Sample records for space based radar-system

  1. IoSiS: a radar system for imaging of satellites in space (United States)

    Jirousek, M.; Anger, S.; Dill, S.; Schreiber, E.; Peichl, M.


    Space debris nowadays is one of the main threats for satellite systems especially in low earth orbit (LEO). More than 700,000 debris objects with potential to destroy or damage a satellite are estimated. The effects of an impact often are not identifiable directly from ground. High-resolution radar images are helpful in analyzing a possible damage. Therefor DLR is currently developing a radar system called IoSiS (Imaging of Satellites in Space), being based on an existing steering antenna structure and our multi-purpose high-performance radar system GigaRad for experimental investigations. GigaRad is a multi-channel system operating at X band and using a bandwidth of up to 4.4 GHz in the IoSiS configuration, providing fully separated transmit (TX) and receive (RX) channels, and separated antennas. For the observation of small satellites or space debris a highpower traveling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) is mounted close to the TX antenna feed. For the experimental phase IoSiS uses a 9 m TX and a 1 m RX antenna mounted on a common steerable positioner. High-resolution radar images are obtained by using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) techniques. The guided tracking of known objects during overpass allows here wide azimuth observation angles. Thus high azimuth resolution comparable to the range resolution can be achieved. This paper outlines technical main characteristics of the IoSiS radar system including the basic setup of the antenna, the radar instrument with the RF error correction, and the measurement strategy. Also a short description about a simulation tool for the whole instrument and expected images is shown.

  2. An optimal beam alignment method for large-scale distributed space surveillance radar system (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wang, Dongya; Xia, Shuangzhi


    Large-scale distributed space surveillance radar is a very important ground-based equipment to maintain a complete catalogue for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space debris. However, due to the thousands of kilometers distance between each sites of the distributed radar system, how to optimally implement the Transmitting/Receiving (T/R) beams alignment in a great space using the narrow beam, which proposed a special and considerable technical challenge in the space surveillance area. According to the common coordinate transformation model and the radar beam space model, we presented a two dimensional projection algorithm for T/R beam using the direction angles, which could visually describe and assess the beam alignment performance. Subsequently, the optimal mathematical models for the orientation angle of the antenna array, the site location and the T/R beam coverage are constructed, and also the beam alignment parameters are precisely solved. At last, we conducted the optimal beam alignment experiments base on the site parameters of Air Force Space Surveillance System (AFSSS). The simulation results demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of our novel method, which can significantly stimulate the construction for the LEO space debris surveillance equipment.

  3. Nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkin, B.V.; Gaponov-Grekhov, A.V.; Eltchaninov, A.S.; Zagulov, F.Ya.; Korovin, S.D.; Mesyats, G.A.; Osipov, M.L.; Otlivantchik, E.A.; Petelin, M.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.


    The paper presents the results of studies of a nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO. A pulsed power repetitive accelerator producing electron beams of electron energy 500-700 keV and current 5 kA in pulses of duraction 10 ns with a repetition rate of 100 pps is described. The results of experiments with a high-voltage gas-filled spark gap and a cold-cathode vacuum diode under the conditions of high repetition rates are given. Also presented are the results of studies of a relativistic BWO operating with a wavelength of 3 cm. It is shown that for a high-current beam electron energy of 500-700 keV, the BWO efficiency can reach 35%, the microwave power being 10 9 W. A superconducting solenoid creating a magnetic field of 30 kOe was used for the formation and transportation of the high-current electron beam. In conclusion, the outcome of tests of a nanosecond radar station based on a pulsed power repetitive accelerator and a relativistic BWO is reported

  4. Trilateration-based localization algorithm for ADS-B radar systems (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Shih

    Rapidly increasing growth and demand in various unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have pushed governmental regulation development and numerous technology research advances toward integrating unmanned and manned aircraft into the same civil airspace. Safety of other airspace users is the primary concern; thus, with the introduction of UAV into the National Airspace System (NAS), a key issue to overcome is the risk of a collision with manned aircraft. The challenge of UAV integration is global. As automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) system has gained wide acceptance, additional exploitations of the radioed satellite-based information are topics of current interest. One such opportunity includes the augmentation of the communication ADS-B signal with a random bi-phase modulation for concurrent use as a radar signal for detecting other aircraft in the vicinity. This dissertation provides detailed discussion about the ADS-B radar system, as well as the formulation and analysis of a suitable non-cooperative multi-target tracking method for the ADS-B radar system using radar ranging techniques and particle filter algorithms. In order to deal with specific challenges faced by the ADS-B radar system, several estimation algorithms are studied. Trilateration-based localization algorithms are proposed due to their easy implementation and their ability to work with coherent signal sources. The centroid of three most closely spaced intersections of constant-range loci is conventionally used as trilateration estimate without rigorous justification. In this dissertation, we address the quality of trilateration intersections through range scaling factors. A number of well-known triangle centers, including centroid, incenter, Lemoine point (LP), and Fermat point (FP), are discussed in detail. To the author's best knowledge, LP was never associated with trilateration techniques. According our study, LP is proposed as the best trilateration estimator thanks to the

  5. Synchronous Design and Test of Distributed Passive Radar Systems Based on Digital Broadcasting and Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Xianrong


    Full Text Available Digital broadcasting and television are important classes of illuminators of opportunity for passive radars. Distributed and multistatic structure are the development trends for passive radars. Most modern digital broadcasting and television systems work on a network, which not only provides a natural condition to distributed passive radar but also puts forward higher requirements on the design of passive radar systems. Among those requirements, precise synchronization among the receivers and transmitters as well as among multiple receiving stations, which mainly involves frequency and time synchronization, is the first to be solved. To satisfy the synchronization requirements of distributed passive radars, a synchronization scheme based on GPS is presented in this paper. Moreover, an effective scheme based on the China Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting signal is proposed to test the system synchronization performance. Finally, the reliability of the synchronization design is verified via the distributed multistatic passive radar experiments.

  6. Passive Target Tracking in Non-cooperative Radar System Based on Particle Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuo; TAO Ran


    We propose a target tracking method based on particle filtering(PF) to solve the nonlinear non-Gaussian target-tracking problem in the bistatic radar systems using external radiation sources. Traditional nonlinear state estimation method is extended Kalman filtering (EKF), which is to do the first level Taylor series extension. It will cause an inaccuracy or even a scatter estimation result on condition that there is either a highly nonlinear target or a large noise square-error. Besides, Kalman filtering is the optimal resolution under a Gaussian noise assumption, and is not suitable to the non-Gaussian condition. PF is a sort of statistic filtering based on Monte Carlo simulation that is using some random samples (particles) to simulate the posterior probability density of system random variables. This method can be used in any nonlinear random system. It can be concluded through simulation that PF can achieve higher accuracy than the traditional EKF.

  7. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H


    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  8. Understanding radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley, Simon


    What is radar? What systems are currently in use? How do they work? This book provides engineers and scientists with answers to these critical questions, focusing on actual radar systems in use today. It is a perfect resource for those just entering the field, or as a quick refresher for experienced practitioners. The book leads readers through the specialized language and calculations that comprise the complex world of radar engineering as seen in dozens of state-of-the-art radar systems. An easy to read, wide ranging guide to the world of modern radar systems.

  9. Embedded DSP-based telehealth radar system for remote in-door fall detection. (United States)

    Garripoli, Carmine; Mercuri, Marco; Karsmakers, Peter; Jack Soh, Ping; Crupi, Giovanni; Vandenbosch, Guy A E; Pace, Calogero; Leroux, Paul; Schreurs, Dominique


    Telehealth systems and applications are extensively investigated nowadays to enhance the quality-of-care and, in particular, to detect emergency situations and to monitor the well-being of elderly people, allowing them to stay at home independently as long as possible. In this paper, an embedded telehealth system for continuous, automatic, and remote monitoring of real-time fall emergencies is presented and discussed. The system, consisting of a radar sensor and base station, represents a cost-effective and efficient healthcare solution. The implementation of the fall detection data processing technique, based on the least-square support vector machines, through a digital signal processor and the management of the communication between radar sensor and base station are detailed. Experimental tests, for a total of 65 mimicked fall incidents, recorded with 16 human subjects (14 men and two women) that have been monitored for 320 min, have been used to validate the proposed system under real circumstances. The subjects' weight is between 55 and 90 kg with heights between 1.65 and 1.82 m, while their age is between 25 and 39 years. The experimental results have shown a sensitivity to detect the fall events in real time of 100% without reporting false positives. The tests have been performed in an area where the radar's operation was not limited by practical situations, namely, signal power, coverage of the antennas, and presence of obstacles between the subject and the antennas.

  10. Space Based Radar-System Architecture Design and Optimization for a Space Based Replacement to AWACS (United States)


    Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, aod to the Office of Maoagement aod Bidget , Paperwork Reductioo Project 10704-0188), Washiogtoo...waveforms delayed by a time increment equal to the wave travel time. Note that the cross-correlation between the signal and noise is approximately zero. This...the discrete increments of satellites that can be lost The paradigm of reliability for losing a certain number of satellites is an inn-1 0.95

  11. Space Based Radar-System Architecture Design and Optimization for a Space Based Replacement to AWACS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wickert, Douglas


    Through a process of system architecture design, system cost modeling, and system architecture optimization, we assess the feasibility of performing the next generation Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS...

  12. Synchronization in spread spectrum laser radar systems based on PMD-DLL (United States)

    Buxbaum, Bernd; Schwarte, Rudolf; Ringbeck, Thorsten; Luan, Xuming; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Zhanping; Hess, H.


    This paper proposes a new optoelectronic delay locked loop (OE-DLL) and its use in optical ranging systems. The so called PMD-DLL receiver module is based on a novel electro-optical modulator (EOM), called the Photonic Mixer Device (PMD). This sensor element is a semiconductor device, which combines fast optical sensing and mixing of incoherent light signals in one component part by its unique and powerful principle of operation. Integration of some simple additional on-chip components offers a high integrated electro-optical correlation unit. Simulations and experimental results have already impressively verified the operation principle of PMD structures, all realized in CMOS technology so far. Although other technologies are also promising candidates for the PMD realization they should not be further discussed in this contribution. The principle of the new DLL approach is intensively discussed in this paper. Theoretical analysis as well as experimental results of a realized PMD-DLL system are demonstrated and judged. Due to the operation principle of sophisticated PMD devices and their unique features, a correlation process may be realized in order to synchronize a reflected incoherent light wave with an electronic reference signal. The phase shift between both signals represents the distance to an obstacle and may be determined by means of the synchronization process. This new approach, avoiding so far needed critical components such as broadband amplifiers and mixers for the detection of small photo currents in optical distance measurement, offers an extremely fast and precise phase determination in ranging applications based on the time- of-flight (TOF) principle. However, the optical measurement signal may be incoherent -- therefore a laser source is not needed imperatively. The kind of waveform used for the modulation of the light signal is variable and depends on the demands of every specific application. Even if there are plenty other alternatives (e

  13. Target Localization by Resolving the Time Synchronization Problem in Bistatic Radar Systems Using Space Fast-Time Adaptive Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Madurasinghe


    Full Text Available The proposed technique allows the radar receiver to accurately estimate the range of a large number of targets using a transmitter of opportunity as long as the location of the transmitter is known. The technique does not depend on the use of communication satellites or GPS systems, instead it relies on the availability of the direct transmit copy of the signal from the transmitter and the reflected paths off the various targets. An array-based space-fast time adaptive processor is implemented in order to estimate the path difference between the direct signal and the delayed signal, which bounces off the target. This procedure allows us to estimate the target distance as well as bearing.

  14. A 24 GHz Waveguide based Radar System using an Advanced Algorithm for I/Q Offset Cancelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Will


    Full Text Available Precise position measurement with micrometer accuracy plays an important role in modern industrial applications. Herewith, a guided wave Six-Port interferometric radar system is presented. Due to limited matching and discontinuities in the radio frequency part of the system, the designers have to deal with DC offsets. The offset voltages in the baseband lead to worse relative modulation dynamics relating to the full scale range of the analog-to-digital converters and thus, considerably degrade the system performance. While common cancelation techniques try to estimate and extinguish the DC offsets directly, the proposed radar system is satisfied with equalizing both DC offsets for each of the two differential baseband signal pairs. Since the complex representation of the baseband signals is utilized for a subsequent arctangent demodulation, the proposed offset equalization implicates a centering of the in-phase and quadrature (I/Q components of the received signal, which is sufficient to simplify the demodulation and improve the phase accuracy. Therefore, a standard Six-Port radar system is extended and a variable phase shifter plus variable attenuators are inserted at different positions. An intelligent algorithm adjusts these configurable components to achieve optimal I/Q offset cancelation.

  15. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations (United States)

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.


    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  16. A digital beamforming processor for the joint DoD/NASA space based radar mission (United States)

    Fischman, Mark A.; Le, Charles; Rosen, Paul A.


    The Space Based Radar (SBR) program includes a joint technology demonstration between NASA and the Air Force to design a low-earth orbiting, 2x50 m L-band radar system for both Earth science and intelligence related observations.

  17. Initial results from SKiYMET meteor radar at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E): 1. Comparison of wind measurements with MF spaced antenna radar system (United States)

    Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Ramkumar, Geetha; Shelbi, S. T.


    In the present communication, initial results from the allSKy interferometric METeor (SKiYMET) radar installed at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E) are presented. The meteor radar system provides hourly zonal and meridional winds in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region. The meteor radar measured zonal and meridional winds are compared with nearby MF radar at Tirunalveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E). The present study provided an opportunity to compare the winds measured by the two different techniques, namely, interferometry and spaced antenna drift methods. Simultaneous wind measurements for a total number of 273 days during September 2004 to May 2005 are compared. The comparison showed a very good agreement between these two techniques in the height region 82-90 km and poor agreement above this height region. In general, the zonal winds compare very well as compared to the meridional winds. The observed discrepancies in the wind comparison above 90 km are discussed in the light of existing limitations of both the radars. The detailed analysis revealed the consistency of the measured winds by both the techniques. However, the discrepancies are observed at higher altitudes and are attributed to the contamination of MF radar neutral wind measurements with Equatorial Electro Jet (EEJ) induced inospheric drifts rather than the limitations of the spaced antenna technique. The comparison of diurnal variation of zonal winds above 90 km measured by both the radars is in reasonably good agreement in the absence of EEJ (during local nighttime). It is also been noted that the difference in the zonal wind measurements by both the radars is directly related to the strength of EEJ, which is a noteworthy result from the present study.

  18. Development of passive radar systems at TNO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelsema, S.J.


    Since 2002, the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research – TNO, has been involved in the development of passive radar systems for research purposes. The development has been sponsored partly by the Royal Netherlands Air Force – whose main interest is threat evaluation – and partly by

  19. Single Bit Radar Systems for Digital Integration


    Bjørndal, Øystein


    Small, low cost, radar systems have exciting applications in monitoring and imaging for the industrial, healthcare and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors. We here explore, and show the feasibility of, several single bit square wave radar architectures; that benefits from the continuous improvement in digital technologies for system-on-chip digital integration. By analysis, simulation and measurements we explore novel and harmonic-rich continuous wave (CW), stepped-frequency CW (SFCW) and freque...

  20. Air and spaceborne radar systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lacomme, Philippe; Hardange, Jean-Philippe; Normant, Eric


    A practical tool on radar systems that will be of major help to technicians, student engineers and engineers working in industry and in radar research and development. The many users of radar as well as systems engineers and designers will also find it highly useful. Also of interest to pilots and flight engineers and military command personnel and military contractors. """"This introduction to the field of radar is intended for actual users of radar. It focuses on the history, main principles, functions, modes, properties and specific nature of modern airborne radar. The book examines radar's

  1. Detection of Lock on Radar System Based on Ultrasonic US 100 Sensor And Arduino Uno R3 With Image Processing GUI (United States)

    Baskoro, F.; Reynaldo, B. R.


    The development of electronics technology especially in the field of microcontroller occurs very rapidly. There have been many applications and useful use of microcontroller in everyday life as well as in laboratory research. In this study used Arduino Uno R3 as microcontroller-based platform ATMega328 as a sensor distance meter to know the distance of an object with high accuracy. The method used is to utilize the function Timer / Counter in Arduino UNO R3. On the Arduino Uno R3 platform, there is ATMEL ATmega328 microcontroller which has a frequency generating speed up to 20 MHz, 16-bit enumeration capability and using C language as its programming. With the Arduino Uno R3 platform, the ATmega328 microcontroller can be programmed with Arduino IDE software that is simpler and easier because it has been supported by libraries and many support programs. The result of this research is distance measurement to know the location of an object using US ultrasonic wave sensor US 100 with Arduino Uno R3 based on ATMega328 microcontroller which then the result will be displayed using Image Processing.

  2. Improvement of antenna decoupling in radar systems (United States)

    Anchidin, Liliana; Topor, Raluca; Tamas, Razvan D.; Dumitrascu, Ana; Danisor, Alin; Berescu, Serban


    In this paper we present a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna design, which can be used for pulse radiation in UWB communication. The Vivaldi antenna is a special tapered slot antenna with planar structure which is easily to be integrated with transmitting elements and receiving elements to form a compact structure. When the permittivity is very large, the wavelength of slot mode is so short that the electromagnetic fields concentrate in the slot to form an effective and balanced transmission line. Due to its simple structure and small size the Vivaldi antennas are one of the most popular designs used in UWB applications. However, for a two-antenna radar system, there is a high mutual coupling between two such antennas due to open configuration. In this paper, we propose a new method for reducing this effect. The method was validated by simulating a system of two Vivaldi antennas in front of a standard target.

  3. Preliminary radar systems analysis for Venus orbiter missions (United States)

    Brandenburg, R. K.; Spadoni, D. J.


    A short, preliminary analysis is presented of the problems involved in mapping the surface of Venus with radar from an orbiting spacecraft. Two types of radar, the noncoherent sidelooking and the focused synthetic aperture systems, are sized to fulfill two assumed levels of Venus exploration. The two exploration levels, regional and local, assumed for this study are based on previous Astro Sciences work (Klopp 1969). The regional level is defined as 1 to 3 kilometer spatial and 0.5 to 1 km vertical resolution of 100 percent 0 of the planet's surface. The local level is defined as 100 to 200 meter spatial and 50-10 m vertical resolution of about 100 percent of the surfAce (based on the regional survey). A 10cm operating frequency was chosen for both radar systems in order to minimize the antenna size and maximize the apparent radar cross section of the surface.

  4. Reconfigurable signal processor designs for advanced digital array radar systems (United States)

    Suarez, Hernan; Zhang, Yan (Rockee); Yu, Xining


    The new challenges originated from Digital Array Radar (DAR) demands a new generation of reconfigurable backend processor in the system. The new FPGA devices can support much higher speed, more bandwidth and processing capabilities for the need of digital Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). This study focuses on using the latest Altera and Xilinx devices in an adaptive beamforming processor. The field reprogrammable RF devices from Analog Devices are used as analog front end transceivers. Different from other existing Software-Defined Radio transceivers on the market, this processor is designed for distributed adaptive beamforming in a networked environment. The following aspects of the novel radar processor will be presented: (1) A new system-on-chip architecture based on Altera's devices and adaptive processing module, especially for the adaptive beamforming and pulse compression, will be introduced, (2) Successful implementation of generation 2 serial RapidIO data links on FPGA, which supports VITA-49 radio packet format for large distributed DAR processing. (3) Demonstration of the feasibility and capabilities of the processor in a Micro-TCA based, SRIO switching backplane to support multichannel beamforming in real-time. (4) Application of this processor in ongoing radar system development projects, including OU's dual-polarized digital array radar, the planned new cylindrical array radars, and future airborne radars.

  5. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems. (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin


    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  6. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang


    Full Text Available It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  7. Multiple-scattering in radar systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Alessandro; Tanelli, Simone; Kobayashi, Satoru; Zrnic, Dusan; Hogan, Robin J.; Simmer, Clemens


    Although extensively studied within the lidar community, the multiple scattering phenomenon has always been considered a rare curiosity by radar meteorologists. Up to few years ago its appearance has only been associated with two- or three-body-scattering features (e.g. hail flares and mirror images) involving highly reflective surfaces. Recent atmospheric research aimed at better understanding of the water cycle and the role played by clouds and precipitation in affecting the Earth's climate has driven the deployment of high frequency radars in space. Examples are the TRMM 13.5 GHz, the CloudSat 94 GHz, the upcoming EarthCARE 94 GHz, and the GPM dual 13-35 GHz radars. These systems are able to detect the vertical distribution of hydrometeors and thus provide crucial feedbacks for radiation and climate studies. The shift towards higher frequencies increases the sensitivity to hydrometeors, improves the spatial resolution and reduces the size and weight of the radar systems. On the other hand, higher frequency radars are affected by stronger extinction, especially in the presence of large precipitating particles (e.g. raindrops or hail particles), which may eventually drive the signal below the minimum detection threshold. In such circumstances the interpretation of the radar equation via the single scattering approximation may be problematic. Errors will be large when the radiation emitted from the radar after interacting more than once with the medium still contributes substantially to the received power. This is the case if the transport mean-free-path becomes comparable with the instrument footprint (determined by the antenna beam-width and the platform altitude). This situation resembles to what has already been experienced in lidar observations, but with a predominance of wide- versus small-angle scattering events. At millimeter wavelengths, hydrometeors diffuse radiation rather isotropically compared to the visible or near infrared region where scattering is


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  9. Modern devices of optimum filtration for the active radar system


    V. E. Bychkov; O. D. Mrachkovskiy; V. I. Pravda


    The principle of construction the matched filter and correlator, for the active radar system operating with a broadband noise signal is esteemed. The example of construction a сhan-nel of processing on the basis of microcircuits of a programmed logic (PLD) is shown

  10. Planning a radar system for protection from the airborne threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneker, E.F.; McGee, M.C.


    A planning methodology for developing a radar system to protect nuclear materials facilities from the airborne threat is presented. Planning for physical security to counter the airborne threat is becoming even more important because hostile acts by terrorists are increasing and airborne platforms that can be used to bypass physical barriers are readily available. The comprehensive system planning process includes threat and facility surveys, defense hardening, analysis of detection and early warning requirements, optimization of sensor mix and placement, and system implementation considerations

  11. First Measurements of Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes by a Tri-static Radar System (United States)

    La Hoz, C.


    Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) have been observed for the first time by a tri-static radar system comprising the EISCAT VHF (224 MHz, 0.67 m Bragg wavelength) active radar in Tromso (Norway) and passive receiving stations in Kiruna, (Sweden) and Sodankyla (Finland). The antennas at the receiving stations, originally part of the EISCAT tri-static UHF radar system at 930 MHz, have been refitted with new feeder systems at the VHF frequency of the transmitter in Tromso. The refitted radar system opens new opportunities to study PMSE for its own sake and as a tracer of the dynamics of the polar mesosphere, a region that is difficult to investigate by other means. The measurements show that very frequently both remote receiving antennas detect coherent signals that are much greater than the regular incoherent scattering due to thermal electrons and coinciding in time and space with PMSE measured by the transmitter station in Tromso. This represents further evidence that PMSE is not aspect sensitive, as was already indicated by a less sensitive radar system in a bi-static configuration, and implying that the underlying atmospheric turbulence, at least at sub-meter scales, is isotropic in agreement with Kolmogorov's hypothesis. Measurements also show that the vertical rate of fall of persistent features of PMSE is the same as the vertical line of sight velocity inferred from the doppler shift of the PMSE signals. This equivalence forms the basis for using PMSE as a tracer of the dynamics of the background mesosphere. Thus, it is possible to measure the 3-dimensional velocity field in the PMSE layer over the intersection volume of the three antennas. Since the signals have large signal-to-noise ratios (up to 30 dB), the inferred velocities have high accuracies and good time resolutions. This affords the possibility to make estimates of momentum flux in the mesosphere deposited by overturning gravity waves. Gravity wave momentum flux is believed to be the engine of a

  12. A Novel Blind Source Separation Algorithm and Performance Analysis of Weak Signal against Strong Interference in Passive Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjie Li


    Full Text Available In Passive Radar System, obtaining the mixed weak object signal against the super power signal (jamming is still a challenging task. In this paper, a novel framework based on Passive Radar System is designed for weak object signal separation. Firstly, we propose an Interference Cancellation algorithm (IC-algorithm to extract the mixed weak object signals from the strong jamming. Then, an improved FastICA algorithm with K-means cluster is designed to separate each weak signal from the mixed weak object signals. At last, we discuss the performance of the proposed method and verify the novel method based on several simulations. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Space construction base control system (United States)


    Aspects of an attitude control system were studied and developed for a large space base that is structurally flexible and whose mass properties change rather dramatically during its orbital lifetime. Topics of discussion include the following: (1) space base orbital pointing and maneuvering; (2) angular momentum sizing of actuators; (3) momentum desaturation selection and sizing; (4) multilevel control technique applied to configuration one; (5) one-dimensional model simulation; (6) N-body discrete coordinate simulation; (7) structural analysis math model formulation; and (8) discussion of control problems and control methods.

  14. 77 FR 48097 - Operation of Radar Systems in the 76-77 GHz Band (United States)


    ... modify the emission limits for vehicular radar systems operating within the 76-77 GHz band. Specifically.... 15.253 of the rules for vehicular radar systems operating in the 76-77 GHz band. Vehicular radars can... sensors operating in the 76-77 GHz band, the spectrum shall be investigated up to 231 GHz. (f) Fundamental...

  15. Space based microlensing planet searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisserand Patrick


    Full Text Available The discovery of extra-solar planets is arguably the most exciting development in astrophysics during the past 15 years, rivalled only by the detection of dark energy. Two projects unite the communities of exoplanet scientists and cosmologists: the proposed ESA M class mission EUCLID and the large space mission WFIRST, top ranked by the Astronomy 2010 Decadal Survey report. The later states that: “Space-based microlensing is the optimal approach to providing a true statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, over a range of likely semi-major axes”. They also add: “This census, combined with that made by the Kepler mission, will determine how common Earth-like planets are over a wide range of orbital parameters”. We will present a status report of the results obtained by microlensing on exoplanets and the new objectives of the next generation of ground based wide field imager networks. We will finally discuss the fantastic prospect offered by space based microlensing at the horizon 2020–2025.

  16. A Doppler Radar System for Sensing Physiological Parameters in Walking and Standing Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikeh Pour Ebrahim


    Full Text Available Doppler radar can be implemented for sensing physiological parameters wirelessly at a distance. Detecting respiration rate, an important human body parameter, is essential in a range of applications like emergency and military healthcare environments, and Doppler radar records actual chest motion. One challenge in using Doppler radar is being able to monitor several patients simultaneously and in different situations like standing, walking, or lying. This paper presents a complete transmitter-receiver Doppler radar system, which uses a 4 GHz continuous wave radar signal transmission and receiving system, to extract base-band data from a phase-shifted signal. This work reports experimental evaluations of the system for one and two subjects in various standing and walking positions. It provides a detailed signal analysis of various breathing rates of these two subjects simultaneously. These results will be useful in future medical monitoring applications.

  17. A Dual Polarization, Active, Microstrip Antenna for an Orbital Imaging Radar System Operating at L-Band (United States)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.; Huang, John


    A highly successful Earth orbiting synthetic antenna aperture radar (SAR) system, known as the SIR-C mission, was carried into orbit in 1994 on a U.S. Shuttle (Space Transportation System) mission. The radar system was mounted in the cargo bay with no need to fold, or in any other way reduce the size of the antennas for launch. Weight and size were not limited for the L-Band, C-Band, and X-Band radar systems of the SIR-C radar imaging mission; the set of antennas weighed 10,500 kg, the L-Band antenna having the major share of the weight. This paper treats designing an L-Band antenna functionally similar to that used for SIR-C, but at a fraction of the cost and at a weight in the order of 250 kg. Further, the antenna must be folded to fit into the small payload shroud of low cost booster rocket systems. Over 31 square meters of antenna area is required. This low weight, foldable, electronic scanning antenna is for the proposed LightSAR radar system which is to be placed in Earth orbit on a small, dedicated space craft at the lowest possible cost for an efficient L- Band radar imaging system. This LightSAR spacecraft radar is to be continuously available for at least five operational years, and have the ability to map or repeat-map any area on earth within a few days of any request. A microstrip patch array, with microstrip transmission lines heavily employed in the aperture and in the corporate feed network, was chosen as the low cost approach for this active dual-polarization, 80 MHz (6.4%) bandwidth antenna design.

  18. 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to Space Base (United States)


    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  19. Reconstruction of the sea surface elevation from the analysis of the data collected by a wave radar system (United States)

    Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Lugni, Claudio; Fucile, Fabio; Bulian, Gabriele


    X-band radar system is able to provide information about direction and intensity of the sea surface currents and dominant waves in a range of few kilometers from the observation point (up to 3 nautical miles). This capability, together with their flexibility and low cost, makes these devices useful tools for the sea monitoring either coastal or off-shore area. The data collected from wave radar system can be analyzed by using the inversion strategy presented in [1,2] to obtain the estimation of the following sea parameters: peak wave direction; peak period; peak wavelength; significant wave height; sea surface current and bathymetry. The estimation of the significant wave height represents a limitation of the wave radar system because of the radar backscatter is not directly related to the sea surface elevation. In fact, in the last period, substantial research has been carried out to estimate significant wave height from radar images either with or without calibration using in-situ measurements. In this work, we will present two alternative approaches for the reconstruction of the sea surface elevation from wave radar images. In particular, the first approach is based on the basis of an approximated version of the modulation transfer function (MTF) tuned from a series of numerical simulation, following the line of[3]. The second approach is based on the inversion of radar images using a direct regularised least square technique. Assuming a linearised model for the tilt modulation, the sea elevation has been reconstructed as a least square fitting of the radar imaging data[4]. References [1]F. Serafino, C. Lugni, and F. Soldovieri, "A novel strategy for the surface current determination from marine X-band radar data," IEEE Geosci.Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 231-235, Apr. 2010. [2]Ludeno, G., Brandini, C., Lugni, C., Arturi, D., Natale, A., Soldovieri, F., Serafino, F. (2014). Remocean System for the Detection of the Reflected Waves from the Costa

  20. Wave parameters comparisons between High Frequency (HF) radar system and an in situ buoy: a case study (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria; Alonso-Martirena, Andrés; Agostinho, Pedro; Sanchez, Jorge; Ferrer, Macu; Fernandes, Carlos


    The coastal zone is an important area for the development of maritime countries, either in terms of recreation, energy exploitation, weather forecasting or national security. Field measurements are in the basis of understanding how coastal and oceanic processes occur. Most processes occur over long timescales and over large spatial ranges, like the variation of mean sea level. These processes also involve a variety of factors such as waves, winds, tides, storm surges, currents, etc., that cause huge interference on such phenomena. Measurement of waves have been carried out using different techniques. The instruments used to measure wave parameters can be very different, i.e. buoys, ship base equipment like sonar and satellites. Each equipment has its own advantage and disadvantage depending on the study subject. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the behaviour of a different technology available and presently adopted in wave measurement. In the past few years the measurement of waves using High Frequency (HF) Radars has had several developments. Such a method is already established as a powerful tool for measuring the pattern of surface current, but its use in wave measurements, especially in the dual arrangement is recent. Measurement of the backscatter of HF radar wave provides the raw dataset which is analyzed to give directional data of surface elevation at each range cell. Buoys and radars have advantages, disadvantages and its accuracy is discussed in this presentation. A major advantage with HF radar systems is that they are unaffected by weather, clouds or changing ocean conditions. The HF radar system is a very useful tool for the measurement of waves over a wide area with real-time observation, but it still lacks a method to check its accuracy. The primary goal of this study was to show how the HF radar system responds to high energetic variations when compared to wave buoy data. The bulk wave parameters used (significant wave height, period and

  1. Through-the-Wall Localization of a Moving Target by Two Independent Ultra Wideband (UWB Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rovňáková


    Full Text Available In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.

  2. Assessment of human respiration patterns via noncontact sensing using Doppler multi-radar system. (United States)

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi


    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique.

  3. Comparative of signal processing techniques for micro-Doppler signature extraction with automotive radar systems (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.


    In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced an evolution toward more powerful driver assistance systems that provide enhanced vehicle safety. These systems typically operate in the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated high efficiency in collision and risk avoidance. Microwave radar systems are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather or illumination conditions. Our objective is to study different signal processing techniques suitable for extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures of slow moving objects in dense urban environments. Selection of the appropriate signal processing technique is crucial for the extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures that will lead to better results in a radar classifier system. For this purpose, we perform simulations of typical radar detection responses in common driving situations and conduct the analysis with several signal processing algorithms, including short time Fourier Transform, continuous wavelet or Kernel based analysis methods. We take into account factors such as the relative movement between the host vehicle and the target, and the non-stationary nature of the target's movement. A comparison of results reveals that short time Fourier Transform would be the best approach for detection and tracking purposes, while the continuous wavelet would be the best suited for classification purposes.

  4. Construction and Operation of the West Coast OTH-B Radar System (United States)


    prob- ably. I can see what your concerns are. You are concerned about that word radiation, which is kind of a bugaboo . Mrs Morehouse: How dangerous is... invest our defense dollar. An effective radar system will serve not only as a deterrent to a potential aggressor, but help us to neutralize an attack...OTH-BS radar is for me a wise and cost-effective way to invest our defense dollar. An effective radar system will serve not only as a deterrant to a

  5. Orthonormal bases for α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    We construct an orthonormal basis for the family of bi-variate a-modulation spaces. The construction is based on local trigonometric bases, and the basis elements are closely related to so-called brushlets. As an application, we show that m-term nonlinear approximation with the system in an a......-modulation space can be completely characterized....

  6. Space and Ground-Based Infrastructures (United States)

    Weems, Jon; Zell, Martin

    This chapter deals first with the main characteristics of the space environment, outside and inside a spacecraft. Then the space and space-related (ground-based) infrastructures are described. The most important infrastructure is the International Space Station, which holds many European facilities (for instance the European Columbus Laboratory). Some of them, such as the Columbus External Payload Facility, are located outside the ISS to benefit from external space conditions. There is only one other example of orbital platforms, the Russian Foton/Bion Recoverable Orbital Capsule. In contrast, non-orbital weightless research platforms, although limited in experimental time, are more numerous: sounding rockets, parabolic flight aircraft, drop towers and high-altitude balloons. In addition to these facilities, there are a number of ground-based facilities and space simulators, for both life sciences (for instance: bed rest, clinostats) and physical sciences (for instance: magnetic compensation of gravity). Hypergravity can also be provided by human and non-human centrifuges.

  7. Just in Time in Space or Space Based JIT (United States)

    VanOrsdel, Kathleen G.


    Our satellite systems are mega-buck items. In today's cost conscious world, we need to reduce the overall costs of satellites if our space program is to survive. One way to accomplish this would be through on-orbit maintenance of parts on the orbiting craft. In order to accomplish maintenance at a low cost I advance the hypothesis of having parts and pieces (spares) waiting. Waiting in the sense of having something when you need it, or just-in-time. The JIT concept can actually be applied to space processes. Its definition has to be changed just enough to encompass the needs of space. Our space engineers tell us which parts and pieces the satellite systems might be needing once in orbit. These items are stored in space for the time of need and can be ready when they are needed -- or Space Based JIT. When a system has a problem, the repair facility is near by and through human or robotics intervention, it can be brought back into service. Through a JIT process, overall system costs could be reduced as standardization of parts is built into satellite systems to facilitate reduced numbers of parts being stored. Launch costs will be contained as fewer spare pieces need to be included in the launch vehicle and the space program will continue to thrive even in this era of reduced budgets. The concept of using an orbiting parts servicer and human or robotics maintenance/repair capabilities would extend satellite life-cycle and reduce system replacement launches. Reductions of this nature throughout the satellite program result in cost savings.

  8. Ground penetrating radar system and method for detecting an object on or below a ground surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jongth, R.; Yarovoy, A.; Schukin, A.


    Ground penetrating radar system for detecting objects (17) on or below a ground surface (18), comprising at least one transmit antenna (13) having a first foot print (14) at the ground surface, at least one receive antenna (15) having a second foot print (16) at the ground surface, and processing

  9. FMCW radar system for detection and classification of small vessels in high sea state conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasselin, J.-P.; Mazuel, S.; Itcia, E.; Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.


    The ROCKWELL COLLINS France radar department is currently developing a FMCW radar system for the detection and the classification of small maritime targets in the frame of the SISMARIS, SARGOS & I2C projects. Several test campaigns have been conducted since 2009 to develop a sensor as well as an

  10. Recent antenna- and microwave systems designed at CSIR, DPSS for radar systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Louis


    Full Text Available We have decided to develop some common building blocks for use in radar system at the CSIR, DPSS. The reasons for doing this are: a) The cost of ad-hoc- developed RF subsystems (using connectorised components) is getting to be prohibitive as a...

  11. Toward Microsatellite Based Space Situational Awareness (United States)

    Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Sale, M.; Thorsteinson, S.


    The NEOSSat microsatellite is a dual mission space telescope which will perform asteroid detection and Space Situational Awareness (SSA) observation experiments on deep space, earth orbiting objects. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013 into a 800 dawn-dusk sun synchronous orbit and is currently undergoing satellite commissioning. The microsatellite consists of a small aperture optical telescope, GPS receiver, high performance attitude control system, and stray light rejection baffle designed to reject stray light from the Sun while searching for asteroids with elongations 45 degrees along the ecliptic. The SSA experimental mission, referred to as HEOSS (High Earth Orbit Space Surveillance), will focus on objects in deep space orbits. The HEOSS mission objective is to evaluate the utility of microsatellites to perform catalog maintenance observations of resident space objects in a manner consistent with the needs of the Canadian Forces. The advantages of placing a space surveillance sensor in low Earth orbit are that the observer can conduct observations without the day-night interruption cycle experienced by ground based telescopes, the telescope is insensitive to adverse weather and the system has visibility to deep space resident space objects which are not normally visible from ground based sensors. Also, from a photometric standpoint, the microsatellite is able to conduct observations on objects with a rapidly changing observer position. The possibility of spin axis estimation on geostationary satellites may be possible and an experiment characterize spin axis of distant resident space objects is being planned. Also, HEOSS offers the ability to conduct observations of satellites at high phase angles which can potentially extend the trackable portion of space in which deep space objects' orbits can be monitored. In this paper we describe the HEOSS SSA experimental data processing system and the preliminary findings of the catalog maintenance experiments

  12. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie


    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  13. Direct convertor based upon space charge effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitomer, S.J.


    A device capable of converting directly the kinetic energy of charged particles into electrical energy is considered. The device differs from earlier ones (such as Post's periodic focus electrostatic direct convertor) in that it makes use of the space charge repulsion in a high density charged particle beam. The beam is directed into a monotonic decelerating electrostatic field of a several-stage planar-finned structure. The collector fins coincide with vacuum equipotential surfaces. Space charge blowup of the beam directs particles onto various collector fins. The energy efficiency of a 4-stage device has been determined using a numberical simulation approach. We find that efficiencies approaching 75 percent are possible. An approximate scaling law is derived for the space charge based direct converter and a comparison is made to the periodic focus direct convertor. We find the space charge based direct convertor to be superior to a number of ways

  14. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  15. Millimeter wave radar system on a rotating platform for combined search and track functionality with SAR imaging (United States)

    Aulenbacher, Uwe; Rech, Klaus; Sedlmeier, Johannes; Pratisto, Hans; Wellig, Peter


    Ground based millimeter wave radar sensors offer the potential for a weather-independent automatic ground surveillance at day and night, e.g. for camp protection applications. The basic principle and the experimental verification of a radar system concept is described, which by means of an extreme off-axis positioning of the antenna(s) combines azimuthal mechanical beam steering with the formation of a circular-arc shaped synthetic aperture (SA). In automatic ground surveillance the function of search and detection of moving ground targets is performed by means of the conventional mechanical scan mode. The rotated antenna structure designed as a small array with two or more RX antenna elements with simultaneous receiver chains allows to instantaneous track multiple moving targets (monopulse principle). The simultaneously operated SAR mode yields areal images of the distribution of stationary scatterers. For ground surveillance application this SAR mode is best suited for identifying possible threats by means of change detection. The feasibility of this concept was tested by means of an experimental radar system comprising of a 94 GHz (W band) FM-CW module with 1 GHz bandwidth and two RX antennas with parallel receiver channels, placed off-axis at a rotating platform. SAR mode and search/track mode were tested during an outdoor measurement campaign. The scenery of two persons walking along a road and partially through forest served as test for the capability to track multiple moving targets. For SAR mode verification an image of the area composed of roads, grassland, woodland and several man-made objects was reconstructed from the measured data.

  16. Space and commodity-based society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozden Vladimir


    Full Text Available The space is privileged in the commodity-based society. It is well known that the economic space in the 19th and 20th centuries rapidly managed to subordinate all other areas 'conveying and instilling in them their own meanings and goals' (G. Milatović. A new form of space that qualifies commodity society was created, marked by dualities: openness-closeness, private-public, sameness-difference. This paper is an attempt to criticize the usual analysis of the categories of commodity-space, linked to the ambivalent role of the state as a guarantor of the functioning of the commodity-based society, as well as its controlling instance. The increasing delocalisation of the political changes the nature of the space in the commodity-based society. Privileged areas are produced that create an illusion of protection of consumers (shopping malls, gated communities, theme parks, video surveillance, while at the same time social differentiation and identification are produced through the symbolic order of commodities and a sense of inclusion or exclusion from that order. At the same time, the examples of tourism and selling places demonstrate that such a commodity-space unusually easy reconciles sameness and difference. It entails uniformity to help achieve the fluctuation of goods, while insisting on the local as different, especially in terms of the role of particularity in the global trade.

  17. Seismology and space-based geodesy (United States)

    Tralli, David M.; Tajima, Fumiko


    The potential of space-based geodetic measurement of crustal deformation in the context of seismology is explored. The achievements of seismological source theory and data analyses, mechanical modeling of fault zone behavior, and advances in space-based geodesy are reviewed, with emphasis on realizable contributions of space-based geodetic measurements specifically to seismology. The fundamental relationships between crustal deformation associated with an earthquake and the geodetically observable data are summarized. The response and spatial and temporal resolution of the geodetic data necessary to understand deformation at various phases of the earthquake cycle is stressed. The use of VLBI, SLR, and GPS measurements for studying global geodynamics properties that can be investigated to some extent with seismic data is discussed. The potential contributions of continuously operating strain monitoring networks and globally distributed geodetic observatories to existing worldwide modern digital seismographic networks are evaluated in reference to mutually addressable problems in seismology, geophysics, and tectonics.

  18. Discrete phase space based on finite fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, Kathleen S.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Wootters, William K.


    The original Wigner function provides a way of representing in phase space the quantum states of systems with continuous degrees of freedom. Wigner functions have also been developed for discrete quantum systems, one popular version being defined on a 2Nx2N discrete phase space for a system with N orthogonal states. Here we investigate an alternative class of discrete Wigner functions, in which the field of real numbers that labels the axes of continuous phase space is replaced by a finite field having N elements. There exists such a field if and only if N is a power of a prime; so our formulation can be applied directly only to systems for which the state-space dimension takes such a value. Though this condition may seem limiting, we note that any quantum computer based on qubits meets the condition and can thus be accommodated within our scheme. The geometry of our NxN phase space also leads naturally to a method of constructing a complete set of N+1 mutually unbiased bases for the state space

  19. Activity-Based Collaboration for Interactive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Esbensen, Morten; Tabard, Aurélien


    , folder, documents, etc., users are able to interact with ‘activities’ which encapsulate files and other low-level resources. In ABC an ‘activity’ can be shared between collaborating users and can be accessed on different devices. As such, ABC is a framework that suits the requirements of designing...... interactive spaces. This chapter provides an overview of ABC with a special focus on its support for collaboration (‘Activity Sharing’) and multiple devices (‘Activity Roaming’). These ABC concepts are illustrated as implemented in two different interactive spaces technologies; ReticularSpaces [1] and the e......LabBench [2, 3]. The chapter discusses the benefits of activity-based collaboration support for these interactive spaces, while also discussing limitations and challenges to be addressed in further research....

  20. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base (United States)

    Lewallen, Pat


    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Vibration Data Base is described. Included is a detailed description of the data base components, the data acquisition process, the more sophisticated software routines, and the future data acquisition methods. Several figures and plots are provided to illustrate the various output formats accessible to the user. The numerous vibration data recall and analysis capabilities available through automated data base techniques are revealed.

  1. Localization Capability of Cooperative Anti-Intruder Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Montanari


    Full Text Available System aspects of an anti-intruder multistatic radar based on impulse radio ultrawideband (UWB technology are addressed. The investigated system is composed of one transmitting node and at least three receiving nodes, positioned in the surveillance area with the aim of detecting and locating a human intruder (target that moves inside the area. Such systems, referred to also as UWB radar sensor networks, must satisfy severe power constraints worldwide imposed by, for example, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC and by the European Commission (EC power spectral density masks. A single transmitter-receiver pair (bistatic radar is considered at first. Given the available transmitted power and the capability of the receiving node to resolve the UWB pulses in the time domain, the surveillance area regions where the target is detectable, and those where it is not, are obtained. Moreover, the range estimation error for the transmitter-receiver pair is discussed. By employing this analysis, a multistatic system is then considered, composed of one transmitter and three or four cooperating receivers. For this multistatic system, the impact of the nodes location on area coverage, necessary transmitted power and localization uncertainty is studied, assuming a circular surveillance area. It is highlighted how area coverage and transmitted power, on one side, and localization uncertainty, on the other side, require opposite criteria of nodes placement. Consequently, the need for a system compromising between these factors is shown. Finally, a simple and effective criterion for placing the transmitter and the receivers is drawn.

  2. Representations of space based on haptic input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhoek, S.


    The present thesis focused on the representations of grasping space based on haptic input. We aimed at identifying their characteristics, and the underlying neurocognitive processes and mechanisms. To this end, we studied the systematic distortions in performance on several orientation perception

  3. Estimation of High-Frequency Earth-Space Radio Wave Signals via Ground-Based Polarimetric Radar Observations (United States)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.


    Expanding human presence in space, and enabling the commercialization of this frontier, is part of the strategic goals for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. Future near-Earth and planetary missions will support the use of high-frequency Earth-space communication systems. Additionally, increased commercial demand on low-frequency Earth-space links in the S- and C-band spectra have led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like Ku and Ka-band. Attenuation of high-frequency signals, due to a precipitating medium, can be quite severe and can cause considerable disruptions in a communications link that traverses such a medium. Previously, ground radar measurements were made along the Earth-space path and compared to satellite beacon data that was transmitted to a ground station. In this paper, quantitative estimation of the attenuation along the propagation path is made via inter-comparisons of radar data taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and ground-based polarimetric radar observations. Theoretical relationships between the expected specific attenuation (k) of spaceborne measurements with ground-based measurements of reflectivity (Zh) and differential propagation phase shift (Kdp) are developed for various hydrometeors that could be present along the propagation path, which are used to estimate the two-way path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on the PR return echo. Resolution volume matching and alignment of the radar systems is performed, and a direct comparison of PR return echo with ground radar attenuation estimates is made directly on a beam-by-beam basis. The technique is validated using data collected from the TExas and Florida UNderflights (TEFLUN-B) experiment and the TRMM large Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) campaign. Attenuation estimation derived from this method can be used for strategiC planning of communication systems for

  4. Space weather effects on ground based technology (United States)

    Clark, T.

    Space weather can affect a variety of forms of ground-based technology, usually as a result of either the direct effects of the varying geomagnetic field, or as a result of the induced electric field that accompanies such variations. Technologies affected directly by geomagnetic variations include magnetic measurements made d ringu geophysical surveys, and navigation relying on the geomagnetic field as a direction reference, a method that is particularly common in the surveying of well-bores in the oil industry. The most obvious technology affected by induced electric fields during magnetic storms is electric power transmission, where the example of the blackout in Quebec during the March 1989 magnetic storm is widely known. Additionally, space weather effects must be taken into account in the design of active cathodic protection systems on pipelines to protect them against corrosion. Long-distance telecommunication cables may also have to be designed to cope with space weather related effects. This paper reviews the effects of space weather in these different areas of ground-based technology, and provides examples of how mitigation against hazards may be achieved. (The paper does not include the effects of space weather on radio communication or satellite navigation systems).

  5. Network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar systems (United States)

    Guenzi, Diego; Bechini, Renzo; Boraso, Rodolfo; Cremonini, Roberto; Fratianni, Simona


    The traffic over Internet is constantly increasing; this is due in particular to social networks activities but also to the enormous exchange of data caused especially by the so-called "Internet of Things". With this term we refer to every device that has the capability of exchanging information with other devices on the web. In geoscience (and, in particular, in meteorology and climatology) there is a constantly increasing number of sensors that are used to obtain data from different sources (like weather radars, digital rain gauges, etc.). This information-gathering activity, frequently, must be followed by a complex data analysis phase, especially when we have large data sets that can be very difficult to analyze (very long historical series of large data sets, for example), like the so called big data. These activities are particularly intensive in resource consumption and they lead to new computational models (like cloud computing) and new methods for storing data (like object store, linked open data, NOSQL or NewSQL). The weather radar systems can be seen as one of the sensors mentioned above: it transmit a large amount of raw data over the network (up to 40 megabytes every five minutes), with 24h/24h continuity and in any weather condition. Weather radar are often located in peaks and in wild areas where connectivity is poor. For this reason radar measurements are sometimes processed partially on site and reduced in size to adapt them to the limited bandwidth currently available by data transmission systems. With the aim to preserve the maximum flow of information, an innovative network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar system is here presented. The study is focused on the Monte Settepani operational weather radar system, located over a wild peak summit in north-western Italy.

  6. The PARAFAC-MUSIC Algorithm for DOA Estimation with Doppler Frequency in a MIMO Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang


    Full Text Available The PARAFAC-MUSIC algorithm is proposed to estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA of the targets with Doppler frequency in a monostatic MIMO radar system in this paper. To estimate the Doppler frequency, the PARAFAC (parallel factor algorithm is firstly utilized in the proposed algorithm, and after the compensation of Doppler frequency, MUSIC (multiple signal classification algorithm is applied to estimate the DOA. By these two steps, the DOA of moving targets can be estimated successfully. Simulation results show that the proposed PARAFAC-MUSIC algorithm has a higher accuracy than the PARAFAC algorithm and the MUSIC algorithm in DOA estimation.

  7. Environmental Statement. Continental United States Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar System (United States)


    kind of a bugaboo . Mrs Morehouse: How dangerous is this kind of radiation? Mr Raffa: That one has been determined by Doctor Polson and others. Since we...quality. From a broader perspective, the OTH-BS radar is for me a wise and cost-effective way to invest our defense dollar. An effective radar system...transportation scheduling and carrier quality. From a broader perspective, the OTH-BS radar is for me a wise and cost-effective way to invest our

  8. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, J.R.; Chi, J.W.H.


    Previous studies of nuclear and non-nuclear power systems for lunar bases are compared with recent studies by others. Power levels from tens of kW e for early base operation up to 2000 kW e for a self-sustaining base with a Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) are considered. Permanent lunar or Martian bases will require the use of multiple nuclear units connected to loads with a power transmission and distribution system analogous to earth-based electric utility systems. A methodology used for such systems is applied to the lunar base system to examine the effects of adding 100 kW e SP-100 class and/or larger nuclear units when a reliability criterion is imposed. The results show that resource and logistic burdens can be reduced by using 1000 kW e units early in the base growth scenario without compromising system reliability. Therefore, both technologies being developed in two current programs (SP-100 and NERVA Derivative Reactor (NDR) technology for space power) can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are also described. (author)

  9. Earth-Space Propagation Data Bases (United States)

    Smith, Ernest K.


    This paper, designed for the newcomer rather than the expert, will take a rather broad view of what is meant by 'propagation data bases' in that it will take the term to mean both the actual measurements and models of Earth-space paths. The text will largely be drawn from International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) reports, now annexed to the Recommendations of the International Telecommunications Union-R Study Group 3, plus some experience with a course taught at the University of Colorado.

  10. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High) (United States)


    elements (five SMGTs) for the S2E2 Mobile Ground System. ​ SBIRS Block Buy (GEO 5-6) The GEO 5-6 Tech Refresh (TR) Engineering Change Proposal was...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-210 Space Based Infrared System High ( SBIRS High) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 11:24:26 UNCLASSIFIED SBIRS High December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 11:24:26

  11. Space-Qualifiable Digital Radar Transceiver, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Historically, radar systems have tended to be either large, complex, power-hungry, purpose-built systems, or extremely simple systems of limited capability. More...

  12. X-Band wave radar system for monitoring and risk management of the coastal infrastructures (United States)

    Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco


    waves from the coastal infrastructures, e.g. from the harbor jetties. In fact, the reflected waves may significantly complicate the harbour activities (e.g., berthing operations), as they interfere with the oncoming waves thus creating a confused sea [2]. References [1] G. Ludeno, C. Brandini, C. Lugni, D. Arturi, A. Natale, F. Soldovieri, B. Gozzini, F. Serafino, "Remocean System for the Detection of the Reflected Waves from the Costa Concordia Ship Wreck", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol.7, no.3, pp.3011-3018, July 2014. [2] G. Ludeno, F. Reale, F. Dentale, E. Pugliese Carratelli, A. Natale, F. Soldovieri, F. Serafino "An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in Harbor Area", Sensors, Vol.15, no.1, pp. 1691-1707, January 2015. [3] F. Raffa, G. Ludeno, B. Patti, F. Soldovieri, S. Mazzola, and F. Serafino, "X-band wave radar for coastal upwelling detection off the southern coast of Sicily.", Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, January 2017, Vol. 34, No. 1, Published online on 22 Dec 2016.

  13. Space-based ballistic-missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Garwin, R.L.; Gottfried, K.; Kendall, H.W.


    This article, based on a forthcoming book by the Union for Concerned Scientists, focuses on the technical aspects of the issue of space-based ballistic-missile defense. After analysis, the authors conclude that the questionable performance of the proposed defense, the ease with which it could be overwhelmed or circumvented, and its potential as an antisatellite system would cause grievous damage to the security of the US if the Strategic Defense Initiative were to be pursued. The path toward greater security lies in quite another direction, they feel. Although research on ballistic-missile defense should continue at the traditional level of expenditure and within the constraints of the ABM Treaty, every effort should be made to negotiate a bilateral ban on the testing and use of space weapons. The authors think it is essential that such an agreement cover all altitudes, because a ban on high-altitude antisatellite weapons alone would not viable if directed energy weapons were developed for ballistic-missile defense. Further, the Star Wars program, unlikely ever to protect the entire nation against a nuclear attack, would nonetheless trigger a major expansion of the arms race

  14. The immune system in space, including Earth-based benefits of space-based research. (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald


    Exposure to space flight conditions has been shown to result in alterations in immune responses. Changes in immune responses of humans and experimental animals have been shown to be altered during and after space flight of humans and experimental animals or cell cultures of lymphoid cells. Exposure of subjects to ground-based models of space flight conditions, such as hindlimb unloading of rodents or chronic bed rest of humans, has also resulted in changes in the immune system. The relationship of these changes to compromised resistance to infection or tumors in space flight has not been fully established, but results from model systems suggest that alterations in the immune system that occur in space flight conditions may be related to decreases in resistance to infection. The establishment of such a relationship could lead to the development of countermeasures that could prevent or ameliorate any compromises in resistance to infection resulting from exposure to space flight conditions. An understanding of the mechanisms of space flight conditions effects on the immune response and development of countermeasures to prevent them could contribute to the development of treatments for compromised immunity on earth.

  15. Addition of a Digital Receiver to the X-BADGER Radar System (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past year, the X-Band Atmospheric Doppler Ground-based Radar (X-BADGER) transmitter has undergone a major upgrade from a high voltage traveling-wave tube to...

  16. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System (United States)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.


    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  17. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.


    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  18. Space Situational Awareness using Market Based Agents (United States)

    Sullivan, C.; Pier, E.; Gregory, S.; Bush, M.


    Space surveillance for the DoD is not limited to the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Other DoD-owned assets have some existing capabilities for tasking but have no systematic way to work collaboratively with the SSN. These are run by diverse organizations including the Services, other defense and intelligence agencies and national laboratories. Beyond these organizations, academic and commercial entities have systems that possess SSA capability. Most all of these assets have some level of connectivity, security, and potential autonomy. Exploiting them in a mutually beneficial structure could provide a more comprehensive, efficient and cost effective solution for SSA. The collection of all potential assets, providers and consumers of SSA data comprises a market which is functionally illiquid. The development of a dynamic marketplace for SSA data could enable would-be providers the opportunity to sell data to SSA consumers for monetary or incentive based compensation. A well-conceived market architecture could drive down SSA data costs through increased supply and improve efficiency through increased competition. Oceanit will investigate market and market agent architectures, protocols, standards, and incentives toward producing high-volume/low-cost SSA.

  19. Study of laser radar system using the differential absorption method for detection of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inomata, H; Igarashi, T


    A laser radar system using the differential absorption method for remote measurement of atmospheric NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ is studied. A simultaneous two-wavelength dye laser for the transmitter and a simultaneous two-wavelength signal processer for the receiver are developed. In using this technique, one laser shot allows the determination of NO/sub 2/ concentrations with an uncertainty equivalent to 44 ppM times the range interval (in meters). It seems that the technique is most promising for a range-resolved measurement of ambient molecular pollutants, since it has the advantage of canceling the effect of atmospheric variation in a measurement when atmospheric aerosols are used as a distributed reflector.

  20. Transponder-aided joint calibration and synchronization compensation for distributed radar systems. (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin


    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results.

  1. High-resolution imaging using a wideband MIMO radar system with two distributed arrays. (United States)

    Wang, Dang-wei; Ma, Xiao-yan; Chen, A-Lei; Su, Yi


    Imaging a fast maneuvering target has been an active research area in past decades. Usually, an array antenna with multiple elements is implemented to avoid the motion compensations involved in the inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. Nevertheless, there is a price dilemma due to the high level of hardware complexity compared to complex algorithm implemented in the ISAR imaging system with only one antenna. In this paper, a wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar system with two distributed arrays is proposed to reduce the hardware complexity of the system. Furthermore, the system model, the equivalent array production method and the imaging procedure are presented. As compared with the classical real aperture radar (RAR) imaging system, there is a very important contribution in our method that the lower hardware complexity can be involved in the imaging system since many additive virtual array elements can be obtained. Numerical simulations are provided for testing our system and imaging method.

  2. A portable W-band radar system for enhancement of infrared vision in fire fighting operations (United States)

    Klenner, Mathias; Zech, Christian; Hülsmann, Axel; Kühn, Jutta; Schlechtweg, Michael; Hahmann, Konstantin; Kleiner, Bernhard; Ulrich, Michael; Ambacher, Oliver


    In this paper, we present a millimeter wave radar system which will enhance the performance of infrared cameras used for fire-fighting applications. The radar module is compact and lightweight such that the system can be combined with inertial sensors and integrated in a hand-held infrared camera. This allows for precise distance measurements in harsh environmental conditions, such as tunnel or industrial fires, where optical sensors are unreliable or fail. We discuss the design of the RF front-end, the antenna and a quasi-optical lens for beam shaping as well as signal processing and demonstrate the performance of the system by in situ measurements in a smoke filled environment.

  3. On the space dimensionality based on metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, G.E.


    A new approach to space time dimensionality is suggested, which permits to take into account the possibility of altering dimensionality depending on the phenomenon scale. An attempt is made to give the definition of dimensionality, equivalent to a conventional definition for the Euclidean space and variety. The conventional definition of variety dimensionality is connected with the possibility of homeomorphic reflection of the Euclidean space on some region of each variety point

  4. An expert systems application to space base data processing (United States)

    Babb, Stephen M.


    The advent of space vehicles with their increased data requirements are reflected in the complexity of future telemetry systems. Space based operations with its immense operating costs will shift the burden of data processing and routine analysis from the space station to the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). A research and development project is described which addresses the real time onboard data processing tasks associated with a space based vehicle, specifically focusing on an implementation of an expert system.

  5. Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain


    We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

  6. In-Space Internet-Based Communications for Space Science Platforms Using Commercial Satellite Networks (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Fabian, Theodore P.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Richard, Alan M.


    The continuing technological advances in satellite communications and global networking have resulted in commercial systems that now can potentially provide capabilities for communications with space-based science platforms. This reduces the need for expensive government owned communications infrastructures to support space science missions while simultaneously making available better service to the end users. An interactive, high data rate Internet type connection through commercial space communications networks would enable authorized researchers anywhere to control space-based experiments in near real time and obtain experimental results immediately. A space based communications network architecture consisting of satellite constellations connecting orbiting space science platforms to ground users can be developed to provide this service. The unresolved technical issues presented by this scenario are the subject of research at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Assessment of network architectures, identification of required new or improved technologies, and investigation of data communications protocols are being performed through testbed and satellite experiments and laboratory simulations.

  7. Modelling of long-wave chaotic radar system for anti-stealth applications (United States)

    Al-Suhail, Ghaida A.; Tahir, Fadhil Rahma; Abd, Mariam Hussien; Pham, Viet-Thanh; Fortuna, Luigi


    Although the Very Low-Frequency (VLF) waveforms have limited practical applications in acoustics (sonar) and secure military communications with radars and submarines; to this end; this paper presents a new and simple analytical model of VLF monostatic direct chaotic radar system. The model hypothetically depends on the two identical coupled time-delayed feedback chaotic systems which can generate and recover a long-wave chaotic signal. To resist the influence of positive Lyapunov exponents of the time-delay chaotic systems, the complete replacement of Pecaro and Carroll (PC) synchronization is employed. It can faithfully recover the chaotic signal from the back-scattered (echo) signal from the target over a noisy channel. The system performance is characterized in terms of the time series of synchronization in addition to the peak of the cross-correlation. Simulation results are conducted for substantial sensitivities of the chaotic signal to the system parameters and initial conditions. As a result, it is found that an effective and robust chaotic radar (CRADAR) model can be obtained when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) highly degrades to 0 dB, but with clear peak in correlation performance for detecting the target. Then, the model can be considered as a state of the art towards counter stealth technology and might be developed for other acoustic secure applications.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Space Based Transceivers (United States)

    Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Abbott, Ben; Liebetreu, John; Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.


    This paper presents the tool chain, methodology, and initial results of a study to provide a thorough, objective, and quantitative analysis of the design alternatives for space Software Defined Radio (SDR) transceivers. The approach taken was to develop a set of models and tools for describing communications requirements, the algorithm resource requirements, the available hardware, and the alternative software architectures, and generate analysis data necessary to compare alternative designs. The Space Transceiver Analysis Tool (STAT) was developed to help users identify and select representative designs, calculate the analysis data, and perform a comparative analysis of the representative designs. The tool allows the design space to be searched quickly while permitting incremental refinement in regions of higher payoff.

  9. Distributed Graph-Based State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Kant, Gijs; Rensink, Arend; De Lara, J.; Varro, D.

    LTSMIN provides a framework in which state space generation can be distributed easily over many cores on a single compute node, as well as over multiple compute nodes. The tool works on the basis of a vector representation of the states; the individual cores are assigned the task of computing all

  10. Orthonormal bases for  α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten


    We construct an orthonormal basis for the family of bi-variate α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on local trigonometric bases, and the basis elements are closely related to so-called brushlets. As an application, we show that m-term nonlinear approximation with the representing system...... in an α-modulation space can be completely characterized....

  11. Space-Based Space Surveillance Logistics Case Study: A Qualitative Product Support Element Analysis (United States)


    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SPACE-BASED SPACE SURVEILLANCE LOGISTICS CASE STUDY: A QUALITATIVE ...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT This research provides a qualitative analysis of the logistics impacts, effects, and sustainment challenges...provides a qualitative product support element-by-element review for both research questions. Chapters IV and V present the findings, results

  12. Location detection and tracking of moving targets by a 2D IR-UWB radar system. (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Han; Pyun, Jae-Young


    In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB) radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF) is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking.

  13. Location Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets by a 2D IR-UWB Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Han Nguyen


    Full Text Available In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking.

  14. MIMO Based Eigen-Space Spreading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eltawil, Ahmed


    .... Combination of this powerful technique with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based modulation and traditional time and frequency spreading techniques results in a highly secure mode of communications...

  15. High Available COTS Based Computer for Space (United States)

    Hartmann, J.; Magistrati, Giorgio


    The availability and reliability factors of a system are central requirements of a target application. From a simple fuel injection system used in cars up to a flight control system of an autonomous navigating spacecraft, each application defines its specific availability factor under the target application boundary conditions. Increasing quality requirements on data processing systems used in space flight applications calling for new architectures to fulfill the availability, reliability as well as the increase of the required data processing power. Contrary to the increased quality request simplification and use of COTS components to decrease costs while keeping the interface compatibility to currently used system standards are clear customer needs. Data processing system design is mostly dominated by strict fulfillment of the customer requirements and reuse of available computer systems were not always possible caused by obsolescence of EEE-Parts, insufficient IO capabilities or the fact that available data processing systems did not provide the required scalability and performance.

  16. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann


    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....

  17. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....

  18. A Simulation and Modeling Framework for Space Situational Awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, S.S.


    This paper describes the development and initial demonstration of a new, integrated modeling and simulation framework, encompassing the space situational awareness enterprise, for quantitatively assessing the benefit of specific sensor systems, technologies and data analysis techniques. The framework is based on a flexible, scalable architecture to enable efficient, physics-based simulation of the current SSA enterprise, and to accommodate future advancements in SSA systems. In particular, the code is designed to take advantage of massively parallel computer systems available, for example, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The details of the modeling and simulation framework are described, including hydrodynamic models of satellite intercept and debris generation, orbital propagation algorithms, radar cross section calculations, optical brightness calculations, generic radar system models, generic optical system models, specific Space Surveillance Network models, object detection algorithms, orbit determination algorithms, and visualization tools. The use of this integrated simulation and modeling framework on a specific scenario involving space debris is demonstrated

  19. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study (United States)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.


    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  20. Complexity in Simplicity: Flexible Agent-based State Space Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob Illum; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    In this paper, we describe a new flexible framework for state space exploration based on cooperating agents. The idea is to let various agents with different search patterns explore the state space individually and communicate information about fruitful subpaths of the search tree to each other...

  1. Competitive market-based allocation of consumer attention space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bohte (Sander); E.H. Gerding (Enrico); J.A. La Poutré (Han)


    textabstractThe amount of attention space available for recommending suppliers to consumers on e-commerce sites is typically limited. We present a competitive distributed recommendation mechanism based on adaptive software agents for efficiently allocating the 'consumer attention space', or banners.

  2. Ground Based Support for Exoplanet Space Missions (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.; Nissinen, M.


    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused to asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2] and long term monitoring projects [3]. In the early 2011 Europlanet NA1 and NA2 organized "Coordinated Observations of Exoplanets from Ground and Space"-workshop in Graz, Austria. The workshop gathered together proam astronomers who have the equipment to measure the light curves of the exoplanets. Also there were professional scientists working in the exoplanet field who attended to the workshop. The result of the workshop was to organize coordinated observation campaign for follow-up observations of exoplanets (e.g. CoRoT planets). Also coordinated observation campaign to observe stellar CME outbreaks was planned. THO has a lot of experience in field of exoplanet light curve measurements and therefore this campaign is very supported by the research team of the observatory. In next coming observing seasons THO will concentrate its efforts for this kind of campaigns.

  3. Optimization of a space based radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Kien Fan Cesar Hung; Deng Zhongmin


    Nowadays there is an increased demand in satellite weight reduction for the reduction of costs. Thermal control system designers have to face the challenge of reducing both the weight of the system and required heater power while maintaining the components temperature within their design ranges. The main purpose of this paper is to present an optimization of a heat pipe radiator applied to a practical engineering design application. For this study, a communications satellite payload panel was considered. Four radiator areas were defined instead of a centralized one in order to improve the heat rejection into space; the radiator's dimensions were determined considering worst hot scenario, solar fluxes, heat dissipation and the component's design temperature upper limit. Dimensions, thermal properties of the structural panel, optical properties and degradation/contamination on thermal control coatings were also considered. A thermal model was constructed for thermal analysis and two heat pipe network designs were evaluated and compared. The model that allowed better radiator efficiency was selected for parametric thermal analysis and optimization. This pursues finding the minimum size of the heat pipe network while keeping complying with thermal control requirements without increasing power consumption. - Highlights: →Heat pipe radiator optimization applied to a practical engineering design application. →The heat pipe radiator of a communications satellite panel is optimized. →A thermal model was built for parametric thermal analysis and optimization. →Optimal heat pipe network size is determined for the optimal weight solution. →The thermal compliance was verified by transient thermal analysis.

  4. Why advanced computing? The key to space-based operations (United States)

    Phister, Paul W., Jr.; Plonisch, Igor; Mineo, Jack


    The 'what is the requirement?' aspect of advanced computing and how it relates to and supports Air Force space-based operations is a key issue. In support of the Air Force Space Command's five major mission areas (space control, force enhancement, force applications, space support and mission support), two-fifths of the requirements have associated stringent computing/size implications. The Air Force Research Laboratory's 'migration to space' concept will eventually shift Science and Technology (S&T) dollars from predominantly airborne systems to airborne-and-space related S&T areas. One challenging 'space' area is in the development of sophisticated on-board computing processes for the next generation smaller, cheaper satellite systems. These new space systems (called microsats or nanosats) could be as small as a softball, yet perform functions that are currently being done by large, vulnerable ground-based assets. The Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) concept will be used to manage the overall process of space applications coupled with advancements in computing. The JBI can be defined as a globally interoperable information 'space' which aggregates, integrates, fuses, and intelligently disseminates all relevant battlespace knowledge to support effective decision-making at all echelons of a Joint Task Force (JTF). This paper explores a single theme -- on-board processing is the best avenue to take advantage of advancements in high-performance computing, high-density memories, communications, and re-programmable architecture technologies. The goal is to break away from 'no changes after launch' design to a more flexible design environment that can take advantage of changing space requirements and needs while the space vehicle is 'on orbit.'

  5. Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program delivers a completely new technology solution to isolation and sensing of power flow (current and voltage). Based on striction materials technology,...

  6. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R


    This report describes work carried out under the Air Force Research Laboratory's basic research task in optical remote-sensing signatures, entitled Optical / Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing...

  7. Flexible Graphene-Based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a graphene-based battery/ultra-capacitor prototype that is flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, low cost, and safe and...

  8. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien


    There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem...... and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students’ actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how students incorporate networked and digital technologies into their group work and into the study places...... they create for themselves. We describe how in one of the programmes ‘nomadic’ groups of students used different technologies and spaces for ‘placemaking’. We then show how their experience and approach to collaborative work differs to that of the more static or ‘artisan’ groups of students in the other...

  9. Space Science Cloud: a Virtual Space Science Research Platform Based on Cloud Model (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Tong, Jizhou; Zou, Ziming

    Through independent and co-operational science missions, Strategic Pioneer Program (SPP) on Space Science, the new initiative of space science program in China which was approved by CAS and implemented by National Space Science Center (NSSC), dedicates to seek new discoveries and new breakthroughs in space science, thus deepen the understanding of universe and planet earth. In the framework of this program, in order to support the operations of space science missions and satisfy the demand of related research activities for e-Science, NSSC is developing a virtual space science research platform based on cloud model, namely the Space Science Cloud (SSC). In order to support mission demonstration, SSC integrates interactive satellite orbit design tool, satellite structure and payloads layout design tool, payload observation coverage analysis tool, etc., to help scientists analyze and verify space science mission designs. Another important function of SSC is supporting the mission operations, which runs through the space satellite data pipelines. Mission operators can acquire and process observation data, then distribute the data products to other systems or issue the data and archives with the services of SSC. In addition, SSC provides useful data, tools and models for space researchers. Several databases in the field of space science are integrated and an efficient retrieve system is developing. Common tools for data visualization, deep processing (e.g., smoothing and filtering tools), analysis (e.g., FFT analysis tool and minimum variance analysis tool) and mining (e.g., proton event correlation analysis tool) are also integrated to help the researchers to better utilize the data. The space weather models on SSC include magnetic storm forecast model, multi-station middle and upper atmospheric climate model, solar energetic particle propagation model and so on. All the services above-mentioned are based on the e-Science infrastructures of CAS e.g. cloud storage and

  10. Relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments (United States)

    Gudimetla, V. S. Rao


    An effort was initiated last year in the Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center to examine and incorporate, if necessary, the effects of relativity in the design of space-based lidar systems. A space-based lidar system, named AEOLUS, is under development at Marshall Space Flight Center and it will be used to accurately measure atmospheric wind profiles. Effects of relativity were also observed in the performance of space-based systems, for example in case of global positioning systems, and corrections were incorporated into the design of instruments. During the last summer, the effects of special relativity on the design of space-based lidar systems were studied in detail, by analyzing the problem of laser scattering off a fixed target when the source and a co-located receiver are moving on a spacecraft. Since the proposed lidar system uses a coherent detection system, errors even in the order of a few microradians must be corrected to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio. Previous analysis assumed that the ground is flat and the spacecraft is moving parallel to the ground, and developed analytical expressions for the location, direction and Doppler shift of the returning radiation. Because of the assumptions used in that analysis, only special relativity effects were involved. In this report, that analysis is extended to include general relativity and calculate its effects on the design.

  11. Space-based infrared sensors of space target imaging effect analysis (United States)

    Dai, Huayu; Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun; Zhao, Shuang


    Target identification problem is one of the core problem of ballistic missile defense system, infrared imaging simulation is an important means of target detection and recognition. This paper first established the space-based infrared sensors ballistic target imaging model of point source on the planet's atmosphere; then from two aspects of space-based sensors camera parameters and target characteristics simulated atmosphere ballistic target of infrared imaging effect, analyzed the camera line of sight jitter, camera system noise and different imaging effects of wave on the target.

  12. A combined QC methodology in Ebro Delta HF radar system: real time web monitoring of diagnostic parameters and offline validation of current data (United States)

    Lorente, Pablo; Piedracoba, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Ruiz, Maria Isabel; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique


    Over recent years, special attention has been focused on the development of protocols for near real-time quality control (QC) of HF radar derived current measurements. However, no agreement has been worldwide achieved to date to establish a standardized QC methodology, although a number of valuable international initiatives have been launched. In this context, Puertos del Estado (PdE) aims to implement a fully operational HF radar network with four different Codar SeaSonde HF radar systems by means of: - The development of a best-practices robust protocol for data processing and QC procedures to routinely monitor sites performance under a wide variety of ocean conditions. - The execution of validation works with in-situ observations to assess the accuracy of HF radar-derived current measurements. The main goal of the present work is to show this combined methodology for the specific case of Ebro HF radar (although easily expandable to the rest of PdE radar systems), deployed to manage Ebro River deltaic area and promote the conservation of an important aquatic ecosystem exposed to a severe erosion and reshape. To this aim, a web interface has been developed to efficiently monitor in real time the evolution of several diagnostic parameters provided by the manufacturer (CODAR) and used as indicators of HF radar system health. This web, updated automatically every hour, examines sites performance on different time basis in terms of: - Hardware parameters: power and temperature. - Radial parameters, among others: Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), number of radial vectors provided by time step, maximum radial range and bearing. - Total uncertainty metrics provided by CODAR: zonal and meridional standard deviations and covariance between both components. - Additionally, a widget embedded in the web interface executes queries against PdE database, providing the chance to compare current time series observed by Tarragona buoy (located within Ebro HF radar spatial domain) and

  13. Awareness-based game-theoretic space resource management (United States)

    Chen, Genshe; Chen, Huimin; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Cruz, Jose B., Jr.


    Over recent decades, the space environment becomes more complex with a significant increase in space debris and a greater density of spacecraft, which poses great difficulties to efficient and reliable space operations. In this paper we present a Hierarchical Sensor Management (HSM) method to space operations by (a) accommodating awareness modeling and updating and (b) collaborative search and tracking space objects. The basic approach is described as follows. Firstly, partition the relevant region of interest into district cells. Second, initialize and model the dynamics of each cell with awareness and object covariance according to prior information. Secondly, explicitly assign sensing resources to objects with user specified requirements. Note that when an object has intelligent response to the sensing event, the sensor assigned to observe an intelligent object may switch from time-to-time between a strong, active signal mode and a passive mode to maximize the total amount of information to be obtained over a multi-step time horizon and avoid risks. Thirdly, if all explicitly specified requirements are satisfied and there are still more sensing resources available, we assign the additional sensing resources to objects without explicitly specified requirements via an information based approach. Finally, sensor scheduling is applied to each sensor-object or sensor-cell pair according to the object type. We demonstrate our method with realistic space resources management scenario using NASA's General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) for space object search and track with multiple space borne observers.

  14. SETH: A Hierarchical, Agent-based Architecture for Smart Spaces


    Marsá Maestre, Iván


    The ultimate goal of any smart environment is to release users from the tasks they usually perform to achieve comfort, efficiency, and service personalization. To achieve this goal, we propose to use multiagent systems. In this report we describe the SETH architectur: a hierarchical, agent-based solution intended to be applicable to different smart space scenarios, ranging from small environments, like smart homes or smart offices, to large smart spaces like cities.

  15. Competitive market-based allocation of consumer attention space


    Bohte, Sander; Gerding, Enrico; La Poutré, Han


    textabstractThe amount of attention space available for recommending suppliers to consumers on e-commerce sites is typically limited. We present a competitive distributed recommendation mechanism based on adaptive software agents for efficiently allocating the 'consumer attention space', or banners. In the example of an electronic shopping mall, the task is delegated to the individual shops, each of which evaluates the information that is available about the consumer and his or her interests ...

  16. Movement-based interaction in camera spaces: a conceptual framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movementbased projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space,...

  17. Trigonometric bases for matrix weighted Lp-spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten


    We give a complete characterization of 2π-periodic matrix weights W for which the vector-valued trigonometric system forms a Schauder basis for the matrix weighted space Lp(T;W). Then trigonometric quasi-greedy bases for Lp(T;W) are considered. Quasi-greedy bases are systems for which the simple...

  18. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers (United States)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua


    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  19. National Coordination Office for Space-Based PNT (United States)

    Shaw, M. E.


    In December 2004, President Bush issued the US Policy on space-based positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT), providing guidance on the management of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and other space- based PNT systems. The policy established the National Executive Committee (EXCOM) to advise and coordinate federal agencies on matters related to space-based PNT. Chaired jointly by the deputy secretaries of defense and transportation, the EXCOM includes equivalent level officials from the Departments of State, the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Homeland Security, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A National Coordination Office (NCO) supports the EXCOM through an interagency staff. Since establishing the EXCOM and NCO in 2005, the organizations have quickly grown in influence and effectiveness, leading or managing many interagency initiatives including the development of a Five-Year National Space-Based PNT Plan, the Space-Based PNT Interference Detection and Mitigation (IDM) Plan, and other strategic documents. The NCO has also facilitated interagency coordination on numerous policy issues and on external communications intended to spread a consistent, positive US message about space-based PNT. Role of the NCO - The purpose of the EXCOM is to provide top-level guidance to US agencies regarding space-based PNT infrastructure. The president established it at the deputy secretary level to ensure its strategic recommendations effect real change in agency budgets. Recognizing such high-level officials could only meet every few months, the president directed the EXCOM to establish an NCO to carry out its day-to-day business, including overseeing the implementation of EXCOM action items across the member agencies. These range from the resolution of funding issues to the assessment of strategic policy options. They also include the completion of specific tasks and documents requested by the EXCOM co


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Khabarov


    Full Text Available PurposeThe aim of the research is to demonstrate the need for the Conception of Ontology-based Sector Educational Space. This Conception could become the basis for the integration of transport sector university information resources into the open virtual network information resource and global educational space. Its content will be presented by standardized ontology-based knowledge packages for educational programs in Russian and English languages.MethodologyComplex-based, ontological, content-based approaches and scientific principles of interdisciplinarity and standardization of knowledge are suggested as the methodological basis of the research. ResultsThe Conception of Ontology-based Sector Educational Space (railway transport, the method of the development of knowledge packages as ontologies in Russian and English languages, the Russian-English Transport Glossary as a separate ontology are among the expected results of the project implementation.Practical implicationsThe Conception could become the basis for the open project to establish the common resource center for transport universities (railway transport. The Conception of ontology-based sector educational space (railway transport could be adapted to the activity of universities of other economic sectors.

  1. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng


    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  2. WSN-Based Space Charge Density Measurement System. (United States)

    Deng, Dawei; Yuan, Haiwen; Lv, Jianxun; Ju, Yong


    It is generally acknowledged that high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line endures the drawback of large area, because of which the utilization of cable for space charge density monitoring system is of inconvenience. Compared with the traditional communication network, wireless sensor network (WSN) shows advantages in small volume, high flexibility and strong self-organization, thereby presenting great potential in solving the problem. Additionally, WSN is more suitable for the construction of distributed space charge density monitoring system as it has longer distance and higher mobility. A distributed wireless system is designed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density under HVDC transmission lines, which has been widely applied in both Chinese state grid HVDC test base and power transmission projects. Experimental results of the measuring system demonstrated its adaptability in the complex electromagnetic environment under the transmission lines and the ability in realizing accurate, flexible, and stable demands for the measurement of space charge density.

  3. State space modeling of Memristor-based Wien oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne


    State space modeling of Memristor based Wien \\'A\\' oscillator has been demonstrated for the first time considering nonlinear ion drift in Memristor. Time dependant oscillating resistance of Memristor is reported in both state space solution and SPICE simulation which plausibly provide the basis of realizing parametric oscillation by Memristor based Wien oscillator. In addition to this part Memristor is shown to stabilize the final oscillation amplitude by means of its nonlinear dynamic resistance which hints for eliminating diode in the feedback network of conventional Wien oscillator. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. State space modeling of Memristor-based Wien oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.


    State space modeling of Memristor based Wien 'A' oscillator has been demonstrated for the first time considering nonlinear ion drift in Memristor. Time dependant oscillating resistance of Memristor is reported in both state space solution and SPICE simulation which plausibly provide the basis of realizing parametric oscillation by Memristor based Wien oscillator. In addition to this part Memristor is shown to stabilize the final oscillation amplitude by means of its nonlinear dynamic resistance which hints for eliminating diode in the feedback network of conventional Wien oscillator. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. A distributed data base management system. [for Deep Space Network (United States)

    Bryan, A. I.


    Major system design features of a distributed data management system for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) designed for continuous two-way deep space communications are described. The reasons for which the distributed data base utilizing third-generation minicomputers is selected as the optimum approach for the DSN are threefold: (1) with a distributed master data base, valid data is available in real-time to support DSN management activities at each location; (2) data base integrity is the responsibility of local management; and (3) the data acquisition/distribution and processing power of a third-generation computer enables the computer to function successfully as a data handler or as an on-line process controller. The concept of the distributed data base is discussed along with the software, data base integrity, and hardware used. The data analysis/update constraint is examined.

  6. Silicon carbide optics for space and ground based astronomical telescopes (United States)

    Robichaud, Joseph; Sampath, Deepak; Wainer, Chris; Schwartz, Jay; Peton, Craig; Mix, Steve; Heller, Court


    Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical materials are being applied widely for both space based and ground based optical telescopes. The material provides a superior weight to stiffness ratio, which is an important metric for the design and fabrication of lightweight space telescopes. The material also has superior thermal properties with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and a high thermal conductivity. The thermal properties advantages are important for both space based and ground based systems, which typically need to operate under stressing thermal conditions. The paper will review L-3 Integrated Optical Systems - SSG’s (L-3 SSG) work in developing SiC optics and SiC optical systems for astronomical observing systems. L-3 SSG has been fielding SiC optical components and systems for over 25 years. Space systems described will emphasize the recently launched Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) developed for JHU-APL and NASA-GSFC. Review of ground based applications of SiC will include supporting L-3 IOS-Brashear’s current contract to provide the 0.65 meter diameter, aspheric SiC secondary mirror for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST).

  7. Space shuttle booster multi-engine base flow analysis (United States)

    Tang, H. H.; Gardiner, C. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Navickas, J.


    A comprehensive review of currently available techniques pertinent to several prominent aspects of the base thermal problem of the space shuttle booster is given along with a brief review of experimental results. A tractable engineering analysis, capable of predicting the power-on base pressure, base heating, and other base thermal environmental conditions, such as base gas temperature, is presented and used for an analysis of various space shuttle booster configurations. The analysis consists of a rational combination of theoretical treatments of the prominent flow interaction phenomena in the base region. These theories consider jet mixing, plume flow, axisymmetric flow effects, base injection, recirculating flow dynamics, and various modes of heat transfer. Such effects as initial boundary layer expansion at the nozzle lip, reattachment, recompression, choked vent flow, and nonisoenergetic mixing processes are included in the analysis. A unified method was developed and programmed to numerically obtain compatible solutions for the various flow field components in both flight and ground test conditions. Preliminary prediction for a 12-engine space shuttle booster base thermal environment was obtained for a typical trajectory history. Theoretical predictions were also obtained for some clustered-engine experimental conditions. Results indicate good agreement between the data and theoretical predicitons.

  8. Conserving Space Heritage - The Case for Tranquillity Base (United States)

    Fewer, G.

    One of the most important and spectacular events in the history of space exploration was the first Moon Landing of 1969. Safe from the ravages of erosion, agriculture, industry or the expansion of human settlement, the greatest threat to the site of this momentous event - Tranquillity Base - is likely to be from a meteor impact. However, with the advent of space tourism and commercial space travel, the site of humankind's first visit to a celestial body may come under threat of a different kind - that of souvenir hunters and miners. In this paper, the historical background to the Apollo programme is outlined and the sequence of events that made up the Apollo 11 mission, which conducted the first Moon landing, is described before concluding with a consideration of the heritage conservation issues of Tranquillity Base.

  9. Alamos: An International Collaboration to Provide a Space Based Environmental Monitoring Solution for the Deep Space Network (United States)

    Kennedy, S. O.; Dunn, A.; Lecomte, J.; Buchheim, K.; Johansson, E.; Berger, T.


    This abstract proposes the advantages of an externally mounted instrument in support of the human physiology, space biology, and human health and performance key science area. Alamos provides Space-Based Environmental Monitoring capabilities.

  10. Community Based Distribution of Child Spacing Methods at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uses volunteer CBD agents. Mrs. E.F. Pelekamoyo. Service Delivery Officer. National Family Welfare Council of Malawi. Private Bag 308. Lilongwe 3. Malawi. Community Based Distribution of. Child Spacing Methods ... than us at the Hospital; male motivators by talking to their male counterparts help them to accept that their ...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the Magellan Compressed Thrice Mosaicked Image Data Records (C3-MIDRs) which consists of mosaics generated by computing 3x3 pixel arithmetic...

  12. Conceptual design of jewellery: a space-based aesthetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzintzi Vaia


    Full Text Available Conceptual design is a field that offers various aesthetic approaches to generation of nature-based product design concepts. Essentially, Conceptual Product Design (CPD uses similarities based on the geometrical forms and functionalities. Furthermore, the CAD-based freehand sketch is a primary conceptual tool in the early stages of the design process. The proposed Conceptual Product Design concept is dealing with jewelleries that are inspired from space. Specifically, a number of galaxy features, such as galaxy shapes, wormholes and graphical representation of planet magnetic field are used as inspirations. Those space-based design ideas at a conceptual level can lead to further opportunities for research and economic success of the jewellery industry. A number of illustrative case studies are presented and new opportunities can be derived for economic success.

  13. Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries (United States)

    Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.


    Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation

  14. A Danish Perspective on Problem Based Learning in Space Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan D. V.; Bisgaard, Morten; Alminde, Lars


    This paper describes the goals of the Student Satellite Program at Aalborg University (AAU), and the means for implementing it, namely a concept called Problem Based Learning, which is the cornerstone in the education at AAU. AAU has within the last decade chosen to focus strongly on education...... in space technology, not because the country lacks aerospace engineers, but because space projects require the students to think about systems rather than individual modules, while providing problems that are technically challenging for the students to solve. This combination makes the graduates very...

  15. Content Sharing Based on Personal Information in Virtually Secured Space (United States)

    Sohn, Hosik; Ro, Yong Man; Plataniotis, Kostantinos N.

    User generated contents (UGC) are shared in an open space like social media where users can upload and consume contents freely. Since the access of contents is not restricted, the contents could be delivered to unwanted users or misused sometimes. In this paper, we propose a method for sharing UGCs securely based on the personal information of users. With the proposed method, virtual secure space is created for contents delivery. The virtual secure space allows UGC creator to deliver contents to users who have similar personal information and they can consume the contents without any leakage of personal information. In order to verify the usefulness of the proposed method, the experiment was performed where the content was encrypted with personal information of creator, and users with similar personal information have decrypted and consumed the contents. The results showed that UGCs were securely shared among users who have similar personal information.

  16. Non-Topographic Space-Based Laser Remote Sensing (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Purucker, Michael; Janches, Diego; Getty, Stephanie; Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Li, Steve X.; hide


    In the past 20+ years, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has successfully developed and flown lidars for mapping of Mars, the Earth, Mercury and the Moon. As laser and electro-optics technologies expand and mature, more sophisticated instruments that once were thought to be too complicated for space are being considered and developed. We will present progress on several new, space-based laser instruments that are being developed at GSFC. These include lidars for remote sensing of carbon dioxide and methane on Earth for carbon cycle and global climate change; sodium resonance fluorescence lidar to measure environmental parameters of the middle and upper atmosphere on Earth and Mars and a wind lidar for Mars orbit; in situ laser instruments include remote and in-situ measurements of the magnetic fields; and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer to study the diversity and structure of nonvolatile organics in solid samples on missions to outer planetary satellites and small bodies.

  17. The impact of ambient dose rate measuring network and precipitation radar system for detection of environmental radioactivity released by accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, M; Stoehlker, U.


    For the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, the German measuring network of BfS consists of more than 2000 stations where the ambient gamma dose rate is continuously measured. This network is a helpful tool to detect and localise enhanced environmental contamination from artificial radionuclides. The threshold for early warning is so low, that already an additional dose rate contribution of 0,07 μGy/h is detectable. However, this threshold is frequently exceeded due to precipitation events caused by washout of natural activity in air. Therefore, the precipitation radar system of the German Weather Service provides valuable information on the problem, whether the increase of the ambient dose rate is due to natural or man-made events. In case of an accidental release, the data of this radar system show small area precipitation events and potential local hot spots not detected by the measuring network. For the phase of cloud passage, the ambient dose rate measuring network provides a reliable database for the evaluation of the current situation and its further development. It is possible to compare measured data for dose rate with derived intervention levels for countermeasures like ''sheltering''. Thus, critical regions can be identified and it is possible to verify implemented countermeasures. During and after this phase of cloud passage the measured data of the monitoring network help to adapt the results of the national decision support systems PARK and RODOS. Therefore, it is necessary to derive the actual additional contribution to the ambient dose rate. Map representations of measured dose rate are rapidly available and helpful to optimise measurement strategies of mobile systems and collection strategies for samples of agricultural products. (orig.)

  18. Great Ellipse Route Planning Based on Space Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wenchao


    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of navigation error caused by unified earth model in great circle route planning using sphere model and modern navigation equipment using ellipsoid mode, a method of great ellipse route planning based on space vector is studied. By using space vector algebra method, the vertex of great ellipse is solved directly, and description of great ellipse based on major-axis vector and minor-axis vector is presented. Then calculation formulas of great ellipse azimuth and distance are deduced using two basic vectors. Finally, algorithms of great ellipse route planning are studied, especially equal distance route planning algorithm based on Newton-Raphson(N-R method. Comparative examples show that the difference of route planning between great circle and great ellipse is significant, using algorithms of great ellipse route planning can eliminate the navigation error caused by the great circle route planning, and effectively improve the accuracy of navigation calculation.

  19. Entanglement-based Free Space Quantum Cryptography in Daylight (United States)

    Gerhardt, Ilja; Peloso, Matthew P.; Ho, Caleb; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Kurtsiefer, Christian


    In quantum key distribution (QKD) two families of protocols are established: One, based on preparing and sending approximations of single photons, the other based on measurements on entangled photon pairs, which allow to establish a secret key using less assumptions on the size of a Hilbert space. The larger optical bandwidth of photon pairs in comparison with light used for the first family makes establishing a free space link challenging. We present a complete entanglement based QKD system following the BBM92 protocol, which generates a secure key continuously 24 hours a day between distant parties. Spectral, spatial and temporal filtering schemes were introduced to a previous setup, suppressing more than 30,B of background. We are able to establish the link during daytime, and have developed an algorithm to start and maintain time synchronization with simple crystal oscillators.

  20. Lidar technologies for airborne and space-based applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, T.D.; Schmitt, R.L.; Sobering, T.J.; Raymond, T.D.; Stephenson, D.A.


    This study identifies technologies required to extend the capabilities of airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) systems and establish the feasibility of autonomous space-based lidars. Work focused on technologies that enable the development of a lightweight, low power, rugged and autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instruments. Applications for airborne or space-based DIAL include the measurement of water vapor profiles in support of climate research and processing-plant emissions signatures for environmental and nonproliferation monitoring. A computer-based lidar performance model was developed to allow trade studies to be performed on various technologies and system configurations. It combines input from the physics (absorption line strengths and locations) of the problem, the system requirements (weight, power, volume, accuracy), and the critical technologies available (detectors, lasers, filters) to produce the best conceptual design. Conceptual designs for an airborne and space-based water vapor DIAL, and a detailed design of a ground-based water vapor DIAL demonstration system were completed. Future work planned includes the final testing, integration, and operation of the demonstration system to prove the capability of the critical enabling technologies identified

  1. Engineering graphics data entry for space station data base (United States)

    Lacovara, R. C.


    The entry of graphical engineering data into the Space Station Data Base was examined. Discussed were: representation of graphics objects; representation of connectivity data; graphics capture hardware; graphics display hardware; site-wide distribution of graphics, and consolidation of tools and hardware. A fundamental assumption was that existing equipment such as IBM based graphics capture software and VAX networked facilities would be exploited. Defensible conclusions reached after study and simulations of use of these systems at the engineering level are: (1) existing IBM based graphics capture software is an adequate and economical means of entry of schematic and block diagram data for present and anticipated electronic systems for Space Station; (2) connectivity data from the aforementioned system may be incorporated into the envisioned Space Station Data Base with modest effort; (3) graphics and connectivity data captured on the IBM based system may be exported to the VAX network in a simple and direct fashion; (4) graphics data may be displayed site-wide on VT-125 terminals and lookalikes; (5) graphics hard-copy may be produced site-wide on various dot-matrix printers; and (6) the system may provide integrated engineering services at both the engineering and engineering management level.

  2. A Space-Based Learning Service for Schools Worldwide (United States)

    White, Norman A.; Gibson, Alan


    This paper outlines a scheme for international collaboration to enrich the use of space in school education, to improve students' learning about science and related subjects and to enhance the continuity of science-related studies after the age of 16. Guidelines are presented for the design of an on-line learning service to provide schools worldwide with:- interactive curriculum-related learning resources for teaching about space and through - access to a purpose-designed education satellite or satellites; - opportunities for hands-on work by students in out-of-school hours; - news about space developments to attract, widen and deepen initial interest among teachers - support services to enable teachers to make effective use of the learning service. The Learning Service is the product of almost twenty years of experience by a significant number of UK schools in experimenting with, and in using, satellites and space to aid learning; and over four years of study and development by the SpaceLink Learning Foundation - a private-sector, not- for-profit UK registered charity, which is dedicated to help in increasing both the supply of scientists and engineers and the public understanding of science. This initiative provides scope for, and could benefit from, the involvement of relevant/interested organisations drawn from different countries. The Foundation would be ready, from its UK base, to be among such a group of initiating organisations.

  3. Antenna Parts and Waveguide Transmission Line of Short Pulse Radar System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Golubcov


    Full Text Available The main point of this research was работы являлось to create a stand to explore the application of short pulse radio signals in radar. The stand consists of antenna and waveguide elements. Each element out to guarantee operation in X-band with 10 percent working bank and 5 percent instantaneous bandwidth and the power output gotta be 1.5 kW. The form of the antenna beam patten need to be similar to cosecant pattern Side-lobe level need to be less than -25 dB. Background level got to be at least -30 dB. Wave friction, which is radiated from the antenna aperture, got to simultaneous formed in a space.As the most easily realizing variant of such antenna cutting parabolic mirror antenna with offset irradiator was chosen. The irradiator phase centre is shifted from the focal point of the paraboloid to form a cosecant pattern. Method of physical optics is used for the analysis of antennas. Calculating pattern of horn irradiator and mirror antenna which were met the requirements was received. The construction choice was limited by the preproduction possibilities, mass and dimensions. Mirror antenna consists of skeleton framing with mirroring elements which are fixing on it. Mirroring plane is multiplex and consists off rectangular planes made by hydroforming method. Antenna was tested and adjusted at the antenna darkroom after fabricating. The results were meted requirements.Besides the mirror antenna and the horn antenna waveguide elements, waveguide bends and rotating joints were calculated, manufactured and researched. All calculations included the manufacturers tolerances, technological corner R etc. As the construction base of rotating joint coaxial waveguide was chosen. The decision on the one hand: let keep the axial symmetry of excited wave at rotating part of the waveguide, on the other hand there’s no necessary to apply resonant rings, which are plug into dielectric beads for the transition from rotating ring part to

  4. Combining radar systems to get a 3D - picture of the bird migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liechti, F.; Dokter, A.; Shamoun, J.; van Gasteren, H.; Holleman, I.


    For military training flights bird strikes en route are still a severe problem. To reduce collisions an international project has been launched by the European Space agency (ESA), aiming 1) for a compilation of information on current bird movements by various sensors, 2) to combine them in a single

  5. 47 CFR 15.252 - Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and 23.12-29.0 GHz. (United States)


    ... fundamental frequency following the provisions of § 15.31(m). (3) For systems operating in the 23.12-29.0 GHz... with the transmitter operating continuously at a fundamental frequency. The video bandwidth of the... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems...

  6. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael


    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  7. Event-based Sensing for Space Situational Awareness (United States)

    Cohen, G.; Afshar, S.; van Schaik, A.; Wabnitz, A.; Bessell, T.; Rutten, M.; Morreale, B.

    A revolutionary type of imaging device, known as a silicon retina or event-based sensor, has recently been developed and is gaining in popularity in the field of artificial vision systems. These devices are inspired by a biological retina and operate in a significantly different way to traditional CCD-based imaging sensors. While a CCD produces frames of pixel intensities, an event-based sensor produces a continuous stream of events, each of which is generated when a pixel detects a change in log light intensity. These pixels operate asynchronously and independently, producing an event-based output with high temporal resolution. There are also no fixed exposure times, allowing these devices to offer a very high dynamic range independently for each pixel. Additionally, these devices offer high-speed, low power operation and a sparse spatiotemporal output. As a consequence, the data from these sensors must be interpreted in a significantly different way to traditional imaging sensors and this paper explores the advantages this technology provides for space imaging. The applicability and capabilities of event-based sensors for SSA applications are demonstrated through telescope field trials. Trial results have confirmed that the devices are capable of observing resident space objects from LEO through to GEO orbital regimes. Significantly, observations of RSOs were made during both day-time and nighttime (terminator) conditions without modification to the camera or optics. The event based sensor’s ability to image stars and satellites during day-time hours offers a dramatic capability increase for terrestrial optical sensors. This paper shows the field testing and validation of two different architectures of event-based imaging sensors. An eventbased sensor’s asynchronous output has an intrinsically low data-rate. In addition to low-bandwidth communications requirements, the low weight, low-power and high-speed make them ideally suitable to meeting the demanding

  8. Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert


    System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its

  9. Free locally convex spaces with a small base

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabriyelyan, S.; Kąkol, Jerzy


    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2017), s. 575-585 ISSN 1578-7303 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compact resolution * free locally convex space * G-base Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2016

  10. TiAu-based micro-calorimeters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, B.P.F.; Popescu, M.; Bruijn, M.; Gottardi, L.; Hoevers, H.F.C.; Korte, P.A.J. de; Kuur, J. van der; Ridder, M.; Takei, Y.


    We present the latest results of the performance of micro-calorimeters based on transition edge sensors (TESs) for space applications. Sensors based on TiAu superconductive layers with Cu/Bi absorbers are discussed and have been characterized. Different coupling schemes between absorber and TES have been tested leading to an optimal (preferred) design for a new batch of arrays. We discuss the progress on array development for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) in terms of pixel uniformity and filling factor. Inter-pixel cross-talk is discussed as well.

  11. Condition Based Maintenance of Space Exploration Vehicles Using Structural Health Monitoring, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acellent Technologies proposes to develop an autonomous and automated diagnostic system for condition based maintenance (CBM) of safety critical structures for space...

  12. Special Relativity Corrections for Space-Based Lidars (United States)

    RaoGudimetla, Venkata S.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    The theory of special relativity is used to analyze some of the physical phenomena associated with space-based coherent Doppler lidars aimed at Earth and the atmosphere. Two important cases of diffuse scattering and retroreflection by lidar targets are treated. For the case of diffuse scattering, we show that for a coaligned transmitter and receiver on the moving satellite, there is no angle between transmitted and returned radiation. However, the ray that enters the receiver does not correspond to a retroreflected ray by the target. For the retroreflection case there is misalignment between the transmitted ray and the received ray. In addition, the Doppler shift in the frequency and the amount of tip for the receiver aperture when needed are calculated, The error in estimating wind because of the Doppler shift in the frequency due to special relativity effects is examined. The results are then applied to a proposed space-based pulsed coherent Doppler lidar at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for wind and aerosol backscatter measurements. The lidar uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and the received frequencies to determine the atmospheric wind velocities. We show that the special relativity effects are small for the proposed system.

  13. Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time (United States)

    Giese, Albrecht


    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  14. Free-space communication based on quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuanwei; Zhai Shenqiang; Zhang Jinchuan; Zhou Yuhong; Jia Zhiwei; Liu Fengqi; Wang Zhanguo


    A free-space communication based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) is presented. A room-temperature continuous-wave distributed-feedback (DFB) QCL combined with a mid-infrared detector comprise the basic unit of the communication system. Sinusoidal signals at a highest frequency of 40 MHz and modulated video signals with a carrier frequency of 30 MHz were successfully transmitted with this experimental setup. Our research has provided a proof-of-concept demonstration of space optical communication application with QCL. The highest operation frequency of our setup was determined by the circuit-limited modulation bandwidth. A high performance communication system can be obtained with improved modulation circuit system. (paper)

  15. Infrared Fibers for Use in Space-Based Smart Structures (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nettles, Alan T.; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)


    Infrared optical fibers are finding a number of applications including laser surgery, remote sensing, and nuclear radiation resistant links. Utilizing these fibers in space-based structures is another application, which can be exploited. Acoustic and thermal sensing are two areas in which these fibers could be utilized. In particular, fibers could be embedded in IM7/8552 toughened epoxy and incorporated into space structures both external and internal. ZBLAN optical fibers are a candidate, which have been studied extensively over the past 20 years for terrestrial applications. For the past seven years the effects of gravity on the crystallization behavior of ZBLAN optical fiber has been studied. It has been found that ZBLAN crystallization is suppressed in microgravity. This lack of crystallization leads to a fiber with better transmission characteristics than its terrestrial counterpart.

  16. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.


    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  17. Latin American space activities based on different infrastructures (United States)

    Gall, Ruth

    The paper deals with recent basic space research and space applications in several Latin-American countries. It links space activities with national scientific and institutional infrastructures and stresses the importance of interdisciplinary space programs, that can play a major role in the developing countries achievement of self reliance in space matters.

  18. Feature extraction algorithm for space targets based on fractal theory (United States)

    Tian, Balin; Yuan, Jianping; Yue, Xiaokui; Ning, Xin


    In order to offer a potential for extending the life of satellites and reducing the launch and operating costs, satellite servicing including conducting repairs, upgrading and refueling spacecraft on-orbit become much more frequently. Future space operations can be more economically and reliably executed using machine vision systems, which can meet real time and tracking reliability requirements for image tracking of space surveillance system. Machine vision was applied to the research of relative pose for spacecrafts, the feature extraction algorithm was the basis of relative pose. In this paper fractal geometry based edge extraction algorithm which can be used in determining and tracking the relative pose of an observed satellite during proximity operations in machine vision system was presented. The method gets the gray-level image distributed by fractal dimension used the Differential Box-Counting (DBC) approach of the fractal theory to restrain the noise. After this, we detect the consecutive edge using Mathematical Morphology. The validity of the proposed method is examined by processing and analyzing images of space targets. The edge extraction method not only extracts the outline of the target, but also keeps the inner details. Meanwhile, edge extraction is only processed in moving area to reduce computation greatly. Simulation results compared edge detection using the method which presented by us with other detection methods. The results indicate that the presented algorithm is a valid method to solve the problems of relative pose for spacecrafts.

  19. Maritime Activities: Requirements for Improving Space Based Solutions (United States)

    Cragnolini, A.; Miguel-Lago, M.


    Maritime initiatives cannot be pursued only within their own perimeter. Sector endeavours and the policies which rule over them have wide range implications and several links with other sectors of activity. A well- balanced relationship of sea exploitation, maritime transportation, environmental protection and security ruled by national or international laws, will be a main issue for the future of all kind of maritime activities. Scientific research and technology development, along with enlightened and appropriate institutional regulations are relevant to ensure maritime sustainability.The use of satellite technology for monitoring international agreements should have a close co- ordination and be based on institutional consensus. Frequently, rules and new regulations set by policy makers are not demanding enough due to lack of knowledge about the possibilities offered by available technologies.Law enforcement actions could bring space technology new opportunities to offer solutions for monitoring and verification. Operators should aim at offering space data in a more operational and user-friendly way, providing them with useful and timely information.This paper will analyse the contribution of satellite technology to deal with the specificity of maritime sector, stressing the conditions for both an adequate technology improvement and an effective policy implementation.After analysing the links between maritime activities, space technologies and the institutional environment, the paper identifies some boundary conditions of the future developments. Conclusions are basically a check list for improving the present situation, while a road map is suggested as a matter of a way to proceed.

  20. Space- and Ground-based Coronal Spectro-Polarimetry (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Bemporad, Alessandro; Rybak, Jan; Capobianco, Gerardo

    This presentation gives an overview of the near-future perspectives of ultraviolet and visible-light spectro-polarimetric instrumentation for probing coronal magnetism from space-based and ground-based observatories. Spectro-polarimetric imaging of coronal emission-lines in the visible-light wavelength-band provides an important diagnostics tool of the coronal magnetism. The interpretation in terms of Hanle and Zeeman effect of the line-polarization in forbidden emission-lines yields information on the direction and strength of the coronal magnetic field. As study case, this presentation will describe the Torino Coronal Magnetograph (CorMag) for the spectro-polarimetric observation of the FeXIV, 530.3 nm, forbidden emission-line. CorMag - consisting of a Liquid Crystal (LC) Lyot filter and a LC linear polarimeter - has been recently installed on the Lomnicky Peak Observatory 20cm Zeiss coronagraph. The preliminary results from CorMag will be presented. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV)can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Space-based UV spectro-polarimeters would provide an additional tool for the disgnostics of coronal magnetism. As a case study of space-borne UV spectro-polarimeters, this presentation will describe the future upgrade of the Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment (SCORE) to include the capability of imaging polarimetry of the HI Lyman-alpha, 121.6 nm. SCORE is a multi-wavelength imager for the emission-lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and visible-light broad-band emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009. This presentation will describe how in future re-flights SCORE could observe the expected Hanle effect in corona with a HI Lyman-alpha polarimeter.

  1. Design of a space-based infrared imaging interferometer (United States)

    Hart, Michael; Hope, Douglas; Romeo, Robert


    Present space-based optical imaging sensors are expensive. Launch costs are dictated by weight and size, and system design must take into account the low fault tolerance of a system that cannot be readily accessed once deployed. We describe the design and first prototype of the space-based infrared imaging interferometer (SIRII) that aims to mitigate several aspects of the cost challenge. SIRII is a six-element Fizeau interferometer intended to operate in the short-wave and midwave IR spectral regions over a 6×6 mrad field of view. The volume is smaller by a factor of three than a filled-aperture telescope with equivalent resolving power. The structure and primary optics are fabricated from light-weight space-qualified carbon fiber reinforced polymer; they are easy to replicate and inexpensive. The design is intended to permit one-time alignment during assembly, with no need for further adjustment once on orbit. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed with a unit telescope primary mirror diameter of 165 mm and edge-to-edge baseline of 540 mm. The optics, structure, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. The initial motivation for the development of SIRII was the long-term collection of technical intelligence from geosynchronous orbit, but the scalable nature of the design will likely make it suitable for a range of IR imaging scenarios.

  2. Fiber-based laser MOPA transmitter packaging for space environment (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Gonzales, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Fahey, Molly; Plants, Michael; Rodriguez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Abshire, James; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Hariharan, Anand; Mamakos, William; Bean, Brian


    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing lidar to remotely measure CO2 and CH4 in the Earth's atmosphere. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. We are working on maturing the technology readiness of a fiber-based, 1.57-micron wavelength laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. To this end, we are building a ruggedized prototype to demonstrate the required power and performance and survive the required environment. We are building a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture. The laser is a wavelength-locked, single frequency, externally modulated DBR operating at 1.57-micron followed by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The last amplifier stage is a polarization-maintaining, very-large-mode-area fiber with 1000 μm2 effective area pumped by a Raman fiber laser. The optical output is single-frequency, one microsecond pulses with >450 μJ pulse energy, 7.5 KHz repetition rate, single spatial mode, and < 20 dB polarization extinction.

  3. Quantum computing based on space states without charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyurkov, V.; Filippov, S.; Gorelik, L.


    An implementation of a quantum computer based on space states in double quantum dots is discussed. There is no charge transfer in qubits during a calculation, therefore, uncontrolled entanglement between qubits due to long-range Coulomb interaction is suppressed. Encoding and processing of quantum information is merely performed on symmetric and antisymmetric states of the electron in double quantum dots. Other plausible sources of decoherence caused by interaction with phonons and gates could be substantially suppressed in the structure as well. We also demonstrate how all necessary quantum logic operations, initialization, writing, and read-out could be carried out in the computer.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei; Novati, S. Calchi; Gould, A.


    lies behind the same amount of dust as the Bulge red clump, we find the lens is a 45 ± 7 {M}{{J}} BD at 5.9 ± 1.0 kpc. The lens of of the second event, OGLE-2015-BLG-0763, is a 0.50 ± 0.04 {M}⊙ star at 6.9 ± 1.0 kpc. We show that the probability to definitively measure the mass of isolated microlenses...... is dramatically increased once simultaneous ground- and space-based observations are conducted....

  5. Atmospheric profiles from active space-based radio measurements (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth R.; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. L.; Kursinski, E. R.


    The paper describes determinations of atmospheric profiles from space-based radio measurements and the retrieval methodology used, with special attention given to the measurement procedure and the characteristics of the soundings. It is speculated that reliable profiles of the terrestrial atmosphere can be obtained by the occultation technique from the surface to a height of about 60 km. With the full complement of 21 the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and one GPS receiver in sun synchronous polar orbit, a maximum of 42 soundings could be obtained for each complete orbit or about 670 per day, providing almost uniform global coverage.

  6. The Space Station as a Construction Base for Large Space Structures (United States)

    Gates, R. M.


    The feasibility of using the Space Station as a construction site for large space structures is examined. An overview is presented of the results of a program entitled Definition of Technology Development Missions (TDM's) for Early Space Stations - Large Space Structures. The definition of LSS technology development missions must be responsive to the needs of future space missions which require large space structures. Long range plans for space were assembled by reviewing Space System Technology Models (SSTM) and other published sources. Those missions which will use large space structures were reviewed to determine the objectives which must be demonstrated by technology development missions. The three TDM's defined during this study are: (1) a construction storage/hangar facility; (2) a passive microwave radiometer; and (3) a precision optical system.

  7. A Simulation Base Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations (United States)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Moore, Michael


    NASA's human space program has developed considerable experience with near Earth space operations. Although NASA has experience with deep space robotic missions, NASA has little substantive experience with human deep space operations. Even in the Apollo program, the missions lasted only a few weeks and the communication latencies were on the order of seconds. Human missions beyond the relatively close confines of the Earth-Moon system will involve missions with durations measured in months and communications latencies measured in minutes. To minimize crew risk and to maximize mission success, NASA needs to develop a better understanding of the implications of these types of mission durations and communication latencies on vehicle design, mission design and flight controller interaction with the crew. To begin to address these needs, NASA performed a study using a physics-based subsystem simulation to investigate the interactions between spacecraft crew and a ground-based mission control center for vehicle subsystem operations across long communication delays. The simulation, built with a subsystem modeling tool developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center, models the life support system of a Mars transit vehicle. The simulation contains models of the cabin atmosphere and pressure control system, electrical power system, drinking and waste water systems, internal and external thermal control systems, and crew metabolic functions. The simulation has three interfaces: 1) a real-time crew interface that can be use to monitor and control the vehicle subsystems; 2) a mission control center interface with data transport delays up to 15 minutes each way; 3) a real-time simulation test conductor interface that can be use to insert subsystem malfunctions and observe the interactions between the crew, ground, and simulated vehicle. The study was conducted at the 21st NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission between July 18th and Aug 3rd of year 2016. The NEEMO

  8. Performance Analysis of Sensor Systems for Space Situational Awareness (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Jo, Jung Hyun; Park, Jang-Hyun; Chung, Taejin; Park, Jaewoo; Jeon, Hocheol; Yun, Ami; Lee, Yonghui


    With increased human activity in space, the risk of re-entry and collision between space objects is constantly increasing. Hence, the need for space situational awareness (SSA) programs has been acknowledged by many experienced space agencies. Optical and radar sensors, which enable the surveillance and tracking of space objects, are the most important technical components of SSA systems. In particular, combinations of radar systems and optical sensor networks play an outstanding role in SSA programs. At present, Korea operates the optical wide field patrol network (OWL-Net), the only optical system for tracking space objects. However, due to their dependence on weather conditions and observation time, it is not reasonable to use optical systems alone for SSA initiatives, as they have limited operational availability. Therefore, the strategies for developing radar systems should be considered for an efficient SSA system using currently available technology. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of a radar system in detecting and tracking space objects. With the radar system investigated, the minimum sensitivity is defined as detection of a 1-m2 radar cross section (RCS) at an altitude of 2,000 km, with operating frequencies in the L, S, C, X or Ku-band. The results of power budget analysis showed that the maximum detection range of 2,000 km, which includes the low earth orbit (LEO) environment, can be achieved with a transmission power of 900 kW, transmit and receive antenna gains of 40 dB and 43 dB, respectively, a pulse width of 2 ms, and a signal processing gain of 13.3 dB, at a frequency of 1.3 GHz. We defined the key parameters of the radar following a performance analysis of the system. This research can thus provide guidelines for the conceptual design of radar systems for national SSA initiatives.

  9. Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kiemle


    Full Text Available Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere after water vapour and carbon dioxide. A major handicap to quantify the emissions at the Earth's surface in order to better understand biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes and potential climate feedbacks is the lack of accurate and global observations of methane. Space-based integrated path differential absorption (IPDA lidar has potential to fill this gap, and a Methane Remote Lidar Mission (MERLIN on a small satellite in polar orbit was proposed by DLR and CNES in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. System simulations are used to identify key performance parameters and to find an advantageous instrument configuration, given the environmental, technological, and budget constraints. The sensitivity studies use representative averages of the atmospheric and surface state to estimate the measurement precision, i.e. the random uncertainty due to instrument noise. Key performance parameters for MERLIN are average laser power, telescope size, orbit height, surface reflectance, and detector noise. A modest-size lidar instrument with 0.45 W average laser power and 0.55 m telescope diameter on a 506 km orbit could provide 50-km averaged methane column measurement along the sub-satellite track with a precision of about 1% over vegetation. The use of a methane absorption trough at 1.65 μm improves the near-surface measurement sensitivity and vastly relaxes the wavelength stability requirement that was identified as one of the major technological risks in the pre-phase A studies for A-SCOPE, a space-based IPDA lidar for carbon dioxide at the European Space Agency. Minimal humidity and temperature sensitivity at this wavelength position will enable accurate measurements in tropical wetlands, key regions with largely uncertain methane emissions. In contrast to actual passive remote sensors, measurements in Polar Regions will be possible and biases due to aerosol

  10. Tests of gravity with future space-based experiments (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy


    Future space-based tests of relativistic gravitation—laser ranging to Phobos, accelerometers in orbit, and optical networks surrounding Earth—will constrain the theory of gravity with unprecedented precision by testing the inverse-square law, the strong and weak equivalence principles, and the deflection and time delay of light by massive bodies. In this paper, we estimate the bounds that could be obtained on alternative gravity theories that use screening mechanisms to suppress deviations from general relativity in the Solar System: chameleon, symmetron, and Galileon models. We find that space-based tests of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ will constrain chameleon and symmetron theories to new levels, and that tests of the inverse-square law using laser ranging to Phobos will provide the most stringent constraints on Galileon theories to date. We end by discussing the potential for constraining these theories using upcoming tests of the weak equivalence principle, and conclude that further theoretical modeling is required in order to fully utilize the data.

  11. A Web Based Approach to Integrate Space Culture and Education (United States)

    Gerla, F.


    Our intention is to dedicate a large section of our web site to space education. As the national User Support and Operation Center (USOC) for the International Space Station, MARS Center is also willing to provide material, such as videos and data, for educational purposes. In order to base our initiative on authoritative precedents, our first step has been a comparative analysis between different space agency education web sites, such as ESA and NASA. As is well known, Internet is a powerful reality, capable of connecting people all over the world and rendering public a huge amount of information. The first problem, then, is to organize this information, in order to use the web as an efficient education tool. That is why studies such as User Modeling (UM), Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Semantic Web have become more important in Information Technology and Science. Traditional search engines are unable to provide an optimal retrieval of contents really searched for by users. Semantic Web is a valid alternative: according to its theories, web information should be represented using metadata language. Users should be able and enabled to successfully search, obtain and study new information from web. Forging knowledge in an intelligent manner, preventing users from making errors, and making this formidable quantity of information easily available have also been the starting points for HCI methodologies for defining Adaptable Interfaces. Here the information is divided into different sets, on the basis of the intended user profile, in order to prevent users from getting lost. Realized as an adaptable interface, an education web site can help users to effectively retrieve the information necessary for their scopes (teaching for a teacher and learning for a student). For students it's a great advantage to use interfaces designed on the basis of their age and scholastic level. Indeed, an adaptable interface is intended not just for students, but also for teachers

  12. Automated Detection of Small Bodies by Space Based Observation (United States)

    Bidstrup, P. R.; Grillmayer, G.; Andersen, A. C.; Haack, H.; Jorgensen, J. L.

    The number of known comets and asteroids is increasing every year. Up till now this number is including approximately 250,000 of the largest minor planets, as they are usually referred. These discoveries are due to the Earth-based observation which has intensified over the previous decades. Additionally larger telescopes and arrays of telescopes are being used for exploring our Solar System. It is believed that all near- Earth and Main-Belt asteroids of diameters above 10 to 30 km have been discovered, leaving these groups of objects as observationally complete. However, the cataloguing of smaller bodies is incomplete as only a very small fraction of the expected number has been discovered. It is estimated that approximately 1010 main belt asteroids in the size range 1 m to 1 km are too faint to be observed using Earth-based telescopes. In order to observe these small bodies, space-based search must be initiated to remove atmospheric disturbances and to minimize the distance to the asteroids and thereby minimising the requirement for long camera integration times. A new method of space-based detection of moving non-stellar objects is currently being developed utilising the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) built for spacecraft attitude determination by Ørsted, Danish Technical University. The ASC serves as a backbone technology in the project as it is capable of fully automated distinction of known and unknown celestial objects. By only processing objects of particular interest, i.e. moving objects, it will be possible to discover small bodies with a minimum of ground control, with the ultimate ambition of a fully automated space search probe. Currently, the ASC is being mounted on the Flying Laptop satellite of the Institute of Space Systems, Universität Stuttgart. It will, after a launch into a low Earth polar orbit in 2008, test the detection method with the ASC equipment that already had significant in-flight experience. A future use of the ASC based automated

  13. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Y.T.D.


    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  14. An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in a Harbour Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ludeno


    Full Text Available Marine X-band radar based systems are well tested to provide information about sea state and bathymetry. It is also well known that complex geometries and non-uniform bathymetries provide a much bigger challenge than offshore scenarios. In order to tackle this issue a retrieval method is proposed, based on spatial partitioning of the data and the application of the Normalized Scalar Product (NSP, which is an innovative procedure for the joint estimation of bathymetry and surface currents. The strategy is then applied to radar data acquired around a harbour entrance, and results show that the reconstructed bathymetry compares well with ground truth data obtained by an echo-sounder campaign, thus proving the reliability of the whole procedure. The spectrum thus retrieved is then analysed to show the evidence of reflected waves from the harbour jetties, as confirmed by chain of hydrodynamic models of the sea wave field. The possibility of using a land based radar to reveal sea wave reflection is entirely new and may open up new operational applications of the system.

  15. Accelerometer for Space Applications Based on Light-Pulse Atom Interferometry, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build a compact, high-precision single-axis accelerometer based on atom interferometry that is applicable to operation in space environments. Based on...

  16. Analysing Leontiev Tube Capabilities in the Space-based Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Shchegolev


    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications dedicated to the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device (the Leontief tube and shows main factors affecting its efficiency. Describes an experimental installation, which is used to obtain data on the value of energy separation in the air to prove this device the operability.The assumption that there is an optimal relationship between the flow velocities in the subsonic and supersonic channels of the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device is experimentally confirmed.The paper conducts analysis of possible ways to raise the efficiency of power plants of various (including space basing, and shows that, currently, a mainstream of increasing efficiency of their operation is to complicate design solutions.A scheme of the closed gas-turbine space-based plant using a mixture of inert gases (helium-xenon one for operation is proposed. What differs it from the simplest variants is a lack of the cooler-radiator and integration into gas-dynamic temperature stratification device and heat compressor.Based on the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics, it is shown that the total pressure restorability when removing heat in a thermal compressor determines operating capability of this scheme. The exploratory study of creating a heat compressor is performed, and it is shown that when operating on gases with a Prandtl number close to 1, the total pressure does not increase.The operating capability conditions of the heat compressor are operation on gases with a low value of the Prandtl number (helium-xenon mixture at high supersonic velocities and with a longitudinal pressure gradient available.It is shown that there is a region of the low values of the Prandtl number (Pr <0.3 for which, with the longitudinal pressure gradient available in the supersonic flows of a viscous gas, the total pressure can be restored.

  17. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.


    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970’s and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  18. Adaptive density trajectory cluster based on time and space distance (United States)

    Liu, Fagui; Zhang, Zhijie


    There are some hotspot problems remaining in trajectory cluster for discovering mobile behavior regularity, such as the computation of distance between sub trajectories, the setting of parameter values in cluster algorithm and the uncertainty/boundary problem of data set. As a result, based on the time and space, this paper tries to define the calculation method of distance between sub trajectories. The significance of distance calculation for sub trajectories is to clearly reveal the differences in moving trajectories and to promote the accuracy of cluster algorithm. Besides, a novel adaptive density trajectory cluster algorithm is proposed, in which cluster radius is computed through using the density of data distribution. In addition, cluster centers and number are selected by a certain strategy automatically, and uncertainty/boundary problem of data set is solved by designed weighted rough c-means. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can perform the fuzzy trajectory cluster effectively on the basis of the time and space distance, and obtain the optimal cluster centers and rich cluster results information adaptably for excavating the features of mobile behavior in mobile and sociology network.

  19. Current problems in astrophysics needing space-based radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.A.


    The potential value of space-based radio observatories and VLBI networks for studies of cosmology, AGN and starburst galaxies, the ISM and the intergalactic medium, and molecular clouds and star formation is discussed. Topics examined include distance estimates for masers in external galaxies, high-resolution 21-cm observations of distant-galaxy kinematics and morphology, searches for LF emission from the neutral ISM at redshifts higher than the QSO turnon, detection of changes in the distribution of dark matter surrounding galaxies at redshifts near 1, and observations of Galactic SNRs and filamentary structures near the Galactic center. Consideration is given to comparative studies of the ISM in the Galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds, and M 31; estimates of the molecular content of external galaxies; emssion-line studies of H 2 O masers; and kinematic investigations of bipolar flows and molecular disks. 19 references

  20. Space-Based Information Infrastructure Architecture for Broadband Services (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Inukai, Tom; Razdan, Rajendev; Lazeav, Yvonne M.


    This study addressed four tasks: (1) identify satellite-addressable information infrastructure markets; (2) perform network analysis for space-based information infrastructure; (3) develop conceptual architectures; and (4) economic assessment of architectures. The report concludes that satellites will have a major role in the national and global information infrastructure, requiring seamless integration between terrestrial and satellite networks. The proposed LEO, MEO, and GEO satellite systems have satellite characteristics that vary widely. They include delay, delay variations, poorer link quality and beam/satellite handover. The barriers against seamless interoperability between satellite and terrestrial networks are discussed. These barriers are the lack of compatible parameters, standards and protocols, which are presently being evaluated and reduced.

  1. Space-Based Counterforce in the Second Nuclear Age (United States)


    but also open wide the gates of the solar system to large-scale human exploration and development. Instead of offering only a dark age the Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne vehicle that won the Ansari X-PRIZE in 2004 or Virgin Galactic’s space tourism vehicle SpaceShipTwo. It was

  2. Multitarget tracking in cluttered environment for a multistatic passive radar system under the DAB/DVB network (United States)

    Shi, Yi Fang; Park, Seung Hyo; Song, Taek Lyul


    performed to verify the superiority of the proposed SP-JIPDA algorithm over the MJIPDA in this multistatic passive radar system.

  3. Automation and Robotics for Space-Based Systems, 1991 (United States)

    Williams, Robert L., II (Editor)


    The purpose of this in-house workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of automation and robotics for space operations from an LaRC perspective and to identify areas of opportunity for future research. Over half of the presentations came from the Automation Technology Branch, covering telerobotic control, extravehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, hand controllers for teleoperation, sensors, neural networks, and automated structural assembly, all applied to space missions. Other talks covered the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation, space crane work, modeling, simulation, and control of large, flexible space manipulators, and virtual passive controller designs for space robots.

  4. Department of the Air Force Environmental Statement. Construction and Operation of the West Coast OTH-B Radar System, Lake and Klamath Counties, Oregon; Modoc and Sacramento Counties, California; Pierce County, Washington; Elmore County, Idaho (United States)


    You are concerned about that word radiation, which is kind of a bugaboo . Mrs Morehouse: How dangerous is this kind of radiation? Mr Raffa: That one... invest our defense dollar. An effective radar system will serve not only as a deterrent to a potential aggressor, but help us to neutralize an attack if...and cost-effective way to invest our defense dollar. An effective radar system will serve not only as a deterrant to a potential agressor, but help us

  5. Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang


    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

  6. A calibration mechanism based on worm drive for space telescope (United States)

    Chong, Yaqin; Li, Chuang; Xia, Siyu; Zhong, Peifeng; Lei, Wang


    In this paper, a new type of calibration mechanism based on worm drive is presented for a space telescope. This calibration mechanism based on worm drive has the advantages of compact size and self-lock. The mechanism mainly consists of thirty-six LEDs as the light source for flat calibration, a diffuse plate, a step motor, a worm gear reducer and a potentiometer. As the main part of the diffuse plate, a PTFE tablet is mounted in an aluminum alloy frame. The frame is fixed on the shaft of the worm gear, which is driven by the step motor through the worm. The shaft of the potentiometer is connected to that of the worm gear to measure the rotation angle of the diffuse plate through a flexible coupler. Firstly, the calibration mechanism is designed, which includes the LEDs assembly design, the worm gear reducer design and the diffuse plate assembly design. The counterweight blocks and two end stops are also designed for the diffuse plate assembly. Then a modal analysis with finite element method for the diffuse plate assembly is completed.

  7. Utilization-based object recognition in confined spaces (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Telagamsetti, Durga; Chan, Alex L.


    Recognizing substantially occluded objects in confined spaces is a very challenging problem for ground-based persistent surveillance systems. In this paper, we discuss the ontology inference of occluded object recognition in the context of in-vehicle group activities (IVGA) and describe an approach that we refer to as utilization-based object recognition method. We examine the performance of three types of classifiers tailored for the recognition of objects with partial visibility, namely, (1) Hausdorff Distance classifier, (2) Hamming Network classifier, and (3) Recurrent Neural Network classifier. In order to train these classifiers, we have generated multiple imagery datasets containing a mixture of common objects appearing inside a vehicle with full or partial visibility and occultation. To generate dynamic interactions between multiple people, we model the IVGA scenarios using a virtual simulation environment, in which a number of simulated actors perform a variety of IVGA tasks independently or jointly. This virtual simulation engine produces the much needed imagery datasets for the verification and validation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the selected object recognizers. Finally, we improve the performance of these object recognizers by incorporating human gestural information that differentiates various object utilization or handling methods through the analyses of dynamic human-object interactions (HOI), human-human interactions (HHI), and human-vehicle interactions (HVI) in the context of IVGA.

  8. IEC Based D-3He Fusion for Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Burton, R.; Richardson, N.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, Hiromu


    A preliminary system design is presented for a high performance 100-MWe manned space vehicle in the 500 metric ton class, based on Inertial Electrostatic Fusion (IEC), allowing trip times to the outer planets of several months. An IEC is chosen because it's simplified structure results in a very high power-to-weight ratio. D- 3 He fuel is used to give 14.7-MeV protons as a primary fusion reaction product. Direct conversion of proton energy to electricity is employed, providing a high efficiency. An IEC reactor with a proton energy gain (power in 14.7-MeV protons/input electric power) of 4 or better is assumed. Extrapolation of present laboratory scale IEC experiments to such conditions is possible theoretically, but faces several open issues that require further study such as stability under high-density conditions. The final thruster is based on an NSTAR-extrapolated krypton ion design with a specific impulse of 16,000 seconds and a total thrust of 1020 N. Round trip thrust time for mission set to Jupiter ΔV of 100 km/s is then ∼950 days. (authors)

  9. Space-Based Reconfigurable Software Defined Radio Test Bed Aboard International Space Station (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Lux, James P.


    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) recently launched a new software defined radio research test bed to the International Space Station. The test bed, sponsored by the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office within NASA is referred to as the SCaN Testbed. The SCaN Testbed is a highly capable communications system, composed of three software defined radios, integrated into a flight system, and mounted to the truss of the International Space Station. Software defined radios offer the future promise of in-flight reconfigurability, autonomy, and eventually cognitive operation. The adoption of software defined radios offers space missions a new way to develop and operate space transceivers for communications and navigation. Reconfigurable or software defined radios with communications and navigation functions implemented in software or VHDL (Very High Speed Hardware Description Language) provide the capability to change the functionality of the radio during development or after launch. The ability to change the operating characteristics of a radio through software once deployed to space offers the flexibility to adapt to new science opportunities, recover from anomalies within the science payload or communication system, and potentially reduce development cost and risk by adapting generic space platforms to meet specific mission requirements. The software defined radios on the SCaN Testbed are each compliant to NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. The STRS Architecture is an open, non-proprietary architecture that defines interfaces for the connections between radio components. It provides an operating environment to abstract the communication waveform application from the underlying platform specific hardware such as digital-to-analog converters, analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, RF attenuators, automatic gain control circuits, FPGAs, general-purpose processors, etc. and the interconnections among

  10. Special relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments (United States)

    Raogudimetla, V. S.


    There is a great need to develop a system that can measure accurately atmospheric wind profiles because an accurate data of wind profiles in the atmosphere constitutes single most input for reliable simulations of global climate numerical methods. Also such data helps us understand atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics better. Because of this need for accurate wind measurements, a space-based Laser Atmospheric Winds Sounder (LAWS) is being designed at MSFC to measure wind profiles in the lower atmosphere of the earth with an accuracy of 1 m/s at lower altitudes to 5m/s at higher altitudes. This system uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and received frequencies to estimate the atmospheric wind velocities. If a significant return from the ground (sea) is possible, the spacecraft speed and height are estimated from it and these results and the Doppler shift are then used to estimate the wind velocities in the atmosphere. It is expected that at the proposed wavelengths, there will be enough backscatter from the aerosols but there may no be significant return from the ground. So a coherent (heterodyne) detection system is being proposed for signal processing because it can provide high signal to noise ratio and sensitivity and thus make the best use of low ground return. However, for a heterodyne detection scheme to provide the best results, it is important that the receiving aperture be aligned properly for the proposed wind sounder, this amounts to only a few microradians tolerance in alignment. It is suspected that the satellite motion relative to the ground may introduce errors in the order of a few microradians because of special relativity. Hence, the problem of laser scattering off a moving fixed target when the source and receiver are moving, which was not treated in the past in the literature, was analyzed in the following, using relativistic electrodynamics and applied to the

  11. Tracking Solar Type II Bursts with Space Based Radio Interferometers (United States)

    Hegedus, Alexander M.; Kasper, Justin C.; Manchester, Ward B.


    The Earth’s Ionosphere limits radio measurements on its surface, blocking out any radiation below 10 MHz. Valuable insight into many astrophysical processes could be gained by having a radio interferometer in space to image the low frequency window for the first time. One application is observing type II bursts tracking solar energetic particle acceleration in Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). In this work we create a simulated data processing pipeline for several space based radio interferometer (SBRI) concepts and evaluate their performance in the task of localizing these type II bursts.Traditional radio astronomy software is hard coded to assume an Earth based array. To circumvent this, we manually calculate the antenna separations and insert them along with the simulated visibilities into a CASA MS file for analysis. To create the realest possible virtual input data, we take a 2-temperature MHD simulation of a CME event, superimpose realistic radio emission models from the CME-driven shock front, and propagate the signal through simulated SBRIs. We consider both probabilistic emission models derived from plasma parameters correlated with type II bursts, and analytical emission models using plasma emission wave interaction theory.One proposed SBRI is the pathfinder mission SunRISE, a 6 CubeSat interferometer to circle the Earth in a GEO graveyard orbit. We test simulated trajectories of SunRISE and image what the array recovers, comparing it to the virtual input. An interferometer on the lunar surface would be a stable alternative that avoids noise sources that affect orbiting arrays, namely the phase noise from positional uncertainty and atmospheric 10s-100s kHz noise. Using Digital Elevation Models from laser altimeter data, we test different sets of locations on the lunar surface to find near optimal configurations for tracking type II bursts far from the sun. Custom software is used to model the response of different array configurations over the lunar year

  12. Space- and ground-based particle physics meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    The fourth international conference on Particle and Fundamental Physics in Space (SpacePart12) will take place at CERN from 5 to 7 November. The conference will bring together scientists working on particle and fundamental physics in space and on ground, as well as space policy makers from around the world.   One hundred years after Victor Hess discovered cosmic rays using hot air balloons, the experimental study of particle and fundamental physics is still being pursued today with extremely sophisticated techniques: on the ground, with state-of-the-art accelerators like the LHC; and in space, with powerful observatories that probe, with amazing accuracy, the various forms of cosmic radiation, charged and neutral, which are messengers of the most extreme conditions of matter and energy. SpacePart12 will be the opportunity for participants to exchange views on the progress of space-related science and technology programmes in the field of particle and fundamental physics in space. SpacePar...

  13. Space Station - The base for tomorrow's electronic industry (United States)

    Naumann, Robert J.


    The potential value of space material processing on the Space Station for the electronics industry is examined. The primary advantages of the space environment for producing high-purity semiconductors and electrooptical materials are identified as the virtual absence of gravity (suppressing buoyancy-driven convection in melts and density segregation of alloys) and the availabilty of high vacuum (with high pumping speed and heat rejection). The recent history of material development and processing technology in the electronics industry is reviewed, and the principal features of early space experiments are outlined.

  14. Compressed Sensing for Space-Based High-Definition Video Technologies, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space-based imaging sensors are important for NASA's mission in both performing scientific measurements and producing literature and documentary cinema. The recent...

  15. Ultra-Low Noise Quad Photoreceiver for Space Based Laser Interferometric Gravity Wave Detection, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravity wave detection using space-based long-baseline laser interferometric sensors imposes stringent noise requirements on the system components, including the...

  16. Rule-Based Analytic Asset Management for Space Exploration Systems (RAMSES), Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. (PSI) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) were selected to jointly develop the Rule-based Analytic Asset Management for Space...

  17. Perovskite-based Photovoltaics: A New Pathway to Ultra- Low-Cost Space Power (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will determine if the lifetime performance of new perovskite-based solar cells can be engineered for long-term performance for space applications. We will utilize...

  18. Digital acquisition and wavelength control of seed laser for space-based Lidar applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposes to establish the feasibility of using a space qualifiable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital controller to autonomously...

  19. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing. (United States)

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt


    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  20. SpacePy - a Python-based library of tools for the space sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, Steven K.; Welling, Daniel T.; Koller, Josef; Larsen, Brian A.; Henderson, Michael G.


    Space science deals with the bodies within the solar system and the interplanetary medium; the primary focus is on atmospheres and above - at Earth the short timescale variation in the the geomagnetic field, the Van Allen radiation belts and the deposition of energy into the upper atmosphere are key areas of investigation. SpacePy is a package for Python, targeted at the space sciences, that aims to make basic data analysis, modeling and visualization easier. It builds on the capabilities of the well-known NumPy and MatPlotLib packages. Publication quality output direct from analyses is emphasized. The SpacePy project seeks to promote accurate and open research standards by providing an open environment for code development. In the space physics community there has long been a significant reliance on proprietary languages that restrict free transfer of data and reproducibility of results. By providing a comprehensive, open-source library of widely used analysis and visualization tools in a free, modern and intuitive language, we hope that this reliance will be diminished. SpacePy includes implementations of widely used empirical models, statistical techniques used frequently in space science (e.g. superposed epoch analysis), and interfaces to advanced tools such as electron drift shell calculations for radiation belt studies. SpacePy also provides analysis and visualization tools for components of the Space Weather Modeling Framework - currently this only includes the BATS-R-US 3-D magnetohydrodynamic model and the RAM ring current model - including streamline tracing in vector fields. Further development is currently underway. External libraries, which include well-known magnetic field models, high-precision time conversions and coordinate transformations are wrapped for access from Python using SWIG and f2py. The rest of the tools have been implemented directly in Python. The provision of open-source tools to perform common tasks will provide openness in the

  1. Beamed Energy and the Economics of Space Based Solar Power (United States)

    Keith Henson, H.


    For space based solar power to replace fossil fuel, it must sell for 1-2 cents per kWh. To reach this sales price requires a launch cost to GEO of ˜100/kg. Proposed to reach this cost figure at 100 tonne/hour are two stages to GEO where a Skylon-rocket-plane first stage provides five km/sec and a laser stage provides 6.64 km/sec. The combination appears to reduce the cost to GEO to under 100/kg at a materials flow rate of ˜1 million tonnes per year, enough to initially construct 200 GW per year of power satellites. An extended Pro Forma business case indicates that peak investment to profitability might be ˜65 B. Over a 25-year period, production rises to two TW per year to undercut and replace most other sources of energy. Energy on this scale solves other supply problems such as water and liquid fuels. It could even allow removal of CO2 from the air and storage of carbon as synthetic oil in empty oil fields.

  2. Object acquisition and tracking for space-based surveillance (United States)


    This report presents the results of research carried out by Space Computer Corporation under the U.S. government's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. The work was sponsored by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization and managed by the Office of Naval Research under Contracts N00014-87-C-0801 (Phase 1) and N00014-89-C-0015 (Phase 2). The basic purpose of this research was to develop and demonstrate a new approach to the detection of, and initiation of track on, moving targets using data from a passive infrared or visual sensor. This approach differs in very significant ways from the traditional approach of dividing the required processing into time dependent, object dependent, and data dependent processing stages. In that approach individual targets are first detected in individual image frames, and the detections are then assembled into tracks. That requires that the signal to noise ratio in each image frame be sufficient for fairly reliable target detection. In contrast, our approach bases detection of targets on multiple image frames, and, accordingly, requires a smaller signal to noise ratio. It is sometimes referred to as track before detect, and can lead to a significant reduction in total system cost. For example, it can allow greater detection range for a single sensor, or it can allow the use of smaller sensor optics. Both the traditional and track before detect approaches are applicable to systems using scanning sensors, as well as those which use staring sensors.

  3. A cooperative power trading system based on satisfaction space technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Maruo, T.; Mori, N.


    This paper proposed a new power trading system model designed to ensure customer cooperation with power suppliers. Designed as an Internet application, the cooperative power trading system modelled power markets using a satisfaction space technology A network model of electric power trading systems was developed to create a communication network system that consisted of suppliers, customers, and auctioneers. When demand exceeded supply, the auctioneer in the trading system requested power reductions from customers. Rewards were paid to maintain the degree of satisfaction of the customers. The supplier's evaluation function was defined as a function of market price and power supply. A power reducing method was developed using a combinatorial optimization technique. Suppliers and customers submitted bids for initial power trading quantities, while the auctioneer decided a market price based on bidding values. After receiving the market price, suppliers and customers submitted a second set of bids for expected power trading quantities. A power reduction plan was then developed by the auctioneer to balance the amount of power supply and demand. The system can be applied to customers whose evaluation functions cannot be estimated beforehand, as the auctioneer was able to choose the most efficient power reduction point selected by consumers using a maximum steep slope method. Simulations conducted to validate the trading system demonstrated that the system is capable of choosing efficient energy reduction plans. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  4. A Constraint-Based Understanding of Design Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim


    space schema, can identify the properties of the prospective product that s/he can form. Through a case study, we show how design space schemas can support designers in various ways, including gaining an overview of the design process, documenting it, reflecting on it, and developing design concepts...

  5. Simultaneous optical and meteor head echo measurements using the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY): Data collection and preliminary analysis (United States)

    Brown, P.; Stober, G.; Schult, C.; Krzeminski, Z.; Cooke, W.; Chau, J. L.


    The initial results of a two year simultaneous optical-radar meteor campaign are described. Analysis of 105 double-station optical meteors having plane of sky intersection angles greater than 5° and trail lengths in excess of 2 km also detected by the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) as head echoes was performed. These events show a median deviation in radiants between radar and optical determinations of 1.5°, with 1/3 of events having radiant agreement to less than one degree. MAARSY tends to record average speeds roughly 0.5 km/s and 1.3 km higher than optical records, in part due to the higher sensitivity of MAARSY as compared to the optical instruments. More than 98% of all head echoes are not detected with the optical system. Using this non-detection ratio and the known limiting sensitivity of the cameras, we estimate that the limiting meteoroid detection mass of MAARSY is in the 10-9-10-10 kg (astronomical limiting meteor magnitudes of +11 to +12) appropriate to speeds from 30 to 60 km/s. There is a clear trend of higher peak RCS for brighter meteors between 35 and -30 dBsm. For meteors with similar magnitudes, the MAARSY head echo radar cross-section is larger at higher speeds. Brighter meteors at fixed heights and similar speeds have consistently, on average, larger RCS values, in accordance with established scattering theory. However, our data show RCS ∝ v/2, much weaker than the normally assumed RCS ∝ v3, a consequence of our requiring head echoes to also be detectable optically. Most events show a smooth variation of RCS with height broadly following the light production behavior. A significant minority of meteors show large variations in RCS relative to the optical light curve over common height intervals, reflecting fragmentation or possibly differential ablation. No optically detected meteor occurring in the main radar beam and at times when the radar was collecting head echo data went unrecorded by MAARSY. Thus there does not

  6. Novel Equalization Techniques for Space Division Multiplexing Based on Stokes Space Update Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Vaquero Caballero


    Full Text Available Space division multiplexing (SDM is a promising technology that aims to overcome the capacity crunch of optical communications. In this paper, we introduce the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO Stokes Space Algorithm (SSA implemented in frequency domain, a novel equalization technique for space division multiplexing (SDM. Although different papers have been published about the SSA and its MIMO implementation, we provide for the first time an analysis of the of the convergence speed and frequency offset of the SSA compared to the least mean square (LMS. SSA algorithm can deal with higher frequency offsets and linewidths than LMS, being suitable for optical communications with higher phase noise. SSA does not need pre-compensation of frequency offset, which can be compensated after equalization without penalties. On the other hand, due to reduced convergence speed, SSA requires longer training sequences than LMS.

  7. Operation of the PAVE PAWS Radar System at Beale Air Force Base, California. Part 1. Basic EIS & Appendices. (United States)


    Trypanosoma equiperdum. Finally, long-term exposure of mice to 9.27 GHz RF1, 100,000 microwatts/cm 2 , 4.5 min/day (Prausnitz, 1962, also cited in...on heart race in turtles and frogs . Turtles exposed to 960 MUz radi- ation at 100 to 10,000 microwatts/cm 2 showed no effect on heart rate (Flanigan...1977). Frogs exposed to 5 microsecond pulses of 1.25 Hz RFR chat were timed by electronic feedback to coincide with the rise of the R-wave of the

  8. Operation of the PAVE PAWS Radar System at Beale Air Force Base, California. Part 2. Public Comment & AF Response. (United States)


    Kentwood Moblie Homes 2635 Esplanade Chico, CA. 95926 Boeger Br~thers Helena Chemical Co. P.O. Box 367 1630 E. Shaw Ave.-STE. 130 Grioley, CA. 95948...DEIS action for pacemaker owners is not sufficient. The 07 AF should advertise the existence of the problem in the local newspapers. and replace old...does not believe that there is a problem to be advertised . Neither does the Air Force suggest that any present pacemaker owners be subjected to the

  9. A Cramer Rao analysis on receiver placement in a FM band commensal radar system based on doppler only measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maasdorp, FDV


    Full Text Available of receiver positions. Further, we show that time history information of a target can cumulatively be used together with FIM that will improve the Cramer-Rao bound. Lastly, we use the theory developed to evaluate receiver placement combinations by means of a...

  10. Greedy Algorithms for Reduced Bases in Banach Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald


    Given a Banach space X and one of its compact sets F, we consider the problem of finding a good n-dimensional space X n⊂X which can be used to approximate the elements of F. The best possible error we can achieve for such an approximation is given by the Kolmogorov width dn(F)X. However, finding the space which gives this performance is typically numerically intractable. Recently, a new greedy strategy for obtaining good spaces was given in the context of the reduced basis method for solving a parametric family of PDEs. The performance of this greedy algorithm was initially analyzed in Buffa et al. (Modél. Math. Anal. Numér. 46:595-603, 2012) in the case X=H is a Hilbert space. The results of Buffa et al. (Modél. Math. Anal. Numér. 46:595-603, 2012) were significantly improved upon in Binev et al. (SIAM J. Math. Anal. 43:1457-1472, 2011). The purpose of the present paper is to give a new analysis of the performance of such greedy algorithms. Our analysis not only gives improved results for the Hilbert space case but can also be applied to the same greedy procedure in general Banach spaces. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  11. Perspectives of biotechnologies based on dormancy phenomenon for space researches (United States)

    Alekseev, V.; Sychev, V.; Layus, D.; Levinsky, M.; Novikova, N.; Zakhodnova, T.

    Long term space missions will require a renewable source of food and an efficient method to recycle oxygen Plants especially aquatic micro algae provide an obvious solution to these problems However long duration plant growth and reproduction in space that is necessary for transportation of a control ecological life support system CELSS from Earth to other planets are problematic The introduction of heterotrophs in space CELSS is a more formidable problem as the absence of gravity creates additional difficulties for their life Dormancy phenomenon protected a great many animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years This phenomenon can be quite perspective as a tool to overcome difficulties with CELSS transportation in space missions Cryptobiotic stages of microbes fungi unicellular algae and protists can survive in open space conditions that is important for interplanetary quarantine and biological security inside spacecraft Searching for life outside the Earth at such planet like Mars with extremely variable environment should be oriented on dormancy as crucial phases of a life cycle in such organisms Five major research programs aimed on study dormancy phenomenon for exobiology purposes and creation of new biotechnologies are discussed List of species candidate components of CELSS with dormancy in their life cycle used in space experiments at the Russian segment of International Space Station now includes 26 species from bacteria to fish The

  12. Exoplanets -New Results from Space and Ground-based Surveys (United States)

    Udry, Stephane

    The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on

  13. Shared Space, Liminal Space: Five Years into a Community-University Place-Based Experiment (United States)

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Martin, Lauren


    This article explores shared space at the University of Minnesota's Robert J. Jones Urban Research and Outreach Engagement Center (UROC), located four miles off campus in a community strong in assets, but facing inequality, disinvestment and racism. UROC's mission promotes university-community collaboration to solve critical urban challenges. We…

  14. Cost of space-based laser ballistic missile defense. (United States)

    Field, G; Spergel, D


    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.

  15. Synchronizing the city with human-based spaces (United States)

    Gyergyák, János


    The paper is about to summarize the most important development tools to make the urban spaces more human friendly in Denver, Colorado. There are more needs for having more livable and sustainable areas by reducing the use of automobiles and focusing on multimodal street design. The strategies are the basic elements to make our urban spaces better and happier from The United States to Hungary

  16. Synchronizing the city with human-based spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyergyák János


    Full Text Available The paper is about to summarize the most important development tools to make the urban spaces more human friendly in Denver, Colorado. There are more needs for having more livable and sustainable areas by reducing the use of automobiles and focusing on multimodal street design. The strategies are the basic elements to make our urban spaces better and happier from The United States to Hungary

  17. Numerical Relativity for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Astronomy (United States)

    Baker, John G.


    In the next decade, gravitational wave instruments in space may provide high-precision measurements of gravitational-wave signals from strong sources, such as black holes. Currently variations on the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission concepts are under study in the hope of reducing costs. Even the observations of a reduced instrument may place strong demands on numerical relativity capabilities. Possible advances in the coming years may fuel a new generation of codes ready to confront these challenges.

  18. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.


    Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

  19. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces:Nomads and Artisans


    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien


    There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students’ actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how st...

  20. UniSat-5: a space-based optical system for space debris monitoring (United States)

    Di Roberto, Riccardo; Cappelletti, Chantal


    Micro-satellite missions, thanks to the miniaturization process of electronic components, now have a broader range of applications. Gauss Group at School of Aerospace Engineering has been a pioneer in educational micro-satellites, namely with UNISAT and EDUSAT missions. Moreover it has been long involved in space debris related studies, such as optical observations as well as mitigation. A new project is under development for a compact digital imaging system. The purpose will be in situ observation of space debris on board Unisat-5 micro-satellite. One of the key elements of observing on orbit is that many atmospheric phenomena would be avoided, such as diffraction and EM absorption. Hence images would gain more contrast and solar spectral irradiance would be higher for the whole visible spectrum Earlier limitations of power and instrument size prevented the inclusion of these payloads in educational satellite missions. The system is composed of an optical tube, a camera, C band and S band transceivers and two antennas. The system is independent from the rest of the spacecraft. The optical tube is a Schmidt-Cassegrain reflector, and the magnitude limit is 13. The camera is equipped with a panchromatic 5Mpix sensor, capable of direct video streaming, as well as local storage of recorded images. The transceivers operate on ISM 2.4GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi bands, and they provide stand-alone communication capabilities to the payload, and Unisat-5 OBDH can switch between the two. Both transceivers are connected to their respective custom-designed patch antenna. The ground segment is constituted of a high gain antenna dish, which will use the same transceiver on board the spacecraft as the feed, in order to establish a TCP/IP wireless link. Every component of this system is a consumer grade product. Therefore price reduction of cutting edge imaging technology now allows the use of professional instruments, that combined with the new wireless technology developed for

  1. Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development (United States)

    Hill, Terry R.


    This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  2. Efficient Divide-And-Conquer Classification Based on Feature-Space Decomposition


    Guo, Qi; Chen, Bo-Wei; Jiang, Feng; Ji, Xiangyang; Kung, Sun-Yuan


    This study presents a divide-and-conquer (DC) approach based on feature space decomposition for classification. When large-scale datasets are present, typical approaches usually employed truncated kernel methods on the feature space or DC approaches on the sample space. However, this did not guarantee separability between classes, owing to overfitting. To overcome such problems, this work proposes a novel DC approach on feature spaces consisting of three steps. Firstly, we divide the feature ...

  3. Performance Comparison of Assorted Color Spaces for Multilevel Block Truncation Coding based Face Recognition


    H.B. Kekre; Sudeep Thepade; Karan Dhamejani; Sanchit Khandelwal; Adnan Azmi


    The paper presents a performance analysis of Multilevel Block Truncation Coding based Face Recognition among widely used color spaces. In [1], Multilevel Block Truncation Coding was applied on the RGB color space up to four levels for face recognition. Better results were obtained when the proposed technique was implemented using Kekre’s LUV (K’LUV) color space [25]. This was the motivation to test the proposed technique using assorted color spaces. For experimental analysis, two face databas...

  4. University-Preschool Partnership and Workplace-Based Learning: A Collaborative "Third Space" or No Space at All? (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Arna H.


    The article examines the aims of the workplace-based learning of prospective preschool teachers in Iceland and associated cooperative practices between the University of Iceland and preschools. A "third space" of collaboration between these two sites is considered necessary if the education of preschool student teachers is to be…

  5. Mercury Atomic Frequency Standards for Space Based Navigation and Timekeeping (United States)

    Tjoelker, R. L.; Burt, E. A.; Chung, S.; Hamell, R. L.; Prestage, J. D.; Tucker, B.; Cash, P.; Lutwak, R.


    A low power Mercury Atomic Frequency Standard (MAFS) has been developed and demonstrated on the path towards future space clock applications. A self contained mercury ion breadboard clock: emulating flight clock interfaces, steering a USO local oscillator, and consuming approx 40 Watts has been operating at JPL for more than a year. This complete, modular ion clock instrument demonstrates that key GNSS size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements can be achieved while still maintaining short and long term performance demonstrated in previous ground ion clocks. The MAFS breadboard serves as a flexible platform for optimizing further space clock development and guides engineering model design trades towards fabrication of an ion clock for space flight.

  6. Component Data Base for Space Station Resistojet Auxiliary Propulsion (United States)

    Bader, Clayton H.


    The resistojet was baselined for Space Station auxiliary propulsion because of its operational versatility, efficiency, and durability. This report was conceived as a guide to designers and planners of the Space Station auxiliary propulsion system. It is directed to the low thrust resistojet concept, though it should have application to other station concepts or systems such as the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory (MTL), and the Waste Fluid Management System (WFMS). The information will likely be quite useful in the same capacity for other non-Space Station systems including satellite, freeflyers, explorers, and maneuvering vehicles. The report is a catalog of the most useful information for the most significant feed system components and is organized for the greatest convenience of the user.

  7. Positioning Reduction of Deep Space Probes Based on VLBI Tracking (United States)

    Qiao, S. B.


    In the background of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Project and the Yinghuo Project, through theoretical analysis, algorithm study, software development, data simulation, real data processing and so on, the positioning reductions of the European lunar satellite Smart-1 and Mars Express (MEX) satellite, as well as the Chinese Chang'e-1 (CE-1) and Chang'e-2 (CE-2) satellites are accomplished by using VLBI and USB tracking data in this dissertation. The progress is made in various aspects including the development of theoretical model, the construction of observation equation, the analysis of the condition of normal equation, the selection and determination of the constraint, the analysis of data simulation, the detection of outliers in observations, the maintenance of the stability of the solution of parameters, the development of the practical software system, the processing of the real tracking data and so on. The details of the research progress in this dissertation are written as follows: (1) The algorithm is analyzed concerning the positioning reduction of the deep spacecraft based on VLBI tracking data. Through data simulation, it is analyzed for the effects of the bias in predicted orbit, the white noises and systematic errors in VLBI delays, and USB ranges on the positioning reduction of spacecraft. Results show that it is preferable to suppress the dispersion of positioning data points by applying the constraint of geocentric distance of spacecraft when there are only VLBI tracking data. The positioning solution is a biased estimate via observations of three VLBI stations. For the case of four tracking stations, the uncertainty of the constraint should be in accordance with the bias in the predicted orbit. White noises in delays and ranges mainly result in dispersion of the sequence of positioning data points. If there is the systematic error of observations, the systematic offset of the positioning results is caused, and there are trend jumps in the shape of

  8. Autonomous vision in space, based on Advanced Stellar Compass platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian


    The Ørsted Star Imager, comprises the functionality of an Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). I.e. it is able to, autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, as well as determine the attitude with high precision in the matter of seconds. The autonomy makes for a high capability for error......) Complex Object surface tracking (e.g. space docking, planetary terrain tracking). All the above topics, has been realized in the past. Either by open loop, or by man-in-loop systems. By implementing these methods or function in the onboard autonomy, a superior system performance could be acheived by means...

  9. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R


    ... (mesosphere and thermosphere) in terms of the structure of the underlying medium. Advances in non-LTE radiative transfer and atmospheric waves and localized excitations are detailed, as well as analysis and modeling of the databases resulting from two groundbreaking space infrared experiments, DoD MSX/SPIRIT III and NASA TIMED/SABER.

  10. Greedy Algorithms for Reduced Bases in Banach Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald; Petrova, Guergana; Wojtaszczyk, Przemyslaw


    family of PDEs. The performance of this greedy algorithm was initially analyzed in Buffa et al. (Modél. Math. Anal. Numér. 46:595-603, 2012) in the case X=H is a Hilbert space. The results of Buffa et al. (Modél. Math. Anal. Numér. 46:595-603, 2012) were

  11. Neural network based satellite tracking for deep space applications (United States)

    Amoozegar, F.; Ruggier, C.


    The objective of this paper is to provide a survey of neural network trends as applied to the tracking of spacecrafts in deep space at Ka-band under various weather conditions and examine the trade-off between tracing accuracy and communication link performance.

  12. SOA based intensive support system for space radiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranova, M.; Shishedjiev, B.; Genova, S.; Semkova, J.


    Modern data intensive science involves heterogeneous and structured data sets in sophisticated data formats. Scientists need access to distributed computing and data sources and support for remote access to expensive, multinational specialized instruments. Scientists need effective software for data analysis, querying, accessing and visualization. The interaction between computer science and science and engineering becomes essential for the automation of data manipulation. The key solution uses the Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) in the field of science and Grid computing. The goal of this paper is managing the scientific data received by the Lyulin-5 particle telescope used in MATROSHKA-R experiment performed at the International Space Station (ISS). The dynamics of radiation characteristics and their dependency on the time and the orbital parameters have been established. The experiment helps the accurate estimation of the impact of space radiation on human health in long-duration manned missions

  13. Enhancing Arctic Surveillance With Space-Based Radars (United States)


    180 degrees (Sellers, 2005). xvii Right Ascension of the Ascending Node: from a geocentric origin perspective, describes how an orbital plane...fascination with remote sensing and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance from space. • Dr. Ray Buettner, my co-advisor, whose positive approach ...48 N; 169 W (northwest maritime corner) • 74 43 N; 156 34 W (uppermost maritime point in the Beaufort Sea approaching the Arctic Ocean) • 72 53 N

  14. A Persistent Perch: USSOCOMs Use of Organic Space Based ISR (United States)


    traits. The mass constraint of a single CubeSat can be solved by fractionating, or spreading , the CubeSat’s functions among a closely flying...personnel and personnel and equipment fit into its current force structure. Traditionally, space ISR assets are, like air assets, spread throughout the... Pumpkin Incorporated, " Pumpkin Satellite Parts Price List" 24 USSOCOM Intelligence Officer 25 Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller

  15. Space trajectory calculation based on G-sensor (United States)

    Xu, Biya; Zhan, Yinwei; Shao, Yang


    At present, without full use of the mobile phone around us, most of the research in human body posture recognition field is use camera or portable acceleration sensor to collect data. In this paper, G-sensor built-in mobile phone is use to collect data. After processing data with the way of moving average filter and acceleration integral, joint point's space three-dimensional coordinates can be abtained accurately.

  16. Space closing versus space opening for bilateral missing upper laterals - aesthetic judgments of laypeople: a web-based survey. (United States)

    Qadri, Salim; Parkin, Nicola A; Benson, Philip E


    To investigate the opinions of laypeople regarding the aesthetic outcome of treating patients with developmental absence of both maxillary lateral incisors using either orthodontic space closure (OSC) or space opening and prosthetic replacement (PR). Cross sectional, web-based survey. A panel of five orthodontists and five restorative dentists examined post-treatment intra-oral images of 21 patients with developmental absence of both upper lateral incisors. A consensus view was obtained about the 10 most attractive images (5 OSC; 5 PR). The 10 selected images were used in a web-based survey involving staff and students at the University of Sheffield. In the first section, the participants were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the 10 randomly arranged single images using a 5-point Likert scale. In the second section, an image of OSC was paired with an image of PR according to their attractiveness ranking by the clinician panel, and the participants were asked to indicate which of the two images they preferred. The survey received 959 completed responses with 9590 judgements. The images of OSC were perceived to be more attractive (mean rating 3·34 out of 5; SD 0·56) compared with the images of PR (mean rating 3·14 out of 5; SD 0·58) (mean diff 0·21; P Space closing was perceived to be more attractive than space opening by lay people. The findings have implications for advising patients about the best aesthetic outcome when both maxillary lateral incisors are missing.

  17. Image Analysis Based on Soft Computing and Applied on Space Shuttle During the Liftoff Process (United States)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve J.


    Imaging techniques based on Soft Computing (SC) and developed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have been implemented on a variety of prototype applications related to the safety operation of the Space Shuttle during the liftoff process. These SC-based prototype applications include detection and tracking of moving Foreign Objects Debris (FOD) during the Space Shuttle liftoff, visual anomaly detection on slidewires used in the emergency egress system for the Space Shuttle at the laJlIlch pad, and visual detection of distant birds approaching the Space Shuttle launch pad. This SC-based image analysis capability developed at KSC was also used to analyze images acquired during the accident of the Space Shuttle Columbia and estimate the trajectory and velocity of the foam that caused the accident.

  18. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.


    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen- hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during ight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced ows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle con guration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot- re test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate ight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative e ort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This presentation discusses the various trends of base convective heat ux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base ow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi- empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the ight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  19. Array element of a space-based synchrotron radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.W.; Commichau, S.C.; Kim, G.N.; Son, D.; Viertel, G.M.


    A synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) has been proposed as part of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment on the International Space Station to study cosmic ray electrons and positrons in the TeV energy range. The SRD will identify these particles by detecting their emission of synchrotron radiation in the Earth's magnetic field. This article reports on the study of key technical parameters for the array elements which form the SRD, including the choice of the detecting medium, the sensor and the readout system

  20. Photovoltaic-Concentrator Based Power Beaming For Space Elevator Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Daniel E.; Chiang, Richard; Keys, Catherine C.; Lyjak, Andrew W.; Starch, Michael D.; Nees, John A.


    The MClimber team, at the Student Space Systems Fabrication Laboratory of the University of Michigan, has developed a prototype robotic climber for competition in the NASA sponsored Power Beaming Challenge. This paper describes the development of the system that utilizes a simple telescope to deliver an 8 kW beam to a photovoltaic panel in order to power a one kilometer climb. Its unique approach utilizes a precision GPS signal to track the panel. Fundamental systems of the project were implemented using a design strategy focusing on robustness and modularity. Development of this design and its results are presented.

  1. 3 x 3 free-space optical router based on crossbar network and its control algorithm (United States)

    Hou, Peipei; Sun, Jianfeng; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Liren


    A 3 × 3 free-space optical router, which comprises optical switches and polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and based on crossbar network, is proposed in this paper. A control algorithm for the 3 × 3 free-space optical router is also developed to achieve rapid control without rearrangement. In order to test the performance of the network based on 3 × 3 free-space optical router and that of the algorithm developed for the optical router, experiments are designed. The experiment results show that the interconnection network based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router has low cross talk, fast connection speed. Under the control of the algorithm developed, a non-block and real free interconnection network is obtained based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router we proposed.

  2. Improved optical ranging for space based gravitational wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Andrew J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McKenzie, Kirk; Ware, Brent; De Vine, Glenn; Spero, Robert E; Klipstein, W


    The operation of 10 6  km scale laser interferometers in space will permit the detection of gravitational waves at previously unaccessible frequency regions. Multi-spacecraft missions, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), will use time delay interferometry to suppress the otherwise dominant laser frequency noise from their measurements. This is accomplished by performing sub-sample interpolation of the optical phase measurements recorded at each spacecraft for synchronization and cancellation of the otherwise dominant laser frequency noise. These sub-sample interpolation time shifts are dependent upon the inter-spacecraft range and will be measured using a pseudo-random noise ranging modulation upon the science laser. One limit to the ranging performance is mutual interference between the outgoing and incoming ranging signals upon each spacecraft. This paper reports on the demonstration of a noise cancellation algorithm which is shown to providing a factor of ∼8 suppression of the mutual interference noise. Demonstration of the algorithm in an optical test bed showed an rms ranging error of 0.06 m, improved from 0.19 m in previous results, surpassing the 1 m RMS LISA specification and potentially improving the cancellation of laser frequency noise. (paper)

  3. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.


    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb groundbased observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  4. Model based Computerized Ionospheric Tomography in space and time (United States)

    Tuna, Hakan; Arikan, Orhan; Arikan, Feza


    Reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density distribution in space and time not only provide basis for better understanding the physical nature of the ionosphere, but also provide improvements in various applications including HF communication. Recently developed IONOLAB-CIT technique provides physically admissible 3D model of the ionosphere by using both Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) measurements obtained from a GPS satellite - receiver network and IRI-Plas model. IONOLAB-CIT technique optimizes IRI-Plas model parameters in the region of interest such that the synthetic STEC computations obtained from the IRI-Plas model are in accordance with the actual STEC measurements. In this work, the IONOLAB-CIT technique is extended to provide reconstructions both in space and time. This extension exploits the temporal continuity of the ionosphere to provide more reliable reconstructions with a reduced computational load. The proposed 4D-IONOLAB-CIT technique is validated on real measurement data obtained from TNPGN-Active GPS receiver network in Turkey.

  5. On projective invariants based on non-linear connections in a Finsler space I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, S.C.


    The projective transformations based on linear connections in a Finsler space have been studied by Berwald, Misra, Szabo, Matsumoto, Fukai and Yamada, Rastogi and others. In almost all these papers the emphasis has been on studying Finsler spaces of scalar curvature, Finsler spaces of constant curvature and Finsler spaces of zero curvature with the help of projective curvature tensors of Weyl and Douglas. In 1981, the author studied projective transformation in a Finsler space based on non-linear connections and obtained certain projective invariants. The aim of the present paper is to study Finsler spaces of scalar curvature, constant curvature and zero curvature with the help of non-linear connections and projective invariants obtained from non-linear connections. (author)

  6. Integrated Space Asset Management Database and Modeling (United States)

    Gagliano, L.; MacLeod, T.; Mason, S.; Percy, T.; Prescott, J.

    Phased Array of Widely Separated Antennas: Steps Toward a Verifiable Real-Time Atmospheric Phase Fluctuation Correction for a High Resolution Radar System Barry Geldzahler, NASA- HQ NASA is pursuing a demonstration of coherent uplink arraying at 7.145-7.190 GHz (X-band) and 30-31 GHz (Ka-band) at using three 12m diameter COTS antennas separated by 60m at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In addition, we have used up to three 34m antennas separated by ~250m at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex in California and at X-band 7.1 GHz incorporating real-time correction for tropospheric phase fluctuations. Such a demonstration would then enable NASA to establish a high power, high resolution, 24/7 availability radar system for (a) tracking and characterizing observations of Near Earth Objects, (b) tracking, characterizing and determining the statistics of small-scale (?10cm) orbital debris, (c) incorporating the capability into its space communication and navigation tracking stations for emergency spacecraft commanding in the Ka band era which NASA is entering, and (d) fielding capabilities of interest to other US government agencies. We present herein the results of our phased array uplink combining at near 7.17 and 8.3 GHz using widely separated antennas demonstrations at both locales, the results of a study to upgrade from a communication to a radar system, and our vision for going forward. Operations Analysis of Australian-based Systems for Surveillance of Space Mark Graham, Defence Science and Technology Group, Department of Defence Due to increasing dependence on space-based capabilities, in recent years Australia has committed to making a greater contribution to generating space situational awareness (SSA). A natural first step has been to acknowledge Australia's privileged geolocation and accept US invitations to host and jointly operate elements of the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), in particular a C-Band tracking radar to help maintain the Low Earth


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocarsly, Sidney I.


    Studies of probable effects of space environment exposure of Durak B'' (a Chromizing Corp. proprietary disilicide coating) coated Mo are described. It was concluded that, in a high-temperature environment, solar radiation will not affect the material system. Sputtering will not cause a structural problem, but it may cause a change in optical properties. Meteoroids may cause coating spalling and minimum to possibly total failure. Some protection system will probably be necessary. Vacuum will cause some coating evaporation. The rate will be temperature-dependent and probably of a low order. The possible problem area is that the evaporation appears to occur preferentially at crack sites. Ionized nitrogen and hydrogen may react with the coating and charge physical or mechanical properties. (A.G.W.)

  8. Nuclear reactor power as applied to a space-based radar mission (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.


    A space-based radar mission and spacecraft are examined to determine system requirements for a 300 kWe space nuclear reactor power system. The spacecraft configuration and its orbit, launch vehicle, and propulsion are described. Mission profiles are addressed, and storage in assembly orbit is considered. Dynamics and attitude control and the problems of nuclear and thermal radiation are examined.

  9. Computer based methods for measurement of joint space width: update of an ongoing OMERACT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharp, John T.; Angwin, Jane; Boers, Maarten; Duryea, Jeff; von Ingersleben, Gabriele; Hall, James R.; Kauffman, Joost A.; Landewé, Robert; Langs, Georg; Lukas, Cédric; Maillefert, Jean-Francis; Bernelot Moens, Hein J.; Peloschek, Philipp; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée


    Computer-based methods of measuring joint space width (JSW) could potentially have advantages over scoring joint space narrowing, with regard to increased standardization, sensitivity, and reproducibility. In an early exercise, 4 different methods showed good agreement on measured change in JSW over

  10. Reliability of space-grade vs. COTS SRAM-based FPGA in N-modular redundancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glein, Robert; Rittner, Florian; Becher, Andreas; Ziener, Daniel; Frickel, Jürgen; Teich, Jürgen; Heuberger, Albert


    In this paper, we evaluate the suitability of different SRAM-based FPGAs for harsh radiation environments (e.g., space). In particular, we compare the space-grade and radiation-hardened by design Virtex-5QV (XQR5VFX130) with the commercial off-the-shelf Kintex-7 (KC7K325T) from Xilinx. The

  11. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements of common space based targets (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Madajian, Jonathan; Mercer, Whitaker; Knowles, Patrick


    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR and DE-STARLITE are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid. In the DESTAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds a common space target sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 , which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed. Results vary depending on the material tested and are limited to measurements of 1 axis, so

  12. Cognitive Mapping Based on Conjunctive Representations of Space and Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiping Zeng


    Full Text Available It is a challenge to build robust simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM system in dynamical large-scale environments. Inspired by recent findings in the entorhinal–hippocampal neuronal circuits, we propose a cognitive mapping model that includes continuous attractor networks of head-direction cells and conjunctive grid cells to integrate velocity information by conjunctive encodings of space and movement. Visual inputs from the local view cells in the model provide feedback cues to correct drifting errors of the attractors caused by the noisy velocity inputs. We demonstrate the mapping performance of the proposed cognitive mapping model on an open-source dataset of 66 km car journey in a 3 km × 1.6 km urban area. Experimental results show that the proposed model is robust in building a coherent semi-metric topological map of the entire urban area using a monocular camera, even though the image inputs contain various changes caused by different light conditions and terrains. The results in this study could inspire both neuroscience and robotic research to better understand the neural computational mechanisms of spatial cognition and to build robust robotic navigation systems in large-scale environments.

  13. Autobalancing and FDIR for a space-based centrifuge prototype (United States)

    Wilson, Edward; Mah, Robert W.


    This report summarizes centrifuge-related work performed at the Smart Systems Research Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center's Computational Sciences Division from 1995 through 2003. The goal is to develop an automated system that will sense an imbalance (both static and dynamic3) in a centrifuge and issue control commands to drive counterweights to eliminate the effects of the imbalance. This autobalancing development began when the ISS centrifuge design was not yet finalized, and was designed to work with the SSRL Centrifuge laboratory prototype, constructed in 1993-1995. Significant differences between that prototype and the current International Space Station (ISS) Centrifuge design are that: the spin axis for the SSRL Centrifuge prototype can translate freely in x and y, but not wobble, whereas the ISS centrifuge spin axis has 3 translational and two rotational degrees of freedom, supported by a vibration 34. The imbalance sensors are strained gauges both in the rotor and the stator, measuring the imbalance forces, whereas the ISS centrifuge uses eddy current displacement sensors to measure the displacements resulting from imbalance. High fidelity autobalancing and FDIR systems (for both counterweights and strain gauges) are developed and tested in MATLAB simulation, for the SSRL Centrifuge configuration. Hardware implementation of the autobalancing technology was begun in 1996, but was terminated due to lack of funding. The project lay dormant until 2001-2002 when the FDIR capability was added.

  14. Understanding Interorganizational Learning Based on Social Spaces and Learning Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rebelato Mozzato


    Full Text Available Different organizational settings have been gaining ground in the world economy, resulting in a proliferation of different forms of strategic alliances that translate into a growth in the number of organizations that have started to deal with interorganizational relationships with different actors. These circumstances reinforce Crossan, Lane, White and Djurfeldt (1995 and Crossan, Mauer and White (2011 in exploring what authors refer to as the fourth, interorganizational, level of learning. These authors, amongst others, suggest that the process of interorganizational learning (IOL warrants investigation, as its scope of analysis needs widening and deepening. Therefore, this theoretical essay is an attempt to understand IOL as a dynamic process found in interorganizational cooperative relationships that can take place in different structured and unstructured social spaces and that can generate learning episodes. According to this view, IOL is understood as part of an organizational learning continuum and is analyzed within the framework of practical rationality in an approach that is less cognitive and more social-behavioral.

  15. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Frank; Behrens, Joerg; Pospisil, Stanislav; Kudela, Karel


    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  16. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)


    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  17. Reference Concepts for a Space-Based Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion, Turboalternator, Burst Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael


    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform...

  18. Flexible Graphene-based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application Project (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.


    Develop prototype graphene-based reversible energy storage devices that are flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, and that can be easily attached to spacesuits, rovers, landers, and equipment used in space.

  19. BASE-A space experiment with Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R. rubrum S1H inoculated on solid minimal media was sent to the ISS in September 2006 (BASE-A experiment). After 10 days flight R. rubrum cultures returned back to...

  20. 78 FR 65006 - National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Advisory Board; Meeting (United States)


    ..., Public Law 92-463, as amended, and the President's 2004 U.S. Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and.... ADDRESSES: The Omni Shoreham Hotel, 2500 Calvert Street NW., Washington, DC 20008. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  1. 78 FR 23598 - National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Advisory Board; Meeting (United States)


    ..., Public Law 92-463, as amended, and the President's 2004 U.S. Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and...: The Melrose Hotel, 2430 Pennsylvania Ave NW., Washington, DC 20037. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  2. Stokes Space-Based Optical Modulation Format Recognition for Digital Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio


    We present a technique for modulation format recognition for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks. The method is based on Stokes space signal representation and uses a variational Bayesian expectation maximization machine learning algorithm. Differentiation between diverse common coheren...

  3. Sampling in image space for vision based SLAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, O.; Zivkovic, Z.; Kröse, B.


    Loop closing in vision based SLAM applications is a difficult task. Comparing new image data with all previous image data acquired for the map is practically impossible because of the high computational costs. This problem is part of the bigger problem to acquire local geometric constraints from

  4. Risk based decision tool for space exploration missions (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Cornford, Steve; Moran, Terrence


    This paper presents an approach and corresponding tool to assess and analyze the risks involved in a mission during the pre-phase A design process. This approach is based on creating a risk template for each subsystem expert involved in the mission design process and defining appropriate interactions between the templates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Blokhinov


    Full Text Available The technical problem of creating the new Russian version of an automatic Space Cargo Ship (SCS for the International Space Station (ISS is inseparably connected to the development of a digital video system for automatically measuring the SCS position relative to ISS in the process of spacecraft docking. This paper presents a method for estimating the orientation elements based on the use of a highly detailed digital model of the ISS. The input data are digital frames from a calibrated video system and the initial values of orientation elements, these can be estimated from navigation devices or by fast-and-rough viewpoint-dependent algorithm. Then orientation elements should be defined precisely by means of algorithmic processing. The main idea is to solve the exterior orientation problem mainly on the basis of contour information of the frame image of ISS instead of ground control points. A detailed digital model is used for generating raster templates of ISS nodes; the templates are used to detect and locate the nodes on the target image with the required accuracy. The process is performed for every frame, the resulting parameters are considered to be the orientation elements. The Kalman filter is used for statistical support of the estimation process and real time pose tracking. Finally, the modeling results presented show that the proposed method can be regarded as one means to ensure the algorithmic support of automatic space ships docking.

  6. A Space Operations Network Alternative: Using Globally Connected Research and Education Networks for Space-Based Science Operations (United States)

    Bradford, Robert N.


    Earth based networking in support of various space agency projects has been based on leased service/circuits which has a high associated cost. This cost is almost always taken from the science side resulting in less science. This is a proposal to use Research and Education Networks (RENs) worldwide to support space flight operations in general and space-based science operations in particular. The RENs were developed to support scientific and educational endeavors. They do not provide support for general Internet traffic. The connectivity and performance of the research and education networks is superb. The connectivity at Layer 3 (IP) virtually encompasses the globe. Most third world countries and all developed countries have their own research and education networks, which are connected globally. Performance of the RENs especially in the developed countries is exceptional. Bandwidth capacity currently exists and future expansion promises that this capacity will continue. REN performance statistics has always exceeded minimum requirements for spaceflight support. Research and Education networks are more loosely managed than a corporate network but are highly managed when compared to the commodity Internet. Management of RENs on an international level is accomplished by the International Network Operations Center at Indiana University at Indianapolis. With few exceptions, each regional and national REN has its own network ops center. The acceptable use policies (AUP), although differing by country, allows any scientific program or project the use of their networks. Once in compliance with the first RENs AUP, all others will accept that specific traffic including regional and transoceanic networks. RENs can support spaceflight related scientific programs and projects. Getting the science to the researcher is obviously key to any scientific project. RENs provide a pathway to virtually any college or university in the world, as well as many governmental institutes and

  7. [Partnership-based research as a space to support innovation]. (United States)

    Bernier, Jocelyne


    The process of joint evaluation involving several actors is criss-crossed by a process of negotiation and adjustment between different concerns, responsibilities and interests. How can we encourage a dialogue between knowledge from expertise and knowledge from experience, in order to produce knowledge that is scientifically based and useful for those who are involved in the programs? Far from being a mechanical process, this involves the delicate task of striking a balance, which relies on a negotiated partnership framework. The implementation of an advisory committee, organized by an interface function between the stakeholders of the intervention under study, has increasingly become recognized as a necessary condition for success in partnership-based research. These conditions enable the deployment of a reflexive system that can support social innovation--when the formulation of the problem and its resulting actions become enriched, as knowledge about the intervention develops.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, K.; Næss, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K.


    We present a fully parallelized grid-based parameter estimation algorithm for investigating multidimensional likelihoods called Snake, and apply it to cosmological parameter estimation. The basic idea is to map out the likelihood grid-cell by grid-cell according to decreasing likelihood, and stop when a certain threshold has been reached. This approach improves vastly on the 'curse of dimensionality' problem plaguing standard grid-based parameter estimation simply by disregarding grid cells with negligible likelihood. The main advantages of this method compared to standard Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods include (1) trivial extraction of arbitrary conditional distributions; (2) direct access to Bayesian evidences; (3) better sampling of the tails of the distribution; and (4) nearly perfect parallelization scaling. The main disadvantage is, as in the case of brute-force grid-based evaluation, a dependency on the number of parameters, N par . One of the main goals of the present paper is to determine how large N par can be, while still maintaining reasonable computational efficiency; we find that N par = 12 is well within the capabilities of the method. The performance of the code is tested by comparing cosmological parameters estimated using Snake and the WMAP-7 data with those obtained using CosmoMC, the current standard code in the field. We find fully consistent results, with similar computational expenses, but shorter wall time due to the perfect parallelization scheme


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, K.; Næss, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K., E-mail: [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)


    We present a fully parallelized grid-based parameter estimation algorithm for investigating multidimensional likelihoods called Snake, and apply it to cosmological parameter estimation. The basic idea is to map out the likelihood grid-cell by grid-cell according to decreasing likelihood, and stop when a certain threshold has been reached. This approach improves vastly on the 'curse of dimensionality' problem plaguing standard grid-based parameter estimation simply by disregarding grid cells with negligible likelihood. The main advantages of this method compared to standard Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods include (1) trivial extraction of arbitrary conditional distributions; (2) direct access to Bayesian evidences; (3) better sampling of the tails of the distribution; and (4) nearly perfect parallelization scaling. The main disadvantage is, as in the case of brute-force grid-based evaluation, a dependency on the number of parameters, N{sub par}. One of the main goals of the present paper is to determine how large N{sub par} can be, while still maintaining reasonable computational efficiency; we find that N{sub par} = 12 is well within the capabilities of the method. The performance of the code is tested by comparing cosmological parameters estimated using Snake and the WMAP-7 data with those obtained using CosmoMC, the current standard code in the field. We find fully consistent results, with similar computational expenses, but shorter wall time due to the perfect parallelization scheme.

  10. DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Dariusz; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Blaabjerg, Frede


    DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)......DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)...

  11. Coverage of Continuous Regions in Euclidean Space Using Homogeneous Resources with Application to the Allocation of the Phased Array Radar Systems (United States)


    centered at OPi with radius β. Let δ ∗ be the coverage level of the entire polygon P , AP be the area of polygon P , APi be the area of sub-polygon...30 1104 512 1120 992 512 297 1.72 40 600 512 480 544 480 167 2.87 80 158 128 120 136 120 42 2.86 120 70 32 70 62 32 19 1.68 160 38 32 30 34 30 11

  12. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.


    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  13. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.


    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  14. Climatological lower thermosphere winds as seen by ground-based and space-based instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Forbes


    Full Text Available Comparisons are made between climatological dynamic fields obtained from ground-based (GB and space-based (SB instruments with a view towards identifying SB/GB intercalibration issues for TIMED and other future aeronomy satellite missions. SB measurements are made from the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. The GB data originate from meteor radars at Obninsk, (55° N, 37° E, Shigaraki (35° N, 136° E and Jakarta (6° S, 107° E and MF spaced-antenna radars at Hawaii (22° N, 160° W, Christmas I. (2° N, 158° W and Adelaide (35° S, 138° E. We focus on monthly-mean prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal wind components at 96km, averaged over the 1991-1999 period. We perform space-based (SB analyses for 90° longitude sectors including the GB sites, as well as for the zonal mean. Taking the monthly prevailing zonal winds from these stations as a whole, on average, SB zonal winds exceed GB determinations by ~63%, whereas meridional winds are in much better agreement. The origin of this discrepancy remains unknown, and should receive high priority in initial GB/SB comparisons during the TIMED mission. We perform detailed comparisons between monthly climatologies from Jakarta and the geographically conjugate sites of Shigaraki and Adelaide, including some analyses of interannual variations. SB prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal tides exceed those measured over Jakarta by factors, on the average, of the order of 2.0, 1.6, 1.3, respectively, for the eastward wind, although much variability exists. For the meridional component, SB/GB ratios for the diurnal and semidiurnal tide are about 1.6 and 1.7. Prevailing and tidal amplitudes at Adelaide are significantly lower than SB values, whereas similar net differences do not occur at the conjugate Northern Hemisphere location of Shigaraki. Adelaide diurnal phases lag SB phases by several hours, but excellent agreement between the two data

  15. Analysis of CPolSK-based FSO system working in space-to-ground channel (United States)

    Su, Yuwei; Sato, Takuro


    In this article, the transmission performance of a circle polarization shift keying (CPolSK)-based free space optical (FSO) system working in space-to-ground channel is analyzed. Formulas describing the optical polarization distortion caused by the atmospheric turbulence and the communication qualities in terms of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), bit-error-ratio (BER) and outage probability of the proposed system are derived. Based on the Stokes parameters data measured by a Japanese optical communication satellite, we evaluate the space-to-ground FSO link and simulate the system performance under a varying regime of turbulence strength. The proposed system provides a more efficient way to compensate scintillation effects in a comparison with the on-off-keying (OOK)-based FSO system. These results are useful to the designing and evaluating of a deep space FSO communication system.

  16. Research on Control Method Based on Real-Time Operational Reliability Evaluation for Space Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang


    Full Text Available A control method based on real-time operational reliability evaluation for space manipulator is presented for improving the success rate of a manipulator during the execution of a task. In this paper, a method for quantitative analysis of operational reliability is given when manipulator is executing a specified task; then a control model which could control the quantitative operational reliability is built. First, the control process is described by using a state space equation. Second, process parameters are estimated in real time using Bayesian method. Third, the expression of the system's real-time operational reliability is deduced based on the state space equation and process parameters which are estimated using Bayesian method. Finally, a control variable regulation strategy which considers the cost of control is given based on the Theory of Statistical Process Control. It is shown via simulations that this method effectively improves the operational reliability of space manipulator control system.

  17. Fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods for radiation protection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.B.


    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently published a report (Report no.137) that discusses various aspects of the concepts used in radiation protection and the difficulties in measuring the radiation environment in spacecraft for the estimation of radiation risk to space travelers. Two novel dosimetric methodologies, fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods, are discussed and evaluated, along with the more conventional quality factor/linear energy transfer (LET) method. It was concluded that for the present, any reason to switch to a new methodology is not compelling. It is suggested that because of certain drawbacks in the presently-used conventional method, these alternative methodologies should be kept in mind. As new data become available and dosimetric techniques become more refined, the question should be revisited and that in the future, significant improvement might be realized. In addition, such concepts as equivalent dose and organ dose equivalent are discussed and various problems regarding the measurement/estimation of these quantities are presented. (author)

  18. Many-core computing for space-based stereoscopic imaging (United States)

    McCall, Paul; Torres, Gildo; LeGrand, Keith; Adjouadi, Malek; Liu, Chen; Darling, Jacob; Pernicka, Henry

    The potential benefits of using parallel computing in real-time visual-based satellite proximity operations missions are investigated. Improvements in performance and relative navigation solutions over single thread systems can be achieved through multi- and many-core computing. Stochastic relative orbit determination methods benefit from the higher measurement frequencies, allowing them to more accurately determine the associated statistical properties of the relative orbital elements. More accurate orbit determination can lead to reduced fuel consumption and extended mission capabilities and duration. Inherent to the process of stereoscopic image processing is the difficulty of loading, managing, parsing, and evaluating large amounts of data efficiently, which may result in delays or highly time consuming processes for single (or few) processor systems or platforms. In this research we utilize the Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC), a fully programmable 48-core experimental processor, created by Intel Labs as a platform for many-core software research, provided with a high-speed on-chip network for sharing information along with advanced power management technologies and support for message-passing. The results from utilizing the SCC platform for the stereoscopic image processing application are presented in the form of Performance, Power, Energy, and Energy-Delay-Product (EDP) metrics. Also, a comparison between the SCC results and those obtained from executing the same application on a commercial PC are presented, showing the potential benefits of utilizing the SCC in particular, and any many-core platforms in general for real-time processing of visual-based satellite proximity operations missions.

  19. A Technique for Real-Time Ionospheric Ranging Error Correction Based On Radar Dual-Frequency Detection (United States)

    Lyu, Jiang-Tao; Zhou, Chen


    Ionospheric refraction is one of the principal error sources for limiting the accuracy of radar systems for space target detection. High-accuracy measurement of the ionospheric electron density along the propagation path of radar wave is the most important procedure for the ionospheric refraction correction. Traditionally, the ionospheric model and the ionospheric detection instruments, like ionosonde or GPS receivers, are employed for obtaining the electron density. However, both methods are not capable of satisfying the requirements of correction accuracy for the advanced space target radar system. In this study, we propose a novel technique for ionospheric refraction correction based on radar dual-frequency detection. Radar target range measurements at two adjacent frequencies are utilized for calculating the electron density integral exactly along the propagation path of the radar wave, which can generate accurate ionospheric range correction. The implementation of radar dual-frequency detection is validated by a P band radar located in midlatitude China. The experimental results present that the accuracy of this novel technique is more accurate than the traditional ionospheric model correction. The technique proposed in this study is very promising for the high-accuracy radar detection and tracking of objects in geospace.

  20. Space-Based Sensorweb Monitoring of Wildfires in Thailand (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Mclaren, David; Davies, Ashley; Tran, Daniel; Tanpipat, Veerachai; Akaakara, Siri; Ratanasuwan, Anuchit; Mandl, Daniel


    We describe efforts to apply sensorweb technologies to the monitoring of forest fires in Thailand. In this approach, satellite data and ground reports are assimilated to assess the current state of the forest system in terms of forest fire risk, active fires, and likely progression of fires and smoke plumes. This current and projected assessment can then be used to actively direct sensors and assets to best acquire further information. This process operates continually with new data updating models of fire activity leading to further sensing and updating of models. As the fire activity is tracked, products such as active fire maps, burn scar severity maps, and alerts are automatically delivered to relevant parties.We describe the current state of the Thailand Fire Sensorweb which utilizes the MODIS-based FIRMS system to track active fires and trigger Earth Observing One / Advanced Land Imager to acquire imagery and produce active fire maps, burn scar severity maps, and alerts. We describe ongoing work to integrate additional sensor sources and generate additional products.

  1. Leucine-based receptor sorting motifs are dependent on the spacing relative to the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Dietrich, J; Nielsen, B L


    Many integral membrane proteins contain leucine-based motifs within their cytoplasmic domains that mediate internalization and intracellular sorting. Two types of leucine-based motifs have been identified. One type is dependent on phosphorylation, whereas the other type, which includes an acidic...... amino acid, is constitutively active. In this study, we have investigated how the spacing relative to the plasma membrane affects the function of both types of leucine-based motifs. For phosphorylation-dependent leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 7 residues between the plasma membrane...... and the phospho-acceptor was required for phosphorylation and thereby activation of the motifs. For constitutively active leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 6 residues between the plasma membrane and the acidic residue was required for optimal activity of the motifs. In addition, we found that the acidic...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Gould, A.; Zhu, Wei; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beichman, C. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Novati, S. Calchi [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello,” Uńiversitá di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Carey, S. [Spitzer Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bryden, C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; Spitzer Microlensing Team; and others


    In this paper, we present an analysis of the binary gravitational microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0196. The event lasted for almost a year, and the light curve exhibited significant deviations from the lensing model based on the rectilinear lens-source relative motion, enabling us to measure the microlens parallax. The ground-based microlens parallax is confirmed by the data obtained from space-based microlens observations using the Spitzer telescope. By additionally measuring the angular Einstein radius from the analysis of the resolved caustic crossing, the physical parameters of the lens are determined up to the twofold degeneracy, u {sub 0} < 0 and u {sub 0} > 0, solutions caused by the well-known “ecliptic” degeneracy. It is found that the binary lens is composed of two M dwarf stars with similar masses, M {sub 1} = 0.38 ± 0.04 M {sub ⊙} (0.50 ± 0.05 M {sub ⊙}) and M {sub 2} = 0.38 ± 0.04 M {sub ⊙} (0.55 ± 0.06 M {sub ⊙}), and the distance to the lens is D {sub L} = 2.77 ± 0.23 kpc (3.30 ± 0.29 kpc). Here the physical parameters outside and inside the parentheses are for the u {sub 0} < 0 and u {sub 0} > 0 solutions, respectively.

  3. Noether's Theorem and its Inverse of Birkhoffian System in Event Space Based on Herglotz Variational Problem (United States)

    Tian, X.; Zhang, Y.


    Herglotz variational principle, in which the functional is defined by a differential equation, generalizes the classical ones defining the functional by an integral. The principle gives a variational principle description of nonconservative systems even when the Lagrangian is independent of time. This paper focuses on studying the Noether's theorem and its inverse of a Birkhoffian system in event space based on the Herglotz variational problem. Firstly, according to the Herglotz variational principle of a Birkhoffian system, the principle of a Birkhoffian system in event space is established. Secondly, its parametric equations and two basic formulae for the variation of Pfaff-Herglotz action of a Birkhoffian system in event space are obtained. Furthermore, the definition and criteria of Noether symmetry of the Birkhoffian system in event space based on the Herglotz variational problem are given. Then, according to the relationship between the Noether symmetry and conserved quantity, the Noether's theorem is derived. Under classical conditions, Noether's theorem of a Birkhoffian system in event space based on the Herglotz variational problem reduces to the classical ones. In addition, Noether's inverse theorem of the Birkhoffian system in event space based on the Herglotz variational problem is also obtained. In the end of the paper, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  4. Design of chemical space networks using a Tanimoto similarity variant based upon maximum common substructures. (United States)

    Zhang, Bijun; Vogt, Martin; Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Chemical space networks (CSNs) have recently been introduced as an alternative to other coordinate-free and coordinate-based chemical space representations. In CSNs, nodes represent compounds and edges pairwise similarity relationships. In addition, nodes are annotated with compound property information such as biological activity. CSNs have been applied to view biologically relevant chemical space in comparison to random chemical space samples and found to display well-resolved topologies at low edge density levels. The way in which molecular similarity relationships are assessed is an important determinant of CSN topology. Previous CSN versions were based on numerical similarity functions or the assessment of substructure-based similarity. Herein, we report a new CSN design that is based upon combined numerical and substructure similarity evaluation. This has been facilitated by calculating numerical similarity values on the basis of maximum common substructures (MCSs) of compounds, leading to the introduction of MCS-based CSNs (MCS-CSNs). This CSN design combines advantages of continuous numerical similarity functions with a robust and chemically intuitive substructure-based assessment. Compared to earlier version of CSNs, MCS-CSNs are characterized by a further improved organization of local compound communities as exemplified by the delineation of drug-like subspaces in regions of biologically relevant chemical space.

  5. Experimental characterization of a new multicasting node architecture based on space splitters and wavelength converters (United States)

    He, Hao; Su, Yikai; Hu, Peigang; Hu, Weisheng


    IPTV-based broadband services such as interactive multimedia and video conferencing are considered as promising revenue-adding services, and multicast is proven to be a good supplier to support these applications for its reduced consumption of network bandwidth. Generally there are two approaches to implement optical layer multicast. One is space-domain multicast using space-splitter which is low cost but has wavelength continuity constraint, the other is frequency-domain multicast using wavelength converter which resolves the wavelength continuity but with high costs. A new multicasting node which adopts both space-domain multicast and frequency-domain multicast is recently discussed. In this paper we present an experimental demonstration of the new multicasting node architecture based on space splitters and wavelength converters, measurements to characterize such a node are provided.

  6. An International Disaster Management SensorWeb Consisting of Space-based and Insitu Sensors (United States)

    Mandl, D.; Frye, S. W.; Policelli, F. S.; Cappelaere, P. G.


    For the past year, NASA along with partners consisting of the United Nations Space-based Information for Disaster and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) office, the Canadian Space Agency, the Ukraine Space Research Institute (SRI), Taiwan National Space Program Office (NSPO) and in conjunction with the Committee on Earth Observing Satellite (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) have been conducting a pilot project to automate the process of obtaining sensor data for the purpose of flood management and emergency response. This includes experimenting with flood prediction models based on numerous meteorological satellites and a global hydrological model and then automatically triggering follow up high resolution satellite imagery with rapid delivery of data products. This presentation will provide a overview of the effort, recent accomplishments and future plans.

  7. Efficient and automatic image reduction framework for space debris detection based on GPU technology (United States)

    Diprima, Francesco; Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Fortunato, Vito; Abbattista, Cristoforo; Amoruso, Leonardo


    In the last years, the increasing number of space debris has triggered the need of a distributed monitoring system for the prevention of possible space collisions. Space surveillance based on ground telescope allows the monitoring of the traffic of the Resident Space Objects (RSOs) in the Earth orbit. This space debris surveillance has several applications such as orbit prediction and conjunction assessment. In this paper is proposed an optimized and performance-oriented pipeline for sources extraction intended to the automatic detection of space debris in optical data. The detection method is based on the morphological operations and Hough Transform for lines. Near real-time detection is obtained using General Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU). The high degree of processing parallelism provided by GPGPU allows to split data analysis over thousands of threads in order to process big datasets with a limited computational time. The implementation has been tested on a large and heterogeneous images data set, containing both imaging satellites from different orbit ranges and multiple observation modes (i.e. sidereal and object tracking). These images were taken during an observation campaign performed from the EQUO (EQUatorial Observatory) observatory settled at the Broglio Space Center (BSC) in Kenya, which is part of the ASI-Sapienza Agreement.

  8. Mission planning for space based satellite surveillance experiments with the MSX (United States)

    Sridharan, R.; Fishman, T.; Robinson, E.; Viggh, H.; Wiseman, A.


    The Midcourse Space Experiment is a BMDO-sponsored scientific satellite set for launch within the year. The satellite will collect phenomenology data on missile targets, plumes, earth limb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds in the LWIR, visible and ultra-violet spectral bands. It will also conduct functional demonstrations for space-based space surveillance. The Space-Based Visible sensor, built by Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the primary sensor on board the MSX for demonstration of space surveillance. The SBV Processing, Operations and Control Center (SPOCC) is the mission planning and commanding center for all space surveillance experiments using the SBV and other MSX instruments. The guiding principle in the SPOCC Mission Planning System was that all routine functions be automated. Manual analyst input should be minimal. Major concepts are: (I) A high level language, called SLED, for user interface to the system; (2) A group of independent software processes which would generally be run in a pipe-line mode for experiment commanding but can be run independently for analyst assessment; (3) An integrated experiment cost computation function that permits assessment of the feasibility of the experiment. This paper will report on the design, implementation and testing of the Mission Planning System.

  9. Novel Space-based Solar Power Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.


    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. Power beaming or wireless power transmission (WPT) can involve lasers or microwaves along with the associated power interfaces. Microwave and laser transmission techniques have been studied with several promising approaches to safe and efficient WPT identified. These investigations have included microwave phased array transmitters, as well as laser transmission and associated optics. There is a need to produce "proof-of-concept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space to surface sites. This paper briefly discusses achieving a promising approach to the solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components

  10. Construction of Orthonormal Piecewise Polynomial Scaling and Wavelet Bases on Non-Equally Spaced Knots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Astruc


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mathematical framework of multiresolution analysis based on irregularly spaced knots sequence. Our presentation is based on the construction of nested nonuniform spline multiresolution spaces. From these spaces, we present the construction of orthonormal scaling and wavelet basis functions on bounded intervals. For any arbitrary degree of the spline function, we provide an explicit generalization allowing the construction of the scaling and wavelet bases on the nontraditional sequences. We show that the orthogonal decomposition is implemented using filter banks where the coefficients depend on the location of the knots on the sequence. Examples of orthonormal spline scaling and wavelet bases are provided. This approach can be used to interpolate irregularly sampled signals in an efficient way, by keeping the multiresolution approach.

  11. Final Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California (United States)


    rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air...Chapter 3. Affected Environment 3-12 Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air Force Base the root and debris zone of the...protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e. insects

  12. Binocular Vision-Based Position and Pose of Hand Detection and Tracking in Space (United States)

    Jun, Chen; Wenjun, Hou; Qing, Sheng

    After the study of image segmentation, CamShift target tracking algorithm and stereo vision model of space, an improved algorithm based of Frames Difference and a new space point positioning model were proposed, a binocular visual motion tracking system was constructed to verify the improved algorithm and the new model. The problem of the spatial location and pose of the hand detection and tracking have been solved.

  13. Sapphire: Canada's Answer to Space-Based Surveillance of Orbital Objects (United States)

    Maskell, P.; Oram, L.

    The Canadian Department of National Defence is in the process of developing the Canadian Space Surveillance System (CSSS) as the main focus of the Surveillance of Space (SofS) Project. The CSSS consists of two major elements: the Sapphire System and the Sensor System Operations Centre (SSOC). The space segment of the Sapphire System is comprised of the Sapphire Satellite - an autonomous spacecraft with an electro-optical payload which will act as a contributing sensor to the United States (US) Space Surveillance Network (SSN). It will operate in a circular, sunsynchronous orbit at an altitude of approximately 750 kilometers and image a minimum of 360 space objects daily in orbits ranging from 6,000 to 40,000 kilometers in altitude. The ground segment of the Sapphire System is composed of a Spacecraft Control Center (SCC), a Satellite Processing and Scheduling Facility (SPSF), and the Sapphire Simulator. The SPSF will be responsible for data transmission, reception, and processing while the SCC will serve to control and monitor the Sapphire Satellite. Surveillance data will be received from Sapphire through two ground stations. Following processing by the SPSF, the surveillance data will then be forwarded to the SSOC. The SSOC will function as the interface between the Sapphire System and the US Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). The JSpOC coordinates input from various sensors around the world, all of which are a part of the SSN. The SSOC will task the Sapphire System daily and provide surveillance data to the JSpOC for correlation with data from other SSN sensors. This will include orbital parameters required to predict future positions of objects to be tracked. The SSOC receives daily tasking instructions from the JSpOC to determine which objects the Sapphire spacecraft is required to observe. The advantage of this space-based sensor over ground-based telescopes is that weather and time of day are not factors affecting observation. Thus, space-based optical

  14. Frames and bases in tensor products of Hilbert spaces and Hilbert C ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we study tensor product of Hilbert *-modules and Hilbert spaces. We show that if is a Hilbert -module and is a Hilbert -module, then tensor product of frames (orthonormal bases) for and produce frames (orthonormal bases) for Hilbert A ⊗ B -module E ⊗ F , and we get more results. For Hilbert ...

  15. 76 FR 65540 - National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Advisory Board; Meeting (United States)


    .... L. 92-463, as amended), and the President's 2004 U.S. Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and...-Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing Policy and Global Positioning System (GPS) modernization. Explore opportunities for enhancing the interoperability of GPS with other emerging international Global...

  16. Community-Based Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Possibilities for a Pedagogical Third Space (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi L.


    The present article discusses the importance of community-based field experiences as a feature of teacher education programs. Through a qualitative case study, prospective teachers' work with homeless youth in an after-school initiative is presented. Framing community-based field experiences in teacher education through "third space" theory, the…

  17. Design and implementation of space physics multi-model application integration based on web (United States)

    Jiang, Wenping; Zou, Ziming

    With the development of research on space environment and space science, how to develop network online computing environment of space weather, space environment and space physics models for Chinese scientific community is becoming more and more important in recent years. Currently, There are two software modes on space physics multi-model application integrated system (SPMAIS) such as C/S and B/S. the C/S mode which is traditional and stand-alone, demands a team or workshop from many disciplines and specialties to build their own multi-model application integrated system, that requires the client must be deployed in different physical regions when user visits the integrated system. Thus, this requirement brings two shortcomings: reducing the efficiency of researchers who use the models to compute; inconvenience of accessing the data. Therefore, it is necessary to create a shared network resource access environment which could help users to visit the computing resources of space physics models through the terminal quickly for conducting space science research and forecasting spatial environment. The SPMAIS develops high-performance, first-principles in B/S mode based on computational models of the space environment and uses these models to predict "Space Weather", to understand space mission data and to further our understanding of the solar system. the main goal of space physics multi-model application integration system (SPMAIS) is to provide an easily and convenient user-driven online models operating environment. up to now, the SPMAIS have contained dozens of space environment models , including international AP8/AE8 IGRF T96 models and solar proton prediction model geomagnetic transmission model etc. which are developed by Chinese scientists. another function of SPMAIS is to integrate space observation data sets which offers input data for models online high-speed computing. In this paper, service-oriented architecture (SOA) concept that divides system into

  18. Molecular basis sets - a general similarity-based approach for representing chemical spaces. (United States)

    Raghavendra, Akshay S; Maggiora, Gerald M


    A new method, based on generalized Fourier analysis, is described that utilizes the concept of "molecular basis sets" to represent chemical space within an abstract vector space. The basis vectors in this space are abstract molecular vectors. Inner products among the basis vectors are determined using an ansatz that associates molecular similarities between pairs of molecules with their corresponding inner products. Moreover, the fact that similarities between pairs of molecules are, in essentially all cases, nonzero implies that the abstract molecular basis vectors are nonorthogonal, but since the similarity of a molecule with itself is unity, the molecular vectors are normalized to unity. A symmetric orthogonalization procedure, which optimally preserves the character of the original set of molecular basis vectors, is used to construct appropriate orthonormal basis sets. Molecules can then be represented, in general, by sets of orthonormal "molecule-like" basis vectors within a proper Euclidean vector space. However, the dimension of the space can become quite large. Thus, the work presented here assesses the effect of basis set size on a number of properties including the average squared error and average norm of molecular vectors represented in the space-the results clearly show the expected reduction in average squared error and increase in average norm as the basis set size is increased. Several distance-based statistics are also considered. These include the distribution of distances and their differences with respect to basis sets of differing size and several comparative distance measures such as Spearman rank correlation and Kruscal stress. All of the measures show that, even though the dimension can be high, the chemical spaces they represent, nonetheless, behave in a well-controlled and reasonable manner. Other abstract vector spaces analogous to that described here can also be constructed providing that the appropriate inner products can be directly

  19. 48 CFR 1812.7000 - Prohibition on guaranteed customer bases for new commercial space hardware or services. (United States)


    ... customer bases for new commercial space hardware or services. 1812.7000 Section 1812.7000 Federal... PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Commercial Space Hardware or Services 1812.7000 Prohibition on guaranteed customer bases for new commercial space hardware or services. Public Law 102-139, title III...

  20. Birth spacing of pregnant women in Nepal: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Karkee


    Full Text Available BackgroundOptimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal.MethodsA community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing.ResultsAbout 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within one year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (<24 months. The average birth spacing among the multiparous group was 44.9 (SD 21.8 months. Overall, short birth spacing appeared to be inversely associated with advancing maternal age.For the multiparous group, Janajati and lower caste women, and those whose newborn was female, were more likely to have short birth spacing.ConclusionsThe preceding interbirth interval was relatively long in the Kaski district of Nepal and tended to be associated with maternal age, caste, and sex of newborn infant. Optimal birth spacing programs should target Janajati and lower caste women, along with promotion of gender equality in society.

  1. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James


    NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology (OAST) has established three major goals, referred to as, "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies Under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Core Technologies Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. One of the main activities over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. This year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies will be awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion.

  2. A Compact Two-Stage 120 W GaN High Power Amplifier for SweepSAR Radar Systems (United States)

    Thrivikraman, Tushar; Horst, Stephen; Price, Douglas; Hoffman, James; Veilleux, Louise


    This work presents the design and measured results of a fully integrated switched power two-stage GaN HEMT high-power amplifier (HPA) achieving 60% power-added efficiency at over 120Woutput power. This high-efficiency GaN HEMT HPA is an enabling technology for L-band SweepSAR interferometric instruments that enable frequent repeat intervals and high-resolution imagery. The L-band HPA was designed using space-qualified state-of-the-art GaN HEMT technology. The amplifier exhibits over 34 dB of power gain at 51 dBm of output power across an 80 MHz bandwidth. The HPA is divided into two stages, an 8 W driver stage and 120 W output stage. The amplifier is designed for pulsed operation, with a high-speed DC drain switch operating at the pulsed-repetition interval and settles within 200 ns. In addition to the electrical design, a thermally optimized package was designed, that allows for direct thermal radiation to maintain low-junction temperatures for the GaN parts maximizing long-term reliability. Lastly, real radar waveforms are characterized and analysis of amplitude and phase stability over temperature demonstrate ultra-stable operation over temperature using integrated bias compensation circuitry allowing less than 0.2 dB amplitude variation and 2 deg phase variation over a 70 C range.

  3. Internet Technologies for Space-based Communications: State of the Art and Challenges (United States)

    Bhasin, K.; DePaula, R.; Edwards, C.


    The Internet is rapidly changing the ways we communicate information around the globe today. The desire to provide Internet-based services to anyone, anywhere, anytime has brought satellite communications to the forefront to become an integral part of the Internet. In spite of the distances involved, satellite links are proving to be capable of providing Internet services based on Internet protocol (TCP/IP) stack. This development has led to the question particularly at NASA; can satellites and other space platforms become an Internet-node in space? This will allow the direct transfer of information directly from space to the users on Earth and even be able to control the spacecraft and its instruments. NASA even wants to extend the near earth space Internet to deep space applications where scientists and the public here on Earth may view space exploration in real time via the Internet. NASA's future solar system exploration will involve intensive in situ investigations of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets. While past missions typically involved a single fly-by or orbiting science spacecraft, future missions will begin to use fleets of small, highly intelligent robotic vehicles to carry out collaborative investigations. The resulting multi-spacecraft topologies will effectively create a wide area network spanning the solar system. However, this will require significant development in Internet technologies for space use. This paper provides the status'of the Internet for near earth applications and the potential extension of the Internet for use in deep space planetary exploration. The paper will discuss the overall challenges of implementing the space Internet and how the space Internet will integrate into the complex terrestrial systems those forms the Internet of today in a hybrid set of networks. Internet. We envision extending to the deep space environment such Internet concepts as a well-designed layered architecture. This effort will require an ability to

  4. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  5. Adaptive Backstepping Controller Design for Leveling Control of an Underwater Platform Based on Joint Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Zeng


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on high precision leveling control of an underwater heavy load platform, which is viewed as an underwater parallel robot on the basis of its work pattern. The kinematic of platform with deformation is analyzed and the dynamics model of joint space is established. An adaptive backstepping controller according to Lyapunov's function is proposed for leveling control of platform based on joint space. Furthermore, the “lowest point fixed angle error” leveling scheme called “chase” is chosen for leveling control of platform. The digital simulation and practical experiment of single joint space actuator are carried out, and the results show high precision servo control of joint space. On the basis of this, the platform leveling control simulation relies on the hardware-in-loop system. The results indicate that the proposed controller can effectively restrain the influence from system parameter uncertainties and external disturbance to realize high precision leveling control of the underwater platform.

  6. A phase-space approach to atmospheric dynamics based on observational data. Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Risheng.


    This thesis is an attempt to develop systematically a phase-space approach to the atmospheric dynamics based on the theoretical achievement and application experiences in nonlinear time-series analysis. In particular, it is concerned with the derivation of quantities for describing the geometrical structure of the observed dynamics in phase-space (dimension estimation) and the examination of the observed atmospheric fluctuations in the light of phase-space representation. The thesis is, therefore composed of three major parts, i.e. an general survey of the theory of statistical approaches to dynamic systems, the methodology designed for the present study and specific applications with respect to dimension estimation and to a phase-space analysis of the tropical stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation. (orig./KW)

  7. Frames and other bases in abstract and function spaces novel methods in harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gia, Quoc; Mayeli, Azita; Mhaskar, Hrushikesh; Zhou, Ding-Xuan


    The first of a two volume set on novel methods in harmonic analysis, this book draws on a number of original research and survey papers from well-known specialists detailing the latest innovations and recently discovered links between various fields. Along with many deep theoretical results, these volumes contain numerous applications to problems in signal processing, medical imaging, geodesy, statistics, and data science. The chapters within cover an impressive range of ideas from both traditional and modern harmonic analysis, such as: the Fourier transform, Shannon sampling, frames, wavelets, functions on Euclidean spaces, analysis on function spaces of Riemannian and sub-Riemannian manifolds, Fourier analysis on manifolds and Lie groups, analysis on combinatorial graphs, sheaves, co-sheaves, and persistent homologies on topological spaces. Volume I is organized around the theme of frames and other bases in abstract and function spaces, covering topics such as: The advanced development of frames, including ...

  8. Lunar base mission technology issues and orbital demonstration requirements on space station (United States)

    Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.


    The International Space Station has been the object of considerable design, redesign, and alteration since it was originally proposed in early 1984. In the intervening years the station has slowly evolved to a specific design that was thoroughly reviewed by a large agency-wide Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF). As space station designs continue to evolve, studies must be conducted to determine the suitability of the current design for some of the primary purposes for which the station will be used. This paper concentrates on the technology requirements and issues, the on-orbit demonstration and verification program, and the space station focused support required prior to the establishment of a permanently manned lunar base as identified in the National Commission on Space report. Technology issues associated with the on-orbit assembly and processing of the lunar vehicle flight elements are also discussed.

  9. A modular Space Station/Base electrical power system - Requirements and design study. (United States)

    Eliason, J. T.; Adkisson, W. B.


    The requirements and procedures necessary for definition and specification of an electrical power system (EPS) for the future space station are discussed herein. The considered space station EPS consists of a replaceable main power module with self-contained auxiliary power, guidance, control, and communication subsystems. This independent power source may 'plug into' a space station module which has its own electrical distribution, control, power conditioning, and auxiliary power subsystems. Integration problems are discussed, and a transmission system selected with local floor-by-floor power conditioning and distribution in the station module. This technique eliminates the need for an immediate long range decision on the ultimate space base power sources by providing capability for almost any currently considered option.

  10. Identification of Fuzzy Inference Systems by Means of a Multiobjective Opposition-Based Space Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang


    Full Text Available We introduce a new category of fuzzy inference systems with the aid of a multiobjective opposition-based space search algorithm (MOSSA. The proposed MOSSA is essentially a multiobjective space search algorithm improved by using an opposition-based learning that employs a so-called opposite numbers mechanism to speed up the convergence of the optimization algorithm. In the identification of fuzzy inference system, the MOSSA is exploited to carry out the parametric identification of the fuzzy model as well as to realize its structural identification. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy models.

  11. An optimum organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary Space Base (United States)

    Ragusa, J. M.


    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify an optimum hypothetical organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary research and applications (R&A) Space Base manned by a mixed crew of technologists. Since such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than the empirical testing of it. The essential finding of this research was that a four-level project type 'total matrix' model will optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of Space Base technologists.

  12. Web-based description of the space radiation environment using the Bethe-Bloch model (United States)

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Calders, Stijn; Lapenta, Giovanni


    Space weather is a rapidly growing area of research not only in scientific and engineering applications but also in physics education and in the interest of the public. We focus especially on space radiation and its impact on space exploration. The topic is highly interdisciplinary, bringing together fundamental concepts of nuclear physics with aspects of radiation protection and space science. We give a new approach to presenting the topic by developing a web-based application that combines some of the fundamental concepts from these two fields into a single tool that can be used in the context of advanced secondary or undergraduate university education. We present DREADCode, an outreach or teaching tool to rapidly assess the current conditions of the radiation field in space. DREADCode uses the available data feeds from a number of ongoing space missions (ACE, GOES-13, GOES-15) to produce a first order approximation of the radiation dose an astronaut would receive during a mission of exploration in deep space (i.e. far from the Earth’s shielding magnetic field and from the radiation belts). DREADCode is based on an easy-to-use GUI interface available online from the European Space Weather Portal ( The core of the radiation transport computation to produce the radiation dose from the observed fluence of radiation observed by the spacecraft fleet considered is based on a relatively simple approximation: the Bethe-Bloch equation. DREADCode also assumes a simplified geometry and material configuration for the shields used to compute the dose. The approach is approximate and sacrifices some important physics on the altar of rapid execution time, which allows a real-time operation scenario. There is no intention here to produce an operational tool for use in space science and engineering. Rather, we present an educational tool at undergraduate level that uses modern web-based and programming methods to learn some of the most important

  13. Web-based description of the space radiation environment using the Bethe–Bloch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Lapenta, Giovanni; Calders, Stijn


    Space weather is a rapidly growing area of research not only in scientific and engineering applications but also in physics education and in the interest of the public. We focus especially on space radiation and its impact on space exploration. The topic is highly interdisciplinary, bringing together fundamental concepts of nuclear physics with aspects of radiation protection and space science. We give a new approach to presenting the topic by developing a web-based application that combines some of the fundamental concepts from these two fields into a single tool that can be used in the context of advanced secondary or undergraduate university education. We present DREADCode, an outreach or teaching tool to rapidly assess the current conditions of the radiation field in space. DREADCode uses the available data feeds from a number of ongoing space missions (ACE, GOES-13, GOES-15) to produce a first order approximation of the radiation dose an astronaut would receive during a mission of exploration in deep space (i.e. far from the Earth’s shielding magnetic field and from the radiation belts). DREADCode is based on an easy-to-use GUI interface available online from the European Space Weather Portal ( The core of the radiation transport computation to produce the radiation dose from the observed fluence of radiation observed by the spacecraft fleet considered is based on a relatively simple approximation: the Bethe–Bloch equation. DREADCode also assumes a simplified geometry and material configuration for the shields used to compute the dose. The approach is approximate and sacrifices some important physics on the altar of rapid execution time, which allows a real-time operation scenario. There is no intention here to produce an operational tool for use in space science and engineering. Rather, we present an educational tool at undergraduate level that uses modern web-based and programming methods to learn some of the most

  14. Space-based pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode based on the characteristics of geosynchronous orbit belt (United States)

    Hu, Yun-peng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-yu


    The US Lincoln Laboratory proved that space-based visible (SBV) observation is efficient to observe space objects, especially Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) objects. After that, SBV observation plays an important role in the space surveillance. In this paper, a novel space-based observation mode is designed to observe all the GEO objects in a relatively short time. A low earth orbit (LEO) satellite, especially a dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit satellite, is useful for space-based observation. Thus, the observation mode for GEO objects is based on a dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit satellite. It is found that the Pinch Point (PP) regions proposed by the US Lincoln Laboratory are spreading based on the analysis of the evolution principles of GEO objects. As the PP regions becoming more and more widely in the future, many strategies based on it may not be efficient any more. Hence, the key point of the space-based observation strategy design for GEO objects should be emphasized on the whole GEO belt as far as possible. The pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode is proposed in this paper based on the characteristics of GEO belt. Unlike classical space-based observation modes, pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode makes use of the one-dimensional attitude adjustment of the observation satellite. The pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode is more reliable and simple in engineering, compared with the gazing observation mode which needs to adjust the attitude from the two dimensions. It includes two types of attitude adjustment, i.e. daily and continuous attitude adjustment. Therefore, the pseudo-fixed latitude observation mode has two characteristics. In a day, the latitude of the observation region is fixed and the scanning region is about a rectangle, while the latitude of the observation region centre changes each day in a long term based on a daily strategy. The capabilities of a pseudo-fixed latitude observation instrument with a 98° dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit are

  15. Hybrid task priority-based motion control of a redundant free-floating space robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ZHOU


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hybrid task priority-based motion planning algorithm of a space robot. The satellite attitude control task is defined as the primary task, while the least-squares-based non-strict task priority solution of the end-effector plus the multi-constraint task is viewed as the secondary task. Furthermore, a null-space task compensation strategy in the joint space is proposed to derive the combination of non-strict and strict task-priority motion planning, and this novel combination is termed hybrid task priority control. Thus, the secondary task is implemented in the primary task’s null-space. Besides, the transition of the state of multiple constraints between activeness and inactiveness will only influence the end-effector task without any effect on the primary task. A set of numerical experiments made in a real-time simulation system under Linux/RTAI shows the validity and feasibility of the proposed methodology. Keywords: Base attitude control, Hybrid task-priority, Motion planning, Multiple constraints, Redundant space robot

  16. Optimal Time-Space Trade-Offs for Non-Comparison-Based Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Pagter, Jacob Illeborg


    We study the problem of sorting n integers of w bits on a unit-cost RAM with word size w, and in particular consider the time-space trade-off (product of time and space in bits) for this problem. For comparison-based algorithms, the time-space complexity is known to be Θ(n2). A result of Beame...... shows that the lower bound also holds for non-comparison-based algorithms, but no algorithm has met this for time below the comparison-based Ω(nlgn) lower bound.We show that if sorting within some time bound &Ttilde; is possible, then time T = O(&Ttilde; + nlg* n) can be achieved with high probability...... using space S = O(n2/T + w), which is optimal. Given a deterministic priority queue using amortized time t(n) per operation and space nO(1), we provide a deterministic algorithm sorting in time T = O(n(t(n) + lg* n)) with S = O(n2/T + w). Both results require that w ≤ n1-Ω(1). Using existing priority...

  17. Fractal systems of central places based on intermittency of space-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang


    Highlights: → The idea of intermittency is introduced into central place model. → The revised central place model suggests incomplete space filling. → New central place fractals are presented for urban analysis. → The average nearest distance is proposed to estimate the fractal dimension. → The concept of distance-based space is replaced by that of dimension-based space. - Abstract: The central place models are fundamentally important in theoretical geography and city planning theory. The texture and structure of central place networks have been demonstrated to be self-similar in both theoretical and empirical studies. However, the underlying rationale of central place fractals in the real world has not yet been revealed so far. This paper is devoted to illustrating the mechanisms by which the fractal patterns can be generated from central place systems. The structural dimension of the traditional central place models is d = 2 indicating no intermittency in the spatial distribution of human settlements. This dimension value is inconsistent with empirical observations. Substituting the complete space filling with the incomplete space filling, we can obtain central place models with fractional dimension D < d = 2 indicative of spatial intermittency. Thus the conventional central place models are converted into fractal central place models. If we further integrate the chance factors into the improved central place fractals, the theory will be able to explain the real patterns of urban places very well. As empirical analyses, the US cities and towns are employed to verify the fractal-based models of central places.

  18. On the concept of survivability, with application to spacecraft and space-based networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.


    Survivability is an important attribute and requirement for military systems. Recently, survivability has become increasingly important for public infrastructure systems as well. In this work, we bring considerations of survivability to bear on space systems. We develop a conceptual framework and quantitative analyses based on stochastic Petri nets (SPN) to characterize and compare the survivability of different space architectures. The architectures here considered are a monolith spacecraft and a space-based network. To build the stochastic Petri net models for the degradations and failures of these two architectures, we conducted statistical analyses of historical multi-state failure data of spacecraft subsystems, and we assembled these subsystems, and their SPN models, in ways to create our monolith and networked systems. Preliminary results indicate, and quantify the extent to which, a space-based network is more survivable than the monolith spacecraft with respect to on-orbit anomalies and failures. For space systems, during the design and acquisition process, different architectures are benchmarked against several metrics; we argue that if survivability is not accounted for, then the evaluation process is likely to be biased in favor of the traditional dominant design, namely the monolith spacecraft. If however in a given context, survivability is a critical requirement for a customer, the survivability framework here proposed, and the stochastic modeling capability developed, can demonstrate the extent to which a networked space architecture may better satisfy this requirement than a monolith spacecraft. These results should be of interest to operators whose space assets require high levels of survivability, especially in the light of emerging threats.

  19. Theory and experiments in model-based space system anomaly management (United States)

    Kitts, Christopher Adam

    This research program consists of an experimental study of model-based reasoning methods for detecting, diagnosing and resolving anomalies that occur when operating a comprehensive space system. Using a first principles approach, several extensions were made to the existing field of model-based fault detection and diagnosis in order to develop a general theory of model-based anomaly management. Based on this theory, a suite of algorithms were developed and computationally implemented in order to detect, diagnose and identify resolutions for anomalous conditions occurring within an engineering system. The theory and software suite were experimentally verified and validated in the context of a simple but comprehensive, student-developed, end-to-end space system, which was developed specifically to support such demonstrations. This space system consisted of the Sapphire microsatellite which was launched in 2001, several geographically distributed and Internet-enabled communication ground stations, and a centralized mission control complex located in the Space Technology Center in the NASA Ames Research Park. Results of both ground-based and on-board experiments demonstrate the speed, accuracy, and value of the algorithms compared to human operators, and they highlight future improvements required to mature this technology.

  20. Geo-spatial Cognition on Human's Social Activity Space Based on Multi-scale Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAI Weixin


    Full Text Available Widely applied location aware devices, including mobile phones and GPS receivers, have provided great convenience for collecting large volume individuals' geographical information. The researches on the human's society behavior space has attracts an increasingly number of researchers. In our research, based on location-based Flickr data From 2004 to May, 2014 in China, we choose five levels of spatial grids to form the multi-scale frame for investigate the correlation between the scale and the geo-spatial cognition on human's social activity space. The HT-index is selected as the fractal inspired by Alexander to estimate the maturity of the society activity on different scales. The results indicate that that the scale characteristics are related to the spatial cognition to a certain extent. It is favorable to use the spatial grid as a tool to control scales for geo-spatial cognition on human's social activity space.

  1. The daylighting dashboard - A simulation-based design analysis for daylit spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, Christoph F. [Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wienold, Jan [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)


    This paper presents a vision of how state-of-the-art computer-based analysis techniques can be effectively used during the design of daylit spaces. Following a review of recent advances in dynamic daylight computation capabilities, climate-based daylighting metrics, occupant behavior and glare analysis, a fully integrated design analysis method is introduced that simultaneously considers annual daylight availability, visual comfort and energy use: Annual daylight glare probability profiles are combined with an occupant behavior model in order to determine annual shading profiles and visual comfort conditions throughout a space. The shading profiles are then used to calculate daylight autonomy plots, energy loads, operational energy costs and green house gas emissions. The paper then shows how simulation results for a sidelit space can be visually presented to simulation non-experts using the concept of a daylighting dashboard. The paper ends with a discussion of how the daylighting dashboard could be practically implemented using technologies that are available today. (author)

  2. Object-based warping: an illusory distortion of space within objects. (United States)

    Vickery, Timothy J; Chun, Marvin M


    Visual objects are high-level primitives that are fundamental to numerous perceptual functions, such as guidance of attention. We report that objects warp visual perception of space in such a way that spatial distances within objects appear to be larger than spatial distances in ground regions. When two dots were placed inside a rectangular object, they appeared farther apart from one another than two dots with identical spacing outside of the object. To investigate whether this effect was object based, we measured the distortion while manipulating the structure surrounding the dots. Object displays were constructed with a single object, multiple objects, a partially occluded object, and an illusory object. Nonobject displays were constructed to be comparable to object displays in low-level visual attributes. In all cases, the object displays resulted in a more powerful distortion of spatial perception than comparable non-object-based displays. These results suggest that perception of space within objects is warped.

  3. Space debris removal using a high-power ground-based laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, D.K.


    The feasibility and practicality of using a ground-based laser (GBL) to remove artificial space debris is examined. Physical constraints indicate that a reactor-pumped laser (RPL) may be best suited for this mission, because of its capabilities for multimegawatt output long run-times, and near-diffraction-limited initial beams. Simulations of a laser-powered debris removal system indicate that a 5-MW RPL with a 10-meter-diameter beam director and adaptive optics capabilities can deorbit 1-kg debris from space station altitudes. Larger debris can be deorbited or transferred to safer orbits after multiple laser engagements. A ground-based laser system may be the only realistic way to access and remove some 10,000 separate objects, having velocities in the neighborhood of 7 km/sec, and being spatially distributed over some 10{sup 10} km{sup 3} of space.

  4. Study on store-space assignment based on logistic AGV in e-commerce goods to person picking pattern (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Zhu, Jie


    This paper studied on the store-space assignment based on logistic AGV in E-commerce goods to person picking pattern, and established the store-space assignment model based on the lowest picking cost, and design for store-space assignment algorithm after the cluster analysis based on similarity coefficient. And then through the example analysis, compared the picking cost between store-space assignment algorithm this paper design and according to item number and storage according to ABC classification allocation, and verified the effectiveness of the design of the store-space assignment algorithm.

  5. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development (United States)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam


    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations will be discussed, and how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and nonenvironmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. The presentation of destination environmental data demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  6. Novel Rock Detection Intelligence for Space Exploration Based on Non-Symbolic Algorithms and Concepts (United States)

    Yildirim, Sule; Beachell, Ronald L.; Veflingstad, Henning


    Future space exploration can utilize artificial intelligence as an integral part of next generation space rover technology to make the rovers more autonomous in performing mission objectives. The main advantage of the increased autonomy through a higher degree of intelligence is that it allows for greater utilization of rover resources by reducing the frequency of time consuming communications between rover and earth. In this paper, we propose a space exploration application of our research on a non-symbolic algorithm and concepts model. This model is based on one of the most recent approaches of cognitive science and artificial intelligence research, a parallel distributed processing approach. We use the Mars rovers. Sprit and Opportunity, as a starting point for proposing what rovers in the future could do if the presented model of non-symbolic algorithms and concepts is embedded in a future space rover. The chosen space exploration application for this paper, novel rock detection, is only one of many potential space exploration applications which can be optimized (through reduction of the frequency of rover-earth communications. collection and transmission of only data that is distinctive/novel) through the use of artificial intelligence technology compared to existing approaches.

  7. A Space-Based Perspective of the 2017 Hurricane Season from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission (United States)

    Skofronick Jackson, G.; Petersen, W. A.; Huffman, G. J.; Kirschbaum, D.; Wolff, D. B.; Tan, J.; Zavodsky, B.


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission collected unique, near real time 3-D satellite-based views of hurricanes in 2017 together with estimated precipitation accumulation using merged satellite data for scientific studies and societal applications. Central to GPM is the NASA-JAXA GPM Core Observatory (CO). The GPM-CO carries an advanced dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and a well-calibrated, multi-frequency passive microwave radiometer that together serve as an on orbit reference for precipitation measurements made by the international GPM satellite constellation. GPM-CO overpasses of major Hurricanes such as Harvey, Irma, Maria, and Ophelia revealed intense convective structures in DPR radar reflectivity together with deep ice-phase microphysics in both the eyewalls and outer rain bands. Of considerable scientific interest, and yet to be determined, will be DPR-diagnosed characteristics of the rain drop size distribution as a function of convective structure, intensity and microphysics. The GPM-CO active/passive suite also provided important decision support information. For example, the National Hurricane Center used GPM-CO observations as a tool to inform track and intensity estimates in their forecast briefings. Near-real-time rainfall accumulation from the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) was also provided via the NASA SPoRT team to Puerto Rico following Hurricane Maria when ground-based radar systems on the island failed. Comparisons between IMERG, NOAA Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor data, and rain gauge rainfall accumulations near Houston, Texas during Hurricane Harvey revealed spatial biases between ground and IMERG satellite estimates, and a general underestimation of IMERG rain accumulations associated with infrared observations, collectively illustrating the difficulty of measuring rainfall in hurricanes.GPM data continue to advance scientific research on tropical cyclone intensification and structure, and contribute to

  8. A bootstrap based space-time surveillance model with an application to crime occurrences (United States)

    Kim, Youngho; O'Kelly, Morton


    This study proposes a bootstrap-based space-time surveillance model. Designed to find emerging hotspots in near-real time, the bootstrap based model is characterized by its use of past occurrence information and bootstrap permutations. Many existing space-time surveillance methods, using population at risk data to generate expected values, have resulting hotspots bounded by administrative area units and are of limited use for near-real time applications because of the population data needed. However, this study generates expected values for local hotspots from past occurrences rather than population at risk. Also, bootstrap permutations of previous occurrences are used for significant tests. Consequently, the bootstrap-based model, without the requirement of population at risk data, (1) is free from administrative area restriction, (2) enables more frequent surveillance for continuously updated registry database, and (3) is readily applicable to criminology and epidemiology surveillance. The bootstrap-based model performs better for space-time surveillance than the space-time scan statistic. This is shown by means of simulations and an application to residential crime occurrences in Columbus, OH, year 2000.

  9. A new open-source Python-based Space Weather data access, visualization, and analysis toolkit (United States)

    de Larquier, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Frissell, N. A.; Spaleta, J.; Kunduri, B.; Thomas, E. G.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Baker, J. B.


    Space weather research relies heavily on combining and comparing data from multiple observational platforms. Current frameworks exist to aggregate some of the data sources, most based on file downloads via web or ftp interfaces. Empirical models are mostly fortran based and lack interfaces with more useful scripting languages. In an effort to improve data and model access, the SuperDARN community has been developing a Python-based Space Science Data Visualization Toolkit (DaViTpy). At the center of this development was a redesign of how our data (from 30 years of SuperDARN radars) was made available. Several access solutions are now wrapped into one convenient Python interface which probes local directories, a new remote NoSQL database, and an FTP server to retrieve the requested data based on availability. Motivated by the efficiency of this interface and the inherent need for data from multiple instruments, we implemented similar modules for other space science datasets (POES, OMNI, Kp, AE...), and also included fundamental empirical models with Python interfaces to enhance data analysis (IRI, HWM, MSIS...). All these modules and more are gathered in a single convenient toolkit, which is collaboratively developed and distributed using Github and continues to grow. While still in its early stages, we expect this toolkit will facilitate multi-instrument space weather research and improve scientific productivity.

  10. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD (United States)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David


    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  11. Frames and bases in tensor products of Hilbert spaces and Hilbert C ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [14] Heil C E and Walnut D F, Continuous and discrete wavelet transforms, SIAM Review 31. (1989) 628–666. [15] Khosravi A and Asgari M S, Frames and bases in tensor product of Hilbert spaces, Int. J. Math. 4(6) (2003) 527–538. [16] Lance E C, Hilbert C. ∗. -modules – a toolkit for operator algebraists, London Math. Soc.

  12. Optical Correction Of Space-Based Telescopes Using A Deformable Mirror System (United States)


    492 DM. The quarter wave plates polarize the light so that as it reflects off the DM, the light is then redirected at the beam splitter to the one...1  II.  SPACE-BASED TELESCOPE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS .......................3  A.  ADAPTIVE OPTICS...3  B.  DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

  13. The RFI situation for a space-based low-frequency radio astronomy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.


    Space based ultra-long wavelength radio astronomy has recently gained a lot of interest. Techniques to open the virtually unexplored frequency band below 30 MHz are becoming within reach at this moment. Due to the ionosphere and the radio interference (RFI) on Earth exploring this frequency band

  14. A multigrid based 3D space-charge routine in the tracking code GPT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöplau, G.; Rienen, van U.; Loos, de M.J.; Geer, van der S.B.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.


    Fast calculation of3D non-linear space-charge fields is essential for the simulation ofhigh-brightness charged particle beams. We report on our development of a new 3D spacecharge routine in the General Particle Tracer (GPT) code. The model is based on a nonequidistant multigrid Poisson solver that

  15. An Exploration of Hybrid Spaces for Place-Based Geomorphology with Latino Bilingual Children (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, Patricia; Bannan, Brenda


    Latino bilingual children hold rich understandings, which are underexplored and underutilized in the geoscience classroom. Oftentimes, young Latinos possess unique cultural land experiences shaping their place identities. We consider science as language and culture, and propose place-based geoscience hybrid space explorations that are culturally…

  16. An extensible agent architecture for a competitive market-based allocation of consumer attention space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. 't Hoen (Pieter Jan); S.M. Bohte (Sander); E.H. Gerding (Enrico); J.A. La Poutré (Han)


    textabstractA competitive distributed recommendation mechanism is introduced based on adaptive software agents for efficiently allocating the ``customer attention space'', or banners. In the example of an electronic shopping mall, the task of correctly profiling and analyzing the customers is

  17. Resident Space Object Characterization and Behavior Understanding via Machine Learning and Ontology-based Bayesian Networks (United States)

    Furfaro, R.; Linares, R.; Gaylor, D.; Jah, M.; Walls, R.


    In this paper, we present an end-to-end approach that employs machine learning techniques and Ontology-based Bayesian Networks (BN) to characterize the behavior of resident space objects. State-of-the-Art machine learning architectures (e.g. Extreme Learning Machines, Convolutional Deep Networks) are trained on physical models to learn the Resident Space Object (RSO) features in the vectorized energy and momentum states and parameters. The mapping from measurements to vectorized energy and momentum states and parameters enables behavior characterization via clustering in the features space and subsequent RSO classification. Additionally, Space Object Behavioral Ontologies (SOBO) are employed to define and capture the domain knowledge-base (KB) and BNs are constructed from the SOBO in a semi-automatic fashion to execute probabilistic reasoning over conclusions drawn from trained classifiers and/or directly from processed data. Such an approach enables integrating machine learning classifiers and probabilistic reasoning to support higher-level decision making for space domain awareness applications. The innovation here is to use these methods (which have enjoyed great success in other domains) in synergy so that it enables a "from data to discovery" paradigm by facilitating the linkage and fusion of large and disparate sources of information via a Big Data Science and Analytics framework.

  18. Assessing Essential Qualities of Urban Space with Emotional and Visual Data Based on GIS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li


    Full Text Available Finding a method to evaluate people’s emotional responses to urban spaces in a valid and objective way is fundamentally important for urban design practices and related policy making. Analysis of the essential qualities of urban space could be made both more effective and more accurate using innovative information techniques that have become available in the era of big data. This study introduces an integrated method based on geographical information systems (GIS and an emotion-tracking technique to quantify the relationship between people’s emotional responses and urban space. This method can evaluate the degree to which people’s emotional responses are influenced by multiple urban characteristics such as building shapes and textures, isovist parameters, visual entropy, and visual fractals. The results indicate that urban spaces may influence people’s emotional responses through both spatial sequence arrangements and shifting scenario sequences. Emotional data were collected with body sensors and GPS devices. Spatial clustering was detected to target effective sampling locations; then, isovists were generated to extract building textures. Logistic regression and a receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to determine the key isovist parameters and the probabilities that they influenced people’s emotion. Finally, based on the results, we make some suggestions for design professionals in the field of urban space optimization.

  19. Space-based visual attention: a marker of immature selective attention in toddlers? (United States)

    Rivière, James; Brisson, Julie


    Various studies suggested that attentional difficulties cause toddlers' failure in some spatial search tasks. However, attention is not a unitary construct and this study investigated two attentional mechanisms: location selection (space-based attention) and object selection (object-based attention). We investigated how toddlers' attention is distributed in the visual field during a manual search task for objects moving out of sight, namely the moving boxes task. Results show that 2.5-year-olds who failed this task allocated more attention to the location of the relevant object than to the object itself. These findings suggest that in some manual search tasks the primacy of space-based attention over object-based attention could be a marker of immature selective attention in toddlers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. State-space modelling for the ejector-based refrigeration system driven by low grade energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Binqiang; Cai, Wenjian; Wang, Xinli


    This paper presents a novel global state-space model to describe the ejector-based refrigeration system, which includes the dynamics of the two heat exchangers and the static properties of ejector, compressor and expansion valve. Different from the existing methods, the proposed method introduces some intermediate variables into the dynamic modelling in developing reduced order models of the heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) based on the Number of Transfer Units (NTU) method. This global model with fewer dimensions is much simpler and can be more convenient for the real-time control system design, compared with other dynamic models. Finally, the proposed state-space model has been validated by dynamic response experiments on the ejector-based refrigeration cycle with refrigerant R134a.The experimental results indicate that the proposed model can predict well the dynamics of the ejector-based refrigeration system. - Highlights: • A low-order state-space model of ejector-based refrigeration system is presented. • Reduced-order models of heat exchangers are developed based on NTU method. • The variations of mass flow rates are introduced in multiple fluid phase regions. • Experimental results show the proposed model has a good performance

  1. Surveying glacier bedrock topography with a helicopter-borne dual-polarization ground-penetrating radar system (United States)

    Langhammer, L.; Rabenstein, L.; Schmid, L.; Bauder, A.; Schaer, P.; Maurer, H.


    Glacier mass estimations are crucial for future run-off projections in the Swiss Alps. Traditionally, ice thickness modeling approaches and ground-based radar transects have been the tools of choice for estimating glacier volume in high mountain areas, but these methods either contain high uncertainties or are logistically expensive and offer mostly only sparse subsurface information. We have developed a helicopter-borne dual-polarization ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system, which enhances operational feasibility in rough, high-elevation terrain and increases the data output per acquisition campaign significantly. Our system employs a prototype pulseEKKO device with two broadside 25-MHz antenna pairs fixed to a helicopter-towed wooden frame. Additionally attached to the system are a laser altimeter for measuring the flight height above ground, three GPS receivers for accurate positioning and a GoPro camera for obtaining visual images of the surface. Previous investigations have shown the significant impact of the antenna dipole orientation on the detectability of the bedrock reflection. For optimal results, the dipoles of the GPR should be aligned parallel to the strike direction of the surrounding mountain walls. In areas with a generally unknown bedrock topography, such as saddle areas or diverging zones, a dual-polarization system is particularly useful. This could be demonstrated with helicopter-borne GPR profiles acquired on more than 25 glaciers in the Swiss Alps. We observed significant differences in ice-bedrock interface visibility depending on the orientation of the antennas.

  2. Nuclear reactor power as applied to a space-based radar mission (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.


    The SP-100 Project was established to develop and demonstrate feasibility of a space reactor power system (SRPS) at power levels of 10's of kilowatts to a megawatt. To help determine systems requirements for the SRPS, a mission and spacecraft were examined which utilize this power system for a space-based radar to observe moving objects. Aspects of the mission and spacecraft bearing on the power system were the primary objectives of this study; performance of the radar itself was not within the scope. The study was carried out by the Systems Design Audit Team of the SP-100 Project.

  3. Innovative Approaches to Space-Based Manufacturing and Rapid Prototyping of Composite Materials (United States)

    Hill, Charles S.


    The ability to deploy large habitable structures, construct, and service exploration vehicles in low earth orbit will be an enabling capability for continued human exploration of the solar system. It is evident that advanced manufacturing methods to fabricate replacement parts and re-utilize launch vehicle structural mass by converting it to different uses will be necessary to minimize costs and allow flexibility to remote crews engaged in space travel. Recent conceptual developments and the combination of inter-related approaches to low-cost manufacturing of composite materials and structures are described in context leading to the possibility of on-orbit and space-based manufacturing.

  4. Space-Based Remote Sensing of the Earth: A Report to the Congress (United States)


    The commercialization of the LANDSAT Satellites, remote sensing research and development as applied to the Earth and its atmosphere as studied by NASA and NOAA is presented. Major gaps in the knowledge of the Earth and its atmosphere are identified and a series of space based measurement objectives are derived. The near-term space observations programs of the United States and other countries are detailed. The start is presented of the planning process to develop an integrated national program for research and development in Earth remote sensing for the remainder of this century and the many existing and proposed satellite and sensor systems that the program may include are described.

  5. Command and Control of Space Assets Through Internet-Based Technologies Demonstrated (United States)

    Foltz, David A.


    The NASA Glenn Research Center successfully demonstrated a transmission-control-protocol/ Internet-protocol- (TCP/IP) based approach to the command and control of onorbit assets over a secure network. This is a significant accomplishment because future NASA missions will benefit by using Internet-standards-based protocols. Benefits of this Internet-based space command and control system architecture include reduced mission costs and increased mission efficiency. The demonstration proved that this communications architecture is viable for future NASA missions. This demonstration was a significant feat involving multiple NASA organizations and industry. Phillip Paulsen, from Glenn's Project Development and Integration Office, served as the overall project lead, and David Foltz, from Glenn's Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch, provided the hybrid networking support for the required Internet connections. The goal was to build a network that would emulate a connection between a space experiment on the International Space Station and a researcher accessing the experiment from anywhere on the Internet, as shown. The experiment was interfaced to a wireless 802.11 network inside the demonstration area. The wireless link provided connectivity to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Internet Link Terminal (TILT) satellite uplink terminal located 300 ft away in a parking lot on top of a panel van. TILT provided a crucial link in this demonstration. Leslie Ambrose, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, provided the TILT/TDRSS support. The TILT unit transmitted the signal to TDRS 6 and was received at the White Sands Second TDRSS Ground Station. This station provided the gateway to the Internet. Coordination also took place at the White Sands station to install a Veridian Firewall and automated security incident measurement (ASIM) system to the Second TDRSS Ground Station Internet gateway. The firewall provides a trusted network for the simulated space

  6. Taking the Politics Out of Satellite and Space-Based Communications Protocols (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.


    After many years of studies, experimentation, and deployment, large amounts of misinformation and misconceptions remain regarding applicability of various communications protocols for use in satellite and space-based networks. This paper attempts to remove much of the politics, misconceptions, and misinformation that have plagued spacebased communications protocol development and deployment. This paper provides a common vocabulary for communications; a general discussion of the requirements for various communication environments; an evaluation of tradeoffs between circuit and packet-switching technologies, and the pros and cons of various link, network, transport, application, and security protocols. Included is the applicability of protocol enhancing proxies to NASA, Department of Defense (DOD), and commercial space communication systems.

  7. Computers for Manned Space Applications Base on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components (United States)

    Vogel, T.; Gronowski, M.


    Similar to the consumer markets there has been an ever increasing demand in processing power, signal processing capabilities and memory space also for computers used for science data processing in space. An important driver of this development have been the payload developers for the International Space Station, requesting high-speed data acquisition and fast control loops in increasingly complex systems. Current experiments now even perform video processing and compression with their payload controllers. Nowadays the requirements for a space qualified computer are often far beyond the capabilities of, for example, the classic SPARC architecture that is found in ERC32 or LEON CPUs. An increase in performance usually demands costly and power consuming application specific solutions. Continuous developments over the last few years have now led to an alternative approach that is based on complete electronics modules manufactured for commercial and industrial customers. Computer modules used in industrial environments with a high demand for reliability under harsh environmental conditions like chemical reactors, electrical power plants or on manufacturing lines are entered into a selection procedure. Promising candidates then undergo a detailed characterisation process developed by Astrium Space Transportation. After thorough analysis and some modifications, these modules can replace fully qualified custom built electronics in specific, although not safety critical applications in manned space. This paper focuses on the benefits of COTS1 based electronics modules and the necessary analyses and modifications for their utilisation in manned space applications on the ISS. Some considerations regarding overall systems architecture will also be included. Furthermore this paper will also pinpoint issues that render such modules unsuitable for specific tasks, and justify the reasons. Finally, the conclusion of this paper will advocate the implementation of COTS based

  8. Optical asymmetric cryptography using a three-dimensional space-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong


    In this paper, we present optical asymmetric cryptography combined with a three-dimensional (3D) space-based model. An optical multiple-random-phase-mask encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain, and one random phase-only mask and the plaintext are combined as a series of particles. Subsequently, the series of particles is translated along an axial direction, and is distributed in a 3D space. During image decryption, the robustness and security of the proposed method are further analyzed. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optical image encryption method

  9. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations (United States)

    Eckman, Richard S.


    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  10. An adaptive process-based cloud infrastructure for space situational awareness applications (United States)

    Liu, Bingwei; Chen, Yu; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Rubin, Bruce


    Space situational awareness (SSA) and defense space control capabilities are top priorities for groups that own or operate man-made spacecraft. Also, with the growing amount of space debris, there is an increase in demand for contextual understanding that necessitates the capability of collecting and processing a vast amount sensor data. Cloud computing, which features scalable and flexible storage and computing services, has been recognized as an ideal candidate that can meet the large data contextual challenges as needed by SSA. Cloud computing consists of physical service providers and middleware virtual machines together with infrastructure, platform, and software as service (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) models. However, the typical Virtual Machine (VM) abstraction is on a per operating systems basis, which is at too low-level and limits the flexibility of a mission application architecture. In responding to this technical challenge, a novel adaptive process based cloud infrastructure for SSA applications is proposed in this paper. In addition, the details for the design rationale and a prototype is further examined. The SSA Cloud (SSAC) conceptual capability will potentially support space situation monitoring and tracking, object identification, and threat assessment. Lastly, the benefits of a more granular and flexible cloud computing resources allocation are illustrated for data processing and implementation considerations within a representative SSA system environment. We show that the container-based virtualization performs better than hypervisor-based virtualization technology in an SSA scenario.

  11. CEOS contributions to informing energy management and policy decision making using space-based Earth observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckman, Richard S.; Stackhouse, Paul W.


    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the “space arm” for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. We discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  12. Development of a Multivariable Parametric Cost Analysis for Space-Based Telescopes (United States)

    Dollinger, Courtnay


    Over the past 400 years, the telescope has proven to be a valuable tool in helping humankind understand the Universe around us. The images and data produced by telescopes have revolutionized planetary, solar, stellar, and galactic astronomy and have inspired a wide range of people, from the child who dreams about the images seen on NASA websites to the most highly trained scientist. Like all scientific endeavors, astronomical research must operate within the constraints imposed by budget limitations. Hence the importance of understanding cost: to find the balance between the dreams of scientists and the restrictions of the available budget. By logically analyzing the data we have collected for over thirty different telescopes from more than 200 different sources, statistical methods, such as plotting regressions and residuals, can be used to determine what drives the cost of telescopes to build and use a cost model for space-based telescopes. Previous cost models have focused their attention on ground-based telescopes due to limited data for space telescopes and the larger number and longer history of ground-based astronomy. Due to the increased availability of cost data from recent space-telescope construction, we have been able to produce and begin testing a comprehensive cost model for space telescopes, with guidance from the cost models for ground-based telescopes. By separating the variables that effect cost such as diameter, mass, wavelength, density, data rate, and number of instruments, we advance the goal to better understand the cost drivers of space telescopes.. The use of sophisticated mathematical techniques to improve the accuracy of cost models has the potential to help society make informed decisions about proposed scientific projects. An improved knowledge of cost will allow scientists to get the maximum value returned for the money given and create a harmony between the visions of scientists and the reality of a budget.

  13. Birth Spacing of Pregnant Women in Nepal: A Community-Based Study. (United States)

    Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H


    Optimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural, and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal. A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic, and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing. About 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within 1 year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (gender equality in society.

  14. Availability of niobium and tantalum-base alloy products for space nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.K.; Huber, L.H.


    In order to provide orbiting electrical power generators for use in Space, current US efforts are focusing on fast neutron flux nuclear power systems; these systems would generate in excess of 100 kW, yet be compact enough to be economically carried into Space by NASA's Space Shuttle. Considerable data on physical, mechanical and corrosion properties are available for the Nb and Ta-base alloys that are prime candidates for such structural components. However, most of these data pertain to the metallurgical state of the art of the 1965-1975 time period; therefore, they have to be reviewed and updated as appropriate to reflect present processing and manufacturing technology. This article summarizes this state of the art, making reasonable projections as well for ongoing improvements and their probable impact on alloy properties achievable in the 1990's

  15. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  16. Approaching control for tethered space robot based on disturbance observer using super twisting law (United States)

    Hu, Yongxin; Huang, Panfeng; Meng, Zhongjie; Wang, Dongke; Lu, Yingbo


    Approaching control is a key mission for the tethered space robot to perform the task of removing space debris. But the uncertainties of the TSR such as the change of model parameter have an important effect on the approaching mission. Considering the space tether and the attitude of the gripper, the dynamic model of the TSR is derived using Lagrange method. Then a disturbance observer is designed to estimate the uncertainty based on STW control method. Using the disturbance observer, a controller is designed, and the performance is compared with the dynamic inverse controller which turns out that the proposed controller performs better. Numerical simulation validates the feasibility of the proposed controller on the position and attitude tracking of the TSR.

  17. Development and verification of a compact TDC-based data acquisition system for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losekamm, Martin [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institute of Astronautics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Gaisbauer, Dominic; Konorov, Igor; Paul, Stephan; Poeschl, Thomas [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)


    The advances of solid-state detectors and in particular those for the detection of photons have made their application in space systems increasingly attractive in recent years. The use of, for example, silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) paired with a suitable scintillating material allows the development of compact and lightweight particle detectors. The Antiproton Flux in Space experiment (AFIS) intends to measure the flux of antiprotons trapped in Earth's magnetosphere aboard a nanosatellite using an active target tracking detector, consisting of plastic scintillating fibers read out by SiPMs. In order to implement a large number of detector channels while adhering to the given space, mass and power constraints, the development of a compact TDC-based data acquisition system was proposed. This talk presents a current prototype featuring 900 channels, real-time multi-channel temperature measurement and bias regulation. Possible alternative applications as well as the next steps in the development are also discussed.

  18. Move the Neighborhood: study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    evaluation will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. DISCUSSION: The study presents new methods and approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect......BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR...... and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods...

  19. The CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation: Enhancing the Value of Space-Based Observations (United States)

    Eckman, Richard; Zehner, Claus; Al-Saadi, Jay


    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) coordinates civil space-borne observations of the Earth. Participating agencies strive to enhance international coordination and data exchange and to optimize societal benefit. In recent years, CEOS has collaborated closely with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in implementing the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) space-based objectives. The goal of the CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) is to collect and deliver data to improve monitoring, assessment and predictive capabilities for changes in the ozone layer, air quality and climate forcing associated with changes in the environment through coordination of existing and future international space assets. A project to coordinate and enhance the science value of a future constellation of geostationary sensors measuring parameters relevant to air quality supports the forthcoming European Sentinel-4, Korean GEMS, and US TEMPO missions. Recommendations have been developed for harmonization to mutually improve data quality and facilitate widespread use of the data products.

  20. Emotion-based Music Rretrieval on a Well-reduced Audio Feature Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Chua, Bee Yong; Nanopoulos, Alexandros


    -emotion. However, the real-time systems that retrieve music over large music databases, can achieve order of magnitude performance increase, if applying multidimensional indexing over a dimensionally reduced audio feature space. To meet this performance achievement, in this paper, extensive studies are conducted......Music expresses emotion. A number of audio extracted features have influence on the perceived emotional expression of music. These audio features generate a high-dimensional space, on which music similarity retrieval can be performed effectively, with respect to human perception of the music...... on a number of dimensionality reduction algorithms, including both classic and novel approaches. The paper clearly envisages which dimensionality reduction techniques on the considered audio feature space, can preserve in average the accuracy of the emotion-based music retrieval....

  1. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations, volume 1 (United States)


    A two phase study was conducted to analyze and develop the requirements for remote operating systems as applied to space based operations for the servicing, maintenance, and repair of satellites. Phase one consisted of the development of servicing requirements to establish design criteria for remote operating systems. Phase two defined preferred system concepts and development plans which met the requirements established in phase one. The specific tasks in phase two were to: (1) identify desirable operational and conceptual approaches for selected mission scenarios; (2) examine the potential impact of remote operating systems incorporated into the design of the space station; (3) address remote operating systems design issues, such as mobility, which are effected by the space station configuration; and (4) define the programmatic approaches for technology development, testing, simulation, and flight demonstration.

  2. Operation of commercially-based microcomputer technology in a space radiation environment (United States)

    Yelverton, J. N.

    This paper focuses on detection and recovery techniques that should enable the reliable operation of commercially-based microprocessor technology in the harsh radiation environment of space and at high altitudes. This approach is especially significant in light of the current shift in emphasis (due to cost) from space hardened Class-S parts qualification to a more direct use of commercial parts. The method should offset some of the concern that the newer high density state-of-the-art RISC and CISC microprocessors can be used in future space applications. Also, commercial aviation, should benefit, since radiation induced transients are a new issue arising from the increased quantities of microcomputers used in aircraft avionics.

  3. A brief comparison between grid based real space algorithms and spectrum algorithms for electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin-Wang


    Quantum mechanical ab initio calculation constitutes the biggest portion of the computer time in material science and chemical science simulations. As a computer center like NERSC, to better serve these communities, it will be very useful to have a prediction for the future trends of ab initio calculations in these areas. Such prediction can help us to decide what future computer architecture can be most useful for these communities, and what should be emphasized on in future supercomputer procurement. As the size of the computer and the size of the simulated physical systems increase, there is a renewed interest in using the real space grid method in electronic structure calculations. This is fueled by two factors. First, it is generally assumed that the real space grid method is more suitable for parallel computation for its limited communication requirement, compared with spectrum method where a global FFT is required. Second, as the size N of the calculated system increases together with the computer power, O(N) scaling approaches become more favorable than the traditional direct O(N 3 ) scaling methods. These O(N) methods are usually based on localized orbital in real space, which can be described more naturally by the real space basis. In this report, the author compares the real space methods versus the traditional plane wave (PW) spectrum methods, for their technical pros and cons, and the possible of future trends. For the real space method, the author focuses on the regular grid finite different (FD) method and the finite element (FE) method. These are the methods used mostly in material science simulation. As for chemical science, the predominant methods are still Gaussian basis method, and sometime the atomic orbital basis method. These two basis sets are localized in real space, and there is no indication that their roles in quantum chemical simulation will change anytime soon. The author focuses on the density functional theory (DFT), which is the

  4. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James


    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket

  5. Trajectory Planning of 7-DOF Space Manipulator for Minimizing Base Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang


    Full Text Available In the free-floating mode, there is intense dynamic coupling existing between the space manipulator and the base, and the base attitude may change while performing a motion with its manipulator. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the interference that resulted from the manipulator movement. For planning trajectories of the space manipulator with 7 degrees of freedom (7-DOF, simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SAPSO algorithm is presented in the paper. Firstly, kinematics equations are setup. Secondly, the joint functions are parameterized by sinusoidal functions, and the objective function is defined according to the motion constraints of manipulator and accuracy requirements of the base attitude. Finally, SAPSO algorithm is used to search the optimal trajectory. The simulation results verify the proposed method.

  6. Modeling of carbonate reservoir variable secondary pore space based on CT images (United States)

    Nie, X.; Nie, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.


    Digital core technology has brought convenience to us, and X-ray CT scanning is one of the most common way to obtain 3D digital cores. However, it can only provide the original information of the only samples being scanned, and we can't modify the porosity of the scanned cores. For numerical rock physical simulations, a series of cores with variable porosities are needed to determine the relationship between the physical properties and porosity. In carbonate rocks, the secondary pore space including dissolution pores, caves and natural fractures is the key reservoir space, which makes the study of carbonate secondary porosity very important. To achieve the variation of porosities in one rock sample, based on CT scanned digital cores, according to the physical and chemical properties of carbonate rocks, several mathematical methods are chosen to simulate the variation of secondary pore space. We use the erosion and dilation operations of mathematical morphology method to simulate the pore space changes of dissolution pores and caves. We also use the Fractional Brownian Motion model to generate natural fractures with different widths and angles in digital cores to simulate fractured carbonate rocks. The morphological opening-and-closing operations in mathematical morphology method are used to simulate distribution of fluid in the pore space. The established 3D digital core models with different secondary porosities and water saturation status can be used in the study of the physical property numerical simulations of carbonate reservoir rocks.

  7. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.


    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  8. The fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system for space power systems: AMPERES, phase 1 (United States)

    Lee, S. C.


    The objective is to develop a real time fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system (KBS) for space power systems which can save costly operational manpower and can achieve more reliable space power system operation. The proposed KBS was developed using the Autonomously Managed Power System (AMPS) test facility currently installed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), but the basic approach taken for this project could be applicable for other space power systems. The proposed KBS is entitled Autonomously Managed Power-System Extendible Real-time Expert System (AMPERES). In Phase 1 the emphasis was put on the design of the overall KBS, the identification of the basic research required, the initial performance of the research, and the development of a prototype KBS. In Phase 2, emphasis is put on the completion of the research initiated in Phase 1, and the enhancement of the prototype KBS developed in Phase 1. This enhancement is intended to achieve a working real time KBS incorporated with the NASA space power system test facilities. Three major research areas were identified and progress was made in each area. These areas are real time data acquisition and its supporting data structure; sensor value validations; development of inference scheme for effective fault monitoring and diagnosis, and its supporting knowledge representation scheme.

  9. Space imaging measurement system based on fixed lens and moving detector (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Doshida, Minoru; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu


    We have developed the Space Imaging Measurement System based on the fixed lens and fast moving detector to the control of the autonomous ground vehicle. The space measurement is the most important task in the development of the autonomous ground vehicle. In this study we move the detector back and forth along the optical axis at the fast rate to measure the three-dimensional image data. This system is just appropriate to the autonomous ground vehicle because this system does not send out any optical energy to measure the distance and keep the safety. And we use the digital camera of the visible ray range. Therefore it gives us the cost reduction of the three-dimensional image data acquisition with respect to the imaging laser system. We can combine many pieces of the narrow space imaging measurement data to construct the wide range three-dimensional data. This gives us the improvement of the image recognition with respect to the object space. To develop the fast movement of the detector, we build the counter mass balance in the mechanical crank system of the Space Imaging Measurement System. And then we set up the duct to prevent the optical noise due to the ray not coming through lens. The object distance is derived from the focus distance which related to the best focused image data. The best focused image data is selected from the image of the maximum standard deviation in the standard deviations of series images.

  10. OLTARIS: An Efficient Web-Based Tool for Analyzing Materials Exposed to Space Radiation (United States)

    Slaba, Tony; McMullen, Amelia M.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Sandridge, Chris A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Blatting, Steve R.


    The near-Earth space radiation environment includes energetic galactic cosmic rays (GCR), high intensity proton and electron belts, and the potential for solar particle events (SPE). These sources may penetrate shielding materials and deposit significant energy in sensitive electronic devices on board spacecraft and satellites. Material and design optimization methods may be used to reduce the exposure and extend the operational lifetime of individual components and systems. Since laboratory experiments are expensive and may not cover the range of particles and energies relevant for space applications, such optimization may be done computationally with efficient algorithms that include the various constraints placed on the component, system, or mission. In the present work, the web-based tool OLTARIS (On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space) is presented, and the applicability of the tool for rapidly analyzing exposure levels within either complicated shielding geometries or user-defined material slabs exposed to space radiation is demonstrated. An example approach for material optimization is also presented. Slabs of various advanced multifunctional materials are defined and exposed to several space radiation environments. The materials and thicknesses defining each layer in the slab are then systematically adjusted to arrive at an optimal slab configuration.

  11. Space, the Final Frontier”: How Good are Agent-Based Models at Simulating Individuals and Space in Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Heppenstall


    Full Text Available Cities are complex systems, comprising of many interacting parts. How we simulate and understand causality in urban systems is continually evolving. Over the last decade the agent-based modeling (ABM paradigm has provided a new lens for understanding the effects of interactions of individuals and how through such interactions macro structures emerge, both in the social and physical environment of cities. However, such a paradigm has been hindered due to computational power and a lack of large fine scale datasets. Within the last few years we have witnessed a massive increase in computational processing power and storage, combined with the onset of Big Data. Today geographers find themselves in a data rich era. We now have access to a variety of data sources (e.g., social media, mobile phone data, etc. that tells us how, and when, individuals are using urban spaces. These data raise several questions: can we effectively use them to understand and model cities as complex entities? How well have ABM approaches lent themselves to simulating the dynamics of urban processes? What has been, or will be, the influence of Big Data on increasing our ability to understand and simulate cities? What is the appropriate level of spatial analysis and time frame to model urban phenomena? Within this paper we discuss these questions using several examples of ABM applied to urban geography to begin a dialogue about the utility of ABM for urban modeling. The arguments that the paper raises are applicable across the wider research environment where researchers are considering using this approach.

  12. A technique for generating phase-space-based Monte Carlo beamlets in radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, K; Popescu, I A; Zavgorodni, S


    As radiotherapy treatment planning moves toward Monte Carlo (MC) based dose calculation methods, the MC beamlet is becoming an increasingly common optimization entity. At present, methods used to produce MC beamlets have utilized a particle source model (PSM) approach. In this work we outline the implementation of a phase-space-based approach to MC beamlet generation that is expected to provide greater accuracy in beamlet dose distributions. In this approach a standard BEAMnrc phase space is sorted and divided into beamlets with particles labeled using the inheritable particle history variable. This is achieved with the use of an efficient sorting algorithm, capable of sorting a phase space of any size into the required number of beamlets in only two passes. Sorting a phase space of five million particles can be achieved in less than 8 s on a single-core 2.2 GHz CPU. The beamlets can then be transported separately into a patient CT dataset, producing separate dose distributions (doselets). Methods for doselet normalization and conversion of dose to absolute units of Gy for use in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan optimization are also described. (note)

  13. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation (United States)

    Perez, C. L.; Johnson, J. O.

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,(gamma)/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

  14. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.


    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  15. Cyber Security Threats to Safety-Critical, Space-Based Infrastructures (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Atencia Yepez, A.


    Space-based systems play an important role within national critical infrastructures. They are being integrated into advanced air-traffic management applications, rail signalling systems, energy distribution software etc. Unfortunately, the end users of communications, location sensing and timing applications often fail to understand that these infrastructures are vulnerable to a wide range of security threats. The following pages focus on concerns associated with potential cyber-attacks. These are important because future attacks may invalidate many of the safety assumptions that support the provision of critical space-based services. These safety assumptions are based on standard forms of hazard analysis that ignore cyber-security considerations This is a significant limitation when, for instance, security attacks can simultaneously exploit multiple vulnerabilities in a manner that would never occur without a deliberate enemy seeking to damage space based systems and ground infrastructures. We address this concern through the development of a combined safety and security risk assessment methodology. The aim is to identify attack scenarios that justify the allocation of additional design resources so that safety barriers can be strengthened to increase our resilience against security threats.

  16. Controls on valley spacing in landscapes subject to rapid base-level fall (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Pelletier, John D.


    What controls the architecture of drainage networks is a fundamental question in geomorphology. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of drainage network development in steadily uplifting landscapes, but the controls on drainage-network morphology in transient landscapes are relatively unknown. In this paper we exploit natural experiments in drainage network development in incised Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces in order to understand and quantify drainage network development in highly transient landscapes, i.e. initially unincised low-relief surfaces that experience a pulse of rapid base-level drop followed by relative base-level stasis. Parallel drainage networks formed on incised alluvial-fan surfaces tend to have a drainage spacing that is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the base-level drop. Numerical experiments suggest that this observed relationship between the magnitude of base-level drop and mean drainage spacing is the result of feedbacks among the depth of valley incision, mass wasting and nonlinear increases in the rate of colluvial sediment transport with slope gradient on steep valley side slopes that lead to increasingly wide valleys in cases of larger base-level drop. We identify a threshold magnitude of base-level drop above which side slopes lengthen sufficiently to promote increases in contributing area and fluvial incision rates that lead to branching and encourage drainage networks to transition from systems of first-order valleys to systems of higher-order, branching valleys. The headward growth of these branching tributaries prevents the development of adjacent, ephemeral drainages and promotes a higher mean valley spacing relative to cases in which tributaries do not form. Model results offer additional insights into the response of initially unincised landscapes to rapid base-level drop and provide a preliminary basis for understanding how varying amounts of base-level change influence valley network morphology.

  17. A prototype case-based reasoning human assistant for space crew assessment and mission management (United States)

    Owen, Robert B.; Holland, Albert W.; Wood, Joanna


    We present a prototype human assistant system for space crew assessment and mission management. Our system is based on case episodes from American and Russian space missions and analog environments such as polar stations and undersea habitats. The general domain of small groups in isolated and confined environments represents a near ideal application area for case-based reasoning (CBR) - there are few reliable rules to follow, and most domain knowledge is in the form of cases. We define the problem domain and outline a unique knowledge representation system driven by conflict and communication triggers. The prototype system is able to represent, index, and retrieve case studies of human performance. We index by social, behavioral, and environmental factors. We present the problem domain, our current implementation, our research approach for an operational system, and prototype performance and results.

  18. Realization and testing of a deployable space telescope based on tape springs (United States)

    Lei, Wang; Li, Chuang; Zhong, Peifeng; Chong, Yaqin; Jing, Nan


    For its compact size and light weight, space telescope with deployable support structure for its secondary mirror is very suitable as an optical payload for a nanosatellite or a cubesat. Firstly the realization of a prototype deployable space telescope based on tape springs is introduced in this paper. The deployable telescope is composed of primary mirror assembly, secondary mirror assembly, 6 foldable tape springs to support the secondary mirror assembly, deployable baffle, aft optic components, and a set of lock-released devices based on shape memory alloy, etc. Then the deployment errors of the secondary mirror are measured with three-coordinate measuring machine to examine the alignment accuracy between the primary mirror and the deployed secondary mirror. Finally modal identification is completed for the telescope in deployment state to investigate its dynamic behavior with impact hammer testing. The results of the experimental modal identification agree with those from finite element analysis well.

  19. Prospects for Observing Ultracompact Binaries with Space-Based Gravitational Wave Interferometers and Optical Telescopes (United States)

    Littenberg, T. B.; Larson, S. L.; Nelemans, G.; Cornish, N. J.


    Space-based gravitational wave interferometers are sensitive to the galactic population of ultracompact binaries. An important subset of the ultracompact binary population are those stars that can be individually resolved by both gravitational wave interferometers and electromagnetic telescopes. The aim of this paper is to quantify the multimessenger potential of space-based interferometers with arm-lengths between 1 and 5 Gm. The Fisher information matrix is used to estimate the number of binaries from a model of the Milky Way which are localized on the sky by the gravitational wave detector to within 1 and 10 deg(exp 2) and bright enough to be detected by a magnitude-limited survey.We find, depending on the choice ofGW detector characteristics, limiting magnitude and observing strategy, that up to several hundred gravitational wave sources could be detected in electromagnetic follow-up observations.

  20. Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Baker


    Full Text Available We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10^{-5} – 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.

  1. Comparing Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry Approaches to Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Measurement (United States)

    Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira


    Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.

  2. State-space-based harmonic stability analysis for paralleled grid-connected inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Chen, Zhe


    This paper addresses a state-space-based harmonic stability analysis of paralleled grid-connected inverters system. A small signal model of individual inverter is developed, where LCL filter, the equivalent delay of control system, and current controller are modeled. Then, the overall small signal...... model of paralleled grid-connected inverters is built. Finally, the state space-based stability analysis approach is developed to explain the harmonic resonance phenomenon. The eigenvalue traces associated with time delay and coupled grid impedance are obtained, which accounts for how the unstable...... inverter produces the harmonic resonance and leads to the instability of whole paralleled system. The proposed approach reveals the contributions of the grid impedance as well as the coupled effect on other grid-connected inverters under different grid conditions. Simulation and experimental results...

  3. Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors. (United States)

    Gair, Jonathan R; Vallisneri, Michele; Larson, Shane L; Baker, John G


    We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10 -5 - 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.

  4. Development of a component centered fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge based system for space power system (United States)

    Lee, S. C.; Lollar, Louis F.


    The overall approach currently being taken in the development of AMPERES (Autonomously Managed Power System Extendable Real-time Expert System), a knowledge-based expert system for fault monitoring and diagnosis of space power systems, is discussed. The system architecture, knowledge representation, and fault monitoring and diagnosis strategy are examined. A 'component-centered' approach developed in this project is described. Critical issues requiring further study are identified.

  5. Exploratory model analysis of the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) Low Global Scheduler problem


    Morgan, Brian L.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Proliferation of theater ballistic missile technologies to potential U.S. adversaries necessitates that the U.S. employ a defensive system to counter this threat. The system that is being developed is called the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) "System of Systems". The SBIRS Low component of the SBIRS "System of Systems" will track strategic and theater ballistic missiles from launch to reentry and relay necessary cueing data to mis...

  6. Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peloso, Matthew P; Gerhardt, Ilja; Ho, Caleb; Lamas-Linares, AntIa; Kurtsiefer, Christian [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)], E-mail:


    Many quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations using a free space transmission path are restricted to operation at night time in order to distinguish the signal photons used for a secure key establishment from the background light. Here, we present a lean entanglement-based QKD system overcoming that limitation. By implementing spectral, spatial and temporal filtering techniques, we establish a secure key continuously over several days under varying light and weather conditions.

  7. Lateral skull base approaches in the management of benign parapharyngeal space tumors. (United States)

    Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Piccirillo, Enrico; Chovanec, Martin; La Melia, Claudio; De Donato, Giuseppe; Sanna, Mario


    To evaluate the role of lateral skull base approaches in the management of benign parapharyngeal space tumors and to propose an algorithm for their surgical approach. Retrospective study of patients with benign parapharyngeal space tumors. The clinical features, radiology and preoperative management of skull base neurovasculature, the surgical approaches and overall results were recorded. 46 patients presented with 48 tumors. 12 were prestyloid and 36 poststyloid. 19 (39.6%) tumors were paragangliomas, 15 (31.25%) were schwannomas and 11 (23%) were pleomorphic adenomas. Preoperative embolization was performed in 19, stenting of the internal carotid artery in 4 and permanent balloon occlusion in 2 patients. 19 tumors were approached by the transcervical, 13 by transcervical-transparotid, 5 by transcervical-transmastoid, 6, 1 and 2 tumors by the infratemporal fossa approach types A, B and D, respectively. Total radical tumor removal was achieved in 46 (96%) of the cases. Lateral skull base approaches have an advantage over other approaches in the management of benign tumors of the parapharyngeal space due to the fact that they provide excellent exposure with less morbidity. The use of microscope combined with bipolar cautery reduces morbidity. Stenting of internal carotid artery gives a chance for complete tumor removal with arterial preservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a space radiation Monte Carlo computer simulation based on the FLUKA and ROOT codes

    CERN Document Server

    Pinsky, L; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Carminati, F; Brun, R


    This NASA funded project is proceeding to develop a Monte Carlo-based computer simulation of the radiation environment in space. With actual funding only initially in place at the end of May 2000, the study is still in the early stage of development. The general tasks have been identified and personnel have been selected. The code to be assembled will be based upon two major existing software packages. The radiation transport simulation will be accomplished by updating the FLUKA Monte Carlo program, and the user interface will employ the ROOT software being developed at CERN. The end-product will be a Monte Carlo-based code which will complement the existing analytic codes such as BRYNTRN/HZETRN presently used by NASA to evaluate the effects of radiation shielding in space. The planned code will possess the ability to evaluate the radiation environment for spacecraft and habitats in Earth orbit, in interplanetary space, on the lunar surface, or on a planetary surface such as Mars. Furthermore, it will be usef...

  9. The research of urban spatial polarization based on the space of flows theory——a case study of Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chaoqing


    Full Text Available Based on the elite space and the relation model between the space of flows and the urban space,the paper analyzed the mechanism and consequence of the new urban spatial polarization.Using the Shanghai sixth census data and the sample data,the paper discussed the new phenomenon of urban spatial polarization in the information age by the location quotient analysis and GIS spatial analysis.The research result showed that the space of flows influencing urban spatial polarization through the elite space is a higher level agglomeration,including the spatial concentration of the human capital,the concentration of wealth and knowledge of science and technology.

  10. Design and Development of a CPCI-Based Electronics Package for Space Station Experiments (United States)

    Kolacz, John S.; Clapper, Randy S.; Wade, Raymond P.


    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing a Compact-PCI (CPCI) based electronics package for controlling space experiment hardware on the International Space Station. Goals of this effort include an easily modified, modular design that allows for changes in experiment requirements. Unique aspects of the experiment package include a flexible circuit used for internal interconnections and a separate enclosure (box in a box) for controlling 1 kW of power for experiment fuel heating requirements. This electronics package was developed as part of the FEANICS (Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids) mini-facility which is part of the Fluids and Combustion Facility s Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The CIR will be the platform for future microgravity combustion experiments and will reside on the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FEANICS mini-facility will be the primary means for conducting solid fuel combustion experiments in the CIR on ISS. The main focus of many of these solid combustion experiments will be to conduct applied scientific investigations in fire-safety to support NASA s future space missions. A description of the electronics package and the results of functional testing are the subjects of this report. The report concludes that the use of innovative packaging methods combined with readily available COTS hardware can provide a modular electronics package which is easily modified for changing experiment requirements.

  11. The Surface Extraction from TIN based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) algorithm (United States)

    Noh, Myoung-Jong; Howat, Ian M.


    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) provide critical information for a wide range of scientific, navigational and engineering activities. Submeter resolution, stereoscopic satellite imagery with high geometric and radiometric quality, and wide spatial coverage are becoming increasingly accessible for generating stereo-photogrammetric DEMs. However, low contrast and repeatedly-textured surfaces, such as snow and glacial ice at high latitudes, and mountainous terrains challenge existing stereo-photogrammetric DEM generation techniques, particularly without a-priori information such as existing seed DEMs or the manual setting of terrain-specific parameters. To utilize these data for fully-automatic DEM extraction at a large scale, we developed the Surface Extraction from TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) algorithm. SETSM is fully automatic (i.e. no search parameter settings are needed) and uses only the sensor model Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs). SETSM adopts a hierarchical, combined image- and object-space matching strategy utilizing weighted normalized cross-correlation with both original distorted and geometrically corrected images for overcoming ambiguities caused by foreshortening and occlusions. In addition, SETSM optimally minimizes search-spaces to extract optimal matches over problematic terrains by iteratively updating object surfaces within a Triangulated Irregular Network, and utilizes a geometric-constrained blunder and outlier detection in object space. We prove the ability of SETSM to mitigate typical stereo-photogrammetric matching problems over a range of challenging terrains. SETSM is the primary DEM generation software for the US National Science Foundation's ArcticDEM project.

  12. Soyuz-TM-based interim Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) for the Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Semenov, Yu. P.; Babkov, Oleg I.; Timchenko, Vladimir A.; Craig, Jerry W.


    The concept of using the available Soyuz-TM Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) spacecraft for the assurance of the safety of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) crew after the departure of the Space Shuttle from SSF was proposed by the NPO Energia and was accepted by NASA in 1992. The ACRV will provide the crew with the capability to evacuate a seriously injured/ill crewmember from the SSF to a ground-based care facility under medically tolerable conditions and with the capability for a safe evacuation from SSF in the events SSF becomes uninhabitable or the Space Shuttle flights are interrupted for a time that exceeds SSF ability for crew support and/or safe operations. This paper presents the main results of studies on Phase A (including studies on the service life of ACRV; spacecraft design and operations; prelaunch processing; mission support; safety, reliability, maintenance and quality and assurance; landing, and search/rescue operations; interfaces with the SSF and with Space Shuttle; crew accommodation; motion of orbital an service modules; and ACRV injection by the Expendable Launch Vehicles), along with the objectives of further work on the Phase B.

  13. Model-Based Engineering Design for Trade Space Exploration throughout the Design Cycle (United States)

    Lamassoure, Elisabeth S.; Wall, Stephen D.; Easter, Robert W.


    This paper presents ongoing work to standardize model-based system engineering as a complement to point design development in the conceptual design phase of deep space missions. It summarizes two first steps towards practical application of this capability within the framework of concurrent engineering design teams and their customers. The first step is standard generation of system sensitivities models as the output of concurrent engineering design sessions, representing the local trade space around a point design. A review of the chosen model development process, and the results of three case study examples, demonstrate that a simple update to the concurrent engineering design process can easily capture sensitivities to key requirements. It can serve as a valuable tool to analyze design drivers and uncover breakpoints in the design. The second step is development of rough-order- of-magnitude, broad-range-of-validity design models for rapid exploration of the trade space, before selection of a point design. At least one case study demonstrated the feasibility to generate such models in a concurrent engineering session. The experiment indicated that such a capability could yield valid system-level conclusions for a trade space composed of understood elements. Ongoing efforts are assessing the practicality of developing end-to-end system-level design models for use before even convening the first concurrent engineering session, starting with modeling an end-to-end Mars architecture.

  14. Template-based automatic extraction of the joint space of foot bones from CT scan (United States)

    Park, Eunbi; Kim, Taeho; Park, Jinah


    Clean bone segmentation is critical in studying the joint anatomy for measuring the spacing between the bones. However, separation of the coupled bones in CT images is sometimes difficult due to ambiguous gray values coming from the noise and the heterogeneity of bone materials as well as narrowing of the joint space. For fine reconstruction of the individual local boundaries, manual operation is a common practice where the segmentation remains to be a bottleneck. In this paper, we present an automatic method for extracting the joint space by applying graph cut on Markov random field model to the region of interest (ROI) which is identified by a template of 3D bone structures. The template includes encoded articular surface which identifies the tight region of the high-intensity bone boundaries together with the fuzzy joint area of interest. The localized shape information from the template model within the ROI effectively separates the bones nearby. By narrowing the ROI down to the region including two types of tissue, the object extraction problem was reduced to binary segmentation and solved via graph cut. Based on the shape of a joint space marked by the template, the hard constraint was set by the initial seeds which were automatically generated from thresholding and morphological operations. The performance and the robustness of the proposed method are evaluated on 12 volumes of ankle CT data, where each volume includes a set of 4 tarsal bones (calcaneus, talus, navicular and cuboid).

  15. Understanding the Longitudinal Variability of Equatorial Electrodynamics using integrated Ground- and Space-based Observations (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.


    The currently funded African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) magnetometer array comprises more than thirteen magnetometers stationed globally in the vicinity of geomagnetic equator. One of the main objectives of AMBER network is to understand the longitudinal variability of equatorial electrodynamics as function of local time, magnetic activity, and season. While providing complete meridian observation in the region and filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array addresses two fundamental areas of space physics: first, the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and second, ULF pulsation strength at low/mid-latitude regions and its connection with equatorial electrojet and density fluctuation. The global AMBER network can also be used to augment observations from space-based instruments, such us the triplet SWARM mission and the upcoming ICON missions. Thus, in coordination with space-based and other ground-based observations, the AMBER magnetometer network provides a great opportunity to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. In this paper we present the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrodynamics using the combination of instruments onboard SWARM and C/NOFS satellites and ground-based AMBER network. Both ground- and pace-based observations show stronger dayside and evening sector equatorial electrodynamics in the American and Asian sectors compared to the African sector. On the other hand, the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This raises the question if the evening sector equatorial electrodynamics (vertical drift), which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the

  16. VLSI Architectures for Sliding-Window-Based Space-Time Turbo Trellis Code Decoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Passas


    Full Text Available The VLSI implementation of SISO-MAP decoders used for traditional iterative turbo coding has been investigated in the literature. In this paper, a complete architectural model of a space-time turbo code receiver that includes elementary decoders is presented. These architectures are based on newly proposed building blocks such as a recursive add-compare-select-offset (ACSO unit, A-, B-, Γ-, and LLR output calculation modules. Measurements of complexity and decoding delay of several sliding-window-technique-based MAP decoder architectures and a proposed parameter set lead to defining equations and comparison between those architectures.

  17. Color-Space-Based Visual-MIMO for V2X Communication


    Jai-Eun Kim; Ji-Won Kim; Youngil Park; Ki-Doo Kim


    In this paper, we analyze the applicability of color-space-based, color-independent visual-MIMO for V2X. We aim to achieve a visual-MIMO scheme that can maintain the original color and brightness while performing seamless communication. We consider two scenarios of GCM based visual-MIMO for V2X. One is a multipath transmission using visual-MIMO networking and the other is multi-node V2X communication. In the scenario of multipath transmission, we analyze the channel capacity numerically and w...

  18. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Manned Spacecraft Center data base requirements study (United States)


    A study was conducted to evaluate the types of data that the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) should automate in order to make available essential management and technical information to support MSC's various functions and missions. In addition, the software and hardware capabilities to best handle the storage and retrieval of this data were analyzed. Based on the results of this study, recommendations are presented for a unified data base that provides a cost effective solution to MSC's data automation requirements. The recommendations are projected through a time frame that includes the earth orbit space station.

  19. Multi-disciplinary techniques for understanding time-varying space-based imagery (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Sanderson, A.; Kanade, T.


    A multidisciplinary program for space-based image processing is reported. This project combines optical and digital processing techniques and pattern recognition, image understanding and artificial intelligence methodologies. Time change image processing was recognized as the key issue to be addressed. Three time change scenarios were defined based on the frame rate of the data change. This report details the recent research on: various statistical and deterministic image features, recognition of sub-pixel targets in time varying imagery, and 3-D object modeling and recognition.

  20. The image of public space on planned housing based on environmental and behavior cognition mapping (case study: Cemara Asri Estate) (United States)

    Nirfalini Aulia, Dwira; Zahara, Aina


    Public spaces in a planned housing is a place of social interaction for every visitor of public space. The research on public space image uses four public spaces that meet the criteria of public space such as pedestrian sidewalks, public park, water front and worship place. Research on the perception of public space is interesting to investigate because housing development is part of the forming of a society that should design with proper architectural considerations. The purpose of this research is to know the image of public space on the planned housing in Medan City based on the mapping of environmental and behavior cognition and to know the difference between the image that happened to four group respondent. The research method of architecture used in this research is a descriptive qualitative method with case study approach (most similar case). Analysis of data used using mental maps and questionnaires. Then the image of public space is formed based on the elements of public space, wayfinding, route choice, and movement. The image difference that occurs to the housing residents and architecture students, design and planning are outstanding, visitors to the public housing space is good, people who have never visited the public space is inadequate.

  1. OGLE-2016-BLG-0168 Binary Microlensing Event: Prediction and Confirmation of the Microlens Parallax Effect from Space-based Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, I.-G.; Yee, J. C.; Jung, Y. K. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Udalski, A.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Szymański, M. K.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4,00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Novati, S. Calchi [IPAC, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Albrow, M. D. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8020 (New Zealand); Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Chung, S.-J.; Hwang, K.-H.; Ryu, Y.-H. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; KMTNet Group; Spitzer Team; and others


    The microlens parallax is a crucial observable for conclusively identifying the nature of lens systems in microlensing events containing or composed of faint (even dark) astronomical objects such as planets, neutron stars, brown dwarfs, and black holes. With the commencement of a new era of microlensing in collaboration with space-based observations, the microlens parallax can be routinely measured. In addition, space-based observations can provide opportunities to verify the microlens parallax measured from ground-only observations and to find a unique solution to the lensing light-curve analysis. Furthermore, since most space-based observations cannot cover the full light curves of lensing events, it is also necessary to verify the reliability of the information extracted from fragmentary space-based light curves. We conduct a test based on the microlensing event OGLE-2016-BLG-0168, created by a binary lens system consisting of almost equal mass M-dwarf stars, to demonstrate that it is possible to verify the microlens parallax and to resolve degeneracies using the space-based light curve even though the observations are fragmentary. Since space-based observatories will frequently produce fragmentary light curves due to their short observing windows, the methodology of this test will be useful for next-generation microlensing experiments that combine space-based and ground-based collaboration.

  2. ML-Space: Hybrid Spatial Gillespie and Particle Simulation of Multi-Level Rule-Based Models in Cell Biology. (United States)

    Bittig, Arne T; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M


    Spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular processes can be simulated at different levels of detail, from (deterministic) partial differential equations via the spatial Stochastic Simulation algorithm to tracking Brownian trajectories of individual particles. We present a spatial simulation approach for multi-level rule-based models, which includes dynamically hierarchically nested cellular compartments and entities. Our approach ML-Space combines discrete compartmental dynamics, stochastic spatial approaches in discrete space, and particles moving in continuous space. The rule-based specification language of ML-Space supports concise and compact descriptions of models and to adapt the spatial resolution of models easily.

  3. Development of cultural tourism area based on the spiritual space of Cirebon Keraton (United States)

    Rosmalia, D.; Prasetya, L. E.


    Cirebon is a city laden with spiritual activities. These are held almost every month in a year, by palace (keraton) disciples from surrounding Cirebon region and Indonesia. The spiritual events are located in almost of sacred places of keratons around Cirebon, and make an imaginary sacred space from the south to the north of Cirebon city. Sacred spiritual space is potential to be developed into tourism area destination, especially for religious tourist. Therefore, this study aims to explore an attractiveness of tourism, based on the spiritual area of keraton disciples, as a part of the cultural tourism space of Cirebon. To explore tourism potential, this research used survey and observation method in the palace, and in-depth interview with seven key persons, i.e., palace informants. After that, this potential was developed for the planning of tourist areas based on spiritual tourism destinations, divided by the core and the supporting areas, formed by sacred places and major tourist attractions. The core area is located in two locations, i.e., (1) the area of Cirebon keratons, and (2) complexes of graves on Gunung Jati. Meanwhile, the supporting area is formed by other supporting tourist objects and the ritual route of tourism.

  4. Model-driven methodology for rapid deployment of smart spaces based on resource-oriented architectures. (United States)

    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R


    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  5. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Casar


    Full Text Available Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT and Web of Things (WoT are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA. This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  6. Grouped fuzzy SVM with EM-based partition of sample space for clustered microcalcification detection. (United States)

    Wang, Huiya; Feng, Jun; Wang, Hongyu


    Detection of clustered microcalcification (MC) from mammograms plays essential roles in computer-aided diagnosis for early stage breast cancer. To tackle problems associated with the diversity of data structures of MC lesions and the variability of normal breast tissues, multi-pattern sample space learning is required. In this paper, a novel grouped fuzzy Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm with sample space partition based on Expectation-Maximization (EM) (called G-FSVM) is proposed for clustered MC detection. The diversified pattern of training data is partitioned into several groups based on EM algorithm. Then a series of fuzzy SVM are integrated for classification with each group of samples from the MC lesions and normal breast tissues. From DDSM database, a total of 1,064 suspicious regions are selected from 239 mammography, and the measurement of Accuracy, True Positive Rate (TPR), False Positive Rate (FPR) and EVL = TPR* 1-FPR are 0.82, 0.78, 0.14 and 0.72, respectively. The proposed method incorporates the merits of fuzzy SVM and multi-pattern sample space learning, decomposing the MC detection problem into serial simple two-class classification. Experimental results from synthetic data and DDSM database demonstrate that our integrated classification framework reduces the false positive rate significantly while maintaining the true positive rate.

  7. Reachable Distance Space: Efficient Sampling-Based Planning for Spatially Constrained Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Xinyu Tang,


    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end-effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the number of the robot\\'s degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling of configurations, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning and, in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end-effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1,000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1,000-link multi-loop systems of varying topologies in less than a second. © 2010 The Author(s).

  8. A Test Methodology for Determining Space-Readiness of Xilinx SRAM-Based FPGA Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Heather M.; Graham, Paul S.; Morgan, Keith S.; Caffrey, Michael P.


    Using reconfigurable, static random-access memory (SRAM) based field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space-based computation has been an exciting area of research for the past decade. Since both the circuit and the circuit's state is stored in radiation-tolerant memory, both could be alterd by the harsh space radiation environment. Both the circuit and the circuit's state can be prote cted by triple-moduler redundancy (TMR), but applying TMR to FPGA user designs is often an error-prone process. Faulty application of TMR could cause the FPGA user circuit to output incorrect data. This paper will describe a three-tiered methodology for testing FPGA user designs for space-readiness. We will describe the standard approach to testing FPGA user designs using a particle accelerator, as well as two methods using fault injection and a modeling tool. While accelerator testing is the current 'gold standard' for pre-launch testing, we believe the use of fault injection and modeling tools allows for easy, cheap and uniform access for discovering errors early in the design process.

  9. Johnson Space Center's Solar and Wind-Based Renewable Energy System (United States)

    Vasquez, A.; Ewert, M.; Rowlands, J.; Post, K.


    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas has a Sustainability Partnership team that seeks ways for earth-based sustainability practices to also benefit space exploration research. A renewable energy gathering system was installed in 2007 at the JSC Child Care Center (CCC) which also offers a potential test bed for space exploration power generation and remote monitoring and control concepts. The system comprises: 1) several different types of photovoltaic panels (29 kW), 2) two wind-turbines (3.6 kW total), and 3) one roof-mounted solar thermal water heater and tank. A tie to the JSC local electrical grid was provided to accommodate excess power. The total first year electrical energy production was 53 megawatt-hours. A web-based real-time metering system collects and reports system performance and weather data. Improvements in areas of the CCC that were detected during subsequent energy analyses and some concepts for future efforts are also presented.

  10. Color Image Evaluation for Small Space Based on FA and GEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng


    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem that color image is difficult to quantify, this paper proposes an evaluation method of color image for small space based on factor analysis (FA and gene expression programming (GEP and constructs a correlation model between color image factors and comprehensive color image. The basic color samples of small space and color images are evaluated by semantic differential method (SD method, color image factors are selected via dimension reduction in FA, factor score function is established, and by combining the entropy weight method to determine each factor weights then the comprehensive color image score is calculated finally. The best fitting function between color image factors and comprehensive color image is obtained by GEP algorithm, which can predict the users’ color image values. A color image evaluation system for small space is developed based on this model. The color evaluation of a control room on AC frequency conversion rig is taken as an example, verifying the effectiveness of the proposed method. It also can assist the designers in other color designs and provide a fast evaluation tool for testing users’ color image.

  11. Enabling Fast ASIP Design Space Exploration: An FPGA-Based Runtime Reconfigurable Prototyper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Meloni


    Full Text Available Application Specific Instruction-set Processors (ASIPs expose to the designer a large number of degrees of freedom. Accurate and rapid simulation tools are needed to explore the design space. To this aim, FPGA-based emulators have recently been proposed as an alternative to pure software cycle-accurate simulator. However, the advantages of on-hardware emulation are reduced by the overhead of the RTL synthesis process that needs to be run for each configuration to be emulated. The work presented in this paper aims at mitigating this overhead, exploiting a form of software-driven platform runtime reconfiguration. We present a complete emulation toolchain that, given a set of candidate ASIP configurations, identifies and builds an overdimensioned architecture capable of being reconfigured via software at runtime, emulating all the design space points under evaluation. The approach has been validated against two different case studies, a filtering kernel and an M-JPEG encoding kernel. Moreover, the presented emulation toolchain couples FPGA emulation with activity-based physical modeling to extract area and power/energy consumption figures. We show how the adoption of the presented toolchain reduces significantly the design space exploration time, while introducing an overhead lower than 10% for the FPGA resources and lower than 0.5% in terms of operating frequency.

  12. An object-based approach for detecting small brain lesions: application to Virchow-Robin spaces. (United States)

    Descombes, Xavier; Kruggel, Frithjof; Wollny, Gert; Gertz, Hermann Josef


    This paper is concerned with the detection of multiple small brain lesions from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. A model based on the marked point process framework is designed to detect Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs). These tubular shaped spaces are due to retraction of the brain parenchyma from its supplying arteries. VRS are described by simple geometrical objects that are introduced as small tubular structures. Their radiometric properties are embedded in a data term. A prior model includes interactions describing the clustering property of VRS. A Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm (RJMCMC) optimizes the proposed model, obtained by multiplying the prior and the data model. Example results are shown on T1-weighted MRI datasets of elderly subjects.

  13. Large motion high cycle high speed optical fibers for space based applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, Peter G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tandon, Rajan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Cory S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rasberry, Roger David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohr, Garth David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Future remote sensing applications will require higher resolution and therefore higher data rates (up to perhaps 100 gigabits per second) while achieving lower mass and cost. A current limitation to the design space is high speed high bandwidth data does not cross movable gimbals because of cabling issues. This requires the detectors to be off gimbal. The ability to get data across the gimbal would open up efficiencies in designs where the detectors and the electronics can be placed anywhere on the system. Fiber optic cables provide light weight high speed high bandwidth connections. Current options are limited to 20,000 cycles as opposed to the 1,000,000 cycles needed for future space based applications. To extend this to the million+ regime, requires a thorough understanding of the failure mechanisms and the materials, proper selection of materials (e.g., glass and jacket material) allowable geometry changes to the cable, radiation hardness, etc.

  14. A BHR Composite Network-Based Visualization Method for Deformation Risk Level of Underground Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    Full Text Available This study proposes a visualization processing method for the deformation risk level of underground space. The proposed method is based on a BP-Hopfield-RGB (BHR composite network. Complex environmental factors are integrated in the BP neural network. Dynamic monitoring data are then automatically classified in the Hopfield network. The deformation risk level is combined with the RGB color space model and is displayed visually in real time, after which experiments are conducted with the use of an ultrasonic omnidirectional sensor device for structural deformation monitoring. The proposed method is also compared with some typical methods using a benchmark dataset. Results show that the BHR composite network visualizes the deformation monitoring process in real time and can dynamically indicate dangerous zones.

  15. Suspicious Behavior Detection System for an Open Space Parking Based on Recognition of Human Elemental Actions (United States)

    Inomata, Teppei; Kimura, Kouji; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    Studies for video surveillance applications for preventing various crimes such as stealing and violence have become a hot topic. This paper proposes a new video surveillance system that can detect suspicious behaviors such as a car break-in and vandalization in an open space parking, and that is based on image processing. The proposed system has the following features: it 1)deals time series data flow, 2)recognizes “human elemental actions” using statistic features, and 3)detects suspicious behavior using Subspace method and AdaBoost. We conducted the experiments to test the performance of the proposed system using open space parking scenes. As a result, we obtained about 10.0% for false positive rate, and about 4.6% for false negative rate.

  16. Optical authentication based on moiré effect of nonlinear gratings in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Meihua; He, Wenqi; Wu, Jiachen; Lu, Dajiang; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang


    An optical authentication scheme based on the moiré effect of nonlinear gratings in phase space is proposed. According to the phase function relationship of the moiré effect in phase space, an arbitrary authentication image can be encoded into two nonlinear gratings which serve as the authentication lock (AL) and the authentication key (AK). The AL is stored in the authentication system while the AK is assigned to the authorized user. The authentication procedure can be performed using an optoelectronic approach, while the design process is accomplished by a digital approach. Furthermore, this optical authentication scheme can be extended for multiple users with different security levels. The proposed scheme can not only verify the legality of a user identity, but can also discriminate and control the security levels of legal users. Theoretical analysis and simulation experiments are provided to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. (paper)

  17. Space nuclear-power reactor design based on combined neutronic and thermal-fluid analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, D.R.; Gido, R.G.; Brandon, D.I.


    The design and performance analysis of a space nuclear-power system requires sophisticated analytical capabilities such as those developed during the nuclear rocket propulsion (Rover) program. In particular, optimizing the size of a space nuclear reactor for a given power level requires satisfying the conflicting requirements of nuclear criticality and heat removal. The optimization involves the determination of the coolant void (volume) fraction for which the reactor diameter is a minimum and temperature and structural limits are satisfied. A minimum exists because the critical diameter increases with increasing void fraction, whereas the reactor diameter needed to remove a specified power decreases with void fraction. The purpose of this presentation is to describe and demonstrate our analytical capability for the determination of minimum reactor size. The analysis is based on combining neutronic criticality calculations with OPTION-code thermal-fluid calculations

  18. An IBM PC-based math model for space station solar array simulation (United States)

    Emanuel, E. M.


    This report discusses and documents the design, development, and verification of a microcomputer-based solar cell math model for simulating the Space Station's solar array Initial Operational Capability (IOC) reference configuration. The array model is developed utilizing a linear solar cell dc math model requiring only five input parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and orbit inclination. The accuracy of this model is investigated using actual solar array on orbit electrical data derived from the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE), conducted during the STS-41D mission. This simulator provides real-time simulated performance data during the steady state portion of the Space Station orbit (i.e., array fully exposed to sunlight). Eclipse to sunlight transients and shadowing effects are not included in the analysis, but are discussed briefly. Integrating the Solar Array Simulator (SAS) into the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) subsystem is also discussed.

  19. Space vector-based modeling and control of a modular multilevel converter in HVDC applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonavoglia, M.; Casadei, G.; Zarri, L.


    Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an emerging multilevel topology for high-voltage applications that has been developed in recent years. In this paper, the modeling and the control of MMCs are restated in terms of space vectors, which may allow a deeper understanding of the converter behavior....... As a result, a control scheme for three-phase MMCs based on the previous theoretical analysis is presented. Numerical simulations are used to test its feasibility.......Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an emerging multilevel topology for high-voltage applications that has been developed in recent years. In this paper, the modeling and the control of MMCs are restated in terms of space vectors, which may allow a deeper understanding of the converter behavior...

  20. Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method based on the optimal test space norm for steady transport problems in one space dimension

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.


    We revisit the finite element analysis of convection-dominated flow problems within the recently developed Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) variational framework. We demonstrate how test function spaces that guarantee numerical stability can be computed automatically with respect to the optimal test space norm. This makes the DPG method not only stable but also robust, that is, uniformly stable with respect to the Péclet number in the current application. We employ discontinuous piecewise Bernstein polynomials as trial functions and construct a subgrid discretization that accounts for the singular perturbation character of the problem to resolve the corresponding optimal test functions. We also show that a smooth B-spline basis has certain computational advantages in the subgrid discretization. The overall effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on two problems for the linear advection-diffusion equation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method based on the optimal test space norm for steady transport problems in one space dimension

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti


    We revisit the finite element analysis of convection-dominated flow problems within the recently developed Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) variational framework. We demonstrate how test function spaces that guarantee numerical stability can be computed automatically with respect to the optimal test space norm. This makes the DPG method not only stable but also robust, that is, uniformly stable with respect to the Péclet number in the current application. We employ discontinuous piecewise Bernstein polynomials as trial functions and construct a subgrid discretization that accounts for the singular perturbation character of the problem to resolve the corresponding optimal test functions. We also show that a smooth B-spline basis has certain computational advantages in the subgrid discretization. The overall effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on two problems for the linear advection-diffusion equation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Space and place concepts analysis based on semiology approach in residential architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Parsaee


    Full Text Available Space and place are among the fundamental concepts in architecture about which many discussions have been held and the complexity and importance of these concepts were focused on. This research has introduced an approach to better cognition of the architectural concepts based on theory and method of semiology in linguistics. Hence, at first the research investigates the concepts of space and place and explains their characteristics in architecture. Then, it reviews the semiology theory and explores its concepts and ideas. After obtaining the principles of theory and also the method of semiology, they are redefined in an architectural system based on an adaptive method. Finally, the research offers a conceptual model which is called the semiology approach by considering the architectural system as a system of signs. The approach can be used to decode the content of meanings and forms and analyses of the architectural mechanism in order to obtain its meanings and concepts. In this way and based on this approach, the residential architecture of the traditional city of Bushehr – Iran was analyzed as a case of study and its concepts were extracted. The results of this research demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in structure detection and identification of an architectural system. Besides, this approach has the capability to be used in processes of sustainable development and also be a basis for deconstruction of architectural texts. The research methods of this study are qualitative based on comparative and descriptive analyses.

  3. The Community-based Organizations Working Group of the Space Science Education Support Network (United States)

    Lutz, J. H.; Lowes, L. L.; Asplund, S.


    The NASA Space Science Support Network Community-based Organizations Working Group (CBOWG) has been working for the past two years on issues surrounding afterschool programs and programs for youth (e.g., Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, summer camps, afterschool and weekend programs for various ages, programs with emphases on minority youth). In this session the co-leaders of the CBOWG will discuss the challenges of working with community-based organizations on a regional or national level. We will highlight some ties that we have forged with the National Institute for Out of School Time (NIOST) and the National Afterschool Association (NAA). We will also talk about efforts to coordinate how various entities within NASA cooperate with community-based organizations to serve the best interests of these groups. We will give a couple of examples of how NASA space science organizations have partnered with community-based organizations. The session will include some handouts of information and resources that the CBOWG has found useful in developing an understanding of this segment of informal education groups. We would like to thank NASA for providing resources to support the work of the CBOWG.

  4. Variations on a theme: novel immersed grating based spectrometer designs for space (United States)

    Agócs, T.; Navarro, R.; Venema, L.


    We present novel immersed grating (IG) based spectrometer designs that can be used in space instrumentation. They are based on the design approach that aims to optimize the optical design using the expanded parameter space that the IG technology offers. In principle the wavefront error (WFE) of any optical system the most conveniently can be corrected in the pupil, where in the case of the IG based spectrometer, the IG itself is positioned. By modifying existing three-mirror based optical systems, which can form the main part of double pass spectrometer designs, a large portion of the WFE of the optical system can be transferred to the pupil and to the IG. In these cases the IG can compensate simple low order aberrations of the system and consequently the main benefit is that the mirrors that tend to be off-axis conical sections can be substituted by spherical mirrors. The WFE budget of such designs has only a minor contribution from the very high quality spherical mirrors and the majority of the WFE can be then allocated to the most complex part of the system, the IG. The latter can be designed so that the errors are compensated by a special grating pattern that in turn can be manufactured using the expertise and experience of the semiconductor industry.

  5. Individual-based models for adaptive diversification in high-dimensional phenotype spaces. (United States)

    Ispolatov, Iaroslav; Madhok, Vaibhav; Doebeli, Michael


    Most theories of evolutionary diversification are based on equilibrium assumptions: they are either based on optimality arguments involving static fitness landscapes, or they assume that populations first evolve to an equilibrium state before diversification occurs, as exemplified by the concept of evolutionary branching points in adaptive dynamics theory. Recent results indicate that adaptive dynamics may often not converge to equilibrium points and instead generate complicated trajectories if evolution takes place in high-dimensional phenotype spaces. Even though some analytical results on diversification in complex phenotype spaces are available, to study this problem in general we need to reconstruct individual-based models from the adaptive dynamics generating the non-equilibrium dynamics. Here we first provide a method to construct individual-based models such that they faithfully reproduce the given adaptive dynamics attractor without diversification. We then show that a propensity to diversify can be introduced by adding Gaussian competition terms that generate frequency dependence while still preserving the same adaptive dynamics. For sufficiently strong competition, the disruptive selection generated by frequency-dependence overcomes the directional evolution along the selection gradient and leads to diversification in phenotypic directions that are orthogonal to the selection gradient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. dSPACE based adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of grid interactive inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, Necmi; Sefa, İbrahim


    Highlights: ► We propose a dSPACE based neuro-fuzzy controlled grid interactive inverter. ► The membership functions and rule base of fuzzy logic controller by using ANFIS. ► A LCL output filter is designed. ► A high performance controller is designed. - Abstract: In this study, design, simulation and implementation of a dSPACE based grid interactive voltage source inverter are proposed. This inverter has adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller and capable of importing electrical energy, generated from renewable energy sources such as the wind, the solar and the fuel cells to the grid. A line frequency transformer and a LCL filter are used at the output of the grid interactive inverter which is designed as current controlled to decrease the susceptibility to phase errors. Membership functions and rule base of the fuzzy logic controller, which control the inverter output current, are determined by using artificial neural networks. Both simulation and experimental results show that, the grid interactive inverter operates synchronously with the grid. The inverter output current which is imported to the grid is in sinusoidal waveform and the harmonic level of it meets the international standards (4.3 < 5.0%). In addition, simulation and experimental results of the neuro-fuzzy and the PI controlled inverter are given together and compared in detail. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed inverter has faster response to the reference variations and lower steady state error than PI controller.

  7. Calocube—A highly segmented calorimeter for a space based experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessandro, R.; Adriani, O.; Agnesi, A.; Albergo, S.; Auditore, L.; Basti, A.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, L.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.


    Future research in High Energy Cosmic Ray Physics concerns fundamental questions on their origin, acceleration mechanism, and composition. Unambiguous measurements of the energy spectra and of the composition of cosmic rays at the “knee” region could provide some of the answers to the above questions. Only ground based observations, which rely on sophisticated models describing high energy interactions in the earth's atmosphere, have been possible so far due to the extremely low particle rates at these energies. A calorimeter based space experiment can provide not only flux measurements but also energy spectra and particle identification, especially when coupled to a dE/dx measuring detector, and thus overcome some of the limitations plaguing ground based experiments. For this to be possible very large acceptances are needed if enough statistic is to be collected in a reasonable time. This contrasts with the lightness and compactness requirements for space based experiments. A novel idea in calorimetry is discussed here which addresses these issues while limiting the mass and volume of the detector. In fact a small prototype is currently being built and tested with ions. In this paper the results obtained will be presented in light of the simulations performed.

  8. Calocube—A highly segmented calorimeter for a space based experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessandro, R., E-mail: [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); INFN Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Adriani, O. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); INFN Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Agnesi, A. [University of Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell' Informazione, Pavia (Italy); INFN Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Albergo, S. [University of Catania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Auditore, L. [University of Messina, Department of Physics, sal. Sperone 31, I-98166 Messina (Italy); INFN Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Basti, A. [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Pisa, via F. Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Berti, E. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); INFN Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bigongiari, G. [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Pisa, via F. Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonechi, L. [INFN Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bonechi, S. [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Pisa, via F. Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bongi, M. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); INFN Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN Trieste, via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others


    Future research in High Energy Cosmic Ray Physics concerns fundamental questions on their origin, acceleration mechanism, and composition. Unambiguous measurements of the energy spectra and of the composition of cosmic rays at the “knee” region could provide some of the answers to the above questions. Only ground based observations, which rely on sophisticated models describing high energy interactions in the earth's atmosphere, have been possible so far due to the extremely low particle rates at these energies. A calorimeter based space experiment can provide not only flux measurements but also energy spectra and particle identification, especially when coupled to a dE/dx measuring detector, and thus overcome some of the limitations plaguing ground based experiments. For this to be possible very large acceptances are needed if enough statistic is to be collected in a reasonable time. This contrasts with the lightness and compactness requirements for space based experiments. A novel idea in calorimetry is discussed here which addresses these issues while limiting the mass and volume of the detector. In fact a small prototype is currently being built and tested with ions. In this paper the results obtained will be presented in light of the simulations performed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Grigoriev


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Research findings of the specific application of space-based optical-electronic and radar means for the Earth remote sensing are considered. The subject matter of the study is the current planning of objects survey on the underlying surface in order to increase the effectiveness of sensing system due to the rational use of its resources. Method. New concept of a group object, stochastic swath and stochastic length of the route is introduced. The overview of models for single, group objects and their parameters is given. The criterion for the existence of the group object based on two single objects is formulated. The method for group objects formation while current survey planning has been developed and its description is presented. The method comprises several processing stages for data about objects with the calculation of new parameters, the stochastic characteristics of space means and validates the spatial size of the object value of the stochastic swath and stochastic length of the route. The strict mathematical description of techniques for model creation of a group object based on data about a single object and onboard special complex facilities in difficult conditions of registration of spatial data is given. Main Results. The developed method is implemented on the basis of modern geographic information system in the form of a software tool layout with advanced tools of processing and analysis of spatial data in vector format. Experimental studies of the forming method for the group of objects were carried out on a different real object environment using the parameters of modern national systems of the Earth remote sensing detailed observation Canopus-B and Resurs-P. Practical Relevance. The proposed models and method are focused on practical implementation using vector spatial data models and modern geoinformation technologies. Practical value lies in the reduction in the amount of consumable resources by means of

  10. Using spaced retrieval and Montessori-based activities in improving eating ability for residents with dementia. (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chan; Huang, Ya-Ju; Su, Su-Gen; Watson, Roger; Tsai, Belina W-J; Wu, Shiao-Chi


    To construct a training protocol for spaced retrieval (SR) and to investigate the effectiveness of SR and Montessori-based activities in decreasing eating difficulty in older residents with dementia. A single evaluator, blind, and randomized control trial was used. Eighty-five residents with dementia were chosen from three special care units for residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. To avoid any confounding of subjects, the three institutions were randomized into three groups: spaced retrieval, Montessori-based activities, and a control group. The invention consisted of three 30-40 min sessions per week, for 8 weeks. After receiving the intervention, the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia (EdFED) scores and assisted feeding scores for the SR and Montessori-based activity groups were significantly lower than that of the control group. However, the frequencies of physical assistance and verbal assistance for the Montessori-based activity group after intervention were significantly higher than that of the control group, which suggests that residents who received Montessori-based activity need more physical and verbal assistance during mealtimes. In terms of the effects of nutritional status after intervention, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in the SR group was significantly higher than that of the control group. This study confirms the efficacy of SR and Montessori-based activities for eating difficulty and eating ability. A longitudinal study to follow the long-term effects of SR and Montessori-based activities on eating ability and nutritional status is recommended. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Optimization of urban green space spatial arrangement based on supply-demand analysis: a case study in Nanjing City, China]. (United States)

    Gui, Kun-Peng; Xu, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Xiang


    Urban green space has the functions of ecological and social services, and the two services levels are decided by the supply-demand relationship. However, the supply-demand of green space not only involves in quantity, but also refers to spatial distribution. Therefore, only greening indicators can not wholly reflect the true levels of green space services. Based on the supply-demand analysis and supported by the ArcGIS, this paper examined the ecological and social services levels of the urban green spaces in Nanjing City by using the evenness indicator and the rate the people could enjoy the public green space in their accessible area. Accordingly, the ecological and social services levels of the green space in the City were investigated. The results showed that in the east of Nanjing City, green spaces were rich, but high accessible ones were lack, which resulted in a moderate social service level. In the center of the City, green spaces were lack and distributed unevenly, resulting in the low levels of ecological and social services. In Hexi area, due to the shortage in ecological green space and its uneven distribution, the green spaces had a high level social service but a low level ecological service. In the southern and northern areas of the City, green spaces were in deficiency, uneven distribution, and lack in high accessible.

  12. Irregular Polyomino-Shaped Subarrays for Space-Based Active Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Mailloux


    Full Text Available This paper presents new results showing the application of polyomino-based subarrays to limited field of view and wideband, wide-angle scanning. This technology can reduce the number of phase controls in arrays used for limited sector coverage or the number of time delay devices for wideband radar or communications, and so can reduce the cost of space-based active arrays. We concentrate on the wideband application. Results are presented by comparing the gain and peak sidelobe results of irregular polyomino subarray-based arrays with those of rectangular subarrays. It is shown that using irregular polyomino subarrays can result in a major decrease in sidelobes while presenting, in most cases, only a few tenths of a dB gain reduction compared to rectangular subarrays.

  13. A Ground-Based Validation System of Teleoperation for a Space Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqian Wang


    Full Text Available Teleoperation of space robots is very important for future on-orbit service. In order to assure the task is accomplished successfully, ground experiments are required to verify the function and validity of the teleoperation system before a space robot is launched. In this paper, a ground-based validation subsystem is developed as a part of a teleoperation system. The subsystem is mainly composed of four parts: the input verification module, the onboard verification module, the dynamic and image workstation, and the communication simulator. The input verification module, consisting of hardware and software of the master, is used to verify the input ability. The onboard verification module, consisting of the same hardware and software as the onboard processor, is used to verify the processor's computing ability and execution schedule. In addition, the dynamic and image workstation calculates the dynamic response of the space robot and target, and generates emulated camera images, including the hand-eye cameras, global-vision camera and rendezvous camera. The communication simulator provides fidelity communication conditions, i.e., time delays and communication bandwidth. Lastly, we integrated a teleoperation system and conducted many experiments on the system. Experiment results show that the ground system is very useful for verified teleoperation technology.

  14. A space weather forecasting system with multiple satellites based on a self-recognizing network. (United States)

    Tokumitsu, Masahiro; Ishida, Yoshiteru


    This paper proposes a space weather forecasting system at geostationary orbit for high-energy electron flux (>2 MeV). The forecasting model involves multiple sensors on multiple satellites. The sensors interconnect and evaluate each other to predict future conditions at geostationary orbit. The proposed forecasting model is constructed using a dynamic relational network for sensor diagnosis and event monitoring. The sensors of the proposed model are located at different positions in space. The satellites for solar monitoring equip with monitoring devices for the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed. The satellites orbit near the Earth monitoring high-energy electron flux. We investigate forecasting for typical two examples by comparing the performance of two models with different numbers of sensors. We demonstrate the prediction by the proposed model against coronal mass ejections and a coronal hole. This paper aims to investigate a possibility of space weather forecasting based on the satellite network with in-situ sensing.

  15. On equivalent parameter learning in simplified feature space based on Bayesian asymptotic analysis. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Keisuke


    Parametric models for sequential data, such as hidden Markov models, stochastic context-free grammars, and linear dynamical systems, are widely used in time-series analysis and structural data analysis. Computation of the likelihood function is one of primary considerations in many learning methods. Iterative calculation of the likelihood such as the model selection is still time-consuming though there are effective algorithms based on dynamic programming. The present paper studies parameter learning in a simplified feature space to reduce the computational cost. Simplifying data is a common technique seen in feature selection and dimension reduction though an oversimplified space causes adverse learning results. Therefore, we mathematically investigate a condition of the feature map to have an asymptotically equivalent convergence point of estimated parameters, referred to as the vicarious map. As a demonstration to find vicarious maps, we consider the feature space, which limits the length of data, and derive a necessary length for parameter learning in hidden Markov models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Value-centric design architecture based on analysis of space system characteristics (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Hollingsworth, P.; Smith, K.


    Emerging design concepts such as miniaturisation, modularity, and standardisation, have contributed to the rapid development of small and inexpensive platforms, particularly cubesats. This has been stimulating an upcoming revolution in space design and development, leading satellites into the era of "smaller, faster, and cheaper". However, the current requirement-centric design philosophy, focused on bespoke monolithic systems, along with the associated development and production process does not inherently fit with the innovative modular, standardised, and mass-produced technologies. This paper presents a new categorisation, characterisation, and value-centric design architecture to address this need for both traditional and novel system designs. Based on the categorisation of system configurations, a characterisation of space systems, comprised of duplication, fractionation, and derivation, is proposed to capture the overall system configuration characteristics and promote potential hybrid designs. Complying with the definitions of the system characterisation, mathematical mapping relations between the system characterisation and the system properties are described to establish the mathematical foundation of the proposed value-centric design methodology. To illustrate the methodology, subsystem reliability relationships are therefore analysed to explore potential system configurations in the design space. The results of the applications of system characteristic analysis clearly show that the effects of different configuration characteristics on the system properties can be effectively analysed and evaluated, enabling the optimization of system configurations.

  17. Space-Based Astronomy: An Educator Guide with Activities for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education (United States)

    Vogt, Gregory L.


    If you go to the country, far from city lights, you can see about 3,000 stars on a clear night. If your eyes were bigger, you could see many more stars. With a pair of binoculars, an optical device that effectively enlarges the pupil of your eye by about 30 times, the number of stars you can see increases to the tens of thousands. With a medium-sized telescope with a light-collecting mirror 30 centimeters in diameter, you can see hundreds of thousands of stars. With a large observatory telescope, millions of stars become visible. This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outer space. It is not intended to serve as a curriculum. Instead, teachers should select activities from this guide that support and extend existing study. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. It tells, rather, the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Teachers are encouraged to adapt these activities for the particular needs of their students. When selected activities from this guide are used in conjunction with traditional astronomy curricula, students benefit from a more complete experience.

  18. A Space Weather Forecasting System with Multiple Satellites Based on a Self-Recognizing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tokumitsu


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a space weather forecasting system at geostationary orbit for high-energy electron flux (>2 MeV. The forecasting model involves multiple sensors on multiple satellites. The sensors interconnect and evaluate each other to predict future conditions at geostationary orbit. The proposed forecasting model is constructed using a dynamic relational network for sensor diagnosis and event monitoring. The sensors of the proposed model are located at different positions in space. The satellites for solar monitoring equip with monitoring devices for the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed. The satellites orbit near the Earth monitoring high-energy electron flux. We investigate forecasting for typical two examples by comparing the performance of two models with different numbers of sensors. We demonstrate the prediction by the proposed model against coronal mass ejections and a coronal hole. This paper aims to investigate a possibility of space weather forecasting based on the satellite network with in-situ sensing.

  19. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space. (United States)

    Faerber, Stella J; Kaufmann, Jürgen M; Leder, Helmut; Martin, Eva Maria; Schweinberger, Stefan R


    According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991), any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face) should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm), such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent) from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV), and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC) for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV). In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1) that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2) that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations.

  20. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella J Faerber

    Full Text Available According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991, any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm, such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV, and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV. In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1 that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2 that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations.

  1. Ni-BaTiO3-Based Base-Metal Electrode (BME) Ceramic Capacitors for Space Applications (United States)

    Liu, Donhang; Fetter, Lula; Meinhold, Bruce


    A multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) is a high-temperature (1350C typical) co-fired ceramic monolithic that is composed of many layers of alternately stacked oxide-based dielectric and internal metal electrodes. To make the dielectric layers insulating and the metal electrode layers conducting, only highly oxidation-resistant precious metals, such as platinum, palladium, and silver, can be used for the co-firing of insulating MLCCs in a regular air atmosphere. MLCCs made with precious metals as internal electrodes and terminations are called precious-metal electrode (PME) capacitors. Currently, all military and space-level applications only address the use of PME capacitors.

  2. Parameter retrieval of chiral metamaterials based on the state-space approach. (United States)

    Zarifi, Davoud; Soleimani, Mohammad; Abdolali, Ali


    This paper deals with the introduction of an approach for the electromagnetic characterization of homogeneous chiral layers. The proposed method is based on the state-space approach and properties of a 4×4 state transition matrix. Based on this, first, the forward problem analysis through the state-space method is reviewed and properties of the state transition matrix of a chiral layer are presented and proved as two theorems. The formulation of a proposed electromagnetic characterization method is then presented. In this method, scattering data for a linearly polarized plane wave incident normally on a homogeneous chiral slab are combined with properties of a state transition matrix and provide a powerful characterization method. The main difference with respect to other well-established retrieval procedures based on the use of the scattering parameters relies on the direct computation of the transfer matrix of the slab as opposed to the conventional calculation of the propagation constant and impedance of the modes supported by the medium. The proposed approach allows avoiding nonlinearity of the problem but requires getting enough equations to fulfill the task which was provided by considering some properties of the state transition matrix. To demonstrate the applicability and validity of the method, the constitutive parameters of two well-known dispersive chiral metamaterial structures at microwave frequencies are retrieved. The results show that the proposed method is robust and reliable.

  3. Simulation of space-charge effects in an ungated GEM-based TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhmer, F.V., E-mail:; Ball, M.; Dørheim, S.; Höppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Rauch, J.; Vandenbroucke, M.


    A fundamental limit to the application of Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) in high-rate experiments is the accumulation of slowly drifting ions in the active gas volume, which compromises the homogeneity of the drift field and hence the detector resolution. Conventionally, this problem is overcome by the use of ion-gating structures. This method, however, introduces large dead times and restricts trigger rates to a few hundred per second. The ion gate can be eliminated from the setup by the use of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils for gas amplification, which intrinsically suppress the backflow of ions. This makes the continuous operation of a TPC at high rates feasible. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the buildup of ion space charge in a GEM-based TPC and the correction of the resulting drift distortions are discussed, based on realistic numbers for the ion backflow in a triple-GEM amplification stack. A TPC in the future P{sup ¯}ANDA experiment at FAIR serves as an example for the experimental environment. The simulations show that space charge densities up to 65 fC cm{sup −3} are reached, leading to electron drift distortions of up to 10 mm. The application of a laser calibration system to correct these distortions is investigated. Based on full simulations of the detector physics and response, we show that it is possible to correct for the drift distortions and to maintain the good momentum resolution of the GEM-TPC.

  4. Simulation of space-charge effects in an ungated GEM-based TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhmer, F.V.; Ball, M.; Dørheim, S.; Höppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Rauch, J.; Vandenbroucke, M.


    A fundamental limit to the application of Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) in high-rate experiments is the accumulation of slowly drifting ions in the active gas volume, which compromises the homogeneity of the drift field and hence the detector resolution. Conventionally, this problem is overcome by the use of ion-gating structures. This method, however, introduces large dead times and restricts trigger rates to a few hundred per second. The ion gate can be eliminated from the setup by the use of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils for gas amplification, which intrinsically suppress the backflow of ions. This makes the continuous operation of a TPC at high rates feasible. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the buildup of ion space charge in a GEM-based TPC and the correction of the resulting drift distortions are discussed, based on realistic numbers for the ion backflow in a triple-GEM amplification stack. A TPC in the future P ¯ ANDA experiment at FAIR serves as an example for the experimental environment. The simulations show that space charge densities up to 65 fC cm −3 are reached, leading to electron drift distortions of up to 10 mm. The application of a laser calibration system to correct these distortions is investigated. Based on full simulations of the detector physics and response, we show that it is possible to correct for the drift distortions and to maintain the good momentum resolution of the GEM-TPC

  5. Free-free and fixed base modal survey tests of the Space Station Common Module Prototype (United States)

    Driskill, T. C.; Anderson, J. B.; Coleman, A. D.


    This paper describes the testing aspects and the problems encountered during the free-free and fixed base modal surveys completed on the original Space Station Common Module Prototype (CMP). The CMP is a 40-ft long by 14.5-ft diameter 'waffle-grid' cylinder built by the Boeing Company and housed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) near Huntsville, AL. The CMP modal survey tests were conducted at MSFC by the Dynamics Test Branch. The free-free modal survey tests (June '90 to Sept. '90) included interface verification tests (IFVT), often referred to as impedance measurements, mass-additive testing and linearity studies. The fixed base modal survey tests (Feb. '91 to April '91), including linearity studies, were conducted in a fixture designed to constrain the CMP in 7 total degrees-of-freedom at five trunnion interfaces (two primary, two secondary, and the keel). The fixture also incorporated an airbag off-load system designed to alleviate the non-linear effects of friction in the primary and secondary trunnion interfaces. Numerous test configurations were performed with the objective of providing a modal data base for evaluating the various testing methodologies to verify dynamic finite element models used for input to coupled load analysis.

  6. Fiber-Based, Trace-Gas, Laser Transmitter Technology Development for Space (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Wu, Stewart; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Gonzalez, Brayler; hide


    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is working on maturing the technology readiness of a laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. GSFC has been developing an airplane-based CO2 lidar instrument over several years to demonstrate the efficacy of the instrumentation and measurement technique and to link the science models to the instrument performance. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. In order to accomplish this, we must demonstrate the technology readiness and performance of the components as well as demonstrate the required power-scaling to make the link with the required signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). To date, all the instrument components have been shown to have the required performance with the exception of the laser transmitter.In this program we are working on a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture where we will develop a ruggedized package and perform the relevant environmental tests to demonstrate TRL-6. In this paper we will review our transmitter architecture and progress on the performance and packaging of the laser transmitter.

  7. Precision requirements for space-based X(CO2) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.E.; Crisp, D.; Miller, C.E.; Salawitch, J.; Sander, S.P.; Sen, B.; Toon, C.; DeCola, P.L.; Olsen, S.C.; Randerson, J.T.; Michalak, A.M.; Alkhaled, A.; Michalak, A.M.; Rayner, P.; Jacob, D.J.; Suntharalingam, P.; Wofsy, S.C.; Jacob, D.J.; Suntharalingam, P.; Wofsy, S.C.; Jones, D.B.A.; Denning, A.S.; Nicholls, M.E.; O'Brien, D.; Doney, S.C.; Pawson, S.; Pawson, S.; Connor, B.J.; Fung, I.Y.; Tans, P.; Wennberg, P.O.; Yung, Y.L.; Law, R.M.


    Precision requirements are determined for space-based column-averaged CO 2 dry air mole fraction X(CO 2 ) data. These requirements result from an assessment of spatial and temporal gradients in X(CO 2 ), the relationship between X(CO 2 ) precision and surface CO 2 flux uncertainties inferred from inversions of the X(CO 2 ) data, and the effects of X(CO 2 ) biases on the fidelity of CO 2 flux inversions. Observational system simulation experiments and synthesis inversion modeling demonstrate that the Orbiting Carbon Observatory mission design and sampling strategy provide the means to achieve these X(CO 2 ) data precision requirements. (authors)

  8. Tests of the gravitational redshift effect in space-born and ground-based experiments (United States)

    Vavilova, I. B.


    This paper provides a brief overview of experiments as concerns with the tests of the gravitational redshift (GRS) effect in ground-based and space-born experiments. In particular, we consider the GRS effects in the gravitational field of the Earth, the major planets of the Solar system, compact stars (white dwarfs and neutron stars) where this effect is confirmed with a higher accuracy. We discuss availabilities to confirm the GRS effect for galaxies and galaxy clusters in visible and X-ray ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  9. Secondary Neutron Production from Space Radiation Interactions: Advances in Model and Experimental Data Base Development (United States)

    Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Braley, G. Scott; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.


    For humans engaged in long-duration missions in deep space or near-Earth orbit, the risk from exposure to galactic and solar cosmic rays is an important factor in the design of spacecraft, spacesuits, and planetary bases. As cosmic rays are transported through shielding materials and human tissue components, a secondary radiation field is produced. Neutrons are an important component of that secondary field, especially in thickly-shielded environments. Calculations predict that 50% of the dose-equivalent in a lunar or Martian base comes from neutrons, and a recent workshop held at the Johnson Space Center concluded that as much as 30% of the dose in the International Space Station may come from secondary neutrons. Accelerator facilities provide a means for measuring the effectiveness of various materials in their ability to limit neutron production, using beams and energies that are present in cosmic radiation. The nearly limitless range of beams, energies, and target materials that are present in space, however, means that accelerator-based experiments will not provide a complete database of cross sections and thick-target yields that are necessary to plan and design long-duration missions. As such, accurate nuclear models of neutron production are needed, as well as data sets that can be used to compare with, and verify, the predictions from such models. Improvements in a model of secondary neutron production from heavy-ion interactions are presented here, along with the results from recent accelerator-based measurements of neutron-production cross sections. An analytical knockout-ablation model capable of predicting neutron production from high-energy hadron-hadron interactions (both nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions) has been previously developed. In the knockout stage, the collision between two nuclei result in the emission of one or more nucleons from the projectile and/or target. The resulting projectile and target remnants, referred to as

  10. Science with the space-based interferometer LISA. IV: probing inflation with gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Guzzetti, Maria Chiara; Liguori, Michele; Matarrese, Sabino


    We investigate the potential for the LISA space-based interferometer to detect the stochastic gravitational wave background produced from different mechanisms during inflation. Focusing on well-motivated scenarios, we study the resulting contributions from particle production during inflation, inflationary spectator fields with varying speed of sound, effective field theories of inflation with specific patterns of symmetry breaking and models leading to the formation of primordial black holes. The projected sensitivities of LISA are used in a model-independent way for various detector designs and configurations. We demonstrate that LISA is able to probe these well-motivated inflationary scenarios beyond the irreducible vacuum tensor modes expected from any inflationary background.

  11. Space-based gravitational-wave detectors can determine the thermal history of the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Saito, Shun; Suwa, Yudai; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi


    It is shown that space-based gravitational-wave detectors such as DECIGO and/or the Big Bang Observer will provide us with invaluable information on the cosmic thermal history after inflation, and they will be able to determine the reheat temperature T R provided that it lies in the range preferred by the cosmological gravitino problem, T R ∼10 5-9 GeV. Therefore it is strongly desired that they will be put into practice as soon as possible

  12. Science with the space-based interferometer LISA. IV: Probing inflation with gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Nicola; Domcke, Valerie; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Guzzetti, Maria Chiara; Liguori, Michele; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Petiteau, Antoine; Ricciardone, Angelo; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Sorbo, Lorenzo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo


    We investigate the potential for the LISA space-based interferometer to detect the stochastic gravitational wave background produced from different mechanisms during inflation. Focusing on well-motivated scenarios, we study the resulting contributions from particle production during inflation, inflationary spectator fields with varying speed of sound, effective field theories of inflation with specific patterns of symmetry breaking and models leading to the formation of primordial black holes. The projected sensitivities of LISA are used in a model-independent way for various detector designs and configurations. We demonstrate that LISA is able to probe these well-motivated inflationary scenarios beyond the irreducible vacuum tensor modes expected from any inflationary background.

  13. A space-based public service platform for terrestrial rescue operations (United States)

    Fleisig, R.; Bernstein, J.; Cramblit, D. C.


    The space-based Public Service Platform (PSP) is a multibeam, high-gain communications relay satellite that can provide a variety of functions for a large number of people on earth equipped with extremely small, very low cost transceivers. This paper describes the PSP concept, the rationale used to derive the concept, the criteria for selecting specific communication functions to be performed, and the advantages of performing such functions via satellite. The discussion focuses on the benefits of using a PSP for natural disaster warning; control of attendant rescue/assistance operations; and rescue of people in downed aircraft, aboard sinking ships, lost or injured on land.

  14. A COTS-based single board radiation-hardened computer for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, S.; Hillman, R.; Layton, P.; Krawzsenek, D.


    There is great community interest in the ability to use COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) technology in radiation environments. Space Electronics, Inc. has developed a high performance COTS-based radiation hardened computer. COTS approaches were selected for both hardware and software. Through parts testing, selection and packaging, all requirements have been met without parts or process development. Reliability, total ionizing dose and single event performance are attractive. The characteristics, performance and radiation resistance of the single board computer will be presented. (authors)

  15. New advanced netted ground based and topside radio diagnostics for Space Weather Program (United States)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Krankowski, Andrzej; Morawski, Marek; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii


    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. All they will be connected via PIONIER dedicated links to Poznan. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). They will most time work as a part of European network, however, when less charged, they can operate as a national network The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the RELEC satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. In order to improve and validate the large scales and small scales ionospheric structures we will used the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN network employed to reconstruct diurnal variations of TEC using all satellite passes over individual GPS stations and the

  16. Project Based Learning experiences in the space engineering education at Technical University of Madrid (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jacobo; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; del Cura, Juan M.; Ezquerro, José M.; Lapuerta, Victoria; Cordero-Gracia, Marta


    This work describes the innovation activities performed in the field of space education since the academic year 2009/10 at the Technical University of Madrid (UPM), in collaboration with the Spanish User Support and Operations Center (E-USOC), the center assigned by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Spain to support the operations of scientific experiments on board the International Space Station. These activities have been integrated within the last year of the UPM Aerospace Engineering degree. A laboratory has been created, where students have to validate and integrate the subsystems of a microsatellite using demonstrator satellites. In parallel, the students participate in a Project Based Learning (PBL) training process in which they work in groups to develop the conceptual design of a space mission. One student in each group takes the role of project manager, another one is responsible for the mission design and the rest are each responsible for the design of one of the satellite subsystems. A ground station has also been set up with the help of students developing their final thesis, which will allow future students to perform training sessions and learn how to communicate with satellites, how to receive telemetry and how to process the data. Several surveys have been conducted along two academic years to evaluate the impact of these techniques in engineering learning. The surveys evaluate the acquisition of specific and generic competences, as well as the students' degree of satisfaction with respect to the use of these learning methodologies. The results of the surveys and the perception of the lecturers show that PBL encourages students' motivation and improves their results. They not only acquire better technical training, but also improve their transversal skills. It is also pointed out that this methodology requires more dedication from lecturers than traditional methods.

  17. Lubricant based determination of design space for continuously manufactured high dose paracetamol tablets. (United States)

    Taipale-Kovalainen, Krista; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Korhonen, Ossi


    The objective of this study was to devise robust and stable continuous manufacturing process settings, by exploring the design space after an investigation of the lubrication-based parameters influencing the continuous direct compression tableting of high dose paracetamol tablets. Experimental design was used to generate a structured study plan which involved 19 runs. The formulation variables studied were the type of lubricant (magnesium stearate or stearic acid) and its concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Process variables were total production feed rate (5, 10.5 and 16kg/h), mixer speed rpm (500, 850 and 1200rpm), and mixer inlet port for lubricant (A or B). The continuous direct compression tableting line consisted of loss-in-weight feeders, a continuous mixer and a tablet press. The Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP) was defined for the final product, as the flowability of powder blends (2.5s), tablet strength (147N), dissolution in 2.5min (90%) and ejection force (425N). A design space was identified which fulfilled all the requirements of QTPP. The type and concentration of lubricant exerted the greatest influence on the design space. For example, stearic acid increased the tablet strength. Interestingly, the studied process parameters had only a very minor effect on the quality of the final product and the design space. It is concluded that the continuous direct compression tableting process itself is insensitive and can cope with changes in lubrication, whereas formulation parameters exert a major influence on the end product quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs (United States)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.


    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested

  19. The status of lightweight photovoltaic space array technology based on amorphous silicon solar cells (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Kaschmitter, Jim


    Ultralight, flexible photovoltaic (PV) array of amorphous silicon (a-Si) was identified as a potential low cost power source for small satellites. A survey was conducted of the status of the a-Si PV array technology with respect to present and future performance, availability, cost, and risks. For existing, experimental array blankets made of commercial cell material, utilizing metal foil substrates, the Beginning of Life (BOL) performance at Air Mass Zero (AM0) and 35 C includes total power up to 200 W, power per area of 64 W/sq m and power per weight of 258 W/kg. Doubling of power per weight occurs when polyimide substrates are used. Estimated End of Life (EOL) power output after 10 years in a nominal low earth orbit would be 80 pct. of BOL, the degradation being due to largely light induced effects (-10 to -15 pct.) and in part (-5 pct.) to space radiation. Predictions for the year 1995 for flexible PV arrays, made on the basis of published results for rigid a-Si modules, indicate EOL power output per area and per weight of 105 W/sq m and 400 W/kg, respectively, while predictions for the late 1990s based on existing U.S. national PV program goals indicate EOL values of 157 W/sq m and 600 W/kg. Cost estimates by vendors for 200 W ultralight arrays in volume of over 1000 units range from $100/watt to $125/watt. Identified risks include the lack of flexible, space compatible encapsulant, the lack of space qualification effort, recent partial or full acquisitions of US manufacturers of a-Si cells by foreign firms, and the absence of a national commitment for a long range development program toward developing of this important power source for space.

  20. An ultra-stable iodine-based frequency reference for space applications (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Keetman, Anja; Reggentin, Matthias; Kovalchuk, Evgeny; Peters, Achim


    Future space missions require for ultra-stable optical frequency references. Examples are the gravitational wave detector LISA/eLISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), the SpaceTime Asymmetry Research (STAR) program, the aperture-synthesis telescope Darwin and the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) follow on mission exploring Earth's gravity. As high long-term frequency stability is required, lasers stabilized to atomic or molecular transitions are preferred, also offering an absolute frequency reference. Frequency stabilities in the 10 ^{-15} domains at longer integration times (up to several hours) are demonstrated in laboratory experiments using setups based on Doppler-free spectroscopy. Such setups with a frequency stability comparable to the hydrogen maser in the microwave domain, have the potential to be developed space compatible on a relatively short time scale. Here, we present the development of ultra-stable optical frequency references based on modulation-transfer spectroscopy of molecular iodine. Noise levels of 2\\cdot10 ^{-14} at an integration time of 1 s and below 3\\cdot10 ^{-15} at integration times between 100 s and 1000 s are demonstrated with a laboratory setup using an 80 cm long iodine cell in single-pass configuration in combination with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and standard optical components and optomechanic mounts. The frequency stability at longer integration times is (amongst other things) limited by the dimensional stability of the optical setup, i.e. by th pointing stability of the two counter-propagating beams overlapped in the iodine cell. With the goal of a future space compatible setup, a compact frequency standard on EBB (elegant breadboard) level was realized. The spectroscopy unit utilizes a baseplate made of Clearceram-HS, a glass ceramics with an ultra-low coefficient of thermal expansion of 2\\cdot10 ^{-8} K ^{-1}. The optical components are joint to the baseplate using adhesive bonding technology

  1. On the feasibility of space-based radar ice sounding of the Antarctic ice sheet at P-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Corr, Hugh

    . In this study the feasibility of space-based radar ice sounding is assessed. A two-step approach is applied: (1) Key ice sheet parameters are estimated from the airborne POLARIS data acquired in Antarctica. (2) The performance of potential space-based ice sounding radars is simulated based on the estimated ice...... data analysis estimating the scattering patterns via the Doppler spectra of the POLARIS data. The scattering patterns of the ice surfaces are relevant because the geometry of a space-based radar increases the risk that off-nadir surface clutter masks the nadir depth-signal of interest. Currently...... the ice sheet model is being established and validated. At the symposium measured and simulated satellite waveforms will be compared, and the feasibility of space-based ice sounding will be addressed....

  2. 76 FR 22924 - Re-Establishment of the National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Advisory... (United States)


    ... Government is necessary and in the public interest. Accordingly, NASA is re-establishing the National Space... advice on U.S. space-based PNT policy, planning, program management, and funding profiles in relation to... Advisory Board will function solely as an advisory body and will comply fully with the provisions of the...

  3. A global, space-based stratospheric aerosol climatology: 1979 to 2014 (United States)

    Thomason, L. W.; Vernier, J. P.; Bourassa, A. E.; Millan, L.; Manney, G. L.


    Herein, we report on a global space-based stratospheric aerosol climatology (GloSSAC) that has been developed to support Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) (REF to CMIP6 and ETH work). GloSSAC is most closely related to the ASAP[SPARC, 2006] and CCMI data sets and follows a similar approach used to produce those data sets. It is primarily built using space-based measurements by a number of instruments including the SAGE series, OSIRIS, CALIPSO, CLAES and HALOE. The data set is presented as monthly depictions for 80S to 80N and from at least the tropopause to 40 km. The data set consists primarily of measurements by the instruments at their native wavelength and measurement type (e.g., extinction coefficient). However, every bin in these monthly grids receives measured or indirectly inferred values for aerosol extinction coefficient at 525 and 1020 nm. Generally, bins where no data are available are filled via simple linear interpolation in time only. The exceptions are in the SAGE I/II gap from 1982 to 1984 where data from SAM II and ground-based and airborne lidar data sets are used to span the 3 years between the end of the SAGE I mission in November 1981 and the beginning of the SAGE II mission in October 1984. Ground-based lidar also supplements space-based data in the months following the Pinatubo eruption when much of the lower stratosphere is too optically opaque for occultation measurements. This data set includes total aerosol surface area density and volume estimates based on Thomason et al.[2008] though these should be interpreted as bounding values (low and high) rather than functional aerosol parameters that are generally produced from this and predecessor data sets by other parties. Unlike previous versions of this data set, GloSSAC has been permanently archived at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center and a digital object identifier (doi) for GloSSAC is available. SPARC (2006), Assessment of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties (ASAP

  4. Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) for Space Shuttle Launch (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Rajkumar, T.


    The Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) is a critical module of the Virtual Test Bed development to support 'go/no go' decisions for Space Shuttle operations in the Intelligent Launch and Range Operations program of NASA. The weather rules characterize certain aspects of the environment related to the launching or landing site, the time of the day or night, the pad or runway conditions, the mission durations, the runway equipment and landing type. Expert system rules are derived from weather contingency rules, which were developed over years by NASA. Backward chaining, a goal-directed inference method is adopted, because a particular consequence or goal clause is evaluated first, and then chained backward through the rules. Once a rule is satisfied or true, then that particular rule is fired and the decision is expressed. The expert system is continuously verifying the rules against the past one-hour weather conditions and the decisions are made. The normal procedure of operations requires a formal pre-launch weather briefing held on Launch minus 1 day, which is a specific weather briefing for all areas of Space Shuttle launch operations. In this paper, the Web-based Weather Expert System of the Intelligent Launch and range Operations program is presented.

  5. The Solar Umbrella: A Low-cost Demonstration of Scalable Space Based Solar Power (United States)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Trease, Brian P.; Sherwood, Brent


    Within the past decade, the Space Solar Power (SSP) community has seen an influx of stakeholders willing to entertain the SSP prospect of potentially boundless, base-load solar energy. Interested parties affiliated with the Department of Defense (DoD), the private sector, and various international entities have all agreed that while the benefits of SSP are tremendous and potentially profitable, the risk associated with developing an efficient end to end SSP harvesting system is still very high. In an effort to reduce the implementation risk for future SSP architectures, this study proposes a system level design that is both low-cost and seeks to demonstrate the furthest transmission of wireless power to date. The overall concept is presented and each subsystem is explained in detail with best estimates of current implementable technologies. Basic cost models were constructed based on input from JPL subject matter experts and assume that the technology demonstration would be carried out by a federally funded entity. The main thrust of the architecture is to demonstrate that a usable amount of solar power can be safely and reliably transmitted from space to the Earth's surface; however, maximum power scalability limits and their cost implications are discussed.

  6. Evaluation of the Terminal Sequencing and Spacing System for Performance Based Navigation Arrivals (United States)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Jung, Jaewoo; Swenson, Harry N.; Martin, Lynne; Lin, Melody; Nguyen, Jimmy


    NASA has developed the Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSS) system, a suite of advanced arrival management technologies combining timebased scheduling and controller precision spacing tools. TSS is a ground-based controller automation tool that facilitates sequencing and merging arrivals that have both current standard ATC routes and terminal Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) routes, especially during highly congested demand periods. In collaboration with the FAA and MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD), TSS system performance was evaluated in human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations with currently active controllers as participants. Traffic scenarios had mixed Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) equipage, where the more advanced RNP-equipped aircraft had preferential treatment with a shorter approach option. Simulation results indicate the TSS system achieved benefits by enabling PBN, while maintaining high throughput rates-10% above baseline demand levels. Flight path predictability improved, where path deviation was reduced by 2 NM on average and variance in the downwind leg length was 75% less. Arrivals flew more fuel-efficient descents for longer, spending an average of 39 seconds less in step-down level altitude segments. Self-reported controller workload was reduced, with statistically significant differences at the p less than 0.01 level. The RNP-equipped arrivals were also able to more frequently capitalize on the benefits of being "Best-Equipped, Best- Served" (BEBS), where less vectoring was needed and nearly all RNP approaches were conducted without interruption.

  7. Didactic satellite based on Android platform for space operation demonstration and development (United States)

    Ben Bahri, Omar; Besbes, Kamel


    Space technology plays a pivotal role in society development. It offers new methods for telemetry, monitoring and control. However, this sector requires training, research and skills development but the lack of instruments, materials and budgets affects the ambiguity to understand satellite technology. The objective of this paper is to describe a demonstration prototype of a smart phone device for space operations study. Therefore, the first task was carried out to give a demonstration for spatial imagery and attitude determination missions through a wireless communication. The smart phone's Bluetooth was used to achieve this goal inclusive of a new method to enable real time transmission. In addition, an algorithm around a quaternion based Kalman filter was included in order to detect the reliability of the prototype's orientation. The second task was carried out to provide a demonstration for the attitude control mission using the smart phone's orientation sensor, including a new method for an autonomous guided mode. As a result, the acquisition platform showed real time measurement with good accuracy for orientation detection and image transmission. In addition, the prototype kept the balance during the demonstration based on the attitude control method.

  8. Industrialization of Space: Microgravity Based Opportunities for Material and Life Science (United States)

    Cozmuta, Ioana; Harper, Lynn D.; Rasky, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Alexander; Pittman, Robert


    Microgravity based commercial opportunities are broad, with applications ranging from fiber optics, device-grade semiconductor crystals, space beads, new materials, cell micro encapsulation, 3D tissues and cell cultures, genetic and molecular changes of immune suppression, protein and virus crystal growth, perfume and hair care. To date, primarily the knowledge gained from observing and understanding new end states of systems unraveled in microgravity has been translated into unique technologies and business opportunities on Earth. In some instances existing light qualified hardware is immediately available for commercial RD for small scale in-space manufacturing. Overall products manufactured in microgravity have key properties usually surpassing the best terrestrial counterparts. The talk will address the potential benefits of microgravity research for a variety of terrestrial markets. Our findings originate from discussions with 100+ non-aerospace private companies among the high-tech Silicon Valley ecosystem, show that the opportunities and benefits of using the ISS are largely not considered by experts, primarily due to a lack of awareness of the breadth of terrestrial applications that have been enabled or enhanced by microgravity RD. Based on this dialogue, the concept of microgravity verticals is developed to translate the benefits of the microgravity environment into blue ocean business opportunities for various key US commercial sectors.

  9. Size, shape, and topology optimization of planar and space trusses using mutation-based improved metaheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam G. Tejani


    Full Text Available In this study, simultaneous size, shape, and topology optimization of planar and space trusses are investigated. Moreover, the trusses are subjected to constraints for element stresses, nodal displacements, and kinematic stability conditions. Truss Topology Optimization (TTO removes the superfluous elements and nodes from the ground structure. In this method, the difficulties arise due to unacceptable and singular topologies; therefore, the Grubler’s criterion and the positive definiteness are used to handle such issue. Moreover, the TTO is challenging due to its search space, which is implicit, non-convex, non-linear, and often leading to divergence. Therefore, mutation-based metaheuristics are proposed to investigate them. This study compares the performance of four improved metaheuristics (viz. Improved Teaching–Learning-Based Optimization (ITLBO, Improved Heat Transfer Search (IHTS, Improved Water Wave Optimization (IWWO, and Improved Passing Vehicle Search (IPVS and four basic metaheuristics (viz. TLBO, HTS, WWO, and PVS in order to solve structural optimization problems. Keywords: Structural optimization, Mutation operator, Improved metaheuristics, Modified algorithms, Truss topology optimization

  10. Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of HVCB with Feature Space Optimization-Based Random Forest. (United States)

    Ma, Suliang; Chen, Mingxuan; Wu, Jianwen; Wang, Yuhao; Jia, Bowen; Jiang, Yuan


    Mechanical faults of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs) always happen over long-term operation, so extracting the fault features and identifying the fault type have become a key issue for ensuring the security and reliability of power supply. Based on wavelet packet decomposition technology and random forest algorithm, an effective identification system was developed in this paper. First, compared with the incomplete description of Shannon entropy, the wavelet packet time-frequency energy rate (WTFER) was adopted as the input vector for the classifier model in the feature selection procedure. Then, a random forest classifier was used to diagnose the HVCB fault, assess the importance of the feature variable and optimize the feature space. Finally, the approach was verified based on actual HVCB vibration signals by considering six typical fault classes. The comparative experiment results show that the classification accuracy of the proposed method with the origin feature space reached 93.33% and reached up to 95.56% with optimized input feature vector of classifier. This indicates that feature optimization procedure is successful, and the proposed diagnosis algorithm has higher efficiency and robustness than traditional methods.

  11. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Fuel Cell Projects (United States)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan


    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Fuel cell research focused on proton exchange membranes (PEM), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Specific technologies included aircraft fuel cell reformers, new and improved electrodes, electrolytes, interconnect, and seals, modeling of fuel cells including CFD coupled with impedance spectroscopy. Research was conducted on new materials and designs for fuel cells, along with using embedded sensors with power management electronics to improve the power density delivered by fuel cells. Fuel cell applications considered were in-space operations, aviation, and ground-based fuel cells such as; powering auxiliary power units (APUs) in aircraft; high power density, long duration power supplies for interplanetary missions (space science probes and planetary rovers); regenerative capabilities for high altitude aircraft; and power supplies for reusable launch vehicles.

  12. Feature-space-based FMRI analysis using the optimal linear transformation. (United States)

    Sun, Fengrong; Morris, Drew; Lee, Wayne; Taylor, Margot J; Mills, Travis; Babyn, Paul S


    The optimal linear transformation (OLT), an image analysis technique of feature space, was first presented in the field of MRI. This paper proposes a method of extending OLT from MRI to functional MRI (fMRI) to improve the activation-detection performance over conventional approaches of fMRI analysis. In this method, first, ideal hemodynamic response time series for different stimuli were generated by convolving the theoretical hemodynamic response model with the stimulus timing. Second, constructing hypothetical signature vectors for different activity patterns of interest by virtue of the ideal hemodynamic responses, OLT was used to extract features of fMRI data. The resultant feature space had particular geometric clustering properties. It was then classified into different groups, each pertaining to an activity pattern of interest; the applied signature vector for each group was obtained by averaging. Third, using the applied signature vectors, OLT was applied again to generate fMRI composite images with high SNRs for the desired activity patterns. Simulations and a blocked fMRI experiment were employed for the method to be verified and compared with the general linear model (GLM)-based analysis. The simulation studies and the experimental results indicated the superiority of the proposed method over the GLM-based analysis in detecting brain activities.

  13. A Third-Rank Tensor Field Based on a U(1) Gauge Theory in Loop Space


    Shinichi, DEGUCHI; Tadahito, NAKAJIMA; Department of Physics and Atomic Energy Research Institute College of Science and Technology; Department of Physics and Atomic Energy Research Institute College of Science and Technology


    We derive the Stueckelberg formalism extended to a third-rank tensor field from a U(1) gauge theory in loop space, the space of all loops in space-time. The third-rank tensor field is regarded as a constrained U(1) gauge field on the loop space.

  14. A Multi-Model Stereo Similarity Function Based on Monogenic Signal Analysis in Poisson Scale Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Li


    Full Text Available A stereo similarity function based on local multi-model monogenic image feature descriptors (LMFD is proposed to match interest points and estimate disparity map for stereo images. Local multi-model monogenic image features include local orientation and instantaneous phase of the gray monogenic signal, local color phase of the color monogenic signal, and local mean colors in the multiscale color monogenic signal framework. The gray monogenic signal, which is the extension of analytic signal to gray level image using Dirac operator and Laplace equation, consists of local amplitude, local orientation, and instantaneous phase of 2D image signal. The color monogenic signal is the extension of monogenic signal to color image based on Clifford algebras. The local color phase can be estimated by computing geometric product between the color monogenic signal and a unit reference vector in RGB color space. Experiment results on the synthetic and natural stereo images show the performance of the proposed approach.

  15. Energy Savings in Cellular Networks Based on Space-Time Structure of Traffic Loads (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Wang, Yue; Yuan, Jian; Shan, Xiuming

    Since most of energy consumed by the telecommunication infrastructure is due to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS), switching off BTSs when traffic load is low has been recognized as an effective way of saving energy. In this letter, an energy saving scheme is proposed to minimize the number of active BTSs based on the space-time structure of traffic loads as determined by principal component analysis. Compared to existing methods, our approach models traffic loads more accurately, and has a much smaller input size. As it is implemented in an off-line manner, our scheme also avoids excessive communications and computing overheads. Simulation results show that the proposed method has a comparable performance in energy savings.

  16. Screen Space Ambient Occlusion Based Multiple Importance Sampling for Real-Time Rendering (United States)

    Zerari, Abd El Mouméne; Babahenini, Mohamed Chaouki


    We propose a new approximation technique for accelerating the Global Illumination algorithm for real-time rendering. The proposed approach is based on the Screen-Space Ambient Occlusion (SSAO) method, which approximates the global illumination for large, fully dynamic scenes at interactive frame rates. Current algorithms that are based on the SSAO method suffer from difficulties due to the large number of samples that are required. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the SSAO technique by integrating it with a Multiple Importance Sampling technique that combines a stratified sampling method with an importance sampling method, with the objective of reducing the number of samples. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our technique can produce high-quality images in real time and is significantly faster than traditional techniques.

  17. Distributed Space Mission Design for Earth Observation Using Model-Based Performance Evaluation (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Cervantes, Ben; DeWeck, Oliver


    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to earth observation missions owing to their unique ability to increase observation sampling in multiple dimensions. DSM design is a complex problem with many design variables, multiple objectives determining performance and cost and emergent, often unexpected, behaviors. There are very few open-access tools available to explore the tradespace of variables, minimize cost and maximize performance for pre-defined science goals, and therefore select the most optimal design. This paper presents a software tool that can multiple DSM architectures based on pre-defined design variable ranges and size those architectures in terms of predefined science and cost metrics. The tool will help a user select Pareto optimal DSM designs based on design of experiments techniques. The tool will be applied to some earth observation examples to demonstrate its applicability in making some key decisions between different performance metrics and cost metrics early in the design lifecycle.

  18. A state-space-based prognostics model for lithium-ion battery degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin; Chen, Nan


    This paper proposes to analyze the degradation of lithium-ion batteries with the sequentially observed discharging profiles. A general state-space model is developed in which the observation model is used to approximate the discharging profile of each cycle, the corresponding parameter vector is treated as the hidden state, and the state-transition model is used to track the evolution of the parameter vector as the battery ages. The EM and EKF algorithms are adopted to estimate and update the model parameters and states jointly. Based on this model, we construct prediction on the end of discharge times for unobserved cycles and the remaining useful cycles before the battery failure. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated using a real lithium-ion battery degradation data set. - Highlights: • Unifying model for Li-Ion battery SOC and SOH estimation. • Extended Kalman filter based efficient inference algorithm. • Using voltage curves in discharging to have wide validity.

  19. Space-Based Diagnosis of Surface Ozone Sensitivity to Anthropogenic Emissions (United States)

    Martin, Randall V.; Fiore, Arlene M.; VanDonkelaar, Aaron


    We present a novel capability in satellite remote sensing with implications for air pollution control strategy. We show that the ratio of formaldehyde columns to tropospheric nitrogen dioxide columns is an indicator of the relative sensitivity of surface ozone to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The diagnosis from these space-based observations is highly consistent with current understanding of surface ozone chemistry based on in situ observations. The satellite-derived ratios indicate that surface ozone is more sensitive to emissions of NO(x) than of VOCs throughout most continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere during summer. Exceptions include Los Angeles and industrial areas of Germany. A seasonal transition occurs in the fall when surface ozone becomes less sensitive to NOx and more sensitive to VOCs.

  20. Shared protection based virtual network mapping in space division multiplexing optical networks (United States)

    Zhang, Huibin; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie


    Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) has been introduced to improve the capacity of optical networks. In SDM optical networks, there are multiple cores/modes in each fiber link, and spectrum resources are multiplexed in both frequency and core/modes dimensions. Enabled by network virtualization technology, one SDM optical network substrate can be shared by several virtual networks operators. Similar with point-to-point connection services, virtual networks (VN) also need certain survivability to guard against network failures. Based on customers' heterogeneous requirements on the survivability of their virtual networks, this paper studies the shared protection based VN mapping problem and proposes a Minimum Free Frequency Slots (MFFS) mapping algorithm to improve spectrum efficiency. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can optimize SDM optical networks significantly in terms of blocking probability and spectrum utilization.

  1. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (United States)

    Parker, Ron; Carr, Zak; MacLean, Mathew; Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish


    This paper describes the Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement of several water transitions that were interrogated during a hot-fire testing of the Space Launch Systems (SLS) sub-scale vehicle installed in LENS II. The temperature of the recirculating gas flow over the base plate was found to increase with altitude and is consistent with CFD results. It was also observed that the gas above the base plate has significant velocity along the optical path of the sensor at the higher altitudes. The line-by-line analysis of the H2O absorption features must include the effects of the Doppler shift phenomena particularly at high altitude. The TDLAS experimental measurements and the analysis procedure which incorporates the velocity dependent flow will be described.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Fermilab; Ha, G. [POSTECH


    Intercepting multi-aperture masks (e.g. pepper pot or multislit mask) combined with a downstream transversedensity diagnostics (e.g. based on optical transition radiation or employing scintillating media) are commonly used for characterizing the phase space of charged particle beams and the associated emittances. The required data analysis relies on precise calculation of the RMS sizes and positions of the beamlets originated from the mask which drifted up to the analyzing diagnostics. Voronoi diagram is an efficient method for splitting a plane into subsets according to the distances between given vortices. The application of the method to analyze data from pepper pot and multislit mask based measurement is validated via numerical simulation and applied to experimental data acquired at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. We also discuss the application of the Voronoi diagrams to quantify transverselymodulated beams distortion.

  3. Threshold-Based Multiple Optical Signal Selection Scheme for Free-Space Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Zhang, Lin; Ko, Young-Chai


    We propose a threshold-based multiple optical signal selection scheme (TMOS) for free-space optical wavelength division multiplexing systems. With this scheme, we can obtain higher spectral efficiency while reducing the possible complexity

  4. Free-Suspension Residual Flexibility Testing of Space Station Pathfinder: Comparison to Fixed-Base Results (United States)

    Tinker, Michael L.


    Application of the free-suspension residual flexibility modal test method to the International Space Station Pathfinder structure is described. The Pathfinder, a large structure of the general size and weight of Space Station module elements, was also tested in a large fixed-base fixture to simulate Shuttle Orbiter payload constraints. After correlation of the Pathfinder finite element model to residual flexibility test data, the model was coupled to a fixture model, and constrained modes and frequencies were compared to fixed-base test. modes. The residual flexibility model compared very favorably to results of the fixed-base test. This is the first known direct comparison of free-suspension residual flexibility and fixed-base test results for a large structure. The model correlation approach used by the author for residual flexibility data is presented. Frequency response functions (FRF) for the regions of the structure that interface with the environment (a test fixture or another structure) are shown to be the primary tools for model correlation that distinguish or characterize the residual flexibility approach. A number of critical issues related to use of the structure interface FRF for correlating the model are then identified and discussed, including (1) the requirement of prominent stiffness lines, (2) overcoming problems with measurement noise which makes the antiresonances or minima in the functions difficult to identify, and (3) the use of interface stiffness and lumped mass perturbations to bring the analytical responses into agreement with test data. It is shown that good comparison of analytical-to-experimental FRF is the key to obtaining good agreement of the residual flexibility values.

  5. On System Engineering a Barter-Based Re-allocation of Space System Key Development Resources (United States)

    Kosmann, William J.

    NASA has had a decades-long problem with cost growth during the development of space science missions. Numerous agency-sponsored studies have produced average mission level development cost growths ranging from 23 to 77%. A new study of 26 historical NASA science instrument set developments using expert judgment to re-allocate key development resources has an average cost growth of 73.77%. Twice in history, during the Cassini and EOS-Terra science instrument developments, a barter-based mechanism has been used to re-allocate key development resources. The mean instrument set development cost growth was -1.55%. Performing a bivariate inference on the means of these two distributions, there is statistical evidence to support the claim that using a barter-based mechanism to re-allocate key instrument development resources will result in a lower expected cost growth than using the expert judgment approach. Agent-based discrete event simulation is the natural way to model a trade environment. A NetLogo agent-based barter-based simulation of science instrument development was created. The agent-based model was validated against the Cassini historical example, as the starting and ending instrument development conditions are available. The resulting validated agent-based barter-based science instrument resource re-allocation simulation was used to perform 300 instrument development simulations, using barter to re-allocate development resources. The mean cost growth was -3.365%. A bivariate inference on the means was performed to determine that additional significant statistical evidence exists to support a claim that using barter-based resource re-allocation will result in lower expected cost growth, with respect to the historical expert judgment approach. Barter-based key development resource re-allocation should work on science spacecraft development as well as it has worked on science instrument development. A new study of 28 historical NASA science spacecraft

  6. Coherent lidar wind measurements from the Space Station base using 1.5 m all-reflective optics (United States)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Beranek, R. G.


    This paper discusses the space-based measurement of atmospheric winds from the point of view of the requirements of the optical system of a coherent CO2 lidar. A brief description of the measurement technique is given and a discussion of previous study results provided. The telescope requirements for a Space Station based lidar are arrived at through discussions of the desired system sensitivity and the need for lag angle compensation.

  7. Reducing a Knowledge-Base Search Space When Data Are Missing (United States)

    James, Mark


    This software addresses the problem of how to efficiently execute a knowledge base in the presence of missing data. Computationally, this is an exponentially expensive operation that without heuristics generates a search space of 1 + 2n possible scenarios, where n is the number of rules in the knowledge base. Even for a knowledge base of the most modest size, say 16 rules, it would produce 65,537 possible scenarios. The purpose of this software is to reduce the complexity of this operation to a more manageable size. The problem that this system solves is to develop an automated approach that can reason in the presence of missing data. This is a meta-reasoning capability that repeatedly calls a diagnostic engine/model to provide prognoses and prognosis tracking. In the big picture, the scenario generator takes as its input the current state of a system, including probabilistic information from Data Forecasting. Using model-based reasoning techniques, it returns an ordered list of fault scenarios that could be generated from the current state, i.e., the plausible future failure modes of the system as it presently stands. The scenario generator models a Potential Fault Scenario (PFS) as a black box, the input of which is a set of states tagged with priorities and the output of which is one or more potential fault scenarios tagged by a confidence factor. The results from the system are used by a model-based diagnostician to predict the future health of the monitored system.

  8. Extinction effects of atmospheric compositions on return signals of space-based lidar from numerical simulation (United States)

    Yao, Lilin; Wang, Fu; Min, Min; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Jianping; Yu, Xiao; Chen, Binglong; Zhao, Yiming; Wang, Lidong


    The atmospheric composition induced extinction effect on return signals of space-based lidar remains incomprehensively understood, especially around 355 nm and 2051 nm channels. Here we simulated the extinction effects of atmospheric gases (e.g., H2O, CO2, and O3) and six types of aerosols (clean continental, clean marine, dust, polluted continental, polluted dust, and smoke) on return signals of space-based lidar system at 355 nm, 532 nm, 1064 nm, and 2051 nm channels, based on a robust lidar return signal simulator in combination with radiative transfer model (LBLRTM). Results show significant Rayleigh (molecular) scattering effects in the return signals at 355 nm and 532 nm channels, which markedly decays with increases in wavelength. The spectral transmittance of CO2 is nearly 0, yet the transmittance of H2O is approximately 100% at 2051 nm, which verifies this 2051 nm channel is suitable for CO2 retrieval. The spectral transmittance also reveals another possible window for CO2 and H2O detection at 2051.6 nm, since their transmittance both near 0.5. Moreover the corresponding Doppler return signals at 2051.6 nm channel can be used to retrieve wind field. Thus we suggest 2051 nm channel may better be centered at 2051.6 nm. Using the threshold for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of return signals, the detection ranges for three representative distribution scenarios for the six types of aerosols at four typical lidar channels are determined. The results clearly show that high SNR values can be seen ubiquitously in the atmosphere ranging from the height of aerosol layer top to 25 km at 355 nm, and can been found at 2051.6 nm in the lower troposphere that highly depends on aerosol distribution scenario in the vertical. This indicates that the Doppler space-based lidar system with a double-channel joint detection mode is able to retrieve atmospheric wind field or profile from 0 to 25 km.

  9. Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning-Based Deep Neural Networks for Cognitive Space Communications (United States)

    Ferreria, Paulo Victor R.; Paffenroth, Randy; Wyglinski, Alexander M.; Hackett, Timothy M.; Bilen, Sven G.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Mortensen, Dale J.


    Future communication subsystems of space exploration missions can potentially benefit from software-defined radios (SDRs) controlled by machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid radio resource allocation management control algorithm that integrates multi-objective reinforcement learning and deep artificial neural networks. The objective is to efficiently manage communications system resources by monitoring performance functions with common dependent variables that result in conflicting goals. The uncertainty in the performance of thousands of different possible combinations of radio parameters makes the trade-off between exploration and exploitation in reinforcement learning (RL) much more challenging for future critical space-based missions. Thus, the system should spend as little time as possible on exploring actions, and whenever it explores an action, it should perform at acceptable levels most of the time. The proposed approach enables on-line learning by interactions with the environment and restricts poor resource allocation performance through virtual environment exploration. Improvements in the multiobjective performance can be achieved via transmitter parameter adaptation on a packet-basis, with poorly predicted performance promptly resulting in rejected decisions. Simulations presented in this work considered the DVB-S2 standard adaptive transmitter parameters and additional ones expected to be present in future adaptive radio systems. Performance results are provided by analysis of the proposed hybrid algorithm when operating across a satellite communication channel from Earth to GEO orbit during clear sky conditions. The proposed approach constitutes part of the core cognitive engine proof-of-concept to be delivered to the NASA Glenn Research Center SCaN Testbed located onboard the International Space Station.

  10. Design Optimization for Interferometric Space-Based 21-cm Power Spectrum Measurements (United States)

    Pober, Jonathan


    Observations of the highly-redshifted 21 cm hyperfine line of neutral hydrogen (HI) are one of the most promising probes for the future of cosmology. At redshifts z > 30, the HI signal is likely the only measurable emission, as luminous objects have yet to form. At these very low radio frequencies, however, the earth’s ionosphere becomes opaque — necessitating observations from space. The major challenge to neutral hydrogen cosmology (at all redshifts) lies in the presence of bright foreground emission, which can dominate the HI signal by as much as eight orders of magnitude at the highest redshifts. The only method for extracting the cosmological signal relies on the spectral smoothness of the foregrounds; since each frequency of the HI signal probes a different redshift, the cosmological emission is essentially uncorrelated from frequency to frequency. The key challenge for designing an experiment lies in maintaining the spectral smoothness of the foregrounds. If the frequency response of the instrument introduces spectral structure (or at least, a residual that cannot be calibrated out at the necessary precision), it quickly becomes impossible to distinguish the cosmological signal from the foregrounds. This principle has guided the design of ground-based experiments like the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) and the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA). However, there still exists no unifying framework for turning this design "philosophy" into a robust, quantitative set of performance metrics and specifications. In this talk, I will present updates on the efforts of my research group to translate lessons learned from ground-based experiments into a fully traceable set of mission requirements for Cosmic Dawn Mapper or other space-based 21 cm interferometer.

  11. Driver ASIC Environmental Testing and Performance Optimization for SpaceBased Active Mirrors (United States)

    Mejia Prada, Camilo

    Direct imaging of Earth-like planets requires techniques for light suppression, such as coronagraphs or nulling interferometers, in which deformable mirrors (DM) are a principal component. On ground-based systems, DMs are used to correct for turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere in addition to static aberrations in the optics. For space-based observations, DMs are used to correct for static and quasi- static aberrations in the optical train. State-of-the-art, high-actuator count deformable mirrors suffer from external heavy and bulky electronics in which electrical connections are made through thousands of wires. We are instead developing Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) capable of direct integration with the DM in a single small package. This integrated ASIC-DM is ideal for space missions, where it offers significant reduction in mass, power and complexity, and performance compatible with high-contrast observations of exoplanets. We have successfully prototyped and tested a 32x32 format Switch-Mode (SM) ASIC which consumes only 2mW static power (total, not per-actuator). A number of constraints were imposed on key parameters of this ASIC design, including sub-picoamp levels of leakage across turned-off switches and from switch-to-substrate, control resolution of 0.04 mV, satisfactory rise/fall times, and a near-zero on-chip crosstalk over a useful range of operating temperatures. This driver ASIC technology is currently at TRL 4. This Supporting Technology proposal will further develop the ASIC technology to TRL 5 by carrying on environmental tests and further optimizing performance, with the end goal of making ASICs suitable for space-based deployment. The effort will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in highcontrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions and in adaptive optic systems, and in design of DM driver electronics. Microscale, which developed the prototype of the ASICDM, will continue its development. We

  12. A Hybrid Optimization Framework with POD-based Order Reduction and Design-Space Evolution Scheme (United States)

    Ghoman, Satyajit S.

    The main objective of this research is to develop an innovative multi-fidelity multi-disciplinary design, analysis and optimization suite that integrates certain solution generation codes and newly developed innovative tools to improve the overall optimization process. The research performed herein is divided into two parts: (1) the development of an MDAO framework by integration of variable fidelity physics-based computational codes, and (2) enhancements to such a framework by incorporating innovative features extending its robustness. The first part of this dissertation describes the development of a conceptual Multi-Fidelity Multi-Strategy and Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization Environment (M3 DOE), in context of aircraft wing optimization. M 3 DOE provides the user a capability to optimize configurations with a choice of (i) the level of fidelity desired, (ii) the use of a single-step or multi-step optimization strategy, and (iii) combination of a series of structural and aerodynamic analyses. The modularity of M3 DOE allows it to be a part of other inclusive optimization frameworks. The M 3 DOE is demonstrated within the context of shape and sizing optimization of the wing of a Generic Business Jet aircraft. Two different optimization objectives, viz. dry weight minimization, and cruise range maximization are studied by conducting one low-fidelity and two high-fidelity optimization runs to demonstrate the application scope of M3 DOE. The second part of this dissertation describes the development of an innovative hybrid optimization framework that extends the robustness of M 3 DOE by employing a proper orthogonal decomposition-based design-space order reduction scheme combined with the evolutionary algorithm technique. The POD method of extracting dominant modes from an ensemble of candidate configurations is used for the design-space order reduction. The snapshot of candidate population is updated iteratively using evolutionary algorithm technique of

  13. The Hidden Flow Structure and Metric Space of Network Embedding Algorithms Based on Random Walks. (United States)

    Gu, Weiwei; Gong, Li; Lou, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiang


    Network embedding which encodes all vertices in a network as a set of numerical vectors in accordance with it's local and global structures, has drawn widespread attention. Network embedding not only learns significant features of a network, such as the clustering and linking prediction but also learns the latent vector representation of the nodes which provides theoretical support for a variety of applications, such as visualization, link prediction, node classification, and recommendation. As the latest progress of the research, several algorithms based on random walks have been devised. Although those algorithms have drawn much attention for their high scores in learning efficiency and accuracy, there is still a lack of theoretical explanation, and the transparency of those algorithms has been doubted. Here, we propose an approach based on the open-flow network model to reveal the underlying flow structure and its hidden metric space of different random walk strategies on networks. We show that the essence of embedding based on random walks is the latent metric structure defined on the open-flow network. This not only deepens our understanding of random- walk-based embedding algorithms but also helps in finding new potential applications in network embedding.

  14. Refinement of protein termini in template-based modeling using conformational space annealing. (United States)

    Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Julian; Seok, Chaok; Lee, Jooyoung


    The rapid increase in the number of experimentally determined protein structures in recent years enables us to obtain more reliable protein tertiary structure models than ever by template-based modeling. However, refinement of template-based models beyond the limit available from the best templates is still needed for understanding protein function in atomic detail. In this work, we develop a new method for protein terminus modeling that can be applied to refinement of models with unreliable terminus structures. The energy function for terminus modeling consists of both physics-based and knowledge-based potential terms with carefully optimized relative weights. Effective sampling of both the framework and terminus is performed using the conformational space annealing technique. This method has been tested on a set of termini derived from a nonredundant structure database and two sets of termini from the CASP8 targets. The performance of the terminus modeling method is significantly improved over our previous method that does not employ terminus refinement. It is also comparable or superior to the best server methods tested in CASP8. The success of the current approach suggests that similar strategy may be applied to other types of refinement problems such as loop modeling or secondary structure rearrangement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Target berthing and base reorientation of free-floating space robotic system after capturing (United States)

    Xu, Wenfu; Li, Cheng; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yangsheng; Liu, Yu; Qiang, Wenyi


    Space robots are playing an increasingly important role in on-orbital servicing, including repairing, refueling, or de-orbiting the satellite. The target must be captured and berthed before the servicing task starts. However, the attitude of the base may lean much and needs re-orientating after capturing. In this paper, a method is proposed to berth the target, and re-orientate the base at the same time, using manipulator motion only. Firstly, the system state is formed of the attitude quaternion and joint variables, and the joint paths are parameterized by sinusoidal functions. Then, the trajectory planning is transformed to an optimization problem. The cost function, defined according to the accuracy requirements of system variables, is the function of the parameters to be determined. Finally, we solve the parameters using the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Two typical cases of the spacecraft with a 6-DOF manipulator are dynamically simulated, one is that the variation of base attitude is limited; the other is that both the base attitude and the joint rates are constrained. The simulation results verify the presented method.

  16. Architectural design of a ground-based deep-space optical reception antenna (United States)

    Kerr, E. L.


    An architectural design of a ground-based antenna (telescope) for receiving optical communications from deep space is presented. Physical and optical parameters, and their effect on the performance and cost considerations, are described. The channel capacity of the antenna is 100 kbits/s from Saturn and 5 Mbits/s from Mars. A novel sunshade is designed to permit optical communication even when the deep-space laser source is as close to the sun as 12 deg. Inserts in the tubes of the sunshade permit operations at solar elongations as small as 6 or 3 deg. The Nd:YAG source laser and the Fraunhofer filter (a narrow-band predetection optical filter) are tuned to match the Doppler shifts of the source and background. A typical Saturn-to-earth data link can reduce its source power requirement from 8.2 W to 2 W of laser output by employing a Fraunhofer filter instead of a conventional multilayer dielectric filter.

  17. Optimization method of star tracker orientation for sun-synchronous orbit based on space light distribution. (United States)

    Wang, Geng; Xing, Fei; Wei, Minsong; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng


    Star trackers, optical attitude sensors with high precision, are susceptible to space light from the Sun and the Earth albedo. Until now, research in this field has lacked systematic analysis. In this paper, we propose an installation orientation method for a star tracker onboard sun-synchronous-orbit spacecraft and analyze the space light distribution by transforming the complicated relative motion among the Sun, Earth, and the satellite to the body coordinate system of the satellite. Meanwhile, the boundary-curve equations of the areas exposed to the stray light from the Sun and the Earth albedo were calculated by the coordinate-transformation matrix under different maneuver attitudes, and the installation orientation of the star tracker was optimized based on the boundary equations instead of the traditional iterative simulation method. The simulation and verification experiment indicate that this installation orientation method is effective and precise and can provide a reference for the installation of sun-synchronous orbit star trackers free from the stray light.

  18. On the strength of the carbon nanotube-based space elevator cable: from nanomechanics to megamechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugno, Nicola M [Department of Structural Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 (Italy)


    In this paper various deterministic and statistical models, based on new quantized theories proposed by the author, are presented for estimating the strength of a real, and thus defective, space elevator cable. The cable, {approx}100 000 km in length, is composed of carbon nanotubes, {approx}100 nm long: thus, its design involves nanomechanics and megamechanics. The predicted strengths are extensively compared with the experimental and atomistic simulation results for carbon nanotubes available in the literature. All these approaches unequivocally suggest that the megacable strength will be reduced by a factor at least of {approx}70% with respect to the theoretical nanotube strength, today (erroneously) assumed in the cable design. The reason is the unavoidable presence of defects in so huge a cable. Preliminary in-silicon tensile experiments confirm the same finding. The deduced strength reduction is sufficient to place in doubt the effective realization of the space elevator, that if built as designed today will certainly break (in the author's opinion). The mechanics of the cable is also revised and possible damage sources discussed.

  19. Optimal Feature Space Selection in Detecting Epileptic Seizure based on Recurrent Quantification Analysis and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh LAshkari


    Full Text Available Selecting optimal features based on nature of the phenomenon and high discriminant ability is very important in the data classification problems. Since it doesn't require any assumption about stationary condition and size of the signal and the noise in Recurrent Quantification Analysis (RQA, it may be useful for epileptic seizure Detection. In this study, RQA was used to discriminate ictal EEG from the normal EEG where optimal features selected by combination of algorithm genetic and Bayesian Classifier. Recurrence plots of hundred samples in each two categories were obtained with five distance norms in this study: Euclidean, Maximum, Minimum, Normalized and Fixed Norm. In order to choose optimal threshold for each norm, ten threshold of ε was generated and then the best feature space was selected by genetic algorithm in combination with a bayesian classifier. The results shown that proposed method is capable of discriminating the ictal EEG from the normal EEG where for Minimum norm and 0.1˂ε˂1, accuracy was 100%. In addition, the sensitivity of proposed framework to the ε and the distance norm parameters was low. The optimal feature presented in this study is Trans which it was selected in most feature spaces with high accuracy.

  20. Binary-space-partitioned images for resolving image-based visibility. (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Wing; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Tong, Wai-Shun; Tang, Chi-Keung; Hanson, Andrew J


    We propose a novel 2D representation for 3D visibility sorting, the Binary-Space-Partitioned Image (BSPI), to accelerate real-time image-based rendering. BSPI is an efficient 2D realization of a 3D BSP tree, which is commonly used in computer graphics for time-critical visibility sorting. Since the overall structure of a BSP tree is encoded in a BSPI, traversing a BSPI is comparable to traversing the corresponding BSP tree. BSPI performs visibility sorting efficiently and accurately in the 2D image space by warping the reference image triangle-by-triangle instead of pixel-by-pixel. Multiple BSPIs can be combined to solve "disocclusion," when an occluded portion of the scene becomes visible at a novel viewpoint. Our method is highly automatic, including a tensor voting preprocessing step that generates candidate image partition lines for BSPIs, filters the noisy input data by rejecting outliers, and interpolates missing information. Our system has been applied to a variety of real data, including stereo, motion, and range images.