inhibition within areas. Simply increasing the amplitude of global inhibition in the lower area, equivalent to an increase in the spatial scope of the gamma oscillation, yielded a switch from one mode to the other. Thus, these different processing modes may co-exist in the brain, enabling dynamic switching between exploratory and selective modes of attention.
Differential phase-shift keying and channel equalization in free space optical communication system
Zhang, Dai; Hao, Shiqi; Zhao, Qingsong; Wan, Xiongfeng; Xu, Chenlu
2018-01-01
We present the performance benefits of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) modulation in eliminating influence from atmospheric turbulence, especially for coherent free space optical (FSO) communication with a high communication rate. Analytic expression of detected signal is derived, based on which, homodyne detection efficiency is calculated to indicate the performance of wavefront compensation. Considered laser pulses always suffer from atmospheric scattering effect by clouds, intersymbol interference (ISI) in high-speed FSO communication link is analyzed. Correspondingly, the channel equalization method of a binormalized modified constant modulus algorithm based on set-membership filtering (SM-BNMCMA) is proposed to solve the ISI problem. Finally, through the comparison with existing channel equalization methods, its performance benefits of both ISI elimination and convergence speed are verified. The research findings have theoretical significance in a high-speed FSO communication system.
850-nm hybrid fiber/free-space optical communications using orbital angular momentum modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng
2015-01-01
Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated to the helicity of their phasefronts. These OAM modes can be employed to encode information onto a laser beam for transmitting not only in a fiber link but also in a free-space optical (FSO) one. Regarding this latter scenario, FSO...... communications are considered as an alternative and promising mean complementing the traditional optical communications in many applications where the use of fiber cable is not justified. This next generation FSO communication systems have attracted much interest recently, and the inclusion of beams carrying OAM...... modes can be seen as an efficient solution to increase the capacity and the security in the link. In this paper, we discuss an experimental demonstration of a proposal for next generation FSO communication system where a light beam carrying different OAM modes and affected by M turbulence is coupled...
Picard-Fuchs equations and the moduli space of superconformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cadavid, A.C.; Ferrara, S.
1991-01-01
We derive simple techniques which allow us to relate Picard-Fuchs differential equations for the periods of holomorphic p-forms on certain complex manifolds, to their moduli space and its modular group (target space duality). For Calabi-Yau manifolds the special geometry of moduli space gives the Zamolodchikov metric and the Yukawa couplings in terms of the periods. For general N=2 superconformal theories these equations exactly determine perturbed correlation functions of the chiral rings of primary fields. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, Shelley
2008-01-01
This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...... and for the examination of new spatial constellations for further research in public space. In addition to this, the appendices of the working paper are a kind of database for sources and source analyses....
Transforming communicative spaces: the rhythm of gender in meetings in rural Solomon Islands
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michelle Dyer
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Women's lack of participation in important decision making is noted as an obstacle to sustainable development in many parts of the world. An initial issue for gender equity in environmental decision making in many developing country contexts is not only women's inclusion but also their substantive participation in decision-making forums. In this article I examine the power structures embedded in the public communicative spaces in a village in the Western Province of Solomon Islands using empirical data in conjunction with ethnographic understanding of gendered meeting styles. The data reveal some reasons why women may be silenced as public political actors. It also raises the potential for development actors to create conceptual space for specific women's ways of meeting and validating women's meeting styles. These findings have implications for encouraging transformative communicative spaces and formats that allow transcendence of socially embedded power structures.
Theory of communicative action: a basis for the development of critical thinking.
Carvalho, Diana Paula de Souza Rego Pinto; Vitor, Allyne Fortes; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira; Ferreira, Marcos Antonio
2017-01-01
Reflections on some assumptions of the theory of Communicative Action and the development of Critical Thinking in the context of training students in undergraduate nursing courses. The perspective is based on concepts of Jürgen Habermas, as a possibility for the development of critical thinking among the students of these courses. Communication is therefore understood as inherent in the training of nurses in a continuous, dynamic, dialogical process, with interventions that are related to the context of the students and that have meaning for them, in order to contribute to the promotion of Critical Thinking.
Motor cognition-motor semantics: action perception theory of cognition and communication.
Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Moseley, Rachel L; Egorova, Natalia; Shebani, Zubaida; Boulenger, Véronique
2014-03-01
A new perspective on cognition views cortical cell assemblies linking together knowledge about actions and perceptions not only as the vehicles of integrated action and perception processing but, furthermore, as a brain basis for a wide range of higher cortical functions, including attention, meaning and concepts, sequences, goals and intentions, and even communicative social interaction. This article explains mechanisms relevant to mechanistic action perception theory, points to concrete neuronal circuits in brains along with artificial neuronal network simulations, and summarizes recent brain imaging and other experimental data documenting the role of action perception circuits in cognition, language and communication. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Quantization of Space-like States in Lorentz-Violating Theories
Colladay, Don
2018-01-01
Lorentz violation frequently induces modified dispersion relations that can yield space-like states that impede the standard quantization procedures. In certain cases, an extended Hamiltonian formalism can be used to define observer-covariant normalization factors for field expansions and phase space integrals. These factors extend the theory to include non-concordant frames in which there are negative-energy states. This formalism provides a rigorous way to quantize certain theories containing space-like states and allows for the consistent computation of Cherenkov radiation rates in arbitrary frames and avoids singular expressions.
On quantum field theory in curved space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hajicek, P.
1976-01-01
It is well known that the existence of quanta or particles of a given field is directly revealed by only a subset of all possible experiments with the field. It is considered a class of such experiments performable at any regular point of any space-time, which includes all terrestrial particle experiments as well as asymptotic observations of an evaporating black hole. A definition based on this class keeps the quanta observable and renders the notion of particle relative and local. Any complicated mathematics is avoided with the intention to emphasize the physical ideas
Quantum field theory in curved space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hajicek, P [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
1976-06-11
It is well known that the existence of quanta or particles of a given field is directly revealed by only a subset of all possible experiments with the field. A class of such experiments performable at any regular point of any space-time is considered, which includes all terrestrial particle experiments as well as asymptotic observations of an evaporating black hole. A definition based on this class keeps the quanta observable and renders the notion of particle relative and local. Any complicated mathematics is avoided with the intention to emphasize the physical ideas.
Method of a covering space in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serebryanyj, E.M.
1982-01-01
To construct the Green function of the Laplace operator in the domain M bounded by conducting surfaces the generalized method of images is used. It is based on replacement of the domain M by its discrete bundle and that is why the term ''method of covering space'' is used. Continuing one of the coordinates to imaginary values the euclidean Green function is transformed into the causal one. This allows one to compute vacuum stress-energy tensor of the scalar massless field if the vacuum is stable [ru
3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: G - Newton's constant, and a dimensionless constant alpha. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that alpha is the fine structure constant ~1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of alpha. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the "dark-matter" effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.
3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: GN — Newton’s constant, and a dimensionless constant α. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that α is the fine structure constant ≈ 1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of α. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the “dark-matter” effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.
Deep-space and near-Earth optical communications by coded orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation.
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2011-07-18
In order to achieve multi-gigabit transmission (projected for 2020) for the use in interplanetary communications, the usage of large number of time slots in pulse-position modulation (PPM), typically used in deep-space applications, is needed, which imposes stringent requirements on system design and implementation. As an alternative satisfying high-bandwidth demands of future interplanetary communications, while keeping the system cost and power consumption reasonably low, in this paper, we describe the use of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as an additional degree of freedom. The OAM is associated with azimuthal phase of the complex electric field. Because OAM eigenstates are orthogonal the can be used as basis functions for N-dimensional signaling. The OAM modulation and multiplexing can, therefore, be used, in combination with other degrees of freedom, to solve the high-bandwidth requirements of future deep-space and near-Earth optical communications. The main challenge for OAM deep-space communication represents the link between a spacecraft probe and the Earth station because in the presence of atmospheric turbulence the orthogonality between OAM states is no longer preserved. We will show that in combination with LDPC codes, the OAM-based modulation schemes can operate even under strong atmospheric turbulence regime. In addition, the spectral efficiency of proposed scheme is N2/log2N times better than that of PPM.