Sample records for space civilization based

  1. Space civil engineering - A new discipline (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.


    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  2. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report (United States)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.


    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  3. Civil Society, Democratic Space, and Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelmani Jaysawal


    Full Text Available Civil Society envisages the growth of civilization in a way that the society is in “civilized form.” It has been prominent in Social science since time immemorial. Till 18th century, it was synonymous with the state or political society. It was more or less direct translation of Cicero’s Societas’ Civilis and Aristotle’s Koinonia politike. According to Karl Marx, “Civil Society embraces the whole material intercourse of individuals within a definite stage of development of productive forces.” Civil Society is an arena where modern man legitimately gratifies his self-interest and develops his individuality, but also learns the value of group action, social solidarity which educates him for citizenship and equips him to participate in the political sphere of the state. It provides “networks of civic engagement” within which reciprocity is learned and enforced, trust is generated. An active and diverse civil society plays a valuable role in advancement of democracy. It seeks to ensure that citizen’s interests are taken seriously. The social work intervention may not be democratically envisaged until it is promulgated by civic engagement through Civil Society. Methodology: This is a descriptive study which consists of secondary source of data collection based on reports, books, periodic journals, web-based articles. There have been utilized three case studies for reaching the findings of study. This article will highlight on role of civil society in providing democratic space and assisting social workers to ensure inclusive growth through conglomeration of state and individuals.

  4. Integration Processes on Civil Service Reform in the Eurasian Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Borshevskiy


    Full Text Available In the article was studied the process of reforming the institute of civil service in the countries of the Eurasian space (e.g. Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. The integration of national systems of public administration and, in particular, the civil service, is an important factor contributing to the implementation of the centripetal tendencies in the post-Soviet space. The research methodology is based on a combination of comparative legal analysis, historical retrospective method, normalization and scaling, structural-functional and system analysis. A comparison of the legal models of public service was made in research. The author puts forward the hypothesis that it is presence the relationship between the quantitative changes (for example, number of employees of civil service and the dynamics of macroeconomic indicators (e.g. number of employed in the economy. In this regard were observed common trends. On materials of the statistical surveys were considered quantitative changes in national systems of civil service. The study of the socio-demographic characteristics of the public service (gender, age, profession allowed to formulate conclusions about the general and specific trends in the reform of the civil service of the analyzed countries. A number of values were first calculated by the author. The work is intended to become the basis for a broad international research on the development of civil service, which is the central mechanism for implementation the integration in the post-Soviet space.

  5. Evaluating Options for Civil Space Situational Awareness (SSA) (United States)

    Lal, B.; Carioscia, S. A.

    In recent years, the number of active satellites and human-made orbital space debris has increased dramatically. An expansion of activities in space, as is currently being proposed by many commercial and international entities, is expected to further exacerbate this challenge. The 18th Space Control Squadron under the Department of Defense (DOD) United States Strategic Command provides space situational awareness (SSA) services to users outside the national security community at no cost. International and commercial users demand better SSA service than is currently feasible, and the demand comes at a time when DOD is under pressure to better prepare for and respond to growing space-based threats to national security. Concerned about the possibility of overextending across conflicting missions in a fiscally constrained environment, some DOD officials have publicly noted a desire to move SSA services not related to national security out of DOD purview. Responding to a request from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), researchers at the Science and Technology Policy Institute (STPI) identified and evaluated potential approaches for providing SSA services for civil and commercial operations in space. In this paper, we summarize the report [1] and present the pros and cons of four approaches to the provision of civil SSA services in the United States: (1) maintaining status quo through continued provision by DOD; (2) provision by a civil government entity; (3) industry self-provision; and (4) provision by an international organization. Within the second approach, assuming the provision of SSA by a civil agency, STPI further identified and discussed four options: (1) civil agency service capability embedded within DOD; (2) independent civil service capability, using DOD software and systems; (3) independent civil service capability, using commercial software and systems; and (4) the government certifies non

  6. The theoretical justification of civil service professional space management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Terentiev


    Full Text Available The article develops the basic theoretical principles concerning the practical aspects of a civil service professional space. Development of the theoretical foundations of civil service professional space management provides for Public Administration new, more comprehensive methodological tools for adequately analysis and management of both social and professional processes in the public service, and ongoing process in the subspaces, fields and environments of all professions. Civil service professional space defines the main parameters and directions of public service, and professional environment of public authorities. As a space of common activity it requires special development and management. The author describes the content of functions for civil service professional space management, and provides appropriate practical recommendations. It is concluded that the civil service professional space should be the top point for analysis, forecasting, planning, implementation and decision-making in the civil service management in Ukraine.

  7. Space nuclear power and man's extraterrestrial civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.J.; Buden, D.


    This paper examines leading space nuclear power technology candidates. Particular emphasis is given the heat-pipe reactor technology currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This program is aimed at developing a 10-100 kWe, 7-year lifetime space nuclear power plant. As the demand for space-based power reaches megawatt levels, other nuclear reactor designs including: solid core, fluidized bed, and gaseous core, are considered

  8. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society (United States)

    Ranson, Stewart


    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  9. 50-Year Window to Establish a Space Faring Civilization (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott


    Humankind may only have a short window of 50 years to become a space-faring civilization, after which time the opportunity to do so may become too difficult or impractical to pursue. Current policies for space exploration and infrastructure development implicitly assume a gradualistic approach to technology, budgets, and mission execution -- the common thought has been that there will be plenty of time in humankind's future to become a space-based species, and whatever we are unable to accomplish will be borne by the generations that follow. However, considering natural events, available energy, and human tendencies, the timing to make the most effective effort to achieve multi-planet status might be now, before momentum is lost and we become distracted by Peak Oil and changing energy economies -- restarting a space program after such turmoil may be more difficult than would be practical without cheap, storable, high-energy density petroleum. "Space-faring civilization" is defined as an economically profitable space-based economy that demands the presence of humans off-world in order to sustain a high level of prosperity. An initial foothold for a space-based economy that would fit within the 50-year window might include Earth dependence on rare-earth elements or other hard-to-obtain minerals mined from moons or asteroids, or a permanent settlement on another planet. Using published sources, notional mass and energy requirements for a minimal self-sustaining Mars settlement is calculated, and the number of launch vehicles discussed. Setting the launch schedule to match that of current NASA projections, it could take more than 26 years of semi-annual launches to build up such a self-sustaining human settlement -- a cost and commitment that has not been acknowledged nor planned for. Considering the time required to establish a multi-planet species, this paper frames the required window of decision that, if not taken, could condemn the species to Earth subject to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vladimirovna Popova


    Full Text Available One of Russia’s national security is the security in the spiritual realm. It is destructive tendencies in the spiritual sphere lead to such dangerous phenomena as terrorism, extremism, crime in all its manifestations and sectarianism. Destructive stereotypes introduced from the outside into the public consciousness, are one of the main threats to Russia’s national security. The answer to these processes Dol wives become, from our point of view, the approach and strategy of integration, based on the dialectics of cultural samoopyleniya, which is the only al-ternatively logic of domination and conflict. The activation of the process of integration of migration in modern Russia it is necessary to create a strategically important subject of international relations, without which it is impossible multipolar world.At the same time, the effectiveness of the provision of spiritual security and the boards of the national interests of modern Russia depends not only on the degree-penalty protection inner space of the country, but also from the realization of the spiritual expansion in the global space. This means active participation in the spiritual evolution of the world to prevent the influence of destructive forces, based on the system of antivalues and the cult of violence.In modern Russia, it may have to determine the direction common to modern civilization development. For this purpose there are all prerequisites. Russia today are able to exert an influence on the global geopolitical processes, using their cultural, historical, spiritual, natural, political, and other resources.

  11. Civil Society and the Public Space in Africa | Hibou | CODESRIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil Society and the Public Space in Africa. Béatrice Hibou, Richard Banégas. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for ...

  12. Technology for Future NASA Missions: Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) and Pathfinder (United States)


    SEPTEMBER 1988 PACE Space Research and Technology Overview 1 Frederick P. Povinelli Civil Space Technology Initiative 15 Judith H. Ambrus...Peterson Peterson Pierson Pietsch Pilcher Pistole Piszczor Pittian Plotkin Portnoy Poucher Povinelli Povell Pozarovski Priebe Prior Pyle

  13. Vibrational Based Inspection of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Anders

    at the University of Aalborg from 1988 to 1991. Secondly, a research project, In-Field Vibration Based Inspection of Civil Engineering Structures, which has been performed as a pilot project by the Consulting Engineers Rambøll, Hannemann and Højlund in cooperation with the department of Building Technology......The thesis has been written in relation to two different research projects. Firstly, an offshore test programme, Integrated Experimental/Numerical Analysis of the Dynamic behavior of offshore structures, which was performed at the department of Building Technology and Structural Engineering...... and Structural Engineering at the University of Aalborg since the beginning of 1992. Both projects have been supported by the Danish Technical Research Council. Further, the first mentioned project was supported by the Danish Energy Agency. Their financial support is gratefully acknowledged....

  14. State Space identification of Civil Engineering Structures from Output Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.

    for identification of civil engineering structures. The SST is compared with the stochastic realization estimator Matrix Block Hankel (MBH) and a prediction error method (PEM). The results show that the investigated techniques give good results in terms of estimated modal parameters and mode shapes. Especially...

  15. State Space identification of Civil Engineering Structures from Output Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.


    for identification of civil engineering structures. The SST is compared with the stochastic realization estimator Matrix Block Hankel (MBH) and a prediction error method (PEM). The results show that the investigated techniques give good results in terms of estimated modal parameters and mode shapes. Especially...

  16. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action? (United States)

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen


    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  17. Cosmic masers: protostars, protoplanets, or signals from outer space civilizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelnitskii, V


    A summary of the existing knowledge of cosmic masers including the history of their discovery is presented. The mechanism of maser excitation and the probable course of this process in cosmic space is described.

  18. Ecology and Space – Backbone Directions of Human Civilization Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii P. Prokopiev


    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the features and possible ways of space technologies development (special attention is attached to the problematic issues of physics, chemistry and antimatter technology; the problem of positron annihilation in matter (positronium, including positron processes, positron states and annihilation process, which is the component of fundamental and practical important problem of antimatter. The space technologies of the future – the most important problems of antimatter application are considered on the basis of Internet data.

  19. Incorporating civil-defense shelter space in new underground construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.


    At the present time, the population of the US is approximately ten times more vulnerable to nuclear weapons than the Soviet population. This vulnerability can be reduced rapidly by urban evacuation in a crisis. However, the need to keep the essential economy running in a crisis, as well as coping with attacks on short warning, makes the construction of shelter space where people live very desirable. This can be done most economically by slightly modifying underground construction intended for peacetime use. The designer must consider all elements of the emergency environment when designing the space. Provisions must be made for emergency egress, light and ventilation (without elecric power), blast closures, water, sanitation, and food. The option of upgrading the space in a crisis should be considered. An example is given

  20. Opinion polls and the U.S. civil space program (United States)

    Kraemer, Sylvia K.


    The conclusions that can be drawn from public opinion polls depend a great deal on what usually does not appear on the newspaper page or television screen. Subtle biases can result from the population interviewed, the time of day individuals were called, how a particular question was asked, or how the answer was interpreted. Examples are the 1961 Gallop Poll, the survey done for Rockwell International by the firm of Yankelovich, Skelly and White/Clancy Shulman, and the one done by Jon D. Miller of the International Center for the Advancement of Scientific Literacy. There is more to learn from opinion polls than that a good proportion of adult Americans support the space program. We can learn that social and economic security are not competing goals with space, but interdependent goals. If we want to increase public support for space, we must increase the number of Americans who have the economic freedom to take an interest in something besides getting by, day after day. We can also learn that the majority of those who support the space program can distinguish between the bread and circuses of space travel. They are content to experience extraordinary adventures in the movie theaters; for their tax dollars they want real return in expended scientific knowledge and understanding. Finally, we can learn that we need to increase that return, not just for scientific careers, but for the ordinary people who pay our bills and for their children, our children. Ultimately, the space program is for them, as all investments in the future must be.

  1. The Space Sector and Civilization of Intangible Assets (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The value of a company is no longer solely measured according to the value of its assets (stock of raw materials, products being manufactured or finished products, machines and tools, real estate, etc.). Intangible assets are also becoming increasingly important, especially in Western economies which have massively transferred the production of goods to the so-called emerging countries offering lower labor costs. Numerous companies subcontracting their production focus on the study and design of new products and their marketing. As a result, the intangible assets (patents, brands, distribution networks, etc.) represent a growing proportion of the value of companies. Nevertheless, it is not impossible, as we saw several decades ago with Japan, for example, that the "emerging" countries which largely depend on contract production and copies, move more or less quickly to economies including the entire chain from design to production of original products. We will analyze here the importance of intangible assets in the space sector, especially as regards orbital systems (satellites and associated ground facilities). While the space sector remains dominated by states through the orders they generate and the regulations they impose on the space industry, the commercial market continues to develop and, with it, the importance of marketing actions and more generally the development of distinctive brands.

  2. Enhancing Canadian Civil Society Research and Knowledge-Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enhancing Canadian Civil Society Research and Knowledge-Based Practice in a Rapidly Changing Landscape for International Development ... Women in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and ...

  3. Balanced Civilization Map Generation based on Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barros, Gabriella; Togelius, Julian


    This work investigates how to incorporate real-world data into game content so that the content is playable and enjoyable while not misrepresenting the data. We propose a method for generating balanced Civilization maps based on Open Data, describing how to acquire, transform and integrate...

  4. Gendered spaces, gendered pages: Union women in Civil War nurse narratives. (United States)

    Telford, Jennifer Casavant; Long, Thomas Lawrence


    This interdisciplinary analysis joins literary and culture studies with history using Daphne Spain's theory of gendered spaces. Specifically, we examine the reconfiguration of the spaces of military medical work and of book publishing that produced popular literary representations of those medical spaces. As a social historian of nursing and a scholar of American literature and culture, we argue that the examination of Civil War narratives by or about Northern female nurses surveys a landscape in which women penetrated the masculine spaces of the military hospital and the literary spaces of the wartime narrative. In so doing, these women transformed these spaces into places acknowledging and even relying upon what had been traditionally considered male domains. Like many historiographical papers written about nurses and the impact of their practice over time, this work is relevant to those practicing nursing today, specifically those issues related to professional authority and professional autonomy.

  5. Bayesian Network Assessment Method for Civil Aviation Safety Based on Flight Delays


    Huawei Wang; Jun Gao


    Flight delays and safety are the principal contradictions in the sound development of civil aviation. Flight delays often come up and induce civil aviation safety risk simultaneously. Based on flight delays, the random characteristics of civil aviation safety risk are analyzed. Flight delays have been deemed to a potential safety hazard. The change rules and characteristics of civil aviation safety risk based on flight delays have been analyzed. Bayesian networks (BN) have been used to build ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak


    Full Text Available Cumulative effect of regular consumption of low amount of a large number of synthetic chemicals may create ultimately an environment inside our body leading to gereration of several types of diseases. Moreover, either DNA molecule of some tissue may get irreversible genetic damage or mutations or some tissue may start to grow abnormally due to the effect of those chemicals, both of which can lead to cancer, slowly but inevitably. To live with lesser number of hazardous diseases and for a healthy future generation, we must have to be conscious about these dangerous aspects of our chemical based civilization

  7. The creation of play spaces in twentieth-century Amsterdam: from an intervention of civil actors to a public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstrate, L.; Karsten, L.


    This case study uncovers a turning point in the production of play space in Amsterdam. Whereas over the first half of the twentieth century the creation of play spaces used to be the primary responsibility of the Amsterdam civil society, this situation started to change after the Second World War.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  9. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses (United States)

    Ahern, A. A.


    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov


    Full Text Available Distance education based on modern information technology as a tool for interaction between universities and enterprises of civil aviation. The introduction of the learning process real needs of civil aviation, enabling an airline to use scientific potential of educational institutions for the successful implementation of scientific research aimed at solving urgent problems.

  11. Practicality of Agent-Based Modeling of Civil Violence: an Assessment


    Thron, Christopher; Jackson, Elizabeth


    Joshua Epstein (2002) proposed a simple agent-based model to describe the formation and evolution of spontaneous civil violence (such as riots or violent demonstrations). In this paper we study the practical applicability of Epstein's model.

  12. Ungoverned Spaces and Armed Civil Conflicts: The Predicament of Developing Nations (United States)


    questions about deviance , collective action, and civil war in a society. The second, Section B, deals with the dynamic relationship between the state...influencing this dynamic relationship. A. SOCIOLOGY OF POWER, AUTHORITY, AND CIVIL WAR Why do some people effectively control the behavior of others? people even go farther to legitimize control by some people over their behavior ? What causes some people to be opposed to the control of their

  13. Network-Based Coordination of Civil-Service Training: Lessons from the Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metsma Merilin


    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the coordination of civil-service training in a decentralized civil-service system. The Estonian case is studied. The article investigates network-based coordination, analyzes the power sources of the central coordinator and discusses the opportunities and limitations of creating coherence through network-type cooperation. The article concludes that the key power sources for the central coordinator are financial, human and technical resources paired with knowledge, leadership and commitment. The case study shows that, in a decentralized civil service system, a common understanding on training and development can be fostered by intense collaboration through networks.

  14. The Ethical Implications of Cultural Intervention by Space-faring Civilizations -- What Science Fiction Has to Say (United States)

    Ciupa, M.

    Science fiction (Scifi) plays out the concerns of our possible scientistic futures; it is a source for exploring the deep rooted psychological concerns of mankind with science and the humanities. In this paper it is proposed Scifi is a valid source of hypotheses to examine, not as "evidence", but as candidate ­ often cautionary ­ notions, i.e., scenarios to be studied. Scifi represents a kind of Jungian mythological based story-telling, putting forward tales that express our conscious/unconscious concerns. Thus, when looking into ethical questions like, "where will techno-progressive futures take us?", we import into them these archetypes, hopes and fears, as a result they frequently reappear as familiar tropes. In this respect it is appropriate not to ignore them, but to openly challenge/appreciate them: to see what scenarios are indeed likely and how they may impact us reciprocally. This paper examines some of these aspects, and provides examples of how they are represented in the Scifi genre, in particular with consideration of the ethical implications of cultural intervention by space-faring civilizations. Given the specific analysis/examples provided, it concludes with an ethical scenario analysis (a dialectic argument), within the limiting conditions of the Drake Equation, Fermi Paradox and Cultural History. It comments on the potential existential risk of the Active SETI programmes recently initiated, indeed the need for an ethical exosociological review of all proposed Interstellar projects that express an "Intervention-Propensity".

  15. Integrated Curriculum Design Reform of Civil Engineering Management Discipline Based on Inter-disciplinary Professional Training (United States)

    Yidong, Xu; Ping, Wu; Jian, Chen; Jiansheng, Shen


    In view of the shortcomings of the current civil engineering management discipline, this paper investigates the necessity of the course design reform. Based on the analysis of basic occupation requirements of civil engineering management discipline, the basic ideas and implementation strategies of the integrated reform of curriculum design system are proposed, which can not only improve the students’ overall understanding of knowledge and skills, but also enhance the system of student learning.

  16. "Sociedade civil global": agentes não estatais e espaço de interação na sociedade política "Global civil society": non-state agents and space of interaction in political society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Coutinho Lage


    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa compreender o conceito de sociedade civil global, a partir de um diálogo entre o construtivismo em Relações Internacionais e o pensador francês Michel Foucault. Dividido em três seções seguidas por uma conclusão, o texto almeja inserir-se em um espaço acadêmico de profunda contestação das bases filosóficas que permeiam as teorias convencionais nas ciências sociais e, em especial, nas Relações Internacionais. A primeira seção dedica-se à discussão acerca da sociedade civil global como espaço de interação agente-estrutura; na seção subsequente, ao conceito como um conjunto heterogêneo de agentes não estatais de escopo global. A terceira seção funde as duas partes da definição. Assim, propõem-se duas dimensões definidoras da sociedade civil global: na primeira, como espaço político; na segunda, como conjunto de agentes de características específicas. Por fim, uma breve conclusão encerra o texto - mas não a polêmica da discussão. Conclui-se que o contexto contemporâneo é marcado por uma complexidade de tal magnitude que torna urgente uma abordagem que evite oposições binárias e fronteiras ontológicas naturalizadas e reificadas, estando, assim, apta a interpretar de maneira mais adequada as relações sociais e políticas atuais.This article aims at understanding the concept of global civil society, from a dialogue between constructivism in International Relations and the French thinker Michel Foucault. Divided in three sections, followed by a conclusion, the text intends to insert itself in an academic space of a profound contestation concerning the philosophical basis of the conventional theories in the social sciences and, specially, in International Relations. The first section is dedicated to the discussion about global civil society as a space of agent-structure interaction; the next section treats the concept as a heterogeneous set of non-state agents of global scope. The

  17. An Engineering Method of Civil Jet Requirements Validation Based on Requirements Project Principle (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Dan; Mao, Xuming


    A method of requirements validation is developed and defined to meet the needs of civil jet requirements validation in product development. Based on requirements project principle, this method will not affect the conventional design elements, and can effectively connect the requirements with design. It realizes the modern civil jet development concept, which is “requirement is the origin, design is the basis”. So far, the method has been successfully applied in civil jet aircraft development in China. Taking takeoff field length as an example, the validation process and the validation method of the requirements are detailed introduced in the study, with the hope of providing the experiences to other civil jet product design.

  18. Cosmic rays and other space phenomena dangerous for the Earth's civilization: Foundation of cosmic ray warning system and beginning steps (United States)

    Lev, Dorman


    and more minutes later). We describe here principles and experience of automatically working program "SEP-Start", supposed, developed and checked in the Emilio Segre' Observatory of Israel Cosmic Ray and Space Weather Center (Mt. Hermon, 2050 m above sea level, cut-off rigidity 10.8 GV). Using of this program on many CR stations and on satellites allowed determining automatically the beginning of SEP event. It is the First Step of our program. The Second Step is "SEP-Space" - transformation obtained at different altitudes and cutoff rigidities data on CR intensity to the space and calculation CR energy spectrum and angle distribution out of the Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere, directly in the interplanetary space near the Earth. Before we made these complicated operations step by step on the basis of historical SEP events data during long time and determined flare energetic particle spectrum in the interplanetary space and its change with time by method of coupling functions (in scientific literature called as Dorman functions). Now we prepared algorithms and try to create program which will be made these calculations automatically after each new minute of CR data very quickly for time not more than few seconds. The Third Step "SEP-Inverse Problem" is based on theoretically solved by Lev Dorman about 15 years ago inverse problem and determine time of ejection energetic particles, source function and transport parameters in dependence from particle energy and distance from the Sun. Before we made corresponding calculations very long time, so obtained results cannot be practically used for forecasting. Now we prepared all algorithms and try to create program which will be made these calculations automatically after each new minute of CR data very quickly for time not more than few seconds. The Fourth Step "SEP-Forecasting" based on the theoretically solved direct problem and parameters founded in the Third Step and known coupling functions, we calculate time

  19. An Internet-Based Course And The Application Of Employment-Based Methods In Civil Engineering Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.J.; van de Vis, Dimitri; van de Vis, Dimitri; Mosch, Lars P.J.; Taylor Perkins, F.


    The paper addresses the question of how educational activities in civil engineering in the Netherlands can contribute to the application of employment-based programs in developing countries. National policy makers and international donor representatives acknowledge the various advantages of

  20. Space construction base control system (United States)


    Aspects of an attitude control system were studied and developed for a large space base that is structurally flexible and whose mass properties change rather dramatically during its orbital lifetime. Topics of discussion include the following: (1) space base orbital pointing and maneuvering; (2) angular momentum sizing of actuators; (3) momentum desaturation selection and sizing; (4) multilevel control technique applied to configuration one; (5) one-dimensional model simulation; (6) N-body discrete coordinate simulation; (7) structural analysis math model formulation; and (8) discussion of control problems and control methods.

  1. Can nuclear energy support civilized society in the 21st century? From a civilization based on chemical reactions to a civilization based on nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji-Ie, Yoichi


    The United Nations passed and adopted 'Principles of Sustainable Development' in 1992, as a resolution on the sustainable development of mankind. It advocates maintaining the ecological system to support the earth, while presenting the ethical issue of 'impartiality within a generation', the reduction of absolute poverty and also 'impartiality between generations', in particular 'not leaving a negative legacy to the next generation'. The issue of the appropriate handling of waste is by nature an issue of safety and resources, but is also an ethical issue. Nuclear power generation is more likely to conserve the environment, if the comparison between radioactive waste and carbon dioxide is considered. The creation of hydrogen by nuclear energy resembles the ecological relationship between the sun and the earth in that it consists of the conversion of nuclear energy into chemical energy. Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, particle acceleration and lasers can all be found in the universe. It will be possible to find a future for nuclear energy by learning from and imitating nature. If the future of nuclear energy is seen from the viewpoint of sustainability, it can be expected that energy resources will be secured and the environment will be conserved by a system of nuclear energy, which will hopefully grow into a comprehensive nuclear science and technology that supports the civilization at its roots. (orig.)

  2. Outcomes-Based Assessment and Learning: Trialling Change in a Postgraduate Civil Engineering Course (United States)

    El-Maaddawy, Tamer; Deneen, Christopher


    This paper aims to demonstrate how assessment tasks can function within an outcomes-based learning framework to evaluate student attainment of learning outcomes. An outcomes-based learning framework designed to integrate teaching, learning, and assessment activities was developed and implemented in a civil engineering master-level course. The…

  3. A risk-based model for maintenance decision support of civil structures using RAMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana Da Rocha, T. C.; Stipanovic, I.; Hartmann, A.; Bakker, J.


    As a cornerstone of transportation asset management, risk-based approaches have been used to support maintenance decisions of civil structures. However, ambiguous and subjective risk criteria and inconsistency on the use of risk-based approaches can lead to a fuzzy understanding of the risks

  4. Case Study of a Project-Based Learning Course in Civil Engineering Design (United States)

    Gavin, K.


    This paper describes the use of project-based learning to teach design skills to civil engineering students at University College Dublin (UCD). The paper first considers the development of problem-based leaning (PBL) as a tool in higher education. The general issues to be considered in the design of the curriculum for a PBL module are reviewed.…

  5. Vibration-based monitoring for performance evaluation of flexible civil structures in Japan (United States)

    FUJINO, Yozo


    The vibration-based monitoring of flexible civil structures and performance evaluation from this monitoring are reviewed, with an emphasis on research and practice in Japan and the author’s experiences. Some new findings and unexpected vibrations from the monitoring of real bridges and buildings are reported to emphasize the importance of monitoring. Future developments and applications of vibration-based monitoring to civil infrastructure management are also described. Many examples are taken from the author’s past 30 years’ experience of research on bridge dynamics. PMID:29434082

  6. Lunar lander stage requirements based on the Civil Needs Data Base (United States)

    Mulqueen, John A.


    This paper examines the lunar lander stages that will be necessary for the future exploration and development of the Moon. Lunar lander stage sizing is discussed based on the projected lunar payloads listed in the Civil Needs Data Base. Factors that will influence the lander stage design are identified and discussed. Some of these factors are (1) lunar orbiting and lunar surface lander bases; (2) implications of direct landing trajectories and landing from a parking orbit; (3) implications of landing site and parking orbit; (4) implications of landing site and parking orbit selection; (5) the use of expendable and reusable lander stages; and (6) the descent/ascent trajectories. Data relating the lunar lander stage design requirements to each of the above factors and others are presented in parametric form. These data will provide useful design data that will be applicable to future mission model modifications and design studies.

  7. Predicting Cost and Schedule Growth for Military and Civil Space Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rusnock, Christina F


    ... for predicting cost and schedule growth. The analysis consists of logistic and multiple regression to assess 21 Department of Defense and 71 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space programs...

  8. A Project-Based Cornerstone Course in Civil Engineering: Student Perceptions and Identity Development (United States)

    Marshall, Jill; Bhasin, Amit; Boyles, Stephen; David, Bernard; James, Rachel; Patrick, Anita


    Our study used a natural experiment to compare a project-based cornerstone course with the traditionally-taught introductory course in civil engineering. During the study, two sections of the course were organized around an overarching project, the design of an event center, and the remaining sections used guest lectures, a textbook, and…

  9. Space based microlensing planet searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisserand Patrick


    Full Text Available The discovery of extra-solar planets is arguably the most exciting development in astrophysics during the past 15 years, rivalled only by the detection of dark energy. Two projects unite the communities of exoplanet scientists and cosmologists: the proposed ESA M class mission EUCLID and the large space mission WFIRST, top ranked by the Astronomy 2010 Decadal Survey report. The later states that: “Space-based microlensing is the optimal approach to providing a true statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, over a range of likely semi-major axes”. They also add: “This census, combined with that made by the Kepler mission, will determine how common Earth-like planets are over a wide range of orbital parameters”. We will present a status report of the results obtained by microlensing on exoplanets and the new objectives of the next generation of ground based wide field imager networks. We will finally discuss the fantastic prospect offered by space based microlensing at the horizon 2020–2025.

  10. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program. Volume 4; Accessing Space (United States)

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Williamson, Ray A. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Acker, Russell J. (Editor); Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Friedman, Jonathan L. (Editor)


    The documents selected for inclusion in this volume are presented in four major chapters, each covering a particular aspect of access to space and the manner in which it has developed over time. These chapters focus on the evolution toward the giant Saturn V rocket, the development of the Space Shuttle, space transportation commercialization, and future space transportation possibilities. Each chapter in this volume is introduced by an overview essay, prepared by individuals who are particularly well qualified to write on the topic. In the main, these essays are intended to introduce and complement the documents in the chapter and to place them, for the most part, in a chronological and substantive context. Each essay contains references to the documents in the chapter it introduces, and many also contain references to documents in other chapters of the collection. These introductory essays are the responsibility of their individual authors, and the views and conclusions contained therein do not necessarily represent the opinions of either George Washington University or NASA.

  11. Private sector involvement in civil space remote sensing. Volume 2: Appendices (United States)


    The U.S. Space Policy concerning the investment and direct participation in the establishment and operations of remote sensing systems is addressed. Private sector views and state and local government views are presented. Results of a market analysis are pregiven and the economic feasibility of such a program is considered.

  12. System Identification of Civil Engineering Structures using State Space and ARMAV Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    In this paper the relations between an ambient excited structural system, represented by an innovation state space system, and the Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector (ARMAV) model are considered. It is shown how to obtain a multivariate estimate of the ARMAV model from output measurements, usi...

  13. Crashworthiness uncertainty analysis of typical civil aircraft based on Box–Behnken method


    Ren Yiru; Xiang Jinwu


    The crashworthiness is an important design factor of civil aircraft related with the safety of occupant during impact accident. It is a highly nonlinear transient dynamic problem and may be greatly influenced by the uncertainty factors. Crashworthiness uncertainty analysis is conducted to investigate the effects of initial conditions, structural dimensions and material properties. Simplified finite element model is built based on the geometrical model and basic physics phenomenon. Box–Behnken...

  14. La sociedad civil como base de la educación y la educación como base de la sociedad civil


    Alvira, Rafael


    La tesis fundamental del trabajo está expresada en el título: la sociedad civil es condición indispensable para que se pueda realizar una tarea educativa de altura y, a su vez, sin una educación bien hecha la sociedad civil sería imposible. Como sucede siempre, se puede comenzar por intentar mejorar las estructuras de la sociedad civil, o por potenciar la educación, pero en realidad la clave ahora está en cambiar la concepción tanto de la sociedad civil como de la educación. Para ello, result...

  15. Teaching Reform of Civil Engineering Materials Course Based on Project-Driven Pedagogy (United States)

    Yidong, Xu; Wei, Chen; WeiguoJian, You; Jiansheng, Shen


    In view of the scattered experimental projects in practical courses of civil engineering materials, the poor practical ability of students and the disconnection between practical teaching and theoretical teaching, this paper proposes a practical teaching procedure. Firstly, the single experiment should be offered which emphasizes on improving the students’ basic experimental operating ability. Secondly, the compressive experiment is offered and the overall quality of students can be examined in the form of project team. In order to investigate the effect of teaching reform, the comparative analysis of the students of three grades (2014, 2015 and 2016) majored in civil engineering was conducted. The result shows that the students’ ability of experimental operation is obviously improved by using the project driven method-based teaching reform. Besides, the students’ ability to analyse and solve problems has also been improved.

  16. Political anomalies and web-based civil antibodies in Silvio Berlusconi’s Bel Paese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Navarria


    Full Text Available Italy’s complex history has produced some remarkable path-breaking experiences and quite a few dangerous anomalies (such as Silvio Berlusconi’s media driven political regime,but it has also made the country the perfect ground for testing experimental antibodies that can contrast such anomalies. One of these antibodies is the web-based civil society orbitingaround the blog This article argues that the story of such community shows the path to follow for the Italian civil society. Grillo and his fellow bloggers in fact have so far demonstrated that new communication media have the potential to free citizens’ from control and at the same time increase their capacity to keep a close watch on power.La compleja historia de Italia presenta algunas experiencias innovadoras así como bastantes anomalías peligrosas (por ejemplo el régimen mediáticamente controlado de SilvioBerlusconi, pero ha convertido también el país en el territorio perfecto para el surgimiento de anticuerpos que pueden contrastar dichas anomalías. Uno de estos anticuerpos es la sociedad civil basada en la web que gira en torno al blog Este artículo argumenta que la historia de dicha comunidad muestra el camino a seguir para la sociedad civil italiana. Grillo y el conjunto de sus seguidores blogeros han demostrado de hecho que nuevos medios de comunicación tienen el potencial de liberar a los ciudadanos del control y a su vez aumentar su capacidad para mantener estrechamente vigilado al poder.

  17. 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to Space Base (United States)


    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  18. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Construction of a Base Civil Engineer Complex at Travis Air Force Base, California (United States)


    2 Ellis Drive Dix o n A v e Rags dale Stree t Bioremedial Site Base Civil Engineering ComplexEnvironmental AssessmentTravis Air Force Base...CNPS List 1B species. This species is an annual herb in the sunflower tribe (Heliantheae) of the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Individual plants...range from approximately 10 to 40 centimeters (cm) tall. Being in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), the characteristic yellow flower of this plant

  19. Reality Checks: The state of civil society organizations in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reality Checks: The state of civil society organizations in Ethiopia. ... limit the space for CSOs working on human rights and governance and it is legitimate and ... This paper contains contextualized arguments based on empirical data as reality ...

  20. Vibration-based health monitoring and model refinement of civil engineering structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W.


    Damage or fault detection, as determined by changes in the dynamic properties of structures, is a subject that has received considerable attention in the technical literature beginning approximately 30 years ago. The basic idea is that changes in the structure`s properties, primarily stiffness, will alter the dynamic properties of the structure such as resonant frequencies and mode shapes, and properties derived from these quantities such as modal-based flexibility. Recently, this technology has been investigated for applications to health monitoring of large civil engineering structures. This presentation will discuss such a study undertaken by engineers from New Mexico Sate University, Sandia National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Experimental modal analyses were performed in an undamaged interstate highway bridge and immediately after four successively more severe damage cases were inflicted in the main girder of the structure. Results of these tests provide insight into the abilities of modal-based damage ID methods to identify damage and the current limitations of this technology. Closely related topics that will be discussed are the use of modal properties to validate computer models of the structure, the use of these computer models in the damage detection process, and the general lack of experimental investigation of large civil engineering structures.

  1. Orthonormal bases for α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    We construct an orthonormal basis for the family of bi-variate a-modulation spaces. The construction is based on local trigonometric bases, and the basis elements are closely related to so-called brushlets. As an application, we show that m-term nonlinear approximation with the system in an a......-modulation space can be completely characterized....

  2. Promoting Environmental Justice through Civil-Based Instruments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Toxopeüs and Louis J. Kotzé


    Full Text Available Achieving environmental justice in South Africa is critically important, not only because of historical reasons rooted in the country’s apartheid past, but also to ensure that everyone in the country, especially marginalized and vulnerable sectors of society, are properly protected from disproportional environmental impacts. Another aim of environmental justice in South Africa is to ensure that everyone equally shares in the benefits of the country’s resources. In this article, we interrogate ways through which to achieve environmental justice in South Africa through the use of civil-based instruments (CBIs of environmental governance. The central hypothesis is that CBIs are particularly well-suited to contribute to the achievement of environmental justice since they are essentially instruments which empower civil society to become central stakeholders in environmental governance by fostering active participation in the decisions that may impact on the environment and people’s health and well-being. Through these instruments all of society, particularly disenfranchised people suffering most from environmental injustice, are afforded a platform to pursue their environment-related interests that may be affected by the decisions taken by government and private actors such as polluting companies. For the purpose of the discussion we focus specifically on public participation, access to information and access to justice, all of which are generally accepted as CBIs, including in international law.

  3. The Establishment of LTO Emission Inventory of Civil Aviation Airports Based on Big Data (United States)

    Lu, Chengwei; Liu, Hefan; Song, Danlin; Yang, Xinyue; Tan, Qinwen; Hu, Xiang; Kang, Xue


    An estimation model on LTO emissions of civil aviation airports was developed in this paper, LTO big data was acquired by analysing the internet with Python, while the LTO emissions was dynamically calculated based on daily LTO data, an uncertainty analysis was conducted with Monte Carlo method. Through the model, the emission of LTO in Shuangliu International Airport was calculated, and the characteristics and temporal distribution of LTO in 2015 was analysed. Results indicates that compared with the traditional methods, the model established can calculate the LTO emissions from different types of airplanes more accurately. Based on the hourly LTO information of 302 valid days, it was obtained that the total number of LTO cycles in Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport was 274,645 and the annual amount of emission of SO2, NOx, VOCs, CO, PM10 and PM2.5 was estimated, and the uncertainty of the model was around 7% to 10% varies on pollutants.

  4. Space and Ground-Based Infrastructures (United States)

    Weems, Jon; Zell, Martin

    This chapter deals first with the main characteristics of the space environment, outside and inside a spacecraft. Then the space and space-related (ground-based) infrastructures are described. The most important infrastructure is the International Space Station, which holds many European facilities (for instance the European Columbus Laboratory). Some of them, such as the Columbus External Payload Facility, are located outside the ISS to benefit from external space conditions. There is only one other example of orbital platforms, the Russian Foton/Bion Recoverable Orbital Capsule. In contrast, non-orbital weightless research platforms, although limited in experimental time, are more numerous: sounding rockets, parabolic flight aircraft, drop towers and high-altitude balloons. In addition to these facilities, there are a number of ground-based facilities and space simulators, for both life sciences (for instance: bed rest, clinostats) and physical sciences (for instance: magnetic compensation of gravity). Hypergravity can also be provided by human and non-human centrifuges.

  5. Just in Time in Space or Space Based JIT (United States)

    VanOrsdel, Kathleen G.


    Our satellite systems are mega-buck items. In today's cost conscious world, we need to reduce the overall costs of satellites if our space program is to survive. One way to accomplish this would be through on-orbit maintenance of parts on the orbiting craft. In order to accomplish maintenance at a low cost I advance the hypothesis of having parts and pieces (spares) waiting. Waiting in the sense of having something when you need it, or just-in-time. The JIT concept can actually be applied to space processes. Its definition has to be changed just enough to encompass the needs of space. Our space engineers tell us which parts and pieces the satellite systems might be needing once in orbit. These items are stored in space for the time of need and can be ready when they are needed -- or Space Based JIT. When a system has a problem, the repair facility is near by and through human or robotics intervention, it can be brought back into service. Through a JIT process, overall system costs could be reduced as standardization of parts is built into satellite systems to facilitate reduced numbers of parts being stored. Launch costs will be contained as fewer spare pieces need to be included in the launch vehicle and the space program will continue to thrive even in this era of reduced budgets. The concept of using an orbiting parts servicer and human or robotics maintenance/repair capabilities would extend satellite life-cycle and reduce system replacement launches. Reductions of this nature throughout the satellite program result in cost savings.

  6. A Vision-Based Dynamic Rotational Angle Measurement System for Large Civil Structures (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Jae; Ho, Hoai-Nam; Lee, Jong-Han


    In this paper, we propose a vision-based rotational angle measurement system for large-scale civil structures. Despite the fact that during the last decade several rotation angle measurement systems were introduced, they however often required complex and expensive equipment. Therefore, alternative effective solutions with high resolution are in great demand. The proposed system consists of commercial PCs, commercial camcorders, low-cost frame grabbers, and a wireless LAN router. The calculation of rotation angle is obtained by using image processing techniques with pre-measured calibration parameters. Several laboratory tests were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system. Compared with the commercial rotation angle measurement, the results of the system showed very good agreement with an error of less than 1.0% in all test cases. Furthermore, several tests were conducted on the five-story modal testing tower with a hybrid mass damper to experimentally verify the feasibility of the proposed system. PMID:22969348

  7. Distribution of retired civil servants: a case study of forest – based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at examining occupational distribution of retired civil servants with particular reference to forestbased enterprises in Ibadan, Oyo State. Primary data was collected from 100 retired civil servants using structured questionnaires. The proportion of retired self employed workers in various sectors of the ...

  8. Civil society in modern Russia: formation and development (based on Central Federal District’s materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bespalaya


    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of formation and development of civil society in contemporary Russia as an example of the Central Federal District. The author defines the necessary social, economic, political and cultural conditions for the successful development of civil society in our country.

  9. Developing a Dynamics and Vibrations Course for Civil Engineering Students Based on Fundamental-Principles (United States)

    Barroso, Luciana R.; Morgan, James R.


    This paper describes the creation and evolution of an undergraduate dynamics and vibrations course for civil engineering students. Incorporating vibrations into the course allows students to see and study "real" civil engineering applications of the course content. This connection of academic principles to real life situations is in…

  10. Complicating the Rhetoric: How Racial Construction Confounds Market-Based Reformers' Civil Rights Invocations (United States)

    Hernández, Laura E.


    Reformers today maintain the use of civil rights rhetoric when advocating for policies that address educational inequity. While continuing the legacy of earlier civil rights activists, the leaders invoking this rhetoric and the educational platforms they promote differ greatly from previous decades. Not only does this new crop of reformers differ…

  11. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work on NASA cooperative agreements is subject to the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  12. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger


    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  13. "Bases legales para la transformación de Sociedades Civiles en Sociedades Cooperativas" (Legal bases for the transformation of Civil Societies into Cooperative Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gadea Soler


    Full Text Available El Derecho interno vigente permite abiertamente la transformaciónde Sociedades Civiles con personalidad jurídica, Asociaciones y Fundaciones,en Cooperativas. Ello está además integrado en las propuestas del ParlamentoEuropeo en beneficio del empleo, la lucha contra la exclusión en la UEy el mantenimiento del bienestar social en la Unión.

  14. The development of performance-based practical assessment model at civil engineering workshop in state polytechnic (United States)

    Kristinayanti, W. S.; Mas Pertiwi, I. G. A. I.; Evin Yudhi, S.; Lokantara, W. D.


    Assessment is an important element in education that shall oversees students’ competence not only in terms of cognitive aspect, but alsothe students’ psychomotorin a comprehensive way. Civil Engineering Department at Bali State Polytechnic,as a vocational education institution, emphasizes on not only the theoretical foundation of the study, but also the application throughpracticum in workshop-based learning. We are aware of a need for performance-based assessment for these students, which would be essential for the student’s all-round performance in their studies.We try to develop a performance-based practicum assessment model that is needed to assess student’s ability in workshop-based learning. This research was conducted in three stages, 1) learning needs analysis, 2) instruments development, and 3) testing of instruments. The study uses rubrics set-up to test students’ competence in the workshop and test the validity. We obtained 34-point valid statement out of 35, and resulted in value of Cronbach’s alpha equal to 0.977. In expert test we obtained a value of CVI = 0.75 which means that the drafted assessment is empirically valid within thetrial group.

  15. Toward Microsatellite Based Space Situational Awareness (United States)

    Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Sale, M.; Thorsteinson, S.


    The NEOSSat microsatellite is a dual mission space telescope which will perform asteroid detection and Space Situational Awareness (SSA) observation experiments on deep space, earth orbiting objects. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013 into a 800 dawn-dusk sun synchronous orbit and is currently undergoing satellite commissioning. The microsatellite consists of a small aperture optical telescope, GPS receiver, high performance attitude control system, and stray light rejection baffle designed to reject stray light from the Sun while searching for asteroids with elongations 45 degrees along the ecliptic. The SSA experimental mission, referred to as HEOSS (High Earth Orbit Space Surveillance), will focus on objects in deep space orbits. The HEOSS mission objective is to evaluate the utility of microsatellites to perform catalog maintenance observations of resident space objects in a manner consistent with the needs of the Canadian Forces. The advantages of placing a space surveillance sensor in low Earth orbit are that the observer can conduct observations without the day-night interruption cycle experienced by ground based telescopes, the telescope is insensitive to adverse weather and the system has visibility to deep space resident space objects which are not normally visible from ground based sensors. Also, from a photometric standpoint, the microsatellite is able to conduct observations on objects with a rapidly changing observer position. The possibility of spin axis estimation on geostationary satellites may be possible and an experiment characterize spin axis of distant resident space objects is being planned. Also, HEOSS offers the ability to conduct observations of satellites at high phase angles which can potentially extend the trackable portion of space in which deep space objects' orbits can be monitored. In this paper we describe the HEOSS SSA experimental data processing system and the preliminary findings of the catalog maintenance experiments

  16. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie


    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  17. Extended state observer-based motion synchronisation control for hybrid actuation system of large civil aircraft (United States)

    Wang, Xingjian; Shi, Cun; Wang, Shaoping


    Hybrid actuation system with dissimilar redundant actuators, which is composed of a hydraulic actuator (HA) and an electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), has been applied on modern civil aircraft to improve the reliability. However, the force fighting problem arises due to different dynamic performances between HA and EHA. This paper proposes an extended state observer (ESO)-based motion synchronisation control method. To cope with the problem of unavailability of the state signals, the well-designed ESO is utilised to observe the HA and EHA state variables which are unmeasured. In particular, the extended state of ESO can estimate the lumped effect of the unknown external disturbances acting on the control surface, the nonlinear dynamics, uncertainties, and the coupling term between HA and EHA. Based on the observed states of ESO, motion synchronisation controllers are presented to make HA and EHA to simultaneously track the desired motion trajectories, which are generated by a trajectory generator. Additionally, the unknown disturbances and the coupling terms can be compensated by using the extended state of the proposed ESO. Finally, comparative simulation results indicate that the proposed ESO-based motion synchronisation controller can achieve great force fighting reduction between HA and EHA.

  18. Direct convertor based upon space charge effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitomer, S.J.


    A device capable of converting directly the kinetic energy of charged particles into electrical energy is considered. The device differs from earlier ones (such as Post's periodic focus electrostatic direct convertor) in that it makes use of the space charge repulsion in a high density charged particle beam. The beam is directed into a monotonic decelerating electrostatic field of a several-stage planar-finned structure. The collector fins coincide with vacuum equipotential surfaces. Space charge blowup of the beam directs particles onto various collector fins. The energy efficiency of a 4-stage device has been determined using a numberical simulation approach. We find that efficiencies approaching 75 percent are possible. An approximate scaling law is derived for the space charge based direct converter and a comparison is made to the periodic focus direct convertor. We find the space charge based direct convertor to be superior to a number of ways

  19. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  20. Space and commodity-based society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozden Vladimir


    Full Text Available The space is privileged in the commodity-based society. It is well known that the economic space in the 19th and 20th centuries rapidly managed to subordinate all other areas 'conveying and instilling in them their own meanings and goals' (G. Milatović. A new form of space that qualifies commodity society was created, marked by dualities: openness-closeness, private-public, sameness-difference. This paper is an attempt to criticize the usual analysis of the categories of commodity-space, linked to the ambivalent role of the state as a guarantor of the functioning of the commodity-based society, as well as its controlling instance. The increasing delocalisation of the political changes the nature of the space in the commodity-based society. Privileged areas are produced that create an illusion of protection of consumers (shopping malls, gated communities, theme parks, video surveillance, while at the same time social differentiation and identification are produced through the symbolic order of commodities and a sense of inclusion or exclusion from that order. At the same time, the examples of tourism and selling places demonstrate that such a commodity-space unusually easy reconciles sameness and difference. It entails uniformity to help achieve the fluctuation of goods, while insisting on the local as different, especially in terms of the role of particularity in the global trade.

  1. Seismology and space-based geodesy (United States)

    Tralli, David M.; Tajima, Fumiko


    The potential of space-based geodetic measurement of crustal deformation in the context of seismology is explored. The achievements of seismological source theory and data analyses, mechanical modeling of fault zone behavior, and advances in space-based geodesy are reviewed, with emphasis on realizable contributions of space-based geodetic measurements specifically to seismology. The fundamental relationships between crustal deformation associated with an earthquake and the geodetically observable data are summarized. The response and spatial and temporal resolution of the geodetic data necessary to understand deformation at various phases of the earthquake cycle is stressed. The use of VLBI, SLR, and GPS measurements for studying global geodynamics properties that can be investigated to some extent with seismic data is discussed. The potential contributions of continuously operating strain monitoring networks and globally distributed geodetic observatories to existing worldwide modern digital seismographic networks are evaluated in reference to mutually addressable problems in seismology, geophysics, and tectonics.

  2. Discrete phase space based on finite fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, Kathleen S.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Wootters, William K.


    The original Wigner function provides a way of representing in phase space the quantum states of systems with continuous degrees of freedom. Wigner functions have also been developed for discrete quantum systems, one popular version being defined on a 2Nx2N discrete phase space for a system with N orthogonal states. Here we investigate an alternative class of discrete Wigner functions, in which the field of real numbers that labels the axes of continuous phase space is replaced by a finite field having N elements. There exists such a field if and only if N is a power of a prime; so our formulation can be applied directly only to systems for which the state-space dimension takes such a value. Though this condition may seem limiting, we note that any quantum computer based on qubits meets the condition and can thus be accommodated within our scheme. The geometry of our NxN phase space also leads naturally to a method of constructing a complete set of N+1 mutually unbiased bases for the state space

  3. Satellite imagery-based monitoring of archaeological site damage in the Syrian civil war. (United States)

    Casana, Jesse; Laugier, Elise Jakoby


    Since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the rich archaeological heritage of Syria and northern Iraq has faced severe threats, including looting, combat-related damage, and intentional demolition of monuments. However, the inaccessibility of the conflict zone to archaeologists or cultural heritage specialists has made it difficult to produce accurate damage assessments, impeding efforts to develop mitigation strategies and policies. This paper presents results of a project, undertaken in collaboration with the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) and the US Department of State, to monitor damage to archaeological sites in Syria, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey using recent, high-resolution satellite imagery. Leveraging a large database of archaeological and heritage sites throughout the region, as well as access to continually updated satellite imagery from DigitalGlobe, this project has developed a flexible and efficient methodology to log observations of damage in a manner that facilitates spatial and temporal queries. With nearly 5000 sites carefully evaluated, analysis reveals unexpected patterns in the timing, severity, and location of damage, helping us to better understand the evolving cultural heritage crisis in Syria and Iraq. Results also offer a model for future remote sensing-based archaeological and heritage monitoring efforts in the Middle East and beyond.

  4. Satellite imagery-based monitoring of archaeological site damage in the Syrian civil war.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Casana

    Full Text Available Since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the rich archaeological heritage of Syria and northern Iraq has faced severe threats, including looting, combat-related damage, and intentional demolition of monuments. However, the inaccessibility of the conflict zone to archaeologists or cultural heritage specialists has made it difficult to produce accurate damage assessments, impeding efforts to develop mitigation strategies and policies. This paper presents results of a project, undertaken in collaboration with the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR and the US Department of State, to monitor damage to archaeological sites in Syria, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey using recent, high-resolution satellite imagery. Leveraging a large database of archaeological and heritage sites throughout the region, as well as access to continually updated satellite imagery from DigitalGlobe, this project has developed a flexible and efficient methodology to log observations of damage in a manner that facilitates spatial and temporal queries. With nearly 5000 sites carefully evaluated, analysis reveals unexpected patterns in the timing, severity, and location of damage, helping us to better understand the evolving cultural heritage crisis in Syria and Iraq. Results also offer a model for future remote sensing-based archaeological and heritage monitoring efforts in the Middle East and beyond.

  5. Activity-Based Collaboration for Interactive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Esbensen, Morten; Tabard, Aurélien


    , folder, documents, etc., users are able to interact with ‘activities’ which encapsulate files and other low-level resources. In ABC an ‘activity’ can be shared between collaborating users and can be accessed on different devices. As such, ABC is a framework that suits the requirements of designing...... interactive spaces. This chapter provides an overview of ABC with a special focus on its support for collaboration (‘Activity Sharing’) and multiple devices (‘Activity Roaming’). These ABC concepts are illustrated as implemented in two different interactive spaces technologies; ReticularSpaces [1] and the e......LabBench [2, 3]. The chapter discusses the benefits of activity-based collaboration support for these interactive spaces, while also discussing limitations and challenges to be addressed in further research....

  6. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base (United States)

    Lewallen, Pat


    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Vibration Data Base is described. Included is a detailed description of the data base components, the data acquisition process, the more sophisticated software routines, and the future data acquisition methods. Several figures and plots are provided to illustrate the various output formats accessible to the user. The numerous vibration data recall and analysis capabilities available through automated data base techniques are revealed.

  7. La participación de las Comunicaciones Eclesiales de Base en la regeneración de la sociedad civil durante las dictaduras militares: Los casos de Chile y Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Bustamante


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the role of the Base Ecclesial Communities (CEBs in the process of rebuilding civil society in the political violence of military dictatorships. For this, we focus on the cases of Chile and Brazil, two countries in which these communities create spaces for new practices of sociability among the popular sectors, becoming a major social movement for the return of democracy.

  8. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.


    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  9. Representations of space based on haptic input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhoek, S.


    The present thesis focused on the representations of grasping space based on haptic input. We aimed at identifying their characteristics, and the underlying neurocognitive processes and mechanisms. To this end, we studied the systematic distortions in performance on several orientation perception

  10. Space weather effects on ground based technology (United States)

    Clark, T.

    Space weather can affect a variety of forms of ground-based technology, usually as a result of either the direct effects of the varying geomagnetic field, or as a result of the induced electric field that accompanies such variations. Technologies affected directly by geomagnetic variations include magnetic measurements made d ringu geophysical surveys, and navigation relying on the geomagnetic field as a direction reference, a method that is particularly common in the surveying of well-bores in the oil industry. The most obvious technology affected by induced electric fields during magnetic storms is electric power transmission, where the example of the blackout in Quebec during the March 1989 magnetic storm is widely known. Additionally, space weather effects must be taken into account in the design of active cathodic protection systems on pipelines to protect them against corrosion. Long-distance telecommunication cables may also have to be designed to cope with space weather related effects. This paper reviews the effects of space weather in these different areas of ground-based technology, and provides examples of how mitigation against hazards may be achieved. (The paper does not include the effects of space weather on radio communication or satellite navigation systems).

  11. Teaching civility to undergraduate nursing students using a virtue ethics-based curriculum. (United States)

    Russell, Martha Joan


    As professionals, nurses are expected to engage in respectful relationships with clients, other health care professionals, and each other. Regulatory bodies set standards and codes of ethics for professional behavior in nursing that clearly communicate expectations for civility. However, the wealth of literature on incivility in the profession indicates that nurses often fall short of meeting these standards in their interactions with other nurses. Currently, few effective strategies exist for nurse educators to teach civility to nursing students and prepare them to engage in healthy relationships with their colleagues. This article argues for the use of virtue ethics as a philosophical framework for teaching civility to undergraduate nursing students. The pedagogical strategies proposed may help students contribute to the development of healthy workplaces. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  13. Multilingualism among Brussels-Based Civil Servants and Lobbyists: Perceptions and Practices (United States)

    Krizsán, Attila; Erkkilä, Tero


    This article explores the multilingual and multicultural aspects of community-building, networking and communication in the European Union's (EU) political and administrative system. We investigated the networking and communicative preferences of EU civil servants and lobbyists using survey data and thematic interviews. Our aim was to gain a…

  14. Vibration-based localisation of structural deterioration in frame-like civil engineering structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars


    With the existing trend of minimising material use in typical frame-like civil engineering structures, such as buildings, bridges, and offshore platforms, these structures will typically be subjected to substantial wind induced vibrations. Besides being a source of disturbance for the occupants...

  15. Free Fall Misconceptions: Results of a Graph Based Pre-Test of Sophomore Civil Engineering Students (United States)

    Montecinos, Alicia M.


    A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free…

  16. Vibration Based Damage Assessment of a Civil Engineering Structures using a Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    In this paper the possibility of using a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network trained with the Backpropagation Algorith as a non-destructive damage assessment technique to locate and quantify a damage in Civil Engineering structures is investigated. Since artificial neural networks are proving...

  17. Civil Society (United States)

    Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Twitter Newsletters Documents OAS Technology Social Development Summits of the Americas Sustainable Development T Telecommunications Terrorism Tourism Trade Treaties and Agreements W Women Y Youth Strategic Partners Permanent Observers Civil Society

  18. Civil War


    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel


    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  19. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    scientific activities conducted by the author, partly based on the author's experience as a member, through a number of years, of the Danish Standing Committee on Procedural Law (Retsplejeraadet), which on a continuous basis evaluates the need for civil procedural reforms in Denmark, and finally also based......The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...... procedural questions, including relations to the Brussels I Regulation and Denmark's participation in this Regulation via a parallel convention with the EU countries, impact on Danish civil procedure of the convention on human rights, preparation and pronouncement of judgment and verdict, questions of appeal...

  20. Research on Human-Error Factors of Civil Aircraft Pilots Based On Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yundong


    Full Text Available In consideration of the situation that civil aviation accidents involve many human-error factors and show the features of typical grey systems, an index system of civil aviation accident human-error factors is built using human factor analysis and classification system model. With the data of accidents happened worldwide between 2008 and 2011, the correlation between human-error factors can be analyzed quantitatively using the method of grey relational analysis. Research results show that the order of main factors affecting pilot human-error factors is preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, organization and unsafe acts. The factor related most closely with second-level indexes and pilot human-error factors is the physical/mental limitations of pilots, followed by supervisory violations. The relevancy between the first-level indexes and the corresponding second-level indexes and the relevancy between second-level indexes can also be analyzed quantitatively.

  1. Bayesian updating of reliability of civil infrastructure facilities based on condition-state data and fault-tree model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching Jianye; Leu, S.-S.


    This paper considers a difficult but practical circumstance of civil infrastructure management-deterioration/failure data of the infrastructure system are absent while only condition-state data of its components are available. The goal is to develop a framework for estimating time-varying reliabilities of civil infrastructure facilities under such a circumstance. A novel method of analyzing time-varying condition-state data that only reports operational/non-operational status of the components is proposed to update the reliabilities of civil infrastructure facilities. The proposed method assumes that the degradation arrivals can be modeled as a Poisson process with unknown time-varying arrival rate and damage impact and that the target system can be represented as a fault-tree model. To accommodate large uncertainties, a Bayesian algorithm is proposed, and the reliability of the infrastructure system can be quickly updated based on the condition-state data. Use of the new method is demonstrated with a real-world example of hydraulic spillway gate system.

  2. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu


    Full Text Available In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric turbulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  3. Construction simulation analysis of 120m continuous rigid frame bridge based on Midas Civil (United States)

    Shi, Jing-xian; Ran, Zhi-hong


    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model of a continuous rigid frame bridge with a main span of 120m is established by the simulation and analysis of Midas Civil software. The deflection and stress of the main beam in each construction stage of continuous beam bridge are simulated and analyzed, which provides a reliable technical guarantee for the safe construction of the bridge.

  4. Bases legales para la transformación de Sociedades Civiles en Sociedades Cooperativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa


    Full Text Available El Derecho interno vigente permite abiertamente la transformación de Sociedades Civiles con personalidad jurídica, Asociaciones y Fundaciones, en Cooperativas. Ello está además integrado en las propuestas del Parlamento Europeo en beneficio del empleo, la lucha contra la exclusión en la UE y el mantenimiento del bienestar social en la Unión.Recibido: 11.12.2012Aceptado: 20.04.2013

  5. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5 U.S.C...

  6. Space, power and the body - the civil and uncivil as represented in the Voortrekker Monument and the Native Township Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenkamp, A.C.


    The relationship between space and power in pre-democratic South Africa was deliberately inclusive of some and excluded the other through its nature, location, ordering and limits. The thesis has as its focus this process as it pertains to two projects of the mid-20th century South African urban

  7. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, J.R.; Chi, J.W.H.


    Previous studies of nuclear and non-nuclear power systems for lunar bases are compared with recent studies by others. Power levels from tens of kW e for early base operation up to 2000 kW e for a self-sustaining base with a Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) are considered. Permanent lunar or Martian bases will require the use of multiple nuclear units connected to loads with a power transmission and distribution system analogous to earth-based electric utility systems. A methodology used for such systems is applied to the lunar base system to examine the effects of adding 100 kW e SP-100 class and/or larger nuclear units when a reliability criterion is imposed. The results show that resource and logistic burdens can be reduced by using 1000 kW e units early in the base growth scenario without compromising system reliability. Therefore, both technologies being developed in two current programs (SP-100 and NERVA Derivative Reactor (NDR) technology for space power) can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are also described. (author)

  8. Earth-Space Propagation Data Bases (United States)

    Smith, Ernest K.


    This paper, designed for the newcomer rather than the expert, will take a rather broad view of what is meant by 'propagation data bases' in that it will take the term to mean both the actual measurements and models of Earth-space paths. The text will largely be drawn from International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) reports, now annexed to the Recommendations of the International Telecommunications Union-R Study Group 3, plus some experience with a course taught at the University of Colorado.

  9. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High) (United States)


    elements (five SMGTs) for the S2E2 Mobile Ground System. ​ SBIRS Block Buy (GEO 5-6) The GEO 5-6 Tech Refresh (TR) Engineering Change Proposal was...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-210 Space Based Infrared System High ( SBIRS High) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 11:24:26 UNCLASSIFIED SBIRS High December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 11:24:26

  10. The CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation: Enhancing the Value of Space-Based Observations (United States)

    Eckman, Richard; Zehner, Claus; Al-Saadi, Jay


    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) coordinates civil space-borne observations of the Earth. Participating agencies strive to enhance international coordination and data exchange and to optimize societal benefit. In recent years, CEOS has collaborated closely with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in implementing the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) space-based objectives. The goal of the CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) is to collect and deliver data to improve monitoring, assessment and predictive capabilities for changes in the ozone layer, air quality and climate forcing associated with changes in the environment through coordination of existing and future international space assets. A project to coordinate and enhance the science value of a future constellation of geostationary sensors measuring parameters relevant to air quality supports the forthcoming European Sentinel-4, Korean GEMS, and US TEMPO missions. Recommendations have been developed for harmonization to mutually improve data quality and facilitate widespread use of the data products.

  11. The Civil Registry of Children Born of Surrogacy Pregnancy: An Investigation Based on Recent Spain Supreme Court Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cristina de Carvalho Rettore


    Full Text Available In foreign law, there has been intense debates concerning civil registry of children born of surrogacy pregnancy, when such birth disrespects the country’s norms. Thus, based on the analysis of recent Spain Supreme Court judgments – that is, through a juridical-comparative investigation, using primary and secondary sources –, and considering that although Brazil lacks an express federal law about the issue, a Resolution of the Federal Counsel of Medicine establishing parameters is being generally applied, the paper aims to answer whether or not Brazilian registry should be facilitated for births (demonstrated as not uncommon that disregard such parameters.

  12. Space-based ballistic-missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Garwin, R.L.; Gottfried, K.; Kendall, H.W.


    This article, based on a forthcoming book by the Union for Concerned Scientists, focuses on the technical aspects of the issue of space-based ballistic-missile defense. After analysis, the authors conclude that the questionable performance of the proposed defense, the ease with which it could be overwhelmed or circumvented, and its potential as an antisatellite system would cause grievous damage to the security of the US if the Strategic Defense Initiative were to be pursued. The path toward greater security lies in quite another direction, they feel. Although research on ballistic-missile defense should continue at the traditional level of expenditure and within the constraints of the ABM Treaty, every effort should be made to negotiate a bilateral ban on the testing and use of space weapons. The authors think it is essential that such an agreement cover all altitudes, because a ban on high-altitude antisatellite weapons alone would not viable if directed energy weapons were developed for ballistic-missile defense. Further, the Star Wars program, unlikely ever to protect the entire nation against a nuclear attack, would nonetheless trigger a major expansion of the arms race

  13. The immune system in space, including Earth-based benefits of space-based research. (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald


    Exposure to space flight conditions has been shown to result in alterations in immune responses. Changes in immune responses of humans and experimental animals have been shown to be altered during and after space flight of humans and experimental animals or cell cultures of lymphoid cells. Exposure of subjects to ground-based models of space flight conditions, such as hindlimb unloading of rodents or chronic bed rest of humans, has also resulted in changes in the immune system. The relationship of these changes to compromised resistance to infection or tumors in space flight has not been fully established, but results from model systems suggest that alterations in the immune system that occur in space flight conditions may be related to decreases in resistance to infection. The establishment of such a relationship could lead to the development of countermeasures that could prevent or ameliorate any compromises in resistance to infection resulting from exposure to space flight conditions. An understanding of the mechanisms of space flight conditions effects on the immune response and development of countermeasures to prevent them could contribute to the development of treatments for compromised immunity on earth.

  14. Civil Disobedience. (United States)

    Martz, Carlton


    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  15. Public health within the EU policy space: a qualitative study of Organized Civil Society (OCS) and the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach. (United States)

    Franklin, P K


    This article reviews how Organized Civil Society (OCS) groups in the field of public health work across the boundaries between European institutions and policy areas. In particular, it explores 1) how the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is conducted by these groups informally within the formal governance structures, and 2) how this advocacy work creates space for public health within the broader political determinants of health. A qualitative mixed-methods framework. Political ethnography, including 20 semi-structured interviews conducted with EU health strategy stakeholders and participant observations in public health events (n = 22) in Brussels over a three-year period (2012-2015), as well as four interviews with EU Member State representatives. Three additional semi-structured interviews were conducted with World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe staff members who had been involved in the drafting of the Health 2020 framework and strategy and the accompanying main implementation pillar, European Action Plan for Strengthening Public Health Capacities and Services (EAP-PHS). The findings provide an insight into OCS work in the field of European public health, offering an account of the experiences of HiAP work conducted by the research participants. The OCS groups perceive themselves as communicators between policy areas within European institutions and between local and supranational levels. The structures and political determinants of health that impose limitations on a public institution can at points be transcended by stakeholders, who conduct HiAP work at supranational level, thus negotiating space for public health within the competitive, globalized policy space. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System (United States)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.


    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  17. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.


    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  18. Space Situational Awareness using Market Based Agents (United States)

    Sullivan, C.; Pier, E.; Gregory, S.; Bush, M.


    Space surveillance for the DoD is not limited to the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Other DoD-owned assets have some existing capabilities for tasking but have no systematic way to work collaboratively with the SSN. These are run by diverse organizations including the Services, other defense and intelligence agencies and national laboratories. Beyond these organizations, academic and commercial entities have systems that possess SSA capability. Most all of these assets have some level of connectivity, security, and potential autonomy. Exploiting them in a mutually beneficial structure could provide a more comprehensive, efficient and cost effective solution for SSA. The collection of all potential assets, providers and consumers of SSA data comprises a market which is functionally illiquid. The development of a dynamic marketplace for SSA data could enable would-be providers the opportunity to sell data to SSA consumers for monetary or incentive based compensation. A well-conceived market architecture could drive down SSA data costs through increased supply and improve efficiency through increased competition. Oceanit will investigate market and market agent architectures, protocols, standards, and incentives toward producing high-volume/low-cost SSA.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Marchenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. Statistical analysis of inventive activity in Ukraine shows that the largest number of applications is submitted by employees of universities and research institutions – almost 60% of all inventions. Practice of inventions execution proves that for researchers, especially for students, the most difficult part of the application and author documents is the claim. The purpose of research is a synthesis and supplying the general principles of quality drafting the patent claim, providing further legal protection of the patent. Methodology. Monitoring and analysis of the world documentary informational flow through the civil protection mechanism of the assignee rights on the basis of the patent claim allows us to compare the world systems of formulas development and summarize some key moments concerning the point in question. The example analysis of the correct patent claim drafting and its interpretation in court cases on intellectual property was made. Findings. The specific properties of the patent claim were described. They are conciseness, latitude, completeness and certainty, compliance with unity requirements and novelty of the invention. On the basis of the research it is established that there is a great difference between Ukrainian and American patent claims. A number of common mistakes and shortcomings during the claim drafting were identified. The need to restore the various forms of the invention training in universities of Ukraine was emphasized, since on this basis one should train a number of specialists who are able to carry out the commercialization of intellectual property results into productive findings. Originality. A number of issues and techniques was investigated and summarized. They can be applied by the courts in interpreting of the patent claim in the processing of intellectual property cases. Especially it concerns determining the correct drafting of the patent claim. Practical value. This work may be used

  20. On the space dimensionality based on metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, G.E.


    A new approach to space time dimensionality is suggested, which permits to take into account the possibility of altering dimensionality depending on the phenomenon scale. An attempt is made to give the definition of dimensionality, equivalent to a conventional definition for the Euclidean space and variety. The conventional definition of variety dimensionality is connected with the possibility of homeomorphic reflection of the Euclidean space on some region of each variety point

  1. a Holistic Approach for Inspection of Civil Infrastructures Based on Computer Vision Techniques (United States)

    Stentoumis, C.; Protopapadakis, E.; Doulamis, A.; Doulamis, N.


    In this work, it is examined the 2D recognition and 3D modelling of concrete tunnel cracks, through visual cues. At the time being, the structural integrity inspection of large-scale infrastructures is mainly performed through visual observations by human inspectors, who identify structural defects, rate them and, then, categorize their severity. The described approach targets at minimum human intervention, for autonomous inspection of civil infrastructures. The shortfalls of existing approaches in crack assessment are being addressed by proposing a novel detection scheme. Although efforts have been made in the field, synergies among proposed techniques are still missing. The holistic approach of this paper exploits the state of the art techniques of pattern recognition and stereo-matching, in order to build accurate 3D crack models. The innovation lies in the hybrid approach for the CNN detector initialization, and the use of the modified census transformation for stereo matching along with a binary fusion of two state-of-the-art optimization schemes. The described approach manages to deal with images of harsh radiometry, along with severe radiometric differences in the stereo pair. The effectiveness of this workflow is evaluated on a real dataset gathered in highway and railway tunnels. What is promising is that the computer vision workflow described in this work can be transferred, with adaptations of course, to other infrastructure such as pipelines, bridges and large industrial facilities that are in the need of continuous state assessment during their operational life cycle.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stentoumis


    Full Text Available In this work, it is examined the 2D recognition and 3D modelling of concrete tunnel cracks, through visual cues. At the time being, the structural integrity inspection of large-scale infrastructures is mainly performed through visual observations by human inspectors, who identify structural defects, rate them and, then, categorize their severity. The described approach targets at minimum human intervention, for autonomous inspection of civil infrastructures. The shortfalls of existing approaches in crack assessment are being addressed by proposing a novel detection scheme. Although efforts have been made in the field, synergies among proposed techniques are still missing. The holistic approach of this paper exploits the state of the art techniques of pattern recognition and stereo-matching, in order to build accurate 3D crack models. The innovation lies in the hybrid approach for the CNN detector initialization, and the use of the modified census transformation for stereo matching along with a binary fusion of two state-of-the-art optimization schemes. The described approach manages to deal with images of harsh radiometry, along with severe radiometric differences in the stereo pair. The effectiveness of this workflow is evaluated on a real dataset gathered in highway and railway tunnels. What is promising is that the computer vision workflow described in this work can be transferred, with adaptations of course, to other infrastructure such as pipelines, bridges and large industrial facilities that are in the need of continuous state assessment during their operational life cycle.

  3. Visualization and Analysis of Wireless Sensor Network Data for Smart Civil Structure Applications Based On Spatial Correlation Technique (United States)

    Chowdhry, Bhawani Shankar; White, Neil M.; Jeswani, Jai Kumar; Dayo, Khalil; Rathi, Manorma


    Disasters affecting infrastructure, such as the 2001 earthquakes in India, 2005 in Pakistan, 2008 in China and the 2004 tsunami in Asia, provide a common need for intelligent buildings and smart civil structures. Now, imagine massive reductions in time to get the infrastructure working again, realtime information on damage to buildings, massive reductions in cost and time to certify that structures are undamaged and can still be operated, reductions in the number of structures to be rebuilt (if they are known not to be damaged). Achieving these ideas would lead to huge, quantifiable, long-term savings to government and industry. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be deployed in buildings to make any civil structure both smart and intelligent. WSNs have recently gained much attention in both public and research communities because they are expected to bring a new paradigm to the interaction between humans, environment, and machines. This paper presents the deployment of WSN nodes in the Top Quality Centralized Instrumentation Centre (TQCIC). We created an ad hoc networking application to collect real-time data sensed from the nodes that were randomly distributed throughout the building. If the sensors are relocated, then the application automatically reconfigures itself in the light of the new routing topology. WSNs are event-based systems that rely on the collective effort of several micro-sensor nodes, which are continuously observing a physical phenomenon. WSN applications require spatially dense sensor deployment in order to achieve satisfactory coverage. The degree of spatial correlation increases with the decreasing inter-node separation. Energy consumption is reduced dramatically by having only those sensor nodes with unique readings transmit their data. We report on an algorithm based on a spatial correlation technique that assures high QoS (in terms of SNR) of the network as well as proper utilization of energy, by suppressing redundant data transmission

  4. An expert systems application to space base data processing (United States)

    Babb, Stephen M.


    The advent of space vehicles with their increased data requirements are reflected in the complexity of future telemetry systems. Space based operations with its immense operating costs will shift the burden of data processing and routine analysis from the space station to the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). A research and development project is described which addresses the real time onboard data processing tasks associated with a space based vehicle, specifically focusing on an implementation of an expert system.

  5. Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain


    We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

  6. Time-history simulation of civil architecture earthquake disaster relief- based on the three-dimensional dynamic finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing


    Full Text Available Earthquake action is the main external factor which influences long-term safe operation of civil construction, especially of the high-rise building. Applying time-history method to simulate earthquake response process of civil construction foundation surrounding rock is an effective method for the anti-knock study of civil buildings. Therefore, this paper develops a civil building earthquake disaster three-dimensional dynamic finite element numerical simulation system. The system adopts the explicit central difference method. Strengthening characteristics of materials under high strain rate and damage characteristics of surrounding rock under the action of cyclic loading are considered. Then, dynamic constitutive model of rock mass suitable for civil building aseismic analysis is put forward. At the same time, through the earthquake disaster of time-history simulation of Shenzhen Children’s Palace, reliability and practicability of system program is verified in the analysis of practical engineering problems.

  7. In-Space Internet-Based Communications for Space Science Platforms Using Commercial Satellite Networks (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Fabian, Theodore P.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Richard, Alan M.


    The continuing technological advances in satellite communications and global networking have resulted in commercial systems that now can potentially provide capabilities for communications with space-based science platforms. This reduces the need for expensive government owned communications infrastructures to support space science missions while simultaneously making available better service to the end users. An interactive, high data rate Internet type connection through commercial space communications networks would enable authorized researchers anywhere to control space-based experiments in near real time and obtain experimental results immediately. A space based communications network architecture consisting of satellite constellations connecting orbiting space science platforms to ground users can be developed to provide this service. The unresolved technical issues presented by this scenario are the subject of research at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Assessment of network architectures, identification of required new or improved technologies, and investigation of data communications protocols are being performed through testbed and satellite experiments and laboratory simulations.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Space Based Transceivers (United States)

    Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Abbott, Ben; Liebetreu, John; Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.


    This paper presents the tool chain, methodology, and initial results of a study to provide a thorough, objective, and quantitative analysis of the design alternatives for space Software Defined Radio (SDR) transceivers. The approach taken was to develop a set of models and tools for describing communications requirements, the algorithm resource requirements, the available hardware, and the alternative software architectures, and generate analysis data necessary to compare alternative designs. The Space Transceiver Analysis Tool (STAT) was developed to help users identify and select representative designs, calculate the analysis data, and perform a comparative analysis of the representative designs. The tool allows the design space to be searched quickly while permitting incremental refinement in regions of higher payoff.

  9. Distributed Graph-Based State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Kant, Gijs; Rensink, Arend; De Lara, J.; Varro, D.

    LTSMIN provides a framework in which state space generation can be distributed easily over many cores on a single compute node, as well as over multiple compute nodes. The tool works on the basis of a vector representation of the states; the individual cores are assigned the task of computing all

  10. Office fédéral de l'aviation civile OFAC bases légales : législation suisse et internationale

    CERN Document Server

    Les bases légales applicables en Suisse en matière d'aviation civile se fondent d'une part sur une réglementation suisse et d'autre part sur des accords, traités et conventions conclus au niveau international. Le droit international prime le droit interne.

  11. Evidence-Based Conclusions Concerning Practice, Curriculum Design and Curriculum Reform in a Civil Engineering Capstone Design Course in Hong Kong (United States)

    Chan, Cecilia K. Y.; Wong, George C. K.; Law, Ada K. H.; Zhang, T.; Au, Francis T. K.


    This study aimed to provide evidence-based conclusions from students concerning a capstone-design course in a civil engineering programme in Hong Kong. The evidence was generated by designing a student-experience questionnaire. The questionnaire instrument was assessed for internal consistency in four scales (curriculum and structure changes;…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Bogdan Ciucă


    Full Text Available The principle of priority and direct application of European rules in relation to the provisions that we find in the national legislation, once assumed at European level, it has generated debates and concerns about the usefulness of a single legal act in private law matters. The idea of European Civil Code, appeared somewhere in the early 80s, is becoming more current and triggers a justified and sustained interest. Considering that the civil legislation of Community Member is a legislation dominated by tradition and peculiarities of culture, religion and temper, the issue of a European Civil Code forms as a project generating discussions, restraints and even rejec tions of the Member States in relation to this proposal. The current system of European legislative acts that apply immediately and priority in EU member states remains only a temporary solution and which generates difficulties in interpretation and affects the utility of the enactment. Clarifications on the pros and cons to promote a European Civil Codex will be analyzed primarily in terms of law and, last but not least in terms of political perspective, taking into account the Community objectives undertaken by accession treaties and the need for a legislative norm, especially European, to be predictable, transparent, useful and accessible. This paper intends to submit to debate both current doctrinal arguments, the blocking of such an approach, based on the principle of autonomy and the peculiarities of the legal system of each Member State, but also considering the practical arguments and of simplification of rules met in a European Civil Code assumed and applicable in the European space.

  13. Politics of civility: the case of the Association of Undocumented People of Madrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia


    The mobilization of undocumented immigrants in civil society reflects the politics of civility, defined by Balibar as the creation of a space for an inclusive political community based on equality. The case analysed in this article, the Association of Undocumented People of Madrid, refers......, they also require a more radical change in society (i.e. ‘societal change’). Thinking beyond the framework of national citizenship, migrants, as workers, attempt to foster alternative economic and social conditions....

  14. Orthonormal bases for  α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten


    We construct an orthonormal basis for the family of bi-variate α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on local trigonometric bases, and the basis elements are closely related to so-called brushlets. As an application, we show that m-term nonlinear approximation with the representing system...... in an α-modulation space can be completely characterized....

  15. Space-Based Space Surveillance Logistics Case Study: A Qualitative Product Support Element Analysis (United States)


    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SPACE-BASED SPACE SURVEILLANCE LOGISTICS CASE STUDY: A QUALITATIVE ...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT This research provides a qualitative analysis of the logistics impacts, effects, and sustainment challenges...provides a qualitative product support element-by-element review for both research questions. Chapters IV and V present the findings, results

  16. Historic Frontier Processes active in Future Space-Based Mineral Extraction (United States)

    Gray, D. M.


    The forces that shaped historic mining frontiers are in many cases not bound by geographic or temporal limits. The forces that helped define historic frontiers are active in today's physical and virtual frontiers, and will be present in future space-based frontiers. While frontiers derived from position and technology are primarily economic in nature, non-economic conditions affect the success or failure of individual frontier endeavors, local "mining camps" and even entire frontiers. Frontiers can be defined as the line of activity that divides the established markets and infrastructure of civilization from the unclaimed resources and potential wealth of a wilderness. At the frontier line, ownership of resources is established. The resource can then be developed using capital, energy and information. In a mining setting, the resource is concentrated for economic shipment to the markets of civilization. Profits from the sale of the resource are then used to fund further development of the resource and/or pay investors. Both positional and technical frontiers develop as a series of generations. The profits from each generation of development provides the capital and/or investment incentive for the next round of development. Without profit, the self-replicating process of frontiers stops.

  17. The possibility of using materials based on secondary gravel in civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galitskova Yulia


    Full Text Available By now, the wear and tear of housing stock is more than 50%. Each year the number of old and dilapidated housing is growing, but it is gradually replaced by modern buildings. However, wastes accumulated from dismantling of buildings and constructions, are underutilized and, usually are just stored at landfills, or used for temporary roads construction. The purpose of this research is to define construction wastes characteristics and to explore possibilities for recycling of wastes from construction materials production. The paper also analyzes housing stock condition and basic requirements to building materials used in construction; and demonstrates results building materials based on secondary gravel investigation. While working with materials based on waste requirements the authors conducted laboratory research. Thus, the paper presents the analysis of laboratory tests results that made it possible to draw conclusions about the possible use of building materials based on secondary gravel and about their conformity to specified requirements. The researchers also developed proposals and recommendations to improve the competitiveness of such materials.

  18. MIMO Based Eigen-Space Spreading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eltawil, Ahmed


    .... Combination of this powerful technique with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based modulation and traditional time and frequency spreading techniques results in a highly secure mode of communications...

  19. High Available COTS Based Computer for Space (United States)

    Hartmann, J.; Magistrati, Giorgio


    The availability and reliability factors of a system are central requirements of a target application. From a simple fuel injection system used in cars up to a flight control system of an autonomous navigating spacecraft, each application defines its specific availability factor under the target application boundary conditions. Increasing quality requirements on data processing systems used in space flight applications calling for new architectures to fulfill the availability, reliability as well as the increase of the required data processing power. Contrary to the increased quality request simplification and use of COTS components to decrease costs while keeping the interface compatibility to currently used system standards are clear customer needs. Data processing system design is mostly dominated by strict fulfillment of the customer requirements and reuse of available computer systems were not always possible caused by obsolescence of EEE-Parts, insufficient IO capabilities or the fact that available data processing systems did not provide the required scalability and performance.

  20. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann


    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....

  1. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....

  2. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study (United States)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.


    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  3. Complexity in Simplicity: Flexible Agent-based State Space Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob Illum; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    In this paper, we describe a new flexible framework for state space exploration based on cooperating agents. The idea is to let various agents with different search patterns explore the state space individually and communicate information about fruitful subpaths of the search tree to each other...

  4. Competitive market-based allocation of consumer attention space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bohte (Sander); E.H. Gerding (Enrico); J.A. La Poutré (Han)


    textabstractThe amount of attention space available for recommending suppliers to consumers on e-commerce sites is typically limited. We present a competitive distributed recommendation mechanism based on adaptive software agents for efficiently allocating the 'consumer attention space', or banners.

  5. Aligned carbon nanotube based ultrasonic microtransducers for durability monitoring in civil engineering. (United States)

    Lebental, B; Chainais, P; Chenevier, P; Chevalier, N; Delevoye, E; Fabbri, J-M; Nicoletti, S; Renaux, P; Ghis, A


    Structural health monitoring of porous materials such as concrete is becoming a major component in our resource-limited economy, as it conditions durable exploitation of existing facilities. Durability in porous materials depends on nanoscale features which need to be monitored in situ with nanometric resolution. To address this problem, we put forward an approach based on the development of a new nanosensor, namely a capacitive micrometric ultrasonic transducer whose vibrating membrane is made of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Such sensors are meant to be embedded in large numbers within a porous material in order to provide information on its durability by monitoring in situ neighboring individual micropores. In the present paper, we report on the feasibility of the key building block of the proposed sensor: we have fabricated well-aligned, ultra-thin, dense SWNT membranes that show above-nanometer amplitudes of vibration over a large range of frequencies spanning from 100 kHz to 5 MHz.

  6. Ground Based Support for Exoplanet Space Missions (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.; Nissinen, M.


    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused to asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2] and long term monitoring projects [3]. In the early 2011 Europlanet NA1 and NA2 organized "Coordinated Observations of Exoplanets from Ground and Space"-workshop in Graz, Austria. The workshop gathered together proam astronomers who have the equipment to measure the light curves of the exoplanets. Also there were professional scientists working in the exoplanet field who attended to the workshop. The result of the workshop was to organize coordinated observation campaign for follow-up observations of exoplanets (e.g. CoRoT planets). Also coordinated observation campaign to observe stellar CME outbreaks was planned. THO has a lot of experience in field of exoplanet light curve measurements and therefore this campaign is very supported by the research team of the observatory. In next coming observing seasons THO will concentrate its efforts for this kind of campaigns.

  7. Optimization of a space based radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Kien Fan Cesar Hung; Deng Zhongmin


    Nowadays there is an increased demand in satellite weight reduction for the reduction of costs. Thermal control system designers have to face the challenge of reducing both the weight of the system and required heater power while maintaining the components temperature within their design ranges. The main purpose of this paper is to present an optimization of a heat pipe radiator applied to a practical engineering design application. For this study, a communications satellite payload panel was considered. Four radiator areas were defined instead of a centralized one in order to improve the heat rejection into space; the radiator's dimensions were determined considering worst hot scenario, solar fluxes, heat dissipation and the component's design temperature upper limit. Dimensions, thermal properties of the structural panel, optical properties and degradation/contamination on thermal control coatings were also considered. A thermal model was constructed for thermal analysis and two heat pipe network designs were evaluated and compared. The model that allowed better radiator efficiency was selected for parametric thermal analysis and optimization. This pursues finding the minimum size of the heat pipe network while keeping complying with thermal control requirements without increasing power consumption. - Highlights: →Heat pipe radiator optimization applied to a practical engineering design application. →The heat pipe radiator of a communications satellite panel is optimized. →A thermal model was built for parametric thermal analysis and optimization. →Optimal heat pipe network size is determined for the optimal weight solution. →The thermal compliance was verified by transient thermal analysis.

  8. Why advanced computing? The key to space-based operations (United States)

    Phister, Paul W., Jr.; Plonisch, Igor; Mineo, Jack


    The 'what is the requirement?' aspect of advanced computing and how it relates to and supports Air Force space-based operations is a key issue. In support of the Air Force Space Command's five major mission areas (space control, force enhancement, force applications, space support and mission support), two-fifths of the requirements have associated stringent computing/size implications. The Air Force Research Laboratory's 'migration to space' concept will eventually shift Science and Technology (S&T) dollars from predominantly airborne systems to airborne-and-space related S&T areas. One challenging 'space' area is in the development of sophisticated on-board computing processes for the next generation smaller, cheaper satellite systems. These new space systems (called microsats or nanosats) could be as small as a softball, yet perform functions that are currently being done by large, vulnerable ground-based assets. The Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) concept will be used to manage the overall process of space applications coupled with advancements in computing. The JBI can be defined as a globally interoperable information 'space' which aggregates, integrates, fuses, and intelligently disseminates all relevant battlespace knowledge to support effective decision-making at all echelons of a Joint Task Force (JTF). This paper explores a single theme -- on-board processing is the best avenue to take advantage of advancements in high-performance computing, high-density memories, communications, and re-programmable architecture technologies. The goal is to break away from 'no changes after launch' design to a more flexible design environment that can take advantage of changing space requirements and needs while the space vehicle is 'on orbit.'

  9. Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program delivers a completely new technology solution to isolation and sensing of power flow (current and voltage). Based on striction materials technology,...

  10. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R


    This report describes work carried out under the Air Force Research Laboratory's basic research task in optical remote-sensing signatures, entitled Optical / Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing...

  11. Flexible Graphene-Based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a graphene-based battery/ultra-capacitor prototype that is flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, low cost, and safe and...

  12. Analisys of Book i of the New Code of Civil Procedure: A Reflex of the Phenomenon of Constitucionalization of Civil Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvete Flavio da Costa


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the Book I of the New Code of Civil Procedure, called "The civil procedural rules" linking it to the constitutionalization process that civil process has going by after the enactment of the 1988 Federal Constitution. This is because, since its enactment, the Democratic Constitution became maximum vector of the entire legal system, so that all laws must  comply  with  its  principles  and  rules,  under  penalty  of  being  considered unconstitutional. The previous Code, enacted in 1973, before the current Constitution, had no such concern because at that time, the maximum vector law was the Civil Code of 1916. So in that text, there was not some of the fundamental assumptions for valid and regular development of civil procedure, such as contradictory. With that in mind, the legislator brought in this chapter, a kind of law of introduction to civil procedure rules, regulating the application of the process in time and space, and also brings the constitutional principles that were not explicitly present in the encoded text before.. The present article is justified by the need to carry out a deeper study of the constitution of civil procedure, with a view to the subject nowadays. In order to enable the thematic deepening of the subject, it was employed the logical deductive and inductive methods logical, since the research was based on deductive research of new legislation.

  13. Civil Aircraft for the regular investigation of the atmosphere based on an instrumented container: The new CARIBIC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer


    Full Text Available An airfreight container with automated instruments for measurement of atmospheric gases and trace compounds was operated on a monthly basis onboard a Boeing 767-300 ER of LTU International Airways during long-distance flights from 1997 to 2002 (CARIBIC, Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, Subsequently a more advanced system has been developed, using a larger capacity container with additional equipment and an improved inlet system. CARIBIC phase #2 was implemented on a new long-range aircraft type Airbus A340-600 of the Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance in December 2004, creating a powerful flying observatory. The instrument package comprises detectors for the measurement of O3, total and gaseous H2O, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and number concentrations of sub-micrometer particles (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm diameter. Furthermore, an optical particle counter (OPC and a proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS are incorporated. Aerosol samples are collected for analysis of elemental composition and particle morphology after flight. Air samples are taken in glass containers for laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and greenhouse gases (including isotopic composition of CO2 in several laboratories. Absorption tubes collect oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Three differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS with their telescopes mounted in the inlet system measure atmospheric trace gases such as BrO, HONO, and NO2. A video camera mounted in the inlet provides information about clouds along the flight track. The flying observatory, its equipment and examples of measurement results are reported.

  14. Stasis and Bellum Civile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Carsten Hjort


    David Armitage’s new monograph Civil Wars: A History in Ideas (2017) will undoubtedly long remain a standard reference work. It presents readers with a vision of civil war as part of the longue durée. The argument might be further strengthened, however, if a more inclusive Greco-Roman approach...... to ancient civil war is accepted. This essay focuses on stasis vs. bellum civile, the origins of the concept of civil war, the approach of later Roman writers (such as Appian and Cassius Dio) to the concepts of stasis and bellum civile, and, finally, the question of what makes a civil war a civil war....... Whatever concepts were used, the Romans were not the first to experience internal war as a civil war—that is, a war between the citizens of a polity....

  15. A Cyber-Based Data-Enabled Virtual Organization for Wind Load Effects on Civil Infrastructures: VORTEX-Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Kareem


    Full Text Available Despite many advances in the area of wind effects on structures in recent decades, research has been traditionally conducted within limited resources scattered geographically. With the trend toward increasingly complex designs of civil infrastructure combined with the escalating potential for losses by extreme wind events, a new culture of research needs to be established based on innovative and collaborative solutions for better management of the impact of extreme wind events. To address this change, this paper presents a new paradigm of a multiscale cyber-based laboratory framework for the analysis/design, modeling, and simulation of wind load effects based on an ongoing collaborative cyberinfrastructure-based platform, Virtual Organization for Reducing the Toll of EXtreme Winds (VORTEX-Winds,, and discusses its current status since its inception in 2007 and ongoing developments. This collaborative framework as it evolves would enable a paradigm shift by offering advanced cyber-enabled modules (e-modules for accelerating advances in research and education to achieve improved understanding and better modeling of wind effects on structures. Accordingly, it will enhance wind community’s analysis and design capabilities to address next-generation challenges posed by wind. Through empowering those without computational or experimental resources, the e-modules will encompass a large set of subject areas and topics categorized as Database-enabled design, Full-scale/Field site data repository, Statistical/Stochastic toolboxes, Tele-experimentation, Uncertainty modeling, Damage assessment, and Computational platforms. This prototype will allow access to the individual e-module, while it is envisaged that next level of development in VORTEX-Winds will have the capability for an automated and integrated analysis/design through a nexus of e-modules. A highlight of the e-modules currently completed or in development is presented

  16. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien


    There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem...... and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students’ actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how students incorporate networked and digital technologies into their group work and into the study places...... they create for themselves. We describe how in one of the programmes ‘nomadic’ groups of students used different technologies and spaces for ‘placemaking’. We then show how their experience and approach to collaborative work differs to that of the more static or ‘artisan’ groups of students in the other...

  17. Space Science Cloud: a Virtual Space Science Research Platform Based on Cloud Model (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Tong, Jizhou; Zou, Ziming

    Through independent and co-operational science missions, Strategic Pioneer Program (SPP) on Space Science, the new initiative of space science program in China which was approved by CAS and implemented by National Space Science Center (NSSC), dedicates to seek new discoveries and new breakthroughs in space science, thus deepen the understanding of universe and planet earth. In the framework of this program, in order to support the operations of space science missions and satisfy the demand of related research activities for e-Science, NSSC is developing a virtual space science research platform based on cloud model, namely the Space Science Cloud (SSC). In order to support mission demonstration, SSC integrates interactive satellite orbit design tool, satellite structure and payloads layout design tool, payload observation coverage analysis tool, etc., to help scientists analyze and verify space science mission designs. Another important function of SSC is supporting the mission operations, which runs through the space satellite data pipelines. Mission operators can acquire and process observation data, then distribute the data products to other systems or issue the data and archives with the services of SSC. In addition, SSC provides useful data, tools and models for space researchers. Several databases in the field of space science are integrated and an efficient retrieve system is developing. Common tools for data visualization, deep processing (e.g., smoothing and filtering tools), analysis (e.g., FFT analysis tool and minimum variance analysis tool) and mining (e.g., proton event correlation analysis tool) are also integrated to help the researchers to better utilize the data. The space weather models on SSC include magnetic storm forecast model, multi-station middle and upper atmospheric climate model, solar energetic particle propagation model and so on. All the services above-mentioned are based on the e-Science infrastructures of CAS e.g. cloud storage and

  18. Selection of an evaluation index for water ecological civilizations of water-shortage cities based on the grey rough set (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhu, J. W.; Xie, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, R. G.


    According to the characteristics and existing problems of water ecological civilization of water-shortage cities, the evaluation index system of water ecological civilization was established using a grey rough set. From six aspects of water resources, water security, water environment, water ecology, water culture and water management, this study established the prime frame of the evaluation system, including 28 items, and used rough set theory to undertake optimal selection of the index system. Grey correlation theory then was used for weightings in order that the integrated evaluation index system for water ecology civilization of water-shortage cities could be constituted. Xi’an City was taken as an example, for which the results showed that 20 evaluation indexes could be obtained after optimal selection of the preliminary framework of evaluation index. The most influential indices were the water-resource category index and water environment category index. The leakage rate of the public water supply pipe network, as well as the disposal, treatment and usage rate of polluted water, urban water surface area ratio, the water quality of the main rivers, and so on also are important. It was demonstrated that the evaluation index could provide an objectively reflection of regional features and key points for the development of water ecology civilization for cities with scarce water resources. It is considered that the application example has universal applicability.

  19. Relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments (United States)

    Gudimetla, V. S. Rao


    An effort was initiated last year in the Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center to examine and incorporate, if necessary, the effects of relativity in the design of space-based lidar systems. A space-based lidar system, named AEOLUS, is under development at Marshall Space Flight Center and it will be used to accurately measure atmospheric wind profiles. Effects of relativity were also observed in the performance of space-based systems, for example in case of global positioning systems, and corrections were incorporated into the design of instruments. During the last summer, the effects of special relativity on the design of space-based lidar systems were studied in detail, by analyzing the problem of laser scattering off a fixed target when the source and a co-located receiver are moving on a spacecraft. Since the proposed lidar system uses a coherent detection system, errors even in the order of a few microradians must be corrected to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio. Previous analysis assumed that the ground is flat and the spacecraft is moving parallel to the ground, and developed analytical expressions for the location, direction and Doppler shift of the returning radiation. Because of the assumptions used in that analysis, only special relativity effects were involved. In this report, that analysis is extended to include general relativity and calculate its effects on the design.

  20. Space-based infrared sensors of space target imaging effect analysis (United States)

    Dai, Huayu; Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun; Zhao, Shuang


    Target identification problem is one of the core problem of ballistic missile defense system, infrared imaging simulation is an important means of target detection and recognition. This paper first established the space-based infrared sensors ballistic target imaging model of point source on the planet's atmosphere; then from two aspects of space-based sensors camera parameters and target characteristics simulated atmosphere ballistic target of infrared imaging effect, analyzed the camera line of sight jitter, camera system noise and different imaging effects of wave on the target.

  1. Awareness-based game-theoretic space resource management (United States)

    Chen, Genshe; Chen, Huimin; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Cruz, Jose B., Jr.


    Over recent decades, the space environment becomes more complex with a significant increase in space debris and a greater density of spacecraft, which poses great difficulties to efficient and reliable space operations. In this paper we present a Hierarchical Sensor Management (HSM) method to space operations by (a) accommodating awareness modeling and updating and (b) collaborative search and tracking space objects. The basic approach is described as follows. Firstly, partition the relevant region of interest into district cells. Second, initialize and model the dynamics of each cell with awareness and object covariance according to prior information. Secondly, explicitly assign sensing resources to objects with user specified requirements. Note that when an object has intelligent response to the sensing event, the sensor assigned to observe an intelligent object may switch from time-to-time between a strong, active signal mode and a passive mode to maximize the total amount of information to be obtained over a multi-step time horizon and avoid risks. Thirdly, if all explicitly specified requirements are satisfied and there are still more sensing resources available, we assign the additional sensing resources to objects without explicitly specified requirements via an information based approach. Finally, sensor scheduling is applied to each sensor-object or sensor-cell pair according to the object type. We demonstrate our method with realistic space resources management scenario using NASA's General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) for space object search and track with multiple space borne observers.

  2. SETH: A Hierarchical, Agent-based Architecture for Smart Spaces


    Marsá Maestre, Iván


    The ultimate goal of any smart environment is to release users from the tasks they usually perform to achieve comfort, efficiency, and service personalization. To achieve this goal, we propose to use multiagent systems. In this report we describe the SETH architectur: a hierarchical, agent-based solution intended to be applicable to different smart space scenarios, ranging from small environments, like smart homes or smart offices, to large smart spaces like cities.

  3. Competitive market-based allocation of consumer attention space


    Bohte, Sander; Gerding, Enrico; La Poutré, Han


    textabstractThe amount of attention space available for recommending suppliers to consumers on e-commerce sites is typically limited. We present a competitive distributed recommendation mechanism based on adaptive software agents for efficiently allocating the 'consumer attention space', or banners. In the example of an electronic shopping mall, the task is delegated to the individual shops, each of which evaluates the information that is available about the consumer and his or her interests ...

  4. Movement-based interaction in camera spaces: a conceptual framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movementbased projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space,...

  5. Trigonometric bases for matrix weighted Lp-spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten


    We give a complete characterization of 2π-periodic matrix weights W for which the vector-valued trigonometric system forms a Schauder basis for the matrix weighted space Lp(T;W). Then trigonometric quasi-greedy bases for Lp(T;W) are considered. Quasi-greedy bases are systems for which the simple...

  6. Civil Law Glossary. (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997


    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  7. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers (United States)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua


    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  8. Citizenship in civil society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.


    This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by

  9. Perspectives in geography of culture and civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Мirko


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of relevant methodological essence of "traditional" and "new" cultural geography. In the introduction is given an explanation of philosophic concepts of space, environment, place and the region in cultural geography. In second section is analyzed the meaning of civilization and the genesis of geography of civilization (géographie de civilisation. Special attention is on features of geographical posibilism as methodological paradigm, and the concept of cultural landscape as the essence of classical geography of culture and civilization. After this part are researched specific characteristics of certain academic schools and methodological perspectives in cultural geography. Postmodern paradigm and essence of "new" cultural geography are in the main focus. Postmodernism is changing the meaning of the basic concepts in cultural geography, which are analyzed in the introduction, such as space, culture, cultural region, cultural landscape and others. "New" cultural geography reassessed social and moral issues associated with the characteristics of the postmodern era. In this regard, methodological paradigm must be changed. This ascertainment is based on the interpretation of humanistic geography, where the emphasis is on the interpretation of cultural symbols, causal link and the "spirit of place" (Spiritus Loci. In accordance with modern conceptions of human in psychological notion, there are at least three theoretical directions, which find resonance in the appropriate cultural geography: behaviorism, psychoanalytic concept and cognitive concept - gestaltism and geography of perception. In conclusion is emphasized the need of finding a dialectical unity in "classical" and "new" cultural geography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  10. Climate Change Mitigation Potential of Wood Use in Civil Engineering in Japan Based on Life-Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Kayo


    Full Text Available Throughout its life-cycle, wood contributes to climate change mitigation through carbon storage and material and energy substitution. Focusing on wood use for piles, check dams, paved walkways, guardrails, and noise barriers, we quantified the nationwide potential for climate change mitigation in civil engineering in Japan through 2050. To assess mitigation potential, we examined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions that are avoided by storing carbon in wood and forests, substituting wooden materials for non-wooden materials (cement, concrete, steel, and asphalt, and substituting processing residue and waste wood salvaged from defunct civil engineering structures for fossil fuels (heavy oil. Our projections suggest that there will be a maximum potential domestic log volume of 6.80 million m3/year available for civil engineering use in Japan in 2050, and that it would be possible to produce this volume while increasing Japan’s forest resources over the long term. A maximum nationwide avoided GHG emissions potential of 9.63 million t-CO2eq/year could be achieved in 2050, which is equivalent to 0.7% of Japan’s current GHG emissions. The breakdown of avoided emissions is 73%, 19%, and 8% for carbon storage, material substitution, and energy substitution, respectively, with the greatest contributions coming from carbon storage through the use of log piles.

  11. [Civil engineering education at the Imperial College of Engineering in Tokyo: an analysis based on Ayahiko Ishibashi's memoirs]. (United States)

    Wada, Masanori


    The Imperial College of Engineering (ICE or Kobu-Daigakko) in Tokyo, founded in 1873 under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Works, was one of the most prominent modern institutions of engineering education in early Meiji Japan. Previous studies have revealed that the ICE offered large scale practical training programs at enterprises of the Ministry, which sometimes lasted several months, and praised their ideal combination of theory and practice. In reality, it has been difficult to evaluate the quality of education at the ICE mainly because of scarcity of sources. ICE students published a collection of memoirs for alumni members, commemorating the fiftieth-year of the history of the Tokyo Imperial University. Drawing on the previously neglected collection of students' memoires, this paper appraises the education of civil engineering offered by the ICE. The paper also compares this collection with other official records of the college, and confirms it as a reliable source, even though it contains some minor errors. The author particularly uses the memoirs by Ayahiko Ishibashi, one of the first graduates from its civil engineering course, who left sufficient reminiscences on education that he received. This paper, as a result, illustrates that the main practical training for the students of civil engineering was limited to designing process, including surveying. Furthermore, practical training that Ishibashi received at those enterprises often lacked a plan, and its effectiveness was questionable.

  12. National Coordination Office for Space-Based PNT (United States)

    Shaw, M. E.


    In December 2004, President Bush issued the US Policy on space-based positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT), providing guidance on the management of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and other space- based PNT systems. The policy established the National Executive Committee (EXCOM) to advise and coordinate federal agencies on matters related to space-based PNT. Chaired jointly by the deputy secretaries of defense and transportation, the EXCOM includes equivalent level officials from the Departments of State, the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Homeland Security, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A National Coordination Office (NCO) supports the EXCOM through an interagency staff. Since establishing the EXCOM and NCO in 2005, the organizations have quickly grown in influence and effectiveness, leading or managing many interagency initiatives including the development of a Five-Year National Space-Based PNT Plan, the Space-Based PNT Interference Detection and Mitigation (IDM) Plan, and other strategic documents. The NCO has also facilitated interagency coordination on numerous policy issues and on external communications intended to spread a consistent, positive US message about space-based PNT. Role of the NCO - The purpose of the EXCOM is to provide top-level guidance to US agencies regarding space-based PNT infrastructure. The president established it at the deputy secretary level to ensure its strategic recommendations effect real change in agency budgets. Recognizing such high-level officials could only meet every few months, the president directed the EXCOM to establish an NCO to carry out its day-to-day business, including overseeing the implementation of EXCOM action items across the member agencies. These range from the resolution of funding issues to the assessment of strategic policy options. They also include the completion of specific tasks and documents requested by the EXCOM co


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Khabarov


    Full Text Available PurposeThe aim of the research is to demonstrate the need for the Conception of Ontology-based Sector Educational Space. This Conception could become the basis for the integration of transport sector university information resources into the open virtual network information resource and global educational space. Its content will be presented by standardized ontology-based knowledge packages for educational programs in Russian and English languages.MethodologyComplex-based, ontological, content-based approaches and scientific principles of interdisciplinarity and standardization of knowledge are suggested as the methodological basis of the research. ResultsThe Conception of Ontology-based Sector Educational Space (railway transport, the method of the development of knowledge packages as ontologies in Russian and English languages, the Russian-English Transport Glossary as a separate ontology are among the expected results of the project implementation.Practical implicationsThe Conception could become the basis for the open project to establish the common resource center for transport universities (railway transport. The Conception of ontology-based sector educational space (railway transport could be adapted to the activity of universities of other economic sectors.

  14. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng


    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  15. WSN-Based Space Charge Density Measurement System. (United States)

    Deng, Dawei; Yuan, Haiwen; Lv, Jianxun; Ju, Yong


    It is generally acknowledged that high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line endures the drawback of large area, because of which the utilization of cable for space charge density monitoring system is of inconvenience. Compared with the traditional communication network, wireless sensor network (WSN) shows advantages in small volume, high flexibility and strong self-organization, thereby presenting great potential in solving the problem. Additionally, WSN is more suitable for the construction of distributed space charge density monitoring system as it has longer distance and higher mobility. A distributed wireless system is designed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density under HVDC transmission lines, which has been widely applied in both Chinese state grid HVDC test base and power transmission projects. Experimental results of the measuring system demonstrated its adaptability in the complex electromagnetic environment under the transmission lines and the ability in realizing accurate, flexible, and stable demands for the measurement of space charge density.

  16. State space modeling of Memristor-based Wien oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne


    State space modeling of Memristor based Wien \\'A\\' oscillator has been demonstrated for the first time considering nonlinear ion drift in Memristor. Time dependant oscillating resistance of Memristor is reported in both state space solution and SPICE simulation which plausibly provide the basis of realizing parametric oscillation by Memristor based Wien oscillator. In addition to this part Memristor is shown to stabilize the final oscillation amplitude by means of its nonlinear dynamic resistance which hints for eliminating diode in the feedback network of conventional Wien oscillator. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. State space modeling of Memristor-based Wien oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.


    State space modeling of Memristor based Wien 'A' oscillator has been demonstrated for the first time considering nonlinear ion drift in Memristor. Time dependant oscillating resistance of Memristor is reported in both state space solution and SPICE simulation which plausibly provide the basis of realizing parametric oscillation by Memristor based Wien oscillator. In addition to this part Memristor is shown to stabilize the final oscillation amplitude by means of its nonlinear dynamic resistance which hints for eliminating diode in the feedback network of conventional Wien oscillator. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu


    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  19. 14 CFR 13.305 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost of living adjustments of civil... Inflation Adjustment § 13.305 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a) Except for the... and maximum civil monetary penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the cost-of-living adjustment...

  20. Apollo management: A key to the solution of the social-economical dilemma - The transferability of space-travel managerial techniques to the civil sector (United States)

    Puttkamer, J. V.


    An analysis has been conducted to find out whether the management techniques developed in connection with the Apollo project could be used for dealing with such urgent problems of modern society as the crisis of the cities, the increasing environmental pollution, and the steadily growing traffic. Basic concepts and definitions of program and system management are discussed together with details regarding the employment of these concepts in connection with the solution of the problems of the Apollo program. Principles and significance of a systems approach are considered, giving attention to planning, system analysis, system integration, and project management. An application of the methods of project management to the problems of the civil sector is possible if the special characteristics of each particular case are taken into account.

  1. A distributed data base management system. [for Deep Space Network (United States)

    Bryan, A. I.


    Major system design features of a distributed data management system for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) designed for continuous two-way deep space communications are described. The reasons for which the distributed data base utilizing third-generation minicomputers is selected as the optimum approach for the DSN are threefold: (1) with a distributed master data base, valid data is available in real-time to support DSN management activities at each location; (2) data base integrity is the responsibility of local management; and (3) the data acquisition/distribution and processing power of a third-generation computer enables the computer to function successfully as a data handler or as an on-line process controller. The concept of the distributed data base is discussed along with the software, data base integrity, and hardware used. The data analysis/update constraint is examined.

  2. Silicon carbide optics for space and ground based astronomical telescopes (United States)

    Robichaud, Joseph; Sampath, Deepak; Wainer, Chris; Schwartz, Jay; Peton, Craig; Mix, Steve; Heller, Court


    Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical materials are being applied widely for both space based and ground based optical telescopes. The material provides a superior weight to stiffness ratio, which is an important metric for the design and fabrication of lightweight space telescopes. The material also has superior thermal properties with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and a high thermal conductivity. The thermal properties advantages are important for both space based and ground based systems, which typically need to operate under stressing thermal conditions. The paper will review L-3 Integrated Optical Systems - SSG’s (L-3 SSG) work in developing SiC optics and SiC optical systems for astronomical observing systems. L-3 SSG has been fielding SiC optical components and systems for over 25 years. Space systems described will emphasize the recently launched Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) developed for JHU-APL and NASA-GSFC. Review of ground based applications of SiC will include supporting L-3 IOS-Brashear’s current contract to provide the 0.65 meter diameter, aspheric SiC secondary mirror for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST).

  3. Space shuttle booster multi-engine base flow analysis (United States)

    Tang, H. H.; Gardiner, C. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Navickas, J.


    A comprehensive review of currently available techniques pertinent to several prominent aspects of the base thermal problem of the space shuttle booster is given along with a brief review of experimental results. A tractable engineering analysis, capable of predicting the power-on base pressure, base heating, and other base thermal environmental conditions, such as base gas temperature, is presented and used for an analysis of various space shuttle booster configurations. The analysis consists of a rational combination of theoretical treatments of the prominent flow interaction phenomena in the base region. These theories consider jet mixing, plume flow, axisymmetric flow effects, base injection, recirculating flow dynamics, and various modes of heat transfer. Such effects as initial boundary layer expansion at the nozzle lip, reattachment, recompression, choked vent flow, and nonisoenergetic mixing processes are included in the analysis. A unified method was developed and programmed to numerically obtain compatible solutions for the various flow field components in both flight and ground test conditions. Preliminary prediction for a 12-engine space shuttle booster base thermal environment was obtained for a typical trajectory history. Theoretical predictions were also obtained for some clustered-engine experimental conditions. Results indicate good agreement between the data and theoretical predicitons.

  4. Conserving Space Heritage - The Case for Tranquillity Base (United States)

    Fewer, G.

    One of the most important and spectacular events in the history of space exploration was the first Moon Landing of 1969. Safe from the ravages of erosion, agriculture, industry or the expansion of human settlement, the greatest threat to the site of this momentous event - Tranquillity Base - is likely to be from a meteor impact. However, with the advent of space tourism and commercial space travel, the site of humankind's first visit to a celestial body may come under threat of a different kind - that of souvenir hunters and miners. In this paper, the historical background to the Apollo programme is outlined and the sequence of events that made up the Apollo 11 mission, which conducted the first Moon landing, is described before concluding with a consideration of the heritage conservation issues of Tranquillity Base.

  5. Perspectives in geography of culture and civilizations


    Grčić Мirko; Grčić Ljiljana; Sibinović Мikica


    This paper presents a comparative analysis of relevant methodological essence of "traditional" and "new" cultural geography. In the introduction is given an explanation of philosophic concepts of space, environment, place and the region in cultural geography. In second section is analyzed the meaning of civilization and the genesis of geography of civilization (géographie de civilisation). Special attention is on features of geographical posibilism as metho...

  6. Alamos: An International Collaboration to Provide a Space Based Environmental Monitoring Solution for the Deep Space Network (United States)

    Kennedy, S. O.; Dunn, A.; Lecomte, J.; Buchheim, K.; Johansson, E.; Berger, T.


    This abstract proposes the advantages of an externally mounted instrument in support of the human physiology, space biology, and human health and performance key science area. Alamos provides Space-Based Environmental Monitoring capabilities.

  7. Community Based Distribution of Child Spacing Methods at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uses volunteer CBD agents. Mrs. E.F. Pelekamoyo. Service Delivery Officer. National Family Welfare Council of Malawi. Private Bag 308. Lilongwe 3. Malawi. Community Based Distribution of. Child Spacing Methods ... than us at the Hospital; male motivators by talking to their male counterparts help them to accept that their ...

  8. Conceptual design of jewellery: a space-based aesthetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzintzi Vaia


    Full Text Available Conceptual design is a field that offers various aesthetic approaches to generation of nature-based product design concepts. Essentially, Conceptual Product Design (CPD uses similarities based on the geometrical forms and functionalities. Furthermore, the CAD-based freehand sketch is a primary conceptual tool in the early stages of the design process. The proposed Conceptual Product Design concept is dealing with jewelleries that are inspired from space. Specifically, a number of galaxy features, such as galaxy shapes, wormholes and graphical representation of planet magnetic field are used as inspirations. Those space-based design ideas at a conceptual level can lead to further opportunities for research and economic success of the jewellery industry. A number of illustrative case studies are presented and new opportunities can be derived for economic success.

  9. Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries (United States)

    Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.


    Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation

  10. Ancient shorelines of Gujarat, India, during the Indus civilization (Late Mid-Holocene): A study based on archaeological evidences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    or production of salt, etc. as indicators of palaeo-shorelines. As of today, these sites are located away from the present shoreline. Lothal, believed to be the oldest dockyard in the world, is located at the head of the Gulf of Khambhat, now situated about... shorelines of Gujarat, India, during the Indus civilization (Late Mid-Holocene): A study ... 16-Nov-06 centre for acquiring and processing raw materials for manufacturing articles for export. Discovery of two...

  11. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries (United States)

    Stanley, D.


    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  12. At the Turning Point of the Current Techno-Economic Paradigm: Commons-Based Peer Production, Desktop Manufacturing and the Role of Civil Society in the Perezian Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Kostakis


    Full Text Available Following the theory of techno-economic paradigm shifts (TEPS, this paper calls attention to the phenomenon of Commons-based peer production (CBPP. In the context of the current paradigm, it argues that civil society can play an important role in creating favourable conditions for a more sustainable global knowledge society. Approaching tentatively the ways in which 3D printing and other desktop manufacturing technologies can be used in CBPP, it also explores the ways in which the partnership with the state may provide a supportive innovative institutional basis for taking the maximum advantage of the emerging synergies in the vein of TEPS theory.

  13. A Danish Perspective on Problem Based Learning in Space Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan D. V.; Bisgaard, Morten; Alminde, Lars


    This paper describes the goals of the Student Satellite Program at Aalborg University (AAU), and the means for implementing it, namely a concept called Problem Based Learning, which is the cornerstone in the education at AAU. AAU has within the last decade chosen to focus strongly on education...... in space technology, not because the country lacks aerospace engineers, but because space projects require the students to think about systems rather than individual modules, while providing problems that are technically challenging for the students to solve. This combination makes the graduates very...

  14. Civil Society as one of the decisive factors of the Ukrainians’ consolidation in the Postcolonial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Grabovska


    Full Text Available The actual problem of the modern Ukrainian society has been considered in the article. Civil society’s development is a major factor in the consolidation of the community. The consolidation of the Ukrainian postcolonial community is a crucial condition for its further existence as the state. Hybrid War of Russia against Ukraine is threatening its national integrity. The actuality of the issue is determined also by the tasks of the implementation of the stable democracy in Ukraine. The purpose of the article is to prove that civil society today is the most important factor, which is uniting the Ukrainian society. Today there are several concepts of the civil society. Many historical challenges have led to the creation of the civil society in these lands. For example, the establishment of the Magdeburg Law on ethnic Ukrainian lands united the cities’ public societies. Principles of life organisation by the Magdeburg Law were organic for Ukrainians. This was caused by a number of factors. In particular, it was the Ukrainian mentality. The Russian colonization of Ukraine destroyed the democratic principles of life in these lands, crashed civil solidarity and influenced the mentality of people. The phenomenon of the civil society is complex and multifaceted. Civil society is a space of the initiative of free citizens and NGOs, independent from the state and business. They willingly assume the responsibility for their maintenance of the social life outside the state and business. Civil society plays special role in postcolonial communities of the transition type. The Ukrainian society is such community now. The events of the Revolution of Dignity, and then the war in the eastern Ukraine have shown that the civil activity of the population by itself, the ability to act effectively and integrally created the conditions for preservation of the independent Ukrainian state. The consolidation of the Ukrainians in the most dangerous times of

  15. Content Sharing Based on Personal Information in Virtually Secured Space (United States)

    Sohn, Hosik; Ro, Yong Man; Plataniotis, Kostantinos N.

    User generated contents (UGC) are shared in an open space like social media where users can upload and consume contents freely. Since the access of contents is not restricted, the contents could be delivered to unwanted users or misused sometimes. In this paper, we propose a method for sharing UGCs securely based on the personal information of users. With the proposed method, virtual secure space is created for contents delivery. The virtual secure space allows UGC creator to deliver contents to users who have similar personal information and they can consume the contents without any leakage of personal information. In order to verify the usefulness of the proposed method, the experiment was performed where the content was encrypted with personal information of creator, and users with similar personal information have decrypted and consumed the contents. The results showed that UGCs were securely shared among users who have similar personal information.

  16. Non-Topographic Space-Based Laser Remote Sensing (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Purucker, Michael; Janches, Diego; Getty, Stephanie; Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Li, Steve X.; hide


    In the past 20+ years, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has successfully developed and flown lidars for mapping of Mars, the Earth, Mercury and the Moon. As laser and electro-optics technologies expand and mature, more sophisticated instruments that once were thought to be too complicated for space are being considered and developed. We will present progress on several new, space-based laser instruments that are being developed at GSFC. These include lidars for remote sensing of carbon dioxide and methane on Earth for carbon cycle and global climate change; sodium resonance fluorescence lidar to measure environmental parameters of the middle and upper atmosphere on Earth and Mars and a wind lidar for Mars orbit; in situ laser instruments include remote and in-situ measurements of the magnetic fields; and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer to study the diversity and structure of nonvolatile organics in solid samples on missions to outer planetary satellites and small bodies.

  17. Great Ellipse Route Planning Based on Space Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wenchao


    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of navigation error caused by unified earth model in great circle route planning using sphere model and modern navigation equipment using ellipsoid mode, a method of great ellipse route planning based on space vector is studied. By using space vector algebra method, the vertex of great ellipse is solved directly, and description of great ellipse based on major-axis vector and minor-axis vector is presented. Then calculation formulas of great ellipse azimuth and distance are deduced using two basic vectors. Finally, algorithms of great ellipse route planning are studied, especially equal distance route planning algorithm based on Newton-Raphson(N-R method. Comparative examples show that the difference of route planning between great circle and great ellipse is significant, using algorithms of great ellipse route planning can eliminate the navigation error caused by the great circle route planning, and effectively improve the accuracy of navigation calculation.

  18. Entanglement-based Free Space Quantum Cryptography in Daylight (United States)

    Gerhardt, Ilja; Peloso, Matthew P.; Ho, Caleb; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Kurtsiefer, Christian


    In quantum key distribution (QKD) two families of protocols are established: One, based on preparing and sending approximations of single photons, the other based on measurements on entangled photon pairs, which allow to establish a secret key using less assumptions on the size of a Hilbert space. The larger optical bandwidth of photon pairs in comparison with light used for the first family makes establishing a free space link challenging. We present a complete entanglement based QKD system following the BBM92 protocol, which generates a secure key continuously 24 hours a day between distant parties. Spectral, spatial and temporal filtering schemes were introduced to a previous setup, suppressing more than 30,B of background. We are able to establish the link during daytime, and have developed an algorithm to start and maintain time synchronization with simple crystal oscillators.

  19. Examining Civil Servants' Decisions to Use Web 2.0 Tools for Learning, Based on the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior (United States)

    Lai, Horng-Ji


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the decisions of civil servants to use Web 2.0 applications while engaging in online learning. The participants were 439 civil servants enrolled in asynchronous online learning programs, using an e-learning portal provided by Taiwan's Regional Civil Service Development Institute. The participants…

  20. Lidar technologies for airborne and space-based applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, T.D.; Schmitt, R.L.; Sobering, T.J.; Raymond, T.D.; Stephenson, D.A.


    This study identifies technologies required to extend the capabilities of airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) systems and establish the feasibility of autonomous space-based lidars. Work focused on technologies that enable the development of a lightweight, low power, rugged and autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instruments. Applications for airborne or space-based DIAL include the measurement of water vapor profiles in support of climate research and processing-plant emissions signatures for environmental and nonproliferation monitoring. A computer-based lidar performance model was developed to allow trade studies to be performed on various technologies and system configurations. It combines input from the physics (absorption line strengths and locations) of the problem, the system requirements (weight, power, volume, accuracy), and the critical technologies available (detectors, lasers, filters) to produce the best conceptual design. Conceptual designs for an airborne and space-based water vapor DIAL, and a detailed design of a ground-based water vapor DIAL demonstration system were completed. Future work planned includes the final testing, integration, and operation of the demonstration system to prove the capability of the critical enabling technologies identified

  1. Engineering graphics data entry for space station data base (United States)

    Lacovara, R. C.


    The entry of graphical engineering data into the Space Station Data Base was examined. Discussed were: representation of graphics objects; representation of connectivity data; graphics capture hardware; graphics display hardware; site-wide distribution of graphics, and consolidation of tools and hardware. A fundamental assumption was that existing equipment such as IBM based graphics capture software and VAX networked facilities would be exploited. Defensible conclusions reached after study and simulations of use of these systems at the engineering level are: (1) existing IBM based graphics capture software is an adequate and economical means of entry of schematic and block diagram data for present and anticipated electronic systems for Space Station; (2) connectivity data from the aforementioned system may be incorporated into the envisioned Space Station Data Base with modest effort; (3) graphics and connectivity data captured on the IBM based system may be exported to the VAX network in a simple and direct fashion; (4) graphics data may be displayed site-wide on VT-125 terminals and lookalikes; (5) graphics hard-copy may be produced site-wide on various dot-matrix printers; and (6) the system may provide integrated engineering services at both the engineering and engineering management level.

  2. A Space-Based Learning Service for Schools Worldwide (United States)

    White, Norman A.; Gibson, Alan


    This paper outlines a scheme for international collaboration to enrich the use of space in school education, to improve students' learning about science and related subjects and to enhance the continuity of science-related studies after the age of 16. Guidelines are presented for the design of an on-line learning service to provide schools worldwide with:- interactive curriculum-related learning resources for teaching about space and through - access to a purpose-designed education satellite or satellites; - opportunities for hands-on work by students in out-of-school hours; - news about space developments to attract, widen and deepen initial interest among teachers - support services to enable teachers to make effective use of the learning service. The Learning Service is the product of almost twenty years of experience by a significant number of UK schools in experimenting with, and in using, satellites and space to aid learning; and over four years of study and development by the SpaceLink Learning Foundation - a private-sector, not- for-profit UK registered charity, which is dedicated to help in increasing both the supply of scientists and engineers and the public understanding of science. This initiative provides scope for, and could benefit from, the involvement of relevant/interested organisations drawn from different countries. The Foundation would be ready, from its UK base, to be among such a group of initiating organisations.

  3. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  4. A Study on the Data Compression Technology-Based Intelligent Data Acquisition (IDAQ System for Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwanghee Heo


    Full Text Available In this paper, a data compression technology-based intelligent data acquisition (IDAQ system was developed for structural health monitoring of civil structures, and its validity was tested using random signals (El-Centro seismic waveform. The IDAQ system was structured to include a high-performance CPU with large dynamic memory for multi-input and output in a radio frequency (RF manner. In addition, the embedded software technology (EST has been applied to it to implement diverse logics needed in the process of acquiring, processing and transmitting data. In order to utilize IDAQ system for the structural health monitoring of civil structures, this study developed an artificial filter bank by which structural dynamic responses (acceleration were efficiently acquired, and also optimized it on the random El-Centro seismic waveform. All techniques developed in this study have been embedded to our system. The data compression technology-based IDAQ system was proven valid in acquiring valid signals in a compressed size.

  5. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael


    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  6. ASI-Sistema Rischio Vulcanico SRV: a pilot project to develop EO data processing modules and products for volcanic activity monitoring based on Italian Civil Protection Department requirements and needs (United States)

    Buongiorno, Maria Fabrizia; Musacchio, Massimo; Silvestri, Malvina; Spinetti, Claudia; Corradini, Stefano; Lombardo, Valerio; Merucci, Luca; Sansosti, Eugenio; Pugnagli, Sergio; Teggi, Sergio; Pace, Gaetano; Fermi, Marco; Zoffoli, Simona


    The Project called Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the frame of the National Space Plan 2003-2005 under the Earth Observations section for natural risks management. The SRV Project is coordinated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) which is responsible at national level for the volcanic monitoring. The objective of the project is to develop a pre-operative system based on EO data and ground measurements integration to support the volcanic risk monitoring of the Italian Civil Protection Department which requirements and need are well integrated in the GMES Emergency Core Services program. The project philosophy is to implement, by incremental versions, specific modules which allow to process, store and visualize through Web GIS tools EO derived parameters considering three activity phases: 1) knowledge and prevention; 2) crisis; 3) post crisis. In order to combine effectively the EO data and the ground networks measurements the system will implement a multi-parametric analysis tool, which represents and unique tool to analyze contemporaneously a large data set of data in "near real time". The SRV project will be tested his operational capabilities on three Italian Volcanoes: Etna,Vesuvio and Campi Flegrei.

  7. Event-based Sensing for Space Situational Awareness (United States)

    Cohen, G.; Afshar, S.; van Schaik, A.; Wabnitz, A.; Bessell, T.; Rutten, M.; Morreale, B.

    A revolutionary type of imaging device, known as a silicon retina or event-based sensor, has recently been developed and is gaining in popularity in the field of artificial vision systems. These devices are inspired by a biological retina and operate in a significantly different way to traditional CCD-based imaging sensors. While a CCD produces frames of pixel intensities, an event-based sensor produces a continuous stream of events, each of which is generated when a pixel detects a change in log light intensity. These pixels operate asynchronously and independently, producing an event-based output with high temporal resolution. There are also no fixed exposure times, allowing these devices to offer a very high dynamic range independently for each pixel. Additionally, these devices offer high-speed, low power operation and a sparse spatiotemporal output. As a consequence, the data from these sensors must be interpreted in a significantly different way to traditional imaging sensors and this paper explores the advantages this technology provides for space imaging. The applicability and capabilities of event-based sensors for SSA applications are demonstrated through telescope field trials. Trial results have confirmed that the devices are capable of observing resident space objects from LEO through to GEO orbital regimes. Significantly, observations of RSOs were made during both day-time and nighttime (terminator) conditions without modification to the camera or optics. The event based sensor’s ability to image stars and satellites during day-time hours offers a dramatic capability increase for terrestrial optical sensors. This paper shows the field testing and validation of two different architectures of event-based imaging sensors. An eventbased sensor’s asynchronous output has an intrinsically low data-rate. In addition to low-bandwidth communications requirements, the low weight, low-power and high-speed make them ideally suitable to meeting the demanding

  8. The paradox of civilizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilliam, Laura

    As in most other European Countries, immigrants from “non-Western” countries are increasingly perceived as a threat to integration, equality and harmony in Danish society. Especially the immigrant boys are depicted as aggressive, troublesome and in lack of social competencies. This makes this group...... minority youngsters, which are seen as a threat to the stability and harmony of Danish society. Based on ethnographic material from 11 months of fieldwork among ethnic minority pupils in two schools in Copenhagen, this paper will look into the schools’ effort to civilize youth of outsider status. Through....... For their part, the boys - in search of alternative strength and recognition - invert the image of good behavior presented to them by the school, and come to identify strongly with aggression, rude language and tough masculinity. Drawing on Elias’ discussions of dominant group’s efforts to both integrate...

  9. Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert


    System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its

  10. Free locally convex spaces with a small base

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabriyelyan, S.; Kąkol, Jerzy


    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2017), s. 575-585 ISSN 1578-7303 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compact resolution * free locally convex space * G-base Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2016

  11. Integrating community-based verbal autopsy into civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS): system-level considerations (United States)

    de Savigny, Don; Riley, Ian; Chandramohan, Daniel; Odhiambo, Frank; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Sam; AbouZahr, Carla; Mitra, Raj; Cobos Muñoz, Daniel; Firth, Sonja; Maire, Nicolas; Sankoh, Osman; Bronson, Gay; Setel, Philip; Byass, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Boerma, Ties; Lopez, Alan D.


    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable and representative cause of death (COD) statistics are essential to inform public health policy, respond to emerging health needs, and document progress towards Sustainable Development Goals. However, less than one-third of deaths worldwide are assigned a cause. Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems in low- and lower-middle-income countries are failing to provide timely, complete and accurate vital statistics, and it will still be some time before they can provide physician-certified COD for every death. Proposals: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a method to ascertain the probable COD and, although imperfect, it is the best alternative in the absence of medical certification. There is extensive experience with VA in research settings but only a few examples of its use on a large scale. Data collection using electronic questionnaires on mobile devices and computer algorithms to analyse responses and estimate probable COD have increased the potential for VA to be routinely applied in CRVS systems. However, a number of CRVS and health system integration issues should be considered in planning, piloting and implementing a system-wide intervention such as VA. These include addressing the multiplicity of stakeholders and sub-systems involved, integration with existing CRVS work processes and information flows, linking VA results to civil registration records, information technology requirements and data quality assurance. Conclusions: Integrating VA within CRVS systems is not simply a technical undertaking. It will have profound system-wide effects that should be carefully considered when planning for an effective implementation. This paper identifies and discusses the major system-level issues and emerging practices, provides a planning checklist of system-level considerations and proposes an overview for how VA can be integrated into routine CRVS systems. PMID:28137194

  12. TiAu-based micro-calorimeters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, B.P.F.; Popescu, M.; Bruijn, M.; Gottardi, L.; Hoevers, H.F.C.; Korte, P.A.J. de; Kuur, J. van der; Ridder, M.; Takei, Y.


    We present the latest results of the performance of micro-calorimeters based on transition edge sensors (TESs) for space applications. Sensors based on TiAu superconductive layers with Cu/Bi absorbers are discussed and have been characterized. Different coupling schemes between absorber and TES have been tested leading to an optimal (preferred) design for a new batch of arrays. We discuss the progress on array development for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) in terms of pixel uniformity and filling factor. Inter-pixel cross-talk is discussed as well.

  13. Impact of space on science (United States)

    Elachi, Charles


    The advent of the capability to conduct space-based measurements has revolutionized the study of the Earth, the planetary system and the astrophysical universe. The resultant knowledge has yielded insights into the management of our planet's resources and provides intellectual enrichment for our civilization. New investigation techniques hold promise for extending the scope of space science to address topics in fundamental physics such as gravitational waves and certain aspects of Einstein's Theory of General Relativity.

  14. Condition Based Maintenance of Space Exploration Vehicles Using Structural Health Monitoring, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acellent Technologies proposes to develop an autonomous and automated diagnostic system for condition based maintenance (CBM) of safety critical structures for space...

  15. Apps for Ancient Civilizations (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie


    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  16. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  17. Civil engineering work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousyn, Rene; Goubin, Jean.


    Although it does not require a specifically new technicality, the Civil Engineering site of a nuclear power plant is a complex work. Considering as an example the power plant currently in construction at Tricastin, the authors describe the main Civil Engineering work and task organization applied to carry it out [fr

  18. Advanced e-Infrastructures for Civil Protection applications: the CYCLOPS Project (United States)

    Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.; Verlato, M.; Ayral, P. A.; Fiorucci, P.; Pina, A.; Oliveira, J.; Sorani, R.


    During the full cycle of the emergency management, Civil Protection operative procedures involve many actors belonging to several institutions (civil protection agencies, public administrations, research centers, etc.) playing different roles (decision-makers, data and service providers, emergency squads, etc.). In this context the sharing of information is a vital requirement to make correct and effective decisions. Therefore a European-wide technological infrastructure providing a distributed and coordinated access to different kinds of resources (data, information, services, expertise, etc.) could enhance existing Civil Protection applications and even enable new ones. Such European Civil Protection e-Infrastructure should be designed taking into account the specific requirements of Civil Protection applications and the state-of-the-art in the scientific and technological disciplines which could make the emergency management more effective. In the recent years Grid technologies have reached a mature state providing a platform for secure and coordinated resource sharing between the participants collected in the so-called Virtual Organizations. Moreover the Earth and Space Sciences Informatics provide the conceptual tools for modeling the geospatial information shared in Civil Protection applications during its entire lifecycle. Therefore a European Civil Protection e-infrastructure might be based on a Grid platform enhanced with Earth Sciences services. In the context of the 6th Framework Programme the EU co-funded Project CYCLOPS (CYber-infrastructure for CiviL protection Operative ProcedureS), ended in December 2008, has addressed the problem of defining the requirements and identifying the research strategies and innovation guidelines towards an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection. Starting from the requirement analysis CYCLOPS has proposed an architectural framework for a European Civil Protection e-Infrastructure. This architectural framework has

  19. Special Relativity Corrections for Space-Based Lidars (United States)

    RaoGudimetla, Venkata S.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    The theory of special relativity is used to analyze some of the physical phenomena associated with space-based coherent Doppler lidars aimed at Earth and the atmosphere. Two important cases of diffuse scattering and retroreflection by lidar targets are treated. For the case of diffuse scattering, we show that for a coaligned transmitter and receiver on the moving satellite, there is no angle between transmitted and returned radiation. However, the ray that enters the receiver does not correspond to a retroreflected ray by the target. For the retroreflection case there is misalignment between the transmitted ray and the received ray. In addition, the Doppler shift in the frequency and the amount of tip for the receiver aperture when needed are calculated, The error in estimating wind because of the Doppler shift in the frequency due to special relativity effects is examined. The results are then applied to a proposed space-based pulsed coherent Doppler lidar at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for wind and aerosol backscatter measurements. The lidar uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and the received frequencies to determine the atmospheric wind velocities. We show that the special relativity effects are small for the proposed system.

  20. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel


    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  1. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar


    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility litera....... Finally, we argue that, in Asia, governments act as a structuration mechanism which challenges the current understanding of CSR.......This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  2. Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time (United States)

    Giese, Albrecht


    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  3. Free-space communication based on quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuanwei; Zhai Shenqiang; Zhang Jinchuan; Zhou Yuhong; Jia Zhiwei; Liu Fengqi; Wang Zhanguo


    A free-space communication based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) is presented. A room-temperature continuous-wave distributed-feedback (DFB) QCL combined with a mid-infrared detector comprise the basic unit of the communication system. Sinusoidal signals at a highest frequency of 40 MHz and modulated video signals with a carrier frequency of 30 MHz were successfully transmitted with this experimental setup. Our research has provided a proof-of-concept demonstration of space optical communication application with QCL. The highest operation frequency of our setup was determined by the circuit-limited modulation bandwidth. A high performance communication system can be obtained with improved modulation circuit system. (paper)

  4. Infrared Fibers for Use in Space-Based Smart Structures (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nettles, Alan T.; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)


    Infrared optical fibers are finding a number of applications including laser surgery, remote sensing, and nuclear radiation resistant links. Utilizing these fibers in space-based structures is another application, which can be exploited. Acoustic and thermal sensing are two areas in which these fibers could be utilized. In particular, fibers could be embedded in IM7/8552 toughened epoxy and incorporated into space structures both external and internal. ZBLAN optical fibers are a candidate, which have been studied extensively over the past 20 years for terrestrial applications. For the past seven years the effects of gravity on the crystallization behavior of ZBLAN optical fiber has been studied. It has been found that ZBLAN crystallization is suppressed in microgravity. This lack of crystallization leads to a fiber with better transmission characteristics than its terrestrial counterpart.

  5. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.


    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  6. Latin American space activities based on different infrastructures (United States)

    Gall, Ruth

    The paper deals with recent basic space research and space applications in several Latin-American countries. It links space activities with national scientific and institutional infrastructures and stresses the importance of interdisciplinary space programs, that can play a major role in the developing countries achievement of self reliance in space matters.

  7. Towards a phenomenology of civil war: Hobbes meets Benjamin in Beirut. (United States)

    De Cauter, Lieven


    Based on interviews with Beirut intellectuals and architects, this essay endeavours to trace the contours for a phenomenology or anthropology of civil war. Thomas Hobbes serves as a guide, with his idea of civil war representing a relapse into the ‘state of nature’; as absence of sovereignty resulting in a ‘war of everybody against everybody’. The effects of ever-latent civil war in Beirut are far-reaching: the fragmentation of urban space and the disappearance of public space, the loss of memory and the fragmentation of time, even the reification of language. In the collective imagination and in the arts, Beirut appears as a ghost town, a spectral city with a spectral civility. What we discover is a city, its inhabitants, its social behaviour, but also its art and literature, in the grip of post-traumatic stress syndrome. From all this, we take home two things: first, any city can (at least in principle) relapse into a similar state of nature — Beirut can become a paradigm of latent civil war; and second, the traumatic modernity of Beirut mirrors the traumatic artistic expressions of modernism — the shock of modernity is also always a modernity of shock.

  8. Feature extraction algorithm for space targets based on fractal theory (United States)

    Tian, Balin; Yuan, Jianping; Yue, Xiaokui; Ning, Xin


    In order to offer a potential for extending the life of satellites and reducing the launch and operating costs, satellite servicing including conducting repairs, upgrading and refueling spacecraft on-orbit become much more frequently. Future space operations can be more economically and reliably executed using machine vision systems, which can meet real time and tracking reliability requirements for image tracking of space surveillance system. Machine vision was applied to the research of relative pose for spacecrafts, the feature extraction algorithm was the basis of relative pose. In this paper fractal geometry based edge extraction algorithm which can be used in determining and tracking the relative pose of an observed satellite during proximity operations in machine vision system was presented. The method gets the gray-level image distributed by fractal dimension used the Differential Box-Counting (DBC) approach of the fractal theory to restrain the noise. After this, we detect the consecutive edge using Mathematical Morphology. The validity of the proposed method is examined by processing and analyzing images of space targets. The edge extraction method not only extracts the outline of the target, but also keeps the inner details. Meanwhile, edge extraction is only processed in moving area to reduce computation greatly. Simulation results compared edge detection using the method which presented by us with other detection methods. The results indicate that the presented algorithm is a valid method to solve the problems of relative pose for spacecrafts.

  9. Maritime Activities: Requirements for Improving Space Based Solutions (United States)

    Cragnolini, A.; Miguel-Lago, M.


    Maritime initiatives cannot be pursued only within their own perimeter. Sector endeavours and the policies which rule over them have wide range implications and several links with other sectors of activity. A well- balanced relationship of sea exploitation, maritime transportation, environmental protection and security ruled by national or international laws, will be a main issue for the future of all kind of maritime activities. Scientific research and technology development, along with enlightened and appropriate institutional regulations are relevant to ensure maritime sustainability.The use of satellite technology for monitoring international agreements should have a close co- ordination and be based on institutional consensus. Frequently, rules and new regulations set by policy makers are not demanding enough due to lack of knowledge about the possibilities offered by available technologies.Law enforcement actions could bring space technology new opportunities to offer solutions for monitoring and verification. Operators should aim at offering space data in a more operational and user-friendly way, providing them with useful and timely information.This paper will analyse the contribution of satellite technology to deal with the specificity of maritime sector, stressing the conditions for both an adequate technology improvement and an effective policy implementation.After analysing the links between maritime activities, space technologies and the institutional environment, the paper identifies some boundary conditions of the future developments. Conclusions are basically a check list for improving the present situation, while a road map is suggested as a matter of a way to proceed.

  10. Space- and Ground-based Coronal Spectro-Polarimetry (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Bemporad, Alessandro; Rybak, Jan; Capobianco, Gerardo

    This presentation gives an overview of the near-future perspectives of ultraviolet and visible-light spectro-polarimetric instrumentation for probing coronal magnetism from space-based and ground-based observatories. Spectro-polarimetric imaging of coronal emission-lines in the visible-light wavelength-band provides an important diagnostics tool of the coronal magnetism. The interpretation in terms of Hanle and Zeeman effect of the line-polarization in forbidden emission-lines yields information on the direction and strength of the coronal magnetic field. As study case, this presentation will describe the Torino Coronal Magnetograph (CorMag) for the spectro-polarimetric observation of the FeXIV, 530.3 nm, forbidden emission-line. CorMag - consisting of a Liquid Crystal (LC) Lyot filter and a LC linear polarimeter - has been recently installed on the Lomnicky Peak Observatory 20cm Zeiss coronagraph. The preliminary results from CorMag will be presented. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV)can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Space-based UV spectro-polarimeters would provide an additional tool for the disgnostics of coronal magnetism. As a case study of space-borne UV spectro-polarimeters, this presentation will describe the future upgrade of the Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment (SCORE) to include the capability of imaging polarimetry of the HI Lyman-alpha, 121.6 nm. SCORE is a multi-wavelength imager for the emission-lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and visible-light broad-band emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009. This presentation will describe how in future re-flights SCORE could observe the expected Hanle effect in corona with a HI Lyman-alpha polarimeter.

  11. Design of a space-based infrared imaging interferometer (United States)

    Hart, Michael; Hope, Douglas; Romeo, Robert


    Present space-based optical imaging sensors are expensive. Launch costs are dictated by weight and size, and system design must take into account the low fault tolerance of a system that cannot be readily accessed once deployed. We describe the design and first prototype of the space-based infrared imaging interferometer (SIRII) that aims to mitigate several aspects of the cost challenge. SIRII is a six-element Fizeau interferometer intended to operate in the short-wave and midwave IR spectral regions over a 6×6 mrad field of view. The volume is smaller by a factor of three than a filled-aperture telescope with equivalent resolving power. The structure and primary optics are fabricated from light-weight space-qualified carbon fiber reinforced polymer; they are easy to replicate and inexpensive. The design is intended to permit one-time alignment during assembly, with no need for further adjustment once on orbit. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed with a unit telescope primary mirror diameter of 165 mm and edge-to-edge baseline of 540 mm. The optics, structure, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. The initial motivation for the development of SIRII was the long-term collection of technical intelligence from geosynchronous orbit, but the scalable nature of the design will likely make it suitable for a range of IR imaging scenarios.

  12. Fiber-based laser MOPA transmitter packaging for space environment (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Gonzales, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Fahey, Molly; Plants, Michael; Rodriguez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Abshire, James; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Hariharan, Anand; Mamakos, William; Bean, Brian


    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing lidar to remotely measure CO2 and CH4 in the Earth's atmosphere. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. We are working on maturing the technology readiness of a fiber-based, 1.57-micron wavelength laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. To this end, we are building a ruggedized prototype to demonstrate the required power and performance and survive the required environment. We are building a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture. The laser is a wavelength-locked, single frequency, externally modulated DBR operating at 1.57-micron followed by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The last amplifier stage is a polarization-maintaining, very-large-mode-area fiber with 1000 μm2 effective area pumped by a Raman fiber laser. The optical output is single-frequency, one microsecond pulses with >450 μJ pulse energy, 7.5 KHz repetition rate, single spatial mode, and < 20 dB polarization extinction.

  13. Quantum computing based on space states without charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyurkov, V.; Filippov, S.; Gorelik, L.


    An implementation of a quantum computer based on space states in double quantum dots is discussed. There is no charge transfer in qubits during a calculation, therefore, uncontrolled entanglement between qubits due to long-range Coulomb interaction is suppressed. Encoding and processing of quantum information is merely performed on symmetric and antisymmetric states of the electron in double quantum dots. Other plausible sources of decoherence caused by interaction with phonons and gates could be substantially suppressed in the structure as well. We also demonstrate how all necessary quantum logic operations, initialization, writing, and read-out could be carried out in the computer.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei; Novati, S. Calchi; Gould, A.


    lies behind the same amount of dust as the Bulge red clump, we find the lens is a 45 ± 7 {M}{{J}} BD at 5.9 ± 1.0 kpc. The lens of of the second event, OGLE-2015-BLG-0763, is a 0.50 ± 0.04 {M}⊙ star at 6.9 ± 1.0 kpc. We show that the probability to definitively measure the mass of isolated microlenses...... is dramatically increased once simultaneous ground- and space-based observations are conducted....

  15. Atmospheric profiles from active space-based radio measurements (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth R.; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. L.; Kursinski, E. R.


    The paper describes determinations of atmospheric profiles from space-based radio measurements and the retrieval methodology used, with special attention given to the measurement procedure and the characteristics of the soundings. It is speculated that reliable profiles of the terrestrial atmosphere can be obtained by the occultation technique from the surface to a height of about 60 km. With the full complement of 21 the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and one GPS receiver in sun synchronous polar orbit, a maximum of 42 soundings could be obtained for each complete orbit or about 670 per day, providing almost uniform global coverage.

  16. The Space Station as a Construction Base for Large Space Structures (United States)

    Gates, R. M.


    The feasibility of using the Space Station as a construction site for large space structures is examined. An overview is presented of the results of a program entitled Definition of Technology Development Missions (TDM's) for Early Space Stations - Large Space Structures. The definition of LSS technology development missions must be responsive to the needs of future space missions which require large space structures. Long range plans for space were assembled by reviewing Space System Technology Models (SSTM) and other published sources. Those missions which will use large space structures were reviewed to determine the objectives which must be demonstrated by technology development missions. The three TDM's defined during this study are: (1) a construction storage/hangar facility; (2) a passive microwave radiometer; and (3) a precision optical system.

  17. A Simulation Base Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations (United States)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Moore, Michael


    NASA's human space program has developed considerable experience with near Earth space operations. Although NASA has experience with deep space robotic missions, NASA has little substantive experience with human deep space operations. Even in the Apollo program, the missions lasted only a few weeks and the communication latencies were on the order of seconds. Human missions beyond the relatively close confines of the Earth-Moon system will involve missions with durations measured in months and communications latencies measured in minutes. To minimize crew risk and to maximize mission success, NASA needs to develop a better understanding of the implications of these types of mission durations and communication latencies on vehicle design, mission design and flight controller interaction with the crew. To begin to address these needs, NASA performed a study using a physics-based subsystem simulation to investigate the interactions between spacecraft crew and a ground-based mission control center for vehicle subsystem operations across long communication delays. The simulation, built with a subsystem modeling tool developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center, models the life support system of a Mars transit vehicle. The simulation contains models of the cabin atmosphere and pressure control system, electrical power system, drinking and waste water systems, internal and external thermal control systems, and crew metabolic functions. The simulation has three interfaces: 1) a real-time crew interface that can be use to monitor and control the vehicle subsystems; 2) a mission control center interface with data transport delays up to 15 minutes each way; 3) a real-time simulation test conductor interface that can be use to insert subsystem malfunctions and observe the interactions between the crew, ground, and simulated vehicle. The study was conducted at the 21st NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission between July 18th and Aug 3rd of year 2016. The NEEMO

  18. Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kiemle


    Full Text Available Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere after water vapour and carbon dioxide. A major handicap to quantify the emissions at the Earth's surface in order to better understand biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes and potential climate feedbacks is the lack of accurate and global observations of methane. Space-based integrated path differential absorption (IPDA lidar has potential to fill this gap, and a Methane Remote Lidar Mission (MERLIN on a small satellite in polar orbit was proposed by DLR and CNES in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. System simulations are used to identify key performance parameters and to find an advantageous instrument configuration, given the environmental, technological, and budget constraints. The sensitivity studies use representative averages of the atmospheric and surface state to estimate the measurement precision, i.e. the random uncertainty due to instrument noise. Key performance parameters for MERLIN are average laser power, telescope size, orbit height, surface reflectance, and detector noise. A modest-size lidar instrument with 0.45 W average laser power and 0.55 m telescope diameter on a 506 km orbit could provide 50-km averaged methane column measurement along the sub-satellite track with a precision of about 1% over vegetation. The use of a methane absorption trough at 1.65 μm improves the near-surface measurement sensitivity and vastly relaxes the wavelength stability requirement that was identified as one of the major technological risks in the pre-phase A studies for A-SCOPE, a space-based IPDA lidar for carbon dioxide at the European Space Agency. Minimal humidity and temperature sensitivity at this wavelength position will enable accurate measurements in tropical wetlands, key regions with largely uncertain methane emissions. In contrast to actual passive remote sensors, measurements in Polar Regions will be possible and biases due to aerosol

  19. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering


    Lu, Pengzhen; Chen, Shengyong; Zheng, Yujun


    Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applicati...

  20. Tests of gravity with future space-based experiments (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy


    Future space-based tests of relativistic gravitation—laser ranging to Phobos, accelerometers in orbit, and optical networks surrounding Earth—will constrain the theory of gravity with unprecedented precision by testing the inverse-square law, the strong and weak equivalence principles, and the deflection and time delay of light by massive bodies. In this paper, we estimate the bounds that could be obtained on alternative gravity theories that use screening mechanisms to suppress deviations from general relativity in the Solar System: chameleon, symmetron, and Galileon models. We find that space-based tests of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ will constrain chameleon and symmetron theories to new levels, and that tests of the inverse-square law using laser ranging to Phobos will provide the most stringent constraints on Galileon theories to date. We end by discussing the potential for constraining these theories using upcoming tests of the weak equivalence principle, and conclude that further theoretical modeling is required in order to fully utilize the data.

  1. The Emergence of Cambodian Civil Society within Global Educational Governance: A Morphogenetic Approach to Agency and Structure (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Brehm, William C.


    This paper uses Margaret Archer's morphogenetic approach to analyze the emergence of civil society within global educational governance. The purpose is to understand the intersection of historical structures with global actors and spaces that have accompanied the globalization of education. Based on findings from a study on the impact in Cambodia…

  2. A Web Based Approach to Integrate Space Culture and Education (United States)

    Gerla, F.


    Our intention is to dedicate a large section of our web site to space education. As the national User Support and Operation Center (USOC) for the International Space Station, MARS Center is also willing to provide material, such as videos and data, for educational purposes. In order to base our initiative on authoritative precedents, our first step has been a comparative analysis between different space agency education web sites, such as ESA and NASA. As is well known, Internet is a powerful reality, capable of connecting people all over the world and rendering public a huge amount of information. The first problem, then, is to organize this information, in order to use the web as an efficient education tool. That is why studies such as User Modeling (UM), Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Semantic Web have become more important in Information Technology and Science. Traditional search engines are unable to provide an optimal retrieval of contents really searched for by users. Semantic Web is a valid alternative: according to its theories, web information should be represented using metadata language. Users should be able and enabled to successfully search, obtain and study new information from web. Forging knowledge in an intelligent manner, preventing users from making errors, and making this formidable quantity of information easily available have also been the starting points for HCI methodologies for defining Adaptable Interfaces. Here the information is divided into different sets, on the basis of the intended user profile, in order to prevent users from getting lost. Realized as an adaptable interface, an education web site can help users to effectively retrieve the information necessary for their scopes (teaching for a teacher and learning for a student). For students it's a great advantage to use interfaces designed on the basis of their age and scholastic level. Indeed, an adaptable interface is intended not just for students, but also for teachers

  3. Automated Detection of Small Bodies by Space Based Observation (United States)

    Bidstrup, P. R.; Grillmayer, G.; Andersen, A. C.; Haack, H.; Jorgensen, J. L.

    The number of known comets and asteroids is increasing every year. Up till now this number is including approximately 250,000 of the largest minor planets, as they are usually referred. These discoveries are due to the Earth-based observation which has intensified over the previous decades. Additionally larger telescopes and arrays of telescopes are being used for exploring our Solar System. It is believed that all near- Earth and Main-Belt asteroids of diameters above 10 to 30 km have been discovered, leaving these groups of objects as observationally complete. However, the cataloguing of smaller bodies is incomplete as only a very small fraction of the expected number has been discovered. It is estimated that approximately 1010 main belt asteroids in the size range 1 m to 1 km are too faint to be observed using Earth-based telescopes. In order to observe these small bodies, space-based search must be initiated to remove atmospheric disturbances and to minimize the distance to the asteroids and thereby minimising the requirement for long camera integration times. A new method of space-based detection of moving non-stellar objects is currently being developed utilising the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) built for spacecraft attitude determination by Ørsted, Danish Technical University. The ASC serves as a backbone technology in the project as it is capable of fully automated distinction of known and unknown celestial objects. By only processing objects of particular interest, i.e. moving objects, it will be possible to discover small bodies with a minimum of ground control, with the ultimate ambition of a fully automated space search probe. Currently, the ASC is being mounted on the Flying Laptop satellite of the Institute of Space Systems, Universität Stuttgart. It will, after a launch into a low Earth polar orbit in 2008, test the detection method with the ASC equipment that already had significant in-flight experience. A future use of the ASC based automated

  4. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Y.T.D.


    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  5. Civil & Criminal Penalties (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  6. Civil Surgeon Info (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS designates certain doctors (also known as civil surgeons) to perform the medical exam required for most Green Card applicants. This data set represents the...

  7. Nuclear energy and civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, S.


    The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)

  8. Accelerometer for Space Applications Based on Light-Pulse Atom Interferometry, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build a compact, high-precision single-axis accelerometer based on atom interferometry that is applicable to operation in space environments. Based on...

  9. Analysing Leontiev Tube Capabilities in the Space-based Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Shchegolev


    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications dedicated to the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device (the Leontief tube and shows main factors affecting its efficiency. Describes an experimental installation, which is used to obtain data on the value of energy separation in the air to prove this device the operability.The assumption that there is an optimal relationship between the flow velocities in the subsonic and supersonic channels of the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device is experimentally confirmed.The paper conducts analysis of possible ways to raise the efficiency of power plants of various (including space basing, and shows that, currently, a mainstream of increasing efficiency of their operation is to complicate design solutions.A scheme of the closed gas-turbine space-based plant using a mixture of inert gases (helium-xenon one for operation is proposed. What differs it from the simplest variants is a lack of the cooler-radiator and integration into gas-dynamic temperature stratification device and heat compressor.Based on the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics, it is shown that the total pressure restorability when removing heat in a thermal compressor determines operating capability of this scheme. The exploratory study of creating a heat compressor is performed, and it is shown that when operating on gases with a Prandtl number close to 1, the total pressure does not increase.The operating capability conditions of the heat compressor are operation on gases with a low value of the Prandtl number (helium-xenon mixture at high supersonic velocities and with a longitudinal pressure gradient available.It is shown that there is a region of the low values of the Prandtl number (Pr <0.3 for which, with the longitudinal pressure gradient available in the supersonic flows of a viscous gas, the total pressure can be restored.

  10. Civil liability for nuclear and radiological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.


    The present work gives details of the nuclear damage, the accidents of Chernobil, three Mile Inland and Tokaimura with their respective legal consequences, the nature of the responsibility and bases for their establishment, conventions about civil responsibility for nuclear damages to regional and world level as well as other condition of conventions of the Ibero-American countries with regard to the approval of the conventions it has more than enough civil responsibility for nuclear and radiological accident damages

  11. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.


    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970’s and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  12. Adaptive density trajectory cluster based on time and space distance (United States)

    Liu, Fagui; Zhang, Zhijie


    There are some hotspot problems remaining in trajectory cluster for discovering mobile behavior regularity, such as the computation of distance between sub trajectories, the setting of parameter values in cluster algorithm and the uncertainty/boundary problem of data set. As a result, based on the time and space, this paper tries to define the calculation method of distance between sub trajectories. The significance of distance calculation for sub trajectories is to clearly reveal the differences in moving trajectories and to promote the accuracy of cluster algorithm. Besides, a novel adaptive density trajectory cluster algorithm is proposed, in which cluster radius is computed through using the density of data distribution. In addition, cluster centers and number are selected by a certain strategy automatically, and uncertainty/boundary problem of data set is solved by designed weighted rough c-means. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can perform the fuzzy trajectory cluster effectively on the basis of the time and space distance, and obtain the optimal cluster centers and rich cluster results information adaptably for excavating the features of mobile behavior in mobile and sociology network.

  13. Current problems in astrophysics needing space-based radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.A.


    The potential value of space-based radio observatories and VLBI networks for studies of cosmology, AGN and starburst galaxies, the ISM and the intergalactic medium, and molecular clouds and star formation is discussed. Topics examined include distance estimates for masers in external galaxies, high-resolution 21-cm observations of distant-galaxy kinematics and morphology, searches for LF emission from the neutral ISM at redshifts higher than the QSO turnon, detection of changes in the distribution of dark matter surrounding galaxies at redshifts near 1, and observations of Galactic SNRs and filamentary structures near the Galactic center. Consideration is given to comparative studies of the ISM in the Galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds, and M 31; estimates of the molecular content of external galaxies; emssion-line studies of H 2 O masers; and kinematic investigations of bipolar flows and molecular disks. 19 references

  14. Space-Based Information Infrastructure Architecture for Broadband Services (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Inukai, Tom; Razdan, Rajendev; Lazeav, Yvonne M.


    This study addressed four tasks: (1) identify satellite-addressable information infrastructure markets; (2) perform network analysis for space-based information infrastructure; (3) develop conceptual architectures; and (4) economic assessment of architectures. The report concludes that satellites will have a major role in the national and global information infrastructure, requiring seamless integration between terrestrial and satellite networks. The proposed LEO, MEO, and GEO satellite systems have satellite characteristics that vary widely. They include delay, delay variations, poorer link quality and beam/satellite handover. The barriers against seamless interoperability between satellite and terrestrial networks are discussed. These barriers are the lack of compatible parameters, standards and protocols, which are presently being evaluated and reduced.

  15. Space-Based Counterforce in the Second Nuclear Age (United States)


    but also open wide the gates of the solar system to large-scale human exploration and development. Instead of offering only a dark age the Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne vehicle that won the Ansari X-PRIZE in 2004 or Virgin Galactic’s space tourism vehicle SpaceShipTwo. It was


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Batishcheva


    Full Text Available In this article it is examined the whistleblowing practice in civil service across Europe. The analysis lets to arrive at a conclusion that the whistleblowing mechanism unevenly functions in different parts of Europe: it is more widespread in East and South. It is indicated the following reasons for that: differences in institutional systems of society, models of civil service («continental» and anglosaxon and sociocultural distinctions. Based on the Hofstede dimensions of national culture it is noted that cultural characteristics correlate with presence/absence of whistleblowing law and practice and effectiveness of this mechanism as a whole. Focusing on the role of whistleblowing in control of deviations of civil servants' behavior, it is supposed that the whistleblowing needs to be implemented in the Russian civil service. Obstacles to the whistleblowing design and implementation were also shown and some recommendations were given, taking into account sociocultural characteristics of the Russian society.

  17. Whistleblowing In Civil Service: Experience Of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Batishcheva


    Full Text Available In this article it is examined the whistleblowing practice in civil service across Europe. The analysis lets to arrive at a conclusion that the whistleblowing mechanism unevenly functions in different parts of Europe: it is more widespread in East and South. It is indicated the following reasons for that: differences in institutional systems of society, models of civil service («continental» and anglosaxon and sociocultural distinctions. Based on the Hofstede dimensions of national culture it is noted that cultural characteristics correlate with presence/absence of whistleblowing law and practice and effectiveness of this mechanism as a whole. Focusing on the role of whistleblowing in control of deviations of civil servants' behavior, it is supposed that the whistleblowing needs to be implemented in the Russian civil service. Obstacles to the whistleblowing design and implementation were also shown and some recommendations were given, taking into account sociocultural characteristics of the Russian society.

  18. Automation and Robotics for Space-Based Systems, 1991 (United States)

    Williams, Robert L., II (Editor)


    The purpose of this in-house workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of automation and robotics for space operations from an LaRC perspective and to identify areas of opportunity for future research. Over half of the presentations came from the Automation Technology Branch, covering telerobotic control, extravehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, hand controllers for teleoperation, sensors, neural networks, and automated structural assembly, all applied to space missions. Other talks covered the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation, space crane work, modeling, simulation, and control of large, flexible space manipulators, and virtual passive controller designs for space robots.

  19. Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang


    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

  20. A calibration mechanism based on worm drive for space telescope (United States)

    Chong, Yaqin; Li, Chuang; Xia, Siyu; Zhong, Peifeng; Lei, Wang


    In this paper, a new type of calibration mechanism based on worm drive is presented for a space telescope. This calibration mechanism based on worm drive has the advantages of compact size and self-lock. The mechanism mainly consists of thirty-six LEDs as the light source for flat calibration, a diffuse plate, a step motor, a worm gear reducer and a potentiometer. As the main part of the diffuse plate, a PTFE tablet is mounted in an aluminum alloy frame. The frame is fixed on the shaft of the worm gear, which is driven by the step motor through the worm. The shaft of the potentiometer is connected to that of the worm gear to measure the rotation angle of the diffuse plate through a flexible coupler. Firstly, the calibration mechanism is designed, which includes the LEDs assembly design, the worm gear reducer design and the diffuse plate assembly design. The counterweight blocks and two end stops are also designed for the diffuse plate assembly. Then a modal analysis with finite element method for the diffuse plate assembly is completed.

  1. Utilization-based object recognition in confined spaces (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Telagamsetti, Durga; Chan, Alex L.


    Recognizing substantially occluded objects in confined spaces is a very challenging problem for ground-based persistent surveillance systems. In this paper, we discuss the ontology inference of occluded object recognition in the context of in-vehicle group activities (IVGA) and describe an approach that we refer to as utilization-based object recognition method. We examine the performance of three types of classifiers tailored for the recognition of objects with partial visibility, namely, (1) Hausdorff Distance classifier, (2) Hamming Network classifier, and (3) Recurrent Neural Network classifier. In order to train these classifiers, we have generated multiple imagery datasets containing a mixture of common objects appearing inside a vehicle with full or partial visibility and occultation. To generate dynamic interactions between multiple people, we model the IVGA scenarios using a virtual simulation environment, in which a number of simulated actors perform a variety of IVGA tasks independently or jointly. This virtual simulation engine produces the much needed imagery datasets for the verification and validation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the selected object recognizers. Finally, we improve the performance of these object recognizers by incorporating human gestural information that differentiates various object utilization or handling methods through the analyses of dynamic human-object interactions (HOI), human-human interactions (HHI), and human-vehicle interactions (HVI) in the context of IVGA.

  2. IEC Based D-3He Fusion for Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Burton, R.; Richardson, N.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, Hiromu


    A preliminary system design is presented for a high performance 100-MWe manned space vehicle in the 500 metric ton class, based on Inertial Electrostatic Fusion (IEC), allowing trip times to the outer planets of several months. An IEC is chosen because it's simplified structure results in a very high power-to-weight ratio. D- 3 He fuel is used to give 14.7-MeV protons as a primary fusion reaction product. Direct conversion of proton energy to electricity is employed, providing a high efficiency. An IEC reactor with a proton energy gain (power in 14.7-MeV protons/input electric power) of 4 or better is assumed. Extrapolation of present laboratory scale IEC experiments to such conditions is possible theoretically, but faces several open issues that require further study such as stability under high-density conditions. The final thruster is based on an NSTAR-extrapolated krypton ion design with a specific impulse of 16,000 seconds and a total thrust of 1020 N. Round trip thrust time for mission set to Jupiter ΔV of 100 km/s is then ∼950 days. (authors)

  3. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas


    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  4. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  5. Space-Based Reconfigurable Software Defined Radio Test Bed Aboard International Space Station (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Lux, James P.


    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) recently launched a new software defined radio research test bed to the International Space Station. The test bed, sponsored by the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office within NASA is referred to as the SCaN Testbed. The SCaN Testbed is a highly capable communications system, composed of three software defined radios, integrated into a flight system, and mounted to the truss of the International Space Station. Software defined radios offer the future promise of in-flight reconfigurability, autonomy, and eventually cognitive operation. The adoption of software defined radios offers space missions a new way to develop and operate space transceivers for communications and navigation. Reconfigurable or software defined radios with communications and navigation functions implemented in software or VHDL (Very High Speed Hardware Description Language) provide the capability to change the functionality of the radio during development or after launch. The ability to change the operating characteristics of a radio through software once deployed to space offers the flexibility to adapt to new science opportunities, recover from anomalies within the science payload or communication system, and potentially reduce development cost and risk by adapting generic space platforms to meet specific mission requirements. The software defined radios on the SCaN Testbed are each compliant to NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. The STRS Architecture is an open, non-proprietary architecture that defines interfaces for the connections between radio components. It provides an operating environment to abstract the communication waveform application from the underlying platform specific hardware such as digital-to-analog converters, analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, RF attenuators, automatic gain control circuits, FPGAs, general-purpose processors, etc. and the interconnections among

  6. Predicting the impact of lava flows at Mount Etna by an innovative method based on Cellular Automata: Applications regarding land-use and civil defence planning (United States)

    Crisci, G. M.; Avolio, M. V.; D'Ambrosio, D.; di Gregorio, S.; Lupiano, G. V.; Rongo, R.; Spataro, W.; Benhcke, B.; Neri, M.


    Forecasting the time, character and impact of future eruptions is difficult at volcanoes with complex eruptive behaviour, such as Mount Etna, where eruptions occur from the summit and on the flanks, affecting areas distant from each other. Modern efforts for hazard evaluation and contingency planning in volcanic areas draw heavily on hazard maps and numerical simulations. The computational model here applied belongs to the SCIARA family of lava flow simulation models. In the specific case this is the SCIARA-fv release, which is considered to give the most accurate and efficient performance, given the extent (567 km2) of the study area and the great number of simulations to be carried out. The model is based on the Cellular Automata computational paradigm and, specifically, on the Macroscopic Cellular Automata approach for the modelling of spatially extended dynamic systems2. This work addresses the problem of compiling high-detailed susceptibility maps with an elaborate approach in the numerical simulation of Etnean lava flows, based on the results of 39,300 simulations of flows erupted from a grid of 393 hypothetical vents in the eastern sector of Etna. This sector was chosen because it is densely populated and frequently affected by flank eruptions. Besides the definition of general susceptibility maps, the availability of a large number of lava flows of different eruption types, magnitudes and locations simulated for this study allows the instantaneous extraction of various scenarios on demand. For instance, in a Civil Defence oriented application, it is possible to identify all source areas of lava flows capable of affecting a given area of interest, such as a town or a major infrastructure. Indeed, this application is rapidly accomplished by querying the simulation database, by selecting the lava flows that affect the area of interest and by circumscribing their sources. Eventually, a specific category of simulation is dedicated to the assessment of protective

  7. Special relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments (United States)

    Raogudimetla, V. S.


    There is a great need to develop a system that can measure accurately atmospheric wind profiles because an accurate data of wind profiles in the atmosphere constitutes single most input for reliable simulations of global climate numerical methods. Also such data helps us understand atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics better. Because of this need for accurate wind measurements, a space-based Laser Atmospheric Winds Sounder (LAWS) is being designed at MSFC to measure wind profiles in the lower atmosphere of the earth with an accuracy of 1 m/s at lower altitudes to 5m/s at higher altitudes. This system uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and received frequencies to estimate the atmospheric wind velocities. If a significant return from the ground (sea) is possible, the spacecraft speed and height are estimated from it and these results and the Doppler shift are then used to estimate the wind velocities in the atmosphere. It is expected that at the proposed wavelengths, there will be enough backscatter from the aerosols but there may no be significant return from the ground. So a coherent (heterodyne) detection system is being proposed for signal processing because it can provide high signal to noise ratio and sensitivity and thus make the best use of low ground return. However, for a heterodyne detection scheme to provide the best results, it is important that the receiving aperture be aligned properly for the proposed wind sounder, this amounts to only a few microradians tolerance in alignment. It is suspected that the satellite motion relative to the ground may introduce errors in the order of a few microradians because of special relativity. Hence, the problem of laser scattering off a moving fixed target when the source and receiver are moving, which was not treated in the past in the literature, was analyzed in the following, using relativistic electrodynamics and applied to the

  8. Tracking Solar Type II Bursts with Space Based Radio Interferometers (United States)

    Hegedus, Alexander M.; Kasper, Justin C.; Manchester, Ward B.


    The Earth’s Ionosphere limits radio measurements on its surface, blocking out any radiation below 10 MHz. Valuable insight into many astrophysical processes could be gained by having a radio interferometer in space to image the low frequency window for the first time. One application is observing type II bursts tracking solar energetic particle acceleration in Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). In this work we create a simulated data processing pipeline for several space based radio interferometer (SBRI) concepts and evaluate their performance in the task of localizing these type II bursts.Traditional radio astronomy software is hard coded to assume an Earth based array. To circumvent this, we manually calculate the antenna separations and insert them along with the simulated visibilities into a CASA MS file for analysis. To create the realest possible virtual input data, we take a 2-temperature MHD simulation of a CME event, superimpose realistic radio emission models from the CME-driven shock front, and propagate the signal through simulated SBRIs. We consider both probabilistic emission models derived from plasma parameters correlated with type II bursts, and analytical emission models using plasma emission wave interaction theory.One proposed SBRI is the pathfinder mission SunRISE, a 6 CubeSat interferometer to circle the Earth in a GEO graveyard orbit. We test simulated trajectories of SunRISE and image what the array recovers, comparing it to the virtual input. An interferometer on the lunar surface would be a stable alternative that avoids noise sources that affect orbiting arrays, namely the phase noise from positional uncertainty and atmospheric 10s-100s kHz noise. Using Digital Elevation Models from laser altimeter data, we test different sets of locations on the lunar surface to find near optimal configurations for tracking type II bursts far from the sun. Custom software is used to model the response of different array configurations over the lunar year

  9. Space- and ground-based particle physics meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    The fourth international conference on Particle and Fundamental Physics in Space (SpacePart12) will take place at CERN from 5 to 7 November. The conference will bring together scientists working on particle and fundamental physics in space and on ground, as well as space policy makers from around the world.   One hundred years after Victor Hess discovered cosmic rays using hot air balloons, the experimental study of particle and fundamental physics is still being pursued today with extremely sophisticated techniques: on the ground, with state-of-the-art accelerators like the LHC; and in space, with powerful observatories that probe, with amazing accuracy, the various forms of cosmic radiation, charged and neutral, which are messengers of the most extreme conditions of matter and energy. SpacePart12 will be the opportunity for participants to exchange views on the progress of space-related science and technology programmes in the field of particle and fundamental physics in space. SpacePar...

  10. Space Station - The base for tomorrow's electronic industry (United States)

    Naumann, Robert J.


    The potential value of space material processing on the Space Station for the electronics industry is examined. The primary advantages of the space environment for producing high-purity semiconductors and electrooptical materials are identified as the virtual absence of gravity (suppressing buoyancy-driven convection in melts and density segregation of alloys) and the availabilty of high vacuum (with high pumping speed and heat rejection). The recent history of material development and processing technology in the electronics industry is reviewed, and the principal features of early space experiments are outlined.

  11. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja


    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  12. Compressed Sensing for Space-Based High-Definition Video Technologies, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space-based imaging sensors are important for NASA's mission in both performing scientific measurements and producing literature and documentary cinema. The recent...

  13. Ultra-Low Noise Quad Photoreceiver for Space Based Laser Interferometric Gravity Wave Detection, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravity wave detection using space-based long-baseline laser interferometric sensors imposes stringent noise requirements on the system components, including the...

  14. Rule-Based Analytic Asset Management for Space Exploration Systems (RAMSES), Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. (PSI) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) were selected to jointly develop the Rule-based Analytic Asset Management for Space...

  15. Perovskite-based Photovoltaics: A New Pathway to Ultra- Low-Cost Space Power (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will determine if the lifetime performance of new perovskite-based solar cells can be engineered for long-term performance for space applications. We will utilize...

  16. Digital acquisition and wavelength control of seed laser for space-based Lidar applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposes to establish the feasibility of using a space qualifiable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital controller to autonomously...

  17. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing. (United States)

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt


    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  18. SpacePy - a Python-based library of tools for the space sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, Steven K.; Welling, Daniel T.; Koller, Josef; Larsen, Brian A.; Henderson, Michael G.


    Space science deals with the bodies within the solar system and the interplanetary medium; the primary focus is on atmospheres and above - at Earth the short timescale variation in the the geomagnetic field, the Van Allen radiation belts and the deposition of energy into the upper atmosphere are key areas of investigation. SpacePy is a package for Python, targeted at the space sciences, that aims to make basic data analysis, modeling and visualization easier. It builds on the capabilities of the well-known NumPy and MatPlotLib packages. Publication quality output direct from analyses is emphasized. The SpacePy project seeks to promote accurate and open research standards by providing an open environment for code development. In the space physics community there has long been a significant reliance on proprietary languages that restrict free transfer of data and reproducibility of results. By providing a comprehensive, open-source library of widely used analysis and visualization tools in a free, modern and intuitive language, we hope that this reliance will be diminished. SpacePy includes implementations of widely used empirical models, statistical techniques used frequently in space science (e.g. superposed epoch analysis), and interfaces to advanced tools such as electron drift shell calculations for radiation belt studies. SpacePy also provides analysis and visualization tools for components of the Space Weather Modeling Framework - currently this only includes the BATS-R-US 3-D magnetohydrodynamic model and the RAM ring current model - including streamline tracing in vector fields. Further development is currently underway. External libraries, which include well-known magnetic field models, high-precision time conversions and coordinate transformations are wrapped for access from Python using SWIG and f2py. The rest of the tools have been implemented directly in Python. The provision of open-source tools to perform common tasks will provide openness in the

  19. Beamed Energy and the Economics of Space Based Solar Power (United States)

    Keith Henson, H.


    For space based solar power to replace fossil fuel, it must sell for 1-2 cents per kWh. To reach this sales price requires a launch cost to GEO of ˜100/kg. Proposed to reach this cost figure at 100 tonne/hour are two stages to GEO where a Skylon-rocket-plane first stage provides five km/sec and a laser stage provides 6.64 km/sec. The combination appears to reduce the cost to GEO to under 100/kg at a materials flow rate of ˜1 million tonnes per year, enough to initially construct 200 GW per year of power satellites. An extended Pro Forma business case indicates that peak investment to profitability might be ˜65 B. Over a 25-year period, production rises to two TW per year to undercut and replace most other sources of energy. Energy on this scale solves other supply problems such as water and liquid fuels. It could even allow removal of CO2 from the air and storage of carbon as synthetic oil in empty oil fields.

  20. Object acquisition and tracking for space-based surveillance (United States)


    This report presents the results of research carried out by Space Computer Corporation under the U.S. government's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. The work was sponsored by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization and managed by the Office of Naval Research under Contracts N00014-87-C-0801 (Phase 1) and N00014-89-C-0015 (Phase 2). The basic purpose of this research was to develop and demonstrate a new approach to the detection of, and initiation of track on, moving targets using data from a passive infrared or visual sensor. This approach differs in very significant ways from the traditional approach of dividing the required processing into time dependent, object dependent, and data dependent processing stages. In that approach individual targets are first detected in individual image frames, and the detections are then assembled into tracks. That requires that the signal to noise ratio in each image frame be sufficient for fairly reliable target detection. In contrast, our approach bases detection of targets on multiple image frames, and, accordingly, requires a smaller signal to noise ratio. It is sometimes referred to as track before detect, and can lead to a significant reduction in total system cost. For example, it can allow greater detection range for a single sensor, or it can allow the use of smaller sensor optics. Both the traditional and track before detect approaches are applicable to systems using scanning sensors, as well as those which use staring sensors.

  1. A cooperative power trading system based on satisfaction space technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Maruo, T.; Mori, N.


    This paper proposed a new power trading system model designed to ensure customer cooperation with power suppliers. Designed as an Internet application, the cooperative power trading system modelled power markets using a satisfaction space technology A network model of electric power trading systems was developed to create a communication network system that consisted of suppliers, customers, and auctioneers. When demand exceeded supply, the auctioneer in the trading system requested power reductions from customers. Rewards were paid to maintain the degree of satisfaction of the customers. The supplier's evaluation function was defined as a function of market price and power supply. A power reducing method was developed using a combinatorial optimization technique. Suppliers and customers submitted bids for initial power trading quantities, while the auctioneer decided a market price based on bidding values. After receiving the market price, suppliers and customers submitted a second set of bids for expected power trading quantities. A power reduction plan was then developed by the auctioneer to balance the amount of power supply and demand. The system can be applied to customers whose evaluation functions cannot be estimated beforehand, as the auctioneer was able to choose the most efficient power reduction point selected by consumers using a maximum steep slope method. Simulations conducted to validate the trading system demonstrated that the system is capable of choosing efficient energy reduction plans. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Advantages of geosynchronous solar power satellites for terrestrial base-load electrical supply compared to other renewable energy sources - or why civilization needs solar power satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, J.K. Jr. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)


    The arguments in favour of using solar power satellites for primary base-load electrical supply are presented and compared with the advantages and drawbacks of other renewable energy sources, especially ground solar and wind systems. Popular misconceptions about energy use and the importation of space solar energy to the Earth`s surface are examined and discounted. Finally an optimal mix of space solar (focusing on geosynchronous solar power satellites), ground solar, and other energy sources is described which, it is argued, would be capable to meet future global energy demand. (UK)

  3. A Constraint-Based Understanding of Design Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim


    space schema, can identify the properties of the prospective product that s/he can form. Through a case study, we show how design space schemas can support designers in various ways, including gaining an overview of the design process, documenting it, reflecting on it, and developing design concepts...




  5. Civil Law and Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kogel, C.H.; Schrama, W.M.; Smit, M.


    The relationship between the brain and human behaviour is receiving increasing attention in legal practice. Much has already been published about the role of neuroscience in criminal law, but surprisingly little is known about its role in civil law. In this contribution, the relevance of

  6. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.


    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  7. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations. (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  8. Novel Equalization Techniques for Space Division Multiplexing Based on Stokes Space Update Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Vaquero Caballero


    Full Text Available Space division multiplexing (SDM is a promising technology that aims to overcome the capacity crunch of optical communications. In this paper, we introduce the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO Stokes Space Algorithm (SSA implemented in frequency domain, a novel equalization technique for space division multiplexing (SDM. Although different papers have been published about the SSA and its MIMO implementation, we provide for the first time an analysis of the of the convergence speed and frequency offset of the SSA compared to the least mean square (LMS. SSA algorithm can deal with higher frequency offsets and linewidths than LMS, being suitable for optical communications with higher phase noise. SSA does not need pre-compensation of frequency offset, which can be compensated after equalization without penalties. On the other hand, due to reduced convergence speed, SSA requires longer training sequences than LMS.

  9. GPS Civil Monitoring Performance Specification (United States)


    This Civil Monitoring Performance Specification (CMPS) is published and maintained at : the direction of the Program Manager for Civil Applications, Global Positioning Systems : Wing (GPSW). The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive ...

  10. Re-thinking civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Züger


    Full Text Available This article points out a struggle of today’s societies with the traditional concepts of civil disobedience and stresses the need for reevaluation of the concept of civil disobedience for policy making and public discourse. Starting with a minimal definition of civil disobedience, the article introduces Hannah Arendt’s approach for a legitimisation of civil disobedience and discusses her ideas for digital actions, which are increasingly framed as digital forms of civil disobedience. Addressing WikiLeaks as an example of digital civil disobedience, the author problematises the internal secrecy of WikiLeaks and the focus on Julian Assange as a single decision-maker. Both aspects challenge Arendt’s understanding of legitimate civil disobedience. Even though traditional criteria of civil disobedience need to be revisited in the digital age, organisations or disobedience actors might themselves in their actions be well-advised to comply with the principles they fight for.

  11. Civil partnerships five years on. (United States)

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann


    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  12. Greedy Algorithms for Reduced Bases in Banach Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald


    Given a Banach space X and one of its compact sets F, we consider the problem of finding a good n-dimensional space X n⊂X which can be used to approximate the elements of F. The best possible error we can achieve for such an approximation is given by the Kolmogorov width dn(F)X. However, finding the space which gives this performance is typically numerically intractable. Recently, a new greedy strategy for obtaining good spaces was given in the context of the reduced basis method for solving a parametric family of PDEs. The performance of this greedy algorithm was initially analyzed in Buffa et al. (Modél. Math. Anal. Numér. 46:595-603, 2012) in the case X=H is a Hilbert space. The results of Buffa et al. (Modél. Math. Anal. Numér. 46:595-603, 2012) were significantly improved upon in Binev et al. (SIAM J. Math. Anal. 43:1457-1472, 2011). The purpose of the present paper is to give a new analysis of the performance of such greedy algorithms. Our analysis not only gives improved results for the Hilbert space case but can also be applied to the same greedy procedure in general Banach spaces. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  13. Perspectives of biotechnologies based on dormancy phenomenon for space researches (United States)

    Alekseev, V.; Sychev, V.; Layus, D.; Levinsky, M.; Novikova, N.; Zakhodnova, T.

    Long term space missions will require a renewable source of food and an efficient method to recycle oxygen Plants especially aquatic micro algae provide an obvious solution to these problems However long duration plant growth and reproduction in space that is necessary for transportation of a control ecological life support system CELSS from Earth to other planets are problematic The introduction of heterotrophs in space CELSS is a more formidable problem as the absence of gravity creates additional difficulties for their life Dormancy phenomenon protected a great many animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years This phenomenon can be quite perspective as a tool to overcome difficulties with CELSS transportation in space missions Cryptobiotic stages of microbes fungi unicellular algae and protists can survive in open space conditions that is important for interplanetary quarantine and biological security inside spacecraft Searching for life outside the Earth at such planet like Mars with extremely variable environment should be oriented on dormancy as crucial phases of a life cycle in such organisms Five major research programs aimed on study dormancy phenomenon for exobiology purposes and creation of new biotechnologies are discussed List of species candidate components of CELSS with dormancy in their life cycle used in space experiments at the Russian segment of International Space Station now includes 26 species from bacteria to fish The

  14. Exoplanets -New Results from Space and Ground-based Surveys (United States)

    Udry, Stephane

    The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on

  15. Shared Space, Liminal Space: Five Years into a Community-University Place-Based Experiment (United States)

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Martin, Lauren


    This article explores shared space at the University of Minnesota's Robert J. Jones Urban Research and Outreach Engagement Center (UROC), located four miles off campus in a community strong in assets, but facing inequality, disinvestment and racism. UROC's mission promotes university-community collaboration to solve critical urban challenges. We…

  16. 77 FR 55175 - Civil Penalties (United States)


    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0131; Notice 1] RIN 2127-AL16 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposes to increase the maximum civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements... and consumer information provisions. Specifically, this proposes increases in maximum civil penalty...

  17. 75 FR 79978 - Civil Penalties (United States)


    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0114; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AK78 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for related series of violations of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety... Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection...

  18. 75 FR 5244 - Civil Penalties (United States)


    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0066; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AK40 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements involving school buses, bumper... theft protection requirements. This action is taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty...

  19. 77 FR 70710 - Civil Penalties (United States)


    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0131; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AL16 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements for the National Traffic and... provisions. Specifically, this increases the maximum civil penalty amounts for single violations of motor...

  20. 75 FR 49879 - Civil Penalties (United States)


    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0114; Notice 1] RIN 2127-AK78 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposes to increase the maximum civil penalty amounts for violations covering a related series of... action would be taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as...

  1. Cost of space-based laser ballistic missile defense. (United States)

    Field, G; Spergel, D


    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.

  2. Synchronizing the city with human-based spaces (United States)

    Gyergyák, János


    The paper is about to summarize the most important development tools to make the urban spaces more human friendly in Denver, Colorado. There are more needs for having more livable and sustainable areas by reducing the use of automobiles and focusing on multimodal street design. The strategies are the basic elements to make our urban spaces better and happier from The United States to Hungary

  3. Synchronizing the city with human-based spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyergyák János


    Full Text Available The paper is about to summarize the most important development tools to make the urban spaces more human friendly in Denver, Colorado. There are more needs for having more livable and sustainable areas by reducing the use of automobiles and focusing on multimodal street design. The strategies are the basic elements to make our urban spaces better and happier from The United States to Hungary

  4. Numerical Relativity for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Astronomy (United States)

    Baker, John G.


    In the next decade, gravitational wave instruments in space may provide high-precision measurements of gravitational-wave signals from strong sources, such as black holes. Currently variations on the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission concepts are under study in the hope of reducing costs. Even the observations of a reduced instrument may place strong demands on numerical relativity capabilities. Possible advances in the coming years may fuel a new generation of codes ready to confront these challenges.

  5. Investors Perception on Civil Remedies and Civil Action under the Capital Markets and Services Act 2007


    Yeon, Asmah Laili; Yaacob, Nurli


    The Capital Markets and Services Act 2007 provides civil action and remedies for the victim of securities crimes. Whether these remedies are sufficient to protect investors’ interest when dealing in securities transaction is an issue to be discussed in the paper? This paper aims to analyze investors’ perception on civil remedies and action. This paper based on the legal research findings where a systematic method of exploring, investigating, analyzing and conceptualizing legal issues pertaini...

  6. On the history of codification of Hungarian civil law and the new Hungarian civil code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef


    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines the basic tendencies in the development of the codification of Hungarian civil law in the period of representative and civil society. The second part deals with the new Hungarian Civil Code (2013/14 its content, methods of regulation and its relation to other civil legislation, temporal validity with the adherence to the idea of validity pro futuro, as well as its tendency to harmonize its norms with the guidelines of the European civil law. In accordance with the idea of completeness, the lawmakers incorporated all of the areas of civil law according to the pandecta system - personal law, corporate law with civil association law, family law, obligations and inheritance. The Code is based on the principle of equality of parties in civil relations, the principle of good faith, fraus legis prohibition. Family law is based on specific principles of protection of marriage, family and children. Contract law is based on the freedom of contract, limited by good customs and morality. Tort law is guided by the principle of prohibiting the harm to others, full compensation of material and imaterial damages. Contractual responsibility is regulated separately, so that the tort rules apply if the specific rules of contractual responsibility donot say otherwise. Other grounds for obligations are also regulated, as well as unjustified enrichment, doing business without order or authority, unilateral expression of intention and securities. The grounds for inheritance are contractual, statutory or based on the will. Freedom of disposition by will is limited by statutory rules regulating the forced share. The system of transfer of property ex lege after the death is adopted. The state is a successor if there are no testamentary, statutory or contractual inheritors.

  7. Global Civil Society and International Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas


    a central role in today’s activist landscape. I develop these typological conceptual representations based on an understanding of civil society as a mediating catalyst. By presenting six versions of citizenship participation based on an analysis of diverse ends and means, I identify how each of them has...

  8. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.


    Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

  9. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces:Nomads and Artisans


    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien


    There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students’ actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how st...

  10. UniSat-5: a space-based optical system for space debris monitoring (United States)

    Di Roberto, Riccardo; Cappelletti, Chantal


    Micro-satellite missions, thanks to the miniaturization process of electronic components, now have a broader range of applications. Gauss Group at School of Aerospace Engineering has been a pioneer in educational micro-satellites, namely with UNISAT and EDUSAT missions. Moreover it has been long involved in space debris related studies, such as optical observations as well as mitigation. A new project is under development for a compact digital imaging system. The purpose will be in situ observation of space debris on board Unisat-5 micro-satellite. One of the key elements of observing on orbit is that many atmospheric phenomena would be avoided, such as diffraction and EM absorption. Hence images would gain more contrast and solar spectral irradiance would be higher for the whole visible spectrum Earlier limitations of power and instrument size prevented the inclusion of these payloads in educational satellite missions. The system is composed of an optical tube, a camera, C band and S band transceivers and two antennas. The system is independent from the rest of the spacecraft. The optical tube is a Schmidt-Cassegrain reflector, and the magnitude limit is 13. The camera is equipped with a panchromatic 5Mpix sensor, capable of direct video streaming, as well as local storage of recorded images. The transceivers operate on ISM 2.4GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi bands, and they provide stand-alone communication capabilities to the payload, and Unisat-5 OBDH can switch between the two. Both transceivers are connected to their respective custom-designed patch antenna. The ground segment is constituted of a high gain antenna dish, which will use the same transceiver on board the spacecraft as the feed, in order to establish a TCP/IP wireless link. Every component of this system is a consumer grade product. Therefore price reduction of cutting edge imaging technology now allows the use of professional instruments, that combined with the new wireless technology developed for

  11. Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development (United States)

    Hill, Terry R.


    This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  12. Departamento de Obras Civiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Director Departamento de Obras Civiles


    Full Text Available Es la unidad académica que se crea como estructura básica para la formación profesional del Constructor Civil. El departamento está orientado a las siguientes áreas: Obras Viales, Fluviales y Marítimas; Hormigones y Mecánica de Suelos; Laboratorios y Control de Calidad; Planificación y Programación; Administración; Organización y Gestión Financiera, conocimientos insertos en un total de 33 asignaturas, prácticas y seminarios siendo equivalentes a más de 100 créditos, lo cual representa un 42% del total de las asignaturas correspondientes al Plan de Estudios de la Carrera de Construcción Civil.

  13. Insolvencias. Civil y societaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bordes Leone


    Full Text Available El deudor civil que, para substraerse al pago de sus obligaciones, ocultara sus bienes, simulara enajenaciones o créditos, se trasladara al extranjero o se ocultare sin dejar persona que lo represente, o bienes a la vista en cantidad suficiente para responder al pago de sus deudas, será castigado con pena de tres meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría. La acción penal no podrá ser ejercitada sino a denuncia de parte, y sólo en el caso de que la insolvencia del deudor resulte comprobada por actos infructuosos de ejecución en la vía civil.Antecedentes históricas. La insolvencia fraudulenta. Insolvencia societaria fraudulenta: Análisis crítico.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mishin


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is improving the efficiency of personnel management of the federal government and regional authorities. In conducting this study, the main sources of raw data were the materials and documents graphical analysis, cross table, the automated processing of data using Excel VBA. This article revealed negative features of the life cycle of a career Russian civil servants; based on feedback analysis concluded that the weak differences in the profi les of ordinary skill competencies and management staff of the civil service. State civil service does not offer attractive career model for skilled workers. Models of career and payroll of civil servants are poorly developed.

  15. Efficient Divide-And-Conquer Classification Based on Feature-Space Decomposition


    Guo, Qi; Chen, Bo-Wei; Jiang, Feng; Ji, Xiangyang; Kung, Sun-Yuan


    This study presents a divide-and-conquer (DC) approach based on feature space decomposition for classification. When large-scale datasets are present, typical approaches usually employed truncated kernel methods on the feature space or DC approaches on the sample space. However, this did not guarantee separability between classes, owing to overfitting. To overcome such problems, this work proposes a novel DC approach on feature spaces consisting of three steps. Firstly, we divide the feature ...

  16. Performance Comparison of Assorted Color Spaces for Multilevel Block Truncation Coding based Face Recognition


    H.B. Kekre; Sudeep Thepade; Karan Dhamejani; Sanchit Khandelwal; Adnan Azmi


    The paper presents a performance analysis of Multilevel Block Truncation Coding based Face Recognition among widely used color spaces. In [1], Multilevel Block Truncation Coding was applied on the RGB color space up to four levels for face recognition. Better results were obtained when the proposed technique was implemented using Kekre’s LUV (K’LUV) color space [25]. This was the motivation to test the proposed technique using assorted color spaces. For experimental analysis, two face databas...

  17. University-Preschool Partnership and Workplace-Based Learning: A Collaborative "Third Space" or No Space at All? (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Arna H.


    The article examines the aims of the workplace-based learning of prospective preschool teachers in Iceland and associated cooperative practices between the University of Iceland and preschools. A "third space" of collaboration between these two sites is considered necessary if the education of preschool student teachers is to be…

  18. Mercury Atomic Frequency Standards for Space Based Navigation and Timekeeping (United States)

    Tjoelker, R. L.; Burt, E. A.; Chung, S.; Hamell, R. L.; Prestage, J. D.; Tucker, B.; Cash, P.; Lutwak, R.


    A low power Mercury Atomic Frequency Standard (MAFS) has been developed and demonstrated on the path towards future space clock applications. A self contained mercury ion breadboard clock: emulating flight clock interfaces, steering a USO local oscillator, and consuming approx 40 Watts has been operating at JPL for more than a year. This complete, modular ion clock instrument demonstrates that key GNSS size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements can be achieved while still maintaining short and long term performance demonstrated in previous ground ion clocks. The MAFS breadboard serves as a flexible platform for optimizing further space clock development and guides engineering model design trades towards fabrication of an ion clock for space flight.

  19. Component Data Base for Space Station Resistojet Auxiliary Propulsion (United States)

    Bader, Clayton H.


    The resistojet was baselined for Space Station auxiliary propulsion because of its operational versatility, efficiency, and durability. This report was conceived as a guide to designers and planners of the Space Station auxiliary propulsion system. It is directed to the low thrust resistojet concept, though it should have application to other station concepts or systems such as the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory (MTL), and the Waste Fluid Management System (WFMS). The information will likely be quite useful in the same capacity for other non-Space Station systems including satellite, freeflyers, explorers, and maneuvering vehicles. The report is a catalog of the most useful information for the most significant feed system components and is organized for the greatest convenience of the user.

  20. [Viruses and civilization]. (United States)

    Chastel, C


    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  1. Positioning Reduction of Deep Space Probes Based on VLBI Tracking (United States)

    Qiao, S. B.


    In the background of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Project and the Yinghuo Project, through theoretical analysis, algorithm study, software development, data simulation, real data processing and so on, the positioning reductions of the European lunar satellite Smart-1 and Mars Express (MEX) satellite, as well as the Chinese Chang'e-1 (CE-1) and Chang'e-2 (CE-2) satellites are accomplished by using VLBI and USB tracking data in this dissertation. The progress is made in various aspects including the development of theoretical model, the construction of observation equation, the analysis of the condition of normal equation, the selection and determination of the constraint, the analysis of data simulation, the detection of outliers in observations, the maintenance of the stability of the solution of parameters, the development of the practical software system, the processing of the real tracking data and so on. The details of the research progress in this dissertation are written as follows: (1) The algorithm is analyzed concerning the positioning reduction of the deep spacecraft based on VLBI tracking data. Through data simulation, it is analyzed for the effects of the bias in predicted orbit, the white noises and systematic errors in VLBI delays, and USB ranges on the positioning reduction of spacecraft. Results show that it is preferable to suppress the dispersion of positioning data points by applying the constraint of geocentric distance of spacecraft when there are only VLBI tracking data. The positioning solution is a biased estimate via observations of three VLBI stations. For the case of four tracking stations, the uncertainty of the constraint should be in accordance with the bias in the predicted orbit. White noises in delays and ranges mainly result in dispersion of the sequence of positioning data points. If there is the systematic error of observations, the systematic offset of the positioning results is caused, and there are trend jumps in the shape of

  2. A Mid-Infrared Search for Kardashev Civilizations (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Wright, J.; Griffith, R.; Povich, M. S.


    We are using the WISE all-sky Source Catalog to search for and put upper limits on the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. Any galaxy-spanning (Type III) civilization with an energy supply of more than about one percent of its stellar luminosity will have detectable mid-infrared excess, and nearby (extended) galaxies with civilizations with supplies more than about 80% of their stellar luminosity will be well-distinguished from nearly all natural sources in WISE color-color space. Mid-infrared spectra, far-infrared photometry, and radio emission from CO can all be used to distinguish extraterrestrial mid-infrared radiation from dust.

  3. Autonomous vision in space, based on Advanced Stellar Compass platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian


    The Ørsted Star Imager, comprises the functionality of an Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). I.e. it is able to, autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, as well as determine the attitude with high precision in the matter of seconds. The autonomy makes for a high capability for error......) Complex Object surface tracking (e.g. space docking, planetary terrain tracking). All the above topics, has been realized in the past. Either by open loop, or by man-in-loop systems. By implementing these methods or function in the onboard autonomy, a superior system performance could be acheived by means...

  4. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R


    ... (mesosphere and thermosphere) in terms of the structure of the underlying medium. Advances in non-LTE radiative transfer and atmospheric waves and localized excitations are detailed, as well as analysis and modeling of the databases resulting from two groundbreaking space infrared experiments, DoD MSX/SPIRIT III and NASA TIMED/SABER.

  5. Greedy Algorithms for Reduced Bases in Banach Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald; Petrova, Guergana; Wojtaszczyk, Przemyslaw


    family of PDEs. The performance of this greedy algorithm was initially analyzed in Buffa et al. (Modél. Math. Anal. Numér. 46:595-603, 2012) in the case X=H is a Hilbert space. The results of Buffa et al. (Modél. Math. Anal. Numér. 46:595-603, 2012) were

  6. Neural network based satellite tracking for deep space applications (United States)

    Amoozegar, F.; Ruggier, C.


    The objective of this paper is to provide a survey of neural network trends as applied to the tracking of spacecrafts in deep space at Ka-band under various weather conditions and examine the trade-off between tracing accuracy and communication link performance.

  7. Civil Service Human Resource Capacity and Information Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2009 ... civil service organizations to make them accountable and responsible for ... changing the structure of the civil service organisations. More generally .... method to measure productivity of IT based on before and after IT investment .... 2000, and the wealth value of office equipment4, of Federal. Offices as a ...

  8. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders


    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  9. The humaneness of our technical civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, E.


    It is good facing our civilization with a critical distance. It keeps away self-complacency and hybris. What we need is a potential of renewal which must be raised by doubts and challenges. A critical distance is based on the determined approval of our civilization which tries to comply with mankind in a high degree. Civilization is the expression of a realistic picture of man. According to this view freedom shall only be possible because of continuous changes and changes are only possible if there is freedom. Propagating confidence in the undestroyable basic forces of human nature and thus enjoying the present as well as trusting the future: this is our message, our moral task. (orig./HP) [de

  10. SOA based intensive support system for space radiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranova, M.; Shishedjiev, B.; Genova, S.; Semkova, J.


    Modern data intensive science involves heterogeneous and structured data sets in sophisticated data formats. Scientists need access to distributed computing and data sources and support for remote access to expensive, multinational specialized instruments. Scientists need effective software for data analysis, querying, accessing and visualization. The interaction between computer science and science and engineering becomes essential for the automation of data manipulation. The key solution uses the Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) in the field of science and Grid computing. The goal of this paper is managing the scientific data received by the Lyulin-5 particle telescope used in MATROSHKA-R experiment performed at the International Space Station (ISS). The dynamics of radiation characteristics and their dependency on the time and the orbital parameters have been established. The experiment helps the accurate estimation of the impact of space radiation on human health in long-duration manned missions

  11. Enhancing Arctic Surveillance With Space-Based Radars (United States)


    180 degrees (Sellers, 2005). xvii Right Ascension of the Ascending Node: from a geocentric origin perspective, describes how an orbital plane...fascination with remote sensing and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance from space. • Dr. Ray Buettner, my co-advisor, whose positive approach ...48 N; 169 W (northwest maritime corner) • 74 43 N; 156 34 W (uppermost maritime point in the Beaufort Sea approaching the Arctic Ocean) • 72 53 N

  12. A Persistent Perch: USSOCOMs Use of Organic Space Based ISR (United States)


    traits. The mass constraint of a single CubeSat can be solved by fractionating, or spreading , the CubeSat’s functions among a closely flying...personnel and personnel and equipment fit into its current force structure. Traditionally, space ISR assets are, like air assets, spread throughout the... Pumpkin Incorporated, " Pumpkin Satellite Parts Price List" 24 USSOCOM Intelligence Officer 25 Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller

  13. Space trajectory calculation based on G-sensor (United States)

    Xu, Biya; Zhan, Yinwei; Shao, Yang


    At present, without full use of the mobile phone around us, most of the research in human body posture recognition field is use camera or portable acceleration sensor to collect data. In this paper, G-sensor built-in mobile phone is use to collect data. After processing data with the way of moving average filter and acceleration integral, joint point's space three-dimensional coordinates can be abtained accurately.

  14. Investigation of role of cultural spaces to promote level of quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture is the root of all changes in past and modern communities, which is the foundation and base of civilization of the people of each country. ... and (84.2%) created effects of cultural spaces to fill leisure times of youth, and (84.5%) spatial diversity to attract different age groups by (making space multipurpose) and ...

  15. Developing civil society expertise to promote democratic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will also build civil society partnership networks and capacity for effective engagement with principal stakeholders in defence affairs, helping to transform attitudes and ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower women, prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for ...

  16. Space closing versus space opening for bilateral missing upper laterals - aesthetic judgments of laypeople: a web-based survey. (United States)

    Qadri, Salim; Parkin, Nicola A; Benson, Philip E


    To investigate the opinions of laypeople regarding the aesthetic outcome of treating patients with developmental absence of both maxillary lateral incisors using either orthodontic space closure (OSC) or space opening and prosthetic replacement (PR). Cross sectional, web-based survey. A panel of five orthodontists and five restorative dentists examined post-treatment intra-oral images of 21 patients with developmental absence of both upper lateral incisors. A consensus view was obtained about the 10 most attractive images (5 OSC; 5 PR). The 10 selected images were used in a web-based survey involving staff and students at the University of Sheffield. In the first section, the participants were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the 10 randomly arranged single images using a 5-point Likert scale. In the second section, an image of OSC was paired with an image of PR according to their attractiveness ranking by the clinician panel, and the participants were asked to indicate which of the two images they preferred. The survey received 959 completed responses with 9590 judgements. The images of OSC were perceived to be more attractive (mean rating 3·34 out of 5; SD 0·56) compared with the images of PR (mean rating 3·14 out of 5; SD 0·58) (mean diff 0·21; P Space closing was perceived to be more attractive than space opening by lay people. The findings have implications for advising patients about the best aesthetic outcome when both maxillary lateral incisors are missing.

  17. Image Analysis Based on Soft Computing and Applied on Space Shuttle During the Liftoff Process (United States)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve J.


    Imaging techniques based on Soft Computing (SC) and developed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have been implemented on a variety of prototype applications related to the safety operation of the Space Shuttle during the liftoff process. These SC-based prototype applications include detection and tracking of moving Foreign Objects Debris (FOD) during the Space Shuttle liftoff, visual anomaly detection on slidewires used in the emergency egress system for the Space Shuttle at the laJlIlch pad, and visual detection of distant birds approaching the Space Shuttle launch pad. This SC-based image analysis capability developed at KSC was also used to analyze images acquired during the accident of the Space Shuttle Columbia and estimate the trajectory and velocity of the foam that caused the accident.

  18. The Civil War Diet


    Brennan, Matthew Philip


    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  19. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration......- and citizenship-regimes. Locating transnationalism as part of the political opportunity structure also indicates that the state(s) to some degree can facilitate transnationalism, directly and indirectly. A substantial part of political engagement now occurs via transnational channels. What is uncertain is to what...

  20. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.


    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen- hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during ight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced ows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle con guration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot- re test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate ight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative e ort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This presentation discusses the various trends of base convective heat ux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base ow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi- empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the ight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  1. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    specific climatic challenge or clean the air. With nanotechnology, the artificial and the natural move closer together; this is the perspective for civil engineer Chris McCarthy’s work all over the world. And what is new is not just the way the construction materials are put together; they also require......Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together...

  2. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together...... theme in twentieth century architecture. Together, civil engineer Peter Rice and architect Ian Ritchie created a paradigm shift with their revolutionary ideas for glass facades supported by cables. Glued and bolted constructions made entirely of glass are now a reality in small-scale projects, yet...

  3. Array element of a space-based synchrotron radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.W.; Commichau, S.C.; Kim, G.N.; Son, D.; Viertel, G.M.


    A synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) has been proposed as part of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment on the International Space Station to study cosmic ray electrons and positrons in the TeV energy range. The SRD will identify these particles by detecting their emission of synchrotron radiation in the Earth's magnetic field. This article reports on the study of key technical parameters for the array elements which form the SRD, including the choice of the detecting medium, the sensor and the readout system

  4. Photovoltaic-Concentrator Based Power Beaming For Space Elevator Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Daniel E.; Chiang, Richard; Keys, Catherine C.; Lyjak, Andrew W.; Starch, Michael D.; Nees, John A.


    The MClimber team, at the Student Space Systems Fabrication Laboratory of the University of Michigan, has developed a prototype robotic climber for competition in the NASA sponsored Power Beaming Challenge. This paper describes the development of the system that utilizes a simple telescope to deliver an 8 kW beam to a photovoltaic panel in order to power a one kilometer climb. Its unique approach utilizes a precision GPS signal to track the panel. Fundamental systems of the project were implemented using a design strategy focusing on robustness and modularity. Development of this design and its results are presented.

  5. Simplified proceeding as a civil procedure model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олексій Юрійович Зуб


    Full Text Available Currently the directions for the development of modern civil procedural law such as optimization, facilitation, forwarding proceedings promoting the increase of the civil procedure efficiency factor are of peculiar importance. Their results are occurrence and functionality of simplified proceedings system designed to facilitate significantly hearing some categories of cases, promotion of their consideration within reasonable time and reduce legal expenses so far as it is possible. The category “simplified proceedings” in the native science of the procedural law is underexamined. A good deal of scientists-processualists were limited to studying summary (in the context of optimization as a way to improve the civil procedural form, summary proceedings and procedures functioning in terms of the mentioned proceedings, consideration of case in absentia as well as their modification. Among the Ukrainian scientist who studied some aspects of the simplified proceedings are: E. A. Belyanevych, V. I. Bobrik, S. V. Vasilyev, M. V. Verbitska, S. I. Zapara, A. A. Zgama, V. V. Komarov, D. D. Luspenuk, U. V. Navrotska, V. V. Protsenko, T. V. Stepanova, E. A. Talukin, S. Y. Fursa, M. Y. Shtefan others. The problems of the simplified proceedings were studied by the foreign scientists as well, such as: N. Andrews, Y. Y. Grubanon, N. A. Gromoshina, E. P. Kochanenko, J. Kohler, D. I. Krumskiy, E. M. Muradjan, I. V. Reshetnikova, U. Seidel, N. V. Sivak, M. Z. Shvarts, V. V. Yarkov and others. The paper objective is to develop theoretically supported, practically reasonable notion of simplified proceedings in the civil process, and also basing on the notion of simplified proceedings, international experience of the legislative regulation of simplified proceedings, native and foreign doctrine, to distinguish essential features of simplified proceedings in the civil process and to describe them. In the paper we generated the notion of simplified proceedings that

  6. How persistent is civilization growth?


    Garrett, Timothy J.


    In a recent study (Garrett, 2011), I described theoretical arguments and empirical evidence showing how civilization evolution might be considered from a purely physical basis. One implication is that civilization exhibits the property of persistence in its growth. Here, this argument is elaborated further, and specific near-term forecasts are provided for key economic variables and anthropogenic CO2 emission rates at global scales. Absent some external shock, civilization wealth, energy cons...

  7. 3 x 3 free-space optical router based on crossbar network and its control algorithm (United States)

    Hou, Peipei; Sun, Jianfeng; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Liren


    A 3 × 3 free-space optical router, which comprises optical switches and polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and based on crossbar network, is proposed in this paper. A control algorithm for the 3 × 3 free-space optical router is also developed to achieve rapid control without rearrangement. In order to test the performance of the network based on 3 × 3 free-space optical router and that of the algorithm developed for the optical router, experiments are designed. The experiment results show that the interconnection network based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router has low cross talk, fast connection speed. Under the control of the algorithm developed, a non-block and real free interconnection network is obtained based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router we proposed.

  8. What are the boundaries of legal guardianship in Alzheimer’s disease? An evidence-based update in the context of the Brazilian Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe K. Sudo


    Full Text Available The Brazilian Civil Code, which came into force in 2002, established a functional criterion for guardianship proceedings and introduced the concept of “limited guardianship,” applied to cases in which incapacity to exercise civil rights is partial. With population aging and the growth in the number of older people with cognitive impairments, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the need to invoke legal remedies against elder abuse increased; however, difficulties in assessing capacity still lead to a majority of decisions in favor of plenary guardianship. The present article compiled data on capacity in AD subjects. The varying degrees of decision-making impairment at different stages of AD might be compatible with limited guardianship in milder cases of the disease.

  9. Homeland Security and Civil Liberties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leonard; Lovelace, Douglas C., Jr


    .... The conference examined national security issues related to civil liberties, immigration policy, privacy issues, first amendment rights, and the balance of executive and judicial power in relation...

  10. Improved optical ranging for space based gravitational wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Andrew J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McKenzie, Kirk; Ware, Brent; De Vine, Glenn; Spero, Robert E; Klipstein, W


    The operation of 10 6  km scale laser interferometers in space will permit the detection of gravitational waves at previously unaccessible frequency regions. Multi-spacecraft missions, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), will use time delay interferometry to suppress the otherwise dominant laser frequency noise from their measurements. This is accomplished by performing sub-sample interpolation of the optical phase measurements recorded at each spacecraft for synchronization and cancellation of the otherwise dominant laser frequency noise. These sub-sample interpolation time shifts are dependent upon the inter-spacecraft range and will be measured using a pseudo-random noise ranging modulation upon the science laser. One limit to the ranging performance is mutual interference between the outgoing and incoming ranging signals upon each spacecraft. This paper reports on the demonstration of a noise cancellation algorithm which is shown to providing a factor of ∼8 suppression of the mutual interference noise. Demonstration of the algorithm in an optical test bed showed an rms ranging error of 0.06 m, improved from 0.19 m in previous results, surpassing the 1 m RMS LISA specification and potentially improving the cancellation of laser frequency noise. (paper)

  11. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.


    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb groundbased observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  12. Model based Computerized Ionospheric Tomography in space and time (United States)

    Tuna, Hakan; Arikan, Orhan; Arikan, Feza


    Reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density distribution in space and time not only provide basis for better understanding the physical nature of the ionosphere, but also provide improvements in various applications including HF communication. Recently developed IONOLAB-CIT technique provides physically admissible 3D model of the ionosphere by using both Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) measurements obtained from a GPS satellite - receiver network and IRI-Plas model. IONOLAB-CIT technique optimizes IRI-Plas model parameters in the region of interest such that the synthetic STEC computations obtained from the IRI-Plas model are in accordance with the actual STEC measurements. In this work, the IONOLAB-CIT technique is extended to provide reconstructions both in space and time. This extension exploits the temporal continuity of the ionosphere to provide more reliable reconstructions with a reduced computational load. The proposed 4D-IONOLAB-CIT technique is validated on real measurement data obtained from TNPGN-Active GPS receiver network in Turkey.

  13. On projective invariants based on non-linear connections in a Finsler space I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, S.C.


    The projective transformations based on linear connections in a Finsler space have been studied by Berwald, Misra, Szabo, Matsumoto, Fukai and Yamada, Rastogi and others. In almost all these papers the emphasis has been on studying Finsler spaces of scalar curvature, Finsler spaces of constant curvature and Finsler spaces of zero curvature with the help of projective curvature tensors of Weyl and Douglas. In 1981, the author studied projective transformation in a Finsler space based on non-linear connections and obtained certain projective invariants. The aim of the present paper is to study Finsler spaces of scalar curvature, constant curvature and zero curvature with the help of non-linear connections and projective invariants obtained from non-linear connections. (author)

  14. Kingdom, church and civil society: A theological paradigm for civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with the role that churches can and should play in civil society to develop societal morally. The central-theoretical argument is that the biblical notion of the kingdom of God can, when it is systematically and theologically developed, offer an acceptable foundation for the civil action of churches. In light of this ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocarsly, Sidney I.


    Studies of probable effects of space environment exposure of Durak B'' (a Chromizing Corp. proprietary disilicide coating) coated Mo are described. It was concluded that, in a high-temperature environment, solar radiation will not affect the material system. Sputtering will not cause a structural problem, but it may cause a change in optical properties. Meteoroids may cause coating spalling and minimum to possibly total failure. Some protection system will probably be necessary. Vacuum will cause some coating evaporation. The rate will be temperature-dependent and probably of a low order. The possible problem area is that the evaporation appears to occur preferentially at crack sites. Ionized nitrogen and hydrogen may react with the coating and charge physical or mechanical properties. (A.G.W.)


    Murata, Teruaki

    Recently, the public interests are becoming high in the way of executing public works and the future direction of infrastructure development, which raises nation-wide discussion on these issues. How should we make our country's growth strategy for sustainable development? How should we realize the grand design of infrastructure needed for the implementation of such a strategy? It is obvious that further discussions are needed for these challenging questions. With an aim to promote such discussions, this paper reviews the history of public works and the professional practices (or accomplishments) of our great civil engineers, and discusses the future of public works and the roles of civil engineers based on their origin. Further, in this paper, the author, as the chairman of the Public Works Committee of Japan Civil Engineering Contractors Association, introduces the Association's proposal of "realization of an attractive construction industry." However, for its realization, sustainable institutional arrangements under social consensus are indispensable. Also, individual engineer must establish his/her own identity based on sense of social ethics. It is the author's hope that, through these journals, the professional practices of civil engineers will be widely known to the public with objective logics and discussed to achieve social consensus.

  17. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  18. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  19. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  20. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable civil...

  1. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  2. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  3. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  4. 28 CFR 16.89 - Exemption of Civil Division Systems-limited access. (United States)


    ... prosecution of grand jury, civil fraud, and other law enforcement matters, disclosure could compromise matters... affirmative enforcement actions based upon alleged violations of regulations or of civil or criminal laws... civil law enforcement purposes is exempted for the reasons set forth from the following subsections: (1...

  5. A Study of the Relationship Between the Practice of Civil Engineering and Student Courses: Volume 1. (United States)

    Bull, A. J. U.; Richardson, E.

    Australian civil engineers were surveyed for a study intended to establish a model for development based on a list of the basic stock of knowledge and techniques that need to be mastered by the graduate civil engineer. Following a brief introduction and summary, chapters 3-7 review the survey objectives, civil engineering definitions and…

  6. Global Trends in Space Access and Utilization (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Keim, Nicholas S.; Zeender, Peter E.


    In the not-so-distant past, space access and air/space technology superiority were within the purview of the U.S. and former Soviet Union's respective space agencies, both vying for global leadership in space exploitation. In more recent years, with the emergence of the European Space Agency (ESA) member countries and Asian countries joining the family of space-faring nations, it is truer now more than ever that space access and utilization has become a truly global enterprise. In fact, according to the Space Report 2007, this enterprise is a $251-billion economy. It is possible to gauge the vitality of worldwide efforts from open sources in today's transparent, media-based society. In particular, print and web broadcasters regularly report and catalog global space activities for defense and civil purposes. For the purposes of this paper, a representative catalog of missions is used to illustrate the nature of the emerging "globalization." This paper highlights global trends in terms of not only the providers of space access, but also the end-users for the various recently accomplished missions. With well over 50 launches per year, in recent years, the launch-log reveals a surprising percentage of "cooperative or co-dependent missions" where different agencies, countries, and/or commercial entities are so engaged presumably to the benefit of all who participate. Statistics are cited and used to show that recently over d0% of the 50-plus missions involved multiple nations working collectively to deliver payloads to orbit. Observers, space policy professionals, and space agency leaders have eloquently proposed that it might require the combined resources and talents of multiple nations to advance human exploration goals beyond low earth orbit. This paper does not intend to offer new information with respect to whether international collaboration is necessary but to observe that, in continuing to monitor global trends, the results seem to support the thesis that a

  7. Nuclear reactor power as applied to a space-based radar mission (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.


    A space-based radar mission and spacecraft are examined to determine system requirements for a 300 kWe space nuclear reactor power system. The spacecraft configuration and its orbit, launch vehicle, and propulsion are described. Mission profiles are addressed, and storage in assembly orbit is considered. Dynamics and attitude control and the problems of nuclear and thermal radiation are examined.

  8. Computer based methods for measurement of joint space width: update of an ongoing OMERACT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharp, John T.; Angwin, Jane; Boers, Maarten; Duryea, Jeff; von Ingersleben, Gabriele; Hall, James R.; Kauffman, Joost A.; Landewé, Robert; Langs, Georg; Lukas, Cédric; Maillefert, Jean-Francis; Bernelot Moens, Hein J.; Peloschek, Philipp; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée


    Computer-based methods of measuring joint space width (JSW) could potentially have advantages over scoring joint space narrowing, with regard to increased standardization, sensitivity, and reproducibility. In an early exercise, 4 different methods showed good agreement on measured change in JSW over

  9. Reliability of space-grade vs. COTS SRAM-based FPGA in N-modular redundancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glein, Robert; Rittner, Florian; Becher, Andreas; Ziener, Daniel; Frickel, Jürgen; Teich, Jürgen; Heuberger, Albert


    In this paper, we evaluate the suitability of different SRAM-based FPGAs for harsh radiation environments (e.g., space). In particular, we compare the space-grade and radiation-hardened by design Virtex-5QV (XQR5VFX130) with the commercial off-the-shelf Kintex-7 (KC7K325T) from Xilinx. The

  10. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements of common space based targets (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Madajian, Jonathan; Mercer, Whitaker; Knowles, Patrick


    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR and DE-STARLITE are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid. In the DESTAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds a common space target sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 , which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed. Results vary depending on the material tested and are limited to measurements of 1 axis, so

  11. Departamento de Obras Civiles


    Director Departamento de Obras Civiles


    Es la unidad académica que se crea como estructura básica para la formación profesional del Constructor Civil. El departamento está orientado a las siguientes áreas: Obras Viales, Fluviales y Marítimas; Hormigones y Mecánica de Suelos; Laboratorios y Control de Calidad; Planificación y Programación; Administración; Organización y Gestión Financiera, conocimientos insertos en un total de 33 asignaturas, prácticas y seminarios siendo equivalentes a más de 100 créditos, lo cual representa un 42%...

  12. Global civil society: between nation states and transnational corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kvitka


    Full Text Available Global civil society is the subject of the formation of a new world order and the modern humanitarian outlook, which is based on the primacy of justice and human rights. One of the actors head of global civil society is an international non-governmental organizations. But wrong to equate global civil society with the activities of these organizations only. Mostly they influence governments and their humanitarian and international politics. Meanwhile, the role of global civil and its society various institutions is much greater and significant. The article discusses the various aspects of the civil society from the position that it took place between transnational companies (TNCs and nation-states. The role of the latter is gradually reduced - economic regulation take on multinationals and public administration is a field of activity of various institutions and structures that scientists considered it as a manifestation of global civil society. In Ukraine, which is also involved in the process of globalization, global civil society is one of the main factors of its national civil society.

  13. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT aims to publish definitive and original research papers of high standard, containing material of broad interest and of significant contribution to civil engineering, with emphasis being placed on material that is applicable to the solution of practical problems. It provides a forum for ...

  14. Civil works for NPPs construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portenseigne, Christophe


    Christophe Portenseigne, Technical Director of Bouygues Travaux Publics, provided explanations on the main challenges of Civil work for the construction of the 3. generation of NPPs. He then provided an overview of the new Civil Work concepts for the 4. generation of NPPs

  15. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering. (United States)

    Vesilind, P. Aarne


    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  16. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment. (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  17. Cognitive Mapping Based on Conjunctive Representations of Space and Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiping Zeng


    Full Text Available It is a challenge to build robust simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM system in dynamical large-scale environments. Inspired by recent findings in the entorhinal–hippocampal neuronal circuits, we propose a cognitive mapping model that includes continuous attractor networks of head-direction cells and conjunctive grid cells to integrate velocity information by conjunctive encodings of space and movement. Visual inputs from the local view cells in the model provide feedback cues to correct drifting errors of the attractors caused by the noisy velocity inputs. We demonstrate the mapping performance of the proposed cognitive mapping model on an open-source dataset of 66 km car journey in a 3 km × 1.6 km urban area. Experimental results show that the proposed model is robust in building a coherent semi-metric topological map of the entire urban area using a monocular camera, even though the image inputs contain various changes caused by different light conditions and terrains. The results in this study could inspire both neuroscience and robotic research to better understand the neural computational mechanisms of spatial cognition and to build robust robotic navigation systems in large-scale environments.

  18. Autobalancing and FDIR for a space-based centrifuge prototype (United States)

    Wilson, Edward; Mah, Robert W.


    This report summarizes centrifuge-related work performed at the Smart Systems Research Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center's Computational Sciences Division from 1995 through 2003. The goal is to develop an automated system that will sense an imbalance (both static and dynamic3) in a centrifuge and issue control commands to drive counterweights to eliminate the effects of the imbalance. This autobalancing development began when the ISS centrifuge design was not yet finalized, and was designed to work with the SSRL Centrifuge laboratory prototype, constructed in 1993-1995. Significant differences between that prototype and the current International Space Station (ISS) Centrifuge design are that: the spin axis for the SSRL Centrifuge prototype can translate freely in x and y, but not wobble, whereas the ISS centrifuge spin axis has 3 translational and two rotational degrees of freedom, supported by a vibration 34. The imbalance sensors are strained gauges both in the rotor and the stator, measuring the imbalance forces, whereas the ISS centrifuge uses eddy current displacement sensors to measure the displacements resulting from imbalance. High fidelity autobalancing and FDIR systems (for both counterweights and strain gauges) are developed and tested in MATLAB simulation, for the SSRL Centrifuge configuration. Hardware implementation of the autobalancing technology was begun in 1996, but was terminated due to lack of funding. The project lay dormant until 2001-2002 when the FDIR capability was added.

  19. Understanding Interorganizational Learning Based on Social Spaces and Learning Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rebelato Mozzato


    Full Text Available Different organizational settings have been gaining ground in the world economy, resulting in a proliferation of different forms of strategic alliances that translate into a growth in the number of organizations that have started to deal with interorganizational relationships with different actors. These circumstances reinforce Crossan, Lane, White and Djurfeldt (1995 and Crossan, Mauer and White (2011 in exploring what authors refer to as the fourth, interorganizational, level of learning. These authors, amongst others, suggest that the process of interorganizational learning (IOL warrants investigation, as its scope of analysis needs widening and deepening. Therefore, this theoretical essay is an attempt to understand IOL as a dynamic process found in interorganizational cooperative relationships that can take place in different structured and unstructured social spaces and that can generate learning episodes. According to this view, IOL is understood as part of an organizational learning continuum and is analyzed within the framework of practical rationality in an approach that is less cognitive and more social-behavioral.

  20. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B


    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  1. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Frank; Behrens, Joerg; Pospisil, Stanislav; Kudela, Karel


    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  2. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)


    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  3. Civil engineering challenge with nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.


    The civil engineer can help to solve the problems in disposing of nuclear waste in a deep geologic formation. The site for a nuclear waste repository must be carefully selected so that the geology provides the natural barrier between the waste and the accessible environment specified by the NRC and the EPA. This engineer is familiar with the needed structure and conditions of the host and surrounding rocks, and also the hydraulic mechanisms for limiting the migration of water in the rocks. To dispose of the nuclear waste underground requires stable and long-lasting shafts and tunnels such as civil engineers have designed and constructed for many other uses. The planning, design and construction of the ground surface facilities for a nuclear waste repository involves civil engineering in many ways. The transporation of heavy, metal shielded casks requires special attention to the system of highways and railroads accessing the repository. Structures for handling the shipping casks and transferring the waste onsite and into the deep geologic formation need special considerations. The structures must provide the NRC required containment, including hot cells for remote handling. Therefore, structural design strives for buildings, ventilation structures, shaft headframes, etc., to be earthquake and tornado-proof. These important design bases and considerations for the civil engineer working on a nuclear waste repository are discussed in this paper

  4. Lineage of global civil engineering. Global civil engineering no keifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, M


    This paper considers which way the global civil engineering should go in the future. Civil engineering has now a paradigm with a new dimension debuted as the global environmental problems are taken up specifically. Achieving the target of civil engineering requires a critical review that how the cost effect and efficiency discussions in only the dimensions of the conventional technologies and economies can be incorporated into the dimensions and measures of new fields to create the new horizons. Conceiving the relationship between civil engineered structures and environmental climate encounters the indispensable judgment criterion on how such social scientific conditions as weather, culture, religion, economy, and politics are combined to reach a judgment. The global civil engineering is desired to have the ideas and directional role to work on the ultimate assignment of environment and development called a global environmental problem analytically, comprehensively, innovatively and creatively as the civil engineering science, rather than as a mere existence of one area of the advanced civil engineering science. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Reference Concepts for a Space-Based Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion, Turboalternator, Burst Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael


    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform...

  6. Flexible Graphene-based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application Project (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.


    Develop prototype graphene-based reversible energy storage devices that are flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, and that can be easily attached to spacesuits, rovers, landers, and equipment used in space.

  7. BASE-A space experiment with Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R. rubrum S1H inoculated on solid minimal media was sent to the ISS in September 2006 (BASE-A experiment). After 10 days flight R. rubrum cultures returned back to...

  8. 78 FR 65006 - National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Advisory Board; Meeting (United States)


    ..., Public Law 92-463, as amended, and the President's 2004 U.S. Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and.... ADDRESSES: The Omni Shoreham Hotel, 2500 Calvert Street NW., Washington, DC 20008. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  9. 78 FR 23598 - National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Advisory Board; Meeting (United States)


    ..., Public Law 92-463, as amended, and the President's 2004 U.S. Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and...: The Melrose Hotel, 2430 Pennsylvania Ave NW., Washington, DC 20037. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  10. Stokes Space-Based Optical Modulation Format Recognition for Digital Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio


    We present a technique for modulation format recognition for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks. The method is based on Stokes space signal representation and uses a variational Bayesian expectation maximization machine learning algorithm. Differentiation between diverse common coheren...

  11. Sampling in image space for vision based SLAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, O.; Zivkovic, Z.; Kröse, B.


    Loop closing in vision based SLAM applications is a difficult task. Comparing new image data with all previous image data acquired for the map is practically impossible because of the high computational costs. This problem is part of the bigger problem to acquire local geometric constraints from

  12. Risk based decision tool for space exploration missions (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Cornford, Steve; Moran, Terrence


    This paper presents an approach and corresponding tool to assess and analyze the risks involved in a mission during the pre-phase A design process. This approach is based on creating a risk template for each subsystem expert involved in the mission design process and defining appropriate interactions between the templates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Blokhinov


    Full Text Available The technical problem of creating the new Russian version of an automatic Space Cargo Ship (SCS for the International Space Station (ISS is inseparably connected to the development of a digital video system for automatically measuring the SCS position relative to ISS in the process of spacecraft docking. This paper presents a method for estimating the orientation elements based on the use of a highly detailed digital model of the ISS. The input data are digital frames from a calibrated video system and the initial values of orientation elements, these can be estimated from navigation devices or by fast-and-rough viewpoint-dependent algorithm. Then orientation elements should be defined precisely by means of algorithmic processing. The main idea is to solve the exterior orientation problem mainly on the basis of contour information of the frame image of ISS instead of ground control points. A detailed digital model is used for generating raster templates of ISS nodes; the templates are used to detect and locate the nodes on the target image with the required accuracy. The process is performed for every frame, the resulting parameters are considered to be the orientation elements. The Kalman filter is used for statistical support of the estimation process and real time pose tracking. Finally, the modeling results presented show that the proposed method can be regarded as one means to ensure the algorithmic support of automatic space ships docking.

  14. A Space Operations Network Alternative: Using Globally Connected Research and Education Networks for Space-Based Science Operations (United States)

    Bradford, Robert N.


    Earth based networking in support of various space agency projects has been based on leased service/circuits which has a high associated cost. This cost is almost always taken from the science side resulting in less science. This is a proposal to use Research and Education Networks (RENs) worldwide to support space flight operations in general and space-based science operations in particular. The RENs were developed to support scientific and educational endeavors. They do not provide support for general Internet traffic. The connectivity and performance of the research and education networks is superb. The connectivity at Layer 3 (IP) virtually encompasses the globe. Most third world countries and all developed countries have their own research and education networks, which are connected globally. Performance of the RENs especially in the developed countries is exceptional. Bandwidth capacity currently exists and future expansion promises that this capacity will continue. REN performance statistics has always exceeded minimum requirements for spaceflight support. Research and Education networks are more loosely managed than a corporate network but are highly managed when compared to the commodity Internet. Management of RENs on an international level is accomplished by the International Network Operations Center at Indiana University at Indianapolis. With few exceptions, each regional and national REN has its own network ops center. The acceptable use policies (AUP), although differing by country, allows any scientific program or project the use of their networks. Once in compliance with the first RENs AUP, all others will accept that specific traffic including regional and transoceanic networks. RENs can support spaceflight related scientific programs and projects. Getting the science to the researcher is obviously key to any scientific project. RENs provide a pathway to virtually any college or university in the world, as well as many governmental institutes and

  15. Personnel Recruitment and Retention Strategies in Lagos State Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personnel Recruitment and Retention Strategies in Lagos State Civil Service of Nigeria. ... The results show that the strategy for personnel recruitment into the CS is based on mixtures of merit and political ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Expert Talks: Understanding civil registration and vital statistics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Sep 13, 2017 ... What are CRVS systems and why do they matter? ... Cambodia cleared civil registration backlogs by providing free, time-bound registration. ... IDRC supports results-based research that has real impacts on the ground and ...

  17. Evaluation of the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing System for Performance-Based Navigation Arrivals (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Swenson, Harry; Thipphavong, Jane; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Chen, Liang; Nguyen, Jimmy


    The growth of global demand for air transportation has put increasing strain on the nation's air traffic management system. To relieve this strain, the International Civil Aviation Organization has urged all nations to adopt Performance-Based Navigation (PBN), which can help to reduce air traffic congestion, decrease aviation fuel consumption, and protect the environment. NASA has developed a Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing (TAPSS) system that can support increased use of PBN during periods of high traffic, while supporting fuel-efficient, continuous descent approaches. In the original development of this system, arrival aircraft are assigned fuel-efficient Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Terminal Arrival Routes before their initial descent from cruise, with routing defined to a specific runway. The system also determines precise schedules for these aircraft that facilitate continuous descent through the assigned routes. To meet these schedules, controllers are given a set of advisory tools to precisely control aircraft. The TAPSS system has been evaluated in a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) air traffic simulations during 2010 and 2011. Results indicated increased airport arrival throughput up to 10 over current operations, and maintained fuel-efficient aircraft decent profiles from the initial descent to landing with reduced controller workload. This paper focuses on results from a joint NASA and FAA HITL simulation conducted in 2012. Due to the FAA rollout of the advance terminal area PBN procedures at mid-sized airports first, the TAPSS system was modified to manage arrival aircraft as they entered Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON). Dallas-Love Field airport (DAL) was selected by the FAA as a representative mid-sized airport within a constrained TRACON airspace due to the close proximity of a major airport, in this case Dallas-Ft Worth International Airport, one of the busiest in the world. To address this constraint, RNAV routes and

  18. [Partnership-based research as a space to support innovation]. (United States)

    Bernier, Jocelyne


    The process of joint evaluation involving several actors is criss-crossed by a process of negotiation and adjustment between different concerns, responsibilities and interests. How can we encourage a dialogue between knowledge from expertise and knowledge from experience, in order to produce knowledge that is scientifically based and useful for those who are involved in the programs? Far from being a mechanical process, this involves the delicate task of striking a balance, which relies on a negotiated partnership framework. The implementation of an advisory committee, organized by an interface function between the stakeholders of the intervention under study, has increasingly become recognized as a necessary condition for success in partnership-based research. These conditions enable the deployment of a reflexive system that can support social innovation--when the formulation of the problem and its resulting actions become enriched, as knowledge about the intervention develops.

  19. Time: the enigma of space (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.


    In this article we have based on the laws of physics to illustrate the enigma time as creating our physical space (i.e., the universe). We have shown that without time there would be no physical substances, no space and no life. In reference to Einstein's energy equation, we see that energy and mass can be traded, and every mass can be treated as an Energy Reservoir. We have further shown that physical space cannot be embedded in absolute empty space and cannot have any absolute empty subspace in it. Since all physical substances existed with time, our cosmos is created by time and every substance including our universe is coexisted with time. Although time initiates the creation, it is the physical substances which presented to us the existence of time. We are not alone with almost absolute certainty. Someday we may find a right planet, once upon a time, had harbored a civilization for a short period of light years.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, K.; Næss, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K.


    We present a fully parallelized grid-based parameter estimation algorithm for investigating multidimensional likelihoods called Snake, and apply it to cosmological parameter estimation. The basic idea is to map out the likelihood grid-cell by grid-cell according to decreasing likelihood, and stop when a certain threshold has been reached. This approach improves vastly on the 'curse of dimensionality' problem plaguing standard grid-based parameter estimation simply by disregarding grid cells with negligible likelihood. The main advantages of this method compared to standard Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods include (1) trivial extraction of arbitrary conditional distributions; (2) direct access to Bayesian evidences; (3) better sampling of the tails of the distribution; and (4) nearly perfect parallelization scaling. The main disadvantage is, as in the case of brute-force grid-based evaluation, a dependency on the number of parameters, N par . One of the main goals of the present paper is to determine how large N par can be, while still maintaining reasonable computational efficiency; we find that N par = 12 is well within the capabilities of the method. The performance of the code is tested by comparing cosmological parameters estimated using Snake and the WMAP-7 data with those obtained using CosmoMC, the current standard code in the field. We find fully consistent results, with similar computational expenses, but shorter wall time due to the perfect parallelization scheme


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, K.; Næss, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K., E-mail: [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)


    We present a fully parallelized grid-based parameter estimation algorithm for investigating multidimensional likelihoods called Snake, and apply it to cosmological parameter estimation. The basic idea is to map out the likelihood grid-cell by grid-cell according to decreasing likelihood, and stop when a certain threshold has been reached. This approach improves vastly on the 'curse of dimensionality' problem plaguing standard grid-based parameter estimation simply by disregarding grid cells with negligible likelihood. The main advantages of this method compared to standard Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods include (1) trivial extraction of arbitrary conditional distributions; (2) direct access to Bayesian evidences; (3) better sampling of the tails of the distribution; and (4) nearly perfect parallelization scaling. The main disadvantage is, as in the case of brute-force grid-based evaluation, a dependency on the number of parameters, N{sub par}. One of the main goals of the present paper is to determine how large N{sub par} can be, while still maintaining reasonable computational efficiency; we find that N{sub par} = 12 is well within the capabilities of the method. The performance of the code is tested by comparing cosmological parameters estimated using Snake and the WMAP-7 data with those obtained using CosmoMC, the current standard code in the field. We find fully consistent results, with similar computational expenses, but shorter wall time due to the perfect parallelization scheme.

  2. DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Dariusz; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Blaabjerg, Frede


    DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)......DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)...

  3. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.


    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  4. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.


    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  5. Civil liberties and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.


    The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type

  6. Climatological lower thermosphere winds as seen by ground-based and space-based instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Forbes


    Full Text Available Comparisons are made between climatological dynamic fields obtained from ground-based (GB and space-based (SB instruments with a view towards identifying SB/GB intercalibration issues for TIMED and other future aeronomy satellite missions. SB measurements are made from the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. The GB data originate from meteor radars at Obninsk, (55° N, 37° E, Shigaraki (35° N, 136° E and Jakarta (6° S, 107° E and MF spaced-antenna radars at Hawaii (22° N, 160° W, Christmas I. (2° N, 158° W and Adelaide (35° S, 138° E. We focus on monthly-mean prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal wind components at 96km, averaged over the 1991-1999 period. We perform space-based (SB analyses for 90° longitude sectors including the GB sites, as well as for the zonal mean. Taking the monthly prevailing zonal winds from these stations as a whole, on average, SB zonal winds exceed GB determinations by ~63%, whereas meridional winds are in much better agreement. The origin of this discrepancy remains unknown, and should receive high priority in initial GB/SB comparisons during the TIMED mission. We perform detailed comparisons between monthly climatologies from Jakarta and the geographically conjugate sites of Shigaraki and Adelaide, including some analyses of interannual variations. SB prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal tides exceed those measured over Jakarta by factors, on the average, of the order of 2.0, 1.6, 1.3, respectively, for the eastward wind, although much variability exists. For the meridional component, SB/GB ratios for the diurnal and semidiurnal tide are about 1.6 and 1.7. Prevailing and tidal amplitudes at Adelaide are significantly lower than SB values, whereas similar net differences do not occur at the conjugate Northern Hemisphere location of Shigaraki. Adelaide diurnal phases lag SB phases by several hours, but excellent agreement between the two data

  7. Analysis of CPolSK-based FSO system working in space-to-ground channel (United States)

    Su, Yuwei; Sato, Takuro


    In this article, the transmission performance of a circle polarization shift keying (CPolSK)-based free space optical (FSO) system working in space-to-ground channel is analyzed. Formulas describing the optical polarization distortion caused by the atmospheric turbulence and the communication qualities in terms of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), bit-error-ratio (BER) and outage probability of the proposed system are derived. Based on the Stokes parameters data measured by a Japanese optical communication satellite, we evaluate the space-to-ground FSO link and simulate the system performance under a varying regime of turbulence strength. The proposed system provides a more efficient way to compensate scintillation effects in a comparison with the on-off-keying (OOK)-based FSO system. These results are useful to the designing and evaluating of a deep space FSO communication system.

  8. Research on Control Method Based on Real-Time Operational Reliability Evaluation for Space Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang


    Full Text Available A control method based on real-time operational reliability evaluation for space manipulator is presented for improving the success rate of a manipulator during the execution of a task. In this paper, a method for quantitative analysis of operational reliability is given when manipulator is executing a specified task; then a control model which could control the quantitative operational reliability is built. First, the control process is described by using a state space equation. Second, process parameters are estimated in real time using Bayesian method. Third, the expression of the system's real-time operational reliability is deduced based on the state space equation and process parameters which are estimated using Bayesian method. Finally, a control variable regulation strategy which considers the cost of control is given based on the Theory of Statistical Process Control. It is shown via simulations that this method effectively improves the operational reliability of space manipulator control system.

  9. Material civilization: things and society. (United States)

    Dant, Tim


    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects.

  10. Fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods for radiation protection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.B.


    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently published a report (Report no.137) that discusses various aspects of the concepts used in radiation protection and the difficulties in measuring the radiation environment in spacecraft for the estimation of radiation risk to space travelers. Two novel dosimetric methodologies, fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods, are discussed and evaluated, along with the more conventional quality factor/linear energy transfer (LET) method. It was concluded that for the present, any reason to switch to a new methodology is not compelling. It is suggested that because of certain drawbacks in the presently-used conventional method, these alternative methodologies should be kept in mind. As new data become available and dosimetric techniques become more refined, the question should be revisited and that in the future, significant improvement might be realized. In addition, such concepts as equivalent dose and organ dose equivalent are discussed and various problems regarding the measurement/estimation of these quantities are presented. (author)

  11. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transport category civil airplane weight... civil airplane weight limitations. (a) No person may take off any transport category airplane (other than a turbine-engine-powered airplane certificated after September 30, 1958) unless— (1) The takeoff...

  12. Many-core computing for space-based stereoscopic imaging (United States)

    McCall, Paul; Torres, Gildo; LeGrand, Keith; Adjouadi, Malek; Liu, Chen; Darling, Jacob; Pernicka, Henry

    The potential benefits of using parallel computing in real-time visual-based satellite proximity operations missions are investigated. Improvements in performance and relative navigation solutions over single thread systems can be achieved through multi- and many-core computing. Stochastic relative orbit determination methods benefit from the higher measurement frequencies, allowing them to more accurately determine the associated statistical properties of the relative orbital elements. More accurate orbit determination can lead to reduced fuel consumption and extended mission capabilities and duration. Inherent to the process of stereoscopic image processing is the difficulty of loading, managing, parsing, and evaluating large amounts of data efficiently, which may result in delays or highly time consuming processes for single (or few) processor systems or platforms. In this research we utilize the Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC), a fully programmable 48-core experimental processor, created by Intel Labs as a platform for many-core software research, provided with a high-speed on-chip network for sharing information along with advanced power management technologies and support for message-passing. The results from utilizing the SCC platform for the stereoscopic image processing application are presented in the form of Performance, Power, Energy, and Energy-Delay-Product (EDP) metrics. Also, a comparison between the SCC results and those obtained from executing the same application on a commercial PC are presented, showing the potential benefits of utilizing the SCC in particular, and any many-core platforms in general for real-time processing of visual-based satellite proximity operations missions.

  13. Julgamentos parciais no processo civil


    Antonio Carlos Nachif Correia Filho


    Este trabalho trata fundamentalmente da admissibilidade dos julgamentos parciais do mérito e de questões de mérito no sistema processual civil brasileiro, considerando especialmente o modelo constitucional de processo civil, bem como no sistema processual prospectivo previsto no Projeto de Novo Código de Processo Civil, que deve entrar vigor em breve. Com este objetivo, será abordado no início da dissertação o dogma da unidade estrutural da sentença, sua origem, fundamentos e aplicabilidade n...

  14. Civil liability on nuclear activities; Responsabilidade civil nas atividades nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittar, C A


    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs.

  15. Space-Based Sensorweb Monitoring of Wildfires in Thailand (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Mclaren, David; Davies, Ashley; Tran, Daniel; Tanpipat, Veerachai; Akaakara, Siri; Ratanasuwan, Anuchit; Mandl, Daniel


    We describe efforts to apply sensorweb technologies to the monitoring of forest fires in Thailand. In this approach, satellite data and ground reports are assimilated to assess the current state of the forest system in terms of forest fire risk, active fires, and likely progression of fires and smoke plumes. This current and projected assessment can then be used to actively direct sensors and assets to best acquire further information. This process operates continually with new data updating models of fire activity leading to further sensing and updating of models. As the fire activity is tracked, products such as active fire maps, burn scar severity maps, and alerts are automatically delivered to relevant parties.We describe the current state of the Thailand Fire Sensorweb which utilizes the MODIS-based FIRMS system to track active fires and trigger Earth Observing One / Advanced Land Imager to acquire imagery and produce active fire maps, burn scar severity maps, and alerts. We describe ongoing work to integrate additional sensor sources and generate additional products.

  16. Leucine-based receptor sorting motifs are dependent on the spacing relative to the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Dietrich, J; Nielsen, B L


    Many integral membrane proteins contain leucine-based motifs within their cytoplasmic domains that mediate internalization and intracellular sorting. Two types of leucine-based motifs have been identified. One type is dependent on phosphorylation, whereas the other type, which includes an acidic...... amino acid, is constitutively active. In this study, we have investigated how the spacing relative to the plasma membrane affects the function of both types of leucine-based motifs. For phosphorylation-dependent leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 7 residues between the plasma membrane...... and the phospho-acceptor was required for phosphorylation and thereby activation of the motifs. For constitutively active leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 6 residues between the plasma membrane and the acidic residue was required for optimal activity of the motifs. In addition, we found that the acidic...

  17. La Justificación Constitucional De La Desobediencia Civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mejía Quintana


    Full Text Available This essay tries to approach the problematic nature of the concept of civil disobedience, as compared to other versions of citizen resistance. It looks for a rich definition, based in authors like Rawls, Dworkin and Habermas, who have proposed an institutional version of civil disobedience. Form that point, the text defends the thesis of a constitutional justification of civil disobedience as a mechanism that is not only necessary but legitimate in contemporary democracies. It tries to guarantee both the permanent update of the constitutional text and the incorporation of alternative ways of life and of dissident political actors.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Gould, A.; Zhu, Wei; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beichman, C. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Novati, S. Calchi [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello,” Uńiversitá di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Carey, S. [Spitzer Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bryden, C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; Spitzer Microlensing Team; and others


    In this paper, we present an analysis of the binary gravitational microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0196. The event lasted for almost a year, and the light curve exhibited significant deviations from the lensing model based on the rectilinear lens-source relative motion, enabling us to measure the microlens parallax. The ground-based microlens parallax is confirmed by the data obtained from space-based microlens observations using the Spitzer telescope. By additionally measuring the angular Einstein radius from the analysis of the resolved caustic crossing, the physical parameters of the lens are determined up to the twofold degeneracy, u {sub 0} < 0 and u {sub 0} > 0, solutions caused by the well-known “ecliptic” degeneracy. It is found that the binary lens is composed of two M dwarf stars with similar masses, M {sub 1} = 0.38 ± 0.04 M {sub ⊙} (0.50 ± 0.05 M {sub ⊙}) and M {sub 2} = 0.38 ± 0.04 M {sub ⊙} (0.55 ± 0.06 M {sub ⊙}), and the distance to the lens is D {sub L} = 2.77 ± 0.23 kpc (3.30 ± 0.29 kpc). Here the physical parameters outside and inside the parentheses are for the u {sub 0} < 0 and u {sub 0} > 0 solutions, respectively.

  19. A Measurement of Civil Engineering Customer Satisfaction. (United States)


    and the people who consume it" (2iv-xvii). More recently, service providers have become aware of the importance of customer satisfaction, but most do... customer as both a consumer and a co-producer; that is, the customer is the recipient of the service, and, at the same time, is involved in the...base civil engineering customers are more like consumers and less like co-producers because the BCE works on facilities, not on the occupants

  20. Responsibility modelling for civil emergency planning


    Sommerville, Ian; Storer, Timothy; Lock, Russell


    This paper presents a new approach to analysing and understanding civil emergency planning based on the notion of responsibility modelling combined with HAZOPS-style analysis of information requirements. Our goal is to represent complex contingency plans so that they can be more readily understood, so that inconsistencies can be highlighted and vulnerabilities discovered. In this paper, we outline the framework for contingency planning in the United Kingdom and introduce the notion of respons...

  1. 14 CFR 406.105 - Separation of functions for prosecuting civil penalties and advising the FAA decisionmaker. (United States)


    ... civil penalties and advising the FAA decisionmaker. 406.105 Section 406.105 Aeronautics and Space... INVESTIGATIONS, ENFORCEMENT, AND ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW Rules of Practice in FAA Space Transportation Adjudications § 406.105 Separation of functions for prosecuting civil penalties and advising the FAA...

  2. Space Colonization Using Space-Elevators from Phobos (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.


    A novel approach is examined for creating an industrial civilization beyond Earth. The approach would take advantage of the unique configuration of Mars and its moon Phobos to make a transportation system capable of raising mass from the surface of Mars to space at a low cost. Mars would be used as the primary location for support personnel and infrastructure. Phobos would be used as a source of raw materials for space-based activity, and as an anchor for tethered carbon-nanotube-based space-elevators. One space-elevator would terminate at the upper edge of Mars' atmosphere. Small craft would be launched from Mars' surface to rendezvous with the moving elevator tip and their payloads detached and raised with solar powered loop elevators to Phobos. Another space-elevator would be extended outward from Phobos to launch craft toward the Earth/Moon system or the asteroid belt. The outward tip would also be used to catch arriving craft. This approach would allow Mars to be colonized, and allow transportation of people and supplies from Mars to support the space industry. In addition, large quantities of material obtained from Phobos could be used to construct space habitats and also supply propellant and material for space industry in the Earth/Moon system as well as around Mars.

  3. Noether's Theorem and its Inverse of Birkhoffian System in Event Space Based on Herglotz Variational Problem (United States)

    Tian, X.; Zhang, Y.


    Herglotz variational principle, in which the functional is defined by a differential equation, generalizes the classical ones defining the functional by an integral. The principle gives a variational principle description of nonconservative systems even when the Lagrangian is independent of time. This paper focuses on studying the Noether's theorem and its inverse of a Birkhoffian system in event space based on the Herglotz variational problem. Firstly, according to the Herglotz variational principle of a Birkhoffian system, the principle of a Birkhoffian system in event space is established. Secondly, its parametric equations and two basic formulae for the variation of Pfaff-Herglotz action of a Birkhoffian system in event space are obtained. Furthermore, the definition and criteria of Noether symmetry of the Birkhoffian system in event space based on the Herglotz variational problem are given. Then, according to the relationship between the Noether symmetry and conserved quantity, the Noether's theorem is derived. Under classical conditions, Noether's theorem of a Birkhoffian system in event space based on the Herglotz variational problem reduces to the classical ones. In addition, Noether's inverse theorem of the Birkhoffian system in event space based on the Herglotz variational problem is also obtained. In the end of the paper, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, R. Di [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (United States); Ray, A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (India)


    Globular clusters are ancient stellar populations in compact dense ellipsoids. There is no star formation and there are no core-collapse supernovae, but several lines of evidence suggest that globular clusters are rich in planets. If so, and if advanced civilizations can develop there, then the distances between these civilizations and other stars would be far smaller than typical distances between stars in the Galactic disk, facilitating interstellar communication and travel. The potent combination of long-term stability and high stellar densities provides a globular cluster opportunity. Yet the very proximity that promotes interstellar travel also brings danger, as stellar interactions can destroy planetary systems. We find, however, that large portions of many globular clusters are “sweet spots,” where habitable-zone planetary orbits are stable for long times. Globular clusters in our own and other galaxies are, therefore, among the best targets for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). We use the Drake equation to compare the likelihood of advanced civilizations in globular clusters to that in the Galactic disk. We also consider free-floating planets, since wide-orbit planets can be ejected to travel through the cluster. Civilizations spawned in globular clusters may be able to establish self-sustaining outposts, reducing the probability that a single catastrophic event will destroy the civilization. Although individual civilizations may follow different evolutionary paths, or even be destroyed, the cluster may continue to host advanced civilizations once a small number have jumped across interstellar space. Civilizations residing in globular clusters could therefore, in a sense, be immortal.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefano, R. Di; Ray, A.


    Globular clusters are ancient stellar populations in compact dense ellipsoids. There is no star formation and there are no core-collapse supernovae, but several lines of evidence suggest that globular clusters are rich in planets. If so, and if advanced civilizations can develop there, then the distances between these civilizations and other stars would be far smaller than typical distances between stars in the Galactic disk, facilitating interstellar communication and travel. The potent combination of long-term stability and high stellar densities provides a globular cluster opportunity. Yet the very proximity that promotes interstellar travel also brings danger, as stellar interactions can destroy planetary systems. We find, however, that large portions of many globular clusters are “sweet spots,” where habitable-zone planetary orbits are stable for long times. Globular clusters in our own and other galaxies are, therefore, among the best targets for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). We use the Drake equation to compare the likelihood of advanced civilizations in globular clusters to that in the Galactic disk. We also consider free-floating planets, since wide-orbit planets can be ejected to travel through the cluster. Civilizations spawned in globular clusters may be able to establish self-sustaining outposts, reducing the probability that a single catastrophic event will destroy the civilization. Although individual civilizations may follow different evolutionary paths, or even be destroyed, the cluster may continue to host advanced civilizations once a small number have jumped across interstellar space. Civilizations residing in globular clusters could therefore, in a sense, be immortal.

  6. Design of chemical space networks using a Tanimoto similarity variant based upon maximum common substructures. (United States)

    Zhang, Bijun; Vogt, Martin; Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Chemical space networks (CSNs) have recently been introduced as an alternative to other coordinate-free and coordinate-based chemical space representations. In CSNs, nodes represent compounds and edges pairwise similarity relationships. In addition, nodes are annotated with compound property information such as biological activity. CSNs have been applied to view biologically relevant chemical space in comparison to random chemical space samples and found to display well-resolved topologies at low edge density levels. The way in which molecular similarity relationships are assessed is an important determinant of CSN topology. Previous CSN versions were based on numerical similarity functions or the assessment of substructure-based similarity. Herein, we report a new CSN design that is based upon combined numerical and substructure similarity evaluation. This has been facilitated by calculating numerical similarity values on the basis of maximum common substructures (MCSs) of compounds, leading to the introduction of MCS-based CSNs (MCS-CSNs). This CSN design combines advantages of continuous numerical similarity functions with a robust and chemically intuitive substructure-based assessment. Compared to earlier version of CSNs, MCS-CSNs are characterized by a further improved organization of local compound communities as exemplified by the delineation of drug-like subspaces in regions of biologically relevant chemical space.

  7. Radiation protection in civil defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlborn, K.

    The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.) [de

  8. Teaching Mathematics to Civil Engineers (United States)

    Sharp, J. J.; Moore, E.


    This paper outlines a technique for teaching a rigorous course in calculus and differential equations which stresses applicability of the mathematics to problems in civil engineering. The method involves integration of subject matter and team teaching. (SD)

  9. Librarians, Civil Liberties and Privacy. (United States)

    Fielding, Derek


    A comparison of current civil liberties issues in Australia with the status of similar issues in Britain and the United States. Included are political affiliation of government employees, censorship, rights of the individual, privacy, and freedom of information. (JAB)

  10. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry


    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  11. Experimental characterization of a new multicasting node architecture based on space splitters and wavelength converters (United States)

    He, Hao; Su, Yikai; Hu, Peigang; Hu, Weisheng


    IPTV-based broadband services such as interactive multimedia and video conferencing are considered as promising revenue-adding services, and multicast is proven to be a good supplier to support these applications for its reduced consumption of network bandwidth. Generally there are two approaches to implement optical layer multicast. One is space-domain multicast using space-splitter which is low cost but has wavelength continuity constraint, the other is frequency-domain multicast using wavelength converter which resolves the wavelength continuity but with high costs. A new multicasting node which adopts both space-domain multicast and frequency-domain multicast is recently discussed. In this paper we present an experimental demonstration of the new multicasting node architecture based on space splitters and wavelength converters, measurements to characterize such a node are provided.

  12. An International Disaster Management SensorWeb Consisting of Space-based and Insitu Sensors (United States)

    Mandl, D.; Frye, S. W.; Policelli, F. S.; Cappelaere, P. G.


    For the past year, NASA along with partners consisting of the United Nations Space-based Information for Disaster and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) office, the Canadian Space Agency, the Ukraine Space Research Institute (SRI), Taiwan National Space Program Office (NSPO) and in conjunction with the Committee on Earth Observing Satellite (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) have been conducting a pilot project to automate the process of obtaining sensor data for the purpose of flood management and emergency response. This includes experimenting with flood prediction models based on numerous meteorological satellites and a global hydrological model and then automatically triggering follow up high resolution satellite imagery with rapid delivery of data products. This presentation will provide a overview of the effort, recent accomplishments and future plans.

  13. “Religious Freedom” as a Tool to Oppress: The Explosion in Religion-Based Attacks on Civil Rights in Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J. Luchenitser


    Full Text Available Over the last half-decade, there has been an explosion in the United States of lawsuits in which claims to religious liberty have been used to justify abridging the civil rights of women, LGBTQ people, and other minorities. This article surveys such litigation in several areas: health-insurance coverage, healthcare services, marriage-related services, employment, and housing. For each area, the article analyzes recent litigation, compares it to earlier activity (if any, and discusses the kinds of arguments that have been made, how courts have responded to them, and how such arguments are likely to fare in the future. The article concludes that the ultimate fate of many of these kinds of cases will likely be determined by who the next member is of a U.S. Supreme Court that is currently split four-four between social liberals and conservatives.

  14. Efficient and automatic image reduction framework for space debris detection based on GPU technology (United States)

    Diprima, Francesco; Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Fortunato, Vito; Abbattista, Cristoforo; Amoruso, Leonardo


    In the last years, the increasing number of space debris has triggered the need of a distributed monitoring system for the prevention of possible space collisions. Space surveillance based on ground telescope allows the monitoring of the traffic of the Resident Space Objects (RSOs) in the Earth orbit. This space debris surveillance has several applications such as orbit prediction and conjunction assessment. In this paper is proposed an optimized and performance-oriented pipeline for sources extraction intended to the automatic detection of space debris in optical data. The detection method is based on the morphological operations and Hough Transform for lines. Near real-time detection is obtained using General Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU). The high degree of processing parallelism provided by GPGPU allows to split data analysis over thousands of threads in order to process big datasets with a limited computational time. The implementation has been tested on a large and heterogeneous images data set, containing both imaging satellites from different orbit ranges and multiple observation modes (i.e. sidereal and object tracking). These images were taken during an observation campaign performed from the EQUO (EQUatorial Observatory) observatory settled at the Broglio Space Center (BSC) in Kenya, which is part of the ASI-Sapienza Agreement.

  15. Mission planning for space based satellite surveillance experiments with the MSX (United States)

    Sridharan, R.; Fishman, T.; Robinson, E.; Viggh, H.; Wiseman, A.


    The Midcourse Space Experiment is a BMDO-sponsored scientific satellite set for launch within the year. The satellite will collect phenomenology data on missile targets, plumes, earth limb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds in the LWIR, visible and ultra-violet spectral bands. It will also conduct functional demonstrations for space-based space surveillance. The Space-Based Visible sensor, built by Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the primary sensor on board the MSX for demonstration of space surveillance. The SBV Processing, Operations and Control Center (SPOCC) is the mission planning and commanding center for all space surveillance experiments using the SBV and other MSX instruments. The guiding principle in the SPOCC Mission Planning System was that all routine functions be automated. Manual analyst input should be minimal. Major concepts are: (I) A high level language, called SLED, for user interface to the system; (2) A group of independent software processes which would generally be run in a pipe-line mode for experiment commanding but can be run independently for analyst assessment; (3) An integrated experiment cost computation function that permits assessment of the feasibility of the experiment. This paper will report on the design, implementation and testing of the Mission Planning System.

  16. Analysis of the Construction of Ecological Civilization in the Western Ethnic Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongli


    each province; and the characteris ̄tics of ecological protection and resource environ ̄ment in ethnic areas. First of all, we should change the concept of government at all levels and the entire society in western ethnic areas, and improve the system of ecological civilization construction. For this pur ̄pose, we must:( i) strengthen the top-level de ̄sign of the ecological civilization system; ( ii) im ̄prove relevant systems, such as the development of the national land space; and ( iii ) improve envi ̄ronmental protection and ecological compensation in the western ethnic areas and the whole country. Furthermore, through making use of both formal systems, such as political, economic and legal ones, and informal systems, such as ecological culture, we should jointly safeguard and promote the construction of ecological civilization. On the one hand, we must establish and improve various policies related to finance, tax, population and land to improve the level of ecological political civ ̄ilization in the western ethnic areas from the level of central government to local administrations. On the other hand, the central government and local administrations in the western ethnic areas must enhance the awareness of the construction of eco ̄logical civilization through various ways, including school education and the internet. Secondly, we should vigorously develop the advantages of the ecological industry in western ethnic areas, such as ecological tourism, ecologi ̄cal agriculture and other ecological industries. The construction of ecological civilization should strive to find a balance between ecological environment and stable economic growth. Therefore, according to the characteristics of their ecological environ ̄ment, resources, climate and the capacity of the ecological carrying capacity, we should choose ec ̄ological industries suitable for regional develop ̄ment, such as ecological agriculture, ecological tourism;change the original model of

  17. High technology and civil rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, P.


    Court decision reflect the widely felt lack of clarity about the present legal situation in the field of high technology. This confusion is also due to the fact that this legal situation is surrounded by civil rights constellations, which have more and more eroded the contours of our legal system in recent years: Today, civil rights are no longer specific, well-definable bulwarks for the citizen, but are more and more frequently interpreted by the supreme courts as sources of procedural requirements with more or less certain often vague consequences. This shifting of the accent in civil rights towards procedural matters is due to an innate logical necessity, however: The same civil right considered in the same situation, e.g., in planning for high technology, may give rise to very different, even contradictory individual claims. Therefore, one of the main modern objectives of civil rights becoming more and more apparent is the need to reconcile conflicting positions, which makes civil rights a driving force in balancing interests in the easiest possible way. Yet, one of the main deficiencies in this rapidly growing procedural approach is the one-sidedness often to be found as a result of isolated, punctual actions. This misses the objective of achieving adequate harmonization. As examples of such one-sided, isolated civil rights approaches, legal opinions are cited on the so-called public participation (possibility to object for those concerned) in the licensing procedures under the German Atomic Energy Act and for protection against environmental impacts. Quity rightly, this participation of the public is interpreted as an advance protection of civil rights. However, its consequences quite often are exaggerated. (orig.) [de

  18. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittar, C.A.


    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  19. Novel Space-based Solar Power Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.


    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. Power beaming or wireless power transmission (WPT) can involve lasers or microwaves along with the associated power interfaces. Microwave and laser transmission techniques have been studied with several promising approaches to safe and efficient WPT identified. These investigations have included microwave phased array transmitters, as well as laser transmission and associated optics. There is a need to produce "proof-of-concept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space to surface sites. This paper briefly discusses achieving a promising approach to the solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components

  20. Construction of Orthonormal Piecewise Polynomial Scaling and Wavelet Bases on Non-Equally Spaced Knots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Astruc


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mathematical framework of multiresolution analysis based on irregularly spaced knots sequence. Our presentation is based on the construction of nested nonuniform spline multiresolution spaces. From these spaces, we present the construction of orthonormal scaling and wavelet basis functions on bounded intervals. For any arbitrary degree of the spline function, we provide an explicit generalization allowing the construction of the scaling and wavelet bases on the nontraditional sequences. We show that the orthogonal decomposition is implemented using filter banks where the coefficients depend on the location of the knots on the sequence. Examples of orthonormal spline scaling and wavelet bases are provided. This approach can be used to interpolate irregularly sampled signals in an efficient way, by keeping the multiresolution approach.

  1. Final Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California (United States)


    rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air...Chapter 3. Affected Environment 3-12 Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air Force Base the root and debris zone of the...protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e. insects

  2. Binocular Vision-Based Position and Pose of Hand Detection and Tracking in Space (United States)

    Jun, Chen; Wenjun, Hou; Qing, Sheng

    After the study of image segmentation, CamShift target tracking algorithm and stereo vision model of space, an improved algorithm based of Frames Difference and a new space point positioning model were proposed, a binocular visual motion tracking system was constructed to verify the improved algorithm and the new model. The problem of the spatial location and pose of the hand detection and tracking have been solved.

  3. Sapphire: Canada's Answer to Space-Based Surveillance of Orbital Objects (United States)

    Maskell, P.; Oram, L.

    The Canadian Department of National Defence is in the process of developing the Canadian Space Surveillance System (CSSS) as the main focus of the Surveillance of Space (SofS) Project. The CSSS consists of two major elements: the Sapphire System and the Sensor System Operations Centre (SSOC). The space segment of the Sapphire System is comprised of the Sapphire Satellite - an autonomous spacecraft with an electro-optical payload which will act as a contributing sensor to the United States (US) Space Surveillance Network (SSN). It will operate in a circular, sunsynchronous orbit at an altitude of approximately 750 kilometers and image a minimum of 360 space objects daily in orbits ranging from 6,000 to 40,000 kilometers in altitude. The ground segment of the Sapphire System is composed of a Spacecraft Control Center (SCC), a Satellite Processing and Scheduling Facility (SPSF), and the Sapphire Simulator. The SPSF will be responsible for data transmission, reception, and processing while the SCC will serve to control and monitor the Sapphire Satellite. Surveillance data will be received from Sapphire through two ground stations. Following processing by the SPSF, the surveillance data will then be forwarded to the SSOC. The SSOC will function as the interface between the Sapphire System and the US Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). The JSpOC coordinates input from various sensors around the world, all of which are a part of the SSN. The SSOC will task the Sapphire System daily and provide surveillance data to the JSpOC for correlation with data from other SSN sensors. This will include orbital parameters required to predict future positions of objects to be tracked. The SSOC receives daily tasking instructions from the JSpOC to determine which objects the Sapphire spacecraft is required to observe. The advantage of this space-based sensor over ground-based telescopes is that weather and time of day are not factors affecting observation. Thus, space-based optical

  4. Frames and bases in tensor products of Hilbert spaces and Hilbert C ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we study tensor product of Hilbert *-modules and Hilbert spaces. We show that if is a Hilbert -module and is a Hilbert -module, then tensor product of frames (orthonormal bases) for and produce frames (orthonormal bases) for Hilbert A ⊗ B -module E ⊗ F , and we get more results. For Hilbert ...

  5. 76 FR 65540 - National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Advisory Board; Meeting (United States)


    .... L. 92-463, as amended), and the President's 2004 U.S. Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and...-Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing Policy and Global Positioning System (GPS) modernization. Explore opportunities for enhancing the interoperability of GPS with other emerging international Global...

  6. Community-Based Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Possibilities for a Pedagogical Third Space (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi L.


    The present article discusses the importance of community-based field experiences as a feature of teacher education programs. Through a qualitative case study, prospective teachers' work with homeless youth in an after-school initiative is presented. Framing community-based field experiences in teacher education through "third space" theory, the…

  7. Design and implementation of space physics multi-model application integration based on web (United States)

    Jiang, Wenping; Zou, Ziming

    With the development of research on space environment and space science, how to develop network online computing environment of space weather, space environment and space physics models for Chinese scientific community is becoming more and more important in recent years. Currently, There are two software modes on space physics multi-model application integrated system (SPMAIS) such as C/S and B/S. the C/S mode which is traditional and stand-alone, demands a team or workshop from many disciplines and specialties to build their own multi-model application integrated system, that requires the client must be deployed in different physical regions when user visits the integrated system. Thus, this requirement brings two shortcomings: reducing the efficiency of researchers who use the models to compute; inconvenience of accessing the data. Therefore, it is necessary to create a shared network resource access environment which could help users to visit the computing resources of space physics models through the terminal quickly for conducting space science research and forecasting spatial environment. The SPMAIS develops high-performance, first-principles in B/S mode based on computational models of the space environment and uses these models to predict "Space Weather", to understand space mission data and to further our understanding of the solar system. the main goal of space physics multi-model application integration system (SPMAIS) is to provide an easily and convenient user-driven online models operating environment. up to now, the SPMAIS have contained dozens of space environment models , including international AP8/AE8 IGRF T96 models and solar proton prediction model geomagnetic transmission model etc. which are developed by Chinese scientists. another function of SPMAIS is to integrate space observation data sets which offers input data for models online high-speed computing. In this paper, service-oriented architecture (SOA) concept that divides system into

  8. 30 CFR 947.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 947.845 Section 947.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  9. 30 CFR 941.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 941.845 Section 941.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  10. 30 CFR 912.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 912.845 Section 912.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  11. 30 CFR 921.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 921.845 Section 921.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  12. 30 CFR 939.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 939.845 Section 939.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  13. 30 CFR 937.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 937.845 Section 937.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  14. 30 CFR 942.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 942.845 Section 942.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties for...

  15. 30 CFR 903.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 903.845 Section 903.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, applies to the assessment of civil penalties for violations...

  16. 30 CFR 910.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 910.845 Section 910.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  17. 30 CFR 922.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 922.845 Section 922.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  18. 30 CFR 933.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 933.845 Section 933.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chaper, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  19. 30 CFR 905.845 - Civil penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 905.845 Section 905.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties for...

  20. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment...

  1. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction...

  2. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether...

  3. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement...

  4. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement...

  5. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students (United States)

    Kaewpet, Chamnong


    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  6. Climate Change and International Civil Aviation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Korber Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has discussed ways of regulating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by civil aircraft for almost 20 years. Over the past four years, a consensus has developed about a market-based mechanism in the form of a carbon offset system. This article describes the route to the agreement reached by ICAO’s 39th Assembly, in order to contextualise the results and point out some of its limitations. It points to two main factors that contributed to the consensus: the role of the European Union, which sought to lead the negotiations, and the choice of a flexible and ultimately weak mechanism that received support from the international airlines.

  7. Why atomic energy affects Civil Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knieper, R.


    Based on the decision of July 20, 1979 by the Amtsgericht Stuttgart, which dismissed the complaint filed by the Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart (public utility) against electricity boycotters as being unfounded for the time being, the author states that a political function is due to Civil Law. The concrete question is whether political considerations have surpassed the limits of laws and interpretations bound by the basic rights. The relationship between a customer depending on power supply and the supply monopolist exceeds contractual relationship by far since it is a social relationship: it is inescapably embraced by the customer's dependence on power supply and by the customer being subject to research work. Atomic energy is being introduced into law of contract by means of dogmatic crutches - breach of additional obligation under a contract. However, in Civil Law, there are a great number of such means enabling solutions to be corrected which seem to be inadequate. (HSCH) [de

  8. Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software...

  9. Molecular basis sets - a general similarity-based approach for representing chemical spaces. (United States)

    Raghavendra, Akshay S; Maggiora, Gerald M


    A new method, based on generalized Fourier analysis, is described that utilizes the concept of "molecular basis sets" to represent chemical space within an abstract vector space. The basis vectors in this space are abstract molecular vectors. Inner products among the basis vectors are determined using an ansatz that associates molecular similarities between pairs of molecules with their corresponding inner products. Moreover, the fact that similarities between pairs of molecules are, in essentially all cases, nonzero implies that the abstract molecular basis vectors are nonorthogonal, but since the similarity of a molecule with itself is unity, the molecular vectors are normalized to unity. A symmetric orthogonalization procedure, which optimally preserves the character of the original set of molecular basis vectors, is used to construct appropriate orthonormal basis sets. Molecules can then be represented, in general, by sets of orthonormal "molecule-like" basis vectors within a proper Euclidean vector space. However, the dimension of the space can become quite large. Thus, the work presented here assesses the effect of basis set size on a number of properties including the average squared error and average norm of molecular vectors represented in the space-the results clearly show the expected reduction in average squared error and increase in average norm as the basis set size is increased. Several distance-based statistics are also considered. These include the distribution of distances and their differences with respect to basis sets of differing size and several comparative distance measures such as Spearman rank correlation and Kruscal stress. All of the measures show that, even though the dimension can be high, the chemical spaces they represent, nonetheless, behave in a well-controlled and reasonable manner. Other abstract vector spaces analogous to that described here can also be constructed providing that the appropriate inner products can be directly

  10. 48 CFR 1812.7000 - Prohibition on guaranteed customer bases for new commercial space hardware or services. (United States)


    ... customer bases for new commercial space hardware or services. 1812.7000 Section 1812.7000 Federal... PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Commercial Space Hardware or Services 1812.7000 Prohibition on guaranteed customer bases for new commercial space hardware or services. Public Law 102-139, title III...

  11. Birth spacing of pregnant women in Nepal: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Karkee


    Full Text Available BackgroundOptimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal.MethodsA community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing.ResultsAbout 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within one year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (<24 months. The average birth spacing among the multiparous group was 44.9 (SD 21.8 months. Overall, short birth spacing appeared to be inversely associated with advancing maternal age.For the multiparous group, Janajati and lower caste women, and those whose newborn was female, were more likely to have short birth spacing.ConclusionsThe preceding interbirth interval was relatively long in the Kaski district of Nepal and tended to be associated with maternal age, caste, and sex of newborn infant. Optimal birth spacing programs should target Janajati and lower caste women, along with promotion of gender equality in society.

  12. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James


    NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology (OAST) has established three major goals, referred to as, "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies Under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Core Technologies Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. One of the main activities over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. This year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies will be awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion.

  13. Internet Technologies for Space-based Communications: State of the Art and Challenges (United States)

    Bhasin, K.; DePaula, R.; Edwards, C.


    The Internet is rapidly changing the ways we communicate information around the globe today. The desire to provide Internet-based services to anyone, anywhere, anytime has brought satellite communications to the forefront to become an integral part of the Internet. In spite of the distances involved, satellite links are proving to be capable of providing Internet services based on Internet protocol (TCP/IP) stack. This development has led to the question particularly at NASA; can satellites and other space platforms become an Internet-node in space? This will allow the direct transfer of information directly from space to the users on Earth and even be able to control the spacecraft and its instruments. NASA even wants to extend the near earth space Internet to deep space applications where scientists and the public here on Earth may view space exploration in real time via the Internet. NASA's future solar system exploration will involve intensive in situ investigations of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets. While past missions typically involved a single fly-by or orbiting science spacecraft, future missions will begin to use fleets of small, highly intelligent robotic vehicles to carry out collaborative investigations. The resulting multi-spacecraft topologies will effectively create a wide area network spanning the solar system. However, this will require significant development in Internet technologies for space use. This paper provides the status'of the Internet for near earth applications and the potential extension of the Internet for use in deep space planetary exploration. The paper will discuss the overall challenges of implementing the space Internet and how the space Internet will integrate into the complex terrestrial systems those forms the Internet of today in a hybrid set of networks. Internet. We envision extending to the deep space environment such Internet concepts as a well-designed layered architecture. This effort will require an ability to

  14. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  15. Adaptive Backstepping Controller Design for Leveling Control of an Underwater Platform Based on Joint Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Zeng


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on high precision leveling control of an underwater heavy load platform, which is viewed as an underwater parallel robot on the basis of its work pattern. The kinematic of platform with deformation is analyzed and the dynamics model of joint space is established. An adaptive backstepping controller according to Lyapunov's function is proposed for leveling control of platform based on joint space. Furthermore, the “lowest point fixed angle error” leveling scheme called “chase” is chosen for leveling control of platform. The digital simulation and practical experiment of single joint space actuator are carried out, and the results show high precision servo control of joint space. On the basis of this, the platform leveling control simulation relies on the hardware-in-loop system. The results indicate that the proposed controller can effectively restrain the influence from system parameter uncertainties and external disturbance to realize high precision leveling control of the underwater platform.

  16. A phase-space approach to atmospheric dynamics based on observational data. Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Risheng.


    This thesis is an attempt to develop systematically a phase-space approach to the atmospheric dynamics based on the theoretical achievement and application experiences in nonlinear time-series analysis. In particular, it is concerned with the derivation of quantities for describing the geometrical structure of the observed dynamics in phase-space (dimension estimation) and the examination of the observed atmospheric fluctuations in the light of phase-space representation. The thesis is, therefore composed of three major parts, i.e. an general survey of the theory of statistical approaches to dynamic systems, the methodology designed for the present study and specific applications with respect to dimension estimation and to a phase-space analysis of the tropical stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation. (orig./KW)

  17. Frames and other bases in abstract and function spaces novel methods in harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gia, Quoc; Mayeli, Azita; Mhaskar, Hrushikesh; Zhou, Ding-Xuan


    The first of a two volume set on novel methods in harmonic analysis, this book draws on a number of original research and survey papers from well-known specialists detailing the latest innovations and recently discovered links between various fields. Along with many deep theoretical results, these volumes contain numerous applications to problems in signal processing, medical imaging, geodesy, statistics, and data science. The chapters within cover an impressive range of ideas from both traditional and modern harmonic analysis, such as: the Fourier transform, Shannon sampling, frames, wavelets, functions on Euclidean spaces, analysis on function spaces of Riemannian and sub-Riemannian manifolds, Fourier analysis on manifolds and Lie groups, analysis on combinatorial graphs, sheaves, co-sheaves, and persistent homologies on topological spaces. Volume I is organized around the theme of frames and other bases in abstract and function spaces, covering topics such as: The advanced development of frames, including ...

  18. Lunar base mission technology issues and orbital demonstration requirements on space station (United States)

    Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.


    The International Space Station has been the object of considerable design, redesign, and alteration since it was originally proposed in early 1984. In the intervening years the station has slowly evolved to a specific design that was thoroughly reviewed by a large agency-wide Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF). As space station designs continue to evolve, studies must be conducted to determine the suitability of the current design for some of the primary purposes for which the station will be used. This paper concentrates on the technology requirements and issues, the on-orbit demonstration and verification program, and the space station focused support required prior to the establishment of a permanently manned lunar base as identified in the National Commission on Space report. Technology issues associated with the on-orbit assembly and processing of the lunar vehicle flight elements are also discussed.

  19. A modular Space Station/Base electrical power system - Requirements and design study. (United States)

    Eliason, J. T.; Adkisson, W. B.


    The requirements and procedures necessary for definition and specification of an electrical power system (EPS) for the future space station are discussed herein. The considered space station EPS consists of a replaceable main power module with self-contained auxiliary power, guidance, control, and communication subsystems. This independent power source may 'plug into' a space station module which has its own electrical distribution, control, power conditioning, and auxiliary power subsystems. Integration problems are discussed, and a transmission system selected with local floor-by-floor power conditioning and distribution in the station module. This technique eliminates the need for an immediate long range decision on the ultimate space base power sources by providing capability for almost any currently considered option.

  20. Identification of Fuzzy Inference Systems by Means of a Multiobjective Opposition-Based Space Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang


    Full Text Available We introduce a new category of fuzzy inference systems with the aid of a multiobjective opposition-based space search algorithm (MOSSA. The proposed MOSSA is essentially a multiobjective space search algorithm improved by using an opposition-based learning that employs a so-called opposite numbers mechanism to speed up the convergence of the optimization algorithm. In the identification of fuzzy inference system, the MOSSA is exploited to carry out the parametric identification of the fuzzy model as well as to realize its structural identification. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy models.

  1. An optimum organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary Space Base (United States)

    Ragusa, J. M.


    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify an optimum hypothetical organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary research and applications (R&A) Space Base manned by a mixed crew of technologists. Since such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than the empirical testing of it. The essential finding of this research was that a four-level project type 'total matrix' model will optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of Space Base technologists.

  2. Web-based description of the space radiation environment using the Bethe-Bloch model (United States)

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Calders, Stijn; Lapenta, Giovanni


    Space weather is a rapidly growing area of research not only in scientific and engineering applications but also in physics education and in the interest of the public. We focus especially on space radiation and its impact on space exploration. The topic is highly interdisciplinary, bringing together fundamental concepts of nuclear physics with aspects of radiation protection and space science. We give a new approach to presenting the topic by developing a web-based application that combines some of the fundamental concepts from these two fields into a single tool that can be used in the context of advanced secondary or undergraduate university education. We present DREADCode, an outreach or teaching tool to rapidly assess the current conditions of the radiation field in space. DREADCode uses the available data feeds from a number of ongoing space missions (ACE, GOES-13, GOES-15) to produce a first order approximation of the radiation dose an astronaut would receive during a mission of exploration in deep space (i.e. far from the Earth’s shielding magnetic field and from the radiation belts). DREADCode is based on an easy-to-use GUI interface available online from the European Space Weather Portal ( The core of the radiation transport computation to produce the radiation dose from the observed fluence of radiation observed by the spacecraft fleet considered is based on a relatively simple approximation: the Bethe-Bloch equation. DREADCode also assumes a simplified geometry and material configuration for the shields used to compute the dose. The approach is approximate and sacrifices some important physics on the altar of rapid execution time, which allows a real-time operation scenario. There is no intention here to produce an operational tool for use in space science and engineering. Rather, we present an educational tool at undergraduate level that uses modern web-based and programming methods to learn some of the most important

  3. Web-based description of the space radiation environment using the Bethe–Bloch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Lapenta, Giovanni; Calders, Stijn


    Space weather is a rapidly growing area of research not only in scientific and engineering applications but also in physics education and in the interest of the public. We focus especially on space radiation and its impact on space exploration. The topic is highly interdisciplinary, bringing together fundamental concepts of nuclear physics with aspects of radiation protection and space science. We give a new approach to presenting the topic by developing a web-based application that combines some of the fundamental concepts from these two fields into a single tool that can be used in the context of advanced secondary or undergraduate university education. We present DREADCode, an outreach or teaching tool to rapidly assess the current conditions of the radiation field in space. DREADCode uses the available data feeds from a number of ongoing space missions (ACE, GOES-13, GOES-15) to produce a first order approximation of the radiation dose an astronaut would receive during a mission of exploration in deep space (i.e. far from the Earth’s shielding magnetic field and from the radiation belts). DREADCode is based on an easy-to-use GUI interface available online from the European Space Weather Portal ( The core of the radiation transport computation to produce the radiation dose from the observed fluence of radiation observed by the spacecraft fleet considered is based on a relatively simple approximation: the Bethe–Bloch equation. DREADCode also assumes a simplified geometry and material configuration for the shields used to compute the dose. The approach is approximate and sacrifices some important physics on the altar of rapid execution time, which allows a real-time operation scenario. There is no intention here to produce an operational tool for use in space science and engineering. Rather, we present an educational tool at undergraduate level that uses modern web-based and programming methods to learn some of the most

  4. Space-based pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode based on the characteristics of geosynchronous orbit belt (United States)

    Hu, Yun-peng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-yu


    The US Lincoln Laboratory proved that space-based visible (SBV) observation is efficient to observe space objects, especially Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) objects. After that, SBV observation plays an important role in the space surveillance. In this paper, a novel space-based observation mode is designed to observe all the GEO objects in a relatively short time. A low earth orbit (LEO) satellite, especially a dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit satellite, is useful for space-based observation. Thus, the observation mode for GEO objects is based on a dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit satellite. It is found that the Pinch Point (PP) regions proposed by the US Lincoln Laboratory are spreading based on the analysis of the evolution principles of GEO objects. As the PP regions becoming more and more widely in the future, many strategies based on it may not be efficient any more. Hence, the key point of the space-based observation strategy design for GEO objects should be emphasized on the whole GEO belt as far as possible. The pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode is proposed in this paper based on the characteristics of GEO belt. Unlike classical space-based observation modes, pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode makes use of the one-dimensional attitude adjustment of the observation satellite. The pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode is more reliable and simple in engineering, compared with the gazing observation mode which needs to adjust the attitude from the two dimensions. It includes two types of attitude adjustment, i.e. daily and continuous attitude adjustment. Therefore, the pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode has two characteristics. In a day, the latitude of the observation region is fixed and the scanning region is about a rectangle, while the latitude of the observation region centre changes each day in a long term based on a daily strategy. The capabilities of a pseudo-fixed latitude observation instrument with a 98° dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit are

  5. Hybrid task priority-based motion control of a redundant free-floating space robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ZHOU


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hybrid task priority-based motion planning algorithm of a space robot. The satellite attitude control task is defined as the primary task, while the least-squares-based non-strict task priority solution of the end-effector plus the multi-constraint task is viewed as the secondary task. Furthermore, a null-space task compensation strategy in the joint space is proposed to derive the combination of non-strict and strict task-priority motion planning, and this novel combination is termed hybrid task priority control. Thus, the secondary task is implemented in the primary task’s null-space. Besides, the transition of the state of multiple constraints between activeness and inactiveness will only influence the end-effector task without any effect on the primary task. A set of numerical experiments made in a real-time simulation system under Linux/RTAI shows the validity and feasibility of the proposed methodology. Keywords: Base attitude control, Hybrid task-priority, Motion planning, Multiple constraints, Redundant space robot

  6. Optimal Time-Space Trade-Offs for Non-Comparison-Based Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Pagter, Jacob Illeborg


    We study the problem of sorting n integers of w bits on a unit-cost RAM with word size w, and in particular consider the time-space trade-off (product of time and space in bits) for this problem. For comparison-based algorithms, the time-space complexity is known to be Θ(n2). A result of Beame...... shows that the lower bound also holds for non-comparison-based algorithms, but no algorithm has met this for time below the comparison-based Ω(nlgn) lower bound.We show that if sorting within some time bound &Ttilde; is possible, then time T = O(&Ttilde; + nlg* n) can be achieved with high probability...... using space S = O(n2/T + w), which is optimal. Given a deterministic priority queue using amortized time t(n) per operation and space nO(1), we provide a deterministic algorithm sorting in time T = O(n(t(n) + lg* n)) with S = O(n2/T + w). Both results require that w ≤ n1-Ω(1). Using existing priority...

  7. Fractal systems of central places based on intermittency of space-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang


    Highlights: → The idea of intermittency is introduced into central place model. → The revised central place model suggests incomplete space filling. → New central place fractals are presented for urban analysis. → The average nearest distance is proposed to estimate the fractal dimension. → The concept of distance-based space is replaced by that of dimension-based space. - Abstract: The central place models are fundamentally important in theoretical geography and city planning theory. The texture and structure of central place networks have been demonstrated to be self-similar in both theoretical and empirical studies. However, the underlying rationale of central place fractals in the real world has not yet been revealed so far. This paper is devoted to illustrating the mechanisms by which the fractal patterns can be generated from central place systems. The structural dimension of the traditional central place models is d = 2 indicating no intermittency in the spatial distribution of human settlements. This dimension value is inconsistent with empirical observations. Substituting the complete space filling with the incomplete space filling, we can obtain central place models with fractional dimension D < d = 2 indicative of spatial intermittency. Thus the conventional central place models are converted into fractal central place models. If we further integrate the chance factors into the improved central place fractals, the theory will be able to explain the real patterns of urban places very well. As empirical analyses, the US cities and towns are employed to verify the fractal-based models of central places.

  8. Mathematics in civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Resnikoff, Howard L


    Space flight, computers, lasers, and information technology ― these are but a few examples of the spectacular growth, development, and far-reaching applications of mathematics. But what of the field's past? Upon which intellectual milestones were the foundations of modern mathematics constructed? How has our comprehension of the physical universe, language, and the nature of thought itself been influenced and informed by the developments of mathematics through the ages?This lucid presentation examines how mathematics shaped and was shaped by the course of human events. In a format suited to co

  9. On the concept of survivability, with application to spacecraft and space-based networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.


    Survivability is an important attribute and requirement for military systems. Recently, survivability has become increasingly important for public infrastructure systems as well. In this work, we bring considerations of survivability to bear on space systems. We develop a conceptual framework and quantitative analyses based on stochastic Petri nets (SPN) to characterize and compare the survivability of different space architectures. The architectures here considered are a monolith spacecraft and a space-based network. To build the stochastic Petri net models for the degradations and failures of these two architectures, we conducted statistical analyses of historical multi-state failure data of spacecraft subsystems, and we assembled these subsystems, and their SPN models, in ways to create our monolith and networked systems. Preliminary results indicate, and quantify the extent to which, a space-based network is more survivable than the monolith spacecraft with respect to on-orbit anomalies and failures. For space systems, during the design and acquisition process, different architectures are benchmarked against several metrics; we argue that if survivability is not accounted for, then the evaluation process is likely to be biased in favor of the traditional dominant design, namely the monolith spacecraft. If however in a given context, survivability is a critical requirement for a customer, the survivability framework here proposed, and the stochastic modeling capability developed, can demonstrate the extent to which a networked space architecture may better satisfy this requirement than a monolith spacecraft. These results should be of interest to operators whose space assets require high levels of survivability, especially in the light of emerging threats.

  10. Theory and experiments in model-based space system anomaly management (United States)

    Kitts, Christopher Adam

    This research program consists of an experimental study of model-based reasoning methods for detecting, diagnosing and resolving anomalies that occur when operating a comprehensive space system. Using a first principles approach, several extensions were made to the existing field of model-based fault detection and diagnosis in order to develop a general theory of model-based anomaly management. Based on this theory, a suite of algorithms were developed and computationally implemented in order to detect, diagnose and identify resolutions for anomalous conditions occurring within an engineering system. The theory and software suite were experimentally verified and validated in the context of a simple but comprehensive, student-developed, end-to-end space system, which was developed specifically to support such demonstrations. This space system consisted of the Sapphire microsatellite which was launched in 2001, several geographically distributed and Internet-enabled communication ground stations, and a centralized mission control complex located in the Space Technology Center in the NASA Ames Research Park. Results of both ground-based and on-board experiments demonstrate the speed, accuracy, and value of the algorithms compared to human operators, and they highlight future improvements required to mature this technology.

  11. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna


    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Oboznov


    Full Text Available The concept of the normative personal orientation seeks to specify how personnel motivation should be organized in the value-motivational sphere for professional activity execution in accordance with its social purpose. Based on the priority of the civil service social purpose, the hierarchical structure of the personal normative orientations was theoretically validated. Social motives related to serving for the benefit of the Fatherland as well as work motives associated with the achievement of some role positions are the major motives. The subordinate motives are the monetary rewards and self-development. Development of the future civil servants’ orientation is based on a conscious idea about the required motives’ subordination, that is, about the normative civil servant’s orientation. The study involved 63 students of the 2nd and 4th year studying at the Russian management institute in the specialty “Customs” and 51 students of the 1st and 2nd year studying at the Public Administration Academy of the Republic of Armenia, as well as 4 experts (two from Russia and Armenia having long-term experience in the civil service. The method is an author’s closed-questions’ inventory containing a list of 18 personal goals, that should guide the civil servant in professional work. The instruction required the selection of five most important goals. An absolute majority (from 66 to 90% of Russian and Armenian students has the motives’ subordination that is inconsistent with the normative orientation. According to the students’ view, self-development, self-creation and material benefit are the leading motives of a civil servant. The expert motives’ representations are identical to the required content of civil servant normative orientation. The authors defined the need to develop a special psychological and educational program for promoting required representations about the normative orientation of future civil servants.

  13. Space reactors - past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A.


    The successful test flights of the Space Shuttle mark the start of a new era--an era of routine manned access into cislunar space. Human technical development at the start of the next Millenium will be highlighted by the creation of Man's extraterrestrial civilization with off-planet expansion of the human resource base. In the 1990s and beyond, advanced-design nuclear reactors could represent the prime source of both space power and propulsion. Many sophisticated military and civilian space missions of the future will require first kilowatt and then megawatt levels of power. This paper reviews key technology developments that accompanied past US space nuclear power development efforts, describes on-going programs, and then explores reactor technologies that will satisfy megawatt power level needs and beyond

  14. Engagement citoyen et société civile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Pirotte


    Full Text Available Cet article cherche à rapprocher par la réflexion la notion de société civile de celle de l’engagement citoyen à partir de l’expérience postcommuniste roumaine. Si le domaine de la société civile ne concentre pas tous les phénomènes d’engagement citoyen, il demeure néanmoins un espace privilégié d’expression de cet engagement. La question qui anime ce texte est assez simple : comment envisager l’étude de l’engagement du citoyen à l’intérieur des nouvelles sociétés civiles d’Europe Centrale et Orientale, et plus spécifiquement au sein de la nouvelle société civile roumaine ? Cette interrogation, si simple soit-elle, se révèle bien vite plus complexe si l’on tient compte des problèmes que soulèvent à la fois les concepts de société civile et d’engagement mobilisés ici mais aussi l’expérience postcommuniste souvent abordée de manière homogène alors qu’elle se révèle empiriquement très hétéroclite.Citizen commitment and civil society. A reflexion based upon the Romanian project of post-communist civil societyUsing the post-communist experience in Romania, this article reflects upon the way to bring together the concepts of civil society and citizen commitment. Whilst civil society does not concentrate all the phenomena of citizenship, the concept remains nonetheless a privileged expression of citizen commitment. The question underlying this text is relatively simple: how should the study of citizen commitment be approached within the new civil societies of Central and Eastern Europe, and more specifically within the new Romanian civil society ? As simple as it may appear, the question becomes rapidly more complex as soon as the problems deriding from the concepts of civil society and citizen commitment themselves are taken into consideration but also because the post-communist experience is often treated in a homogeneous way whilst it is in fact empirically very heterogeneous

  15. Geo-spatial Cognition on Human's Social Activity Space Based on Multi-scale Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAI Weixin


    Full Text Available Widely applied location aware devices, including mobile phones and GPS receivers, have provided great convenience for collecting large volume individuals' geographical information. The researches on the human's society behavior space has attracts an increasingly number of researchers. In our research, based on location-based Flickr data From 2004 to May, 2014 in China, we choose five levels of spatial grids to form the multi-scale frame for investigate the correlation between the scale and the geo-spatial cognition on human's social activity space. The HT-index is selected as the fractal inspired by Alexander to estimate the maturity of the society activity on different scales. The results indicate that that the scale characteristics are related to the spatial cognition to a certain extent. It is favorable to use the spatial grid as a tool to control scales for geo-spatial cognition on human's social activity space.

  16. The daylighting dashboard - A simulation-based design analysis for daylit spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, Christoph F. [Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wienold, Jan [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)


    This paper presents a vision of how state-of-the-art computer-based analysis techniques can be effectively used during the design of daylit spaces. Following a review of recent advances in dynamic daylight computation capabilities, climate-based daylighting metrics, occupant behavior and glare analysis, a fully integrated design analysis method is introduced that simultaneously considers annual daylight availability, visual comfort and energy use: Annual daylight glare probability profiles are combined with an occupant behavior model in order to determine annual shading profiles and visual comfort conditions throughout a space. The shading profiles are then used to calculate daylight autonomy plots, energy loads, operational energy costs and green house gas emissions. The paper then shows how simulation results for a sidelit space can be visually presented to simulation non-experts using the concept of a daylighting dashboard. The paper ends with a discussion of how the daylighting dashboard could be practically implemented using technologies that are available today. (author)

  17. Object-based warping: an illusory distortion of space within objects. (United States)

    Vickery, Timothy J; Chun, Marvin M


    Visual objects are high-level primitives that are fundamental to numerous perceptual functions, such as guidance of attention. We report that objects warp visual perception of space in such a way that spatial distances within objects appear to be larger than spatial distances in ground regions. When two dots were placed inside a rectangular object, they appeared farther apart from one another than two dots with identical spacing outside of the object. To investigate whether this effect was object based, we measured the distortion while manipulating the structure surrounding the dots. Object displays were constructed with a single object, multiple objects, a partially occluded object, and an illusory object. Nonobject displays were constructed to be comparable to object displays in low-level visual attributes. In all cases, the object displays resulted in a more powerful distortion of spatial perception than comparable non-object-based displays. These results suggest that perception of space within objects is warped.

  18. Space debris removal using a high-power ground-based laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, D.K.


    The feasibility and practicality of using a ground-based laser (GBL) to remove artificial space debris is examined. Physical constraints indicate that a reactor-pumped laser (RPL) may be best suited for this mission, because of its capabilities for multimegawatt output long run-times, and near-diffraction-limited initial beams. Simulations of a laser-powered debris removal system indicate that a 5-MW RPL with a 10-meter-diameter beam director and adaptive optics capabilities can deorbit 1-kg debris from space station altitudes. Larger debris can be deorbited or transferred to safer orbits after multiple laser engagements. A ground-based laser system may be the only realistic way to access and remove some 10,000 separate objects, having velocities in the neighborhood of 7 km/sec, and being spatially distributed over some 10{sup 10} km{sup 3} of space.

  19. Responsabilidade civil das empresas de construção civil pelos vícios e defeitos do produto


    Guedes Júnior, Alberto Augusto


    Responsabilidade civil das empresas de construção civil pelos vícios e defeitos do produto. A discussão ocorre através da análise rápida da evolução do sistema da responsabilidade civil o ordenamento geral e na legislação do consumidor, considerando o afastamento da teoria da culpa e o fortalecimento da responsabilização objetiva com fundamento a boa-fé. Este conflito e interação entre os códigos no que tange a responsabilização civil pelos acidentes de consumo traça a base dos ...

  20. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Performance evaluation examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Based on experimental and analytical considerations, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been incorporated in new recommendations. This document shows outdoor civil structures earthquake resistance and endurance performance evaluation examples based on revised recommendations. (T. Tanaka)