Sample records for space cabin materials

  1. Crane cabins' interior space multivariate anthropometric modeling. (United States)

    Essdai, Ahmed; Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar; Popović, Vladimir


    Previous research has shown that today's crane cabins fail to meet the needs of a large proportion of operators. Performance and financial losses and effects on safety should not be overlooked as well. The first aim of this survey is to model the crane cabin interior space using up-to-date crane operator anthropometric data and to compare the multivariate and univariate method anthropometric models. The second aim of the paper is to define the crane cabin interior space dimensions that enable anthropometric convenience. To facilitate the cabin design, the anthropometric dimensions of 64 crane operators in the first sample and 19 more in the second sample were collected in Serbia. The multivariate anthropometric models, spanning 95% of the population on the basis of a set of 8 anthropometric dimensions, have been developed. The percentile method was also used on the same set of data. The dimensions of the interior space, necessary for the accommodation of the crane operator, are 1174×1080×1865 mm. The percentiles results for the 5th and 95th model are within the obtained dimensions. The results of this study may prove useful to crane cabin designers in eliminating anthropometric inconsistencies and improving the health of operators, but can also aid in improving the safety, performance and financial results of the companies where crane cabins operate.

  2. Control of interior surface materials for speech privacy in high-speed train cabins. (United States)

    Jang, H S; Lim, H; Jeon, J Y


    The effect of interior materials with various absorption coefficients on speech privacy was investigated in a 1:10 scale model of one high-speed train cabin geometry. The speech transmission index (STI) and privacy distance (r P ) were measured in the train cabin to quantify speech privacy. Measurement cases were selected for the ceiling, sidewall, and front and back walls and were classified as high-, medium- and low-absorption coefficient cases. Interior materials with high absorption coefficients yielded a low r P , and the ceiling had the largest impact on both the STI and r P among the interior elements. Combinations of the three cases were measured, and the maximum reduction in r P by the absorptive surfaces was 2.4 m, which exceeds the space between two rows of chairs in the high-speed train. Additionally, the contribution of the interior elements to speech privacy was analyzed using recorded impulse responses and a multiple regression model for r P using the equivalent absorption area. The analysis confirmed that the ceiling was the most important interior element for improving speech privacy. These results can be used to find the relative decrease in r P in the acoustic design of interior materials to improve speech privacy in train cabins. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A parametric study of influence of material properties on car cabin environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorny Jan


    Full Text Available Recently the author presented the paper describing a car cabin heat load model for the prediction of the car cabin environment. The model allowed to simulate a transient behavior of the car cabin, i.e. radiant temperature of surfaces, air temperature and relative humidity. The model was developed in Dymola and was built on the basic principles of thermodynamics and heat balance equations. The model was validated by experiments performed on the Škoda Felicia during various operational conditions. In this paper the authors present a parametric study investigating influence of material properties on a car cabin environment. The Matlab version of the car cabin heat load model has been developed and used. The model was extended by simple graphical user interface and it was deployed into the stand alone executable application. The aim of this parametric study is to identify most important material properties and its effect on the cabin environment during specific operational conditions of car. By means of a sensitive analysis it can identified which material parameters have to be defined precisely and which parameters are not so important for the prediction of the air temperature inside cabin.

  4. Impacts of an Ammonia Leak on the Cabin Atmosphere of the International Space Station (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.; Son, Chang H.; Perry Jay L.


    Toxic chemical release into the cabin atmosphere is one of the three major emergency scenarios identified on the International Space Station (ISS). The release of anhydrous ammonia, the coolant used in the U.S. On-orbit Segment (USOS) External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS), into the ISS cabin atmosphere is one of the most serious toxic chemical release cases identified on board ISS. The USOS Thermal Control System (TCS) includes an Internal Thermal Control Subsystem (ITCS) water loop and an EATCS ammonia loop that transfer heat at the interface heat exchanger (IFHX). Failure modes exist that could cause a breach within the IFHX. This breach would result in high pressure ammonia from the EATCS flowing into the lower pressure ITCS water loop. As the pressure builds in the ITCS loop, it is likely that the gas trap, which has the lowest maximum design pressure within the ITCS, would burst and cause ammonia to enter the ISS atmosphere. It is crucial to first characterize the release of ammonia into the ISS atmosphere in order to develop methods to properly mitigate the environmental risk. This paper will document the methods used to characterize an ammonia leak into the ISS cabin atmosphere. A mathematical model of the leak was first developed in order to define the flow of ammonia into the ISS cabin atmosphere based on a series of IFHX rupture cases. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were then used to model the dispersion of the ammonia throughout the ISS cabin and determine localized effects and ventilation effects on the dispersion of ammonia. Lastly, the capabilities of the current on-orbit systems to remove ammonia were reviewed and scrubbing rates of the ISS systems were defined based on the ammonia release models. With this full characterization of the release of ammonia from the USOS TCS, an appropriate mitigation strategy that includes crew and system emergency response procedures, personal protection equipment use, and atmosphere monitoring

  5. Direct oxidation of strong waste waters, simulating combined wastes in extended-mission space cabins (United States)

    Ross, L. W.


    The applications of modern technology to the resolution of the problem of solid wastes in space cabin environments was studied with emphasis on the exploration of operating conditions that would permit lowering of process temperatures in wet oxidation of combined human wastes. It was found that the ultimate degree of degradation is not enhanced by use of a catalyst. However, the rate of oxidation is increased, and the temperature of oxidation is reduced to 400 F.

  6. A portable solar-powered air-cooling system based on phase-change materials for a vehicle cabin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Lingfei; Pan, Hongye; Zhu, Xin; Zhang, Xingtian; Salman, Waleed; Zhang, Zutao; Li, Li; Zhu, Miankuan; Yuan, Yanping; Xiang, Bo


    Graphical abstract: This paper proposed a portable solar-powered air cooling system for a vehicle cabin based on Phase-change Materials. The cooling system contains three main parts: a solar-energy collection module, an energy-storage module and a phase-change cooling module. The operating principle can be described as follows. For energy input, the solar-energy-collection module harvests solar energy and converts it to electricity. The power-storage module stores the electrical energy in the supercapacitor to power the electrical equipment, mainly the air pump (AP) and water pump (WP) of the phase-change cooling module. Finally, the phase-change cooling module provides cold air for the vehicle cabin to create a comfortable vehicle interior in a hot summer. The proposed system is demonstrated through thermal simulations, which show the long-duration cooling effect of the system. Temperature drops of were obtained in field tests, predicting that the proposed cooling system is beneficial and practical for cooling vehicle cabins. - Highlights: • A novel portable air cooling system based on PCMs is presented. • Solar energy was adopted to power the proposed air cooling system. • This proposed system is used for cooling vehicle cabins exposed to the sun. • Experimental results show that the proposed system has a good cooling effect. - Abstract: In summer, the temperature is very high inside vehicles parked under the hot sun. This causes consuming more fossil energy to power the air conditioner and generation of harmful gases. There is currently no effective method to address this problem in an energy-saving and environmentally friendly manner. In this paper, a novel solar-powered air-cooling system for vehicle cabins is proposed based on Phase-change Materials (PCMs); the system prevents the temperature inside a vehicle cabin from rising too high when the vehicle is parked outdoor exposure to the sun. The proposed system consists of three main parts: a solar

  7. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.


    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  8. Tracking reliability for space cabin-borne equipment in development by Crow model. (United States)

    Chen, J D; Jiao, S J; Sun, H L


    Objective. To study and track the reliability growth of manned spaceflight cabin-borne equipment in the course of its development. Method. A new technique of reliability growth estimation and prediction, which is composed of the Crow model and test data conversion (TDC) method was used. Result. The estimation and prediction value of the reliability growth conformed to its expectations. Conclusion. The method could dynamically estimate and predict the reliability of the equipment by making full use of various test information in the course of its development. It offered not only a possibility of tracking the equipment reliability growth, but also the reference for quality control in manned spaceflight cabin-borne equipment design and development process.

  9. [A reliability growth assessment method and its application in the development of equipment in space cabin]. (United States)

    Chen, J D; Sun, H L


    Objective. To assess and predict reliability of an equipment dynamically by making full use of various test informations in the development of products. Method. A new reliability growth assessment method based on army material system analysis activity (AMSAA) model was developed. The method is composed of the AMSAA model and test data conversion technology. Result. The assessment and prediction results of a space-borne equipment conform to its expectations. Conclusion. It is suggested that this method should be further researched and popularized.

  10. Use of personal, real time in-cabin dosimetry on space shuttle flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Madonna, R.G.; Quam, W.; Warren, J.; Dockter, M.


    The use of real time dosimeters onboard the Space Shuttle is described. Data taken during STS-8 with a small gamma ray counter (HRM-III) and a neutron/proton dosimeter (the Pocket Rem Meter [PRM]) are presented. The data agree with NASA predictions for gamma ray background and neutron-proton dosage received for the STS-8 mission. 1 figure, 1 table

  11. Numerical simulation of a cabin ventilation subsystem in a space station oriented real-time system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezheng QIU


    Full Text Available An environment control and life support system (ECLSS is an important system in a space station. The ECLSS is a typical complex system, and the real-time simulation technology can help to accelerate its research process by using distributed hardware in a loop simulation system. An implicit fixed time step numerical integration method is recommended for a real-time simulation system with time-varying parameters. However, its computational efficiency is too low to satisfy the real-time data interaction, especially for the complex ECLSS system running on a PC cluster. The instability problem of an explicit method strongly limits its application in the ECLSS real-time simulation although it has a high computational efficiency. This paper proposes an improved numerical simulation method to overcome the instability problem based on the explicit Euler method. A temperature and humidity control subsystem (THCS is firstly established, and its numerical stability is analyzed by using the eigenvalue estimation theory. Furthermore, an adaptive operator is proposed to avoid the potential instability problem. The stability and accuracy of the proposed method are investigated carefully. Simulation results show that this proposed method can provide a good way for some complex time-variant systems to run their real-time simulation on a PC cluster. Keywords: Numerical integration method, Real-time simulation, Stability, THCS, Time-variant system

  12. Interference elimination: nuclear spin in the cabin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Constructed on Michael Faraday's cage principle, such cabins enable nuclear spin tomographs to operate undisturbed by foreign radiation. The working signals of these medical research apparatus are screened from the environment so that radio and television reception are not affected. Details are given of the structure of the cabin, of the prefabricated structural elements of non-magnetic materials (chromium-nickel steel). (Auth.)

  13. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  14. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  15. Materials for Space Exploration (United States)

    Robertson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha


    Topics include a lab overview, testing and processing equipment, hemochromic hydrogen sensors, antimicrobial materials, wire system materials, CNT ink formulations, CNT ink dust screens, CNT ink printed circuitry, cryogenic materials development, fire and polymers, the importance of lighting, electric lighting systems, LED for plant growth, and carbon nanotube fiber filaments.

  16. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks (United States)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward


    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  17. Materials science experiments in space (United States)

    Gelles, S. H.; Giessen, B. C.; Glicksman, M. E.; Margrave, J. L.; Markovitz, H.; Nowick, A. S.; Verhoeven, J. D.; Witt, A. F.


    The criteria for the selection of the experimental areas and individual experiments were that the experiment or area must make a meaningful contribution to the field of material science and that the space environment was either an absolute requirement for the successful execution of the experiment or that the experiment can be more economically or more conveniently performed in space. A number of experimental areas and individual experiments were recommended for further consideration as space experiments. Areas not considered to be fruitful and others needing additional analysis in order to determine their suitability for conduct in space are also listed. Recommendations were made concerning the manner in which these materials science experiments are carried out and the related studies that should be pursued.

  18. 14 CFR 23.571 - Metallic pressurized cabin structures. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metallic pressurized cabin structures. 23... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.571 Metallic pressurized cabin structures. For normal, utility, and acrobatic...

  19. A Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (United States)

    Graf, John C.


    Presently, the Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) conducted from the Quest Joint Airlock on the International Space Station use high pressure, high purity oxygen that is delivered to the Space Station by the Space Shuttle. When the Space Shuttle retires, a new method of delivering high pressure, high purity oxygen to the High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) is needed. One method is to use a cabin air separator to sweep oxygen from the cabin air, generate a low pressure/high purity oxygen stream, and compress the oxygen with a multistage mechanical compressor. A main advantage to this type of system is that the existing low pressure oxygen supply infrastructure can be used as the source of cabin oxygen. ISS has two water electrolysis systems that deliver low pressure oxygen to the cabin, as well as chlorate candles and compressed gas tanks on cargo vehicles. Each of these systems can feed low pressure oxygen into the cabin, and any low pressure oxygen source can be used as an on-board source of oxygen. Three different oxygen separator systems were evaluated, and a two stage Pressure Swing Adsorption system was selected for reasons of technical maturity. Two different compressor designs were subjected to long term testing, and the compressor with better life performance and more favorable oxygen safety characteristics was selected. These technologies have been used as the basis of a design for a flight system located in Equipment Lock, and taken to Preliminary Design Review level of maturity. This paper describes the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) concept, describes the separator and compressor technology trades, highlights key technology risks, and describes the flight hardware concept as presented at Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

  20. Astronaut Ronald Sega in crew cabin (United States)


    Astronaut Ronald M. Sega suspends himself in the weightlessness aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery's crew cabin, as the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm holds the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) aloft. The mission specialist is co-principle investigator on the the WSF project. Note the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs banner above his head.

  1. Multifunctional Coating for Crew Cabin Surfaces and Fabrics, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's crewed spacecrafts require routine cleaning of particulate, moisture, organic, and salt contaminants on the crew cabin surfaces and fabrics. Self-cleaning...

  2. Advanced Materials for Space Applications (United States)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.


    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency--nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  3. Space-Spurred Metallized Materials (United States)


    Spurred R&D toward improved vacuum metallizing techniques led to an extensive line of commercial products, from insulated outdoor garments to packaging for foods, from wall coverings to window shades, from life rafts to candy wrappings, reflective blankets to photographic reflectors. Metallized Products, Inc. (MPI) was one of the companies that worked with NASA in development of the original space materials. MPI markets its own metallized products and supplies materials to other manufacturers. One of the most widely used MPI products is TXG laminate. An example is a reflective kite, the S.O.S. Signal Kite that can be flown as high as 200 feet to enhance radar and visual detectability. It offers a boon to campers, hikers, mountain climbers and boaters. It is produced by Solar Reflections, Inc. The company also markets a solar reflective hat. Another example is by Pro-Tektion, Inc. to provide protection for expensive musical equipment that have sensitive electronic components subject to damage from the heat of stage lights, dust, or rain at outdoor concerts. MP supplied the material and acceptance of the covers by the sound industry has been excellent.

  4. Space Environmental Effects on Materials and Processes (United States)

    Sabbann, Leslie M.


    The Materials and Processes (M&P) Branch of the Structural Engineering Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) seeks to uphold the production of dependable space hardware through materials research, which fits into NASA's purpose of advancing human exploration, use, and development of space. The Space Environmental Effects projects fully support these Agency goals. Two tasks were assigned to support M&P. Both assignments were to further the research of material behavior outside of Earth's atmosphere in order to determine which materials are most durable and safe to use in space for mitigating risks. One project, the Materials on International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) task, was to compile data from International Space Station (ISS) experiments to pinpoint beneficial space hardware. The other project was researching the effects on composite materials of exposure to high doses of radiation for a Lunar habitat project.

  5. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  6. The Airplane Cabin Microbiome. (United States)

    Weiss, Howard; Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Dupont, Chris; Espinoza, Josh L; Levy, Shawn; Nelson, Karen; Norris, Sharon


    Serving over three billion passengers annually, air travel serves as a conduit for infectious disease spread, including emerging infections and pandemics. Over two dozen cases of in-flight transmissions have been documented. To understand these risks, a characterization of the airplane cabin microbiome is necessary. Our study team collected 229 environmental samples on ten transcontinental US flights with subsequent 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that bacterial communities were largely derived from human skin and oral commensals, as well as environmental generalist bacteria. We identified clear signatures for air versus touch surface microbiome, but not for individual types of touch surfaces. We also found large flight-to-flight beta diversity variations with no distinguishing signatures of individual flights, rather a high between-flight diversity for all touch surfaces and particularly for air samples. There was no systematic pattern of microbial community change from pre- to post-flight. Our findings are similar to those of other recent studies of the microbiome of built environments. In summary, the airplane cabin microbiome has immense airplane to airplane variability. The vast majority of airplane-associated microbes are human commensals or non-pathogenic, and the results provide a baseline for non-crisis-level airplane microbiome conditions.

  7. 14 CFR 23.841 - Pressurized cabins. (United States)


    ... probable failure or malfunction in the pressurization system. (b) Pressurized cabins must have at least the following valves, controls, and indicators, for controlling cabin pressure: (1) Two pressure relief valves... compressor or to divert airflow from the cabin if continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin compressor or...

  8. Innovative Space Materials and Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphey, Thomas


    A primary objective of this Phase I study was to identify and characterize monolithic deployable truss architectures that are conducive to efficient packaging by means of elastic material straining...

  9. Translating material and design space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Joseffson, Kristoffer


    This paper shares findings from the project DevA (Developable surfaces in Architecture), a research by design based project developed a collaboration between academic and industry partners. The project aims to investigate the use of curved sheet material in architecture using hybridised 3D...

  10. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.


    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited

  11. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L.


    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications

  12. Space Environmental Effects on Coated Tether Materials (United States)

    Gittemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Watts, Ed


    The University of Alabama in Huntsville s Propulsion Research Center has teamed with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to research the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) bombardment on coated tether materials. Tethers Unlimited Inc. has provided several candidate tether materials with various coatings for AO exposure in MSFC s Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility. Additional samples were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation at MSFC. AO erodes most organic materials, and ultraviolet radiation embrittles polymers. This test series was performed to determine the effect of AO and UV on the mechanical integrity of tether materials that were treated with AO-protective coatings, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) or metallization. Both TUI's Multi-Application Survivable Tether (MAST) Experiment and Marshall Space Flight Center s Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) programs will benefit from this research by helping to determine tether materials and coatings that give the longest life with the lowest mass penalty.

  13. Urban public space materials. Maintenance and design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias Campos


    Full Text Available In this paper, certain aspects related to the conservation of materials commonly used in the design of public spaces are analysed and discussed from a starting point of maintenance definition. The main area of discussion is whether materials selection for pavements and urban furniture, and their placement in the designed space, take into account their maintenance needs. Here the definition of maintenance is the cleaning and repair done by municipal services that is always necessary after construction. From certain examples it can be concluded that, in several cases, the form, the organization and the distribution of the different elements within the public space can cause difficulties for its appropriate conservation, giving rise to alterations and consequently having a negative impact on the durability of this space.

  14. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality. (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K


    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Enhancing Passenger Cabin Comfort Using PCM (United States)

    Purusothaman, M.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Dada Mohammad, S. K.


    The main purpose of this study is to determine a cost effective way to enhance passenger cabin comfort by analyzing the effect of solar radiation of a open parked vehicle, which is exposed to constant solar radiation on a hot and sunny day. Maximum heat accumulation occurs in the car cabin due to the solar radiation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, a simulation process is conducted for the thermal regulation of the passenger cabin using a layer of phase change material (PCM) on the roof structure of a stationary car when exposed to ambient temperature on a hot sunny day. The heat energy accumulated in the passenger cabin is absorbed by a layer of PCM for phase change process. The installation of a ventilation system which uses an exhaust fan to create a natural convection scenario in the cabin is also considered to enhance passenger comfort along with PCM.

  16. Effects of Cabin Upsets on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization (United States)

    LeVan, Douglas


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) utilizes adsorption technology as part of contaminant removal systems designed for long term missions. A variety of trace contaminants can be effectively removed from gas streams by adsorption onto activated carbon. An activated carbon adsorption column meets NASA's requirements of a lightweight and efficient means of controlling trace contaminant levels aboard spacecraft and space stations. The activated carbon bed is part of the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) which is utilized to purify the cabin atmosphere. TCCS designs oversize the adsorption columns to account for irregular fluctuations in cabin atmospheric conditions. Variations in the cabin atmosphere include changes in contaminant concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Excessively large deviations from typical conditions can result from unusual crew activity, equipment malfunctions, or even fires. The research carried out under this award focussed in detail on the effects of cabin upsets on the performance of activated carbon adsorption columns. Both experiments and modeling were performed with an emphasis on the roll of a change in relative humidity on adsorption of trace contaminants. A flow through fixed-bed apparatus was constructed at the NASA Ames Research Center, and experiments were performed there. Modeling work was performed at the University of Virginia.

  17. Prediction of car cabin environment by means of 1D and 3D cabin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha M.


    Full Text Available Thermal comfort and also reduction of energy requirements of air-conditioning system in vehicle cabins are currently very intensively investigated and up-to-date issues. The article deals with two approaches of modelling of car cabin environment; the first model was created in simulation language Modelica (typical 1D approach without cabin geometry and the second one was created in specialized software Theseus-FE (3D approach with cabin geometry. Performance and capabilities of this tools are demonstrated on the example of the car cabin and the results from simulations are compared with the results from the real car cabin climate chamber measurements.

  18. Prediction of car cabin environment by means of 1D and 3D cabin model (United States)

    Fišer, J.; Pokorný, J.; Jícha, M.


    Thermal comfort and also reduction of energy requirements of air-conditioning system in vehicle cabins are currently very intensively investigated and up-to-date issues. The article deals with two approaches of modelling of car cabin environment; the first model was created in simulation language Modelica (typical 1D approach without cabin geometry) and the second one was created in specialized software Theseus-FE (3D approach with cabin geometry). Performance and capabilities of this tools are demonstrated on the example of the car cabin and the results from simulations are compared with the results from the real car cabin climate chamber measurements.

  19. Evolution of new materials for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, D.M.


    The implications of spacecraft design requirements for materials technology are surveyed, with a focus on current trends and future needs. Criteria for materials selection are discussed, including contamination control (low-outgassing materials), electrical and thermal characteristics, structural stiffness, safety requirements, and survivability (under natural space conditions for longer periods and under potential hostile particle-beam or laser attack). The applications and potential of polymer-matrix, metal-matrix and ceramic-matrix composites are discussed and compared. While polymer-matrix-material applications are seen as extendable by using high-stiffness fibers and improving ultraviolet protection, the greatest potential is seen in the development of the metal-matrix and ceramic-matrix composites, as used in the Space Shuttle. A need for cheaper, lighter, more radiation-resistant and less contamination-prone thermal-control coatings than the present optical-solar-reflector tiles, silica fabric, and indium-tin-oxide coating is projected. Methods for the analysis of structural defects in viscoelastic electrical components are presented. The materials requirements of larger and more powerful future spacecraft are evaluated. 17 references

  20. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas


    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  1. Water: A Critical Material Enabling Space Exploration (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.


    Water is one of the most critical materials in human spaceflight. The availability of water defines the duration of a space mission; the volume of water required for a long-duration space mission becomes too large, heavy, and expensive for launch vehicles to carry. Since the mission duration is limited by the amount of water a space vehicle can carry, the capability to recycle water enables space exploration. In addition, water management in microgravity impacts spaceflight in other respects, such as the recent emergency termination of a spacewalk caused by free water in an astronaut's spacesuit helmet. A variety of separation technologies are used onboard spacecraft to ensure that water is always available for use, and meets the stringent water quality required for human space exploration. These separation technologies are often adapted for use in a microgravity environment, where water behaves in unique ways. The use of distillation, membrane processes, ion exchange and granular activated carbon will be reviewed. Examples of microgravity effects on operations will also be presented. A roadmap for future technologies, needed to supply water resources for the exploration of Mars, will also be reviewed.

  2. The Fate of Trace Contaminants in a Crewed Spacecraft Cabin Environment (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.


    Trace chemical contaminants produced via equipment offgassing, human metabolic sources, and vehicle operations are removed from the cabin atmosphere by active contamination control equipment and incidental removal by other air quality control equipment. The fate of representative trace contaminants commonly observed in spacecraft cabin atmospheres is explored. Removal mechanisms are described and predictive mass balance techniques are reviewed. Results from the predictive techniques are compared to cabin air quality analysis results. Considerations are discussed for an integrated trace contaminant control architecture suitable for long duration crewed space exploration missions.

  3. Space Shielding Materials for Prometheus Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Lewis


    At the time of Prometheus program restructuring, shield material and design screening efforts had progressed to the point where a down-selection from approximately eighty-eight materials to a set of five ''primary'' materials was in process. The primary materials were beryllium (Be), boron carbide (B{sub 4}C), tungsten (W), lithium hydride (LiH), and water (H{sub 2}O). The primary materials were judged to be sufficient to design a Prometheus shield--excluding structural and insulating materials, that had not been studied in detail. The foremost preconceptual shield concepts included: (1) a Be/B{sub 4}C/W/LiH shield; (2) a Be/B{sub 4}C/W shield; (3) and a Be/B{sub 4}C/H{sub 2}O shield. Since the shield design and materials studies were still preliminary, alternative materials (e.g., {sup nal}B or {sup 10}B metal) were still being screened, but at a low level of effort. Two competing low mass neutron shielding materials are included in the primary materials due to significant materials uncertainties in both. For LiH, irradiation-induced swelling was the key issue, whereas for H{sub 2}O, containment corrosion without active chemistry control was key, Although detailed design studies are required to accurately estimate the mass of shields based on either hydrogenous material, both are expected to be similar in mass, and lower mass than virtually any alternative. Unlike Be, W, and B{sub 4}C, which are not expected to have restrictive temperature limits, shield temperature limits and design accommodations are likely to be needed for either LiH or H{sub 2}O. The NRPCT focused efforts on understanding swelting of LiH, and observed, from approximately fifty prior irradiation tests, that either casting ar thorough out-gassing should reduce swelling. A potential contributor to LiH swelling appears to be LiOH contamination due to exposure to humid air, that can be eliminated by careful processing. To better understand LiH irradiation performance and

  4. Aerogels Materials as Space Debris Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier


    Full Text Available Material degradation due to the specific space environment becomes a key parameter for space missions. The use of large surface of brittle materials on satellites can produce, if impacted by hypervelocity particles, ejected volumes of mater 100 times higher than the impacting one. The presented work is devoted to the use of silica aerogels as passive detectors. Aerogels have been exposed to the low earth orbit of the ISS for 18 months. The study describes the aerogels process and the choice of synthesis parameters in such a way to get expected features in terms of porosity, mechanical properties, internal stresses, and transparency. Low-density aerogels (0.09 g·cm−3 have been prepared. The control of transparency necessary to see and identify particles and fragments collected is obtained using a base catalysis during gel synthesis. After return to earth, the aerogels samples have been observed using optical microscopy to detect and quantify craters on the exposed surface. First results obtained on a small part of the aerogels indicate a large number of debris collected in the materials.

  5. Sustainable development of cabins. An investigation of cabin owners' attitudes towards the environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velvin, Jan


    An investigation on private cabin owners in the three Buskerud (Norway) municipalities: Sigdal, Rollag and Hol. The main purpose has been to evaluate the state of local value-creation related to cabin tourism, energy and environmental aspects of the cabin-usage, and other conditions related to sustainable development. This report deals in specific with environment and energy questions concerning cabin owners, and their attitudes towards energy-saving measures. Results from the investigation show that the standard on facilities of cabins has increased, indicating that the energy consumption will rise accordingly. Income is the primary explanation factor in relation to energy consumption. More results are presented in the report (ml)

  6. The space technology demand on materials and processes (United States)

    Dauphin, J.


    Space technology requires a rational and accurate policy of materials and processes selection. This paper examines some areas of space technology where materials and process problems have occurred in the past and how they can be solved in the future.

  7. Investigating the air quality in aircraft cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Steinar K.


    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the air quality in aircraft cabins and its effects on health and safety for crew and passengers. Some of the major worries are risk of communication of infectious diseases, high incidence of respiratory diseases caused by low air moisture, and increased concentration of carbon dioxide from exhaled air due to the cabin air being recirculated. It also happens that fumes and gases enter the cabin by way of the ventilation system. This article describes the EU-funded research programme called CabinAir. The project aims to: (1) establish the current level of air quality in aircraft cabins, (2) establish the relationship between cabin air quality and the performance of environmental control and filtration systems, the air distribution, the energy consumption and the environmental impact of fuel burn. (3) develop new designs and technical solutions to improve the environmental control system and cabin air distribution/control systems, (4) optimise air quality in the cabin and minimise fuel consumption and environmental impacts, (5) develop performance specifications for the components, (6) draft European Pre-Normative Standards

  8. Cabin Environment Physics Risk Model (United States)

    Mattenberger, Christopher J.; Mathias, Donovan Leigh


    This paper presents a Cabin Environment Physics Risk (CEPR) model that predicts the time for an initial failure of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) functionality to propagate into a hazardous environment and trigger a loss-of-crew (LOC) event. This physics-of failure model allows a probabilistic risk assessment of a crewed spacecraft to account for the cabin environment, which can serve as a buffer to protect the crew during an abort from orbit and ultimately enable a safe return. The results of the CEPR model replace the assumption that failure of the crew critical ECLSS functionality causes LOC instantly, and provide a more accurate representation of the spacecraft's risk posture. The instant-LOC assumption is shown to be excessively conservative and, moreover, can impact the relative risk drivers identified for the spacecraft. This, in turn, could lead the design team to allocate mass for equipment to reduce overly conservative risk estimates in a suboptimal configuration, which inherently increases the overall risk to the crew. For example, available mass could be poorly used to add redundant ECLSS components that have a negligible benefit but appear to make the vehicle safer due to poor assumptions about the propagation time of ECLSS failures.

  9. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G.


    Nonterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of large space system components from preprocessed lunar materials at a manufacturing site in space is described. Lunar materials mined and preprocessed at the lunar resource complex will be flown to the space manufacturing facility (SMF), where together with supplementary terrestrial materials, they will be final processed and fabricated into space communication systems, solar cell blankets, radio frequency generators, and electrical equipment. Satellite Power System (SPS) material requirements and lunar material availability and utilization are detailed, and the SMF processing, refining, fabricating facilities, material flow and manpower requirements are described.

  10. The effects of the aircraft cabin environment on passengers during simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter


    enables subjective assessments of the symptoms commonly experienced by passengers and crew during flights. Six investigations with subject exposure have subsequently been carried out in the aircraft cabin facility covering four environmental areas of study, i.e. humidity, air purification techniques...... but intensified complaints of headache, dizziness and claustrophobia, suggesting that air pollutants rather than low humidity cause the distress reported by airline passengers. Three investigations studying the efficacy of various air purification technologies showed that a gas phase adsorption purification unit......A 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated Boeing 767 aircraft cabin has been built in a climate chamber, simulating the cabin environment not only in terms of materials and geometry, but also in terms of cabin air and wall temperatures and ventilation with very dry air. This realistic simulation...

  11. Concentrations of selected contaminants in cabin air of airbus aircrafts. (United States)

    Dechow, M; Sohn, H; Steinhanses, J


    The concentrations of selected air quality parameters in aircraft cabins were investigated including particle numbers in cabin air compared to fresh air and recirculation air, the microbiological contamination and the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The Airbus types A310 of Swissair and A340 of Lufthansa were used for measurements. The particles were found to be mainly emitted by the passengers, especially by smokers. Depending on recirculation filter efficiency the recirculation air contained a lower or equal amount of particles compared to the fresh air, whereas the amount of bacteria exceeded reported concentrations within other indoor spaces. The detected species were mainly non-pathogenic, with droplet infection over short distances identified as the only health risk. The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were well below threshold values. Ethanol was identified as the compound with the highest amount in cabin air. Further organics were emitted by the passengers--as metabolic products or by smoking--and on ground as engine exhaust (bad airport air quality). Cleaning agents may be the source of further compounds.

  12. High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high...

  13. In-flight cabin smoke control. (United States)

    Eklund, T I


    Fatal accidents originating from in-flight cabin fires comprise only about 1% of all fatal accidents in the civil jet transport fleet. Nevertheless, the impossibility of escape during flight accentuates the hazards resulting from low visibility and toxic gases. Control of combustion products in an aircraft cabin is affected by several characteristics that make the aircraft cabin environment unique. The aircraft fuselage is pressurized in flight and has an air distribution system which provides ventilation jets from the ceiling level air inlets running along the cabin length. A fixed quantity of ventilation air is metered into the cabin and air discharge is handled primarily by pressure controlling outflow valves in the rear lower part of the fuselage. Earlier airplane flight tests on cabin smoke control used generators producing minimally buoyant smoke products that moved with and served as a telltales for overall cabin ventilation flows. Analytical studies were done with localized smoke production to predict the percent of cabin length that would remain smoke-free during continuous generation. Development of a buoyant smoke generator allowed simulation of a fire plume with controllable simulated temperature and heat release rates. Tests on a Boeing 757, modified to allow smoke venting out through the top of the cabin, showed that the buoyant smoke front moved at 0.46m/s (1.5ft/sec) with and 0.27m/sec (0.9ft/sec) against, the axial ventilation airflow. Flight tests in a modified Boeing 727 showed that a ceiling level counterflow of about 0.55m/sec (1.8ft/sec) was required to arrest the forward movement of buoyant smoke. A design goal of 0.61m/s (2ft/sec) axial cabin flow would require a flow rate of 99m3/min (3500ft3/min) in a furnished Boeing 757. The current maximum fresh air cabin ventilation flow is 78m3/min (2756 ft3/min). Experimental results indicate that buoyancy effects cause smoke movement behaviour that is not predicted by traditional design analyses and

  14. Space Fission Reactor Structural Materials: Choices Past, Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, Jeremy T.; Leonard, Keith J.


    Nuclear powered spacecraft will enable missions well beyond the capabilities of current chemical, radioisotope thermal generator and solar technologies. The use of fission reactors for space applications has been considered for over 50 years, although, structural material performance has often limited the potential performance of space reactors. Space fission reactors are an extremely harsh environment for structural materials with high temperatures, high neutron fields, potential contact with liquid metals, and the need for up to 15-20 year reliability with no inspection or preventative maintenance. Many different materials have been proposed as structural materials. While all materials meet many of the requirements for space reactor service, none satisfy all of them. However, continued development and testing may resolve these issues and provide qualified materials for space fission reactors.

  15. Space Transportation Materials and Structures Technology Workshop. Volume 2: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazier, F.W. Jr.; Gardner, J.E.


    The Space Transportation Materials and Structures Technology Workshop was held on September 23-26, 1991, in Newport News, Virginia. The workshop, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight and the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, was held to provide a forum for communication within the space materials and structures technology developer and user communities. Workshop participants were organized into a Vehicle Technology Requirements session and three working panels: Materials and Structures Technologies for Vehicle Systems, Propulsion Systems, and Entry Systems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report

  16. Space Reflector Materials for Prometheus Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Nash; V. Munne; LL Stimely


    The two materials studied in depth which appear to have the most promise in a Prometheus reflector application are beryllium (Be) and beryllium oxide (BeO). Three additional materials, magnesium oxide (MgO), alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were also recently identified to be of potential interest, and may have promise in a Prometheus application as well, but are expected to be somewhat higher mass than either a Be or BeO based reflector. Literature review and analysis indicates that material properties for Be are largely known, but there are gaps in the properties of Be0 relative to the operating conditions for a Prometheus application. A detailed preconceptual design information document was issued providing material properties for both materials (Reference (a)). Beryllium oxide specimens were planned to be irradiated in the JOY0 Japanese test reactor to partially fill the material property gaps, but more testing in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) test reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was expected to be needed. A key issue identified for BeO was obtaining material for irradiation testing with an average grain size of {approx}5 micrometers, reminiscent of material for which prior irradiation test results were promising. Current commercially available material has an average grain size of {approx}10 micrometers. The literature indicated that improved irradiation performance could be expected (e.g., reduced irradiation-induced swelling) with the finer grain size material. Confirmation of these results would allow the use of historic irradiated materials test results from the literature, reducing the extent of required testing and therefore the cost of using this material. Environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concerns associated with manufacturing are significant but manageable for Be and BeO. Although particulate-generating operations (e.g., machining, grinding, etc.) involving Be

  17. Space Reflector Materials for Prometheus Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Nash; V. Munne; LL Stimely


    The two materials studied in depth which appear to have the most promise in a Prometheus reflector application are beryllium (Be) and beryllium oxide (BeO). Three additional materials, magnesium oxide (MgO), alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), and magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) were also recently identified to be of potential interest, and may have promise in a Prometheus application as well, but are expected to be somewhat higher mass than either a Be or BeO based reflector. Literature review and analysis indicates that material properties for Be are largely known, but there are gaps in the properties of Be0 relative to the operating conditions for a Prometheus application. A detailed preconceptual design information document was issued providing material properties for both materials (Reference (a)). Beryllium oxide specimens were planned to be irradiated in the JOY0 Japanese test reactor to partially fill the material property gaps, but more testing in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) test reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was expected to be needed. A key issue identified for BeO was obtaining material for irradiation testing with an average grain size of ∼5 micrometers, reminiscent of material for which prior irradiation test results were promising. Current commercially available material has an average grain size of ∼10 micrometers. The literature indicated that improved irradiation performance could be expected (e.g., reduced irradiation-induced swelling) with the finer grain size material. Confirmation of these results would allow the use of historic irradiated materials test results from the literature, reducing the extent of required testing and therefore the cost of using this material. Environmental, safety and health (ES and H) concerns associated with manufacturing are significant but manageable for Be and BeO. Although particulate-generating operations (e.g., machining, grinding, etc.) involving Be-bearing materials require

  18. 11th International Space Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server


    The proceedings published in this book document and foster the goals of the 11th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-11 to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials. Contributions cover aspects of interaction with space environment of LEO, GEO, Deep Space, Planetary environments, ground-based qualification and in-flight experiments, as well as lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences.

  19. Investigating ozone-induced decomposition of surface-bound permethrin for conditions in aircraft cabins. (United States)

    Coleman, B K; Wells, J R; Nazaroff, W W


    The reaction of ozone with permethrin can potentially form phosgene. Published evidence on ozone levels and permethrin surface concentrations in aircraft cabins indicated that significant phosgene formation might occur in this setting. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene with a lower limit of detection of 2 ppb. Chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated materials (glass, carpet, seat fabric, and plastic) exposed to ozone under cabin-relevant conditions (150 ppb O(3), 4.5/h air exchange rate, means of material-balance modeling indicates that the upper limit on the phosgene level in aircraft cabins resulting from this chemistry is approximately 1 microg/m(3) or approximately 0.3 ppb. It was thus determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in aircraft cabins, is not likely to exceed relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines. Phosgene formation from ozone-initiated oxidation of permethrin in the aircraft cabin environment, if it occurs, is estimated to generate levels below the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment acute reference exposure level of 4 microg/m(3) or approximately 1 ppb.

  20. Crystal Growth and Other Materials Physical Researches in Space Environment (United States)

    Pan, Mingxiang

    Material science researches in space environment are based on reducing the effects of buoyancy driven transport, the effects of atomic oxygen, radiation, extremes of heat and cold and the ultrahigh vacuum, so as to unveil the underlying fundamental phenomena, lead maybe to new potential materials or new industrial processes and develop space techniques. Currently, research program on materials sciences in Chinese Manned Space Engineering (CMSE) is going on. More than ten projects related to crystal growth and materials processes are selected as candidates to be executed in Shenzhou spacecraft, Tiangong Space Laboratory and Chinese Space Station. In this talk, we will present some examples of the projects, which are being prepared and executed in the near future flight tasks. They are both basic and applied research, from discovery to technology.

  1. The Incidence and Fate of Volatile Methyl Siloxanes in a Crewed Spacecraft Cabin (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.


    Volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) arise from diverse, pervasive sources aboard crewed spacecraft ranging from materials offgassing to volatilization from personal care products. These sources lead to a persistent VMS compound presence in the cabin environment that must be considered for robust life support system design. Volatile methyl siloxane compound stability in the cabin environment presents an additional technical issue because degradation products such as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) are highly soluble in water leading to a unique load challenge for water purification processes. The incidence and fate of VMS compounds as observed in the terrestrial atmosphere, water, and surface (soil) environmental compartments have been evaluated as an analogy for a crewed cabin environment. Volatile methyl siloxane removal pathways aboard crewed spacecraft are discussed and a material balance accounting for a DMSD production mechanism consistent with in-flight observations is presented.

  2. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations (United States)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)


    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  3. Materials processing in zero gravity. [space manufacturing (United States)

    Wuenscher, H. F.


    Manufacturing processes which are expected to show drastic changes in a space environment due to the absence of earth gravity are classified according to (1) buoyancy and thermal convection sensitive processes and (2) processes where molecular forces like cohesion and adhesion remain as the relatively strongest and hence controlling factors. Some specific process demonstration experiments carried out during the Apollo 14 mission and in the Skylab program are described. These include chemical separation by electrophoresis, the M551 metals melting experiment, the M552 exothermic brazing experiment, the M553 sphere forming experiment, the M554 composite casting experiment, and the M555 gallium arsenide crystal growth experiment.

  4. The Interaction of Spacecraft Cabin Atmospheric Quality and Water Processing System Performance (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Croomes, Scott D. (Technical Monitor)


    Although designed to remove organic contaminants from a variety of waste water streams, the planned U.S.- and present Russian-provided water processing systems onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have capacity limits for some of the more common volatile cleaning solvents used for housekeeping purposes. Using large quantities of volatile cleaning solvents during the ground processing and in-flight operational phases of a crewed spacecraft such as the ISS can lead to significant challenges to the water processing systems. To understand the challenges facing the management of water processing capacity, the relationship between cabin atmospheric quality and humidity condensate loading is presented. This relationship is developed as a tool to determine the cabin atmospheric loading that may compromise water processing system performance. A comparison of cabin atmospheric loading with volatile cleaning solvents from ISS, Mir, and Shuttle are presented to predict acceptable limits to maintain optimal water processing system performance.

  5. Cryogenic Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Candidate Materials for Space Missions (United States)

    Tuttle, JIm; Canavan, Ed; Jahromi, Amir


    Spacecraft and instruments on space missions are built using a wide variety of carefully-chosen materials. In addition to having mechanical properties appropriate for surviving the launch environment, these materials generally must have thermal conductivity values which meet specific requirements in their operating temperature ranges. Space missions commonly propose to include materials for which the thermal conductivity is not well known at cryogenic temperatures. We developed a test facility in 2004 at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center to measure material thermal conductivity at temperatures between 4 and 300 Kelvin, and we have characterized many candidate materials since then. The measurement technique is not extremely complex, but proper care to details of the setup, data acquisition and data reduction is necessary for high precision and accuracy. We describe the thermal conductivity measurement process and present results for several materials.

  6. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing (United States)


    The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

  7. Advanced Thermal Interface Material Systems for Space Applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ultimate aim of proposed efforts are to develop innovative material and process (M increase thermal cycles before degradation and efforts to ensure ease of...

  8. Space radiation interaction mechanisms in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.


    Models of charged-particle impact under conditions typical of the space environment are reported, with a focus on impact excitation and nuclear reactions, especially for heavy ions. Impact excitation is studied by using a global model for electronic excitation based on formal relations through the classical dielectric function to derive an approximation related to the local plasma (electron density distribution) within the atoms and molecules and corrections to the model resulting from the nonfluid nature of this plasma are discussed. Nuclear reactions are studied by reducing quantum-mechanical treatment of this general N-body problem to an equivalent two-body problem that is solvable, and by comparing the results with experimental data. The equations for heavy-charged-particle transport are derived and solution techniques demonstrated. Finally, these methods of analysis are applied to study the change in the electrical properties of a GaAs semiconductor for photovoltaic applications. Proton damage to GaAs crystals is found to arise from stable replacement defects and to be nonannealable, in contrast to electron-induced damage. 17 references

  9. Controlling active cabin suspensions in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.E.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Knaap, van der A.C.M.; Nijmeijer, H.


    The field of automotive suspensions is changing. Semi-active and active suspensions are starting to become viable options for vehicle designers. Suspension design for commercial vehicles is especially interesting given its potential. An active cabin suspension for a heavy-duty truck is considered,

  10. Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles (United States)

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev


    In accordance with the resolution of ISO TC20/SC14 WG4/WG6 joint meeting, Technical Specification (TS) 'Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles' which describes computer simulation methods of space environment impact on nanostructured materials is being prepared. Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. Most such standards are related to production and characterization of nanostructures, however there is no ISO documents concerning nanomaterials behavior in different environmental conditions, including the space environment. The given TS deals with the peculiarities of the space environment impact on nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1-100 nm). The basic purpose of the document is the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scale to modeling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. This document will emphasize the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and present the recommendations for the choice of the most appropriate methods (or a group of methods) for computer modeling of various processes that can occur in nanostructured materials under the influence of different space environment components. In addition, TS includes the description of possible

  11. Materials and design concepts for space-resilient structures (United States)

    Naser, Mohannad Z.; Chehab, Alaa I.


    Space exploration and terraforming nearby planets have been fascinating concepts for the longest time. Nowadays, that technological advancements with regard to space exploration are thriving, it is only a matter of time before humans can start colonizing nearby moons and planets. This paper presents a state-of-the-art literature review on recent developments of "space-native" construction materials, and highlights evolutionary design concepts for "space-resilient" structures (i.e., colonies and habitats). This paper also details effects of harsh (and unique) space environments on various terrestrial and extraterrestrial construction materials, as well as on space infrastructure and structural systems. The feasibility of exploiting available space resources in terms of "in-situ resource utilization" and "harvesting of elements and compounds", as well as emergence of enabling technologies such as "cultured (lab-grown)" space construction materials are discussed. Towards the end of the present review, number of limitations and challenges facing Lunar and Martian exploration, and venues in-need for urgent research are identified and examined.

  12. Application of nuclear-physics methods in space materials science (United States)

    Novikov, L. S.; Voronina, E. N.; Galanina, L. I.; Chirskaya, N. P.


    The brief history of the development of investigations at the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in the field of space materials science is outlined. A generalized scheme of a numerical simulation of the radiation impact on spacecraft materials and elements of spacecraft equipment is examined. The results obtained by solving some of the most important problems that modern space materials science should address in studying nuclear processes, the interaction of charged particles with matter, particle detection, the protection from ionizing radiation, and the impact of particles on nanostructures and nanomaterials are presented.

  13. Simultaneously reducing CO2 and particulate exposures via fractional recirculation of vehicle cabin air. (United States)

    Jung, Heejung S; Grady, Michael L; Victoroff, Tristan; Miller, Arthur L


    Prior studies demonstrate that air recirculation can reduce exposure to nanoparticles in vehicle cabins. However when people occupy confined spaces, air recirculation can lead to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) accumulation which can potentially lead to deleterious effects on cognitive function. This study proposes a fractional air recirculation system for reducing nanoparticle concentration while simultaneously suppressing CO 2 levels in the cabin. Several recirculation scenarios were tested using a custom-programmed HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning) unit that varied the recirculation door angle in the test vehicle. Operating the recirculation system with a standard cabin filter reduced particle concentrations to 1000 particles/cm 3 , although CO 2 levels rose to 3000 ppm. When as little as 25% fresh air was introduced (75% recirculation), CO 2 levels dropped to 1000 ppm, while particle concentrations remained below 5000 particles/cm 3 . We found that nanoparticles were removed selectively during recirculation and demonstrated the trade-off between cabin CO 2 concentration and cabin particle concentration using fractional air recirculation. Data showed significant increases in CO 2 levels during 100% recirculation. For various fan speeds, recirculation fractions of 50-75% maintained lower CO 2 levels in the cabin, while still reducing particulate levels. We recommend fractional recirculation as a simple method to reduce occupants' exposures to particulate matter and CO 2 in vehicles. A design with several fractional recirculation settings could allow air exchange adequate for reducing both particulate and CO 2 exposures. Developing this technology could lead to reductions in airborne nanoparticle exposure, while also mitigating safety risks from CO 2 accumulation.

  14. Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications (United States)

    Vickers, J. H.; Tate, L. C.; Gaddis, S. W.; Neal, R. E.


    Composite materials offer significant advantages in space applications. Weight reduction is imperative for deep space systems. However, the pathway to deployment of composites alternatives is problematic. Improvements in the materials and processes are needed, and extensive testing is required to validate the performance, qualify the materials and processes, and certify components. Addressing these challenges could lead to the confident adoption of composites in space applications and provide spin-off technical capabilities for the aerospace and other industries. To address the issues associated with composites applications in space systems, NASA sponsored a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) entitled, "Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications," the proceedings of which are summarized in this Conference Publication. The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate and the Game Changing Program chartered the meeting. The meeting was hosted by the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM)-a public/private partnership between NASA, the State of Louisiana, Louisiana State University, industry, and academia, in association with the American Composites Manufacturers Association. The Louisiana Center for Manufacturing Sciences served as the coordinator for the TIM.

  15. Ultraviolet Testing of Space Suit Materials for Mars (United States)

    Larson, Kristine; Fries, Marc


    Human missions to Mars may require radical changes in the approach to extra-vehicular (EVA) suit design. A major challenge is the balance of building a suit robust enough to complete multiple EVAs under intense ultraviolet (UV) light exposure without losing mechanical strength or compromising the suit's mobility. To study how the materials degrade on Mars in-situ, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) invited the Advanced Space Suit team at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) to place space suit materials on the Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument's calibration target of the Mars 2020 rover. In order to select materials for the rover and understand the effects from Mars equivalent UV exposure, JSC conducted ground testing on both current and new space suit materials when exposed to 2500 hours of Mars mission equivalent UV. To complete this testing, JSC partnered with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to utilize their UV vacuum chambers. Materials tested were Orthofabric, polycarbonate, Teflon, Dacron, Vectran, spectra, bladder, nGimat coated Teflon, and nGimat coated Orthofabric. All samples were measured for mass, tensile strength, and chemical composition before and after radiation. Mass loss was insignificant (less than 0.5%) among the materials. Most materials loss tensile strength after radiation and became more brittle with a loss of elongation. Changes in chemical composition were seen in all radiated materials through Spectral Analysis. Results from this testing helped select the materials that will fly on the Mars 2020 rover. In addition, JSC can use this data to create a correlation to the chemical changes after radiation-which is what the rover will send back while on Mars-to the mechanical changes, such as tensile strength.

  16. Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; WolfeIV, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL


    Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating. The PCM is melted while the EV is connected to the electric grid for charging of the electric battery, and the stored energy is subsequently transferred to the cabin during driving. To minimize thermal losses when the EV is parked for extended periods, the PCM is encased in a high performance insulation system. The electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was designed to provide enough thermal energy to heat the EV s cabin for approximately 46 minutes, covering the entire daily commute of a typical driver in the U.S.

  17. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  18. Space Environmental Effects on Candidate Solar Sail Materials (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Nehls, Mary; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted ot a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar, Teonex, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were characterized

  19. Space and materiality in early childhood pedagogy – introductory notes


    Løkken, Gunvor; Moser, Thomas


    This issue of Education Inquiry includes a thematic section with five articles about different aspects of the physical environment in Norwegian early childhood education institutions (kindergartens). The contributions represent five out of nine sub-projects in a research project entitled Kindergarten spacemateriality, learning and meaning making – The importance of space for kindergarten’s pedagogical activities conducted at Vestfold University College (VUC) funded by the Norwegian Researc...

  20. Modeling Natural Space Ionizing Radiation Effects on External Materials (United States)

    Alstatt, Richard L.; Edwards, David L.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)


    Predicting the effective life of materials for space applications has become increasingly critical with the drive to reduce mission cost. Programs have considered many solutions to reduce launch costs including novel, low mass materials and thin thermal blankets to reduce spacecraft mass. Determining the long-term survivability of these materials before launch is critical for mission success. This presentation will describe an analysis performed on the outer layer of the passive thermal control blanket of the Hubble Space Telescope. This layer had degraded for unknown reasons during the mission, however ionizing radiation (IR) induced embrittlement was suspected. A methodology was developed which allowed direct comparison between the energy deposition of the natural environment and that of the laboratory generated environment. Commercial codes were used to predict the natural space IR environment model energy deposition in the material from both natural and laboratory IR sources, and design the most efficient test. Results were optimized for total and local energy deposition with an iterative spreadsheet. This method has been used successfully for several laboratory tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The study showed that the natural space IR environment, by itself, did not cause the premature degradation observed in the thermal blanket.

  1. The Cabin Crew Blues. Middle-aged Cabin Attendants and Their Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Bergman


    Full Text Available This article examines how an airline company uses the labor of a group of middle-aged cabin attendants in an industry increasingly characterized by deregulation and competiveness. The study was based on in-depth interviews with seven women, all with between 24 and 30 years of work experience as cabin attendants. The article focuses on the women’s working conditions and well-being and the analysis reveals three key aspects—intensification of work, vulnerability, and aging—that affect the cabin attendants’ experiences and emotions in relation to the work. It is at the intersection of these three aspects that the cabin attendants’ concerns must be understood. The study’s findings indicated that positive emotions such as job satisfaction and commitment have diminished because of exploitative and otherwise poor working conditions. Taking the cabin attendants’ concerns as its point of departure, the article shows that there is a need to move away from a discussion about emotional labor toward a discussion of working conditions.

  2. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew. (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi


    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  3. Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on Space Tether Materials (United States)

    Finckernor, Miria M.; Gitlemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Watts, Ed


    Atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation erode and embrittle most polymeric materials. This research was designed to test several different materials and coatings under consideration for their application to space tethers, for resistance to these effects. The samples were vacuum dehydrated, weighed and then exposed to various levels of AO or UV radiation at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. They were then re-weighed to determine mass loss due to atomic oxygen erosion, inspected for damage and tensile tested to determine strength loss. The experiments determined that the Photosil coating process, while affording some protection, damaged the tether materials worse than the AO exposure. TOR-LM also failed to fully protect the materials, especially from UV radiation. The POSS and nickel coatings did provide some protection to the tethers, which survived the entire test regime. M5 was tested, uncoated, and survived AO exposure, though its brittleness prevented any tensile testing.

  4. A BRDF statistical model applying to space target materials modeling (United States)

    Liu, Chenghao; Li, Zhi; Xu, Can; Tian, Qichen


    In order to solve the problem of poor effect in modeling the large density BRDF measured data with five-parameter semi-empirical model, a refined statistical model of BRDF which is suitable for multi-class space target material modeling were proposed. The refined model improved the Torrance-Sparrow model while having the modeling advantages of five-parameter model. Compared with the existing empirical model, the model contains six simple parameters, which can approximate the roughness distribution of the material surface, can approximate the intensity of the Fresnel reflectance phenomenon and the attenuation of the reflected light's brightness with the azimuth angle changes. The model is able to achieve parameter inversion quickly with no extra loss of accuracy. The genetic algorithm was used to invert the parameters of 11 different samples in the space target commonly used materials, and the fitting errors of all materials were below 6%, which were much lower than those of five-parameter model. The effect of the refined model is verified by comparing the fitting results of the three samples at different incident zenith angles in 0° azimuth angle. Finally, the three-dimensional modeling visualizations of these samples in the upper hemisphere space was given, in which the strength of the optical scattering of different materials could be clearly shown. It proved the good describing ability of the refined model at the material characterization as well.

  5. Design Concept for a Minimal Volume Spacecraft Cabin to Serve as a Mars Ascent Vehicle Cabin and Other Alternative Pressurized Vehicle Cabins (United States)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.


    The Evolvable Mars Campaign is developing concepts for human missions to the surface of Mars. These missions are round-trip expeditions, thereby requiring crew launch via a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). A study to identify the smallest possible pressurized cabin for this mission has developed a conceptual vehicle referred to as the minimal MAV cabin. The origin of this concept will be discussed as well as its initial concept definition. This will lead to a description of possible configurations to integrate the minimal MAV cabin with ascent vehicle engines and propellant tanks. Limitations of this concept will be discussed, in particular those that argue against the use of the minimal MAV cabin to perform the MAV mission. However, several potential alternative uses for the cabin are identified. Finally, recommended forward work will be discussed, including current work in progress to develop a full scale mockup and conduct usability evaluations.

  6. A new calcineurin inhibition domain in Cabin1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyonchol; Cho, Eun-Jung; Youn, Hong-Duk


    Calcineurin (CN), a calcium-activated phosphatase, plays a critical role in various biological processes including T cell activation. Cabin1, a calcineurin binding protein 1, has been shown to bind directly to CN using its C-terminal region and inhibit CN activity. However, no increase in CN activity has been found in Cabin1ΔC T cells, which produce a truncated Cabin1 lacking the C-terminal CN binding region. Here, we report that Cabin1 has additional CN binding domain in its 701-900 amino acid residues. Cabin1 (701-900) blocked both CN-mediated dephosphorylation and nuclear import of NFAT and thus inhibited IL-2 production in response to PMA/ionomycin stimulation. This fact may explain why Cabin1ΔC mice previously showed no significant defect in CN-mediated signaling pathway

  7. The Perforated Curtain: Configuring the Public and the Private in Calcutta’s Cabin Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twisha Deb


    Full Text Available When I was very young, eating out was not a regular activity for our family. On one of such rare occasion we ended up in a restaurant where the waiter made us sit in a cubicle with a curtain on one side. You pull the curtain and it creates a weird sense of privacy. That idea of intimate space in the middle of a busy city intrigued me. Later I found many restaurants in Kolkata where they have this sort of cabin, a private eating area. Starting from pre-independence when they were there to provide some privacy to the ladies of the family who were not allowed to eat in public, the cabin witnessed many private affairs with time, from political discussions to lovers’ silence. With changing time and the emergence of posh cafes with quirky interiors, the shabby little cabins have lost their charm, but the almost empty cabins, some even without the curtains stand there to tell a story of a time gone by.

  8. Technology Assessment of Laser-Assisted Materials Processing in Space (United States)

    Nagarathnam, Karthik; Taminger, Karen M. B.


    Lasers are useful for performing operations such as joining, machining, built-up freeform fabrication, shock processing, and surface treatments. These attributes are attractive for the supportability of longer-term missions in space due to the multi-functionality of a single tool and the variety of materials that can be processed. However, current laser technology also has drawbacks for space-based applications, specifically size, power efficiency, lack of robustness, and problems processing highly reflective materials. A review of recent laser developments will be used to show how these issues may be reduced and indicate where further improvement is necessary to realize a laser-based materials processing capability in space. The broad utility of laser beams in synthesizing various classes of engineering materials will be illustrated using state-of-the art processing maps for select lightweight alloys typically found on spacecraft. With the advent of recent breakthroughs in diode-pumped solid-state lasers and fiber optic technologies, the potential to perform multiple processing techniques is increasing significantly. Lasers with suitable wavelengths and beam properties have tremendous potential for supporting future space missions to the moon, Mars and beyond.

  9. Exploitation Strategies of Cabin and Galley Thermal Dynamics


    Schlabe, Daniel; Zimmer, Dirk; Pollok, Alexander


    The thermal inertia of aircraft cabins and galleys is significant for commercial aircraft. The aircraft cabin is controlled by the Environment Control System (ECS) to reach, among other targets, a prescribed temperature. By allowing a temperature band of ± 2 K instead of a fixed temperature, it is possible to use this thermal dynamic of the cabin as energy storage. This storage can then be used to reduce electrical peak power, increase efficiency of the ECS, reduce thermal cooling peak power...

  10. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John


    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  11. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew. (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi


    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  12. Expansion connection of socket in flow distributed cabin of heavy water research reactor inner shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhiliang; Li Yanshui


    Expansion connection of aluminium alloy LT21 socket in flow distributed cabin of Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) inner shell is described systematically. The expansion connection technology parameters of products are determined through tests. They are as following: bounce value of inner diameter after expansion, expansion degree, space between socket and plate hole, device for expanding pipes, selection of tools for enlarging or reaming holes, manufacture for socket inner hole and cleaning after expansion

  13. Process material management in the Space Station environment (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Humphries, W. R.


    The Space Station will provide a unique facility for conducting material-processing and life-science experiments under microgravity conditions. These conditions place special requirements on the U.S. Laboratory for storing and transporting chemicals and process fluids, reclaiming water from selected experiments, treating and storing experiment wastes, and providing vacuum utilities. To meet these needs and provide a safe laboratory environment, the Process Material Management System (PMMS) is being developed. Preliminary design requirements and concepts related to the PMMS are addressed, and the MSFC PMMS breadboard test facility and a preliminary plan for validating the overall system design are discussed.

  14. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials (United States)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.


    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the current estimates of the integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day. and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 109 protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed in the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 Kev-2.5 Mev can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 Kev to 2.5 Mev. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the ultraviolet (less than 400 nm wavelength) is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study (NAS8-38609) in order to

  15. Lunar materials for construction of space manufacturing facilities (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.


    Development of industrial operations in deep space would be prohibitively expensive if most of the construction and expendable masses had to be transported from earth. Use of lunar materials reduces the needed investments by a factor of 15 to 20. It is shown in this paper that judicious selection of lunar materials will allow one to obtain hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, helium and other specific elements critical to the support of life in large space habitats at relatively low costs and lower total investment even further. Necessary selection techniques and extraction schemes are outlined. In addition, tables are presented of the oxide and elemental abundances characteristic of the mare and highland regions of the moon which should be useful in evaluating what can be extracted from the lunar soils.

  16. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji


    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  17. Study of air flow and temperature distribution in ship's crew cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsafty, A.F. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical and Marine Engineering; Ali, A.A.; Nasr, A.N. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Marine Engineering Technology


    Because of low internal heights in ship's crew cabins, the supplied air is directed to the persons at low mixing ratios. However, this does not allow the mixing process between the supplied air and the indoor air to be completed before the air enters human lungs. This paper presented an experimental and numerical simulation study that used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the effect of the air supply location on thermal air diffusion in the ship's crew cabins space. The paper presented the results in terms of air diffusion performance index. The paper presented the CFD model, including selected space configurations; CFD simulation; boundary conditions; and CFD results. The CFD airflow simulation programs CFD were utilized to calculate the spatial distribution of temperature and velocity. The study focused on the typical Middle East region working vessel under thermal and boundary conditions including the high cooling load used in this region. Experimental data were also introduced to verify the CFD results package. It was concluded that the supply should be located near the high sidewall of the cabin. This gives better air distribution inside the space rather than the center of the room. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  18. Effect of Environmental Variables on the Flammability of Fire Resistant Materials


    Osorio, Andres Felipe


    This work investigates the effects of external radiation, ambient pressure and microgravity on the flammability limits of fire-resistant (FR) materials. Future space missions may require spacecraft cabin environments different than those used in the International Space Station, 21%O2, 101.3kPa. Environmental variables include flow velocity, oxygen concentration, ambient pressure, micro or partial-gravity, orientation, presence of an external radiant flux, etc. Fire-resistant materials are use...

  19. Application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Boomen, van den G.J.A.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.


    This paper presents an application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that was designed for research on aircraft passenger comfort mprovement product. The simulator consists of an economy class section, a business class section, a lavatory

  20. Mixing Ventilation System in a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Zhang, Chen; Wojcik, Kamil


    . It is also proven possible to create an acceptable draught level in the cabin. Experiments with tracer gas indicated that the contaminant from exhalation of one manikin is fully mixed in the cabin, and the experiment with personalised ventilation did not show much improvement in this situation....

  1. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Reagan, Shawn; Frazier, Natalie; Lehman, John


    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400?C. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  2. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Liping


    Full Text Available Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft cabins, especially in some short-haul continental flights. It is necessary to develop an easy way to predict the thermal sensation of passengers and to direct the crew to control ECS. Due to the assessment consistency of the corrected PMV model and the adaptive model, the adaptive model of thermal neutrality temperature can be used as a method to predict the cabin optimal operative temperature. Because only the mean outdoor effective temperature ET∗ of a departure city is an input variable for the adaptive model, this method can be easily understood and implemented by the crew and can satisfy 80–90% of the thermal acceptability levels of passengers.

  3. Simulated Space Environment Effects on a Candidate Solar Sail Material (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Bryant, Robert G.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Wadsworth, Heather M.; Craven, Paul D.; Nehls, Mary K.; Vaughn, Jason A.


    For long duration missions of solar sails, the sail material needs to survive harsh space environments and the degradation of the sail material controls operational lifetime. Therefore, understanding the effects of the space environment on the sail membrane is essential for mission success. In this study, we investigated the effect of simulated space environment effects of ionizing radiation, thermal aging and simulated potential damage on mechanical, thermal and optical properties of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) polyester solar sail membrane to assess the degradation mechanisms on a feasible solar sail. The solar sail membrane was exposed to high energy electrons (about 70 keV and 10 nA/cm2), and the physical properties were characterized. After about 8.3 Grad dose, the tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain of the sail membrane decreased by about 20 95%. The aluminum reflective layer was damaged and partially delaminated but it did not show any significant change in solar absorbance or thermal emittance. The effect on mechanical properties of a pre-cracked sample, simulating potential impact damage of the sail membrane, as well as thermal aging effects on metallized PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) film will be discussed.

  4. Assistive technology and passengers with special assistance needs in air transport: contributions to cabin design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Campese


    Full Text Available Abstract There has been significant growth in air transport worldwide, as well as in Brazil. However, studies have emphasized that disabled, obese, and elderly passengers face difficulties when using this means of transport. Among these difficulties, issues related to passengers’ own assistive devices, including damage, loss, or the impossibility of using during the entire flight, stand out. Therefore, the present study aims to understand the trends in assistive technology focusing on cabin design. This research is based upon literature review, interviews with manufacturers and research centers, visits to specialized trade fairs, and patent search. The results revealed a great diversity of assistive products, its trends, and an increase in their use, which affect aircraft cabin design, especially in terms of space, access, and stowage of these devices.

  5. An Exploratory Analysis of Sound Field Characteristics using the Impulse Response in a Car Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Soeta


    Full Text Available Sound environments in cars are becoming quieter and receiving attention because of the prevalence of low-noise engines such as hybrid and electric engines and the manifestation of automated driving. Although the car cabin has potential as a listening space, its acoustic quality has not been examined in detail. The present study investigated sound field characteristics in the car cabin using acoustic parameters obtained by impulse response analysis. In particular, effects of the passenger position, open windows and the use of an air conditioner on acoustic parameters were investigated. The passenger position affected the sound strength at low frequencies. Rear seats, except for the rear central seat, had lower interaural correlation than the front seats, suggesting that rear seats have more diffused sound fields. The opening of windows and use of air conditioners attenuated the ratio of early- and late-arriving energy at high frequencies, suggesting a loss of clarity for music.

  6. Mechanics of Digital Lattice Materials for Re-configurable Space Structures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Because of the challenges associated with the inability to resupply for repair, future deep space exploration missions will require innovative material and...

  7. Vibrant architecture material realm as a codesigner of living spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, Rachel


    This book sets out the conditions in which the need for a new approach to the production of architecture in the twenty-first century is established, where our homes and cities are facing increasing pressures from environmental challenges that are compromising our well being and our lives. Vibrant architecture embodies a new kind of architectural design practice that explores how lively materials, or ‘vibrant matter’ may be incorporated into our buildings to confer on them some of the properties of living things such as, movement, growth, sensitivity and self-repair. My research examines the theoretical and practical implications of how this may occur through the application of a new group of materials in the production of our living spaces, collectively referred to as ‘vibrant matter’.

  8. Optimised Sound Absorbing Trim Panels for the Reduction of Aircraft Cabin Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannink, M.H.C.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Ivanov, N.I.; Crocker, M.J.


    The EU project FACE (Friendly Aircraft Cabin Environment) aims to improve the environmental comfort in aircraft cabins. As part of this project, this paper focuses on the reduction of noise in aircraft cabins. For modern aircraft flying at cruise conditions, this cabin noise is known to be dominated

  9. Piezoelectric PVDF materials performance and operation limits in space environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargaville, Tim Richard; Assink, Roger Alan; Clough, Roger Lee; Celina, Mathias Christopher


    Piezoelectric polymers based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are of interest for large aperture space-based telescopes. Dimensional adjustments of adaptive polymer films are achieved via charge deposition and require a detailed understanding of the piezoelectric material responses which are expected to suffer due to strong vacuum UV, gamma, X-ray, energetic particles and atomic oxygen under low earth orbit exposure conditions. The degradation of PVDF and its copolymers under various stress environments has been investigated. Initial radiation aging studies using gamma- and e-beam irradiation have shown complex material changes with significant crosslinking, lowered melting and Curie points (where observable), effects on crystallinity, but little influence on overall piezoelectric properties. Surprisingly, complex aging processes have also been observed in elevated temperature environments with annealing phenomena and cyclic stresses resulting in thermal depoling of domains. Overall materials performance appears to be governed by a combination of chemical and physical degradation processes. Molecular changes are primarily induced via radiative damage, and physical damage from temperature and AO exposure is evident as depoling and surface erosion. Major differences between individual copolymers have been observed providing feedback on material selection strategies

  10. Novel shielding materials for space and air travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, N.; Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Fugger, M.; Hofmann, P.


    The reduction of dose onboard spacecraft and aircraft by appropriate shielding measures plays an essential role in the future development of space exploration and air travel. The design of novel shielding strategies and materials may involve hydrogenous composites, as it is well known that liquid hydrogen is most effective in attenuating charged particle radiation. As precursor for a later flight experiment, the shielding properties of newly developed hydrogen-rich polymers and rare earth-doped high-density rubber were tested in various ground-based neutron and heavy ion fields and compared with aluminium and polyethylene as reference materials. Absorbed dose, average linear energy transfer and gamma-equivalent neutron absorbed dose were determined by means of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescence dosemeters and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. First results for samples of equal aerial density indicate that selected hydrogen-rich plastics and rare-earth-doped rubber may be more effective in attenuating cosmic rays by up to 10% compared with conventional aluminium shielding. The appropriate adaptation of shielding thicknesses may thus allow reducing the biologically relevant dose. Owing to the lower density of the plastic composites, mass savings shall result in a significant reduction of launch costs. The experiment was flown as part of the European Space Agency's Biopan-5 mission in May 2005. (authors)

  11. Nano-Particle Enhanced Polymer Materials for Space Flight Applications (United States)

    Criss, Jim M., Jr.; Powell, William D.; Connell, John W.; Stallworth-Bordain, Yemaya; Brown, Tracy R.; Mintz, Eric A.; Schlea, Michelle R.; Shofne, Meisha L.


    Recent advances in materials technology both in polymer chemistry and nano-materials warrant development of enhanced structures for space flight applications. This work aims to develop spacecraft structures based on polymer matrix composites (PMCs) that utilize these advancements.. Multi-wall carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs) are expected ·to increase mechanical performance, lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), increase electrical conductivity (mitigate electrostatic charge), increase thermal conductivity, and reduce moisture absorption of the resultant space structures. In this work, blends of MWCNTs with PETI-330 were prepared and characterized. The nano-reinforced resins were then resin transfer molded (RTM) into composite panels using M55J carbon fabric and compared to baseline panels fabricated from a cyanate ester (RS-3) or a polyimide (PETI-330) resin containing no MWCNTs. In addition, methods of pre-loading the fabric with the MWCNTs were also investigated. The effects of the MWCNTs on the resin processing properties and on the composite end-use properties were also determined.

  12. Case Studies in Crewed Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support System Process Compatibility and Cabin Environmental Impact (United States)

    Perry, J. L.


    Contamination of a crewed spacecraft's cabin environment leading to environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) functional capability and operational margin degradation or loss can have an adverse effect on NASA's space exploration mission figures of merit-safety, mission success, effectiveness, and affordability. The role of evaluating the ECLSS's compatibility and cabin environmental impact as a key component of pass trace contaminant control is presented and the technical approach is described in the context of implementing NASA's safety and mission success objectives. Assessment examples are presented for a variety of chemicals used in vehicle systems and experiment hardware for the International Space Station program. The ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact assessment approach, which can be applied to any crewed spacecraft development and operational effort, can provide guidance to crewed spacecraft system and payload developers relative to design criteria assigned ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact ratings can be used by payload and system developers as criteria for ensuring adequate physical and operational containment. In additional to serving as an aid for guiding containment design, the assessments can guide flight rule and procedure development toward protecting the ECLSS as well as approaches for contamination event remediation.

  13. Experimental study on brain injury in Beagle dogs caused by adjacent cabin explosion in warship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-teng LI


    Full Text Available Objective  Through the establishment of adjacent cabin blast injury model of Beagle dog, to investigate the pathophysiological changes in the experimental animals in this scenario, then speculate on the mechanisms of injury. Methods  Several adjacent cabins were built in the same size with the real warship. Seven Beagle dogs were subjected to injuries from the explosion, from whom one was selected randomly to implant intracranial pressure transducers before blast, the others were tested on the pathophysiological changes after blast. The dogs were mounted on the platform of a cabinet in the adjacent cabin, subjected to injury from 650g bare TNT explosive blast. The transducers recorded the value of space and intracranial shock wave pressure. Following blast treatment, the serum levels of IL -6, IL -8, neuron specific enolase (NSE, brain and chest CT and pathological changes of the brain tissue were observed. Results  Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and NSE were elevated to varying degrees after blast. All of them increased significantly at different time points after blast (P<0.05. Brain and chest CT examinations did not show any significant positive results. Pathological results showed that there was a little necrosis in the brain, some neurons had karyopycnosis, karyolysis or disappearance of the nucleoli, and the cell boundaries were blurred. The blast wave was blocked greatly by the scalp and skull (about 90%, but could still penetrate them and cause brain injuries. Conclusions  Explosion in the adjacent cabin causes mainly mild traumatic brain injuries. Blast wave can be blocked by the scalp and skull greatly. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.03.11

  14. Ship cabin leakage alarm based on ARM SCM (United States)

    Qu, Liyan


    If there is a leakage in the cabin of a sailing ship, it is a major accident that threatens the personnel and property of the ship. If we can’t take timely measures, there will be a devastating disaster. In order to judge the leakage of the cabin, it is necessary to set up a leakage alarm system, so as to achieve the purpose of detecting and alarming the leakage of the cabin, and avoid the occurrence of accidents. This paper discusses the design of ship cabin leakage alarm system based on ARM SCM. In order to ensure the stability and precision of the product, the hardware design of the alarm system is carried out, such as circuit design, software design, the programming of SCM, the software programming of upper computer, etc. It is hoped that it can be of reference value to interested readers.

  15. Cabin crew collectivism: labour process and the roots of mobilization


    Taylor, P.; Moore, S.


    The protracted dispute (2009–11) between British Airways and BASSA (British Airways Stewards and Stewardesses Association) was notable for the strength of collective action by cabin crew. In-depth interviews reveal collectivism rooted in the labour process and highlight the key agency of BASSA in effectively articulating worker interests. This data emphasizes crews’ relative autonomy, sustained by unionate on-board Cabin Service Directors who have defended the frontier of control against mana...

  16. Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Wolfe, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J. [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Levin, Michael [Ford Motor Company; Demitroff, Danrich [Ford Motor Company; Shaikh, Furqan [Ford Motor Company


    It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work.The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements. The final system development for EV implementation has occurred on a mid-range EV and has been evaluated for its capability to extend the driving range. Both simulated driving in a climatic tunnel and actual road testing have been carried out. The ePATHS has demonstrated its ability to supply the entire cabin heating needs for a round trip commute totaling 46 minutes, including 8 hours of parking, at an ambient temperature of -10°C.

  17. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.


    The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  18. Microwave Materials Processing for Space Applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For a space-based fabrication effort to be effective, the weight, power requirements and footprint must be minimized. Because of the unique beam forming properties...

  19. Irregular working hours and fatigue of cabin crew. (United States)

    Castro, Marta; Carvalhais, José; Teles, Júlia


    Beyond workload and specific environmental factors, flight attendants can be exposed to irregular working hours, conflicting with their circadian rhythms and having a negative impact in sleep, fatigue, health, social and family life, and performance which is critical to both safety and security in flight operations. This study focuses on the irregular schedules of cabin crew as a trigger of fatigue symptoms in a wet lease Portuguese airline. The aim was to analyze: what are the requirements of the cabin crew work; whether the schedules being observed and effective resting timeouts are triggering factors of fatigue; and the existence of fatigue symptoms in the cabin crew. A questionnaire has been adapted and applied to a sample of 73 cabin crew-members (representing 61.9% of the population), 39 females and 34 males, with an average age of 27.68 ± 4.27 years. Our data indicate the presence of fatigue and corresponding health symptoms among the airline cabin crew, despite of the sample favorable characteristics. Senior workers and women are more affected. Countermeasures are required. Recommendations can be made regarding the fatigue risk management, including work organization, education and awareness training programmes and specific countermeasures.

  20. Cabin fuselage structural design with engine installation and control system (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Tanapaal; Bishop, Mike; Gumus, Ilker; Gussy, Joel; Triggs, Mike


    Design requirements for the cabin, cabin system, flight controls, engine installation, and wing-fuselage interface that provide adequate interior volume for occupant seating, cabin ingress and egress, and safety are presented. The fuselage structure must be sufficient to meet the loadings specified in the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23. The critical structure must provide a safe life of 10(exp 6) load cycles and 10,000 operational mission cycles. The cabin seating and controls must provide adjustment to account for various pilot physiques and to aid in maintenance and operation of the aircraft. Seats and doors shall not bind or lockup under normal operation. Cabin systems such as heating and ventilation, electrical, lighting, intercom, and avionics must be included in the design. The control system will consist of ailerons, elevator, and rudders. The system must provide required deflections with a combination of push rods, bell cranks, pulleys, and linkages. The system will be free from slack and provide smooth operation without binding. Environmental considerations include variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure, protection against sand, dust, rain, humidity, ice, snow, salt/fog atmosphere, wind and gusts, and shock and vibration. The following design goals were set to meet the requirements of the statement of work: safety, performance, manufacturing and cost. To prevent the engine from penetrating the passenger area in the event of a crash was the primary safety concern. Weight and the fuselage aerodynamics were the primary performance concerns. Commonality and ease of manufacturing were major considerations to reduce cost.

  1. Modeling of Complex Material Systems in Extreme Environments for Space Technology (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Among the many enabling technologies of space research is the design of materials which are stable in the environments of interest for a given application. At the...

  2. Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Subtopic X11.01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Phase II SBIR transition of NanoSonic's high flex HybridSil space suit bladder and glove materials will provide a pivotal funding bridge toward Phase III...

  4. Exploration Mission Particulate Matter Filtration Technology Performance Testing in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation System (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Mccormick, Robert M.


    Human deep space exploration missions will require advances in long-life, low maintenance airborne particulate matter filtration technology. As one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) developments in this area, a prototype of a new regenerable, multi-stage particulate matter filtration technology was tested in an International Space Station (ISS) module simulation facility. As previously reported, the key features of the filter system include inertial and media filtration with regeneration and in-place media replacement techniques. The testing facility can simulate aspects of the cabin environment aboard the ISS and contains flight-like cabin ventilation system components. The filtration technology test article was installed at the inlet of the central ventilation system duct and instrumented to provide performance data under nominal flow conditions. In-place regeneration operations were also evaluated. The real-time data included pressure drop across the filter stages, process air flow rate, ambient pressure, humidity and temperature. In addition, two video cameras positioned at the filtration technology test articles inlet and outlet were used to capture the mechanical performance of the filter media indexing operation under varying air flow rates. Recent test results are presented and future design recommendations are discussed.

  5. The Effect of Golden Pothos in Reducing the Level of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin (United States)

    Ursprung, Matthew; Amiri, Azita; Kayatin, Matthew; Perry, Jay


    The impact of Golden Pothos on indoor air quality was studied against a simulated spacecraft trace contaminant load model, consistent with the International Space Station (ISS), containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde. Previous research provides inconclusive results on the efficacy of plant VOC removal which this projects seeks to rectify through a better experimental design. This work develops a passive system for removing common VOC's from spacecraft and household indoor air and decreasing the necessity for active cabin trace contaminant removal systems.

  6. The effects of the space environment on two aramid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, R.L.


    Two aramid fibers having closely related chemical structures were chosen for important roles in the first tether to be used to connect pairs of orbiting vehicles. The protective outer jackets of the tethers will consist of woven fibers of poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide), commercially available from du Pont as Nomex. A cylindrical sheath of woven Kevlar 29, whose principal constituent is poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide), will be the load-bearing component for the tethers. Orbiting tethers will be in a hostile environment in which short wavelength electromagnetic radiation and energetic charged particles degrade exposed organic materials. At lower orbiting altitudes atomic oxygen is an especially serious hazard. Studies on the effects of ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen on fibers and films of Kevlar and Nomex are in progress. In an experiment to simulate the effects of atomic oxygen in space, small tows of Kevlar and Nomex were mounted in a commercial ashing device filled with oxygen at low pressure. An RF discharge in the instrument dissociated the molecular oxygen producing a strongly oxidizing atmosphere containing O(3P)(sup 4). Erosion was measured in terms of mass loss. Kevlar films were exposed to UV radiation in an apparatus consisting of a small vacuum chamber, 23 cm in diameter, into which a mass spectrometer and a quartz window were incorporated. Samples were exposed under vacuum with a 1000 watt xenon-arc lamp. Volatile products could be monitored with the mass spectrometer during the exposures. Transmission infrared spectra were taken before and after exposure to monitor chemical changes in the films

  7. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.


    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  8. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, K.


    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  9. Nano-Engineered Hierarchical Advanced Composite Materials for Space Applications (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Composites are widely used throughout aerospace engineering and in numerous other applications where structures that possess high strength and toughness properties...

  10. Surviving the space environment - An overview of advanced materials and structures development at the CWRU CCDS (United States)

    Wallace, John F.; Zdankiewicz, Edward M.; Schmidt, Robert N.


    The development of advanced materials and structures for long-term use in space is described with specific reference given to applications to the Space Station Freedom and the lunar base. A flight-testing program is described which incorporates experiments regarding the passive effects of space travel such as material degradation with active materials experiments such as the Materials Exposure Flight Experiment. Also described is a research and development program for materials such as organic coatings and polymeric composites, and a simulation laboratory is described which permits the analysis of materials in the laboratory. The methods of investigation indicate that the NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space facilitates the understanding of material degradation in space.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Geopolymer and ‘Lunamer’ Binders as Radioactive Shielding Materials for Space Applications (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Geopolymers are inorganic cementitious binders produced by polymeric reaction between an aluminosilica rich material and an alkali metal hydroxide/silicate liquid,...

  12. Prevalence of neck pain among cabin crew of Saudi Airlines. (United States)

    Ezzat, Hesham M; Al-Sultan, Alanood; Al-Shammari, Anwar; Alyousef, Dana; Al-Hamidi, Hager; Al-Dossary, Nafla; Al-Zahrani, Nuha; Al-Abdulqader, Wala


    Neck pain is considered to be a major health problem in modern societies. Many previous studies found that certain occupations are related to this problem or are associated with the risk of developing it in future. Although the pain is caused by mechanical factors, it may progress to a serious problem and give rise to other abnormal symptoms such as vertigo, headache, or migraine. To investigate the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crew of Saudi Airlines. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the available Saudi Airlines cabin crews in King Fahad Airport during our visits, using questionnaires and measurements of several parameters. Neck Pain Questionnaires were distributed to the cabin crews on Saudi Airlines and assessment sheets were completed by all participants of the study to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of neck pain. Physical therapy examination of neck motions in different directions and specific tests were performed by all the participants to identify any symptoms. Using these data the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews was calculated. Collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS software calculating the mean, median, and score of the questionnaire. According to the scoring system of the study, 31 (30.09%) of 105 cabin crew staff of Saudi Airlines had neck pain. Our study confirmed a positive correlation between this occupation and neck pain, and in fact found that according to the results of logistic regression analysis, this occupation is the only significant factor that affects the positive compression test. The prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews of Saudi Airlines was emphasized. The results show a high prevalence of neck pain in the participants of the study, with most cases appearing to run a chronic - episodic course. Further research is needed to help us understand more about the long-term course of neck pain and its broader outcomes and impacts.

  13. Transport of expiratory droplets in an aircraft cabin. (United States)

    Gupta, Jitendra K; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Chen, Qingyan


    The droplets exhaled by an index patient with infectious disease such as influenza or tuberculosis may be the carriers of contagious agents. Indoor environments such as the airliner cabins may be susceptible to infection from such airborne contagious agents. The present investigation computed the transport of the droplets exhaled by the index patient seated in the middle of a seven-row, twin-aisle, fully occupied cabin using the CFD simulations. The droplets exhaled were from a single cough, a single breath, and a 15-s talk of the index patient. The expiratory droplets were tracked by using Lagrangian method, and their evaporation was modeled. It was found that the bulk airflow pattern in the cabin played the most important role on the droplet transport. The droplets were contained in the row before, at, and after the index patient within 30 s and dispersed uniformly to all the seven rows in 4 minutes. The total airborne droplet fraction reduced to 48, 32, 20, and 12% after they entered the cabin for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, respectively, because of the ventilation from the environmental control system. It is critical to predict the risk of airborne infection to take appropriate measures to control and mitigate the risk. Most of the studies in past either assume a homogenous distribution of contaminants or use steady-state conditions. The present study instead provides information on the transient movement of the droplets exhaled by an index passenger in an aircraft cabin. These droplets may contain active contagious agents and can be potent enough to cause infection. The findings can be used by medical professionals to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of risk of infection to various passengers in the cabin. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Towards comfortable and efficient man-machine interaction in the cabins of vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Roetting, M.; Vink, P.; Luczak, H.


    The comfort of the operators in the cabins of vehicles is getting an increasingly important issue. At first glance, the cabins of professional machines (earth-moving equipment, busses, harvesting equipment) might look modern and highly comfortable. However, this does not imply that the cabins

  15. Space optical materials and space qualification of optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989 (United States)

    Hale, Robert R.


    The present conference on space optical materials discusses current metals and nonmetals-related processing R&D efforts, investigations of space optical effects, and the spaceborne qualification of optical components and systems. Attention is given to CVD SiC for optical applications, optical materials for space-based lasers, the high-efficiency acoustooptic and optoelectronic crystalline material Tl3AsSe3, HIPed Be for low-scatter cryogenic optics, durable solar-reflective surfacing for Be optics, thermal effects on Be mirrors, contamination effects on optical surfaces in the monolayer regime, and IR background signature survey experiment results. Also discussed are the contamination-control program for the EUE instrument, an optical multipass radiation system for the heating of levitated samples, optical sample-position sensing for electrostatic levitation, and the qualification of space lighting systems.

  16. Standard Test Method to Determine Color Change and Staining Caused by Aircraft Maintenance Chemicals upon Aircraft Cabin Interior Hard Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the determination of color change and staining from liquid solutions, such as cleaning or disinfecting chemicals or both, on painted metallic surfaces and nonmetallic surfaces of materials being used inside the aircraft cabin. The effects upon the exposed specimens are measured with the AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change and AATCC Gray Color Scale for Staining. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any colored nonmetallic hard surface in contact with liquids. The selected test specimens are chosen because these materials are present in the majority of aircraft cabin interiors. 1.2This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA


    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Experimental Study of Interior Temperature Distribution Inside Parked Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Mohammed Ali Aljubury


    Full Text Available Temperature inside the vehicle cabin is very important to provide comfortable conditions to the car passengers. Temperature inside the cabin will be increased, when the car is left or parked directly under the sunlight. Experimental studies were performed in Baghdad, Iraq (33.3 oN, 44.4 oE to investigate the effects of solar radiation on car cabin components (dashboard, steering wheel, seat, and inside air. The test vehicle was oriented to face south to ensure maximum (thermal sun load on the front windscreen. Six different parking conditions were investigated. A suggested car cover was examined experimentally. The measurements were recorded for clear sky summer days started at 8 A.M. till 5 P.M. Results show that interior air temperature in unshaded parked car reaches 70oC and dashboard temperature can approach 100 oC. While, cardboard car shade inside the car not reduce the air temperature inside it. Suggested car cover with 1 cm part-down side windows reduced temperature of cabin components by 70 % in average compare to the base case.

  19. Individual and collective climate control in aircraft cabins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Gids, W.F. de


    A new concept for aircraft cabin climatisation has been developed in which the seat is the main Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and temperature control system for the passengers containing provisions for local supply and local exhaust of air. Direct supply of clean outside air in the breathing zone,

  20. Assessment of the thermal environment in an aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingers, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    equivalent temperature, up to 5.8°C, was identified in the outer seats. The results reveal that in an aircraft cabin, passengers in the outer seats may be exposed to thermal asymmetry and draught and may not find the thermal environment acceptable if the ventilation air is not properly supplied....

  1. Ozone-Initiated Chemistry in an Occupied Simulated Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Wisthaler, Armin; Cowlin, Shannon


    We have used multiple analytical methods to characterize the gas-phase products formed when ozone was added to cabin air during simulated 4-hour flights that were conducted in a reconstructed section of a B-767 aircraft containing human occupants. Two separate groups of 16 females were each expos...

  2. Sound transmission through panels and shells filled with porous material in the presence of external flow


    Zhou, Jie


    With increasingly tighter regulations on noise exposure during flight, aircraft designers have been compelled to innovate structures that minimise noise transmission into the cabin space. Porous material is widely used as a passive noise control medium because of their light weight, low cost, and broad band sound abatement effectiveness. The present work, inspired by the need to be able to predict noise transmission characteristics for commonly used constructions, incorporates the effect of f...

  3. Elasticity of fractal materials using the continuum model with non-integer dimensional space (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.


    Using a generalization of vector calculus for space with non-integer dimension, we consider elastic properties of fractal materials. Fractal materials are described by continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. A generalization of elasticity equations for non-integer dimensional space, and its solutions for the equilibrium case of fractal materials are suggested. Elasticity problems for fractal hollow ball and cylindrical fractal elastic pipe with inside and outside pressures, for rotating cylindrical fractal pipe, for gradient elasticity and thermoelasticity of fractal materials are solved.

  4. Acoustic performance design and optimal allocation of sound package in ship cabin noise reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Deqing


    Full Text Available The sound package in noise reduction design of ship cabins has become the main approach for the future. The sound package is a specially designed acoustic component consisting of damping materials, absorption materials, sound isolation materials and base structural materials which can achieve the prescribed performance of noise reduction. Based on the Statistical Energy Analysis(SEAmethod, quick evaluation and design methods, and the optimal allocation theory of sound packages are investigated. The standard numerical acoustic performance evaluation model, sound package optimization design model and sound package optimal allocation model are presented. A genetic algorithm is applied to solve the presented optimization problems. Design examples demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed models and solutions. The presented theory and methods benefit the standardization and programming of sound package design, and decrease noise reduction costs.

  5. Experimental investigation of airborne contaminant transport by a human wake moving in a ventilated aircraft cabin (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane B.

    The air ventilation system in jetliners provides a comfortable and healthy environment for passengers. Unfortunately, the increase in global air traffic has amplified the risks presented by infectious aerosols or noxious material released during flight. Inside the cabin, air typically flows continuously from overhead outlets into sidewall exhausts in a circular pattern that minimizes secondary flow between adjacent seat rows. However, disturbances frequently introduced by individuals walking along an aisle may alter air distribution, and contribute to spreading of contaminants. Numerical simulation of these convoluted transient flow phenomena is difficult and complex, and experimental assessment of contaminant distribution in real cabins often impractical. A fundamental experimental study was undertaken to examine the transport phenomena, to validate computations and to improve air monitoring systems. A finite moving body was modeled in a 10:1 scale simplified aircraft cabin equipped with ventilation, at a Reynolds number (based on body diameter) of the order of 10,000. An experimental facility was designed and constructed to permit measurements of the ventilation and wake velocity fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Contaminant migration was imaged using the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. The effect of ventilation was estimated by comparison with a companion baseline study. Results indicate that the evolution of a downwash predominant behind finite bodies of small aspect ratio is profoundly perturbed by the ventilation flow. The reorganization of vortical structures in the near-wake leads to a shorter longitudinal recirculation region. Furthermore, mixing in the wake is modified and contaminant is observed to convect to higher vertical locations corresponding to seated passenger breathing level.

  6. Exposure of space electronics and materials to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C


    Describes the methods and sources available for irradiation of space instruments developed at the Department of Automation. Methods for calculations and measurements of fluences and doses are also described. The sources are gamma-rays from iridium-192 and cobalt-60, 30 MeV protons, 10 MeV electrons...

  7. Application of regression analysis to creep of space shuttle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummler, D.R.


    Metallic heat shields for Space Shuttle thermal protection systems must operate for many flight cycles at high temperatures in low-pressure air and use thin-gage (less than or equal to 0.65 mm) sheet. Available creep data for thin sheet under those conditions are inadequate. To assess the effects of oxygen partial pressure and sheet thickness on creep behavior and to develop constitutive creep equations for small sets of data, regression techniques are applied and discussed

  8. Advanced air distribution for minimizing airborne cross-infection in aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Dzhartov, Viktor


    The performance of personalized ventilation combined with local exhaust at each seat was studied for the purpose of minimizing airborne cross-infection in spaces whose occupants are sedentary, such as transportation environments. Experiments were carried out in a simulated aircraft cabin section (3...... rows, 21 seats). One breathing thermal manikin simulated an infected passenger as a source of pollution, and a second breathing manikin simulated an exposed passenger. The personalized ventilation supplied clean air at 6 or 10 L/s (12.7 of 21.2 cfm) from in front of each manikin's face. Air...... was withdrawn at a rate of 6 or 10 L/s (12.7 or (21.2 cfm) by the local exhaust system, which consisted of two exhaust terminals, one on each side of the head of the infected manikin. The cabin was ventilated with 180 L/s (381 cfm) of fresh air. Freon was mixed with the air exhaled by the infected manikin...

  9. Experimental Studies of Carbon Nanotube Materials for Space Radiators (United States)

    SanSoucie, MIchael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Craven, Paul D.; Hyers, Robert W.


    Game ]changing propulsion systems are often enabled by novel designs using advanced materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in thermal conductivity and mass properties. A test apparatus was developed to test advanced radiator designs. This test apparatus uses a resistance heater inside a graphite tube. Metallic tubes can be slipped over the graphite tube to simulate a heat pipe. Several sub ]scale test articles were fabricated using CNT cloth and pitch ]based carbon fibers, which were bonded to a metallic tube using an active braze material. The test articles were heated up to 600 C and an infrared (IR) camera captured the results. The test apparatus and experimental results are presented here.

  10. 10th meeting of the International Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Protection of Materials and Structures From the Space Environment


    The goals of the 10th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-10J, since its inception in 1992, have been to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials, including aspects of LEO, GEO and Deep Space environments, ground-based qualification, and in-flight experiments and lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of the atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences. The knowledge of environmental conditions on and around the Moon, Mars, Venus and the low Earth orbit as well as other possible candidates for landing such as asteroids have become an important issue, and protecting both hardware and human life from the effects of space environments has taken on a new meaning in light of the increased interest in space travel and colonization of other planets.  And while many materia...

  11. Spacing Identity: The role of Spatial, Material and Social Entanglements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    The paper addresses the question of how architectural design and the changes in organizationalspaces and material artifacts this involves, contribute to the continuous shaping of identities in anorganization. Based upon a case study of an organizational and architectural change process in amunici...

  12. Novel Composite Membrane for Space Life Supporting System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either...

  13. Scalable Solution Processing of Pristine Carbon Nanotubes for Self-Assembled, Tunable Materials with Direct Application to Space Technologies (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current material technologies limit space exploration and vehicle performance due to often unnecessary mass increase from copper wiring or heavy structural...

  14. Radiation durability and functional reliability of polymeric materials in space systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruvy, Y.


    Polymeric materials are preferred for the light-weight construction of space-systems. Materials in space systems are required to fulfill a complete set of specifications, at utmost reliability, throughout the whole period of service in space, while being exposed to the hazardous influence of the space environment. The major threats of the space environment in orbits at the geostationary altitude (GSO) arise from ionizing radiations, the main constituents of which are highly energetic protons (affecting mainly the surface) and fast electrons (which produce the main threat to the electronic components). The maximum dose of ionizing radiation (within the limits of uncertainty of the calculations) at the surface of a material mounted on a space system, namely the ''Skin-Dose'', is ca. 2500 Mrads/yr. Space systems such as telecommunication satellites are planned to serve for prolonged periods of 30 years and longer. The cumulative predicted dose of ionizing-radiation over such periods presents a severe threat of chemical degradation to most of the polymeric construction materials commonly utilized in space systems. The reliability of each of the polymeric materials must be evaluated in detail, considering each of the relevant typical threats, such as ionizing-radiation, UV radiation, meteoroides flux, thermal cycling and ultra-high vacuum. For each of the exposed materials, conservation of the set of functional characteristics such as mechanical integrity, electrical and thermo-optical properties, electrical conductivity, surface charging and outgassing properties, which may cause contamination of neighboring systems, is evaluated. The reliability of functioning of the materials exposed to the space environment can thus be predicted, utilizing data from the literature, experimental results reported from space flights and laboratory simulations, and by chemical similarity of untested polymers to others. (author)

  15. Nanoenergetics and High Hydrogen Content Materials for Space Propulsion (United States)


    past twenty years. Ammonia borane has already been used with success to produce hydrogen for chemical lasers and fuel cells. The alternatives being...adduct solution in the presence of a titanium catalyst under an inert atmosphere. The resulting material was used to reduce complexes of gold, nickel...A. Varma, B. Legrand, C. Chauveau, and I. Gokalp, “Ignition and Combustion of Al Particles Clad by Ni”, Combust. Sci. Tech., Vol. 174, 2002, pp

  16. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course (United States)

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu


    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  17. Shield materials recommended for space power nuclear reactors (United States)

    Kaszubinski, L. J.


    Lithium hydride is recommended for neutron attenuation and depleted uranium is recommended for gamma ray attenuation. For minimum shield weights these materials must be arranged in alternate layers to attenuate the secondary gamma rays efficiently. In the regions of the shield near the reactor, where excessive fissioning occurs in the uranium, a tungsten alloy is used instead. Alloys of uranium such as either the U-0.5Ti or U-8Mo are available to accommodate structural requirements. The zone-cooled casting process is recommended for lithium hydride fabrication. Internal honeycomb reinforcement to control cracks in the lithium hydride is recommended.

  18. Measurements of cosmic-ray doses in commercial airline cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, M.; Fujitaka, K.; Izumo, K.


    Cosmic radiation doses which aircrew and air passengers receive in airplanes have been calling attention in many countries especially in the last decade. In this relation, various types of information had been reported on cosmic radiation intensity. In Japan, the cosmic radiation intensity had been measured in commercial airline cabins as well as chartered flights. While the intensity depends on altitude, geomagnetic latitude (or cutoff rigidity), and temporal variation of the solar activity, their doses are often speculated based on paper records on airflights combined with the intensity-altitude relationship. In this study, however, efforts were made to estimate more realistic integrated doses in airline cabins based on actual on-board measurements which had been conducted several dozens of times in each year (e.g., 45 times in 1994 and 27 times in 1995). (author)

  19. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is developing new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200 to...

  20. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is to develop new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200 to...

  1. Assessment of noise in the airplane cabin environment. (United States)

    Zevitas, Christopher D; Spengler, John D; Jones, Byron; McNeely, Eileen; Coull, Brent; Cao, Xiaodong; Loo, Sin Ming; Hard, Anna-Kate; Allen, Joseph G


    To measure sound levels in the aircraft cabin during different phases of flight. Sound level was measured on 200 flights, representing six aircraft groups using continuous monitors. A linear mixed-effects model with random intercept was used to test for significant differences in mean sound level by aircraft model and across each flight phase as well as by flight phase, airplane type, measurement location and proximity to engine noise. Mean sound levels across all flight phases and aircraft groups ranged from 37.6 to >110 dB(A) with a median of 83.5 dB(A). Significant differences in noise levels were also observed based on proximity to the engines and between aircraft with fuselage- and wing mounted engines. Nine flights (4.5%) exceeded the recommended 8-h TWA exposure limit of 85 dB(A) by the NIOSH and ACGIH approach, three flights (1.5%) exceeded the 8-h TWA action level of 85 dB(A) by the OSHA approach, and none of the flights exceeded the 8-h TWA action level of 90 dB(A) by the OSHA PEL approach. Additional characterization studies, including personal noise dosimetry, are necessary to document accurate occupational exposures in the aircraft cabin environment and identify appropriate response actions. FAA should consider applying the more health-protective NIOSH/ACGIH occupational noise recommendations to the aircraft cabin environment.

  2. Ozone-initiated chemistry in an occupied simulated aircraft cabin. (United States)

    Weschler, Charles J; Wisthaler, Armin; Cowlin, Shannon; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Hodgson, Alfred T; Destaillats, Hugo; Herrington, Jason; Zhang, Junfeng; Nazaroff, William W


    We have used multiple analytical methods to characterize the gas-phase products formed when ozone was added to cabin air during simulated 4-hour flights that were conducted in a reconstructed section of a B-767 aircraft containing human occupants. Two separate groups of 16 females were each exposed to four conditions: low air exchange (4.4 (h-1)), exchange, 61-64 ppb ozone; high air exchange (8.8 h(-1)), exchange, 73-77 ppb ozone. The addition of ozone to the cabin air increased the levels of identified byproducts from approximately 70 to 130 ppb at the lower air exchange rate and from approximately 30 to 70 ppb at the higher air exchange rate. Most of the increase was attributable to acetone, nonanal, decanal, 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (6-MHO), formic acid, and acetic acid, with 0.25-0.30 mol of quantified product volatilized per mol of ozone consumed. Several of these compounds reached levels above their reported odor thresholds. Most byproducts were derived from surface reactions with occupants and their clothing, consistent with the inference that occupants were responsible for the removal of >55% of the ozone in the cabin. The observations made in this study have implications for other indoor settings. Whenever human beings and ozone are simultaneously present, one anticipates production of acetone, nonanal, decanal, 6-MHO, geranyl acetone, and 4-OPA.

  3. Molecular bacterial diversity and bioburden of commercial airliner cabin air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Duc, M.T.; Stuecker, T.; Venkateswaran, K. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group


    Microorganisms that exist in aircraft air systems are considered to be the primary source of microbial contamination that can lead to illness shortly after flying. More than 600 million passengers board commercial airline flights annually in the United States alone. In this study, culture-independent, biomarker-targeted bacterial enumeration and identification strategies were used to estimate total bacterial burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Air-impingement was used to collect samples of microorganisms from 4 flights on 2 commercial carriers. The total viable microbial population ranged from below detection limits to 4.1 x 10{sup 6} cells/m{sup 3} of air. Microbes were found to gradually accumulate from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight. A sharp decline in bacterial abundance was then observed. Representatives of the {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} Proteobacteria, as well as Gram-positive bacteria, were isolated in varying abundance. Airline A had large abundances of Neisseria meningitidis rRNA gene sequences and Streptococcus oralis/mitis sequences. Airline B was dominated by pseudomonas synxantha sequences as well as N. meningitidis and S. oralis/mitis. The cabin air samples housed low bacterial diversity and were typically dominated by a particular subset of bacteria, notably opportunistic pathogenic inhabitants of the human respiratory tract and oral cavity. The microbes were found largely around the ventilation ducts and gasper conduits that supply cabin air. 45 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Design and evaluation of materials for space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, A.A.; Vrillon, B.; Robert, G.


    The French programme envisages a 20 kWe reactor, project ERATO, with three technological options. The first option is a sodium cooled reactor, derived from the fast breeder reactor technology, (upper core outlet temperature of 700 0 C). The second option is based on the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor technology (outlet temperature range 700 0 C-900 0 C). The third option is the reference solution, lithium cooled and UN fuelled fast spectrum reactor, (outlet temperature as high as 1200 0 C). The choice is essentially dominated by material considerations, and more specifically by the problems related to the compatibility with the cooling medium and to the high temperature creep resistance. For the first system limited work will be needed as the technology used is well experimented and there is a wealth of information on the austenitic stainless steel Type 316L-SPH. For the second system, most of the work has been concentrated on characterization of existing commercial alloys. This has included the preselection and the testing of a number of superalloys irradiated or not. The results obtained from high temperature tensile and creep tests have allowed selection of Haynes 230 as the primary candidate material and have also permitted calculation of allowable design stresses for this alloy. For the very high temperature system the French R and D programme has focused on Mo-Re alloys. The results obtained to this date from microstructural examinations and mechanical tests performed on different alloy compositions have allowed selection of Mo-25%Re for future optimization work. They have also shown the need for evaluation of creep properties at low stresses where microstructural instabilities are likely to occur as a result of long exposure to high temperature

  5. A Nanotechnology Approach to Lightweight Multifunctional Polyethylene Composite Materials for Use Against the Space Environment, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polyethylene-based composite materials are under consideration as multifunctional structural materials, with the expectation that they can provide radiation...

  6. Characterization of Candidate Solar Sail Material Exposed to Space Environmental Effects (United States)

    Edwards, David; Hovater, Mary; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George; Hollerman, William; Gray, Perry


    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. Solar sails are not limited by reaction mass and provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Once thought to be difficult or impossible, solar sailing has come out of science fiction and into the realm of possibility. Any spacecraft using this method would need to deploy a thin sail that could be as large as many kilometers in extent. The availability of strong, ultra lightweight, and radiation resistant materials will determine the future of solar sailing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the utilization of ultra lightweight materials for spacecraft propulsion. The Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC is actively characterizing candidate solar sail material to evaluate the thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to space environmental effects. This paper will describe the exposure of candidate solar sail materials to emulated space environmental effects including energetic electrons, combined electrons and Ultraviolet radiation, and hypervelocity impact of irradiated solar sail material. This paper will describe the testing procedure and the material characterization results of this investigation.

  7. Thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mei; Qi Zhangnian; Li Xianggao; Huang Zengxin; Jia Xianghong; Wang Genliang


    The author introduced the space radiation environment and the application of thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry. Space ionization radiation is charged particles radiation. Space radiation dosimetry was developed for protecting astronauts against space radiation. Thermoluminescent measurement is an excellent method used in the spaceship cabin. Also the authors mentioned the recent works here

  8. Spacecraft cabin environment effects on the growth and behavior of Chlorella vulgaris for life support applications (United States)

    Niederwieser, Tobias; Kociolek, Patrick; Klaus, David


    An Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is necessary for humans to survive in the hostile environment of space. As future missions move beyond Earth orbit for extended durations, reclaiming human metabolic waste streams for recycled use becomes increasingly important. Historically, these functions have been accomplished using a variety of physical and chemical processes with limited recycling capabilities. In contrast, biological systems can also be incorporated into a spacecraft to essentially mimic the balance of photosynthesis and respiration that occurs in Earth's ecosystem, along with increasing the reuse of biomass throughout the food chain. In particular, algal photobioreactors that use Chlorella vulgaris have been identified as potential multifunctional components for use as part of such a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, a connection between the biological research examining C. vulgaris behavior and the engineered spacecraft cabin environmental conditions has not yet been thoroughly established. This review article characterizes the ranges of prior and expected cabin parameters (e.g. temperature, lighting, carbon dioxide, pH, oxygen, pressure, growth media, contamination, gravity, and radiation) and reviews algal metabolic response (e.g. growth rate, composition, carbon dioxide fixation rates, and oxygen evolution rates) to changes in those parameters that have been reported in prior space research and from related Earth-based experimental observations. Based on our findings, it appears that C. vulgaris offers many promising advantages for use in a BLSS. Typical atmospheric conditions found in spacecraft such as elevated carbon dioxide levels are, in fact, beneficial for algal cultivation. Other spacecraft cabin parameters, however, introduce unique environmental factors, such as reduced total pressure with elevated oxygen concentration, increased radiation, and altered gravity, whose effects on the biological responses

  9. Analyses of integrated aircraft cabin contaminant monitoring network based on Kalman consensus filter. (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yanxiao; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zengqiang


    The modern civil aircrafts use air ventilation pressurized cabins subject to the limited space. In order to monitor multiple contaminants and overcome the hypersensitivity of the single sensor, the paper constructs an output correction integrated sensor configuration using sensors with different measurement theories after comparing to other two different configurations. This proposed configuration works as a node in the contaminant distributed wireless sensor monitoring network. The corresponding measurement error models of integrated sensors are also proposed by using the Kalman consensus filter to estimate states and conduct data fusion in order to regulate the single sensor measurement results. The paper develops the sufficient proof of the Kalman consensus filter stability when considering the system and the observation noises and compares the mean estimation and the mean consensus errors between Kalman consensus filter and local Kalman filter. The numerical example analyses show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupant evaluation of 7-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin - Part 2: Thermal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Zukowska, Daria


    Experiments were carried out in a simulated section of an aircraft cabin with 21 seats installed in a climate chamber, to determine the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by air temperature. The temperature inside the cabin was set at three differ-ent levels, 20......, and thermal sensation - the lower the temperature, the higher the perceived air quality and freshness....

  11. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  12. Possibility of using sources of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation to solve problems of space material science (United States)

    Verkhoutseva, E. T.; Yaremenko, E. I.


    An urgent problem in space materials science is simulating the interaction of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) of solar emission with solids in space conditions, that is, producing a light source with a distribution that approximates the distribution of solar energy. Information is presented on the distribution of the energy flux of VUV of solar radiation. Requirements that must be satisfied by the VUV source used for space materials science are formulated, and a critical evaluation is given of the possibilities of using existing sources for space materials science. From this evaluation it was established that none of the sources of VUV satisfies the specific requirements imposed on the simulator of solar radiation. A solution to the problem was found to be in the development of a new type of source based on exciting a supersonic gas jet flowing into vacuum with a sense electron beam. A description of this gas-jet source, along with its spectral and operation characteristics, is presented.

  13. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Space Vehicles (United States)


    preparation , implementation, and operation of a Parts, Materials, and Processes (PMP) control program for use during the design, development...Processes List CDR Critical Design Review CDRL Contract Data Requirements List CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CONOPS Concept of Operations...Failure Review Board GFE Government Furnished Equipment GIDEP Government Industry Data Exchange Program HBT Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor IPT

  14. OLTARIS: An Efficient Web-Based Tool for Analyzing Materials Exposed to Space Radiation (United States)

    Slaba, Tony; McMullen, Amelia M.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Sandridge, Chris A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Blatting, Steve R.


    The near-Earth space radiation environment includes energetic galactic cosmic rays (GCR), high intensity proton and electron belts, and the potential for solar particle events (SPE). These sources may penetrate shielding materials and deposit significant energy in sensitive electronic devices on board spacecraft and satellites. Material and design optimization methods may be used to reduce the exposure and extend the operational lifetime of individual components and systems. Since laboratory experiments are expensive and may not cover the range of particles and energies relevant for space applications, such optimization may be done computationally with efficient algorithms that include the various constraints placed on the component, system, or mission. In the present work, the web-based tool OLTARIS (On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space) is presented, and the applicability of the tool for rapidly analyzing exposure levels within either complicated shielding geometries or user-defined material slabs exposed to space radiation is demonstrated. An example approach for material optimization is also presented. Slabs of various advanced multifunctional materials are defined and exposed to several space radiation environments. The materials and thicknesses defining each layer in the slab are then systematically adjusted to arrive at an optimal slab configuration.

  15. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system (United States)

    Faget, N. M.


    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  16. Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo


    A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.

  17. Robotic Materials Handling in Space: Mechanical Design of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System HitchHiker Experiment (United States)

    Voellmer, George


    The Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS) that flew aboard STS-64 in September, 1994. The ROMPS robot transported pallets containing wafers of different materials from their storage racks to a furnace for thermal processing. A system of tapered guides and compliant springs was designed to deal with the potential misalignments. The robot and all the sample pallets were locked down for launch and landing. The design of the passive lockdown system, and the interplay between it and the alignment system are presented.

  18. Discussion on Application of Space Materials and Technological Innovation in Dynamic Fashion Show (United States)

    Huo, Meilin; Kim, Chul Soo; Zhao, Wenhan


    In modern dynamic fashion show, designers often use the latest ideas and technology, and spend their energy in stage effect and overall environment to make audience’s watching a fashion show like an audio-visual feast. With rapid development of China’s science and technology, it has become a design trend to strengthen the relationship between new ideas, new trends and technology in modern art. With emergence of new technology, new methods and new materials, designers for dynamic fashion show stage art can choose the materials with an increasingly large scope. Generation of new technology has also made designers constantly innovate the stage space design means, and made the stage space design innovated constantly on the original basis of experiences. The dynamic clothing display space is on design of clothing display space, layout, platform decoration style, platform models, performing colors, light arrangement, platform background, etc.

  19. Aboard the Space Shuttle. (United States)

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  20. Survey of the US materials processing and manufacturing in space program (United States)

    Mckannan, E. C.


    To promote potential commercial applications of low-g technology, the materials processing and manufacturing in space program is structured to: (1) analyze the scientific principles of gravitational effects on processes used in producing materials; (2) apply the research toward the technology used to control production process (on Earth or in space, as appropriate); and (3) establish the legal and managerial framework for commercial ventures. Presently federally funded NASA research is described as well as agreements for privately funded commercial activity, and a proposed academic participation process. The future scope of the program and related capabilities using ground based facilities, aircraft, sounding rockets, and space shuttles are discussed. Areas of interest described include crystal growth; solidification of metals and alloys; containerless processing; fluids and chemical processes (including biological separation processes); and processing extraterrestrial materials.

  1. Design for thermal sensation and comfort states in vehicles cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Omar, Mohammed


    This manuscript investigates the analysis and modeling of vehicular thermal comfort parameters using a set of designed experiments aided by thermography measurements. The experiments are conducted using a full size climatic chamber to host the test vehicle, to accurately assess the transient and steady state temperature distributions of the test vehicle cabin. Further investigate the thermal sensation (overall and local) and the human comfort states under artificially created relative humidity scenarios. The thermal images are calibrated through a thermocouples network, while the outside temperature and relative humidity are manipulated through the climatic environmental chamber with controlled soaking periods to guarantee the steady state conditions for each test scenario. The relative humidity inside the passenger cabin is controlled using a Total Humidity Controller (THC). The simulation uses the experimentally extracted boundary conditions via a 3-D Berkeley model that is set to be fully transient to account for the interactions in the velocity and temperature fields in the passenger compartment, which included interactions from turbulent flow, thermal buoyancy and the three modes of heat transfer conduction, convection and radiation. The model investigates the human comfort by analyzing the effect of the in-cabin relative humidity from two specific perspectives; firstly its effect on the body temporal variation of temperature within the cabin. Secondly, the Local Sensation (LS) and Comfort (LC) are analyzed for the different body segments in addition to the Overall Sensation (OS) and the Overall Comfort (OC). Furthermore, the human sensation is computed using the Fanger model in terms of the Predicted Mean Value (PMV) and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) indices. The experimental and simulation results show that controlling the RH levels during the heating and the cooling processes (winter and summer conditions respectively) aid the A/C system to

  2. Cultural objects as objects: materiality, urban space, and the interpretation of AIDS campaigns in Accra, Ghana. (United States)

    McDonnell, Terence E


    AIDS media lead unexpected lives once distributed through urban space: billboards fade, posters go missing, bumper stickers travel to other cities. The materiality of AIDS campaign objects and of the urban settings in which they are displayed structures how the public interprets their messages. Ethnographic observation of AIDS media in situ and interview data reveal how the materiality of objects and places shapes the availability of AIDS knowledge in Accra, Ghana. Significantly for AIDS organizations, these material conditions often systematically obstruct access to AIDS knowledge for particular groups. Attending to materiality rethinks how scholars assess the cultural power of media.

  3. Symbols, spaces and materiality: a transmission-based approach to Aegean Bronze Age ritual.


    Briault, C.


    This thesis explores the transmission of ritual practices in the second millennium BC Aegean. In contrast to previous approaches, which often overlook gaps in the diachronic record, emphasising continuity in cult practice over very long timescales, it is argued here that through charting the spatial and temporal distributions of three broad material types (cult symbols, spaces and objects), it is possible to document the spread of cult practice over time and space, and, crucially, to monitor ...

  4. Materials in NASA's Space Launch System: The Stuff Dreams are Made of (United States)

    May, Todd A.


    Mr. Todd May, Program Manager for NASA's Space Launch System, will showcase plans and progress the nation s new super-heavy-lift launch vehicle, which is on track for a first flight to launch an Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle around the Moon in 2017. Mr. May s keynote address will share NASA's vision for future human and scientific space exploration and how SLS will advance those plans. Using new, in-development, and existing assets from the Space Shuttle and other programs, SLS will provide safe, affordable, and sustainable space launch capabilities for exploration payloads starting at 70 metric tons (t) and evolving through 130 t for entirely new deep-space missions. Mr. May will also highlight the impact of material selection, development, and manufacturing as they contribute to reducing risk and cost while simultaneously supporting the nation s exploration goals.

  5. Creative thinking of design and redesign on SEAT aircraft cabin testbed: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.


    this paper, the intuition approach in the design and redesign of the environmental friendly innovative aircraft cabin simulator is presented.. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that used for European Project SEAT (Smart tEchnologies for Stress free Air Travel). The SEAT project aims to

  6. 77 FR 75600 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers... (United States)


    ... [Docket No. FAA-2012-0953] Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin... announced a proposed policy statement regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The...

  7. Test of Different Air Distribution Concepts for a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Damsgaard, Charlotte; Liu, Li


    Traditionally, air is supplied to the aircraft cabin either by individual nozzles or by supply slots. The air is expected to be fully mixed in the cabin, and the system is considered to be a mixing ventilation system. This paper will describe different air distribution systems known from other ap...

  8. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment (United States)

    Francoeur, J. R.


    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  9. U.S. Materials Science on the International Space Station: Status and Plans (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Kelton, Kenneth F.; Matson, Douglas M.; Poirier, David R.; Trivedi, Rohit K.; Su, Ching-Hua; Volz, Martin P.; Voorhees, Peter W.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current status and NASA plans for materials science on the International Space Station. The contents include: 1) Investigations Launched in 2009; 2) DECLIC in an EXPRESS rack; 3) Dynamical Selection of Three-Dimensional Interface Patterns in Directional Solidification (DSIP); 4) Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR); 5) Materials Science Laboratory; 6) Comparison of Structure and Segregation in Alloys Directionally Solidified in Terrestrial and Microgravity Environments (MICAST/CETSOL); 7) Coarsening in Solid Liquid Mixtures 2 Reflight (CSLM 2R); 8) Crystal Growth Investigations; 9) Levitator Investigations; 10) Quasi Crystalline Undercooled Alloys for Space Investigation (QUASI); 11) The Role of Convection and Growth Competition in Phase Selection in Microgravity (LODESTARS); 12) Planned Additional Investigations; 13) SETA; 14) METCOMP; and 15) Materials Science NRA.

  10. Quelling Cabin Noise in Turboprop Aircraft via Active Control (United States)

    Kincaid, Rex K.; Laba, Keith E.; Padula, Sharon L.


    Cabin noise in turboprop aircraft causes passenger discomfort, airframe fatigue, and employee scheduling constraints due to OSHA standards for exposure to high levels of noise. The noise levels in the cabins of turboprop aircraft are typically 10 to 30 decibels louder than commercial jet noise levels. However. unlike jet noise the turboprop noise spectrum is dominated by a few low frequency tones. Active structural acoustic control is a method in which the control inputs (used to reduce interior noise) are applied directly to a vibrating structural acoustic system. The control concept modeled in this work is the application of in-plane force inputs to piezoceramic patches bonded to the wall of a vibrating cylinder. The goal is to determine the force inputs and locations for the piezoceramic actuators so that: (1) the interior noise is effectively damped; (2) the level of vibration of the cylinder shell is not increased; and (3) the power requirements needed to drive the actuators are not excessive. Computational experiments for data taken from a computer generated model and from a laboratory test article at NASA Langley Research Center are provided.

  11. Radiation Protection: The Specific Case of Cabin Crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecouturier, B.


    Exposure to cosmic radiation is one important element of the in-flight working environment. The new requirements of the Council Directive 96/29 Euratom set out basic safety standards in radiation protection which are particularly important to cabin crew. There are two major reasons why they relate specifically to this category of crew member. One is the great diversity of or in some cases the lack of, medical requirements and surveillance. The situation in this area notably differs from that relating to the cockpit crew, who have an aeronautical licence with detailed and rigid medical requirements. The other major reason is the very high percentage of women among the cabin crew (from 65% to 100% depending on the airline concerned), which emphasises the question of protection during pregnancy. The issue of radiation protection of aircrew therefore differs not only according to country and airline, but also according to the crew members concerned. The need is stressed for a harmonised application of the new requirements of the Council Directive 96/29 Euratom and, hopefully in the future, for equivalent protective provisions to be applied worldwide. (author)

  12. Real space mapping of ionic diffusion and electrochemical activity in energy storage and conversion materials (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina; Kumar, Amit; Dudney, Nancy J; Jesse, Stephen


    A method and system for probing mobile ion diffusivity and electrochemical reactivity on a nanometer length scale of a free electrochemically active surface includes a control module that biases the surface of the material. An electrical excitation signal is applied to the material and induces the movement of mobile ions. An SPM probe in contact with the surface of the material detects the displacement of mobile ions at the surface of the material. A detector measures an electromechanical strain response at the surface of the material based on the movement and reactions of the mobile ions. The use of an SPM tip to detect local deformations allows highly reproducible measurements in an ambient environment without visible changes in surface structure. The measurements illustrate effective spatial resolution comparable with defect spacing and well below characteristic grain sizes of the material.

  13. Comparison of different decontaminant delivery methods for sterilizing unoccupied commercial airliner cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Qingyan [National Air Transport Center of Excellence for Research in the Intermodal Transport Environment (RITE), School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)


    Effective decontamination is crucial if an airliner cabin is contaminated by biological contaminants, such as infectious disease viruses or intentionally released biological agents. This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method as a tool and vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an exemplary decontaminant and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores as a simulant contaminant to investigate three VHP delivery methods for sterilizing two different airliner cabins. The CFD first determined the airflow and the transient distributions of the contaminant and decontaminant in cabins. Auxiliary equations were implemented into the CFD model for evaluating efficacy of the sterilization process. The improved CFD model was validated by the measured airflow and simulated contaminant distributions obtained from a cabin mockup and the measured efficacy data from the literature. The three decontaminant delivery methods were (1) to supply the mixed VHP and air through the environmental control system of a cabin, (2) to send mixed VHP and air through a front door and to extract them from a back door of a cabin, and (3) to send directly VHP to a cabin and enhance the mixing with air in the cabin by fans. The two air cabins studied were a single-aisle and a twin-aisle airliner one. The results show that the second decontaminant delivery method (displacement method) was the best because the VHP distributions in the cabins were most uniform, the sterilization time was moderate, and the corrosion risk was low. The method displaced the existing air by the air/disinfectant solution, rather than dispersive mixing as the other two methods. (author)

  14. Scattering-parameter extraction and calibration techniques for RF free-space material characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaniecki, M.; Saenz, E.; Rolo, L.


    This paper demonstrates a method for material characterization (permittivity, permeability, loss tangent) based on the scattering parameters. The performance of the extraction algorithm will be shown for modelled and measured data. The measurements were carried out at the European Space Agency...

  15. Light-induced space-charge fields for the structuration of dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, H.A.


    Light-induced space-charge fields in lithium-niobate crystals are used for patterning of dielectric materials. This includes tailored ferroelectric domains in the bulk of the crystal, different sorts of micro and nanoparticles on a crystal surface, as well as poling of electrooptic chromophores. A stochastical model is introduced, which can describe the spatial inhomogeneous domain inversion. (orig.)

  16. Space Shuttle Orbiter - Leading edge structural design/analysis and material allowables (United States)

    Johnson, D. W.; Curry, D. M.; Kelly, R. E.


    Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC), a structural composite whose development was targeted for the high temperature reentry environments of reusable space vehicles, has successfully demonstrated that capability on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Unique mechanical properties, particularly at elevated temperatures up to 3000 F, make this material ideally suited for the 'hot' regions of multimission space vehicles. Design allowable characterization testing, full-scale development and qualification testing, and structural analysis techniques will be presented herein that briefly chart the history of the RCC material from infancy to eventual multimission certification for the Orbiter. Included are discussions pertaining to the development of the design allowable data base, manipulation of the test data into usable forms, and the analytical verification process.

  17. Improved Understanding of Space Radiation Effects on Exploration Electronics by Advanced Modeling of Nanoscale Devices and Novel Materials, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA space exploration missions will use nanometer-scale electronic technologies which call for a shift in how radiation effects in such devices and materials...

  18. Application of Advanced Materials Protecting from Influence of Free Space Environment (United States)

    Dotsenko, Oleg; Shovkoplyas, Yuriy


    High cost and low availability of the components certified for use in the space environment forces satellite designers to using industrial and even commercial items. Risks associated with insufficient knowledge about behavior of these components in radiation environment are parried, mainly, by careful radiating designing of a satellite where application of special protective materials with improved space radiation shielding characteristics is one of the most widely used practices. Another advantage of protective materials application appears when a satellite designer needs using equipment in more severe space environment conditions then it has been provided at the equipment development. In such cases only expensive repeated qualification of the equipment hardness can be alternative to protective materials application. But mostly this way is unacceptable for satellite developers, being within strong financial and temporal restrictions. To apply protective materials effectively, the developer should have possibility to answer the question: "Where inside a satellite shall I place these materials and what shall be their shape to meet the requirements on space radiation hardness with minimal mass and volume expenses?" At that, the minimum set of requirements on space radiation hardness include: ionizing dose, nonionizing dose, single events, and internal charging. The standard calculative models and experimental techniques, now in use for space radiation hardness assurance of a satellite are unsuitable for the problem solving in such formulation. The sector analysis methodology, widely used in satellite radiating designing, is applicable only for aluminium shielding and doesn't allow taking into account advantages of protective materials. The programs simulating transport of space radiations through a substance with the use of Monte-Carlo technique, such as GEANT4, FLUKA, HZETRN and others, are fully applicable in view of their capabilities; but time required for

  19. Investigation of Lithium Metal Hydride Materials for Mitigation of Deep Space Radiation (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Atwell, William


    Radiation exposure to crew, electronics, and non-metallic materials is one of many concerns with long-term, deep space travel. Mitigating this exposure is approached via a multi-faceted methodology focusing on multi-functional materials, vehicle configuration, and operational or mission constraints. In this set of research, we are focusing on new multi-functional materials that may have advantages over traditional shielding materials, such as polyethylene. Metal hydride materials are of particular interest for deep space radiation shielding due to their ability to store hydrogen, a low-Z material known to be an excellent radiation mitigator and a potential fuel source. We have previously investigated 41 different metal hydrides for their radiation mitigation potential. Of these metal hydrides, we found a set of lithium hydrides to be of particular interest due to their excellent shielding of galactic cosmic radiation. Given these results, we will continue our investigation of lithium hydrides by expanding our data set to include dose equivalent and to further understand why these materials outperformed polyethylene in a heavy ion environment. For this study, we used HZETRN 2010, a one-dimensional transport code developed by NASA Langley Research Center, to simulate radiation transport through the lithium hydrides. We focused on the 1977 solar minimum Galactic Cosmic Radiation environment and thicknesses of 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 g/cm2 to stay consistent with our previous studies. The details of this work and the subsequent results will be discussed in this paper.

  20. Regional homogeneity of electoral space: comparative analysis (on the material of 100 national cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Avksentiev


    Full Text Available In the article the author examines dependence on electoral behavior from territorial belonging. «Regional homogeneity» and «electoral space» categories are conceptualized. It is argued, that such regional homogeneity is a characteristic of electoral space and can be quantified. Quantitative measurement of government regional homogeneity has direct connection with risk of separatism, civil conflicts, or legitimacy crisis on deviant territories. It is proposed the formulae for evaluation of regional homogeneity quantitative method which has been based on statistics analysis instrument, especially, variation coefficient. Possible directions of study with the use of this index according to individual political subjects and the whole political space (state, region, electoral district are defined. Calculation of appropriate indexes for Ukrainian electoral space (return of 1991­2015 elections and 100 other national cases. The dynamics of Ukraine regional homogeneity on the material of 1991­2015 electoral statistics is analyzed.

  1. Material transformations: thinking about objects and spaces at the Wieskirche’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yonan


    Full Text Available The materiality of architecture and the materiality of things have not long been closely linked in the scholarly imagination. Architecture, that largely permanent manipulation of space and the built environment, is in everything but the most abstract speculations a material construction, a physical entity that creates and defines space. Objects, in contrast, seem supremely isolatable, easily detached from their original contexts of production. That objects likewise have wide-ranging spatial dimensions can therefore be as difficult to conceptualize as architecture’s status as a thing. This essay takes up these concerns by examining a particularly rich example of the object/building relationship, one in which the visual language employed for each articulated the terms of an analogy between them. This occurred at the Wieskirche or “Church in the Meadow,” one of Central Europe’s most impressive religious edifices and one long recognized as a cornerstone of eighteenth-century architecture.

  2. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE): Overview, Accomplishments and Future Needs (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Pippin, Gary; Jenkins, Philip P.; Walters, Robert J.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Palusinski, Iwona; Lorentzen, Justin R.


    Materials and devices used on the exterior of spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are subjected to environmental threats that can cause degradation in material properties, possibly threatening spacecraft mission success. These threats include: atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, charged particle radiation, temperature extremes and thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and contamination. Space environmental threats vary greatly based on spacecraft materials, thicknesses and stress levels, and the mission environment and duration. For more than a decade the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) has enabled the study of the long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in the LEO environment. The overall objective of MISSE is to test the stability and durability of materials and devices in the space environment in order to gain valuable knowledge on the performance of materials in space, as well as to enable lifetime predictions of new materials that may be used in future space flight. MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments, which are attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Individual experiments were loaded onto suitcase-like trays, called Passive Experiment Containers (PECs). The PECs were transported to the ISS in the Space Shuttle cargo bay and attached to, and removed from, the ISS during extravehicular activities (EVAs). The PECs were retrieved after one or more years of space exposure and returned to Earth enabling post-flight experiment evaluation. MISSE is a multi-organization project with participants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DoD), industry and academia. MISSE has provided a platform for environmental durability studies for thousands of samples and numerous devices, and it has produced many tangible impacts. Ten PECs (and one smaller tray) have been flown, representing MISSE 1 through MISSE

  3. Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Assessment Materials Evaluation for the International Space Station (United States)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Shindo, David; Montgomery, Eliza


    The International Space Station (ISS) Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. The end of the Space Shuttle Program limited the ability to send up shock kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak. Currently, the United States Orbital Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns, which has been successful in remediating the small cases of contamination documented. However, a secondary method of disinfection is a necessary investment for future space flight. Over the past year, NASA Johnson Space Center has investigated the development of electrochemically generated systems for use on the ISS. These systems include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid. To use these biocides on deployed water systems, NASA must understand of the effect these biocides have on current ISS materials prior to proceeding forward with possible on-orbit applications. This paper will discuss the material testing that was conducted to assess the effects of the biocides on current ISS materials.

  4. SPADA: a project to study the effectiveness of shielding materials in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, M.; Casolino, M.; Cerciello, V.


    The SPADA (SPAce Dosimetry for Astronauts) project is a part of an extensive teamwork that aims to optimize shielding solutions against space radiation. Shielding is indeed all irreplaceable tool to reduce, exposure of crews of future Moon and Mars missions. We concentrated our studies on two flexible materials, Kevlar (R) and Nextel (R), because of their ability to protect space infrastructure from micro meteoroids measured radiation hardness of these shielding materials and compared to polyethylene, generally acknowledged as the most effective space radiation shield with practical applications in spacecraft. Both flight test (on the International Space Station and on the Russian FOTON M3 rocket), with passive dosimeters and accelerator-based experiments have been performed. Accelerator tests using high-energy Fe ions have demonstrated that Kevlar is almost as effective as polyethylene in shielding heavy ions, while Nextel is a poor shield against, high-charge and -energy particles. Preliminary results from spaceflight, however, show that for the radiation environment ill low-Earth orbit. dominated by trapped protons, thin shields of Kevlar and Nextel provide limited reduction.

  5. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station Hardware and Operations (United States)

    Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.; Johnson, Jimmie


    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has performed virtually flawlessly, logging more than 620 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. Currently the NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) which accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample-Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400 C. Once an SCA is installed, the experiment can be run by automatic command or science conducted via

  6. Exposure to space radiation of high-performance infrared multilayer filters and materials technology experiment (A0056) (United States)

    Hawkins, Gary J.; Seeley, John S.; Hunneman, Roger


    Infrared optical multilayer filters and materials were exposed to the space environment of low Earth orbit on LDEF. The effects are summarized of that environment on the physical and optical properties of the filters and materials flown.

  7. Innovative Approaches to Space-Based Manufacturing and Rapid Prototyping of Composite Materials (United States)

    Hill, Charles S.


    The ability to deploy large habitable structures, construct, and service exploration vehicles in low earth orbit will be an enabling capability for continued human exploration of the solar system. It is evident that advanced manufacturing methods to fabricate replacement parts and re-utilize launch vehicle structural mass by converting it to different uses will be necessary to minimize costs and allow flexibility to remote crews engaged in space travel. Recent conceptual developments and the combination of inter-related approaches to low-cost manufacturing of composite materials and structures are described in context leading to the possibility of on-orbit and space-based manufacturing.

  8. Utilization of Space Shuttle External Tank materials by melting and powder metallurgy (United States)

    Chern, T. S.


    The Crucible Melt Extraction Process was demonstrated to convert scraps of aluminum alloy 2219, used in the Space Shuttle External Tank, into fibers. The cast fibers were then consolidated by cold welding. The X-ray diffraction test of the cast fibers was done to examine the crystallinity and oxide content of the fibers. The compressive stress-strain behavior of the consolidated materials was also examined. Two conceptual schemes which would adapt the as-developed Crucible Melt Extraction Process to the microgravity condition in space were finally proposed.

  9. Compatibility of Space Nuclear Power Plant Materials in an Inert He/Xe Working Gas Containing Reactive Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MM Hall


    A major materials selection and qualification issue identified in the Space Materials Plan is the potential for creating materials compatibility problems by combining dissimilar reactor core, Brayton Unit and other power conversion plant materials in a recirculating, inert He/Xe gas loop containing reactive impurity gases. Reported here are results of equilibrium thermochemical analyses that address the compatibility of space nuclear power plant (SNPP) materials in high temperature impure He gas environments. These studies provide early information regarding the constraints that exist for SNPP materials selection and provide guidance for establishing test objectives and environments for SNPP materials qualification testing

  10. Evaluation of an improved air distribution system for aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Liping; Xu, Jie; Fang, Lei


    An improved air distribution system for aircraft cabin was proposed in this paper. Personalized outlets were introduced and placed at the bottom of the baggage hold. Its ratio of fresh air to recirculation air and the conditioned temperature of different types of inlets were also designed carefully...... to meet the goals of high air quality, thermal comfort and energy saving. Some experiments were conducted to evaluate and compare its performances with two other systems. First the Flow Visualization with Green Laser (FVGL) technology was used to analyze the air flow. The top-in-side bottom-out pattern...... may have the disadvantages of an indirect path to deliver fresh air to passengers, a low fresh air utilization ratio and the potential to widely spreading airborne infectious diseases. The bottom-in-top-out pattern can overcome these disadvantages very well, but it also faces the stratification...

  11. Determination of thermal and acoustic comfort inside a vehicle's cabin (United States)

    Ene, Alexandra; Catalina, Tiberiu; Vartires, Andreea


    Thermal and acoustic comfort, inside a vehicle's cabin, are highly interconnected and can greatly influence the health of the passengers. On one hand, the H.V.A.C. system brings the interior air parameters to a comfortable value while on the other hand, it is the main source of noise. It is an intriguing task to find a balance between the two. In this paper, several types of air diffusers were used in order to optimize the ratio between thermal and acoustic interior comfort. Using complex measurements of noise and thermal comfort parameters we have determined for each type of air diffuser the sound pressure level and its impact on air temperature and air velocity.

  12. CosmoBon, tree research team, for studying utilization of woody plant in space environment (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Sato, Seigo; Baba, Keiichi; Chida, Yukari


    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science, as Tree research team, TRT. Trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. We have the serious problem about their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We have been investigating the tension wood formation under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. CosmoBon is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. The tension wood formation in CosmoBon was confirmed as the same as that in the natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  13. The ideal usage of sustainable materials and local resources of the interior space design in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi Hussien, Mayyadah [Department of Interior Design, Faculty of Architect and Art, Petra University (Jordan)], Email:


    A large amount of waste is generated by buildings over their life cycle, from construction and operation to destruction. Sustainable design principles and recycling programs in buildings can help moderate this waste. The simplest way is directly through the materials used in the building's construction. The materials and resources used should focus on the health and productivity consequences for the building's inhabitants and its environmental, social and economic impacts. This aim of this study is to make certain recommendations with respect to the use of sustainable building materials and resources in indoor spaces in Jordan. A general overview of collection and storage of recyclable materials, waste management, material reuse, and green and rapidly renewable materials is given. Sustainable material usage in the elements of interior design in Jordan is also discussed in two case studies. A set of indicators is proposed which identify the ideal sustainable materials and resources for use in interior design in Jordan to provide a healthy living environment.

  14. Factors affecting ozone removal rates in a simulated aircraft cabin environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas, Gyöngyi; Weschler, Charles J.; Bako-Biro, Zsolt


    of people, soiled T-shirts, aircraft seats and a used HEPA filter, we have been able in the course of 24 experiments to isolate the contributions of these and other factors to the removal of ozone from the cabin air. In the case of this simulated aircraft, people were responsible for almost 60% of the ozone...... present, the measured ratio of ozone's concentration in the cabin versus that outside the cabin was 0.15-0.21, smaller than levels reported in the literature. The results reinforce the conclusion that the optimal way to reduce people's exposure to both ozone and ozone oxidation products is to efficiently...

  15. Modeling the Fate of Expiratory Aerosols and the Associated Infection Risk in an Aircraft Cabin Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, M.P.; To, G.N.S.; Chao, C.Y.H.


    to estimate the risk of infection by contact. The environmental control system (ECS) in a cabin creates air circulation mainly in the lateral direction, making lateral dispersions of aerosols much faster than longitudinal dispersions. Aerosols with initial sizes under 28 m in diameter can stay airborne......The transport and deposition of polydispersed expiratory aerosols in an aircraft cabin were simulated using a Lagrangian-based model validated by experiments conducted in an aircraft cabin mockup. Infection risk by inhalation was estimated using the aerosol dispersion data and a model was developed...

  16. Geant4 calculations for space radiation shielding material Al2O3 (United States)

    Capali, Veli; Acar Yesil, Tolga; Kaya, Gokhan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Yavuz, Mustafa; Tilki, Tahir


    Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 is the most widely used material in the engineering applications. It is significant aluminium metal, because of its hardness and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. This material has several engineering applications in diverse fields such as, ballistic armour systems, wear components, electrical and electronic substrates, automotive parts, components for electric industry and aero-engine. As well, it is used as a dosimeter for radiation protection and therapy applications for its optically stimulated luminescence properties. In this study, stopping powers and penetrating distances have been calculated for the alpha, proton, electron and gamma particles in space radiation shielding material Al2O3 for incident energies 1 keV - 1 GeV using GEANT4 calculation code.

  17. Geant4 calculations for space radiation shielding material Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capali Veli


    Full Text Available Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 is the most widely used material in the engineering applications. It is significant aluminium metal, because of its hardness and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. This material has several engineering applications in diverse fields such as, ballistic armour systems, wear components, electrical and electronic substrates, automotive parts, components for electric industry and aero-engine. As well, it is used as a dosimeter for radiation protection and therapy applications for its optically stimulated luminescence properties. In this study, stopping powers and penetrating distances have been calculated for the alpha, proton, electron and gamma particles in space radiation shielding material Al2O3 for incident energies 1 keV – 1 GeV using GEANT4 calculation code.

  18. A space simulation test chamber development for the investigation of radiometric properties of materials (United States)

    Enlow, D. L.


    The design, fabrication, and preliminary utilization of a thermal vacuum space simulation facility are discussed. The facility was required to perform studies on the thermal radiation properties of materials. A test chamber was designed to provide high pumping speed, low pressure, a low photon level radiation background (via high emissivity, coated, finned cryopanels), internal heat sources for rapid warmup, and rotary and linear motion of the irradiated materials specimen. The radiation detection system consists of two wideband infrared photoconductive detectors, their cryogenic coolers, a cryogenic-cooled blackbody source, and a cryogenic-cooled optical radiation modulator.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tomašić


    Full Text Available On the basis of performed explorations, in the phase of deposit preparation and development for exploitation the obtained results regarding the raw material quality were transfered to the surface. The results served both for the development and planning of deposit excavation dynamics and for the delineation of boundary contours by mineral raw materials within the deposit space considering the quality, The case presented in the article refers to the marl and limestone open pit for the cement industry, the »Partizan« near Split (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Space Environmental Effects Testing and Characterization of the Candidate Solar Sail Material Aluminized Mylar (United States)

    Edwards, D. L.; Hubbs, W. S.; Wertz, G. E.; Alstatt, R.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)


    The usage of solar sails as a propellantless propulsion system has been proposed for many years. The technical challenges associated with solar sails are fabrication of ultralightweight films, deploying the sails and controlling the spacecraft. Integral to all these challenges is the mechanical property integrity of the sail while exposed to the harsh environment of space. This paper describes testing and characterization of a candidate solar sail material, Aluminized Mylar. This material was exposed to a simulated Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) and evaluated by measuring thermooptical and mechanical property changes. Testing procedures and results are presented.

  1. Application of space mutation on creation of rice new material and breeding of new variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Zhigang; Zhang Zhiyong; Xiang Yuewu; Cai Pingzhong; Zhou Xianming; Zhang Zhixiong


    One rice material with quasi-aromatic and special color-glumes has been selected through space mutation. A new cytoplasmic male sterile line was transferred from the special rice material. The abortive fertility of sterility is stable, its restoring and combining ability is well. The rice quality of Huaxiang A reaches the third grade rice high-quality standard. A new high yielding hybrid rice cultivar (Huaxiang 7) was bred from the cytoplasmic male sterile line 'Huaxiang A' and restorer line 'Chuanhui 907', which already passed provincinal evaluation. (authors)

  2. All-theoretical prediction of cabin noise due to impingement of propeller vortices on a wing structure (United States)

    Martinez, R.; Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K.; Westagard, A.


    Reported calculations of structure-borne cabin noise for a small twin engine aircraft powered by tractor propellers rely on the following three-stage methodological breakup of the problem: (1) the unsteady-aerodynamic prediction of wing lift harmonics caused by the whipping action of the vortex system trailed from each propeller; (2) the associated wing/fuselage structural response; (3) the cabin noise field for the computed wall vibration. The first part--the estimate of airloads--skirts a full-fledged aeroelastic situation by assuming the wing to be fixed in space while cancelling the downwash field of the cutting vortices. The model is based on an approximate high-frequency lifting-surface theory justified by the blade rate and flight Mach number of application. Its results drive a finite-element representation of the wing accounting for upper and lower skin surfaces, spars, ribs, and the presence of fuel. The fuselage, modeled as a frame-stiffened cylindrical shell, is bolted to the wing.

  3. Application of X-ray topography to USSR and Russian space materials science. (United States)

    Shul'pina, I L; Prokhorov, I A; Serebryakov, Yu A; Bezbakh, I Zh


    The authors' experience of the application of X-ray diffraction imaging in carrying out space technological experiments on semiconductor crystal growth for the former USSR and for Russia is reported, from the Apollo-Soyuz programme (1975) up to the present day. X-ray topography was applied to examine defects in crystals in order to obtain information on the crystallization conditions and also on their changes under the influence of factors of orbital flight in space vehicles. The data obtained have promoted a deeper understanding of the conditions and mechanisms of crystallization under both microgravity and terrestrial conditions, and have enabled the elaboration of terrestrial methods of highly perfect crystal growth. The use of X-ray topography in space materials science has enriched its methods in the field of digital image processing of growth striations and expanded its possibilities in investigating the inhomogeneity of crystals.

  4. Material Usage in High Pressure Oxygen Systems for the International Space Station (United States)

    Kravchenko, Michael; Sievers, D. Elliott


    The Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) for the International Space Station (ISS) Program was required as part of the Space Shuttle retirement efforts to sustain the ISS life support systems. The system is designed around a 7000 psia Oxygen or Nitrogen Recharge Tank Assembly which is able to be utilized both internally and externally to the ISS. Material selection and usage were critical to ensure oxygen compatibility for the design, while taking into consideration toxicity, weldability, brazability and general fabrication and assembly techniques. The system uses unique hardware items such a composite overwrap pressure vessel (COPV), high pressure mechanical gauges, compact regulators and valves, quick disconnects, metal tubing and flexhoses. Numerous challenges and anomalies were encountered due to the exotic nature of this project which will be discussed in detail. The knowledge gained from these anomalies and failure resolutions can be applied to more than space applications, but can also be applicable to industry pressurized systems.

  5. Study of capability of microorganisms to develop on construction materials used in space objects (United States)

    Rakova, N.; Svistunova, Y.; Novikova, N.

    One of the most topical issues nowadays in the whole set of space research is the study of microbiological risks (medical, technical, technological). Experiments held onboard MIR station and International Space Station (ISS) clearly demonstrated capacity of microorganisms to contaminate the environment, equipment and belonging of habitual compartments of space objects. In this connection microorganisms-biodestructors play an important role. In their vital functioning they are capable of causing biological damage of different polymers, biocorrosion of metals which can lead to serious difficulties in performing long-term flights, namely the planned mission to Mars. Our purpose was to study capability of growth and reproduction of microorganisms on construction materials of various chemical composition as the first stage of biodestruction process. In our research we used "flight" strains of bacteria (Bacillus subtilus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas pumilus etc.) recovered from the ISS environment in several missions. For control we used "earth" bacteria species with typical properties. To model the environment of the ISS we took construction materials which are widely used in the interior and equipment of the ISS. The results we've obtained show that some microorganisms are capable of living and reproducing themselves on construction materials and their capability is more pronounced than that of the "earth" species. The best capability for growth and reproduction was characteristic of Bacillus subtilus.

  6. Uniaxial and biaxial tensioning effects on thin membrane materials. [large space structures (United States)

    Hinson, W. F.; Goslee, J. W.


    Thin laminated membranes are being considered for various surface applications on future large space structural systems. Some of the thin membranes would be stretched across or between structural members with the requirement that the membrane be maintained within specified limits of smoothness which would be dictated by the particular applications such as antenna reflector requirements. The multiaxial tensile force required to maintain the smoothness in the membrane needs to be determined for use in the structure design. Therefore, several types of thicknesses of thin membrane materials have been subjected to varied levels of uniaxial and biaxial tensile loads. During the biaxial tests, deviations of the material surface smoothness were measured by a noncontacting capacitance probe. Basic materials consisted of composites of vacuum deposited aluminum on Mylar and Kapton ranging in thickness from 0.00025 in (0.000635 cm) to 0.002 in (0.00508 cm). Some of the material was reinforced with Kevlar and Nomex scrim. The uniaxial tests determined the material elongation and tensile forces up to ultimate conditions. Biaxial tests indicated that a relatively smooth material surface could be achieved with tensile force of approximately 1 to 15 Newtons per centimeter, depending upon the material thickness and/or reinforcement.

  7. Potential Use of In Situ Material Composites such as Regolith/Polyethylene for Shielding Space Radiation (United States)

    Theriot, Corey A.; Gersey, Buddy; Bacon, Eugene; Johnson, Quincy; Zhang, Ye; Norman, Jullian; Foley, Ijette; Wilkins, Rick; Zhou, Jianren; Wu, Honglu


    NASA has an extensive program for studying materials and methods for the shielding of astronauts to reduce the effects of space radiation when on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, especially in the use of in situ materials native to the destination reducing the expense of materials transport. The most studied material from the Moon is Lunar regolith and has been shown to be as efficient as aluminum for shielding purposes (1). The addition of hydrogenous materials such as polyethylene should increase shielding effectiveness and provide mechanical properties necessary of structural materials (2). The neutron radiation shielding effectiveness of polyethylene/regolith stimulant (JSC-1A) composites were studied using confluent human fibroblast cell cultures exposed to a beam of high-energy spallation neutrons at the 30deg-left beam line (ICE house) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. At this angle, the radiation spectrum mimics the energy spectrum of secondary neutrons generated in the upper atmosphere and encountered when aboard spacecraft and high-altitude aircraft. Cell samples were exposed in series either directly to the neutron beam, within a habitat created using regolith composite blocks, or behind 25 g/sq cm of loose regolith bulk material. In another experiment, cells were also exposed in series directly to the neutron beam in T-25 flasks completely filled with either media or water up to a depth of 20 cm to test shielding effectiveness versus depth and investigate the possible influence of secondary particle generation. All samples were sent directly back to JSC for sub-culturing and micronucleus analysis. This presentation is of work performed in collaboration with the NASA sponsored Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) at Prairie View A&M.

  8. Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) Decontamination of a Section of a Boeing 747 Cabin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaffstall, Robert M; Garner, Robert P; Bishop, Joshua; Cameron-Landis, Lora; Eddington, Donald L; Hau, Gwen; Spera, Shawn; Mielnik, Thaddeus; Thomas, James A


    The use of STERIS Corporation's Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP)* technology as a potential biocide for aircraft decontamination was demonstrated in a cabin section of the Aircraft Environment Research Facility...

  9. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David Peter


    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evaluate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices that used photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessment...

  10. Muscle oxygenation, EMG, and cardiovascular responses for cabin attendants vs. controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Larsen, Lisbeth Højkjær; Crenshaw, Albert Guy


    The goal was to investigate the effect of acute moderate hypobaric exposure on the physiological responses to sustained contractions (local) and light to moderate dynamic exercise (systemic) for cabin attendants (CAB) and a matched control group (CON)....

  11. Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.S.


    A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Design of shipping packages to transport varying radioisotopic source materials for future space and terrestrial missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklay, C.D.


    The exploration of space will begin with manned missions to the moon and to Mars, first for scientific discoveries, then for mining and manufacturing. Because of the great financial costs of this type of exploration, it can only be accomplished through an international team effort. This unified effort must include the design, planning and, execution phases of future space missions, extending down to such activities as isotope processing, and shipping package design, fabrication, and certification. All aspects of this effort potentially involve the use of radioisotopes in some capacity, and the transportation of these radioisotopes will be impossible without a shipping package that is certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the U.S. Department of Energy for domestic shipments, and the U.S. Department of Transportation or the International Atomic Energy Agency for international shipments. To remain without the international regulatory constraints, and still support the needs of new and challenging space missions conducted within ever-shrinking budgets, shipping package concepts must be innovative. A shipping package must also be versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the varying radioisotopic source materials that may be required to support future space and terrestrial missions. One such package is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. Taking into consideration the potential need to transport specific types of radioisotopes, approximations of dose rates at specific distances were determined taking into account the attenuation of dose rate with distance for varying radioisotopic source materials. As a result, it has been determined that the shipping package requirements that will be demanded by future space (and terrestrial) missions can be met by making minor modifications to the USA/9516/B(U)F. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Creating a Discovery Platform for Confined-Space Chemistry and Materials: Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Blake


    Metal organic frameworks (MOF) are a recently discovered class of nanoporous, defect-free crystalline materials that enable rational design and exploration of porous materials at the molecular level. MOFs have tunable monolithic pore sizes and cavity environments due to their crystalline nature, yielding properties exceeding those of most other porous materials. These include: the lowest known density (91% free space); highest surface area; tunable photoluminescence; selective molecular adsorption; and methane sorption rivaling gas cylinders. These properties are achieved by coupling inorganic metal complexes such as ZnO4 with tunable organic ligands that serve as struts, allowing facile manipulation of pore size and surface area through reactant selection. MOFs thus provide a discovery platform for generating both new understanding of chemistry in confined spaces and novel sensors and devices based on their unique properties. At the outset of this project in FY06, virtually nothing was known about how to couple MOFs to substrates and the science of MOF properties and how to tune them was in its infancy. An integrated approach was needed to establish the required knowledge base for nanoscale design and develop methodologies integrate MOFs with other materials. This report summarizes the key accomplishments of this project, which include creation of a new class of radiation detection materials based on MOFs, luminescent MOFs for chemical detection, use of MOFs as templates to create nanoparticles of hydrogen storage materials, MOF coatings for stress-based chemical detection using microcantilevers, and "flexible" force fields that account for structural changes in MOFs that occur upon molecular adsorption/desorption. Eight journal articles, twenty presentations at scientific conferences, and two patent applications resulted from the work. The project created a basis for continuing development of MOFs for many Sandia applications and succeeded in securing $2.75 M in

  14. Biosafety in manned space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boever, P.


    The main goal of manned exploration is to achieve a prolonged stay in space, for example in an orbital station (such as the International Space Station (ISS)) or in planetary bases on the Moon and/or Mars. It goes without saying that such missions can only be realized when the astronaut's health and well-being is secured. In this respect, the characterization of the microbiological contamination on board spacecraft and orbital stations and the influence of cosmic radiation and microgravity are of paramount importance. Microbial contamination may originate from different sources and includes the initial contamination of space flight materials during manufacturing and assembly, the delivery of supplies to the orbital station, the supplies themselves, secondary contamination during the lifetime of the orbital station, the crew and any other biological material on board e.g. animals, plants, micro-organisms used in scientific experiments. Although most microorganisms do not threaten human health, it has been reported that in a confined environment, such as a space cabin, microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat. These effects range from infections, allergies, and toxicities to degradation of air and water supplies. Biodegradation of critical materials may result in system failure and this may jeopardize the crew. The research aims at monitoring the biological airborne and surface contamination during manned space flight. The ISS has been selected as primary test bed for this study. The majority of the investigations are being done by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), which is responsible for monitoring the biological contamination in the habitable compartments of the ISS for safety and hygienic reasons. Within the frame of a collaboration between IBMP and the European Space Agency (ESA), SCK-CEN is able to participate in the analyses

  15. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S.M. [Uludag University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bursa (Turkey)


    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO{sub 2}) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO{sub 2} concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO{sub 2} level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin. (orig.)

  16. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period (United States)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S. M.


    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO2) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO2 concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO2 level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin.

  17. An under-aisle air distribution system facilitating humidification of commercial aircraft cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tengfei; Yin, Shi; Wang, Shugang [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024 (China)


    Air environment in aircraft cabins has long been criticized especially for the dryness of the air within. Low moisture content in cabins is known to be responsible for headache, tiredness and many other non-specific symptoms. In addition, current widely used air distribution systems on airplanes dilute internally generated pollutants by promoting air mixing and thus impose risks of infectious airborne disease transmission. To boost air humidity level while simultaneously restricting air mixing, this investigation uses a validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program to design a new under-aisle air distribution system for wide-body aircraft cabins. The new system supplies fully outside, dry air at low momentum through a narrow channel passage along both side cabin walls to middle height of the cabin just beneath the stowage bins, while simultaneously humidified air is supplied through both perforated under aisles. By comparing with the current mixing air distribution system in terms of distribution of relative humidity, CO{sub 2} concentration, velocity, temperature and draught risk, the new system is found being able to improve the relative humidity from the existent 10% to the new level of 20% and lessen the inhaled CO{sub 2} concentration by 30%, without causing moisture condensation on cabin interior and inducing draught risks for passengers. The water consumption rate in air humidification is only around 0.05 kg/h per person, which should be affordable by airliners. (author)

  18. Materials on the International Space Station - Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Garner, J. C.; Lam, S. N.; Vazquez, J. A.; Braun, W. R.; Ruth, R. E.; Lorentzen, J. R.; Bruninga, R.; Jenkins, P. P.; Flatico, J. M.


    This paper describes a space solar cell experiment currently being built by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Naval Academy (USNA). The experiment has been named the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE), and the purpose is to rapidly put current and future generation space solar cells on orbit and provide validation data for these technologies. The FTSCE is being fielded in response to recent on-orbit and ground test anomalies associated with space solar arrays that have raised concern over the survivability of new solar technologies in the space environment and the validity of present ground test protocols. The FTSCE is being built as part of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station (MISSE) Experiment (MISSE-5), which is a NASA program to characterize the performance of new prospective spacecraft materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the space environment. Telemetry, command, control, and communication (TNC) for the FTSCE will be achieved through the Amateur Satellite Service using the PCSat2 system, which is an Amateur Radio system designed and built by the USNA. In addition to providing an off-the-shelf solution for FTSCE TNC, PCSat2 will provide a communications node for the Amateur Radio satellite system. The FTSCE and PCSat2 will be housed within the passive experiment container (PEC), which is an approximately 2ft x2ft x 4in metal container built by NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) as part of the MISSE-5 program. NASA LaRC has also supplied a thin film materials experiment that will fly on the exterior of the thermal blanket covering the PCSat2. The PEC is planned to be transported to the ISS on a Shuttle flight. The PEC will be mounted on the exterior of the ISS by an astronaut during an extravehicular activity (EVA). After nominally one year, the PEC will be retrieved and returned to Earth. At the time of writing this paper, the

  19. Monitoring of Air Quality in Passenger Cabins of the Athens Metro (United States)

    Tsairidi, Evangelia; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D.; Assimakopoulos, Margarita-Niki; Barbaresos, Nicolaos; Karagiannis, Athanassios


    The air pollution induced by various transportation means combines the emission of pollutants with the simultaneous presence of people. In this respect, the scientific community has focused its efforts in studying both the air quality within busy streets and inside cars, buses and the underground railway network in order to identify the pollutants' sources and levels as well as the human exposure. The impact of the air pollution on commuters of the underground may be more severe because it is a confined space, extended mostly under heavily trafficked urban streets, relies on mechanical ventilation for air renewal and gathers big numbers of passengers. The purpose of the present work is to monitor the air quality of the city of Athens Metro Network cabins and platforms during the unusually hot summer of 2012. For that cause particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1), carbon dioxide (CO2), the number of commuters along with temperature (T) and humidity (RH) were recorded inside the Athens Metro Blue Line trains (covering a route from the centre of Athens (Aigaleo) to the Athens International Airport) and on the platforms of a central (Syntagma) and a suburban-traffic (Doukissis Plakentias) station between June and August. The data collection included six different experiments that took place for 2 consecutive working days each, for a time period of 6 weeks from 6:30 am too 7:00 pm in order to account for different outdoor climatic conditions and for morning and evening rush hours respectively. Measurements were taken in the middle car of the moving trains and the platform end of the selected stations. The results show PM concentrations to be higher (approximately 2 to 5 times) inside the cabins and o the platforms of the underground network as compared to the outdoor levels monitored routinely by the Ministry of Environment. Moreover, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations recorded at the Syntagma Station Platform were almost constantly higher reaching 11 μg m-3 47

  20. Vibro-acoustic model of an active aircraft cabin window (United States)

    Aloufi, Badr; Behdinan, Kamran; Zu, Jean


    This paper presents modeling and design of an active structural acoustic control (ASAC) system for controlling the low frequency sound field transmitted through an aircraft cabin window. The system uses stacked piezoelectric elements arranged in a manner to generate out-of-plane actuation point forces acting on the window panel boundaries. A theoretical vibro-acoustic model for an active quadruple-panel system is developed to characterize the dynamic behavior of the system and achieve a good understanding of the active control performance and the physical phenomena of the sound transmission loss (STL) characteristics. The quadruple-panel system represents the passenger window design used in some classes of modern aircraft with an exterior double pane of Plexiglas, an interior dust cover pane and a glazed dimmable pane, all separated by thin air cavities. The STL characteristics of identical pane window configurations with different piezoelectric actuator sets are analyzed. A parametric study describes the influence of important active parameters, such as the input voltage, number and location of the actuator elements, on the STL is investigated. In addition, a mathematical model for obtaining the optimal input voltage is developed to improve the acoustic attenuation capability of the control system. In general, the achieved results indicate that the proposed ASAC design offers a considerable improvement in the passive sound loss performance of cabin window design without significant effects, such as weight increase, on the original design. Also, the results show that the acoustic control of the active model with piezoelectric actuators bonded to the dust cover pane generates high structural vibrations in the radiating panel (dust cover) and an increase in sound power radiation. High active acoustic attenuation can be achieved by designing the ASAC system to apply active control forces on the inner Plexiglas panel or dimmable panel by installing the actuators on the

  1. OCCAMS: Optically Controlled and Corrected Active Meta-material Space Structures (Ultra-Lightweight Photonic Muscle Space Structures Phase II) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photons weigh nothing. Why must even small space telescopes have high mass? Our team has demonstrated this is not the case using a completely novel approach to...

  2. Effects of simulated space environmental parameters on six commercially available composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, J.G.; Sykes, G.F. Jr.


    The effects of simulated space environmental parameters on microdamage induced by the environment in a series of commercially available graphite-fiber-reinforced composite materials were determined. Composites with both thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems were studied. Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) exposures were simulated by thermal cycling; geosynchronous-orbit (GEO) exposures were simulated by electron irradiation plus thermal cycling. The thermal cycling temperature range was -250 F to either 200 F or 150 F. The upper limits of the thermal cycles were different to ensure that an individual composite material was not cycled above its glass transition temperature. Material response was characterized through assessment of the induced microcracking and its influence on mechanical property changes at both room temperature and -250 F. Microdamage was induced in both thermoset and thermoplastic advanced composite materials exposed to the simulated LEO environment. However, a 350 F cure single-phase toughened epoxy composite was not damaged during exposure to the LEO environment. The simuated GEO environment produced microdamage in all materials tested


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indramawan Hadi Kuswoyo


    Full Text Available Storage system in the manufacturing industry in this modern era is a very important role especially international scale company, may not directly produce or distribute all of the work unit. this led to the need for raw materials warehouse, warehouse storage systems should not be large in size because if supported by a good inventory of the warehouse to the maximum utilization of the problems faced by the company occurred in the warehouse of raw materials (raw materials. deficiencies in the arrangement of items in the warehouse procedures cause problems in the warehouse, so the warehouse impressed narrow and less structured cause inefficiencies time retrieval and storage of materials, as well as complicate the operator in handling the placement process raw materials. In the method of shared storage and rail space (relationchip chart for the relationship between activity is indicated by activity relationship approach, which shows each activity as a single activity model in the form of a diagram. ARD basic idea of the link between patterns of flow of goods and location of service activities related to production activities. ARD is the development of ARC (activity relationship chart.

  4. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.


    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  5. Design considerations for a Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine blade made of single crystal material (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, A.; August, R.; Nagpal, V.


    Nonlinear finite-element structural analyses were performed on the first stage high-pressure fuel turbopump blade of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The analyses examined the structural response and the dynamic characteristics at typical operating conditions. Single crystal material PWA-1480 was considered for the analyses. Structural response and the blade natural frequencies with respect to the crystal orientation were investigated. The analyses were conducted based on typical test stand engine cycle. Influence of combined thermal, aerodynamic, and centrifugal loadings was considered. Results obtained showed that the single crystal secondary orientation effects on the maximum principal stresses are not highly significant.

  6. Freeman's transorbital lobotomy as an anomaly: A material culture examination of surgical instruments and operative spaces. (United States)

    Collins, Brianne M; Stam, Henderikus J


    In 1946, Walter Freeman introduced the transorbital ice pick lobotomy. Touted as a procedure that could be learned and subsequently performed by psychiatrists outside of the operating room, the technique was quickly criticized by neurosurgeons. In this article, we take a material culture approach to consider 2 grounds upon which neurosurgeons based their objections-surgical instruments and operative spaces. On both counts, Freeman was in contravention of established normative neurosurgical practices and, ultimately, his technique was exposed as an anomaly by neurosurgeons. Despite its rejection, the transorbital lobotomy became entrenched in contemporary memory and remains the emblematic procedure of the psychosurgery era. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. On Materiality and Dimensionality of the Space. Is There Some Unit of the Field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.


    Full Text Available The article presents arguments with a view to recognize that space is material and has possibly a fractal dimension in the range of from three to two. It is proposed that along to the unit of substance (atom Some Unit of the field (vortex tubes should be set. It is shown that the formation of the field structures being a kind “ doubles” of atomic ones is possible. The existence of the three-zone electron structure is confirmed. It is indicated that this concept have already resulted in to the successful explanation of phenomena and to finding of their important parameters at different levels of the organization of matter.

  8. Simulation of space radiation effects on polyimide film materials for high temperature applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogdall, L.B.; Cannaday, S.S.


    Space environment effects on candidate materials for the solar sail film are determined. Polymers, including metallized polyimides that might be suitable solar radiation receivers, were exposed to combined proton and solar electromagnetic radiation. Each test sample was weighted, to simulate the tension on the polymer when it is stretched into near-planar shape while receiving solar radiation. Exposure rates up to 16 times that expected in Earth orbit were employed, to simulate near-sun solar sailing conditions. Sample appearance, elongation, and shrinkage were monitored, noted, and documented in situ. Thermosetting polyimides showed less degradation or visual change in appearance than thermoplastics

  9. Thermal-vacuum facility with in-situ mechanical loading. [for testing space construction materials (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.; Holzer, R. P.; Uffen, B.; Mabson, G.


    The paper describes a thermal-vacuum space simulator used to assess property changes of fiber-reinforced polymer composite systems. The facility can achieve a vacuum of approximately .0000001 torr with temperatures ranging from -200 to +300 F. Some preliminary experimental results are presented for materials subjected to thermal loading up to 200 F. The tests conducted include the evaluation of matrix modulus and strength, coefficients of thermal expansion, and fracture toughness. Though the experimental program is at an early stage, the data appear to indicate that these parameters are influenced by hard vacuum.

  10. Space Weather Monitors -- Preparing to Distribute Scientific Devices and Classroom Materials Worldwide for the IHY 2007 (United States)

    Scherrer, D. K.; Burress, B.


    Stanford's Solar Center, in conjunction with the Space, Telecommunications and Radioscience Laboratory and local educators, have developed inexpensive Space Weather Monitors that students around the world can use to track solar-induced changes to the Earth's ionosphere. Through the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) and the IHY Education and Public Outreach Program, our Monitors have been designated for deployment to 191 countries for the International Heliophysical Year, 2007. In partnership with Chabot Space and Science Center, we are designing and developing classroom and educator support materials to accompany distribution of the monitors worldwide. Earth's ionosphere reacts strongly to the intense x-ray and ultraviolet radiation released by the Sun during solar events and by lightning during thunderstorms. Students anywhere in the world can directly monitor and track these sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) by using a VLF radio receiver to monitor the signal strength from distant VLF transmitters and noting unusual changes as the waves bounce off the ionosphere. High school students "buy in" to the project by building their own antenna, a simple structure costing little and taking a couple hours to assemble. Data collection and analysis are handled by a local PC. Stanford is providing a centralized data repository where students and researchers can exchange and discuss data. Chabot Space & Science Center is an innovative teaching and learning center focusing on astronomy and the space sciences. Formed as a Joint Powers Agency with the City of Oakland (California), the Oakland Unified School District, the East Bay Regional Park District, and in collaboration with the Eastbay Astronomical Society, Chabot addresses the critical issue of broad access to the specialized information and facilities needed to improve K-12 science education and public science literacy. Up to 2,000 K-12 teachers annually take part in Chabot's professional

  11. Broadband giant-refractive-index material based on mesoscopic space-filling curves (United States)

    Chang, Taeyong; Kim, Jong Uk; Kang, Seung Kyu; Kim, Hyowook; Kim, Do Kyung; Lee, Yong-Hee; Shin, Jonghwa


    The refractive index is the fundamental property of all optical materials and dictates Snell's law, propagation speed, wavelength, diffraction, energy density, absorption and emission of light in materials. Experimentally realized broadband refractive indices remain 1,800 resulting from a mesoscopic crystal with a dielectric constant greater than three million. This gigantic enhancement effect originates from the space-filling curve concept from mathematics. The principle is inherently very broad band, the enhancement being nearly constant from zero up to the frequency of interest. This broadband giant-refractive-index medium promises not only enhanced resolution in imaging and raised fundamental absorption limits in solar energy devices, but also compact, power-efficient components for optical communication and increased performance in many other applications.

  12. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen (United States)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide


    In recent years, the emphasis in space research has been shifting from space exploration to commercialization of space. In order to utilize space for commercial purposes it is necessary to understand the low earth orbit (LEO) space environment where most of the activities will be carried out. The studies on the LEO environment are mainly focused towards understanding the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) on spacecraft materials. In the first few shuttle flights, materials looked frosty because they were actually being eroded and textured: AO reacts with organic materials on spacecraft exteriors, gradually damaging them. When a spacecraft travel in LEO (where crewed vehicles and the International Space Station fly), the AO formed from the residual atmosphere can react with the spacecraft surfaces, causing damage to the vehicle. Polymers are widely used in space vehicles and systems as structural materials, thermal blankets, thermal control coatings, conformal coatings, adhesives, lubricants, etc. Exposure of polymers and composites to the space environment may result in different detrimental effects via modification of their chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface erosion. The major degradation effects in polymers are due to their exposure to atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet and synergistic effects, which result in different damaging effects by modification of the polymer's chemical properties. In hydrocarbon containing polymers the main AO effect is the surface erosion via chemical reactions and the release of volatile reaction products associated with the mass loss. The application of a thin protective coating to the base materials is one of the most commonly used methods of preventing AO degradation. The purpose is to provide a barrier between base material and AO environment or, in some cases, to alter AO reactions to inhibit its diffusion. The effectiveness of a coating depends on its continuity, porosity, degree of

  13. Perception of cabin air quality in airline crew related to air humidification, on intercontinental flights. (United States)

    Lindgren, T; Norbäck, D; Wieslander, G


    The influence of air humidification in aircraft, on perception of cabin air quality among airline crew (N = 71) was investigated. In-flight investigations were performed in the forward part and in the aft part on eight intercontinental flights with one Boeing 767 individually, equipped with an evaporation humidifier combined with a dehumidifying unit, to reduce accumulation of condensed water in the wall construction. Four flights had the air humidification active when going out, and turned off on the return flight. The four others had the inverse humidification sequence. The sequences were randomized, and double blind. Air humidification increased relative air humidity (RH) by 10% in forward part, and by 3% in aft part of the cabin and in the cockpit. When the humidification device was active, the cabin air was perceived as being less dry (P = 0.008), and fresher (P = 0.002). The mean concentration of viable bacteria (77-108 cfu/m(3)), viable molds (74-84 cfu/m(3)), and respirable particles (1-8 microg/m3) was low, both during humidified and non-humidified flights. On flights with air humidification, there were less particles in the forward part of the aircraft (P = 0.01). In conclusion, RH can be slightly increased by using ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganisms in cabin air. The cabin air quality was perceived as being better with air humidification. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Relative air humidity is low (10-20%) during intercontinental flights, and can be increased by using ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganism in cabin air. Air humidification could increase the sensation of better cabin air quality.

  14. Onboard cross-calibration of the Pille-ISS Detector System and measurement of radiation shielding effect of the water filled protective curtain in the ISS crew cabin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szántó, P.; Apáthy, I.; Deme, S.; Hirn, A.; Nikolaev, I.V.; Pázmándi, T.; Shurshakov, V.A.; Tolochek, R.V.; Yarmanova, E.N.


    As a preparation for long duration space missions it is important to determine and minimize the impact of space radiation on human health. One of the methods to diminish the radiation burden is using an additional local shielding in the places where the crewmembers can stay for longer time. To increase the crew cabin shielding a special protective curtain was designed and delivered to ISS in 2010 containing four layers of hygienic wipes and towels providing an additional shielding thickness of about 8 g/cm"2 water-equivalent matter. The radiation shielding effect of the protective curtain, in terms of absorbed dose, was measured with the thermoluminescent Pille-ISS Detector System. In order to verify the reliability of the Pille system an onboard cross-calibration was also performed. The measurement proved that potentially 25% reduction of the absorbed dose rate in the crew cabin can be achieved, that results in 8% (∼16 μGy/day) decrease of the total absorbed dose to the crew, assuming that they spend 8 h in the crew cabin a day. - Highlights: • The dose level in the ISS Zvezda crew quarters is higher than the average dose level in the module. • A shielding made of hygienic wipes and towels was set up onboard as additional protection. • Onboard cross calibration of the Pille-ISS space dosimeter (TL) system was performed. • The shielding effect of the protective curtain in terms of absorbed dose was measured with the onboard Pille system. • The shielding effect of the protective water curtain is approximately 24 ± 9% in absorbed dose.

  15. A production of non-strain spacing of lattice planes measurement equipment and a measurement of general structure material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakawa, Nobuaki; Moriai, Atsushi; Morii, Yukio


    It is necessary to determine Δd/d in the internal stress measurement by the neutron diffraction method. Therefore, in case the non-strain spacing of lattice planes d 0 (hkl) is measured using bulk material, even though it does and attaches in a sample table length or every width and it is performing the diffraction measurement, it is difficult to determine for a true non-strain spacing of lattice planes by a processing strain, the grain-orientation, etc. It is available for the infinite thing spacing of lattice planes near non-strain condition to be measured by doing random rotation for bulk material in a beam center, and measuring an average spacing of lattice planes. Practical non-strain spacing of lattice planes measurement equipment was made, and the measurement was performed about much structure material. (author)

  16. Insights into Inverse Materials Design from Phase Transitions in Shape Space (United States)

    Cersonsky, Rose; van Anders, Greg; Dodd, Paul M.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    In designing new materials for synthesis, the inverse materials design approach posits that, given a structure, we can predict a building block optimized for self- assembly. How does that building block change as pressure is varied to maintain the same crystal structure? We address this question for entropically stabilized colloidal crystals by working in a generalized statistical thermodynamic ensemble where an alchemical potential variable is fixed and its conjugate variable, particle shape, is allowed to fluctuate. We show that there are multiple regions of shape behavior and phase transitions in shape space between these regions. Furthermore, while past literature has looked towards packing arguments for proposing shape-filling candidate building blocks for structure formation, we show that even at very high pressures, a structure will attain lowest free energy by modifying these space-filling shapes. U.S. Army Research Office under Grant Award No. W911NF-10-1-0518, Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation Award EFRI-1240264, National Science Foundation Grant Number ACI- 1053575, XSEDE award DMR 140129, Rackham Merit Fellowship Program.

  17. Selection of high temperature thermal energy storage materials for advanced solar dynamic space power systems (United States)

    Lacy, Dovie E.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn; Juhasz, Albert


    Under the direction of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Technology (OAST), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated an in-house thermal energy storage program to identify combinations of phase change thermal energy storage media for use with a Brayton and Stirling Advanced Solar Dynamic (ASD) space power system operating between 1070 and 1400 K. A study has been initiated to determine suitable combinations of thermal energy storage (TES) phase change materials (PCM) that result in the smallest and lightest weight ASD power system possible. To date the heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 1025 K have been verified experimentally. The study has indicated that these salt systems produce large ASD systems because of their inherent low thermal conductivity and low density. It is desirable to have PCMs with high densities and high thermal conductivities. Therefore, alternate phase change materials based on metallic alloy systems are also being considered as possible TES candidates for future ASD space power systems.

  18. Materials Science Research Hardware for Application on the International Space Station: an Overview of Typical Hardware Requirements and Features (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S.; Fiske, M. R.; Srinivas, R.


    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for Materials Science Microgravity Research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a key development effort underway at MSFC. The MSRF will be the primary facility for microgravity materials science research on board the International Space Station (ISS) and will implement the NASA Materials Science Microgravity Research Program. It will operate in the U.S. Laboratory Module and support U. S. Microgravity Materials Science Investigations. This facility is being designed to maintain the momentum of the U.S. role in microgravity materials science and support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise goals and objectives for Materials Science. The MSRF as currently envisioned will consist of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR), which will be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in phases, Each rack is being designed to accommodate various Experiment Modules, which comprise processing facilities for peer selected Materials Science experiments. Phased deployment will enable early opportunities for the U.S. and International Partners, and support the timely incorporation of technology updates to the Experiment Modules and sensor devices.

  19. Propagation Measurements and Comparison with EM Techniques for In-Cabin Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektarios Moraitis


    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a narrowband measurement campaign conducted inside a Boeing 737–400 aircraft, the objective being the development of a propagation prediction model which can be used in the deployment of in-cabin wireless networks. The measurements were conducted at three different frequency bands: 1.8, 2.1, and 2.45 GHz, representative of several wireless services. Both a simple, empirical, inverse distance power law and a deterministic, site-specific model were investigated. Parameters for the empirical model were extracted from the measurements at different locations inside the cabin: aisle and seats. Additionally, a statistical characterization of the multipath scenario created by the transmitted signal and the various cabin elements is presented. The deterministic model, based on Physical Optics (PO techniques, provides a reasonable match with the empirical results. Finally, measurements and modeling results are provided for the penetration loss into the cabin (or out of the cabin, representative of interference scenarios.

  20. Experimental Study of Airborne Contaminant Migration in an Aircraft Cabin Model (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane; Sojka, Paul; Plesniak, Michael


    The cabin air ventilation system in wide body jetliners is designed to provide a comfortable and controlled environment for passengers. Inside the cabin, the air flows continuously from overhead vents into sidewall exhausts, forming a circular pattern designed to minimize cross flow between adjacent seat rows. However, spreading of gaseous or particulate contaminants is possible when flight attendants or passengers walk along an aisle, perturbing the ventilation flow. Such unsteady flow perturbations have been found to alter the cabin air distribution and quality. A better fundamental understanding of the turbulent transport phenomena is needed to improve air quality monitoring and control systems and to validate numerical simulations. The velocity field in a 15:1 model of a simplified aircraft cabin is probed to investigate the wake of a rectangular body moving through a steady two-dimensional flow at a Reynolds number (based on body height) of the order of 50,000. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence is used to visualize wake structure and scalar contaminant transport. The interaction between the wake and the ventilation flow is measured with PIV. The data are compared to numerical studies of cabin airflows in the literature.

  1. Loss of cabin pressurization in U.S. Naval aircraft: 1969-90. (United States)

    Bason, R; Yacavone, D W


    During the 22-year period from 1 January 1969 to 31 December 1990, there were 205 reported cases of loss of cabin pressure in US Naval aircraft; 21 were crew-initiated and 184 were deemed accidental. The ambient altitudes varied from 10,000 ft (3048 m) to 40,000 ft. (12192 m). The most common reason for crew-initiated decompression was to clear smoke and fumes from the cockpit/cabin (95%). The most common cause for accidental loss of cabin pressure was mechanical (73.37%), with aircraft structural damage accounting for the remaining 26.63%. Serious physiological problems included 1 pneumothorax, 11 cases of Type I decompression sickness, 23 cases of mild to moderate hypoxia with no loss of consciousness, 18 cases of hypoxia with loss of consciousness, and 3 lost aircraft with 4 fatalities due to incapacitation by hypoxia. In addition, 12 ejections were attributed to loss of cockpit pressure. Nine of the ejections were deliberate and three were accidental, caused by wind blast activation of the face curtain. Three aviators lost their lives following ejection and seven aircraft were lost. While the incidence of loss of cabin pressure in Naval aircraft appears low, it none-the-less presents a definite risk to the aircrew. Lectures on the loss of cabin/cockpit pressurization should continue during indoctrination and refresher physiology training.

  2. Mapping Carrier Dynamics on Material Surfaces in Space and Time using Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya


    Selectively capturing the ultrafast dynamics of charge carriers on materials surfaces and at interfaces is crucial to the design of solar cells and optoelectronic devices. Despite extensive research efforts over the past few decades, information and understanding about surface-dynamical processes, including carrier trapping and recombination remains extremely limited. A key challenge is to selectively map such dynamic processes, a capability that is hitherto impractical by time-resolved laser techniques, which are limited by the laser’s relatively large penetration depth and consequently they record mainly bulk information. Such surface dynamics can only be mapped in real space and time by applying four-dimensional (4D) scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (S-UEM), which records snapshots of materials surfaces with nanometer spatial and sub-picosecond temporal resolutions. In this method, the secondary electron (SE) signal emitted from the sample’s surface is extremely sensitive to the surface dynamics and is detected in real time. In several unique applications, we spatially and temporally visualize the SE energy gain and loss, the charge carrier dynamics on the surface of InGaN nanowires and CdSe single crystals and its powder film. We also provide the mechanisms for the observed dynamics, which will be the foundation for future potential applications of S-UEM to a wide range of studies on material surfaces and device interfaces.

  3. Mapping Carrier Dynamics on Material Surfaces in Space and Time using Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Shaheen, Basamat; Yang, Haoze; Mohammed, Omar F.


    Selectively capturing the ultrafast dynamics of charge carriers on materials surfaces and at interfaces is crucial to the design of solar cells and optoelectronic devices. Despite extensive research efforts over the past few decades, information and understanding about surface-dynamical processes, including carrier trapping and recombination remains extremely limited. A key challenge is to selectively map such dynamic processes, a capability that is hitherto impractical by time-resolved laser techniques, which are limited by the laser’s relatively large penetration depth and consequently they record mainly bulk information. Such surface dynamics can only be mapped in real space and time by applying four-dimensional (4D) scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (S-UEM), which records snapshots of materials surfaces with nanometer spatial and sub-picosecond temporal resolutions. In this method, the secondary electron (SE) signal emitted from the sample’s surface is extremely sensitive to the surface dynamics and is detected in real time. In several unique applications, we spatially and temporally visualize the SE energy gain and loss, the charge carrier dynamics on the surface of InGaN nanowires and CdSe single crystals and its powder film. We also provide the mechanisms for the observed dynamics, which will be the foundation for future potential applications of S-UEM to a wide range of studies on material surfaces and device interfaces.

  4. Exposure to space radiation of high-performance infrared multilayer filters and materials technology experiments (A0056) (United States)

    Seeley, J. S.; Hunneman, R.; Whatley, A.; Lipscombe, D. R.


    Infrared multilayer interface filter which were used in satellite radiometers were examined. The ability of the filters to withstand the space environment in these applications is critical. An experiment on the LDEF subjects the filters to authoritative spectral measurements following space exposure to ascertain their suitability for spacecraft use and to permit an understanding of degradation mechanisms. The understanding of the effects of prolonged space exposure on spacecraft materials, surface finishes, and adhesive systems is important to the spacecraft designer. Materials technology experiments and experiment on infrared multilayer filters are discussed.

  5. Space education in developing countries in the information era, regional reality and new educational material tendencies: example, South America (United States)

    Sausen, Tania Maria

    The initial activities on space education began right after World War II, in the early 1950s, when USA and USSR started the Space Race. At that time, Space education was only and exclusively available to researchers and technicians working directly in space programs. This new area was restricted only to post-graduate programs (basically master and doctoral degree) or to very specific training programs dedicated for beginners. In South America, at that time there was no kind of activity on space education, simply because there was no activity in space research. In the beginning of the 1970s, Brazil, through INPE, had created masteral and doctoral courses on several space areas such as remote sensing and meteorology. Only in the mid-1980s did Brazil, after a UN request, create its specialisation course on remote sensing dedicated to Latin American professionals. At the same period, the Agustin Codazzi Institute (Bogota, Colombia) began to offer specialisation courses in remote sensing. In South America, educational space programs are currently being created for elementary and high schools and universities, but the author personally estimates that 90% of these educational programs still make use of traditional educational materials — such as books, tutorials, maps and graphics. There is little educational material that uses multimedia resources, advanced computing or communication methods and, basically, these are the materials that are best suited to conduct instructions in remote sensing, GIS, meteorology and astronomy.

  6. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System Polyurethane Foam Insulation Materials (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Wells, Doug; Morgan, Kristin


    Experimental evaluation of the basic fracture properties of Thermal Protection System (TPS) polyurethane foam insulation materials was conducted to validate the methodology used in estimating critical defect sizes in TPS applications on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. The polyurethane foam found on the External Tank (ET) is manufactured by mixing liquid constituents and allowing them to react and expand upwards - a process which creates component cells that are generally elongated in the foam rise direction and gives rise to mechanical anisotropy. Similarly, the application of successive foam layers to the ET produces cohesive foam interfaces (knitlines) which may lead to local variations in mechanical properties. This study reports the fracture toughness of BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL-1034 closed-cell polyurethane foam as a function of ambient and cryogenic temperatures and knitline/cellular orientation at ambient pressure.

  7. Advanced air distribution for minimizing airborne cross infection in aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Dzhartov, Viktor


    was ventilated at 180 L/s. The concentration of Freon mixed with air exhaled by the “infected” manikin was measured. The personalized flow pushed the contaminated exhaled air backwards where it was pulled by the suction and exhausted before mixing with the cabin air. This resulted in substantial decrease...... simulated “infected” polluting passenger and another simulated “exposed” passenger. Personalized ventilation supplied clean air at 10 L/s from front against manikins’ face. Air was sucked at 10 L/s by a suction system of two nozzles positioned on the sides of “infected” manikin’s head. The cabin...... of the tracer gas concentration in the air inhaled by the “exposed” manikin and the exhausted cabin air....

  8. Bibliography of the space processing program. Volume 1: A compilation through June 1974, Parts 1 and 2. [space manufacturing/spacecraft construction materials - aerospace environments (United States)

    Shoultz, M. B.; Mcclurken, E. W., Jr.


    A compilation of NASA research efforts in the area of space environmental effects on materials and processes is presented. Topics considered are: (1) fluid mechanics and heat transfer; (2) crystal growth and containerless melts; (3) acoustics; (4) glass and ceramics; (5) electrophoresis; (6) welding; and (7) exobiology.

  9. Industrialization of Space: Microgravity Based Opportunities for Material and Life Science (United States)

    Cozmuta, Ioana; Harper, Lynn D.; Rasky, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Alexander; Pittman, Robert


    Microgravity based commercial opportunities are broad, with applications ranging from fiber optics, device-grade semiconductor crystals, space beads, new materials, cell micro encapsulation, 3D tissues and cell cultures, genetic and molecular changes of immune suppression, protein and virus crystal growth, perfume and hair care. To date, primarily the knowledge gained from observing and understanding new end states of systems unraveled in microgravity has been translated into unique technologies and business opportunities on Earth. In some instances existing light qualified hardware is immediately available for commercial RD for small scale in-space manufacturing. Overall products manufactured in microgravity have key properties usually surpassing the best terrestrial counterparts. The talk will address the potential benefits of microgravity research for a variety of terrestrial markets. Our findings originate from discussions with 100+ non-aerospace private companies among the high-tech Silicon Valley ecosystem, show that the opportunities and benefits of using the ISS are largely not considered by experts, primarily due to a lack of awareness of the breadth of terrestrial applications that have been enabled or enhanced by microgravity RD. Based on this dialogue, the concept of microgravity verticals is developed to translate the benefits of the microgravity environment into blue ocean business opportunities for various key US commercial sectors.

  10. Intelligent Flexible Materials for Space Structures: Expandable Habitat Engineering Development Unit (United States)

    Hinkle, Jon; Sharpe, George; Lin, John; Wiley, Cliff; Timmers, Richard


    Expandable habitable elements are an enabling technology for human exploration in space and on planetary surfaces. Large geometries can be deployed from a small launch volume, allowing greater mission capability while reducing mass and improving robustness over traditional rigid shells. This report describes research performed by ILC Dover under the Intelligent Flexible Materials for Space Structures program on the design and manufacture of softgoods for LaRC's Expandable Habitat Engineering Development Unit (EDU). The EDU is a full-scale structural test article of an expandable hybrid habitat, integrating an expandable softgoods center section with two rigid end caps. The design of the bladder, restraint layer and a mock-up Thermal Micrometeoroid Cover is detailed together with the design of the interface hardware used to attach them to the end caps. The integration and design of two windows and a floor are also covered. Analysis was performed to study the effects of the open weave design, and to determine the correct webbing and fabric configuration. Stress analyses were also carried out on the interfaces between the softgoods and the end caps and windows. Testing experimentally determined the strength of the fabric and straps, and component testing was used to proof several critical parts of the design. This program established new manufacturing and design techniques that can be applied to future applications in expandable structures.

  11. Enhanced ionic conductivity in composite materials due to interfacial space charge layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, N.J.


    The ionic conductivity of a number of salts (e.g., β-AgI, LiI, CuCl, HgI 2 , etc.) can be enhanced by one to three orders of magnitude with the addition of fine particles of an insoluble and nonconducting material such as Al 2 O 3 or SiO 2 . Typically the conductivity increases with addition of the inert particles and reaches a peak at 10-40 vol % of the particles. The mechanism responsible for the enhanced conductivity of the composite is not understood at this time. Some claim that this effect is due to an increased concentration of charge carriers in a diffuse space charge layer near the charged surface of the particle. The goal of the present study is to test this proposed mechanism by calculating the maximum space charge layer effect and then using this result to estimate the conductivity of a composite with a random distribution of Al 2 O 3 particles. Also, the conductivity of composite systems has been investigated assuming an ordered distribution of particles which are surrounded by a high conductivity layer

  12. Engineering report. Part 2: NASA wheel and brake material tradeoff study for space shuttle type environmental requirements (United States)

    Bok, L. D.


    The study included material selection and trade-off for the structural components of the wheel and brake optimizing weight vs cost and feasibility for the space shuttle type application. Analytical methods were used to determine section thickness for various materials, and a table was constructed showing weight vs. cost trade-off. The wheel and brake were further optimized by considering design philosophies that deviate from standard aircraft specifications, and designs that best utilize the materials being considered.

  13. NASA/First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) Module Inserts Development for the International Space Station (United States)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul


    The Material Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit. Two of the NASA MIs being developed for specific material science investigations are described herein.

  14. Spacecraft Cabin Air CO2 Recovery, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An advanced Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for long duration manned space missions ?such as planetary flight missions or planetary bases-...

  15. Ultralightweight PV Array Materials for Deep Space Mission Environments, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photovoltaic arrays for future deep space NASA missions demand multiple functionalities. They must efficiently generate electrical power, have very large areas and...

  16. The perceptual influence of the cabin acoustics on the reproduced sound of a car audio system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Sakari, Tervo


    -end car audio system was performed for different physical settings of the car's cabin. A novel spatial auralization methodology was then used, and participants were asked to describe verbally the perceived acoustical characteristics of the stimuli. The elicited attributes were then analyzed following...... a previous review [Kaplanis et al., in 55th Int. Conf. Aud. Eng. Soc. (2014)] and possible links to the acoustical properties of the car cabin are discussed. [This study is a part of Marie Curie Network on Dereverberation and Reverberation of Audio, Music, and Speech. EU-FP7 under agreement ITN-GA-2012-316969.]...

  17. A method for Perceptual Assessment of Automotive Audio Systems and Cabin Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Sakari, Tervo


    This paper reports the design and implementation of a method to perceptually assess the acoustical prop- erties of a car cabin and the subsequent sound reproduction properties of automotive audio systems. Here, we combine Spatial Decomposition Method and Rapid Sensory Analysis techniques. The for......This paper reports the design and implementation of a method to perceptually assess the acoustical prop- erties of a car cabin and the subsequent sound reproduction properties of automotive audio systems. Here, we combine Spatial Decomposition Method and Rapid Sensory Analysis techniques...

  18. Application and Simulation of Fuzzy Neural Network PID Controller in the Aircraft Cabin Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Fang


    Full Text Available Considering complex factors of affecting ambient temperature in Aircraft cabin, and some shortages of traditional PID control like the parameters difficult to be tuned and control ineffective, this paper puts forward the intelligent PID algorithm that makes fuzzy logic method and neural network together, scheming out the fuzzy neural net PID controller. After the correction of the fuzzy inference and dynamic learning of neural network, PID parameters of the controller get the optimal parameters. MATLAB simulation results of the cabin temperature control model show that the performance of the fuzzy neural network PID controller has been greatly improved, with faster response, smaller overshoot and better adaptability.

  19. Simulations of heat transfer through the cabin walls of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster M.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with industrial application of numerical methods to the prediction of thermal situation in the rail vehicle interior. Basic principles of heat transfer are summarised to explain both theoretical background of simulations and engineering approach to solving temperature conditions in the vehicle interior. The main part of the contribution describes the solution of the locomotive driver’s cabin heating and controlling the temperature levels. This contribution is a brief overview of both possibilities of engineering modelling of heat transfer modes and results in the simulation of the real locomotive cabin heating/ventilation system design.

  20. Assessment of radiation shielding materials for protection of space crews using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, J.M.; Benton, E.R.; Uchihori, Y.; Yasuda, N.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.


    A significant obstacle to long duration human space exploration such as the establishment of a permanent base on the surface of the Moon or a human mission to Mars is the risk posed by prolonged exposure to space radiation. In order to keep mission costs at acceptable levels while simultaneously minimizing the risk from radiation to space crew health and safety, a judicious use of optimized shielding materials will be required. We have undertaken a comprehensive study using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) to characterize the radiation shielding properties of a range of materials-both common baseline materials such as Al and polyethylene, and novel multifunctional materials such as carbon composites-at heavy ion accelerators. The study consists of analyzing CR-39 PNTD exposed in front of and behind shielding targets of varying composition and at a number of depths (target thicknesses) relevant to the development and testing of materials for space radiation shielding. Most targets consist of 10 cm x 10 cm slabs of solid materials ranging in thickness from 1 to >30 g/cm 2 . Exposures have been made to beams of C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, and Fe at energies ranging from 290 MeV/amu to 1 GeV/amu at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences HIMAC and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Analysis of the exposed detectors yields LET spectrum, dose, and dose equivalent as functions of target depth and composition, and incident heavy ion charge, energy, and fluence. Efforts are currently underway to properly weigh and combine these results into a single quantitative estimate of a material's ability to shield space crews from the interplanetary galactic cosmic ray flux.

  1. Benchmark studies of the effectiveness of structural and internal materials as radiation shielding for the international space station (United States)

    Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Heilbronn, L.; Stephens, D.; Wilson, J. W.


    Accelerator-based measurements and model calculations have been used to study the heavy-ion radiation transport properties of materials in use on the International Space Station (ISS). Samples of the ISS aluminum outer hull were augmented with various configurations of internal wall material and polyethylene. The materials were bombarded with high-energy iron ions characteristic of a significant part of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) heavy-ion spectrum. Transmitted primary ions and charged fragments produced in nuclear collisions in the materials were measured near the beam axis, and a model was used to extrapolate from the data to lower beam energies and to a lighter ion. For the materials and ions studied, at incident particle energies from 1037 MeV/nucleon down to at least 600 MeV/nucleon, nuclear fragmentation reduces the average dose and dose equivalent per incident ion. At energies below 400 MeV/nucleon, the calculation predicts that as material is added, increased ionization energy loss produces increases in some dosimetric quantities. These limited results suggest that the addition of modest amounts of polyethylene or similar material to the interior of the ISS will reduce the dose to ISS crews from space radiation; however, the radiation transport properties of ISS materials should be evaluated with a realistic space radiation field. Copyright 2003 by Radiation Research Society.

  2. Research on Space Environmental Effect of Organic Composite Materials for Thermal Management of Satellites Using MC-50 Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Weon Kim


    Full Text Available The organic material is one of the most popular material for the satellites and the spacecrafts in order to perform the thermal management, and to protect direct exposure from the space environment. The present paper observes material property changes of organic material under the space environment by using ground facilities. One of the representative organic thermal management material of satellites, 2 mil ITO(Indium Tin Oxide coated aluminized KAPTON was selected for experiments. In order to investigate the single parametric effect of protons in space environment, MC-50 cyclotron system in KIRAMS(Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science was utilized for the ion beam irradiation of protons and ion beam dose was set to the Very Large August 1972 EVENT model, the highest protons occurrence near the earth orbit in history. The energy of ion beam is fixed to 30MeV(mega electron volt, observed average energy, and the equivalent irradiance time conditions were set to 1-year, 3-year, 5-year and 10-year exposure in space. The procedure of analyses includes the measurement of the ultimate tensile strength for the assessment of quantitative degradation in material properties, and the imaging analyses of crystalline transformation and damages on the exposed surface by FE-SEM(Field Emission Scanning Electron Spectroscopy etc.

  3. Reflective and refractive optical materials for earth and space applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1991 (United States)

    Riedl, Max J.; Hale, Robert R.; Parsonage, Thomas B.

    The present conference discusses beryllium mirror design and fabrication, production of aspheric beryllium optical surfaces by HIP consolidation, the control of thermally induced porosity for the fabrication of beryllium optics, fine-grained beryllium optical coatings, light-absorbing beryllium baffle materials, and advanced broadband baffle materials. Also discussed are radiation-resistant optical glasses, a catalog of IR and cryooptical properties of selected materials, durable metal-dielectric mirror coatings, the optical stability of diffuse reflectance materials, and optical filters for space applications.

  4. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce


    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  5. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Technical Requirements for Electronic Parts, Materials, and Processes used in Space Vehicles (United States)


    glass or oxide passivation over junctions . 4.3 Screening (100 percent). Screening (100 percent) shall be in accordance with section 1400 for the JAN...75 VCE = 75 IC = 75 VCE = 75 IC = 75 Hetero - junction Bipolar Transistor Gallium Arsenide 3/ 105 125 N/A N/A 75 75 Current...HDBK-339 Custom Large Scale Integrated Circuit Development and Acquisition for Space Vehicles MIL-STD-403C Preparation for and Installation of

  6. On the wave induced responses for a high-speed hydrofoil catamaran. Part 2. Cabin connected to hull by spring and response to vibration; Suichuyokutsuki kosoku sodotei no harochu oto ni tsuite. 2. Dokuritsu kozogata cabin to yodo oto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, H; Kitamura, M; Kawamura, T [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A high-speed hydrofoil catamaran under development has such a structure that an independent cabin is mounted on catamaran hulls, the cabin is connected with the hulls by using four soft springs, and hydrofoils are attached to the front and rear of the cabin. The structural design conception was as follows: the self-weight of the cabin is supported by lifting power of the hydrofoils while the boat is cruising; longitudinal motions of the catamaran hulls are absorbed by soft spring struts to make the motions more difficult to be transmitted into the cabin; and vibration excited by engines rotating at high speeds, attached to rear of the catamaran hulls, is not transmitted directly to the cabin structurally. A towing experiment was carried out by using divided models of about 1/10 scale in counter waves and regular waves to investigate their vibration response characteristics in waves. Furthermore, an experimental boat made of aluminum alloy with about 1/3 scale of the design boat was attached with composite structural struts made of springs and rubber parts to perform cruising experiments on an actual sea area. As a result, it was found that vibration excited by main engines in the catamaran hulls is transmitted very little to the cabin. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program: Protection of materials in the space environment subprogram (United States)

    Schmidt, Lorne R.; Francoeur, J.; Aguero, Alina; Wertheimer, Michael R.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.; Martinu, L.; Blezius, J. W.; Oliver, M.; Singh, A.


    Three projects are currently underway for the development of new coatings for the protection of materials in the space environment. These coatings are based on vacuum deposition technologies. The projects will go as far as the proof-of-concept stage when the commercial potential for the technology will be demonstrated on pilot-scale fabrication facilities in 1996. These projects are part of a subprogram to develop supporting technologies for automation and robotics technologies being developed under the Canadian Space Agency's STEAR Program, part of the Canadian Space Station Program.

  8. Research on release rate of volatile organic compounds in typical vessel cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jinlan


    Full Text Available [Objectives] Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC should be efficiently controlled in vessel cabins to ensure the crew's health and navigation safety. As an important parameter, research on release rate of VOCs in cabins is required. [Methods] This paper develops a method to investigate this parameter of a ship's cabin based on methods used in other closed indoor environments. A typical vessel cabin is sampled with Tenax TA tubes and analyzed by Automated Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS. The lumped mode is used and the release rate of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX, the typical representatives of VOCs, is obtained both in closed and ventilated conditions. [Results] The results show that the content of xylene and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC exceed the indoor environment standards in ventilated conditions. The BTEX release rate is similar in both conditions except for the benzene. [Conclusions] This research builds a method to measure the release rate of VOCs, providing references for pollution character evaluation and ventilation and purification system design.

  9. Differences in physical workload between military helicopter pilots and cabin crew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oord, Marieke H. A.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.


    The 1-year prevalence of regular or continuous neck pain in military helicopter pilots of the Dutch Defense Helicopter Command (DHC) is 20%, and physical work exposures have been suggested as risk factors. Pilots and cabin crew perform different tasks when flying helicopters. The aims of the current

  10. An Evacuation Model for Passenger Ships That Includes the Influence of Obstacles in Cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Ni


    Full Text Available Passenger behavior and ship environment are the key factors affecting evacuation efficiency. However, current studies ignore the interior layout of passenger ship cabins and treat the cabins as empty rooms. To investigate the influence of obstacles (e.g., tables and stools on cabin evacuation, we propose an agent-based social force model for advanced evacuation analysis of passenger ships; this model uses a goal-driven submodel to determine a plan and an extended social force submodel to govern the movement of passengers. The extended social force submodel considers the interaction forces between the passengers, crew, and obstacles and minimises the range of these forces to improve computational efficiency. We drew the following conclusions based on a series of evacuation simulations conducted in this study: (1 the proposed model endows the passenger with the behaviors of bypassing and crossing obstacles, (2 funnel-shaped exits from cabins can improve evacuation efficiency, and (3 as the exit angle increases, the evacuation time also increases. These findings offer ship designers some insight towards increasing the safety of large passenger ships.

  11. Apollo Soyuz mission, toxic gas entered cabin during earth landing sequence (United States)


    A postflight analysis is presented of the sequence which caused toxic gas to enter the cabin during repressurization for 30 seconds from manual deployment of the drogue parachutes at 18,550 feet to disabling of the reaction control system at 9600 feet. Results and conclusions are discussed.

  12. Early and late Holocene glacial fluctuations and tephrostratigraphy, Cabin Lake, Alaska (United States)

    Zander, Paul D.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Kuehn, Stephen C.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Anderson, R. Scott


    Marked changes in sediment types deposited in Cabin Lake, near Cordova, Alaska, represent environmental shifts during the early and late Holocene, including fluctuations in the terminal position of Sheridan Glacier. Cabin Lake is situated to receive meltwater during periods when the outwash plain of the advancing Sheridan Glacier had aggraded. A brief early Holocene advance from 11.2 to 11.0 cal ka is represented by glacial rock flour near the base of the sediment core. Non-glacial lake conditions were restored for about 1000 years before the water level in Cabin Lake lowered and the core site became a fen. The fen indicates drier-than-present conditions leading up to the Holocene thermal maximum. An unconformity spanning 5400 years during the mid-Holocene is overlain by peat until 1110 CE when meltwater from Sheridan Glacier returned to the basin. Three intervals of an advanced Sheridan Glacier are recorded in the Cabin Lake sediments during the late Holocene: 1110–1180, 1260–1540 and 1610–1780 CE. The sedimentary sequence also contains the first five reported tephra deposits from the Copper River delta region, and their geochemical signatures suggest that the sources are the Cook Inlet volcanoes Redoubt, Augustine and Crater Peak, and possibly Mt Churchill in the Wrangell Volcanic field.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Comfort has a great importance in the interior design of tractor and agricultural machinery cabins. Operators are exposed to muscoskeletal system disorders since they spend long time periods during the day in these vehicles. There is a few work in the literature reporting operators’ opinions about cabin comfort of these machineries. In this study, a questionnaire was conducted in order to get information about agricultural machinery operators’ opinions about the comfort of their vehicles. Tractor cabins and combine harvester machine cabins were selected as machineries. The study was conducted in Eskişehir in Turkey. Questionnaire was composed of four groups of questions and five ordered response levels were used in the Likert's scale. Demographic questions, general questions about the machine, personal evaluation questions and open ended questions were asked to the operators. After the questionnaire completed, collected data were classified according to the machine type. Frequency tables were used to present the results. Visibility and the accessibility were the most satisfied issues for the tractor operators with 55.9% and 55.4% percentages, respectively. Seat comfort has the highest satisfaction degree with 43.7% for the combine harvester operators. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was used for the satisfaction questions in the applied questionnaire. The reliability of the study was high with coefficients of 0.878 and 0.940 for the tractor and combine harvester questionnaires, respectively. This study will support design and development process of new products by considering operator opinions.

  14. Passenger thermal comfort and behavior: a field investigation in commercial aircraft cabins. (United States)

    Cui, W; Wu, T; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y


    Passengers' behavioral adjustments warrant greater attention in thermal comfort research in aircraft cabins. Thus, a field investigation on 10 commercial aircrafts was conducted. Environment measurements were made and a questionnaire survey was performed. In the questionnaire, passengers were asked to evaluate their thermal comfort and record their adjustments regarding the usage of blankets and ventilation nozzles. The results indicate that behavioral adjustments in the cabin and the use of blankets or nozzle adjustments were employed by 2/3 of the passengers. However, the thermal comfort evaluations by these passengers were not as good as the evaluations by passengers who did not perform any adjustments. Possible causes such as differences in metabolic rate, clothing insulation and radiation asymmetry are discussed. The individual difference seems to be the most probable contributor, suggesting possibly that passengers who made adjustments had a narrower acceptance threshold or a higher expectancy regarding the cabin environment. Local thermal comfort was closely related to the adjustments and significantly influenced overall thermal comfort. Frequent flying was associated with lower ratings for the cabin environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The effect of the descent technique and truck cabin layout on the landing impact forces. (United States)

    Patenaude, S; Marchand, D; Samperi, S; Bélanger, M


    The majority of injuries to truckers are caused by falls during the descent from the cab of the truck. Several studies have shown that the techniques used to descend from the truck and the layout of the truck's cabin are the principal cause of injury. The goal of the present study was to measure the effects of the descent techniques used by the trucker and the layout of the truck's cabin on the impact forces absorbed by the lower limbs and the back. Kinematic data, obtained with the aid of a video camera, were combined with the force platform data to allow for calculation of the lower limb and L5-S1 torques as well as L5-S1 compressive forces. The trucker descended from two different conventional tractor cabin layouts. Each trucker descended from cabin using either "facing the truck" (FT) or "back to the truck" (BT) techniques. The results demonstrate that the BT technique produces greater ground impact forces than the FT technique, particularly when the truck does not have a handrail. The BT technique also causes an increase in the compressive forces exerted on the back. In conclusion, the use of the FT technique along with the aids (i.e., handrails and all the steps) help lower the landing impact forces as well as the lumbosacral compressive forces.

  16. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers (United States)


    ... [Docket No.: FAA-2012-0953] Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft... regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This policy statement will enhance...

  17. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David P.


    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evalu-ate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices using Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjec-tive human assessments ...

  18. Intuitive thinking of design and redesign on innovative aircraft cabin simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.


    In this paper, the intuition approach in the design and redesign of the environmental friendly innovative aircraft cabin simulator is presented. The simulator is a testbed that was designed and built for research on aircraft passenger comfort improvement of long haul air travel. The simulation

  19. The influence of ozone on self-evaluation of symptoms in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Weschler, Charles J.; Wargocki, Pawel


    Simulated 4-h flights were carried out in a realistic model of a three-row, 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin that was reconstructed inside a climate chamber. Twenty-nine female subjects, age 19-27 years, were split into two groups; each group was exposed to four conditions: two levels of ozone (...

  20. An innovative HVAC control system: Implementation and testing in a vehicular cabin. (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan; Povalač, Aleš; Urbanec, Tomáš; Jícha, Miroslav


    Personal vehicles undergo rapid development in every imaginable way. However, a concept of managing a cabin thermal environment remains unchanged for decades. The only major improvement has been an automatic HVAC controller with one user's input - temperature. In this case, the temperature is often deceiving because of thermally asymmetric and dynamic nature of the cabins. As a result, the effects of convection and radiation on passengers are not captured in detail what also reduces the potential to meet thermal comfort expectations. Advanced methodologies are available to assess the cabin environment in a fine resolution (e.g. ISO 14505:2006), but these are used mostly in laboratory conditions. The novel idea of this work is to integrate equivalent temperature sensors into a vehicular cabin in proximity of an occupant. Spatial distribution of the sensors is expected to provide detailed information about the local environment that can be used for personalised, comfort driven HVAC control. The focus of the work is to compare results given by the implemented system and a Newton type thermal manikin. Three different ambient settings were examined in a climate chamber. Finally, the results were compared and a good match of equivalent temperatures was found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of aircraft cabin testbed for stress free air travel experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.


    The paper presents an aircraft cabin testbed that is designed and built for the stress free air travel experiment. The project is funded by European Union in the aim of improving air travel comfort during long haul flight. The testbed is used to test and validate the adaptive system that is capable

  2. Science driven restoration: A candle in a demon haunted world—response to cabin (United States)

    Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton; Jarrod M. Thaxton; Susan Cordell; Lisa J. Hadway; Darren R. Sandquist


    Cabin (2007) asks whether formal science is an effective framework and methodology for designing and implementing ecological restoration programs. He argues that beyond certain ancillary benefits, restoration science has little of practical value to offer the practice of restoration. He goes on to suggest that restoration science most often represents an impediment to...

  3. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers (United States)


    ... air quality issues; food/beverage carts; and ergonomics. OSHA's noise, bloodborne pathogens, and... exposure, cabin air quality, food and beverage cart and ergonomic issues are not being considered at this... comments from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health that cited several studies it...

  4. Utilization of lunar materials and expertise for large scale operations in space: Abstracts. [lunar bases and space industrialization (United States)

    Criswell, D. R. (Editor)


    The practicality of exploiting the moon, not only as a source of materials for large habitable structures at Lagrangian points, but also as a base for colonization is discussed in abstracts of papers presented at a special session on lunar utilization. Questions and answers which followed each presentation are included after the appropriate abstract. Author and subject indexes are provided.

  5. Future aircraft cabins and design thinking: optimisation vs. win-win scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hall


    Full Text Available With projections indicating an increase in mobility over the next few decades and annual flight departures expected to rise to over 16 billion by 2050, there is a demand for the aviation industry and associated stakeholders to consider new forms of aircraft and technology. Customer requirements are recognized as a key driver in business. The airline is the principal customer for the aircraft manufacture. The passenger is, in turn, the airline's principal customer but they are just one of several stakeholders that include aviation authorities, airport operators, air-traffic control and security agencies. The passenger experience is a key differentiator used by airlines to attract and retain custom and the fuselage that defines the cabin envelope for the in-flight passenger experience and cabin design therefore receives significant attention for new aircraft, service updates and refurbishments. Decision making in design is crucial to arriving at viable and worthwhile cabin formats. Too little innovation will result in an aircraft manufacturer and airlines using its products falling behind its competitors. Too much may result in an over-extension with, for example, use of immature technologies that do not have the necessary reliability for a safety critical industry or sufficient value to justify the development effort. The multiple requirements associated with cabin design, can be viewed as an area for optimisation, accepting trade-offs between the various parameters. Good design, however, is often defined as developing a concept that resolves the contradictions and takes the solution towards a win-win scenario. Indeed our understanding and practice of design allows for behaviors that enhance design thinking through divergence and convergence, the use of abductive reasoning, experimentation and systems thinking. This paper explores and defines the challenges of designing the aircraft cabin of the future that will deliver on the multiple

  6. Passive Radiation Shielding: Integrating Multilayer and Multipurpose Materials into Space Habitat Design (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The prospect of long-term human spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit poses a unique set of challenges for space habitat designers. One of those challenges is...

  7. Advanced Materials for Safe, High Performance Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Batteries, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA space exploration vehicles are trending to higher pulse power, energy capacity levels and cycle life in order to meet exponentially increasing performance and...

  8. Status and plans of NASA's Materials Science and Manufacturing in Space (MS/MS) program (United States)

    Armstrong, W. O.; Bredt, J. H.


    A description is given of a research and development program on the space shuttle mission designed to prepare the way for possible commercial manufacturing operations on permanently orbiting space stations.

  9. Traffic model for commercial payloads in the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA). [market research in commercial space processing (United States)

    Tietzel, F. A.


    One hundred individuals representing universities, technical institutes, government agencies, and industrial facilities were surveyed to determine potential commercial use of a self-contained, automated assembly for the space processing of materials during frequent shuttle flights for the 1981 to 1987 period. The approach used and the results of the study are summarized. A time time-phased projection (traffic model) of commercial usage of the materials experiment assembly is provided.

  10. Interior noise analysis of a construction equipment cabin based on airborne and structure-borne noise predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hee; Hong, Suk Yoon; Song, Jee Hun; Joo, Won Ho


    Noise from construction equipment affects not only surrounding residents, but also the operators of the machines. Noise that affects drivers must be evaluated during the preliminary design stage. This paper suggests an interior noise analysis procedure for construction equipment cabins. The analysis procedure, which can be used in the preliminary design stage, was investigated for airborne and structure borne noise. The total interior noise of a cabin was predicted from the airborne noise analysis and structure-borne noise analysis. The analysis procedure consists of four steps: modeling, vibration analysis, acoustic analysis and total interior noise analysis. A mesh model of a cabin for numerical analysis was made at the modeling step. At the vibration analysis step, the mesh model was verified and modal analysis and frequency response analysis are performed. At the acoustic analysis step, the vibration results from the vibration analysis step were used as initial values for radiated noise analysis and noise reduction analysis. Finally, the total cabin interior noise was predicted using the acoustic results from the acoustic analysis step. Each step was applied to a cabin of a middle-sized excavator and verified by comparison with measured data. The cabin interior noise of a middle-sized wheel loader and a large-sized forklift were predicted using the analysis procedure of the four steps and were compared with measured data. The interior noise analysis procedure of construction equipment cabins is expected to be used during the preliminary design stage

  11. Interior noise analysis of a construction equipment cabin based on airborne and structure-borne noise predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hee; Hong, Suk Yoon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jee Hun [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Won Ho [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Noise from construction equipment affects not only surrounding residents, but also the operators of the machines. Noise that affects drivers must be evaluated during the preliminary design stage. This paper suggests an interior noise analysis procedure for construction equipment cabins. The analysis procedure, which can be used in the preliminary design stage, was investigated for airborne and structure borne noise. The total interior noise of a cabin was predicted from the airborne noise analysis and structure-borne noise analysis. The analysis procedure consists of four steps: modeling, vibration analysis, acoustic analysis and total interior noise analysis. A mesh model of a cabin for numerical analysis was made at the modeling step. At the vibration analysis step, the mesh model was verified and modal analysis and frequency response analysis are performed. At the acoustic analysis step, the vibration results from the vibration analysis step were used as initial values for radiated noise analysis and noise reduction analysis. Finally, the total cabin interior noise was predicted using the acoustic results from the acoustic analysis step. Each step was applied to a cabin of a middle-sized excavator and verified by comparison with measured data. The cabin interior noise of a middle-sized wheel loader and a large-sized forklift were predicted using the analysis procedure of the four steps and were compared with measured data. The interior noise analysis procedure of construction equipment cabins is expected to be used during the preliminary design stage.

  12. The Materiality of Territorial Production - A Conceptual Discussion of Territoriality, Materiality and the Everyday Life of Public Space


    Kärrholm, Mattias


    This article brings together research on territoriality and actor-network theory in order to develop new ways of investigating the role of materiality and material design in the territorial power relations of urban public places. Using the public square as a main example, I suggest some new ways of conceptualizing the production and stabilization of territories in the everyday urban environment. Setting out from a brief outline of the history of territoriality research, I re-appropriate the t...

  13. Lessons learned from the development and manufacture of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials for the space shuttle orbiters (United States)

    Banas, R. P.; Elgin, D. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Nickel, K. N.; Gzowski, E. R.; Aguiler, L.


    Three ceramic, reusable surface insulation materials and two borosilicate glass coatings were used in the fabrication of tiles for the Space Shuttle orbiters. Approximately 77,000 tiles were made from these materials for the first three orbiters, Columbia, Challenger, and Discovery. Lessons learned in the development, scale up to production and manufacturing phases of these materials will benefit future production of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials. Processing of raw materials into tile blanks and coating slurries; programming and machining of tiles using numerical controlled milling machines; preparing and spraying tiles with the two coatings; and controlling material shrinkage during the high temperature (2100-2275 F) coating glazing cycles are among the topics discussed.

  14. Light-induced space-charge fields for the structuration of dielectric materials; Lichtinduzierte Raumladungsfelder zur Strukturierung dielektrischer Materialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, H A


    Light-induced space-charge fields in lithium-niobate crystals are used for patterning of dielectric materials. This includes tailored ferroelectric domains in the bulk of the crystal, different sorts of micro and nanoparticles on a crystal surface, as well as poling of electrooptic chromophores. A stochastical model is introduced, which can describe the spatial inhomogeneous domain inversion. (orig.)

  15. [Studies on the growth and reproduction of bacterial communities on structural materials of the international space station]. (United States)

    Rakova, N M; Svistunova, Iu V; Novikova, N D


    Probability of microbial growth and reproduction on the ISS interior and equipment materials varying in chemical composition was studied with the strains of Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas putida etc. sampled from the ISS environment. Controls were ground reference strains of same bacterial species. Based on our results, some of the microorganisms are able to survive and proliferate on structural materials; the ability was greater in space isolates as compared with their ground analogs. The greatest ability to grow and proliferate on materials was demonstrated by Bacillus subtilis.

  16. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -IH and Vacuum cooking - (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Murasaki, Masahiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. This study was aimed at making balance space foods menu for the healthy space-life. The kitchen utensil has a limit in the space environment. And a method to warm is only heater without fire. Therefore purpose of this study, we make the space foods which make by using vacuum cooking device and the IH heater We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores.. We could make the space foods which we devised with vacuum cooking and IH deliciously. As a result of sensuality examination, the eight points in ten points of perfect scores was appeared. This result showed, our space food menu is delicious. We can store these space foods with a refrigerator for 20 days by making vacuum cooking. This thing is at all important result so that a save is enabled when surplus food was done in future by performing vacuum cooking. We want to make delicious space foods menu with vacuum cooking and IH heater more in future.

  17. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level- (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  18. Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance (United States)

    Zhao, Dongliang

    The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module

  19. Mechanical and Structural Behavior of Granular Material Packed Beds for Space Life Support System Applications (United States)

    Malla, Ramesh B.; Anandakumar, Ganesh


    Long-term human mission to space, such as living in International Space Station (ISS), Lunar, and Martian bases, and travel to Mars, must m ake use of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) to generate and recycle critical life supporting elements like oxygen and water. Oxygen Gen eration Assembly (OGA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA), critical c omponents of ALSS, make use of series of granular material packed beds for generation and recycling of oxygen and water. Several granular m aterials can be used for generation, recycling, processing and recovery of oxygen and water. For example, they may include soft bed media, e.g. ion exchange resins for oxygen generation assembly and hard bed media such as, activated alumina, magchem (Magnesium oxide) and activa ted carbon to remove organic species like ethanol, methanol, and urea from wastewater in Water recovery/processing assembly. These beds are generally packed using a plate-spring mechanism to provide sufficien t compaction to the bed media throughout the course of operation. This paper presents results from an experimental study of a full-scale, 3 8.1 cm (15 inches) long and 3.7 cm (1.44 inches) diameter. activated alumina bed enclosed in a cylinder determining its force-displacement behavior, friction mobilizing force, and axial normal stress distribu tion under various axially applied loads and at different levels of packing. It is observed that force-displacement behavior is non-linear for low compaction level and becomes linear with increase in compaction of the bed media. Axial normal stress distribution along the length of the bed media decreased non-linearly with increase in depth from the loading end of the granular media. This paper also presents experimental results on the amount of particulates generated corresponding to various compaction levels. Particulates generated from each of the tests were measured using standard US sieves. It was found that the p articulates and the overall displacement of

  20. Using Pre-Melted Phase Change Material to Keep Payloads in Space Warm for Hours without Power (United States)

    Choi, Michael


    Adding phase change material (PCM) to a mission payload can maintain its temperature above the cold survival limit, without power, for several hours in space. For the International Space Station, PCM is melted by heaters just prior to the payload translation to the worksite when power is available. When power is cut off during the six-hour translation, the PCM releases its latent heat to make up the heat loss from the radiator(s) to space. For the interplanetary Probe, PCM is melted by heaters just prior to separation from the orbiter when power is available from the orbiter power system. After the Probe separates from the orbiter, the PCM releases its latent heat to make up the heat loss from the Probe exterior to space. Paraffin wax is a good PCM candidate.

  1. Trace Contaminant Control During the International Space Station's On-Orbit Assembly and Outfitting (United States)

    Perry, J. L.


    Achieving acceptable cabin air quality must balance competing elements during spacecraft design, assembly, ground processing, and flight operations. Among the elements that contribute to the trace chemical contaminant load and, therefore, the cabin air quality aboard crewed spacecraft are the vehicle configuration, crew size and activities, mission duration and objectives, materials selection, and vehicle manufacturing and preflight ground processing methods. Trace chemical contaminants produced from pervasive sources such as equipment offgassing, human metabolism, and cleaning fluids during preflight ground processing present challenges to maintaining acceptable cabin air quality. To address these challenges, both passive and active contamination control techniques are used during a spacecraft's design, manufacturing, preflight preparation, and operational phases. Passive contamination control methods seek to minimize the equipment offgassing load by selecting materials, manufacturing processes, preflight preparation processes, and in-flight operations that have low chemical offgassing characteristics. Passive methods can be employed across the spacecraft's entire life cycle from conceptual design through flight operations. However, because the passive contamination control techniques cannot fully eliminate the contaminant load, active contamination control equipment must be deployed aboard the spacecraft to purify and revitalize the cabin atmosphere during in-flight operations. Verifying that the passive contamination control techniques have successfully maintained the total trace contaminant load within the active contamination control equipment's capabilities occurs late in the preflight preparation stages. This verification consists of subjecting the spacecraft to an offgassing test to determine the trace contaminant load. This load is then assessed versus the active contamination control equipment's capabilities via trace contaminant control (TCC) engineering

  2. Experimental Study of Dispersion and Deposition of Expiratory Aerosols in Aircraft Cabins and Impact on Infectious Disease Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    To, G.N.S.; Wan, M.P.; Chao, C.Y.H.


    The dispersion and deposition characteristics of polydispersed expiratory aerosols were investigated in an aircraft cabin mockup to study the transmission of infectious diseases. The airflow was characterized by particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Aerosol dispersionwas measured...

  3. Effects of Heating on Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP Thermal Control Material from the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    deGroh, Kim; Gaier, James R.; Hall, Rachelle L.; Norris, Mary Jo; Espe, Matthew P.; Cato, Daveen R.


    Metallized Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) thermal control material on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is degrading in the space environment. Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP thermal control blankets (space-facing FEP) retrieved during the first servicing mission (SM1) were found to be embrittled on solar facing surfaces and contained microscopic cracks. During the second servicing mission (SM2) astronauts noticed that the FEP outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was cracked in many locations around the telescope. Large cracks were observed on the light shield, forward shell and equipment bays. A tightly curled piece of cracked FEP from the light shield was retrieved during SM2 and was severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. A Failure Review Board (FRB) was organized to determine the mechanism causing the MLI degradation. Density, x-ray crystallinity and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of FEP retrieved during SM1 were inconsistent with results of FEP retrieved during SM2. Because the retrieved SM2 material curled while in space, it experienced a higher temperature extreme during thermal cycling, estimated at 200 C, than the SM1 material, estimated at 50 C. An investigation on the effects of heating pristine and FEP exposed on HST was therefore conducted. Samples of pristine. SM1, and SM2 FEP were heated to 200 C and evaluated for changes in density and morphology. Elevated temperature exposure was found to have a major impact on the density of the retrieved materials. Characterization of polymer morphology of as-received and heated FEP samples by NMR provided results that were consistent with the density results. These findings have provided insight to the damage mechanisms of FEP in the space environment.

  4. CosmoBon for studying wood formation under exotic gravitational environment for future space agriculture (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Funada, Ryo; Nakamura, Teruko; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Cosmobon, Jstwg

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science. Japanese flowering cherry tree is one of a candidate for these studies. Mechanism behind sensing gravity and controlling shape of tree has been studied quite extensively. Even molecular mechanism for the response of plant against gravity has been investigated quite intensively for various species, woody plants are left behind. Morphology of woody branch growth is different from that of stem growth in herbs. Morphology in tree is strongly dominated by the secondary xylem formation. Nobody knows the tree shape grown under the space environment. If whole tree could be brought up to space as research materials, it might provide important scientific knowledge. Furthermore, trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. The serious problem would be their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We can study secondly xylem formation, wood formation, under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. "CosmoBon" is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. It has been recognized that the reaction wood in CosmoBon is formed similar to natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  5. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yang Lu


    Full Text Available An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonyl compounds (CCs in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  6. Products of Ozone-initiated Chemistry during 4-hour Exposures of Human Subjects in a Simulated Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Wisthaler, Armin; Tamás, Gyöngyi


    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to examine organic compounds in the air of a simulated aircraft cabin under four conditions: low ozone, low air exchange rate; low ozone, high air exchange rate; high ozone, low air exchange rate; high ozone, high air exchange rate....... The results showed large differences in the chemical composition of the cabin air between the low and high ozone conditions. These differences were more pronounced at the low air exchange condition....

  7. Implication of Emotional Labor, Cognitive Flexibility, and Relational Energy among Cabin Crew: A Review. (United States)

    Baruah, Rithi; Reddy, K Jayasankara


    The primary aim of the civil aviation industry is to provide a secured and comfortable service to their customers and clients. This review concentrates on the cabin crew members, who are the frontline employees of the aviation industry and are salaried to smile. The objective of this review article is to analyze the variables of emotional labor, cognitive flexibility, and relational energy using the biopsychosocial model and identify organizational implications among cabin crew. Online databases such as EBSCOhost, JSTOR, Springerlink, and PubMed were used to gather articles for the review. The authors analyzed 17 articles from 2001 to 2016 and presented a comprehensive review. The review presented an integrative approach and suggested a hypothetical model that can prove to be a signitficant contribution to the avaition industry in particular and to research findings of aviation psychology.

  8. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.


    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented

  9. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang


    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  10. Increasing EDV Range through Intelligent Cabin Air Handling Strategies: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a Ford Focus Electric demonstrated that a split flow heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system with rear recirculation ducts can reduce cabin heating loads by up to 57.4% relative to full fresh air usage under some conditions (steady state, four passengers, ambient temperature of -5 deg C). Simulations also showed that implementing a continuous recirculation fraction control system into the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) HVAC system can reduce cabin heating loads by up to 50.0% relative to full fresh air usage under some conditions (steady state, four passengers, ambient temperature of -5 deg C). Identified that continuous fractional recirculation control of the OEM system can provide significant energy savings for EVs at minimal additional cost, while a split flow HVAC system with rear recirculation ducts only provides minimal additional improvement at significant additional cost.

  11. Dual direction blower system powered by solar energy to reduce car cabin temperature in open parking condition (United States)

    Hamdan, N. S.; Radzi, M. F. M.; Damanhuri, A. A. M.; Mokhtar, S. N.


    El-nino phenomenon that strikes Malaysia with temperature recorded more than 35°C can lead to extreme temperature rise in car cabin up to 80°C. Various problems will arise due to this extreme rising of temperature such as the occupant are vulnerable to heat stroke, emission of benzene gas that can cause cancer due to reaction of high temperature with interior compartments, and damage of compartments in the car. The current solution available to reduce car cabin temperature including tinted of window and portable heat rejection device that are available in the market. As an alternative to reduce car cabin temperature, this project modifies the car’s air conditioning blower motor into dual direction powered by solar energy and identifies its influence to temperature inside the car, parked under scorching sun. By reducing the car cabin temperature up to 10°C which equal to 14% of reduction in the car cabin temperature, this simple proposed system aims to provide comfort to users due to its capability in improving the quality of air and moisture in the car cabin.

  12. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  13. Ultra-Lightweight High Efficiency Nanostructured Materials and Coatings for Deep Space Mission Environments, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has developed a nanostructured spray self-assembly manufacturing method that has resulted in ultra-lightweight ( 1000%), and multi-layer, high efficiency...

  14. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon


    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  15. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  16. Show in the Sky: A Research on Emotional Labor Processes of Cabin Crew


    İyem, Cemal; Yıldız, Fatma Zehra


    It seems that emotions of the workers gain a commercial quality with internal behaviors as similing entering working life such. The element of emotion requests that the workers must adapt their own feelings to the aim of organization. Competitive politics off service sector have been turning the feelings of workers into pleasure of costumers. In the education of cabin attendants working on the field of aviation sector which emotional labour is very condense, are told to be patient and have ha...

  17. Performance Testing of a Photocatalytic Oxidation Module for Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Revitalization (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Scott, Joseph P.; Kaiser, Mark; Seminara, Gary; Bershitsky, Alex


    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a candidate process technology for use in high volumetric flow rate trace contaminant control applications in sealed environments. The targeted application for PCO as applied to crewed spacecraft life support system architectures is summarized. Technical challenges characteristic of PCO are considered. Performance testing of a breadboard PCO reactor design for mineralizing polar organic compounds in a spacecraft cabin atmosphere is described. Test results are analyzed and compared to results reported in the literature for comparable PCO reactor designs.

  18. Experimental identification of noise reduction properties of honeycomb panels using a small cabin


    D'Ortona, Vittorio; Vivolo, Marianna; Pluymers, Bert; Vandepitte, Dirk; Desmet, Wim


    A procedure to identify the noise reduction properties of panels by means of a single cabin test setup is discussed. The complexity of the sound pressure field that builds up in the acoustic volume requires the support of advanced numerical techniques allowing for the evaluation of noise and vibration performances. Numerical models are used to predict the structural dynamics and the vibro-acoustic behaviour of the tested panel. Both Finite Element and Boundary Element simulations are validate...

  19. Health Effects of Airline Cabin Environments in Simulated 8-Hour Flights. (United States)


    Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft. Biomarkers of thrombosis (D-Dimer), inflammation (interleukin-6), and respiratory dysfunction (FEV1) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) were measured, as well as pulse and blood pressure. The wellbeing of the passengers was also monitored. During 36 flights, 1260 healthy subjects [626 women (F) and 634 men (M) (mean age = 43, SD = 16)] were assessed. Additionally, 72 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (F = 32, M = 40, mean age = 48, SD = 17) and 74 with heart failure (F = 50, M = 24, mean age = 54, SD = 14) contributed to 11 flights. Additionally, 76 normal controls were observed while engaged in a usual day's work (F = 38, M = 38, mean age = 39, SD = 15). There were no health-significant changes in D-Dimer, interleukin-6, or FEV1. Spo2 varied as expected, with lowest values at 8000 ft and in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. The only differences from the controls were the loss of the normal diurnal variations in interleukin-6 and D-Dimer. This very large, comparative, controlled study provides much reassurance for the traveling public, who use airline flights of up to 8 h. We did not show evidence of the development of venous thrombosis, inflammation, respiratory embarrassment, nor passenger distress. No significant symptoms or adverse effects were reported.Ideal Cabin Environment (ICE) Research Consortium of the European Community 6th Framework Programme. Health effects of airline cabin environments in simulated 8-hour flights. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):651-656.

  20. Future utilization of space: Silverton Conference on material science and phase transformations in zero-gravity, summary of proceeding (United States)

    Eisner, M. (Editor)


    The importance of zero gravity environment in the development and production of new and improved materials is considered along with the gravitational effects on phase changes or critical behavior in a variety of materials. Specific experiments discussed include: fine scale phase separation in zero gravity; glass formation in zero gravity; effects of gravitational perturbations on determination of critical exponents; and light scattering from long wave fluctuations in liquids in zero gravity. It is concluded that the space shuttle/spacelab system is applicable to various fields of interest.

  1. Spontaneous radiation of a chiral molecule located near a half-space of a bi-isotropic material (United States)

    Guzatov, D. V.; Klimov, V. V.; Poprukailo, N. S.


    Analytical expressions for the rate of spontaneous emission from a chiral (optically active) molecule located near a half-space occupied by a chiral (bi-isotropic) material have been obtained and analyzed in detail. It is established that the rates of spontaneous emission from the "right" and "left" enantiomers of molecules occurring near the chiral medium may significantly differ in cases of chiral materials with (i) both negative dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability (DNG metamaterial) and (ii) negative permeability and positive permittivity (MNG metamaterial). Based on this phenomenon, DMG and MNG metamaterials can be used to create devices capable of separating right and left enantiomers in racemic mixtures.

  2. Spontaneous radiation of a chiral molecule located near a half-space of a bi-isotropic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzatov, D. V.; Klimov, V. V.; Poprukailo, N. S.


    Analytical expressions for the rate of spontaneous emission from a chiral (optically active) molecule located near a half-space occupied by a chiral (bi-isotropic) material have been obtained and analyzed in detail. It is established that the rates of spontaneous emission from the “right” and “left” enantiomers of molecules occurring near the chiral medium may significantly differ in cases of chiral materials with (i) both negative dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability (DNG metamaterial) and (ii) negative permeability and positive permittivity (MNG metamaterial). Based on this phenomenon, DMG and MNG metamaterials can be used to create devices capable of separating right and left enantiomers in racemic mixtures.

  3. Damping layout optimization for ship's cabin noise reduction based on statistical energy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Weiguo


    Full Text Available An optimization analysis study concerning the damping control of ship's cabin noise was carried out in order to improve the effect and reduce the weight of damping. Based on the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA method, a theoretical deduction and numerical analysis of the first-order sensitivity analysis of the A-weighted sound pressure level concerning the damping loss factor of the subsystem were carried out. On this basis, a mathematical optimization model was proposed and an optimization program developed. Next, the secondary development of VA One software was implemented through the use of MATLAB, while the cabin noise damping control layout optimization system was established. Finally, the optimization model of the ship was constructed and numerical experiments of damping control optimization conducted. The damping installation region was divided into five parts with different damping thicknesses. The total weight of damping was set as an objective function and the A-weighted sound pressure level of the target cabin was set as a constraint condition. The best damping thickness was obtained through the optimization program, and the total damping weight was reduced by 60.4%. The results show that the damping noise reduction effect of unit weight is significantly improved through the optimization method. This research successfully solves the installation position and thickness selection problems in the acoustic design of damping control, providing a reliable analysis method and guidance for the design.

  4. The development and validation of a thermal model for the cabin of a vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, David; Pino, Francisco J.; Bordons, Carlos; Guerra, José J.


    Energy management in modern vehicles is a crucial issue, especially in the case of electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid vehicles (HV), in which different energy sources and loads must be considered for the operation of a vehicle. Air conditioning is an important load that must be thoroughly analysed because it can constitute a considerable percentage of the energy demand. In this paper, a simplified and dynamic thermal model for the cabin of a vehicle is proposed and validated. The developed model can be used for the design and testing of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system of a vehicle and for the study of its effects on the performance and fuel consumption of vehicles, such as EVs or HVs. The model is based on theoretical heat transfer, thermal inertia, and radiation treatment equations. The model results obtained from simulations are compared with the cabin air temperature of a vehicle under different conditions. This comparison demonstrates the accuracy between the simulation results and actual results. - Highlights: •A thermal model of a vehicle cabin with two thermal inertias is developed. •The model is validated with experimental data. •The simulation results and the experimental data fit

  5. An evaluation of an airline cabin safety education program for elementary school children. (United States)

    Liao, Meng-Yuan


    The knowledge, attitude, and behavior intentions of elementary school students about airline cabin safety before and after they took a specially designed safety education course were examined. A safety education program was designed for school-age children based on the cabin safety briefings airlines given to their passengers, as well as on lessons learned from emergency evacuations. The course is presented in three modes: a lecture, a demonstration, and then a film. A two-step survey was used for this empirical study: an illustrated multiple-choice questionnaire before the program, and, upon completion, the same questionnaire to assess its effectiveness. Before the program, there were significant differences in knowledge and attitude based on school locations and the frequency that students had traveled by air. After the course, students showed significant improvement in safety knowledge, attitude, and their behavior intention toward safety. Demographic factors, such as gender and grade, also affected the effectiveness of safety education. The study also showed that having the instructor directly interact with students by lecturing is far more effective than presenting the information using only video media. A long-term evaluation, the effectiveness of the program, using TV or video accessible on the Internet to deliver a cabin safety program, and a control group to eliminate potential extraneous factors are suggested for future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants. 1967-92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukkala, E. [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Auvinen, A. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Wahlberg, G. [Finnish Flight Attendants Association, Helsinki (Finland)


    The objective was to assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.23)) and bone cancer (15.10 (1.82 to 54.40)) was found among female workers. The risk of breast cancer was most prominent 15 years after recruitment. Risks of leukaemia (3.57 (0.43 to 12.9)) and skin melanoma (2.11 (0.43 to 6.15)) were not significantly raised. Among men, one lymphoma and one Kaposi`s sarcoma were found (expected number of cases 1.6). Although the lifestyle of cabin attendants is different from that of the reference population - for example, in terms of social status and parity - concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to that cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. (author).

  7. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants. 1967-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukkala, E.; Auvinen, A.; Wahlberg, G.


    The objective was to assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.23)) and bone cancer (15.10 (1.82 to 54.40)) was found among female workers. The risk of breast cancer was most prominent 15 years after recruitment. Risks of leukaemia (3.57 (0.43 to 12.9)) and skin melanoma (2.11 (0.43 to 6.15)) were not significantly raised. Among men, one lymphoma and one Kaposi's sarcoma were found (expected number of cases 1.6). Although the lifestyle of cabin attendants is different from that of the reference population - for example, in terms of social status and parity - concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to that cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. (author)

  8. A plant culture system for producing food and recycling materials with sweetpotato in space (United States)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Yano, Sachiko; Hirai, Hiroaki


    The long term human life support in space is greatly dependent on the amounts of food, atmospheric O2 and clean water produced by plants. Therefore, the bio-regenerative life support system such as space farming with scheduling of crop production, obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate, converting atmospheric CO2 to O2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and varieties and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space. We are developing a sweetpotato culture system for producing tuberous roots as a high-calorie food and fresh edible leaves and stems as a nutritive functional vegetable food in space. In this study, we investigated the ability of food production, CO2 to O2 conversion through photosynthesis, and clean water production through transpiration in the sweetpotato production system. The biomass of edible parts in the whole plant was almost 100%. The proportion of the top (leaves and stems) and tuberous roots was strongly affected by environmental variables even when the total biomass production was mostly the same. The production of biomass and clean water was controllable especially by light, atmospheric CO2 and moisture and gas regimes in the root zone. It was confirmed that sweetpotato can be utilized for the vegetable crop as well as the root crop allowing a little waste and is a promising functional crop for supporting long-duration human activity in space.

  9. International Space Station (ISS) 3D Printer Performance and Material Characterization Methodology (United States)

    Bean, Q. A.; Cooper, K. G.; Edmunson, J. E.; Johnston, M. M.; Werkheiser, M. J.


    In order for human exploration of the Solar System to be sustainable, manufacturing of necessary items on-demand in space or on planetary surfaces will be a requirement. As a first step towards this goal, the 3D Printing In Zero-G (3D Print) technology demonstration made the first items fabricated in space on the International Space Station. From those items, and comparable prints made on the ground, information about the microgravity effects on the printing process can be determined. Lessons learned from this technology demonstration will be applicable to other in-space manufacturing technologies, and may affect the terrestrial manufacturing industry as well. The flight samples were received at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center on 6 April 2015. These samples will undergo a series of tests designed to not only thoroughly characterize the samples, but to identify microgravity effects manifested during printing by comparing their results to those of samples printed on the ground. Samples will be visually inspected, photographed, scanned with structured light, and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples will be analyzed with computed tomography; some will be assessed using ASTM standard tests. These tests will provide the information required to determine the effects of microgravity on 3D printing in microgravity.

  10. The risk of melanoma in airline pilots and cabin crew: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Sanlorenzo, Martina; Wehner, Mackenzie R; Linos, Eleni; Kornak, John; Kainz, Wolfgang; Posch, Christian; Vujic, Igor; Johnston, Katia; Gho, Deborah; Monico, Gabriela; McGrath, James T; Osella-Abate, Simona; Quaglino, Pietro; Cleaver, James E; Ortiz-Urda, Susana


    Airline pilots and cabin crew are occupationally exposed to higher levels of cosmic and UV radiation than the general population, but their risk of developing melanoma is not yet established. To assess the risk of melanoma in pilots and airline crew. PubMed (1966 to October 30, 2013), Web of Science (1898 to January 27, 2014), and Scopus (1823 to January 27, 2014). All studies were included that reported a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), or data on expected and observed cases of melanoma or death caused by melanoma that could be used to calculate an SIR or SMR in any flight-based occupation. Primary random-effect meta-analyses were used to summarize SIR and SMR for melanoma in any flight-based occupation. Heterogeneity was assessed using the χ2 test and I2 statistic. To assess the potential bias of small studies, we used funnel plots, the Begg rank correlation test, and the Egger weighted linear regression test. Summary SIR and SMR of melanoma in pilots and cabin crew. Of the 3527 citations retrieved, 19 studies were included, with more than 266 431 participants. The overall summary SIR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.76-2.77; P < .001; 14 records). The summary SIR for pilots was 2.22 (95% CI, 1.67-2.93; P = .001; 12 records). The summary SIR for cabin crew was 2.09 (95% CI, 1.67-2.62; P = .45; 2 records). The overall summary SMR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 1.42 (95% CI, 0.89-2.26; P = .002; 6 records). The summary SMR for pilots was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.27-2.63, P = .33; 4 records). The summary SMR for cabin crew was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01; P = .97; 2 records). Pilots and cabin crew have approximately twice the incidence of melanoma compared with the general population. Further research on mechanisms and optimal occupational protection is needed.

  11. Insert Concepts for the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) on the International Space Station (ISS) (United States)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul


    The Material Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit NASA's planned inserts include the Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI). The QMI is a high-gradient Bridgman-type vacuum furnace with quench capabilities used for experiments on directional solidification of metal alloys. The DMI is a vacuum Bridgman-Stockbarger-type furnace for experiments on Fickian and Soret diffusion in liquids. This paper discusses specific design features and performance capabilities of each insert. The paper also presents current prototype QMI hardware analysis and testing activities and selected results.

  12. Design of teletherapy facility: effect of space and occupancy on the material cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash Sharma, P.K.; Janakiraman, G.; Shirva, V.K.


    In this paper, the material cost involved by making the room spacious, orientation of the layout with regards to occupancy around the installation, for 15 MV accelerator and telecobalt facility has been worked out. Here, the cost of RCC (2.35 gm/cc), which is generally used as shielding material is only considered and not the cost of other materials, transportation and labour. This paper may be useful for users to optimise the plan so as to reduce the cost of construction

  13. Using an Outdoor Learning Space to Teach Sustainability and Material Processes in HE Product Design (United States)

    Firth, Richard; Stoltenberg, Einar; Jennings, Trent


    This "case study" of two jewellery workshops, used outdoor learning spaces to explore both its impact on learning outcomes and to introduce some key principles of sustainable working methodologies and practices. Using the beach as the classroom, academics and students from a Norwegian and Scottish (HE) product design exchange programme…

  14. Innovative Learning Environments and New Materialism: A Conjunctural Analysis of Pedagogic Spaces (United States)

    Charteris, Jennifer; Smardon, Dianne; Nelson, Emily


    An Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development research priority, innovative learning environments (ILEs) have been translated into policy and practice in 25 countries around the world. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, learning spaces are being reconceptualised in relation to this policy work by school leaders who are confronted by an impetus to…

  15. Usurping Public Leisure Space for Protest. Social Activism in the digital and material commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)


    textabstractThis paper draws parallels between the use of public leisure spaces in the city such as parks and squares, and the use of certain forms of digital networks. Similarities between these two sorts of social contexts are worth considering, particularly their political dimension. This

  16. A Combined Hazard Index Fire Test Methodology for Aircraft Cabin Materials. Volume I. (United States)


    measurement capabilities a gas sampling train and associated gas monitoring instruentation were intergrated with it. Reference 7 describes the OS...EN/C/0203 dated April 2969, release by the Board of Trade , United Kingdom as C.A.P. 325 ICAO Circulator 96 AN/79. 4. Report on Accident to Boeing

  17. A Combined Hazard Index Fire Test Methodology for Aircraft Cabin Materials. Volume II. (United States)


    four chambers) had one dedicated channel on an 8-channel ASTRO MED SUPER 8 hot-pen recorder. Temperatures in the four chambers were multiplexed on the...The output from the contact bars were recorded on an 8-channel ASTRO MED SUPER 8 hot pen recorder with one channel dedicated to each rat. The...Zf 1Ofor 1-0 to 101pit -7N,lA/1O,-l 32. fxc ’ Djibl IA/101rext I 33v q~t 2511,A/10,O,1IbI "Time (mitt)* 34o for 1-0 to G5,4 by 601plt I-N,-Ai󈧘,-l

  18. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS (United States)

    Wilt, David M.


    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  19. The growth of materials processing in space - A history of government support for new technology (United States)

    Mckannan, E. C.


    Development of a given technology for national defense and large systems developments when the task is too large or risky for entrepreneurs, yet is clearly in the best interest of the nation are discussed. Advanced research to identify areas of interest was completed. Examples of commercial opportunities are the McDonnell-Douglas Corporation purification process for pharmaceutical products and the Microgravity Research Associates process for growing gallium arsenide crystals in space.

  20. Recent materials compatibility studies in refractory metal-alkali metal systems for space power applications. (United States)

    Harrison, R. W.; Hoffman, E. E.; Davies, R. L.


    Advanced Rankine and other proposed space power systems utilize refractory metals in contact with both single-phase and two-phase alkali metals at elevated temperatures. A number of recent compatibility experiments are described which emphasize the excellent compatibility of refractory metals with the alkali metals, lithium, sodium, and potassium, under a variety of environmental conditions. The alkali metal compatibilities of tantalum-, columbium-, molybdenum-, and tungsten-base alloys are discussed.

  1. Numerical Study of Ammonia Leak and Dispersion in the International Space Station (United States)

    Son, Chang H.


    Release of ammonia into the International Space Station (ISS) cabin atmosphere can occur if the water/ammonia barrier breach of the active thermal control system (ATCS) interface heat exchanger (IFHX) happens. After IFHX breach liquid ammonia is introduced into the water-filled internal thermal control system (ITCS) and then to the cabin environment through a ruptured gas trap. Once the liquid water/ammonia mixture exits ITCS, it instantly vaporizes and mixes with the U.S. Laboratory cabin air that results in rapid deterioration of the cabin conditions. The goal of the study is to assess ammonia propagation in the Station after IFHX breach to plan the operation procedure. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for accurate prediction of airflow and ammonia transport within each of the modules in the ISS cabin was developed. CFD data on ammonia content in the cabin aisle way of the ISS and, in particular, in the Russian On- Orbit Segment during the period of 15 minutes after gas trap rupture are presented for four scenarios of rupture response. Localized effects of ammonia dispersion and risk mitigation are discussed.

  2. Modeling Electrostatic Fields Generated by Internal Charging of Materials in Space Radiation Environments (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.


    Internal charging is a risk to spacecraft in energetic electron environments. DICTAT, NU MIT computational codes are the most widely used engineering tools for evaluating internal charging of insulator materials exposed to these environments. Engineering tools are designed for rapid evaluation of ESD threats, but there is a need for more physics based models for investigating the science of materials interactions with energetic electron environments. Current tools are limited by the physics included in the models and ease of user implementation .... additional development work is needed to improve models.

  3. Advancements in water vapor electrolysis technology. [for Space Station ECLSS (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Heppner, Dennis B.; Sudar, Martin


    The paper describes a technology development program whose goal is to develop water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hardware that can be used selectively as localized topping capability in areas of high metabolic activity without oversizing the central air revitalization system on long-duration manned space missions. The WVE will be used primarily to generate O2 for the crew cabin but also to provide partial humidity control by removing water vapor from the cabin atmosphere. The electrochemically based WVE interfaces with cabin air which is controlled in the following ranges: dry bulb temperature of 292 to 300 K; dew point temperature of 278 to 289 K; relative humidity of 25 to 75 percent; and pressure of 101 + or - 1.4 kPa. Design requirements, construction details, and results for both single-cell and multicell module testing are presented, and the preliminary sizing of a multiperson subsystem is discussed.

  4. Nb-base FS-85 Alloy as a Candidate Structural Material for Space Reactor Applications: Effects of Thermal Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Keith J.; Busby, Jeremy T.; Hoelzer, David T.; Zinkle, Steven J.


    The proposed use of fission reactors for manned or deep space missions have typically relied on the potential use of refractory metal alloys as structural materials. Throughout the history of these programs, the lead candidate has been Nb-1Zr due to its good fabrication and welding characteristics. However, the less than optimal creep resistance of this alloy has encouraged interest in the more complex FS-85 (Nb-28Ta-10W-1Zr) alloy. Despite this interest, a relatively small database exists for the properties of FS-85. These gaps include potential microstructural instabilities that can lead to mechanical property degradation. In this work, changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of FS-85 were investigated following 1100 h of thermal aging at 1098, 1248 and 1398 K. The changes in electrical resistivity, hardness and tensile properties between the as-annealed and aged materials are compared. Evaluation of the microstructural changes was performed through optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The development of intragranular and grain boundary precipitation of Zr-rich compounds as a function of aging temperature was followed. Brittle tensile behavior was measured in the 1248 K aged material, while ductile behavior occurred in material aged above and below this temperature. The effect of temperature on the under and overaging of the grain boundary particles are believed to have contributed to the mechanical property behavior of the aged material

  5. Studies on Stress-Strain Relationships of Polymeric Materials Used in Space Applications (United States)

    Jana, Sadhan C.; Freed, Alan


    A two-year research plan was undertaken in association with Polymers Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center, to carry out experimental and modeling work relating stress and strain behavior of polymeric materials, especially elastomers and vulcanized rubber. An experimental system based on MTS (Mechanical Testing and Simulation) A/T-4 test facility environment has been developed for a broader range of polymeric materials in addition to a design of laser compatible temperature control chamber for online measurements of various strains. Necessary material processing has been accomplished including rubber compounding and thermoplastic elastomer processing via injection molding. A broad suite of testing methodologies has been identified to reveal the complex non-linear mechanical behaviors of rubbery materials when subjected to complex modes of deformation. This suite of tests required the conceptualization, design and development of new specimen geometries, test fixtures, and test systems including development of a new laser based technique to measure large multi-axial deformations. Test data has been generated for some of these new fixtures and has revealed some complex coupling effects generated during multi-axial deformations. In addition, fundamental research has been conducted concerning the foundation principles of rubber thermodynamics and resulting theories of rubber elasticity. Studies have been completed on morphological properties of several thermoplastic elastomers. Finally, a series of steps have been identified to further advance the goals of NASA's ongoing effort.

  6. Measurement of mechanical and thermophysical properties of dimensionally stable materials for space applications (United States)

    Rawal, Suraj P.; Misra, Mohan S.


    Mechanical, thermal, and physical property test data was generated for as-fabricated advanced composite materials at room temperature (RT), -150 and 250 F. The results are documented of mechanical and thermophysical property tests of IM7/PEEK and discontinuous SiC/Al (particulate (p) and whisker (w) reinforced) composites which were tested at three different temperatures to determine the effect of temperature on material properties. The specific material systems tested were IM7/PEEK (0)8, (0, + or - 45, 90)s, (+ or - 30, 04)s, 25 vol. pct. (v/o) SiCp/Al, and 25 v/o SiCw/Al. RT material property results of IM7/PEEK were in good agreement with the predicted values, providing a measure of consolidation integrity attained during fabrication. Results of mechanical property tests indicated that modulus values at each test temperature were identical, whereas the strength (e.g., tensile, compressive, flexural, and shear) values were the same at -150 F, and RT, and gradually decreased as the test temperature was increased to 250 F. Similar trends in the strength values was also observed in discontinuous SiC/Al composites. These results indicate that the effect of temperature was more pronounced on the strength values than modulus values.

  7. Construction of Common Interpretive Spaces through Intertextual Loops--How Teachers Interpret Multimodal Learning Materials (United States)

    Poyas, Yael; Eilam, Billie


    This study draws on several theoretical domains: intertextuality, multimodality, and the pedagogy of multiliteracies. We introduced multimodal textbook materials to eleven experienced teachers and examined, through in-depth interviews, their approach to juxtapositions of literary texts and visual artwork. Our analysis revealed (a) three attitudes…

  8. Spaced Repetition Cloud WebApp in Java EE and Google Material Design


    Skuridin, Klim


    The aim of this thesis project was to develop a web application using Java with deployment on Amazon Web Services cloud platform within an Elastic Computing 2 VM instance. The developer aims to help users learn new information using the Spaced Repetition principle. The main tools of the project include Java/JSP for back-end development, Twitter Bootstrap framework for front-end development, GitHub Version Control System for code management, MySQL for app data persistence, Tomcat server for de...

  9. Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Various Metallic Materials for the International Space Station Water Recycling System (United States)

    Torres, P. D.


    A stress corrosion evaluation was performed on Inconel 625, Hastelloy C276, titanium commercially pure (TiCP), Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-4V extra low interstitial, and Cronidur 30 steel as a consequence of a change in formulation of the pretreatment for processing the urine in the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Urine Processing Assembly from a sulfuric acid-based to a phosphoric acid-based solution. The first five listed were found resistant to stress corrosion in the pretreatment and brine. However, some of the Cronidur 30 specimens experienced reduction in load-carrying ability.

  10. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and state space representation of a manipulator under viscoelastic material conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar, H.


    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the VoigtKelvin constitutive model, nonlinear dynamic modelling and state space representation of a viscoelastic beam acting as a flexible robotic manipulator is investigated. Complete nonlinear dynamic modelling of a viscoelastic beam without premature linearisation of dynamic equations is developed. The adopted method is capable of reproducing nonlinear dynamic effects, such as beam stiffening due to centrifugal and Coriolis forces induced by rotation of the joints. Structural damping effects on the models dynamic behaviour are also shown. A reliable model for a viscoelastic beam is subsequently presented. The governing equations of motion are derived using Hamiltons principle, and using the finite difference method, nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations. For the purpose of flexible manipulator control, the standard form of state space equations for the viscoelastic link and the actuator is obtained. Simulation results indicate substantial improvements in dynamic behaviour, and a parameter sensitivity study is carried out to investigate the effect of structural damping on the vibration amplitude.

  11. Material science experience gained from the space nuclear rocket program: Insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.


    Although Rover reactors are viewed as the ultimate in high-temperature operating systems, many of the materials used in these reactors (for example, support rods, control drums, and the reflector) have to be held at relatively low temperatures while the reactor operates, in order to maintain their structural integrity. Thus the insulators needed to separate these temperature domains are crucial to the reactor's ultimate operating times and temperatures. All of the reactors that were tested used pyrolytic graphite as the primary insulator. However, it had been long planned to replace the graphite with zirconium carbide and a lengthy and intensive effort to develop the zirconium carbide insulators had been made at the time Rover was terminated. This report details research and development and the experience we gained with both these insulator materials

  12. Development, preparation, and characterization of high-performance superconducting materials for space applications. Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, A.N.; Barkatt, A.


    The preparation of high-temperature superconducting ceramics in bulk form is a major challenge in materials science. The current status of both partial melting and melt quenching techniques, with or without an intermediate powder processing stage, is described in detail, and the problems associated with each of the methods are discussed. Results of studies performed on melt-processed materials are reported and discussed. The discussion places emphasis on magnetization and on other physical properties associated with it, such as critical current density, levitation force, and flux creep. The nature of structural features which give rise to flux pinning, including both small and large defects, is discussed with reference to theoretical considerations. The rates of flux creep and the factors involved in attempting to retard the decay of the magnetization are surveyed

  13. Three-Dimensional Elasticity Solutions for Sound Radiation of Functionally Graded Materials Plates considering State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieliang Yang


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study for sound radiation of functionally graded materials (FGM plate based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The FGM plate is a mixture of metal and ceramic, and its material properties are assumed to have smooth and continuous variation in the thickness direction according to a power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity and state space method, the governing equations with variable coefficients of the FGM plate are derived. The sound radiation of the vibration plate is calculated with Rayleigh integral. Comparisons of the present results with those of solutions in the available literature are made and good agreements are achieved. Finally, some parametric studies are carried out to investigate the sound radiation properties of FGM plates.

  14. Spontaneous radiation of a chiral molecule located near a half-space of a bi-isotropic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzatov, D. V., E-mail: [Yanka Kupala Grodno State University (Belarus); Klimov, V. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Poprukailo, N. S. [Yanka Kupala Grodno State University (Belarus)


    Analytical expressions for the rate of spontaneous emission from a chiral (optically active) molecule located near a half-space occupied by a chiral (bi-isotropic) material have been obtained and analyzed in detail. It is established that the rates of spontaneous emission from the 'right' and 'left' enantiomers of molecules occurring near the chiral medium may significantly differ in cases of chiral materials with (i) both negative dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability (DNG metamaterial) and (ii) negative permeability and positive permittivity (MNG metamaterial). Based on this phenomenon, DMG and MNG metamaterials can be used to create devices capable of separating right and left enantiomers in racemic mixtures.

  15. Design and development of Building energy simulation Software for prefabricated cabin type of industrial building (PCES) (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Ri Yi


    Building energy simulation is an important supporting tool for green building design and building energy consumption assessment, At present, Building energy simulation software can't meet the needs of energy consumption analysis and cabinet level micro environment control design of prefabricated building. thermal physical model of prefabricated building is proposed in this paper, based on the physical model, the energy consumption calculation software of prefabricated cabin building(PCES) is developed. we can achieve building parameter setting, energy consumption simulation and building thermal process and energy consumption analysis by PCES.

  16. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck Using Geometrically Optimized Rear Cabin Bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa


    Full Text Available The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms by which geometrically optimized bumps, placed on the rear end of the cabin roof of a generic truck, reduce aerodynamic drag. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location, and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, and probabilistic restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.

  17. Aircraft interior noise models - Sidewall trim, stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition (United States)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.


    As part of the continuing development of an aircraft interior noise prediction model, in which a discrete modal representation and power flow analysis are used, theoretical results are considered for inclusion of sidewall trim, stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition. For validation purposes, predictions of the noise reductions for three test articles (a bare ring-stringer stiffened cylinder, an unstiffened cylinder with floor and insulation, and a ring-stringer stiffened cylinder with floor and sidewall trim) are compared with measurements.

  18. Finger temperature as a predictor of thermal comfort for sedentary passengers in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Zukowska, Daria


    .1°C. A total of 68 subjects were exposed to each of the three conditions. The subjects completed questionnaires to provide subjective assessments of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms commonly experienced during flight, and thermal comfort. Objective physiological measurements...... that were made included finger temperature. The purpose of the present paper is to show that mean finger temperature is a good predictor of mean thermal vote (MTV) on the seven-point scale of thermal sensation. The results indicate that women and younger subjects have slightly colder fingers....

  19. Quantifying air distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport in an aircraft cabin mockup (United States)

    Wang, Aijun

    The health, safety and comfort of passengers during flight inspired this research into cabin air quality, which is closely related to its airflow distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport. The experimental facility is a full-scale aircraft cabin mockup. A volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (VPTV) technique was enhanced by incorporating a self-developed streak recognition algorithm. Two stable recirculation regions, the reverse flows above the seats and the main air jets from the air supply inlets formed the complicated airflow patterns inside the cabin mockup. The primary air flow was parallel to the passenger rows. The small velocity component in the direction of the cabin depth caused less net air exchange between the passenger rows than that parallel to the passenger rows. Different total air supply rate changed the developing behaviors of the main air jets, leading to different local air distribution patterns. Two indices, Local mean age of air and ventilation effectiveness factor (VEF), were measured at five levels of air supply rate and two levels of heating load. Local mean age of air decreased linearly with an increase in the air supply rate, while the VEF remained consistent when the air supply rate varied. The thermal buoyancy force from the thermal plume generated the upside plume flow, opposite to the main jet flow above the boundary seats and thus lowered the local net air exchange. The airborne transport dynamics depends on the distance between the source and the receptors, the relative location of pollutant source, and air supply rate. Exposure risk was significantly reduced with increased distance between source and receptors. Another possible way to decrease the exposure risk was to position the release source close to the exhaust outlets. Increasing the air supply rate could be an effective solution under some emergency situations. The large volume of data regarding the three-dimensional air velocities was

  20. Re-entry simulation chamber for thermo-mechanical characterisation of space materials (United States)

    Liedtke, Volker


    During re-entry, materials and components are subject to very high thermal and mechanical loads. Any failure may cause loss of mission. Therefore, materials and components have to be tested under most rigid conditions to verify the suitability of the material and to verify the design of the components. The Re-Entry Simulation Chamber (RESiC) at ARC Seibersdorf research (ARCS) allows simulating the high thermal loads as well as complex mechanical load profiles that may occur during a re-entry; additionally, the influence of chemical reactions of materials with gaseous components of the atmosphere can be studied. The high vacuum chamber (better than 1×10-6 mbar) has a diameter of 650 mm and allows a sample height of 500 mm, or 1000 mm with extension flange. The gas dosing system is designed to emulate the increasing atmospheric pressure during the re-entry trajectory of a vehicle. Heating is performed by a 30 kW induction generator that allows a sufficiently rapid heating of larger components; electrically conductive materials such as metals or carbon fibre reinforced ceramics are directly heated, while for electrical insulators, susceptor plates or tubes will be employed. The uniaxial servo-hydraulic testing machine has a maximum load of 70 kN, either static or with a frequency of up to 70 Hz, with any given load profile (sinus, rectangular, triangular, ...). Strain measurements will be done by non-contacting laser speckle system for maximum flexibility and minimum instrumentation time effort (currently under application testing), or by strain gauges. All relevant process parameters are controlled and recorded by microcomputer. The highly sophisticated control software allows a convenient and reliable multi-channel data acquisition, e.g. temperatures at various positions of the test piece, pressure, loads, strains, and any other test data according to customer specifications; the data format is suitable for any further data processing. During the set-up and

  1. Characterization of intrinsic and induced lateral conduction in space dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, R.; Paulmier, T.; Belhaj, M.; Dirassen, B.; Payan, D.; Balcon, N.


    Characterization of lateral charge carrier conduction in space dielectrics is of high importance for the prediction of charging behavior and electrostatic discharges on satellites. In the present paper, a new experimental approach for the analysis of surface conduction, which is not well understood and characterized in the literature, is established and discussed. Though this method, based on the use of two Kelvin probes, we have been able to discriminate between lateral and bulk charge transports and to reveal the presence of an intrinsic lateral conductivity on Teflon ® FEP irradiated with low energy electron beam. We demonstrated that lateral intrinsic conductivity is enhanced when incident current density increases and when approaching the sample surface. The experimental results are analyzed through trapping/detrapping and hopping models. Depending on radiation configuration mode, we have revealed as well the presence of a lateral conductivity that is enhanced by radiation ionization processes, and explained as well with a trapping/recombination model

  2. Nb-Base FS-85 Alloy as a Candidate Structural Material for Space Reactor Applications: Effects of Thermal Aging (United States)

    Leonard, Keith J.; Busby, Jeremy T.; Hoelzer, David T.; Zinkle, Steven J.


    The proposed uses of fission reactors for manned or deep space missions have typically relied on the potential use of refractory metal alloys as structural materials. Throughout the history of these programs, a leading candidate has been Nb-1Zr, due to its good fabrication and welding characteristics. However, the less-than-optimal creep resistance of this alloy has encouraged interest in the more complex FS-85 (Nb-28Ta-10W-1Zr) alloy. Despite this interest, only a relatively small database exists for the properties of FS-85. Database gaps include the potential microstructural instabilities that can lead to mechanical property degradation. In this work, changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties of FS-85 were investigated following 1100 hours of thermal aging at 1098, 1248, and 1398 K. The changes in electrical resistivity, hardness, and tensile properties between the as-annealed and aged materials are compared. Evaluation of the microstructural changes was performed through optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The development of intragranular and grain-boundary precipitation of Zr-rich compounds as a function of aging temperature was followed. Brittle tensile behavior was measured in the material aged at 1248 K, while ductile behavior occurred in samples aged above and below this temperature. The effect of temperature on the under- and overaging of the grain-boundary particles is believed to have contributed to the mechanical property behavior of the aged materials.

  3. Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Material (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon


    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported. Detailed consideration of the effects of both the natural and induced ionizing radiation environment during ISS design, development, and flight operations has produced a safe, efficient manned space platform that is largely immune to deleterious effects of the LEO ionizing radiation environment. The assumption of a small shielding mass for purposes of design and verification has been shown to be a valid worst-case approximation approach to design for reliability, though predicted dependences of single event effect (SEE) effects on latitude, longitude, SEP events, and spacecraft structural shielding mass are not observed. The Figure of Merit (FOM) method over predicts the rate for median shielding masses of about 10g/cm(exp 2) by only a factor of 3, while the Scott Effective Flux Approach (SEFA) method overestimated by about one order of magnitude as expected. The Integral Rectangular Parallelepiped (IRPP), SEFA, and FOM methods for estimating on-orbit (Single Event Upsets) SEU rates all utilize some version of the CREME-96 treatment of energetic particle interaction with structural shielding, which has been shown to underestimate the production of secondary particles in heavily shielded manned spacecraft. The need for more work directed to development of a practical understanding of secondary particle production in massive structural shielding for SEE design and verification is indicated. In contrast, total dose estimates using CAD based shielding mass distributions functions and the Shieldose Code provided a reasonable accurate estimate of accumulated dose in Grays internal to the ISS pressurized elements, albeit as a result of using worst-on-worst case assumptions (500 km altitude x 2) that compensate for ignoring both GCR and secondary particle

  4. Advantages for passengers and cabin crew of operating a Gas-Phase Adsorption air purifier in 11-h simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei


    Experiments were carried out in a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber to evaluate the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by the operation of a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) purification unit. A total of 68 subjects......, divided into four groups of 17 subjects took part in simulated 11-hour flights. Each group experienced 4 conditions in balanced order, defined by two outside air supply rates (2.4 and 3.3 L/s per person), with and without the GPA purification unit installed in the recirculated air system. During each...... flight the subjects completed questionnaires five times to provide subjective assessments of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms, and thermal comfort. Additionally, the subjects’ visual acuity, finger temperature, skin dryness and nasal peak flow were measured three times during each...

  5. Applications of Real Space Crystallography in Characterization of Dislocations in Geological Materials in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) (United States)

    Kaboli, S.; Burnley, P. C.


    Imaging and characterization of defects in crystalline materials is of significant importance in various disciplines including geoscience, materials science, and applied physics. Linear defects such as dislocations and planar defects such as twins and stacking faults, strongly influence many of the properties of crystalline materials and also reflect the conditions and degree of deformation. Dislocations have been conventionally imaged in thin foils in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Since the development of field emission scanning electron microscopes (FE-SEM) with high gun brightness and small spot size, extensive efforts have been dedicated to the imaging and characterization of dislocations in semi-conductors using electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) in the SEM. The obvious advantages of using SEM over TEM include easier and non-destructive sample preparation and a large field of view enabling statistical examination of the density and distribution of dislocations and other defects. In this contribution, we extend this technique to geological materials and introduce the Real Space Crystallography methodology for imaging and complete characterization of dislocations based on bend contour contrast obtained by ECCI in FE-SEM. Bend contours map out the distortion in the crystal lattice across a deformed grain. The contrast of dislocations is maximum in the vicinity of bend contours where crystal planes diffract at small and positive deviations from the Bragg positions (as defined by Bragg's law of electron diffraction). Imaging is performed in a commercial FE-SEM equipped with a standard silicon photodiode backscattered (BSE) detector and an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system for crystal orientation measurements. We demonstrate the practice of this technique in characterization of a number of geological materials in particular quartz, forsterite olivine and corundum, experimentally deformed at high pressure-temperature conditions. This

  6. Localized Electron Trap Modification as a Result of Space Weather Exposure in Highly Disordered Insulating Materials (United States)


    produced by Trek Inc. Trek probe model 370 is capable of -3 to 3kV and has an extremely fast, 50µs/kV response to changing surface potentials. Trek probe...This motor can move a Trek 370 surface potential probe (± 3 kV range) and a Faraday cup mounted at opposite ends of a propeller-shaped bracket...Spacecraft Charging, in Reference Publication, 1995, NASA . 35. Horowitz, G., Organic field-effect transistors, Advanced Materials, 1998, 10(5), pp. 365

  7. almaBTE : A solver of the space-time dependent Boltzmann transport equation for phonons in structured materials (United States)

    Carrete, Jesús; Vermeersch, Bjorn; Katre, Ankita; van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Wang, Tao; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Mingo, Natalio


    almaBTE is a software package that solves the space- and time-dependent Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, using only ab-initio calculated quantities as inputs. The program can predictively tackle phonon transport in bulk crystals and alloys, thin films, superlattices, and multiscale structures with size features in the nm- μm range. Among many other quantities, the program can output thermal conductances and effective thermal conductivities, space-resolved average temperature profiles, and heat-current distributions resolved in frequency and space. Its first-principles character makes almaBTE especially well suited to investigate novel materials and structures. This article gives an overview of the program structure and presents illustrative examples for some of its uses. PROGRAM SUMMARY Program Title:almaBTE Program Files doi: Licensing provisions: Apache License, version 2.0 Programming language: C++ External routines/libraries: BOOST, MPI, Eigen, HDF5, spglib Nature of problem: Calculation of temperature profiles, thermal flux distributions and effective thermal conductivities in structured systems where heat is carried by phonons Solution method: Solution of linearized phonon Boltzmann transport equation, Variance-reduced Monte Carlo

  8. Development of a Database on the Changes in the Optical Properties of Materials used on the External Surfaces of Spacecraft Under the Action of the Space Environment Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khatipov, Sergey A


    .... The purpose of the project was a development of the Database (DB) in the electron format DBMS Access2000, including results of investigation of optical properties of external materials for space vehicles (SV...

  9. Transient thermal model of passenger car's cabin and implementation to saturation cycle with alternative working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Song, Ilguk; Jang, Kilsang


    A transient thermal model of a passenger car's cabin is developed to investigate the dynamic behavior of cabin thermal conditions. The model is developed based on a lumped-parameter model and solved using integral methods. Solar radiation, engine heat through the firewall, and engine heat to the air ducts are all considered. Using the thermal model, transient temperature profiles of the interior mass and cabin air are obtained. This model is used to investigate the transient behavior of the cabin under various operating conditions: the recirculation mode in the idling state, the fresh air mode in the idling state, the recirculation mode in the driving state, and fresh air mode in the driving state. The developed model is validated by comparing with experimental data and is within 5% of deviation. The validated model is then applied for evaluating the mobile air conditioning system's design. The study found that a saturation cycle concept (four-stage cycle with two-phase refrigerant injection) could improve the system efficiency by 23.9% and reduce the power consumption by 19.3%. Lastly, several alternative refrigerants are applied and their performance is discussed. When the saturation cycle concept is applied, R1234yf MAC (mobile air conditioning) shows the largest COP (coefficient of performance) improvement and power consumption reduction. - Highlights: • The transient thermal model of the passenger car cabin is developed. • The developed model is validated with experimental data and showed 5% deviation. • Saturation cycle concept is applied to the developed cabin model. • There is 24% COP improvement by applying the saturation cycle concept. • R1234yf showed the highest potential when it is applied to the saturation cycle.

  10. Passenger evaluation of the optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity from 7-h exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per


    A 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber capable of providing fresh outside air at very low humidity. Maintaining a constant 200 l/s rate of total air supply, i.e. recircu-lated and make-up air, to the cabin, experiments simulating 7...

  11. Occupant evaluation of 7-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin - Part 1: Optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per


    Low humidity in the aircraft cabin environment has been identified as a possible cause of symptoms experienced during long flights. A mock-up of a 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber, capable of providing fresh outside air at very...

  12. Effects of ozone chemistry and outside air supply on passenger self-evalua-tion of symptoms during 4-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Myśków, Danuta


    Experiments were carried out in a simulated 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin, installed in a climate chamber, to determine the extent to which cabin air quality and passenger symptoms are affected by ozone chemistry. A total of 30 subjects were exposed to four conditions: two rates of outside...

  13. Quantum formulation for nanoscale optical and material chirality: symmetry issues, space and time parity, and observables (United States)

    Andrews, D. L.


    To properly represent the interplay and coupling of optical and material chirality at the photon-molecule or photon-nanoparticle level invites a recognition of quantum facets in the fundamental aspects and mechanisms of light-matter interaction. It is therefore appropriate to cast theory in a general quantum form, one that is applicable to both linear and nonlinear optics as well as various forms of chiroptical interaction including chiral optomechanics. Such a framework, fully accounting for both radiation and matter in quantum terms, facilitates the scrutiny and identification of key issues concerning spatial and temporal parity, scale, dissipation and measurement. Furthermore it fully provides for describing the interactions of structured or twisted light beams with a vortex character, and it leads to the complete identification of symmetry conditions for materials to provide for chiral discrimination. Quantum considerations also lend a distinctive perspective to the very different senses in which other aspects of chirality are recognized in metamaterials. Duly attending to the symmetry principles governing allowed or disallowed forms of chiral discrimination supports an objective appraisal of the experimental possibilities and developing applications.

  14. Scalable real space pseudopotential density functional codes for materials in the exascale regime (United States)

    Lena, Charles; Chelikowsky, James; Schofield, Grady; Biller, Ariel; Kronik, Leeor; Saad, Yousef; Deslippe, Jack

    Real-space pseudopotential density functional theory has proven to be an efficient method for computing the properties of matter in many different states and geometries, including liquids, wires, slabs, and clusters with and without spin polarization. Fully self-consistent solutions using this approach have been routinely obtained for systems with thousands of atoms. Yet, there are many systems of notable larger sizes where quantum mechanical accuracy is desired, but scalability proves to be a hindrance. Such systems include large biological molecules, complex nanostructures, or mismatched interfaces. We will present an overview of our new massively parallel algorithms, which offer improved scalability in preparation for exascale supercomputing. We will illustrate these algorithms by considering the electronic structure of a Si nanocrystal exceeding 104 atoms. Support provided by the SciDAC program, Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences. Grant Numbers DE-SC0008877 (Austin) and DE-FG02-12ER4 (Berkeley).

  15. ET versus Alien : Popular Attitudes to bringing back Biological Material from Space (United States)

    Evans, D.

    The general public tend to react to radical scientific innovation in extreme ways, seeing them alternatively as a passport to utopia or a ticket to hell. The possible discovery of alien life forms has generated both types of reaction, as a brief survey of Hollywood movies shows. In this fanciful world, alens are either the friendly beings of ET and Close Encounters, who show us a way to improve ourselves, or the frightening monsters of Alien and Independence Day, who are bent on our destruction. Yet most astrobiologists would agree that both types of scenario are extremely unlikely. If we do encounter other life forms, the scientific consensus is that such life is vastly more likely to be microbial than to be an advanced, intelligent multicellular species. The public focus on the improbable stories of Hollywood means that they are little prepared to engage in sensible dialogue about plans for sample return missions from Mars and other planets. Unless scientific organisations take steps to encourage a more realistic understanding of the kinds of life we are most likely to encounter in space, we risk seeing public debate on these matters degenerate into the same hysteria and idiocy as that which has surrounded the use of GM foods and stem cell research.

  16. An effect of the electrode material on space charge relaxation in ferroelectric copolymers of vinylidene fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochervinskii, Valentin, E-mail:; Pavlov, Alexey; Pakuro, Natalia; Bessonova, Natalia; Shmakova, Nina [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Vorontsovo Pole 10, Moscow 103064 (Russian Federation); Malyshkina, Inna [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Bedin, Sergey [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Chubunova, Elena; Lebedinskii, Yuri [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe Highway, 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)


    Processes of relaxation of space charges formed by impurities carriers in isotropic films of vinylidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene copolymers of the composition 71/29 and 94/6 were studied. Al and Au symmetric electrodes deposited by evaporation in vacuum have been used. In the case of Al electrodes at temperatures above 100 °C, giant low frequency dielectric dispersion was observed, while it is absent in films with Au electrodes. Causes of this phenomenon were studied by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shown that at Al deposition, new functional groups, such as Al-C, Al-F, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which are not characteristic of the copolymer film surface, formed. They were supposed to be traps for impurity carriers and because of this the electrode became partially blocked. This led to appearance of the giant electrode polarization on the metal-polymer boundary, which did not take place in the case of Au electrodes. Parameters of the Au4f line for the copolymer with different contents of fluorine atoms in the chain were analyzed. An increase in the number of these atoms was shown to result in the line shift to higher energies. This phenomenon was associated with an increase in the shift of the electron density from Au atoms to the F ones which has a high affinity to electrons.

  17. Novel Materials, Processing, and Device Technologies for Space Exploration with Potential Dual-Use Applications (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Bailey, S. G.; McNatt, J. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Harris, J. D.; Rusch, A. W.; Nogales, K. A.; Goettsche, K. V.; Hanson, W.; Amos, D.; hide


    We highlight results of a broad spectrum of efforts on lower-temperature processing of nanomaterials, novel approaches to energy conversion, and environmentally rugged devices. Solution-processed quantum dots of copper indium chalcogenide semiconductors and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from lower-temperature spray pyrolysis are enabled by novel (precursor) chemistry. Metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured components of photovoltaic cells have been grown in solution at low temperature on a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Arrays of ZnO nanorods can be templated and decorated with various semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles. Utilizing ZnO in a more broadly defined energy conversion sense as photocatalysts, unwanted organic waste materials can potentially be re-purposed. Current efforts on charge carrier dynamics in nanoscale electrode architectures used in photoelectrochemical cells for generating solar electricity and fuels are described. The objective is to develop oxide nanowire-based electrode architectures that exhibit improved charge separation, charge collection and allow for efficient light absorption. Investigation of the charge carrier transport and recombination properties of the electrodes will aid in the understanding of how nanowire architectures improve performance of electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials can be incorporated in a number of advanced higher-performance (i.e. mass specific power) photovoltaic arrays. Advanced technologies for the deposition of 4H-silicon carbide are described. The use of novel precursors, advanced processing, and process studies, including modeling are discussed from the perspective of enhancing the performance of this promising material for enabling technologies such as solar electric propulsion. Potential impact(s) of these technologies for a variety of aerospace applications are highlighted throughout. Finally, examples are given of technologies with potential spin-offs for dual

  18. Market Potential Study for Standing Cabin Concept for Domestic Low-Cost Commercial Airlines in Malaysia (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz I.; Dasuki, Norhafizah; Yazdi Harmin, Mohammad


    An affordable air transportation has become the operational aim of many airlines these days. This is to cater the growing air travel demands from people of different social and economic status. One of the revolutionary proposals to reduce the operational costs, hence the flight ticket price, is by introducing the so-called standing cabin concept. This concept involves transporting passengers during the entire flight in their standing position with a proper support of a vertical seat. As can be expected with many new inventions, despite its clear advantages, the concept has been met with mixed reactions from the public. This study intends to establish whether the standing cabin concept has a market potential to be implemented for domestic flights in Malaysia. The public perception is determined from collected data through a survey done at two major local low-cost airport terminals. It can be concluded from the results that the concept has a good market potential for application on flights with duration of less than two hours.

  19. The effect of low ceiling on the external combustion of the cabin fire (United States)

    Su, Shichuan; Chen, Changyun; Wang, Liang; Wei, Chengyin; Cui, Haibing; Guo, Chengyu


    External combustion is a phenomenon where the flame flares out of the window and burns outside. Because of the particularity of the ship's cabin structure, there is a great danger in the external combustion. In this paper, the numerical calculation and analysis of three kinds of low ceiling ship cabin fire are analyzed based on the large eddy numerical simulation technique. Through the analysis of temperature, flue gas velocity, heat flux density and so on, the external combustion phenomenon of fire development is calculated. The results show that when external combustion occurs, the amount of fuel escaping decreases with the roof height. The temperature above the window increases with the height of the ceiling. The heat flux density in the external combustion flame is mainly provided by radiation, and convection is only a small part; In the plume area there is a time period, in this time period, the convective heat flux density is greater than the radiation heat flux, this time with the ceiling height increases. No matter which ceiling height, the external combustion will seriously damage the structure of the ship after a certain period of time. The velocity distribution of the three roof is similar, but with the height of the ceiling, the area size is also increasing.

  20. Experimental Model of Contaminant Transport by a Moving Wake Inside an Aircraft Cabin (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane; Sojka, Paul; Plesniak, Michael


    The air cabin environment in jetliners is designed to provide comfortable and healthy conditions for passengers. The air ventilation system produces a recirculating pattern designed to minimize secondary flow between seat rows. However, disturbances are frequently introduced by individuals walking along the aisle and may significantly modify air distribution and quality. Spreading of infectious aerosols or biochemical agents presents potential health hazards. A fundamental study has been undertaken to understand the unsteady transport phenomena, to validate numerical simulations and to improve air monitoring systems. A finite moving body is modeled experimentally in a 10:1 scale simplified aircraft cabin equipped with ventilation, at a Reynolds number (based on body height) of the order of 10,000. Measurements of the ventilation and wake velocity fields are obtained using PIV and PLIF. Results indicate that the evolution of the typical downwash behind the body is profoundly perturbed by the ventilation flow. Furthermore, the interaction between wake and ventilation flow significantly alters scalar contaminant migration.

  1. A Comprehensive Assessment of Biologicals Contained Within Commercial Airliner Cabin Air (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff; Dekas, Anne; Stuecker, Tara; Newcombe, Dave; Piceno, Yvette; Fuhrman, J.; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bearman, Greg


    Both culture-based and culture-independent, biomarker-targeted microbial enumeration and identification technologies were employed to estimate total microbial and viral burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Samples from each of twenty flights spanning three commercial carriers were collected via air-impingement. When the total viable microbial population was estimated by assaying relative concentrations of the universal energy carrier ATP, values ranged from below detection limits (BDL) to 4.1 x 106 cells/cubic m of air. The total viable microbial population was extremely low in both of Airline A (approximately 10% samples) and C (approximately 18% samples) compared to the samples collected aboard flights on Airline A and B (approximately 70% samples). When samples were collected as a function of time over the course of flights, a gradual accumulation of microbes was observed from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight, followed by a sharp decline in microbial abundance and viability from the initiation of descent through landing. It is concluded in this study that only 10% of the viable microbes of the cabin air were cultivable and suggested a need to employ state-of-the art molecular assay that measures both cultivable and viable-but-non-cultivable microbes. Among the cultivable bacteria, colonies of Acinetobacter sp. were by far the most profuse in Phase I, and Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus were the most abundant during Phase II. The isolation of the human pathogens Acinetobacter johnsonii, A. calcoaceticus, Janibacter melonis, Microbacterium trichotecenolyticum, Massilia timonae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium lipophiloflavum is concerning, as these bacteria can cause meningitis, septicemia, and a handful of sometimes fatal diseases and infections. Molecular microbial community analyses exhibited presence of the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta- proteobacteria, as well as

  2. Reduction of the heat demand of cabins of electric-powered vehicles by means of an alternative glass technology; Reduzierung des Heizbedarfs von Elektrofahrzeugkabinen durch alternative Scheibentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Manuel; Spinnler, Markus; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik


    Cruising range is a key factor in market penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) for the near future. Today, EVs achieve acceptable cruising range only through heavy and expensive batteries. Air-conditioning - and in temperate zones especially heating - of the passenger cabin are significant auxiliary loads that can reduce range substantially. At low ambient temperatures the necessary heating power can exceed the average drive power, thus reducing range by over 50%. This study, carried out in cooperation with AUDI AG under the BMBF research project ''e performance'' addresses measures that can potentially lead to a reduced heating demand. In addition to the rather poor insulation of today's vehicles, ventilation losses have been identified as a source of heating and defrosting load of up to 12kW in wintry conditions. At low ambient temperatures a high rate of air exchange is required to keep the humidity level low enough to avoid window fogging. Due to poor window insulation and high exterior heat transfer for a moving vehicle, temperatures at the inside surface of glass windows lie only slightly above the ambient temperature. Improving window insulation leads not only to reduced heat losses but also to higher allowable air humidity before condensation occurs, since the interior window surface is warmer. The air exchange rate can then be minimized as long as air quality standards remain satisfied. In this study steady-state air and window surface temperatures as well as humidity distributions in the cabin are determined by CFD-simulation of the interior flow-field. Window materials such as polycarbonate and double-pane glass are compared to glass at partly recirculated and fresh-air flow. (orig.)

  3. Materialism. (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew


    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Automation in airport security X-ray screening of cabin baggage: Examining benefits and possible implementations of automated explosives detection. (United States)

    Hättenschwiler, Nicole; Sterchi, Yanik; Mendes, Marcia; Schwaninger, Adrian


    Bomb attacks on civil aviation make detecting improvised explosive devices and explosive material in passenger baggage a major concern. In the last few years, explosive detection systems for cabin baggage screening (EDSCB) have become available. Although used by a number of airports, most countries have not yet implemented these systems on a wide scale. We investigated the benefits of EDSCB with two different levels of automation currently being discussed by regulators and airport operators: automation as a diagnostic aid with an on-screen alarm resolution by the airport security officer (screener) or EDSCB with an automated decision by the machine. The two experiments reported here tested and compared both scenarios and a condition without automation as baseline. Participants were screeners at two international airports who differed in both years of work experience and familiarity with automation aids. Results showed that experienced screeners were good at detecting improvised explosive devices even without EDSCB. EDSCB increased only their detection of bare explosives. In contrast, screeners with less experience (tenure automated decision provided better human-machine detection performance than on-screen alarm resolution and no automation. This came at the cost of slightly higher false alarm rates on the human-machine system level, which would still be acceptable from an operational point of view. Results indicate that a wide-scale implementation of EDSCB would increase the detection of explosives in passenger bags and automated decision instead of automation as diagnostic aid with on screen alarm resolution should be considered. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Gravitational influences on the liquid-state homogenization and solidification of aluminum antimonide. [space processing of solar cell material (United States)

    Ang, C.-Y.; Lacy, L. L.


    Typical commercial or laboratory-prepared samples of polycrystalline AlSb contain microstructural inhomogeneities of Al- or Sb-rich phases in addition to the primary AlSb grains. The paper reports on gravitational influences, such as density-driven convection or sedimentation, that cause microscopic phase separation and nonequilibrium conditions to exist in earth-based melts of AlSb. A triple-cavity electric furnace is used to homogenize the multiphase AlSb samples in space and on earth. A comparative characterization of identically processed low- and one-gravity samples of commercial AlSb reveals major improvements in the homogeneity of the low-gravity homogenized material.

  6. Investigation of space radiation effects in polymeric film-forming materials. Technical report, 12 Jun 1974 - 11 Aug. 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.; Jarke, F.


    The literature search in the field of ultraviolet radiation effects that was conducted during the previous program, Contract No. NAS1-12549, has been expanded to include the effects of charged particle radiation and high energy electromagnetic radiation. The literature from 1958 to 1969 was searched manually, while the literature from 1969 to present was searched by using a computerized keyword system. The information generated from this search was utilized for the design of an experimental program aimed at the development of materials with improved resistance to the vacuum-radiation environment of space. Preliminary irradiation experiments were performed which indicate that the approaches and criteria employed are very promising and may provide a solution to the challenging problem of polymer stability to combined ultraviolet/high energy radiation. (Author)

  7. A microcontroller-based microwave free-space measurement system for permittivity determination of lossy liquid materials. (United States)

    Hasar, U C


    A microcontroller-based noncontact and nondestructive microwave free-space measurement system for real-time and dynamic determination of complex permittivity of lossy liquid materials has been proposed. The system is comprised of two main sections--microwave and electronic. While the microwave section provides for measuring only the amplitudes of reflection coefficients, the electronic section processes these data and determines the complex permittivity using a general purpose microcontroller. The proposed method eliminates elaborate liquid sample holder preparation and only requires microwave components to perform reflection measurements from one side of the holder. In addition, it explicitly determines the permittivity of lossy liquid samples from reflection measurements at different frequencies without any knowledge on sample thickness. In order to reduce systematic errors in the system, we propose a simple calibration technique, which employs simple and readily available standards. The measurement system can be a good candidate for industrial-based applications.

  8. Using Pre-melted Phase Change Material to Keep Payload Warm without Power for Hours in Space (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.


    During a payload transition from the transport vehicle to its worksite on the International Space Station (ISS), the payload is unpowered for up to 6 hours. Its radiator(s) will continue to radiate heat to space. It is necessary to make up the heat loss to maintain the payload temperature above the cold survival limit. Typically an interplanetary Probe has no power generation system. It relies on its battery to provide limited power for the Communication and Data Handling (C&DH) subsystem during cruise, and heater power is unavailable. It is necessary to maintain the C&DH temperature above the minimum operating limit. This paper presents a novel thermal design concept that utilizes phase change material (PCM) to store thermal energy by melting it before the payload or interplanetary Probe is unpowered. For the ISS, the PCM is melted by heaters just prior to the payload transition from the transport vehicle to its worksite. For an interplanetary Probe, the PCM is melted by heaters just prior to separation from the orbiter. The PCM releases thermal energy to keep the payload warm for several hours after power is cut off.

  9. 49 CFR 39.39 - How do PVOs ensure that passengers with disabilities are able to use accessible cabins? (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do PVOs ensure that passengers with disabilities are able to use accessible cabins? 39.39 Section 39.39 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... to Services § 39.39 How do PVOs ensure that passengers with disabilities are able to use accessible...

  10. Improving driver comfort in commercial vehicles : modeling and control of a low-power active cabin suspension system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.E.


    Comfort enhancement of commercial vehicles has been an engineering topic ever since the first trucks emerged around 1900. Since then, significant improvements have been made by implementing cabin (secondary) and seat suspensions. Moreover, the invention of the air spring and its application to the

  11. Effect of relative humidity and temperature control on in-cabin thermal comfort state: Thermodynamic and psychometric analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, A.; Omar, M.A.; Mayyas, A.; Dongri, Shan


    This manuscript discusses the effect of manipulating the Relative Humidity RH of in-cabin environment on the thermal comfort and human occupants' thermal sensation. The study uses thermodynamic and psychometric analyses, to incorporate the effect of changing RH along with the dry bulb temperature on human comfort. Specifically, the study computes the effect of changing the relative humidity on the amount of heat rejected from the passenger compartment and the effect of relative humidity on occupants comfort zone. A practical system implementation is also discussed in terms of an evaporative cooler design. The results show that changing the RH along with dry bulb temperature inside vehicular cabins can improve the air conditioning efficiency by reducing the heat removed while improving the Human comfort sensations as measured by the Predicted Mean Value PMV and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied PPD indices. - Highlights: → Investigates the effect of controlling the RH and dry bulb temperature on in-cabin thermal comfort and sensation. → Conducts the thermodynamic and psychometric analyses for changing the RH and temperature for in-cabin air conditioning. → Discusses a possible system implementation through an evaporative cooler design.

  12. Interactive aircraft cabin testbed for stress-free air travel system experiment: an innovative concurrent design approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.


    In this paper, a study of the concurrent engineering design for the environmental friendly low cost aircraft cabin simulator is presented. The study describes the used of concurrent design technique in the design activity. The simulator is a testbed that was designed and built for research on

  13. Analytical evaluation of the protection offered by sealed tractor cabins during crop pulverization with fenitrothion. (United States)

    Barcellos, Michelle; Faletti, Milena Michele; Madureira, Luiz Augusto Dos Santos; Bauer, Fernando Cesar


    The practice of large-scale agriculture requires the use of pesticides in order to maximize production. This activity has gained increasing attention in recent years, especially from rural workers, due to the risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides. To minimize these risks, personal protection equipment (e.g., covers, gloves, and goggles) and collective protection equipment (e.g., agricultural tractors with sealed cabins) have been developed. In general, these approaches are intended to reduce the contact of farmers and agricultural machinery operators with the more toxic and stable compounds, an example of which is fenitrothion. In this study, fenitrothion was used as a marker to evaluate the protection afforded inside a sealed tractor cabin. To simulate the pesticide exposure, tests were performed using artificial cotton targets as passive adsorptive agents inside the cabin during the pesticide application. Samples were extracted according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) procedure using ultrasonic extraction and as proposed by the Brazilian Standard for Solid Waste Classification (NBR 10004). The extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The chromatographic method was optimized using a factorial design. The combined results indicated that the best conditions were achieved using a mobile phase with a water/acetonitrile ratio of 35:65, a column temperature of 40 °C, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, with a total analysis time of <10 min. The method was evaluated in the linear range of 0.50 to 2.01 mg/kg, with a determination coefficient of 0.9886. The precision was evaluated on different days and the relative standard deviations were between 0.17 and 3.41 %. In relation to the accuracy, recovery values of 95 to 104 % were obtained. The detection and quantification limits were 0.18 and 0.50 mg/kg, respectively. None of the target cottons showed concentrations of

  14. The Validity of the earth and space science learning materials with orientation on multiple intelligences and character education (United States)

    Liliawati, W.; Utama, J. A.; Ramalis, T. R.; Rochman, A. A.


    Validation of the Earth and Space Science learning the material in the chapter of the Earth's Protector based on experts (media & content expert and practitioners) and junior high school students' responses are presented. The data came from the development phase of the 4D method (Define, Design, Develop, Dissemination) which consist of two steps: expert appraisal and developmental testing. The instrument employed is rubric of suitability among the book contents with multiple intelligences activities, character education, a standard of book assessment, a questionnaires and close procedure. The appropriateness of the book contents with multiple intelligences, character education and standard of book assessment is in a good category. Meanwhile, students who used the book in their learning process gave a highly positive response; the book was easy to be understood. In general, the result of cloze procedure indicates high readability of the book. As our conclusion is the book chapter of the Earth's Protector can be used as a learning material accommodating students’ multiple intelligences and character internalization.

  15. Improving the critical thinking skills of junior high school students on Earth and Space Science (ESS) materials (United States)

    Marlina, L.; Liliasari; Tjasyono, B.; Hendayana, S.


    Critical thinking skills need to be developed in students. With critical thinking skills, students will be able to understand the concept with more depth easily, be sensitive with problems that occur, understand and solve problems that occur in their surroundings, and apply the concepts in different situations. Earth and Space Science (ESS) material is part of the science subjects given from elementary school to college. This research is a test of research program with quantitative method. This study aims to investigate the improvement of critical thinking skills of students through training of science teachers in junior high school in designing learning media for teaching ESS. With samples of 24 science teachers and 32 students of grade 7th in junior high school which are chosen by purposive sampling in a school in Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra, obtained average pre-test and post-test scores of students’ critical thinking skills are 52.26 and 67.06 with an average N-gain of 0.31. A survey and critical thinking skills based-test were conducted to get the data. The results show positive impact and an increase in students’ critical thinking skills on the ESS material.

  16. Characterization of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials for Return-to-Flight following the Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation (United States)

    Wingard, Doug


    During the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, it was determined that a large chunk of polyurethane insulating foam (= 1.67 lbs) on the External Tank (ET) came loose during Columbia's ascent on 2-1-03. The foam piece struck some of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the leading edge of Columbia's left wing in the mid-wing area. This impact damaged Columbia to the extent that upon re-entry to Earth, superheGed air approaching 3,000 F caused the vehicle to break up, killing all seven astronauts on board. A paper after the Columbia Accident Investigation highlighted thermal analysis testing performed on External Tank TPS materials (1). These materials included BX-250 (now BX-265) rigid polyurethane foam and SLA-561 Super Lightweight Ablator (highly-filled silicone rubber). The large chunk of foam from Columbia originated fiom the left bipod ramp of the ET. The foam in this ramp area was hand-sprayed over the SLA material and various fittings, allowed to dry, and manually shaved into a ramp shape. In Return-to-Flight (RTF) efforts following Columbia, the decision was made to remove the foam in the bipod ramp areas. During RTF efforts, further thermal analysis testing was performed on BX-265 foam by DSC and DMA. Flat panels of foam about 2-in. thick were sprayed on ET tank material (aluminum alloys). The DSC testing showed that foam material very close to the metal substrate cured more slowly than bulk foam material. All of the foam used on the ET is considered fully cured about 21 days after it is sprayed. The RTF culminated in the successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on 7-26-05. Although the flight was a success, there was another serious incident of foam loss fiom the ET during Shuttle ascent. This time, a rather large chunk of BX-265 foam (= 0.9 lbs) came loose from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) PAL ramp, although the foam did not strike the Shuttle Orbiter containing the crew. DMA testing was performed on foam samples taken fiom

  17. Using Sustainable Materials in the Design of Sports Halls in Order to Improve the Quality of Sports Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hassani


    Full Text Available Abstract The establishment of any urban element in the location of the city follows certain rules and principles that in the case of observing the success and efficiency of that element will result in that specific location. Therefore, this study has been conducted with the aim to find out the most proper place among sports complexes in Urmia to redesign. In this regard, requirements and obligations of location finding were identified after studying international experiences and study the top regulations and documents, then, effective parameters were categorized in the two levels of main indices and options according to AHP. In following, information received from opinions of experts, managers and professionals were determined in determine the importance of the indexes and analysis and weights of indexes. Finally, Urmia two thousand seater sports hall was selected among other candidate places as the best place to redesign and also environmental problems are considered as an important situation in construction. Waste Management has activated the warning signs and alerts to the environment. Reuse, recycle and reduce the wastes is the only ways to recycle created wastes. However, these executive cases have more space for progress. In this study, we investigate the use of building materials in two-thousand seater sports hall of Young house of Urmia that emphasis is on the recyclable materials. Recycling as one of the strategies is to minimize wastes. And ultimately Sport Cultural of Young house has been redesigned from sustainable materials and suggestion was designed and presented with more details ranging from architectural maps and sections and the main structure of the stadium in three-dimensional.

  18. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  19. Numerical Modelling and Damage Assessment of Rotary Wing Aircraft Cabin Door Using Continuum Damage Mechanics Model (United States)

    Boyina, Gangadhara Rao T.; Rayavarapu, Vijaya Kumar; V. V., Subba Rao


    The prediction of ultimate strength remains the main challenge in the simulation of the mechanical response of composite structures. This paper examines continuum damage model to predict the strength and size effects for deformation and failure response of polymer composite laminates when subjected to complex state of stress. The paper also considers how the overall results of the exercise can be applied in design applications. The continuum damage model is described and the resulting prediction of size effects are compared against the standard benchmark solutions. The stress analysis for strength prediction of rotary wing aircraft cabin door is carried out. The goal of this study is to extend the proposed continuum damage model such that it can be accurately predict the failure around stress concentration regions. The finite element-based continuum damage mechanics model can be applied to the structures and components of arbitrary configurations where analytical solutions could not be developed.

  20. Determination of thermal and acoustic comfort inside a vehicle’s cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Thermal and acoustic comfort, inside a vehicle’s cabin, are highly interconnected and can greatly influence the health of the passengers. On one hand, the H.V.A.C. system brings the interior air parameters to a comfortable value while on the other hand, it is the main source of noise. It is an intriguing task to find a balance between the two. In this paper, several types of air diffusers were used in order to optimize the ratio between thermal and acoustic interior comfort. Using complex measurements of noise and thermal comfort parameters we have determined for each type of air diffuser the sound pressure level and its impact on air temperature and air velocity.

  1. Radiation protection cabin for catheter-directed liver interventions: operator dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleux, Geert; Bosmans, Hilde; Bergans, Niki; Bogaerts, Ria


    The number and complexity of interventional radiological procedures and in particular catheter-directed liver interventions have increased substantially. The current study investigates the reduction of personal doses when using a dedicated radiation protection cabin (RPC) for these procedures. Operator and assistant doses were assessed for 3 series of 20 chemo-infusion/chemoembolisation interventions, including an equal number of procedures with and without RPC. Whole body doses, finger doses and doses at the level of knees and eyes were evaluated with different types of TLD-100 Harshaw dosemeters. Dosemeters were also attached on the three walls of the RPC. The operator doses were significantly reduced by the RPC, but also without RPC, the doses appear to be limited as a result of thorough optimisation with existing radiation protection tools. The added value of the RPC should thus be determined by the outcome of balancing dose reduction and other aspects such as ergonomic benefits. (authors)

  2. Seed defective reduction in automotive Electro-Deposition Coating Process of truck cabin (United States)

    Sonthilug, Aekkalag; Chutima, Parames


    The case study company is one of players in Thailand’s Automotive Industry who manufacturing truck and bus for both domestic and international market. This research focuses on a product quality problem about seed defects occurred in the Electro-Deposition Coating Process of truck cabin. The 5-phase of Six Sigma methodology including D-Define, M-Measure, A-Analyze, I-Improve, and C-Control is applied to this research to identify root causes of problem for setting new parameters of each significant factor. After the improvement, seed defects in this process is reduced from 9,178 defects per unit to 876 defects per unit (90% improvement)

  3. Influence of a controlled environment simulating an in-flight airplane cabin on dry eye disease. (United States)

    Tesón, Marisa; González-García, María J; López-Miguel, Alberto; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia; Martín-Montañez, Vicente; Benito, María Jesús; Mateo, María Eugenia; Stern, Michael E; Calonge, Margarita


    To evaluate symptoms, signs, and the levels of 16 tears inflammatory mediators of dry eye (DE) patients exposed to an environment simulating an in-flight air cabin in an environmental chamber. Twenty DE patients were exposed to controlled environment simulating an in-flight airplane cabin (simulated in-flight condition [SIC]) of 23°C, 5% relative humidity, localized air flow, and 750 millibars (mb) of barometric pressure. As controls, 15 DE patients were subjected to a simulated standard condition (SSC) of 23°C, 45% relative humidity, and 930 mb. A DE symptoms questionnaire, diagnostic tests, and determination of 16 tear molecules by multiplex bead array were performed before and 2 hours after exposure. After SIC exposure, DE patients became more symptomatic, suffered a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in tear stability (tear break up time) (from 2.18 ± 0.28 to 1.53 ± 0.20), and tear volume (phenol red thread test), and a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in corneal staining, both globally (0.50 ± 0.14 before and 1.25 ± 0.19 after) and in each area (Baylor scale). After SSC, DE patients only showed a mild, but significant (P ≤ 0.05), increase in central and inferior corneal staining. Consistently, tear levels of IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 significantly increased and tear epidermal growth factor (EGF) significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) only after SIC. The controlled adverse environment conditions in this environmental chamber can simulate the conditions in which DE patients might be exposed during flight. As this clearly impaired their lacrimal functional unit, it would be advisable that DE patients use therapeutic strategies capable of ameliorating these adverse episodes.

  4. Summary Report for the Technical Interchange Meeting on Development of Baseline Material Properties and Design Guidelines for In-Space Manufacturing Activities (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Johnston, M. M.; Ordonez, E. A.; Ledbetter, F. E.; Risdon, D. L.; Stockman, T. J.; Sandridge, S. K. R.; Nelson, G. M.


    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Agency as a whole are currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing (ISM) activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long-duration spaceflight. The recent 3D Printing in Zero-G experiment conducted on board the International Space Station (ISS) demonstrated that parts of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic can be manufactured in microgravity using fused deposition modeling (FDM). This project represents the beginning of the development of a capability that is critical to future NASA missions. Current and future ISM activities will require the development of baseline material properties to facilitate design, analysis, and certification of materials manufactured using in-space techniques. The purpose of this technical interchange meeting (TIM) was to bring together MSFC practitioners and experts in materials characterization and development of baseline material properties for emerging technologies to advise the ISM team as we progress toward the development of material design values, standards, and acceptance criteria for materials manufactured in space. The overall objective of the TIM was to leverage MSFC's shared experiences and collective knowledge in advanced manufacturing and materials development to construct a path forward for the establishment of baseline material properties, standards development, and certification activities related to ISM. Participants were asked to help identify research and development activities that will (1) accelerate acceptance and adoption of ISM techniques among the aerospace design community; (2) benefit future NASA programs, commercial technology developments, and national needs; and (3) provide opportunities and avenues for further collaboration.

  5. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  6. Reflection and refraction of elastic waves at a corrugated interface in a bi-material transversely isotropic full-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shad-Manamen, N.; Eskandari-Ghadi, M.


    The existing theory for wave propagation through a soil layer are not compatible with the real soil layers because in the theory the layers are flat and the sub-layers are parallel, while in real the soil layers are not flat and they may not be parallel. Thus, wave propagations through a corrugated interface are so important. In this paper, a two dimensional SH-wave propagation through a corrugated interface between two linear transversely isotropic half-spaces is assessed. In order to do this, Lord Rayleigh's method is accepted to express the non-flat surface by a Fourier series. In this way, the amplitude of the reflected and transmitted waves is analytically determined in terms of the incident SH-wave amplitude. It is shown that except for the regular reflected and refracted waves, some irregular reflected and refracted waves are exist, and the amplitudes of these waves vary in terms of the angle and frequency of incident wave, equation of surface, and the material properties of the domains. The numerical computations for some cases of different amplitude/wave-length ratio of the interface are done. This work is an extension of Asano's paper (1960) for a more complicated interface, where more non-zero coefficients are considered in expressing the equation of surface in the form of Fourier series. The analytical results for some simpler case of isotropic domain are collapsed on Asano's results (1960). In addition, the numerical evaluation is in good agreement with Asano's.

  7. Synthetic Biology for Recycling Human Waste into Nutraceuticals, and Materials: Closing the Loop for Long-Term Space Travel (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is impractical for astronauts to travel with all necessary supplies in future long-term space exploration missions. Therefore, it is imperative that technologies...

  8. Enhanced Predictions of Time to Critical Dielectric Breakdown of Materials Under Prolonged Exposure to Space Plasma Environments (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The leading cause of spacecraft failures and malfunctions due to interactions with the space plasma environment is electrostatic discharge (ESD). The enhanced time...

  9. PTR-MS Assessment of Photocatalytic and Sorption-Based Purification of Recirculated Cabin Air during Simulated 7-h Flights with High Passenger Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Fang, Lei


    Four different air purification conditions were established in a simulated 3-row 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin: no air purifier; a photocatalytic oxidation unit with an adsorptive prefilter; a second photocatalytic unit with an adsorptive prefil-ter; and a two-stage sorptionbased air filter...... (gas-phase absorption and adsorption). The air purifiers placed in the cabin air recirculation system were commercial prototypes developed for use in aircraft cabin systems. The four conditions were established in balanced order on 4 successive days of each of 4 successive weeks during simulated 7-h...... flights with 17 occupants. Protontransfer reaction mass spectrometry was used to assess organic gas-phase pollutants and the performance of each air purifier. The concentration of most organic pollutants present in aircraft cabin air was effi-ciently reduced by all three units. The photocatalytic units...

  10. Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement - Part III: Material Property Characterization, Analysis, and Test Methods (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Johnson, Theodore F.; Whitley, Karen S.


    The objective of this report is to contribute to the independent assessment of the Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Material. This report specifically addresses material modeling, characterization testing, data reduction methods, and data pedigree. A brief description of the External Tank foam materials, locations, and standard failure modes is provided to develop suitable background information. A review of mechanics based analysis methods from the open literature is used to provide an assessment of the state-of-the-art in material modeling of closed cell foams. Further, this report assesses the existing material property database and investigates sources of material property variability. The report presents identified deficiencies in testing methods and procedures, recommendations for additional testing as required, identification of near-term improvements that should be pursued, and long-term capabilities or enhancements that should be developed.

  11. A case study on identification of airborne organic compounds and time courses of their concentrations in the cabin of a new car for private use. (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Ichiro


    The cabin of an automobile can be considered to be a part of the living environment because many people spend long periods of time during business, shopping, recreation or travel activities. However, little is known about the interior air contamination due to organic compounds diffusing from the interior materials used in the interior of automobiles. In the present study, the compounds in the interior air of a new car were identified, and the time courses of their concentrations were examined for over 3 years after the delivery (July, 1999). A total of 162 organic compounds, involving many aliphatic hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified. High concentrations of n-nonane (458 microg/m(3) on the day following delivery), n-decane (1301 microg/m(3)), n-undecane (1616 microg/m(3)), n-dodecane (716 microg/m(3)), n-tridecane (320 microg/m(3)), 1-hexadecene (768 microg/m(3)), ethylbenzene (361 microg/m(3)), xylene (4003 microg/m(3)) and 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (429 microg/m(3)) were detected, and the sum of the concentrations determined for all compounds excluding formaldehyde (TVOC) was approximately 14 mg/m(3) on the day after the delivery. The concentrations of most compounds decreased with time, but increased with a rise of the interior temperature. The TVOC concentration in the next summer (July, 2000) was approximately one-tenth of the initial concentration. During the 3-year study period, the TVOC concentrations in summer exceeded the indoor guideline value (300 mug/m(3)) proposed by [Seifert B. Volatile organic compounds. In: Maroni M, Seifert B, Lindvall T, editors. Indoor air quality. A comprehensive reference book. Air quality monographs, vol. 3. Netherlands: Elsevier Science; 1995. p. 819-21]. The interior temperature and days lapsed after delivery were the main factors affecting the interior concentrations of most compounds according to multiple linear regression analysis. The results of this study offer useful fundamental data for

  12. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation. (United States)

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; She, Jianwen; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Yifang


    Commuters who spend long hours on roads are exposed to high levels of traffic related air pollutants (TRAPs). Despite some well-known multiple adverse effects of TRAPs on human health, limited studies have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. In this study, we measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations inside and outside 17 taxis simultaneously while they were driven on roadways. The drivers' urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations just before and right after the driving tests were also determined. Data were collected under three driving conditions (i.e. no mitigation (NM), window closed (WC), and window closed plus using high efficiency cabin air filters (WC+HECA)) for each taxi and driver. The results show that, compared to NM, the WC+HECA reduced in-cabin PM2.5 and UFP concentrations, by 37% and 47% respectively (p health.

  13. Prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in German airline cabin crew: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Winter, Mareen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo


    Many epidemiological studies point to an increased risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin crew. Possible causes include occupational factors (e.g. cosmic radiation exposure, chronodisruption), as well as lifestyle and reproductive factors. To investigate the frequency of various risk factors in German flight attendants which are recognised to be associated with breast cancer. 2708 current and former female cabin crew were randomly selected by a flight attendants' union and mailed a questionnaire; 1311 responded (48% response). Descriptive statistics were used to compare the distribution of breast cancer risk factors with general German population data. On average, cabin crew were 3.0 cm (95% CI 2.7-3.3) taller than the comparison group, while their body mass index was 2.5 kg/m(2) (95% CI 2.4-2.6) lower. We found less use of hormone replacement therapy, but longer average use of oral contraceptives. Nulliparity among respondents aged 45+ was 57% (95% CI 54%-60%) compared to 16%. Average age at first birth was 32.1 years (95% CI 31.7-32.4) vs. 25.5 years. The birth rate was 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.67), less than half the population average of 1.34. Alcohol consumption was considerably higher, whereas cabin crew tended to smoke less and performed more physical exercise. We found important differences in terms of anthropometric, gynaecological, reproductive and lifestyle factors. Some of these differences (e.g. higher nulliparity, alcohol consumption, taller size) could contribute to a higher breast cancer risk, whereas others could lead to a reduction (e.g. increased physical exercise, lower BMI, less HRT use).

  14. Verification of shielding effect by the water-filled materials for space radiation in the International Space Station using passive dosimeters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodaira, S.; Tolochek, R. V.; Ambrožová, Iva; Kawashima, H.; Yasuda, N.; Kurano, M.; Kitamura, H.; Uchihori, Y.; Kobayashi, I.; Hakamada, H.; Suzuki, A.; Kartsev, I. S.; Yarmanova, E. N.; Nikolaev, I. V.; Shurshakov, V. A.


    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-7 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : space radiation dosimetry * water shield * dose reduction * passive dosimeters * CR-39 * TLD Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014

  15. Rationale and Methods for Archival Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Chemical Contaminants On Board Mir and Recommendations for the International Space Station (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; James, J. T.; Cole, H. E.; Limero, T. F.; Beck, S. W.


    Collection and analysis of spacecraft cabin air samples are necessary to assess the cabin air quality with respect to crew health. Both toxicology and engineering disciplines work together to achieve an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Toxicology is concerned with limiting the risk to crew health from chemical sources, setting exposure limits, and analyzing air samples to determine how well these limits are met. Engineering provides the means for minimizing the contribution of the various contaminant generating sources by providing active contamination control equipment on board spacecraft and adhering to a rigorous material selection and control program during the design and construction of the spacecraft. A review of the rationale and objectives for sampling spacecraft cabin atmospheres is provided. The presently-available sampling equipment and methods are reviewed along with the analytical chemistry methods employed to determine trace contaminant concentrations. These methods are compared and assessed with respect to actual cabin air quality monitoring needs. Recommendations are presented with respect to the basic sampling program necessary to ensure an acceptably clean spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Also, rationale and recommendations for expanding the scope of the basic monitoring program are discussed.

  16. Investigation of in-cabin volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in taxis; influence of vehicle's age, model, fuel, and refueling. (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Reza; Hadei, Mostafa; Hopke, Philip K; Shahsavani, Abbas; Rastkari, Noushin; Kermani, Majid; Yarahmadi, Maryam; Ghaderpoori, Afshin


    The air pollutant species and concentrations in taxis' cabins can present significant health impacts on health. This study measured the concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the cabins of four different taxi models. The effects of taxi's age, fuel type, and refueling were investigated. Four taxi models in 3 age groups were fueled with 3 different fuels (gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)), and the concentrations of 6 air pollutants were measured in the taxi cabins before and after refueling. BTEX, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde sampling were actively sampled using NIOSH methods 1501, 2541, and 2538, respectively. The average BTEX concentrations for all taxi models were below guideline values. The average concentrations (±SD) of formaldehyde in Model 1 to Model 4 taxis were 889 (±356), 806 (±323), 1144 (±240), and 934 (±167) ppbv, respectively. Acetaldehyde average concentrations (±SD) in Model 1 to Model 4 taxis were 410 (±223), 441 (±241), 443 (±210), and 482 (±91) ppbv, respectively. Refueling increased the in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants primarily the CNG and LPG fuels. BTEX concentrations in all taxi models were significantly higher for gasoline. Taxi age inversely affected formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In conclusion, it seems that refueling process and substitution of gasoline with CNG and LPG can be considered as solutions to improve in-vehicle air concentrations for taxis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Atmospheric-Pressure-Spray, Chemical- Vapor-Deposited Thin-Film Materials Being Developed for High Power-to- Weight-Ratio Space Photovoltaic Applications (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Harris, Jerry D.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Smith, Mark A.; Cowen, Jonathan E.


    The key to achieving high specific power (watts per kilogram) space photovoltaic arrays is the development of high-efficiency thin-film solar cells that are fabricated on lightweight, space-qualified substrates such as Kapton (DuPont) or another polymer film. Cell efficiencies of 20 percent air mass zero (AM0) are required. One of the major obstacles to developing lightweight, flexible, thin-film solar cells is the unavailability of lightweight substrate or superstrate materials that are compatible with current deposition techniques. There are two solutions for working around this problem: (1) develop new substrate or superstrate materials that are compatible with current deposition techniques, or (2) develop new deposition techniques that are compatible with existing materials. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been focusing on the latter approach and has been developing a deposition technique for depositing thin-film absorbers at temperatures below 400 C.

  18. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP. (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo


    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  19. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng


    Full Text Available In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming, using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model’s input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators’ operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  20. CFD simulation of a cabin thermal environment with and without human body - thermal comfort evaluation (United States)

    Danca, Paul; Bode, Florin; Nastase, Ilinca; Meslem, Amina


    Nowadays, thermal comfort became one of the criteria in choosing a vehicle. In last decades time spent by people in vehicles had risen substantially. During each trip, thermal comfort must to be ensured for a good psychological and physical state of the passengers. Also, a comfortable environment leads to a higher power concentration of the driver thereby to a safe trip for vehicle occupants and for all traffic participants. The present study numerically investigated the effect of human body sited in the driver's place, over the air velocity distribution and over the thermal comfort in a passenger compartment. CFD simulations were made with different angles of the left inlet grill, in both cases, with and without driver presence. In majority of the actual vehicles environment studies, are made without consideration of human body geometry, in this case, the results precision can be affected. The results show that the presence of human body, lead to global changing of the whole flow pattern inside the vehicular cabin. Also, the locations of the maximum velocities are changing with the angle of the guiding vanes. The thermal comfort PMV/PPD indexes were calculated for each case. The presence of human body leads to a more comfortable environment.

  1. Experimental study on occupant's thermal responses under the non-uniform conditions in vehicle cabin during the heating period (United States)

    Zhang, Wencan; Chen, Jiqing; Lan, Fengchong


    The existing investigations on thermal comfort mostly focus on the thermal environment conditions, especially of the air-flow field and the temperature distributions in vehicle cabin. Less attention appears to direct to the thermal comfort or thermal sensation of occupants, even to the relationship between thermal conditions and thermal sensation. In this paper, a series of experiments were designed and conducted for understanding the non-uniform conditions and the occupant's thermal responses in vehicle cabin during the heating period. To accurately assess the transient temperature distribution in cabin in common daily condition, the air temperature at a number of positions is measured in a full size vehicle cabin under natural winter environment in South China by using a discrete thermocouples network. The occupant body is divided into nine segments, the skin temperature at each segment and the occupant's local thermal sensation at the head, body, upper limb and lower limb are monitored continuously. The skin temperature is observed by using a discrete thermocouples network, and the local thermal sensation is evaluated by using a seven-point thermal comfort survey questionnaire proposed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc(ASHRAE) Standard. The relationship between the skin temperature and the thermal sensation is discussed and regressed by statistics method. The results show that the interior air temperature is highly non-uniform over the vehicle cabin. The locations where the occupants sit have a significant effect on the occupant's thermal responses, including the skin temperature and the thermal sensation. The skin temperature and thermal sensation are quite different between body segments due to the effect of non-uniform conditions, clothing resistance, and the human thermal regulating system. A quantitative relationship between the thermal sensation and the skin temperature at each body segment of occupant in

  2. New materialism and social justice:New materialism and social justice a space for productive entanglement, or a political cul-de-sac?


    Mcgregor, Callum; Knox, Jeremy


    Recent developments in new materialist (NM) politics have surfaced the problem of what social justice might look like in the wake of the post-human. NM has produced its own situated knowledges, which have re-theorised the ‘social’. To an extent, these situated spaces have developed in isolation from established spaces of social justice scholarship. In NM, the ‘social’ is recuperated in a flat ontology, as a mere synonym for the ‘ecological’ (Bryant 2014, p. 192). In this context, one might be...

  3. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A


    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  4. Post-Flight Evaluation of PICA and PICA-X - Comparisons of the Stardust SRC and Space-X Dragon 1 Forebody Heatshield Materials (United States)

    Stackpoole, M.; Kao, D.; Qu, V.; Gonzales, G.


    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. As a thermal protection material, PICA has the advantages of being able to withstand high heat fluxes with a relatively low density. This ablative material was used as the forebody heat shield material for the Stardust sample return capsule, which re-entered the Earths atmosphere in 2006. Based on PICA, SpaceX developed a variant, PICA-X, and used it as the heat shield material for its Dragon spacecraft, which successfully orbited the Earth and re-entered the atmosphere during the COTS Demo Flight 1 in 2010. Post-flight analysis was previously performed on the Stardust PICA heat shield material. Similarly, a near-stagnation core was obtained from the post-flight Dragon 1 heat shield, which was retrieved from the Pacific Ocean. Materials testing and analyses were performed on the core to evaluate its ablation performance and post-flight properties. Comparisons between PICA and PICA-X are made where applicable. Stardust and Dragon offer rare opportunities to evaluate materials post-flight - this data is beneficial in understanding material performance and also improves modeling capabilities.

  5. Phase I Advanced Battery Materials For Rechargeable Advanced Space-Rated Li-Ion Batteries, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy (up to 200 Wh/kg),...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Yankevich


    Full Text Available One of the most important values while forming gear wheels is a material section area Sс which is to be removed by a tool in the process of forming a space between two teeth in one pass. Cutting resistance which is proportional  to section area of  the layer to be cut and, correspondingly, a thermodynamic intensity in the polishing zone depend on Sс value.The paper proposes relations for calculation of a material section area Sс which is to be removed from a blank while forming a space between two teeth of a satellite gear of a planetary pin tooth reducer.Measurements being made in the AutoCAD packet have shown that any corrections of the profile do not make a significant influence on a section area Sс.

  7. The effect of type of rooting material and space allowance on exploration and abnormal behaviour in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Studnitz, Merete; Pedersen, Lene Juul


    manipulated rooting material more (23% vs. 18% of pigs; P mates less (2.2% vs. 3.0% of the pigs; P ...%, 40% and 7% of pigs at 09.00, 10.00 and 13.00 h, respectively; P mates (4.1%, 2.1% and 1.5% of the pigs at 09.00, 10.00 and 13.00 h, respectively; P ... manipulated the rooting material more. Finally, increased manipulation of pen mates and pen components just before allocation of new rooting material suggest that the amount available just before the next allocation was insufficient to maintain material manipulation....

  8. Pressure-equalizing earplugs do not prevent barotrauma on descent from 8000 ft cabin altitude. (United States)

    Klokker, Mads; Vesterhauge, Søren; Jansen, Erik C


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressure-equalizing earplugs available in major airports and drugstores. No previous study has focused on preventing barotrauma using these earplugs. Blinded and double-blinded, one type of pressure-equalizing earplugs (JetEars) was studied in 27 volunteers disposed to ear barotrauma. They acted as their own controls with an active earplug in one ear and a placebo earplug in the other ear at random. All were exposed to the same well-defined pressure profile for 1 h at 8000 ft, comparable to the environment in civil commercial air travel in a pressurized cabin. Satisfaction was assessed by questionnaire and objective results were evaluated prior to and after the pressure exposure by tympanometry and otoscopy using the Teed classification. The majority of the volunteers (78%) reported a pleasant noise-reducing feeling using the earplugs. However, 75% also experienced ear pain during descent. In comparing the middle ear pressure before and after pressurization, a decrease was found in ears with both active earplugs and placebo earplugs. No difference between the active and the placebo earplugs were found. Furthermore, after evaluation of the two groups of ears using otoscopy, no prevention of barotrauma was found. In fact, the ears using an active pressure-equalizing earplug scored significantly worse (p = 0.033). Feelings of noise reduction were reported, but no prevention of barotrauma could be demonstrated with the use of pressure-equalizing earplugs. Pressure-equalizing earplugs cannot be recommended in air travel for preventing ear barotrauma.

  9. Development of a Prototype Algal Reactor for Removing CO2 from Cabin Air (United States)

    Patel, Vrajen; Monje, Oscar


    Controlling carbon dioxide in spacecraft cabin air may be accomplished using algal photobioreactors (PBRs). The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of a commercial microcontroller, the Arduino Mega 2560, for measuring key photioreactor variables: dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, light, and carbon dioxide. The Arduino platform is an opensource physical computing platform composed of a compact microcontroller board and a C++/C computer language (Arduino 1.0.5). The functionality of the Arduino platform can be expanded by the use of numerous add-ons or 'shields'. The Arduino Mega 2560 was equipped with the following shields: datalogger, BNC shield for reading pH sensor, a Mega Moto shield for controlling CO2 addition, as well as multiple sensors. The dissolved oxygen (DO) probe was calibrated using a nitrogen bubbling technique and the pH probe was calibrated via an Omega pH simulator. The PBR was constructed using a 2 L beaker, a 66 L box for addition of CO2, a micro porous membrane, a diaphragm pump, four 25 watt light bulbs, a MasterFiex speed controller, and a fan. The algae (wild type Synechocystis PCC6803) was grown in an aerated flask until the algae was dense enough to used in the main reactor. After the algae was grown, it was transferred to the 2 L beaker where CO2 consumption and O2 production was measured using the microcontroller sensor suite. The data was recorded via the datalogger and transferred to a computer for analysis.

  10. Shared leadership in multiteam systems: how cockpit and cabin crews lead each other to safety. (United States)

    Bienefeld, Nadine; Grote, Gudela


    In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of shared leadership within and across teams in multiteam systems (MTS) on team goal attainment and MTS success. Due to different and sometimes competing goals in MTS, leadership is required within and across teams. Shared leadership, the effectiveness of which has been proven in single teams, may be an effective strategy to cope with these challenges. We observed leadership in 84 cockpit and cabin crews that collaborated in the form of six-member MTS aircrews (N = 504) during standardized simulations of an in-flight emergency. Leadership was coded by three trained observers using a structured observation system. Team goal attainment was assessed by two subject matter experts using a checklist-based rating tool. MTS goal attainment was measured objectively on the basis of the outcome of the simulated flights. In successful MTS aircrews, formal leaders and team members displayed significantly more leadership behaviors, shared leadership by pursers and flight attendants predicted team goal attainment, and pursers' shared leadership across team boundaries predicted cross-team goal attainment. In cockpit crews, leadership was not shared and captains' vertical leadership predicted team goal attainment regardless of MTS success. The results indicate that in general, shared leadership positively relates to team goal attainment and MTS success,whereby boundary spanners' dual leadership role is key. Leadership training in MTS should address shared rather than merely vertical forms of leadership, and component teams in MTS should be trained together with emphasis on boundary spanners' dual leadership role. Furthermore, team members should be empowered to engage in leadership processes when required.

  11. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.


    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  12. Two-material optimization of plate armour for blast mitigation using hybrid cellular automata (United States)

    Goetz, J.; Tan, H.; Renaud, J.; Tovar, A.


    With the increased use of improvised explosive devices in regions at war, the threat to military and civilian life has risen. Cabin penetration and gross acceleration are the primary threats in an explosive event. Cabin penetration crushes occupants, damaging the lower body. Acceleration causes death at high magnitudes. This investigation develops a process of designing armour that simultaneously mitigates cabin penetration and acceleration. The hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method of topology optimization has proven efficient and robust in problems involving large, plastic deformations such as crash impact. Here HCA is extended to the design of armour under blast loading. The ability to distribute two metallic phases, as opposed to one material and void, is also added. The blast wave energy transforms on impact into internal energy (IE) inside the solid medium. Maximum attenuation occurs with maximized IE. The resulting structures show HCA's potential for designing blast mitigating armour structures.

  13. International Space Station Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Cady, Scott M; Welsh, David A.


    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQs) providing a private crew member space. The CQs use Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air-from the ISS Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA) or the ISS fluid cooling loop. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crew member's head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ ventilation ducts are conduits to the louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significant acoustic mitigation controls. The CQ interior needs to be below noise criteria curve 40 (NC-40). The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. Each CQ required 13% of its total volume and approximately 6% of its total mass to reduce acoustic noise. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  14. Quantitative Risk Modeling of Fire on the International Space Station (United States)

    Castillo, Theresa; Haught, Megan


    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has worked to prevent fire events and to mitigate their impacts should they occur. Hardware is designed to reduce sources of ignition, oxygen systems are designed to control leaking, flammable materials are prevented from flying to ISS whenever possible, the crew is trained in fire response, and fire response equipment improvements are sought out and funded. Fire prevention and mitigation are a top ISS Program priority - however, programmatic resources are limited; thus, risk trades are made to ensure an adequate level of safety is maintained onboard the ISS. In support of these risk trades, the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) team has modeled the likelihood of fire occurring in the ISS pressurized cabin, a phenomenological event that has never before been probabilistically modeled in a microgravity environment. This paper will discuss the genesis of the ISS PRA fire model, its enhancement in collaboration with fire experts, and the results which have informed ISS programmatic decisions and will continue to be used throughout the life of the program.

  15. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.


    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  16. Validation by numerical simulation of the behaviour of protective structures of machinery cabins subjected to standardized shocks (United States)

    Dumitrache, P.; Goanţă, A. M.


    The ability of the cabins to insure the operator protection in the case of the shock loading that appears at the roll-over of the machine or when the cab is struck by the falling objects, it’s one of the most important performance criterions that it must comply by the machines and the mobile equipments. The experimental method provides the most accurate information on the behaviour of protective structures, but generates high costs due to experimental installations and structures which may be compromised during the experiments. In these circumstances, numerical simulation of the actual problem (mechanical shock applied to a strength structure) is a perfectly viable alternative, given that the hardware and software current performances provides the necessary support to obtain results with an acceptable level of accuracy. In this context, the paper proposes using FEA platforms for virtual testing of the actual strength structures of the cabins using their finite element models based on 3D models generated in CAD environments. In addition to the economic advantage above mentioned, although the results obtained by simulation using the finite element method are affected by a number of simplifying assumptions, the adequate modelling of the phenomenon can be a successful support in the design process of structures to meet safety performance criteria imposed by current standards. In the first section of the paper is presented the general context of the security performance requirements imposed by current standards on the cabins strength structures. The following section of the paper is dedicated to the peculiarities of finite element modelling in problems that impose simulation of the behaviour of structures subjected to shock loading. The final section of the paper is dedicated to a case study and to the future objectives.

  17. Effects of Gas-Phase Adsorption air purification on passengers and cabin crew in simulated 11-hour flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei


    In a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin that had been installed in a climate chamber, 4 groups of 17 subjects, acting as passengers and crew, took part in simulated 11-hour flights. Each group experienced 4 conditions in balanced order, defined by two outside air supply rates (2.......4 and 3.3 L/s per person), with and without a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) unit in the re-circulated air system. Objective physical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments of symptom intensity were obtained. The GPA unit provided advantages with no apparent disadvantages....

  18. Avaliação ergonômica do projeto interno de cabines de Forwarders e Skidders


    Gustavo Fontana


    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo realizar a avaliação ergonômica da cabine de seis modelos de máquinas florestais utilizadas na extração de madeira (quatro “forwarders” e dois “skidders”), quanto ao posicionamento de comandos e instrumentos e o campo visual do operador, com base nas características antropométricas do operador brasileiro. As análises foram feitas em máquinas operando em áreas de colheita de madeira pertencentes a duas empresas florestais, localizadas nos municípios de Mog...

  19. The Reliability Estimation for the Open Function of Cabin Door Affected by the Imprecise Judgment Corresponding to Distribution Hypothesis (United States)

    Yu, Z. P.; Yue, Z. F.; Liu, W.


    With the development of artificial intelligence, more and more reliability experts have noticed the roles of subjective information in the reliability design of complex system. Therefore, based on the certain numbers of experiment data and expert judgments, we have divided the reliability estimation based on distribution hypothesis into cognition process and reliability calculation. Consequently, for an illustration of this modification, we have taken the information fusion based on intuitional fuzzy belief functions as the diagnosis model of cognition process, and finished the reliability estimation for the open function of cabin door affected by the imprecise judgment corresponding to distribution hypothesis.

  20. Effect of human movement on airborne disease transmission in an airplane cabin: study using numerical modeling and quantitative risk analysis. (United States)

    Han, Zhuyang; To, Gin Nam Sze; Fu, Sau Chung; Chao, Christopher Yu-Hang; Weng, Wenguo; Huang, Quanyi


    Airborne transmission of respiratory infectious disease in indoor environment (e.g. airplane cabin, conference room, hospital, isolated room and inpatient ward) may cause outbreaks of infectious diseases, which may lead to many infection cases and significantly influences on the public health. This issue has received more and more attentions from academics. This work investigates the influence of human movement on the airborne transmission of respiratory infectious diseases in an airplane cabin by using an accurate human model in numerical simulation and comparing the influences of different human movement behaviors on disease transmission. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is adopted to simulate the dispersion and deposition of the expiratory aerosols. The dose-response model is used to assess the infection risks of the occupants. The likelihood analysis is performed as a hypothesis test on the input parameters and different human movement pattern assumptions. An in-flight SARS outbreak case is used for investigation. A moving person with different moving speeds is simulated to represent the movement behaviors. A digital human model was used to represent the detailed profile of the occupants, which was obtained by scanning a real thermal manikin using the 3D laser scanning system. The analysis results indicate that human movement can strengthen the downward transport of the aerosols, significantly reduce the overall deposition and removal rate of the suspended aerosols and increase the average infection risk in the cabin. The likelihood estimation result shows that the risk assessment results better fit the outcome of the outbreak case when the movements of the seated passengers are considered. The intake fraction of the moving person is significantly higher than most of the seated passengers. The infection risk distribution in the airplane cabin highly depends on the movement behaviors of the passengers and the index patient. The walking activities of the crew

  1. What makes a space invader? Passenger perceptions of personal space invasion in aircraft travel. (United States)

    Lewis, Laura; Patel, Harshada; D'Cruz, Mirabelle; Cobb, Sue


    The invasion of personal space is often a contributory factor to the experience of discomfort in aircraft passengers. This paper presents a questionnaire study which investigated how air travellers are affected by invasions of personal space and how they attempt to adapt to, or counter, these invasions. In support of recent findings on the factors influencing air passenger comfort, the results of this study indicate that the invasion of personal space is not only caused by physical factors (e.g. physical contact with humans or objects), but also other sensory factors such as noise, smells or unwanted eye contact. The findings of this study have implications for the design of shared spaces. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents a questionnaire study which investigated personal space in an aircraft environment. The results highlight the factors which affect the perception of personal space invasion in aircraft and can therefore inform the design of aircraft cabin environments to enhance the passenger experience.

  2. Beyond a Logic of Quality: Opening Space for Material-Discursive Practices of "Readiness" in Early Years Education (United States)

    Evans, Katherine


    This article is an exploration of the possibilities encountered through shifting from a "logic of quality" to a "space of meaning-making" within early years education. Focusing on ideas of "readiness", this discussion aims to challenge normative understandings that relate this concept to the predictable achievement of…

  3. L4-L5 compression and anterior/posterior joint shear forces in cabin attendants during the initial push/pull actions of airplane meal carts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Rosgaard, Christian; Jensen, Bente Rona


    The aim of the present study was to assess the acute low back load of cabin attendants during cart handling and to identify working situations which present the highest strain on the worker. In a setup, 17 cabin attendants (ten females and seven males) pushed, pulled and turned a 20kg standard meal...... was used to calculate the acute L4-L5 load. No working situations created loads greater than the accepted values for single exertions, however compression and anterior/posterior shear forces during pulling and turning were much higher when compared with pushing. There were significant effects of handling...... the cart on different floor types, at the varying inclinations and with different cart weights. Additionally, when external forces were reduced, the cabin attendants did not decrease push/pull force proportionally and thus the L4-L5 load did not decrease as much as expected....

  4. An Advanced Smoke-Eater for Post-Fire Cabin Atmosphere Cleanup, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An on-board oxygen concentrator is required during long duration manned space missions to supply medical oxygen. The commercial medical oxygen generators based on...

  5. Local materials in the regeneration of urban space of the historic centre of the Metropolitan City of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Joanna


    Full Text Available The contribution is part of the studies conducted by the Urban Planning Board, Land Management, Environment Laboratory for the “metropolitan city” and the Big Project “Historic centre of Naples, enhancement of the UNESCO site”. Among the issues under discussion, very important for the 92 municipalities of the Metropolitan City, is the preservation of different urban identities which, although united administratively, are claiming their own cultural profile rooted in the urban space, in the architecture of places and in local resources. The work is based on the principle that the use of local resources affects the quality and perception of urban space and, as evidence of belonging to the place, it is necessary to deal its exploitation under sustainable auspices.

  6. Potential means of support for materials processing in space. A history of government support for new technology (United States)

    Mckannan, E. C.


    Development of a given technology for national defense and large systems developments when the task is too large or risky for entrepreneurs, yet is clearly in the best interest of the nation are discussed. Advanced research to identify areas of interest was completed. Examples of commercial opportunities are the McDonnell-Douglas Corporation purification process for pharmaceutical products and the Microgravity Research Associates process for growing gallium arsenide crystals in space.

  7. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  8. Structural Framework for Flight: NASA's Role in Development of Advanced Composite Materials for Aircraft and Space Structures (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Johnston, Norman J.; Pipes, R. Byron; McGuire, Jack F.


    This serves as a source of collated information on Composite Research over the past four decades at NASA Langley Research Center, and is a key reference for readers wishing to grasp the underlying principles and challenges associated with developing and applying advanced composite materials to new aerospace vehicle concepts. Second, it identifies the major obstacles encountered in developing and applying composites on advanced flight vehicles, as well as lessons learned in overcoming these obstacles. Third, it points out current barriers and challenges to further application of composites on future vehicles. This is extremely valuable for steering research in the future, when new breakthroughs in materials or processing science may eliminate/minimize some of the barriers that have traditionally blocked the expanded application of composite to new structural or revolutionary vehicle concepts. Finally, a review of past work and identification of future challenges will hopefully inspire new research opportunities and development of revolutionary materials and structural concepts to revolutionize future flight vehicles.

  9. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and

  10. Space Transportation System (STS)-133/External Tank (ET)-137 Intertank (IT) Stringer Cracking Issue and Repair Assessment: Proximate Cause Determination and Material Characterization Study (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.


    Several cracks were detected in stringers located beneath the foam on the External Tank (ET) following the launch scrub of Space Transportation System (STS)-133 on November 5, 2010. The stringer material was aluminum-lithium (AL-Li) 2090-T83 fabricated from sheets that were nominally 0.064 inches thick. The mechanical properties of the stringer material were known to vary between different material lots, with the stringers from ET-137 (predominately lots 620853 and 620854) having the highest yield and ultimate stresses. Subsequent testing determined that these same lots also had the lowest fracture toughness properties. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) supported the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)-led investigation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a database of test results to provide validation for structural analysis models, independently confirm test results obtained from other investigators, and determine the proximate cause of the anomalous low fracture toughness observed in stringer lots 620853 and 620854. This document contains the outcome of the investigation.

  11. In-Cabin Air Quality during Driving and Engine Idling in Air-Conditioned Private Vehicles in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Barnes, Natasha Maria; Ng, Tsz Wai; Ma, Kwok Keung; Lai, Ka Man


    Many people spend lengthy periods each day in enclosed vehicles in Hong Kong. However, comparably limited data is available about in-cabin air quality in air-conditioned private vehicles, and the car usage that may affect the air quality. Fifty-one vehicles were tested for particulate matter (PM 0.3 and PM 2.5 ), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), airborne bacteria, and fungi levels during their routine travel journey. Ten of these vehicles were further examined for PM 0.3 , PM 2.5 , TVOCs, CO, and CO₂ during engine idling. In general, during driving PM 2.5 levels in-cabin reduced overtime, but not PM 0.3 . For TVOCs, 24% vehicles exceeded the recommended Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) level in offices and public places set by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentration positively correlated with the age of the vehicle. Carbon monoxide (CO) levels in all of the vehicles were lower than the IAQ recommendation, while 96% vehicles exceeded the recommended CO₂ level of 1000 ppmv; 16% vehicles >5000 ppmv. Microbial counts were relatively low. TVOCs levels at idle engine were higher than that during driving. Although the time we spend in vehicles is short, the potential exposure to high levels of pollutants should not be overlooked.

  12. Recurrence of Neurological Deficits in an F/A-18D Pilot Following Loss of Cabin Pressure at Altitude. (United States)

    Robinson, Tom; Evangelista, Jose S; Latham, Emi; Mukherjee, Samir T; Pilmanis, Andrew


    Supersonic, high altitude aviation places its pilots and aircrew in complex environments, which may lead to injury that is not easily diagnosed or simply treated. Decompression illness (either venous or arterial) and environmental conditions (e.g., abnormal gases and pressure) are the most likely adverse effects aircrew often face. Though symptomatic aircrew personnel may occasionally require hyperbaric oxygen treatment, it is rare to require more than one treatment before returning to baseline function. This challenging aviation case details the clinical course and discusses the salient physiological factors of an F/A-18D pilot who presented with neurological symptoms following loss of cabin pressure at altitude. Most crucial to this discussion was the requirement for multiple hyperbaric oxygen treatments over several days due to recurrence of symptoms. The likelihood of recurrence during and after future flights cannot be estimated with accuracy. This case illustrates a degree of recurrences for neurological symptoms in aviation (hypobaric exposure to hyperbaric baseline environment) that has not previously been described. Robinson T, Evangelista JS III, Latham E, Mukherjee ST, Pilmanis A. Recurrence of neurological deficits in an F/A-18D pilot following loss of cabin pressure at altitude. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):740-744.

  13. Tone Noise Predictions for a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Ingesting Distorted Inflow and the Challenges of Validation (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Shook, Tony D.; Astler, Douglas T.; Bittinger, Samantha A.


    A fan tone noise prediction code has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center that is capable of estimating duct mode sound power levels for a fan ingesting distorted inflow. This code was used to predict the circumferential and radial mode sound power levels in the inlet and exhaust duct of an axial spacecraft cabin ventilation fan. Noise predictions at fan design rotational speed were generated. Three fan inflow conditions were studied: an undistorted inflow, a circumferentially symmetric inflow distortion pattern (cylindrical rods inserted radially into the flowpath at 15deg, 135deg, and 255deg), and a circumferentially asymmetric inflow distortion pattern (rods located at 15deg, 52deg and 173deg). Noise predictions indicate that tones are produced for the distorted inflow cases that are not present when the fan operates with an undistorted inflow. Experimental data are needed to validate these acoustic predictions, as well as the aerodynamic performance predictions. Given the aerodynamic design of the spacecraft cabin ventilation fan, a mechanical and electrical conceptual design study was conducted. Design features of a fan suitable for obtaining detailed acoustic and aerodynamic measurements needed to validate predictions are discussed.

  14. Investigation on the Temporal Surface Thermal Conditions for Thermal Comfort Researches Inside A Vehicle Cabin Under Summer Season Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wencan


    Full Text Available With the proposes of improving occupant's thermal comfort and reducing the air conditioning power consumption, the present research carried out a comprehensive study on the surface thermal conductions and their influence parameters. A numerical model was built considering the transient conduction, convective and radiation heat transfer inside a vehicle cabin. For more accurate simulation of the radiation heat transfer behaviors, the radiation was considered into two spectral bands (short wave and long wave radiation, and the solar radiation was calculated by two solar fluxes (beam and diffuse solar radiation. An experiment was conducted to validate the numerical approach, showing a good agreement with the surface temperature. The surface thermal conditions were numerically simulated. The results show that the solar radiation is the most important factor in determining the internal surface thermal conditions. Effects of the window glass properties and the car body surface conditions were investigated. The numerical calculation results indicate that reducing the transitivity of window glass can effectively reduce the internal surface temperature. And the reflectivity of the vehicle cabin also has an important influence on the surface temperature, however, it's not so obvious as comparison to the window glass.

  15. Pressure breathing in fighter aircraft for G accelerations and loss of cabin pressurization at altitude--a brief review. (United States)

    Lauritzsen, Lars P; Pfitzner, John


    The purpose of this brief review is to outline the past and present use of pressure breathing, not by patients but by fighter pilots. Of the historical and recent references quoted, most are from aviation-medicine journals that are not often readily available to anesthesiologists. Pressure breathing at moderate levels of airway pressure gave World War II fighter pilots a tactical altitude advantage. With today's fast and highly maneuverable jet fighters, very much higher airway pressures of the order of 8.0 kPa (identical with 60 mmHg) are used. They are used in conjunction with a counterpressure thoracic vest and an anti-G suit for the abdomen and lower body. Pressurization is activated automatically in response to +Gz accelerations, and to a potentially catastrophic loss of cabin pressurization at altitude. During +Gz accelerations, pressure breathing has been shown to maintain cerebral perfusion by raising the systemic arterial pressure, so increasing the level of G-tolerance that is afforded by the use of anti-G suits and seat tilt-back angles alone. This leaves the pilot less reliant on rigorous, and potentially distracting, straining maneuvers. With loss of cabin pressurization at altitude, pressure breathing of 100% oxygen at high airway pressures enables the pilot's alveolar PO(2) to be maintained at a safe level during emergency descent. Introduced in military aviation, pressure breathing for G-tolerance and pressure breathing for altitude presented as concepts that may be of general physiological interest to many anesthesiologists.

  16. Multi-parameter decoupling and slope tracking control strategy of a large-scale high altitude environment simulation test cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ke


    Full Text Available A large-scale high altitude environment simulation test cabin was developed to accurately control temperatures and pressures encountered at high altitudes. The system was developed to provide slope-tracking dynamic control of the temperature–pressure two-parameter and overcome the control difficulties inherent to a large inertia lag link with a complex control system which is composed of turbine refrigeration device, vacuum device and liquid nitrogen cooling device. The system includes multi-parameter decoupling of the cabin itself to avoid equipment damage of air refrigeration turbine caused by improper operation. Based on analysis of the dynamic characteristics and modeling for variations in temperature, pressure and rotation speed, an intelligent controller was implemented that includes decoupling and fuzzy arithmetic combined with an expert PID controller to control test parameters by decoupling and slope tracking control strategy. The control system employed centralized management in an open industrial ethernet architecture with an industrial computer at the core. The simulation and field debugging and running results show that this method can solve the problems of a poor anti-interference performance typical for a conventional PID and overshooting that can readily damage equipment. The steady-state characteristics meet the system requirements.

  17. Thru-life impacts of driver aggression, climate, cabin thermal management, and battery thermal management on battery electric vehicle utility (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric


    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility that is affected by driver aggression and effects of climate-both directly on battery temperature and indirectly through the loads of cabin and battery thermal management systems. Utility is further affected as the battery wears through life in response to travel patterns, climate, and other factors. In this paper we apply the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to driver aggression and climate effects over the life of the vehicle. We find the primary challenge to cold-climate BEV operation to be inefficient cabin heating systems, and to hot-climate BEV operation to be high peak on-road battery temperatures and excessive battery degradation. Active cooling systems appear necessary to manage peak battery temperatures of aggressive, hot-climate drivers, which can then be employed to maximize thru-life vehicle utility.

  18. In-Cabin Air Quality during Driving and Engine Idling in Air-Conditioned Private Vehicles in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Maria Barnes


    Full Text Available Many people spend lengthy periods each day in enclosed vehicles in Hong Kong. However, comparably limited data is available about in-cabin air quality in air-conditioned private vehicles, and the car usage that may affect the air quality. Fifty-one vehicles were tested for particulate matter (PM0.3 and PM2.5, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, airborne bacteria, and fungi levels during their routine travel journey. Ten of these vehicles were further examined for PM0.3, PM2.5, TVOCs, CO, and CO2 during engine idling. In general, during driving PM2.5 levels in-cabin reduced overtime, but not PM0.3. For TVOCs, 24% vehicles exceeded the recommended Indoor Air Quality (IAQ level in offices and public places set by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOC concentration positively correlated with the age of the vehicle. Carbon monoxide (CO levels in all of the vehicles were lower than the IAQ recommendation, while 96% vehicles exceeded the recommended CO2 level of 1000 ppmv; 16% vehicles >5000 ppmv. Microbial counts were relatively low. TVOCs levels at idle engine were higher than that during driving. Although the time we spend in vehicles is short, the potential exposure to high levels of pollutants should not be overlooked.

  19. Flow and contaminant transport in an airliner cabin induced by a moving body: Model experiments and CFD predictions (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane B.; Mazumdar, Sagnik; Plesniak, Michael W.; Sojka, Paul E.; Chen, Qingyan


    The effects of a moving human body on flow and contaminant transport inside an aircraft cabin were investigated. Experiments were performed in a one-tenth scale, water-based model. The flow field and contaminant transport were measured using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) techniques, respectively. Measurements were obtained with (ventilation case) and without (baseline case) the cabin environmental control system (ECS). The PIV measurements show strong intermittency in the instantaneous near-wake flow. A symmetric downwash flow was observed along the vertical centerline of the moving body in the baseline case. The evolution of this flow pattern is profoundly perturbed by the flow from the ECS. Furthermore, a contaminant originating from the moving body is observed to convect to higher vertical locations in the presence of ventilation. These experimental data were used to validate a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model. The CFD model can effectively capture the characteristic flow features and contaminant transport observed in the small-scale model.

  20. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping


    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  1. Electron microscope observations of impact crater debris amongst contaminating particulates on materials surfaces exposed in space in low-Earth orbit (United States)

    Murr, L. E.; Rivas, J. M.; Quinones, S.; Niou, C.-S.; Advani, A. H.; Marquez, B.


    Debris particles extracted from a small sampling region on the leading edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft have been examined by analytical transmission electron microscopy and the elemental frequency observed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and compared with upper atmosphere (Earth) particle elemental frequency and the average elemental compositions of interplanetary dust particles. A much broader elemental distribution was observed for the exposed spacecraft surface debris milieu. Numerous metal microfragment analyses, particularly aluminum and stainless steel, were compared with scanning electron microscope observations-of impact crater features, and the corresponding elemental spectra on selected LDEF aluminium tray clamps and stainless steel bolts. The compositions and melt features for these impact craters and ejecta have been shown to be consistent with microcrystalline debris fragments in the case of aluminum, and these observations suggest an ever changing debris milieu on exposed surfaces for space craft and space system materials.

  2. Optimization of space-time material layout for 1D wave propagation with varying mass and stiffness parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    Results are presented for optimal layout of materials in the spatial and temporal domains for a 1D structure subjected to transient wave propagation. A general optimization procedure is outlined including derivation of design sensitivities for the case when the mass density and stiffness vary...

  3. Tactile Earth and Space Science Materials for Students with Visual Impairments: Contours, Craters, Asteroids, and Features of Mars (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.


    New tactile curriculum materials for teaching Earth and planetary science lessons on rotation=revolution, silhouettes of objects from different views, contour maps, impact craters, asteroids, and topographic features of Mars to 11 elementary and middle school students with sight impairments at a week-long residential summer camp are presented…

  4. Design of the Experimental Exposure Conditions to Simulate Ionizing Radiation Effects on Candidate Replacement Materials for the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    Smith, L. Montgomery


    In this effort, experimental exposure times for monoenergetic electrons and protons were determined to simulate the space radiation environment effects on Teflon components of the Hubble Space Telescope. Although the energy range of the available laboratory particle accelerators was limited, optimal exposure times for 50 keV, 220 keV, 350 keV, and 500 KeV electrons were calculated that produced a dose-versus-depth profile that approximated the full spectrum profile, and were realizable with existing equipment. For the case of proton exposure, the limited energy range of the laboratory accelerator restricted simulation of the dose to a depth of .5 mil. Also, while optimal exposure times were found for 200 keV, 500 keV and 700 keV protons that simulated the full spectrum dose-versus-depth profile to this depth, they were of such short duration that the existing laboratory could not be controlled to within the required accuracy. In addition to the obvious experimental issues, other areas exist in which the analytical work could be advanced. Improved computer codes for the dose prediction- along with improved methodology for data input and output- would accelerate and make more accurate the calculational aspects. This is particularly true in the case of proton fluxes where a paucity of available predictive software appears to exist. The dated nature of many of the existing Monte Carlo particle/radiation transport codes raises the issue as to whether existing codes are sufficient for this type of analysis. Other areas that would result in greater fidelity of laboratory exposure effects to the space environment is the use of a larger number of monoenergetic particle fluxes and improved optimization algorithms to determine the weighting values.

  5. Pore Space investigation in natural and artificial materials: POSINAM (FP7-MC-IAPP) project (15.10.2009-14.10.2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parneix, J.C.; Bouchet, A.; Mazurier, A.; Ramirez, S.; Rassineux, F.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Ikonen, J.; Sammaljaervi, J.; Helariutta, K.; Sardini, P.; Bonifait, T.; Hellmuth, K.H.; Pret, D.; Gallier, J.; Shroff Rama, M.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Waste storage requires the analysis of various types of materials in order to measure spatial relationship and connectivity of their pores as well as quantity, shape, and size. It is necessary to describe pore space, to model fluid transport and to identify the material composition in order to understand the 3D organisation of the solids and the pores, and to stabilise the structure of this material for its observation. To characterise heterogeneous spatial porosities of these materials a saturation technique with a 14 C- or 3 H PMMA resin was developed at HYRL. The method includes saturation of matrices with radiolabelled un-viscous methylmethacrylate MMA, irradiation polymerisation and auto-radiographic detection of the sawn surfaces. POSINAM project has been proposed by the SME called ERM due to the increasing need of porosity characterisation of geo-materials by large industrial companies. These demands consist of research applications that will be based on the enhancement of the knowledge on altered natural rocks or materials as well as, saturation and imaging techniques for characterising the porosity of these materials. Thus, there is an essential need for a transfer of technology and knowledge between HYDRASA/HYRL labs and ERM. The combination of developed skills by private and academic partner labs along with ERM represents an innovative means to solve industrial issues on quantification of porosity in materials. The objective of the research program is to produce realistic 3D models of natural and artificial materials including porosity distribution. To achieve this goal it is necessary: To improve knowledge of petrography on rocks, cements and soils, etc. related to porosity organization (HYDRASA). To characterize heterogeneous spatial porosities of these materials using a saturation technique with 14 C- or 3 H doped PMMA resin. To provide service for industries which need 3D models of their materials

  6. Organic chemistry in space (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.


    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  7. Analysis of the material nature of public space. The case of the new “Camp de l’Arpa” Square (Barcelona)


    Malo Larrea, Margarita


    In 2015, after several years of constant neighborhood demands, it was inaugurated in the place that was once a vacant lot, the place that takes the name of the neighborhood, the Camp de l’Arpa square.This new public space in the city of Barcelona, despite being an urgent requirement of the neighbours, is currently being underutilized. On a first visit of observation, it was observed that among the many causes of this situation, a significant percentage derived from the materiality of public s...

  8. Environmental charging of spacecraft-tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 2: Specimen 6 to 9 (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Blech, R. A.


    The NASA/USAF program on the Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists, in part, of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicles were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that no discharges were obtained with the quartz-fiber-fabric-covered multilayer insulation specimen. The taped aluminized polyester grounding system used on all specimens did not appear to grossly deteriorate with time; however, the specimens require specific external pressure to maintain constant grounding system resistance.

  9. The Low Pressure Gas Effects On The Potency Of An Electron Beam On Ceramic Fabric Materials For Space Welding (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Fragomeni, James M.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)


    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate if molten metal or electron beam impingement could damage or burn through the fabric of the astronauts Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) during electron beam welding exercises performed in space. An 8 kilovolt electron beam with a current in the neighborhood of 100 milliamps from the Ukrainian space welding "Universal Hand Tool" burned holes in Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427 C. The burnthrough time was on the order of 8 seconds at standoff distances between UHT and cloth ranging from 6 to 24 inches. At both closer (2") and farther (48") standoff distances the potency of the beam against the cloth declined and the burnthrough time went up significantly. Prior to the test it had been expected that the beam would lay down a static charge on the cloth and be deflected without damaging the cloth. The burnthrough is thought to be an effect of partial transmission of beam power by a stream of positive ions generated by the high voltage electron beam from contaminant gas in the "vacuum" chamber. A rough quantitative theoretical computation appears to substantiate this possibility.

  10. The Space-Time Continuum as a Transversely Isotropic Material and the Meaning of the Temporal Coordinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christov, C. I.


    A transversely isotropic elastic continuum is considered in four dimensions, three of which are isotropic, and the properties of the material change only related to the fourth dimension. The model employs two dilational and three shear Lame coefficients. The isotropic dilational coefficient is assumed to be much larger than the second dilational coefficient, and the three shear coefficients. This amounts to a material that is virtually incompressible in the three isotropic dimensions. The first and third shear coefficients are positive, while the second shear coefficient is assumed to be negative. As a result, in the equations of elastic equilibrium, the second derivatives of the displacement with respect to the fourth coordinate enter with negative sign. This makes the equations hyperbolic, with a fourth dimension opposing to the other three. The hyperbolic nature of the fourth dimension allows to be interpreted as time.

  11. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela


    experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...

  12. Overview of Photocatalysis, Photocatalytic Surface Materials Studies, and Demonstration of Self-Cleaning Materials for Space and Terrestrial Based Applications at the Infinity Science Center at NASA Stennis Space Center (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren W.


    Research into photocatalytic technology has been progressing for over three decades in the early 1990s Japanese and European companies initiate research into photocatalytic technology. In the 1996 specific focus on the technology with the first large-scale application: the construction of a church in Rome (Jubilee Church). And in 2000 Europe and Japan research into the benefits of photocatalytic technology. Currently, photocatalytic technology continues to improve, and with time development is becoming more efficient and effective. What is Photocatalysis? Photo: phenomenon induced by the light, having specifically a wavelength around 320-400 nm (artificial or natural sunlight). Catalyst: a material that induces a reaction but is not consumed or transformed by it. The catalyst remains constantly available. In this case, the catalyst is made with nano-particles of titanium oxide (Ti02).

  13. Mediality and Materiality in the History of Religions. A Medieval Case Study about Religion and Gender in In-Between Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Beinhauer-Köhler


    Full Text Available The article discusses possible terminologies for labelling historical materials. Drawing on the history of the city of Cairo around the 12th century – to the Fatimid era and to later Ayyubid times – it looks at the documents of three religions on religious infrastructure donated by women. This reveals women’s ability to shape the public sphere. At least to a certain extent, the segregation of the sexes and the concept of the harem are questionable. This topic requires the reconstruction and re-reading of fragmental materials. Methodological reflections are helpful for dealing with different sources, mostly combinations of texts and archaeology, embedded in the current debate about material culture and media as well as materialization and mediation. It might seem anachronistic, but to specify these categories it is useful to compare this example with a contemporary study by Mia Lövheim on female Internet bloggers. In both cases we find women as self-confident agents in public spaces.

  14. Materials space of solid-state electrolytes: unraveling chemical composition-structure-ionic conductivity relationships in garnet-type metal oxides using cheminformatics virtual screening approaches. (United States)

    Kireeva, Natalia; Pervov, Vladislav S


    The organic electrolytes of most current commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LiBs) are flammable, toxic, and have limited electrochemical energy windows. All-solid-state battery technology promises improved safety, cycling performance, electrochemical stability, and possibility of device miniaturization and enables a number of breakthrough technologies towards the development of new high power and energy density microbatteries for electronics with low processing cost, solid oxide fuel cells, electrochromic devices, etc. Currently, rational materials design is attracting significant attention, which has resulted in a strong demand for methodologies that can accelerate the design of materials with tailored properties; cheminformatics can be considered as an efficient tool in this respect. This study was focused on several aspects: (i) identification of the parameters responsible for high Li-ion conductivity in garnet structured oxides; (ii) development of quantitative models to elucidate composition-structure-Li ionic conductivity relationships, taking into account the experimental details of sample preparation; (iii) circumscription of the materials space of solid garnet-type electrolytes, which is attractive for virtual screening. Several candidate compounds have been recommended for synthesis as potential solid state electrolyte materials.

  15. Real-Space Imaging of Carrier Dynamics of Materials Surfaces by Second-Generation Four-Dimensional Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya


    In the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaics, ultrafast dynamical processes, including carrier trapping and recombination on material surfaces, are among the key factors that determine the overall energy conversion efficiency. A precise knowledge of these dynamical events on the nanometer (nm) and femtosecond (fs) scales was not accessible until recently. The only way to access such fundamental processes fully is to map the surface dynamics selectively in real space and time. In this study, we establish a second generation of four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (4D S-UEM) and demonstrate the ability to record time-resolved images (snapshots) of material surfaces with 650 fs and ∼5 nm temporal and spatial resolutions, respectively. In this method, the surface of a specimen is excited by a clocking optical pulse and imaged using a pulsed primary electron beam as a probe pulse, generating secondary electrons (SEs), which are emitted from the surface of the specimen in a manner that is sensitive to the local electron/hole density. This method provides direct and controllable information regarding surface dynamics. We clearly demonstrate how the surface morphology, grains, defects, and nanostructured features can significantly impact the overall dynamical processes on the surface of photoactive-materials. In addition, the ability to access two regimes of dynamical probing in a single experiment and the energy loss of SEs in semiconductor-nanoscale materials will also be discussed.

  16. Estimated radiation exposure of German commercial airline cabin crew in the years 1960-2003 modeled using dose registry data for 2004-2015. (United States)

    Wollschläger, Daniel; Hammer, Gaël Paul; Schafft, Thomas; Dreger, Steffen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo


    Exposure to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin is an occupational risk factor in commercial aircrew. In a historic cohort of 26,774 German aircrew, radiation exposure was previously estimated only for cockpit crew using a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Here, a new method for retrospectively estimating cabin crew dose is developed. The German Federal Radiation Registry (SSR) documents individual monthly effective doses for all aircrew. SSR-provided doses on 12,941 aircrew from 2004 to 2015 were used to model cabin crew dose as a function of age, sex, job category, solar activity, and male pilots' dose; the mean annual effective dose was 2.25 mSv (range 0.01-6.39 mSv). In addition to an inverse association with solar activity, exposure followed age- and sex-dependent patterns related to individual career development and life phases. JEM-derived annual cockpit crew doses agreed with SSR-provided doses for 2004 (correlation 0.90, 0.40 mSv root mean squared error), while the estimated average annual effective dose for cabin crew had a prediction error of 0.16 mSv, equaling 7.2% of average annual dose. Past average annual cabin crew dose can be modeled by exploiting systematic external influences as well as individual behavioral determinants of radiation exposure, thereby enabling future dose-response analyses of the full aircrew cohort including measurement error information.

  17. 50 CFR 36.33 - What do I need to know about using cabins and related structures on Alaska National Wildlife... (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What do I need to know about using cabins and related structures on Alaska National Wildlife Refuges? 36.33 Section 36.33 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE...

  18. Effects of vehicle ventilation system, fuel type, and in-cabin smoking on the concentration of toluene and ethylbenzene in Pride cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rismanchian


    Conclusion: The ventilation condition, fuel type, and in-cabin smoking were not significantly impressive on the toluene and ethylbenzene concentrations inside the cars. However, simultaneous usage of the vehicle ventilation system and natural ventilation (windows could lead to little decrease in toluene concentration levels inside the car, while smoking consumption by passengers can increase them.

  19. Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as…

  20. Former Hawaii Restoration Ecologist Now Favors 'Tinkering' Over Rigor. Review of Cabin, Robert J. 2011. Intelligent tinkering: bridging the gap between science and practice. (United States)

    Susan Cordell


    In his new book, Bob Cabin uses his personal involvement in the restoration of Hawai'i dry forests to illustrate the tensions that he feels exists between the science and practice of ecological restoration. It is a journey that starts out among the multidisciplinary, multi-interest perspectives associated with a grass-roots communitybased working group (Part 1,...