WorldWideScience

Sample records for space based infrared

  1. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    This report describes work carried out under the Air Force Research Laboratory's basic research task in optical remote-sensing signatures, entitled Optical / Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing...

  2. Design of a space-based infrared imaging interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael; Hope, Douglas; Romeo, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Present space-based optical imaging sensors are expensive. Launch costs are dictated by weight and size, and system design must take into account the low fault tolerance of a system that cannot be readily accessed once deployed. We describe the design and first prototype of the space-based infrared imaging interferometer (SIRII) that aims to mitigate several aspects of the cost challenge. SIRII is a six-element Fizeau interferometer intended to operate in the short-wave and midwave IR spectral regions over a 6×6 mrad field of view. The volume is smaller by a factor of three than a filled-aperture telescope with equivalent resolving power. The structure and primary optics are fabricated from light-weight space-qualified carbon fiber reinforced polymer; they are easy to replicate and inexpensive. The design is intended to permit one-time alignment during assembly, with no need for further adjustment once on orbit. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed with a unit telescope primary mirror diameter of 165 mm and edge-to-edge baseline of 540 mm. The optics, structure, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. The initial motivation for the development of SIRII was the long-term collection of technical intelligence from geosynchronous orbit, but the scalable nature of the design will likely make it suitable for a range of IR imaging scenarios.

  3. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    ... (mesosphere and thermosphere) in terms of the structure of the underlying medium. Advances in non-LTE radiative transfer and atmospheric waves and localized excitations are detailed, as well as analysis and modeling of the databases resulting from two groundbreaking space infrared experiments, DoD MSX/SPIRIT III and NASA TIMED/SABER.

  4. Direct detection of hundreds of exoplanets with a space-based mid-infrared interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanz, S. P.; Kammerer, J.

    2017-09-01

    One of the long-term goals of exoplanet research is the (atmospheric) characterization of a sizeable sample of small, terrestrial planets in order to assess their potential habitability. In this context it is important to quantitatively assess the scientific return of various mission concepts in order to derive robust science requirements. While transit and secondary eclipse spectroscopy may provide data on a few systems, it seems questionable whether a larger planet sample can be investigated given that most planets do not transit in front of their host stars. Hence, direct detection methods may be required. Here we predict the exoplanet yield of a space-based mid-infrared nulling interferometer (akin to the Darwin mission concept) using a catalog of nearby stars and the planet occurrence rates found by NASA's Kepler mission. We find that a mission with the technical specifications of Darwin could detect >300 exoplanets (with radii between 0.5 and 6 Earth radii). Roughly 85 planets have radii between 0.5 and 1.75 Earth radii and equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 450 K and are prime targets for spectroscopic follow-up observations in the second phase of the mission investigating their potential habitability. Higher planet yields can be realized by further optimizing the observing strategy. We also compare the baseline planet yield of a space-based mid-infrared interferometer to that of a large space-based optical/IR telescope. We conclude that a Darwin-like mission concept should be put back on the long-term agenda of the exoplanet community and related space agencies.

  5. The JPSS CrIS Instrument and the Evolution of Space-Based Infrared Sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumb, Ronald; Suwinski, Lawrence; Wells, Steven; Glumb, Anna; Malloy, Rebecca; Colton, Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper will summarize the development of infrared sounders since the 1970s, describe the technological hurdles that were overcome to provide ever-increasing performance capabilities, and highlight the radiometric performance of the CrIS instrument on JPSS-1 (CrIS-JPSS1). This includes details of the CrIS-JPSS1 measured noise-equivalent spectral radiance (NEdN) performance, radiometric uncertainty performance utilizing a new and improved internal calibration target, short-term and long-term repeatability, spectral uncertainty, and spectral stability. In addition, the full-resolution operating modes for CrIS-JPSS1 will be reviewed, including a discussion of how these modes will be used during on-orbit characterization tests. We will provide a brief update of CrIS-SNPP on-obit performance and the production status of the CrIS instruments for JPSS-2 through JPSS-4. Current technological challenges will also be reviewed, including how ongoing research and development is enabling improvements to future sounders. The expanding usage of infrared sounding data will also be discussed, including demonstration of value via data assimilation, the roles of the public/private sector in communicating the importance of sounding data for long-term observations, and the long road to success from research to operational data products.

  6. The IRTS (Infrared Telescope in Space) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroshi; Freund, Minoru M.; Ganga, Ken; Guo, Hongfeng; Hirao, Takanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Lange, Andrew E.; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Murakami, Masahide; Nakagawa, Takao; Narita, Masanao; Noda, Manabu; Okuda, Haruyuki; Okumura, Ken'ichi; Onaka, Takashi; Roellig, Thomas L.; Sato, Shinji; Shibai, Hiroshi; Smith, Beverly J.; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Watabe, Toyoki; Yamamura, Issei; Yuen, Lunming

    1996-10-01

    The Japanese satellite-borne infrared telescope, the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS), has completed a successful survey of a portion of the infrared sky. The IRTS consists of a 15 cm telescope cooled with superfluid liquid helium, and is installed on board the Space Flyer Unit (SFU) spacecraft. The SFU was launched on 1995 March 18 UT. The sky survey by the IRTS started on March 29 UT, and was completed on April 25 UT after exhausting its liquid helium. The cryogenic system operated as designed, and maintained the telescope and the focal-plane instruments at a stable temperature of 1.9 K for 38 days. The four focal-plane instruments, which together covered almost the entire infrared wavelength range, observed a sky area of about 2700 deg(2) and returned a wealth of new data on a variety of objects, including the zodiacal light, interstellar gas and dust, near-infrared cosmic background light and point sources.

  7. Cloud Structure of Three Galactic Infrared Dark Star-forming Regions from Combining Ground- and Space-based Bolometric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuxin; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Dale, James E.; Li, Di; Busquet, Gemma; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Ginsburg, Adam; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Kovács, Attila; Koch, Eric; Qian, Lei; Wang, Ke; Longmore, Steve; Chen, Huei-Ru; Walker, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    We have modified the iterative procedure introduced by Lin et al., to systematically combine the submillimeter images taken from ground-based (e.g., CSO, JCMT, APEX) and space (e.g., Herschel, Planck) telescopes. We applied the updated procedure to observations of three well-studied Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs): G11.11-0.12, G14.225-0.506, and G28.34+0.06, and then performed single-component, modified blackbody fits to each pixel to derive ˜10″ resolution dust temperature and column density maps. The derived column density maps show that these three IRDCs exhibit complex filamentary structures embedded with rich clumps/cores. We compared the column density probability distribution functions (N-PDFs) and two-point correlation (2PT) functions of the column density field between these IRDCs with several OB-cluster-forming regions. Based on the observed correlation between the luminosity-to-mass ratio and the power-law index of the N-PDF, and complementary hydrodynamical simulations for a 104 {M}⊙ molecular cloud, we hypothesize that cloud evolution can be better characterized by the evolution of the (column) density distribution function and the relative power of dense structures as a function of spatial scales, rather than merely based on the presence of star-forming activity. An important component of our approach is to provide a model-independent quantification of cloud evolution. Based on the small analyzed sample, we propose four evolutionary stages, namely, cloud integration, stellar assembly, cloud pre-dispersal, and dispersed cloud. The initial cloud integration stage and the final dispersed cloud stage may be distinguished from the two intermediate stages by a steeper than -4 power-law index of the N-PDF. The cloud integration stage and the subsequent stellar assembly stage are further distinguished from each other by the larger luminosity-to-mass ratio (>40 {L}⊙ /{M}⊙ ) of the latter. A future large survey of molecular clouds with high angular

  8. Handheld Longwave Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact handheld longwave infrared camera based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. Based on...

  9. The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, H.; Bock, J.; Freund, M. M.; Guo, H.; Hirao, T.; Lange, A. E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; McMahon, T. J.; Murakami, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Noda, M.; Noguchi, K.; Okuda, H.; Okumura, K.; Onaka, T.; Roellig, T. L.; Sato, S.; Shibai, H.; Tanabe, T.; Watabe, T.; Yagi, T.; Yajima, N.; Yui, M.

    1994-06-01

    The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is a cryogenically cooled small infrared telescope that will fly aboard the small space platform Space Flyer Unit. It will survey approximately 10% of the sky with a relatively wide beam during its 20 day emission. Four focal-plane instruments will make simultaneous observations of the sky at wavelengths ranging from 1 to 1000 microns. The IRTS will provide significant information on cosmology, interstellar matter, late-type stars, and interplanetary dust. This paper describes the instrumentation and mission.

  10. Spectrally-Tunable Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a SPECTRALLY-TUNABLE INFRARED CAMERA based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. This will build on...

  11. Interstellar ice : The Infrared Space Observatory legacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibb, EL; Whittet, DCB; Boogert, ACA; Tielens, AGGM

    We present 2.5-30 mum spectra from the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory for a total of 23 sources. The sources include embedded young stellar objects spanning a wide range of mass and luminosity, together with field stars sampling quiescent dark clouds and the diffuse

  12. Space infrared telescope pointing control system. Automated star pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Vanbezooijen, R. W. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a free flying spacecraft carrying a 1 meter class cryogenically cooled infrared telescope nearly three oders of magnitude most sensitive than the current generation of infrared telescopes. Three automatic target acquisition methods will be presented that are based on the use of an imaging star tracker. The methods are distinguished by the number of guidestars that are required per target, the amount of computational capability necessary, and the time required for the complete acquisition process. Each method is described in detail.

  13. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  14. Filling-in of Far-Red and Near-Infrared Solar Lines by Terrestrial and Atmospheric Effects: Simulations and Space-Based Observations from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Kuse, A.; Corp, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space is of interest because it can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Space-based measurement of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is challenging, because its signal is small as compared with the much larger reflectance signal. Ground- and aircraft-based approaches have made use of the dark and spectrally-wide O2-A ( approx 760 nm) and O2-B (approx 690 nm) atmospheric features to detect the weak fluorescence signal. More recently, Joiner et al. and Frankenberg et al. focused on longer-wavelength solar Fraunhofer lines that can be observed with space-based instruments such as the currently operational GOSAT. They showed that fluorescence can be detected using Fraunhofer lines away from the far-red chlorophyll-a fluorescence peak even when the surface is relatively bright. Here, we build on that work by developing methodology to correct for instrumental artifacts that produce false filling-in signals that can bias fluorescence retrievals. We also examine other potential sources of filling-in at far-red and NIR wavelengths. Another objective is to explore the possibility of making fluorescence measurements from space with lower spectral resolution instrumentation than the GOSAT interferometer. We focus on the 866nm Ca II solar Fraunhofer line. Very few laboratory and ground-based measurements of vegetation fluorescence have been reported at wavelengths longer than 800 nm. Some results of fluorescence measurements of corn leaves acquired in the laboratory using polychromatic excitation at wavelengths shorter than 665nm show that at 866 nm, the measured signal is of the order of 0.1-0.2 mW/sq m/nm/sr. In this work, we use the following satellite observations: We use SCIAMACHY channel 5 in nadir mode that covers wavelengths between 773 and 1063nm at a spectral

  15. Filling-in of Far-Red and Near-Infrared Solar Lines by Terrestrial and Atmospheric Effects: Simulations and Space-Based Observations from SCHIAMACHY and GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Kuze, A.; Corp, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space is of interest because it can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Space-based measurement of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is challenging, because its signal is small as compared with the much larger reflectance signal. Ground- and aircraft-based approaches have made use of the dark and spectrally-wide 02-A (approx 760 nm) and O2-B (approx 690 nm) atmospheric features to detect the weak fluorescence signal. More recently, Joiner et a1. and Frankenberg et a1. focused on longer-wavelength solar Fraunhofer lines that can be observed with space-based instruments such as the currently operational GOSAT. They showed that fluorescence can be detected using Fraunhofer lines away from the far-red chlorophyll-a fluorescence peak even when the surface is relatively bright. Here, we build on that work by developing methodology to correct for instrumental artifacts that produce false filling-in signals that can bias fluorescence retrievals. We also examine other potential sources of filling-in at far-red and NIR wavelengths. Another objective is to explore the possibility of making fluorescence measurements from space with lower spectral resolution instrumentation than the GOSAT interferometer. We focus on the 866 nm Ca II solar Fraunhofer line. Very few laboratory and ground-based measurements of vegetation fluorescence have been reported at wavelengths longer than 800 mn. Some results of fluorescence measurements of corn leaves acquired in the laboratory using polychromatic excitation at wavelengths shorter than 665 nm show that at 866 nm, the measured signal is of the order of 0.1-0.2 mw/sq m/nm/sr. In this work we use the following satellite observations: We use SCIAMACHY channel 5 in nadir mode that covers wavelengths between 773 and 1063 nm at a

  16. NIRAC: Near Infrared Airglow Camera for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, L. J.; Rudy, R. J.; Hecht, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    NIRAC is a space based infrared airglow imager that will be deployed to the International Space Station in late 2018, under the auspices of the Space Test Program. NIRAC will survey OH airglow emissions in the 1.6 micron wavelength regime, exploring the spatial and temporal variability of emission intensities at latitudes from 51° south to 51° north. Atmospheric perturbations in the 80-100 km altitude range, including those produced by atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs), are observable in the OH airglow. The objective of the NIRAC experiment is to make near global measurement of the OH airglow and airglow perturbations. These emissions also provide a bright source of illumination at night, allowing for nighttime detection of clouds and surface characteristics. The instrument, developed by the Aerospace Space Science Applications Laboratory, employs a space-compatible FPGA for camera control and data collection and a novel, custom optical system to eliminate image smear due to orbital motion. NIRAC utilizes a high-performance, large format infrared focal plane array, transitioning technology used in the existing Aerospace Corporation ground-based airglow imager to a space based platform. The high-sensitivity, four megapixel imager has a native spatial resolution of 100 meters at ISS altitudes. The 23° x 23° FOV sweeps out a 150 km swath of the OH airglow layer as viewed from the ISS, and is sensitive to OH intensity perturbations down to 0.1%. The detector has a 1.7 micron cutoff that precludes the need for cold optics and reduces cooling requirements (to 180 K). Detector cooling is provided by a compact, lightweight cryocooler capable of reaching 120K, providing a great deal of margin.

  17. Miniature high-performance infrared spectrometer for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman V.; Haddad, Emile; Wong, Brian; Lafrance, Denis; Jamroz, Wes; Ghosh, Asoke K.; Zheng, Wanping; Phong, Linh

    2017-11-01

    Infrared spectroscopy probes the characteristic vibrational and rotational modes of chemical bonds in molecules to provide information about both the chemical composition and the bonding configuration of a sample. The significant advantage of the Infrared spectral technique is that it can be used with minimal consumables to simultaneously detect a large variety of chemical and biochemical species with high chemical specificity. To date, relatively large Fourier Transform (FT-IR) spectrometers employing variations of the Michelson interferometer have been successfully employed in space for various IR spectroscopy applications. However, FT-IR systems are mechanically complex, bulky (> 15 kg), and require considerable processing. This paper discusses the use of advanced integrated optics and smart optical coding techniques to significantly extend the performance of miniature IR spectrometers by several orders of magnitude in sensitivity. This can provide the next generation of compact, high-performance IR spectrometers with monolithically integrated optical systems for robust optical alignment. The entire module can weigh under 3 kg to minimize the mass penalty for space applications. Miniaturized IR spectrometers are versatile and very convenient for small and micro satellite based missions. They can be dedicated to the monitoring of the CO2 in an Earth Observation mission, to Mars exobiology exploration, as well as to vital life support in manned space system; such as the cabin air quality and the quality of the recycled water supply.

  18. Space Infrared Extragalactic Surveys : Results from ISO and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Mattia

    2004-02-01

    This Thesis deals with the exploitation of space infrared extragalactic surveys as a powerful tool for astronomical investigation. More precisely, it deals with the development of a new method (LARI Method) for the reduction and analysis of data obtained by an infrared satellite (ISO), the application of this method to data obtained within the most ambitious extragalactic survey carried out with this satellite (ELAIS), the first scientific results obtained through this application, and finally the possible applications of such technical and scientific contributions to an infrared satellite which has recently started operations (Spitzer) as well as to future infrared missions. As a testimony to the particularly heterogeneous nature of the skills that are necessary in order to realize a successful space project, the Thesis stands at the boundary between several significantly different disciplines, such as detector physics, signal analysis and image processing, software engineering, galaxy formation and evolution and observational cosmology. Although focusing on a particular mission (ISO), throughout an attempt was made at putting the work into an "historical" perspective, with a keen eye both for the efforts of the "pioneers" of infrared astronomy and for the exciting prospects that space missions will offer to this dicipline in the years to come.

  19. Research on capability of detecting ballistic missile by near space infrared system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Sheng, Wen; Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The infrared detection technology of ballistic missile based on near space platform can effectively make up the shortcomings of high-cost of traditional early warning satellites and the limited earth curvature of ground-based early warning radar. In terms of target detection capability, aiming at the problem that the formula of the action distance based on contrast performance ignores the background emissivity in the calculation process and the formula is only valid for the monochromatic light, an improved formula of the detecting range based on contrast performance is proposed. The near space infrared imaging system parameters are introduced, the expression of the contrastive action distance formula based on the target detection of the near space platform is deduced. The detection range of the near space infrared system for the booster stage ballistic missile skin, the tail nozzle and the tail flame is calculated. The simulation results show that the near-space infrared system has the best effect on the detection of tail-flame radiation.

  20. Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2013-01-01

    Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  1. CIRiS: Compact Infrared Radiometer in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, D. P.; Collins, S.; Ferguson, J.; Good, W.; Kampe, T.; Rohrschneider, R.; Warden, R.

    2016-09-01

    The Compact Infrared Radiometer in Space (CIRiS) is a thermal infrared radiometric imaging instrument under development by Ball Aerospace for a Low Earth Orbit mission on a CubeSat spacecraft. Funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office's In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technology (InVEST) program, the mission objective is technology demonstration for improved on-orbit radiometric calibration. The CIRiS calibration approach uses a scene select mirror to direct three calibration views to the focal plane array and to transfer the resulting calibrated response to earth images. The views to deep space and two blackbody sources, including one at a selectable temperature, provide multiple options for calibration optimization. Two new technologies, carbon nanotube blackbody sources and microbolometer focal plane arrays with reduced pixel sizes, enable improved radiometric performance within the constrained 6U CubeSat volume. The CIRiS instrument's modular design facilitates subsystem modifications as required by future mission requirements. CubeSat constellations of CIRiS and derivative instruments offer an affordable approach to achieving revisit times as short as one day for diverse applications including water resource and drought management, cloud, aerosol, and dust studies, and land use and vegetation monitoring. Launch is planned for 2018.

  2. A Far Infrared Photometer (FIRP) for the infrared telescope in space (IRTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, M. M.; Hirao, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sato, S.; Watabe, T.; Brubaker, G. K.; Duband, L.; Grossman, B.; Larkin, N.; Lumetta, S.; Lange, A. E.

    1993-12-01

    We describe the design and calibration of the Far-Infrared Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FIRP will provide absolute photometry in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400, and 700 micrometers with spectral resolution lambda/(Delta lambda) approx. = 3 and spatial resolution Delta theta = 0.5 degrees. High sensitivity is achieved by using bolometric detectors operated at 300 mK in an AC bridge circuit. The closed-cycle He-3 refrigerator can be recycled in orbit. A 2 K shutter provides a zero reference for each field of view. More than 10% of the sky will be surveyed during the approximately 3 week mission lifetime with a sensitivity of less than 10-13 W/((sq cm)(sr)) per 0.5 degree pixel.

  3. The Far-Infrared Photometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, A. E.; Freund, M. M.; Sato, S.; Hirao, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Watabe, T.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the design and calibration of the Far-Infrared Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FIRP will provide absolute photometry in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400, and 700 microns with spectral resolution wavelength/wavelength spread is approximately 3 and spatial resolution delta theta = 0.5 degrees. High sensitivity is achieved by using bolometric detectors operated at 300 mK in an AC bridge circuit. The closed-cycle He-3 refrigerator can be recycled in orbit. A 2 K shutter provides a zero reference for each field of view. More than 10% of the sky will be surveyed during the 3 week mission lifetime with a sensitivity of less than 10-13 W per sq cm per sr per 0.5 degree pixel.

  4. The Far-Infrared Photometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, A. E.; Freund, M. M.; Sato, S.; Hirao, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Watabe, T.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the design and calibration of the Far-Infrared Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FIRP will provide absolute photometry in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400, and 700 microns with spectral resolution wavelength/wavelength spread is approximately 3 and spatial resolution delta theta = 0.5 degrees. High sensitivity is achieved by using bolometric detectors operated at 300 mK in an AC bridge circuit. The closed-cycle He-3 refrigerator can be recycled in orbit. A 2 K shutter provides a zero reference for each field of view. More than 10% of the sky will be surveyed during the 3 week mission lifetime with a sensitivity of less than 10(exp -13) W per sq cm per sr per 0.5 degree pixel.

  5. A Far Infrared Photometer (FIRP) for the infrared telescope in space (IRTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, M. M.; Hirao, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sato, S.; Watabe, T.; Brubaker, G. K.; Duband, L.; Grossman, B.; Larkin, N.; Lumetta, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the design and calibration of the Far-Infrared Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FIRP will provide absolute photometry in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400, and 700 micrometers with spectral resolution lambda/(Delta lambda) approx. = 3 and spatial resolution Delta theta = 0.5 degrees. High sensitivity is achieved by using bolometric detectors operated at 300 mK in an AC bridge circuit. The closed-cycle He-3 refrigerator can be recycled in orbit. A 2 K shutter provides a zero reference for each field of view. More than 10% of the sky will be surveyed during the approximately 3 week mission lifetime with a sensitivity of less than 10(exp -13) W/((sq cm)(sr)) per 0.5 degree pixel.

  6. Thermal Design of a Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Yang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System (PSICS cooled by a stirling cryocooler has been designed. The PSICS has an IR sensor inside the cold box which is cooled by a stirling cryocooler with refrigeration capacity of 500mW at 80K in a vacuum vessel. It is important to minimize the heat load so that the background thermal noise can be reduced. In order to design the cryogenic system with low heat load and to reduce the remained heat load, we have performed numerical analyses. In this paper, we present the design factors and the results obtained by the thermal analysis of the PSICS.

  7. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  8. An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, Hâkan; Koschny, Detlef

    2010-05-01

    Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low and high Earth orbiting spacecraft as well as on planetary and lunar orbiters. The optimum wavelength range varies depending on the application but we will focus here on the near infrared, partly since it allows exploration of a new field and partly because it, in many cases, allows operation both during day and night. Such an instrument has to our knowledge never flown in space so far. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. We have developed a bread-board version of such an instrument, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development - SPOSH - a Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replace by a cooled IR detector and new optics. The instrument is using a Sofradir 320x256 pixel HgCdTe detector array with 30µm pixel size, mounted directly on top of a four stage thermoelectric Peltier cooler. The detector-cooler combination is integrated into an evacuated closed package with a glass window on its front side. The detector has a sensitive range between 0.8 and 2.5 µm. The optical part is a seven lens design with a focal length of 6 mm and a FOV 90deg by 72 deg optimized for use at SWIR. The detector operates at 200K while the optics operates at ambient temperature. The optics and electronics for the bread-board has been designed and built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany. This talk will present the design and the

  9. A Novel Approach of Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection for Space Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an innovative frequency up-conversion device that will efficiently convert the infrared signals into visible/near-infrared signals to enable detection of...

  10. Near infrared imaging and {o I} spectroscopy of IC 443 using two micron all sky survey and infrared space observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Cutri, C. M.; Reach, W. T.

    2001-01-01

    We present near-infrared J (1.25 mum), H (1.65 mum), and K-s (2.17 mum) imaging of the entire supernova remnant IC 443 from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) LWS observations of [O I] for 11 positions in the northeast.

  11. Infrared Microspectrometer based on MEOMS Lamellar Grating Interferometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Infrared spectroscopy is an invaluable detection and measurement tool intensively used in Earth Science, Solar Physics and Astrophysics experiments pursued from...

  12. Infrared Imaging for Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Charles; Hazzard, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Based on detecting long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation emitted by the subject, IR imaging shows temperature distribution instantaneously and heat flow dynamically. As a picture is worth a thousand words, an IR camera has great potential in teaching heat transfer, which is otherwise invisible. The idea of using IR imaging in teaching was first…

  13. Advances in SELEX ES infrared detectors for space and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, P.; Hipwood, L.; Baker, I.; Weller, H.

    2017-11-01

    Selex ES produces a wide range of infrared detectors from mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) and triglycine sulfate (TGS), and has supplied both materials into space programmes spanning a period of over 40 years. Current development activities that underpin potential future space missions include large format arrays for near- and short-wave infrared (NIR and SWIR) incorporating radiation-hard designs and suppression of glow. Improved heterostructures are aimed at the reduction of dark currents and avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and parallel studies have been undertaken for low-stress MCT array mounts. Much of this development work has been supported by ESA, UK Space, and ESO, and some has been performed in collaboration with the UK Astronomy Technology Centre and E2V. This paper focuses on MCT heterostructure developments and novel design elements in silicon read-out chips (ROICs). The 2048 x 2048 element, 17um pitch ROIC for ESA's SWIR array development forms the basis for the largest cooled infrared detector manufactured in Europe. Selex ES MCT is grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), currently on 75mm diameter GaAs substrates. The MCT die size of the SWIR array is 35mm square and only a single array can be printed on the 75mm diameter wafer, utilising only 28% of the wafer area. The situation for 100mm substrates is little better, allowing only 2 arrays and 31% utilisation. However, low cost GaAs substrates are readily available in 150mm diameter and the MCT growth is scalable to this size, offering the real possibility of 6 arrays per wafer with 42% utilisation. A similar 2k x 2k ROIC is the goal of ESA's NIR programme, which is currently in phase 2 with a 1k x 1k demonstrator, and a smaller 320 x 256 ROIC (SAPHIRA) has been designed for ESO for the adaptive optics application in the VLT Gravity instrument. All 3 chips have low noise source-follower architecture and are enabled for MCT APD arrays, which have been demonstrated by ESO to be capable of

  14. Thermal systems analysis for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility dewar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Petrick, S. W.; Schember, Helene

    1991-01-01

    Thermal systems analysis models were used to design SFHe cooled dewar for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), a 1 m class cryogenically cooled observatory for IR astronomy. The models are capable of computing both the heat leaks into the dewar and the operating temperature of a SFHe tank. The models are aimed at predicting the ability of the SIRTF cryogenic system to satisfy a five-year mission lifetime requirement and maintain the SFHe tank operating temperature of 1.25 K to provide sufficient cooling for science instruments and the optical system. The thermal models are very detailed and very fast with a typical steady state run of about 20 sec on a VAX minicomputer.

  15. Processing near-infrared imagery of hypersonic space shuttle reentries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisz, Thomas S.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Gibson, David M.; Osei-Wusu, Kwame; Horvath, Thomas J.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Tack, Steve; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution, calibrated, near-infrared imagery of the Space Shuttle during reentry has been obtained by a US Navy NP-3D Orion aircraft as part of NASA's HYTHIRM (Hypersonic Thermodynamic InfraRed Measurements) project. The long-range optical sensor package is called Cast Glance. Three sets of imagery have been processed thus far: 1) STS- 119 when Shuttle Discovery was at 52 km away at Mach 8.4, 2) STS-125 when Shuttle Atlantis was 71 km away at Mach 14.3, and 3) STS-128 when Shuttle Discovery was at 80 km away at Mach 14.7. The challenges presented in processing a manually-tracked high-angular rate, air-to-air image data collection include management of significant frame-to-frame motions, motion-induced blurring, changing orientations and ranges, daylight conditions, and sky backgrounds (including some cirrus clouds). This paper describes processing the imagery to estimate Shuttle surface temperatures. Our goal is to reduce the detrimental effects due to motions (sensor and Shuttle), vibration, and atmospherics for image quality improvement, without compromising the quantitative integrity of the data, especially local intensity variations. Our approach is to select and utilize only the highest quality images, register many cotemporal image frames to a single image frame, and then add the registered frames to improve image quality and reduce noise. These registered and averaged intensity images are converted to temperatures on the Shuttle's windward surface using a series of steps starting with preflight calibration data. Comparisons with thermocouples at different points along the space Shuttle and between the three reentries will be shown.

  16. Origins Space Telescope: The Far Infrared Imager and Polarimeter FIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Chuss, David; Howard, Joseph; Meixner, Margaret; Vieira, Joaquin; Amatucci, Edward; Bradley, Damon; Carter, Ruth; Cooray, Asantha; Flores, Anel; Leisawitz, David; Moseley, Samuel Harvey; Wollack, Edward; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST)* is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The current "concept 1", which envisions a cold (4K) 9m space telescope, includes 5 instruments, providing a wavelength coverage ranging from 6um and 667um. The achievable sensitivity of the observatory will provide three to four orders of magnitude of improvement in sensitivity over current observational capabilities, allowing to address a wide range of new and so far inaccessible scientific questions, ranging from bio-signatures on exo-planets to mapping primordial H_2 from the "dark ages" before the universe went through the phase of re-ionization.Here we present the Far Infrared Imager and Polarimeter (FIP) for OST. The cameral will cover four bands, 40um, 80um, 120um, and 240um. It will allow for differential polarimetry in those bands with the ability to observe two colors in polarimtery mode simultaneously, while all four bands can be observed simultaneously in total power mode. While the confusion limit will be reached in only 32ms at 240um, at 40um the source density on the sky is so low, that at the angular resolution of 1" of OST at this wavelength there will be no source confusion, even for the longest integration times. Science topics that can be addressed by FIP include but are not limited to galactic and extragalactic magnetic field studies, Deep Galaxy Surveys, and Outer Solar System objects..*Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu

  17. Space-based detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sesana, A.; Weber, W. J.; Killow, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    ) is planned for 2015. This mission and its payload “LISA Technology Package” will demonstrate key technologies for LISA. In this context, reference masses in free fall for LISA, and gravitational physics in general, was described by William Weber, laser interferometry at the pico-metre level and the optical......The parallel session C5 on Space-Based Detectors gave a broad overview over the planned space missions related to gravitational wave detection. Overviews of the revolutionary science to be expected from LISA was given by Alberto Sesana and Sasha Buchman. The launch of LISA Pathfinder (LPF...... bench of LPF was presented by Christian Killow and the performance of the LPF optical metrology system by Paul McNamara. While LPF will not yet be sensitive to gravitational waves, it may nevertheless be used to explore fundamental physics questions, which was discussed by Michele Armano. Some parts...

  18. Hyperspectral Longwave Infrared Focal Plane Array and Camera Based on Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a hyperspectral focal plane array and camera imaging in a large number of sharp hyperspectral bands in the thermal infrared. The camera is...

  19. Hyperspectral Longwave Infrared Focal Plane Array and Camera Based on Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a hyperspectral camera imaging in a large number of sharp hyperspectral bands in the thermal infrared. The camera is particularly suitable for...

  20. The space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics : SPICA A joint mission between JAXA and ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinyard, Bruce; Nakagawa, Takao; Wild, Wolfgang

    The Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is planned to be the next space astronomy mission observing in the infrared. The mission is planned to be launched in 2017 and will feature a 3.5 m telescope cooled to <5 K through the use of mechanical coolers. These coolers will

  1. Progress towards vertical transport study of proton-irradiated InAs/GaSb type-II strained-layer superlattice materials for space-based infrared detectors using magnetoresistance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Mitchell C.; Morath, Christian P.; Fahey, Stephen; Klein, Brianna; Cowan, Vincent M.; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II strained-layer superlattice (T2SLS) materials are being considered for space-based infrared detector applications. However, an inadequate understanding of the role of carrier transport, specifically the vertical mobility, in the radiation tolerance of T2SLS detectors remains. Here, progress towards a vertical transport study of proton-irradiated, p-type InAs/GaSb T2SLS materials using magnetoresistance measurements is reported. Measurements in the growth direction of square mesas formed from InAs/GaSb superlattice material were performed using two distinct contact geometries in a Kelvin mode setup at variable magnetic fields, ranging from -9 T to 9 T, and temperatures, ranging from 5 K and 300 K. The results here suggested multi-carrier conduction and a field-dependent series resistance from the contact layer were present. The implications of these results and the plans for future magnetoresistance measurements on proton-irradiated T2SLS materials are discussed.

  2. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  3. Design and Status of the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): An Interferometer at the Edge of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.; Barclay, Richard B.; Barry, R. K.; Benford, D. J.; Calhoun, P. C.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gorman, E. T.; Jackson, M. L.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Leisawitz, D. T.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infraredinterferometer designed to fly on a high altitude balloon. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer tosimultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline permits subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. Here, we present key aspects of the overall design of the mission and provide an overview of the current status of the project. We also discuss briefly the implications of this experiment for future space-based far-infrared interferometers.

  4. Origins Space Telescope Concept 1: Mid to Far Infrared Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ruth; DiPirro, Michael; Origins Space Telescope Decadal Mission Study Team

    2018-01-01

    Origins Space Telescope (OST), is a NASA large mission concept designed to investigate the mid to far infrared sky. It would launch in the mid 2030’s, with mission development and implementation beginning in the mid-2020’s. This poster presents the overall architecture of OST Mission Concept 1. The Concept 1 telescope has a 9-meter diameter off-axis primary mirror, a three-mirror astigmat with a field steering mirror, covering the wavelength range of 6 to 600 µm. Five science instruments are on board the OST observatory for spectroscopy, imaging and coronagraphy. The instruments are the Medium Resolution Survey Spectrometer (MRSS), High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS), Far –IR Imaging and Polarimeter (FIP), Mid-IR Imaging Spectrometer and Coronagraph (MISC) and Heterodyne Instrument (HERO). The instruments are housed in the Instrument Accommodation Module (IAM). The Telescope and IAM are actively cooled to 4 Kelvin by relative high maturity 4 K cryocoolers To limit the Sun, Earth, Moon, and Spacecraft thermal radiation into the 4 K environment, multiple layers of sun shields similar to those used on JWST, are implemented. The sun-shields are also designed to minimize solar pressure and center of gravity discrepancies, thus resulting in the “sugar-scoop” like shape. To prevent locally generated stray light from entering the 4 Kelvin environment during mission operations, a 4 K baffle around the telescope and IAM is used. The OST Observatory will be inserted to a Sun-Earth L2 for mission operations.

  5. Space-Based Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Space-Based Range (SBR), previously known as Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS), is a multicenter NASA proof-of-concept project to determine if space-based communications using NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) can support the Range Safety functions of acquiring tracking data and generating flight termination signals, while also providing broadband Range User data such as voice, video, and vehicle/payload data. There was a successful test of the Range Safety system at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on December 20, 2005, on a two-stage Terrier-Orion spin-stabilized sounding rocket. SBR transmitted GPS tracking data and maintained links with two TDRSS satellites simultaneously during the 10-min flight. The payload section deployed a parachute, landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 90 miles downrange from the launch site, and was successfully recovered. During the Terrier-Orion tests flights, more than 99 percent of all forward commands and more than 95 percent of all return frames were successfully received and processed. The time latency necessary for a command to travel from WFF over landlines to White Sands Complex and then to the vehicle via TDRSS, be processed onboard, and then be sent back to WFF was between 1.0 s and 1.1 s. The forward-link margins for TDRS-10 (TDRS East [TDE]) were 11 dB to 12 dB plus or minus 2 dB, and for TDRS-4 (TDRS Spare [TDS]) were 9 dB to 10 dB plus or minus 1.5 dB. The return-link margins for both TDE and TDS were 6 dB to 8 dB plus or minus 3 dB. There were 11 flights on an F-15B at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) between November 2006 and February 2007. The Range User system tested a 184-element TDRSS Ku-band (15 GHz) phased-array antenna with data rates of 5 Mbps and 10 Mbps. This data was a combination of black-and-white cockpit video, Range Safety tracking and transceiver data, and aircraft and antenna controller data streams. IP data formatting was used.

  6. Electromagnetic modelling of a space-borne far-infrared interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Anthony; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Bracken, Colm; Savini, Giorgio; Pascale, Enzo; Ade, Peter; Sudiwala, Rashmi; Hornsby, Amber

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I will describe work done as part of an EU-funded project `Far-infrared space interferometer critical assessment' (FISICA). The aim of the project is to investigate science objectives and technology development required for the next generation THz space interferometer. The THz/FIR is precisely the spectral region where most of the energy from stars, exo-planetary systems and galaxy clusters deep in space is emitted. The atmosphere is almost completely opaque in the wave-band of interest so any observation that requires high quality data must be performed with a space-born instrument. A space-borne far infrared interferometer will be able to answer a variety of crucial astrophysical questions such as how do planets and stars form, what is the energy engine of most galaxies and how common are the molecule building blocks of life. The FISICA team have proposed a novel instrument based on a double Fourier interferometer that is designed to resolve the light from an extended scene, spectrally and spatially. A laboratory prototype spectral-spatial interferometer has been constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the double-Fourier technique at far infrared wavelengths (0.15 - 1 THz). This demonstrator is being used to investigate and validate important design features and data-processing methods for future instruments. Using electromagnetic modelling techniques several issues related to its operation at long baselines and wavelengths, such as diffraction, have been investigated. These are critical to the design of the concept instrument and the laboratory testbed.

  7. Learning-based compressed sensing for infrared image super resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Sui, Xiubao; Chen, Qian; Wu, Shaochi

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an infrared image super-resolution method based on compressed sensing (CS). First, the reconstruction model under the CS framework is established and a Toeplitz matrix is selected as the sensing matrix. Compared with traditional learning-based methods, the proposed method uses a set of sub-dictionaries instead of two coupled dictionaries to recover high resolution (HR) images. And Toeplitz sensing matrix allows the proposed method time-efficient. Second, all training samples are divided into several feature spaces by using the proposed adaptive k-means classification method, which is more accurate than the standard k-means method. On the basis of this approach, a complex nonlinear mapping from the HR space to low resolution (LR) space can be converted into several compact linear mappings. Finally, the relationships between HR and LR image patches can be obtained by multi-sub-dictionaries and HR infrared images are reconstructed by the input LR images and multi-sub-dictionaries. The experimental results show that the proposed method is quantitatively and qualitatively more effective than other state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Remote Infrared Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Flight: HYTHIRM Mission Operations and Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; McCrea, Andrew C.; Gruber, Jennifer R.; Hensley, Doyle W.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Oram, Timothy D.; Berger, Karen T.; Splinter, Scott C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project has been responsible for obtaining spatially resolved, scientifically calibrated in-flight thermal imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. Starting with STS-119 in March of 2009 and continuing through to the majority of final flights of the Space Shuttle, the HYTHIRM team has to date deployed during seven Shuttle missions with a mix of airborne and ground based imaging platforms. Each deployment of the HYTHIRM team has resulted in obtaining imagery suitable for processing and comparison with computational models and wind tunnel data at Mach numbers ranging from over 18 to under Mach 5. This paper will discuss the detailed mission planning and coordination with the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Control Center that the HYTHIRM team undergoes to prepare for and execute each mission.

  9. Black silicon-based infrared radiation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Momen; Sabry, Yasser; Basset, Philippe; Marty, Frédéric; Bourouina, Tarik; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    Micromachined infrared sources are enabling component for interferometric and spectroscopic sensors. Their compact size and low cost transform bulky instruments to the sensor scale, which is needed for a wide range of applications in the conventional and unconventional environments. The silicon micromachined sources should be engineered to have good emissivity across a large wavelength range because the intrinsic emissivity of silicon is low. This optimization was reported in literature by either the deposition of black metal at the surface of an emitter or the use of deep phonic crystal cavities, which complicates the fabrication technology and results in sharp dip lines in the spectral emissivity, respectively. In this work we report a micromachined infrared radiation source based on a heater on the top of black silicon structure for the first time in the literature, up to the authors' knowledge. The temperature of the device is characterized versus the applied voltage and the radiated spectrum is captured in the 1300 nm to 2500 nm spectral range; limited by the spectrum analysis instrument. The reported source opens the doors for completely integrated MEMS spectral sensors onchip.

  10. Corundum-based transparent infrared absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-10-01

    Hypothetical corundum-based compounds are studied by electronic structure calculations. One quarter of the Al atoms in Al2O3 is replaced by a 3d transition metal from the M = Ti, ..., Zn (d1, ..., d9) series. Structure optimisations are performed for all the M-Al2O3 compounds and the electronic states are evaluated. Due to the M substitutes, narrow partially filled bands are formed at the Fermi energy. Beyond, for M = Ni and M = Cu the optical properties of Al2O3 in the visible range are conserved, while for M = Ti, ..., Co the systems form high accuracy optical filters. Since the compounds absorb the infrared radiation, the M = Ni and M = Cu systems are good candidates for heat-protective coatings. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Infrared-laser-based fundus angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Ulrich; Canter, Joseph M.; Lesiecki, Michael L.; Reichel, Elias

    1994-06-01

    Infrared fundus angiography, using the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG), has shown great potential in delineating choroidal neovascularization (CNV) otherwise not detectable. A digital retinal imaging system containing a diode laser for illumination has been developed and optimized to perform high sensitivity ICG angiography. The system requires less power and generates less pseudo-fluorescence background than nonlaser devices. During clinical evaluation at three retinal centers more than 200 patients, the majority of which had age-related macular degeneration, were analyzed. Laser based ICG angiography was successful in outlining many of the ill-defined or obscure CNV as defined by fluorescein angiography. The procedure was not as successful with classic CNV. ICG angiograms were used to prepare and guide laser treatment.

  12. Thermographic Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Re-Entry Using a Near Infrared Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robbie V.; Burke, Eric R.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Spisz, Tom; Gibson, David M.; Shea, Edward J.; Mercer, C. David; Schwartz, Richard J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    High resolution calibrated near infrared (NIR) imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was obtained during hypervelocity atmospheric re-entry of the STS-119, STS-125, STS-128, STS-131, STS-132, STS-133, and STS-134 missions. This data has provided information on the distribution of surface temperature and the state of the airflow over the windward surface of the Orbiter during descent. The thermal imagery complemented data collected with onboard surface thermocouple instrumentation. The spatially resolved global thermal measurements made during the Orbiter s hypersonic re-entry will provide critical flight data for reducing the uncertainty associated with present day ground-to-flight extrapolation techniques and current state-of-the-art empirical boundary-layer transition or turbulent heating prediction methods. Laminar and turbulent flight data is critical for the validation of physics-based, semi-empirical boundary-layer transition prediction methods as well as stimulating the validation of laminar numerical chemistry models and the development of turbulence models supporting NASA s next-generation spacecraft. In this paper we provide details of the NIR imaging system used on both air and land-based imaging assets. The paper will discuss calibrations performed on the NIR imaging systems that permitted conversion of captured radiant intensity (counts) to temperature values. Image processing techniques are presented to analyze the NIR data for vignetting distortion, best resolution, and image sharpness. Keywords: HYTHIRM, Space Shuttle thermography, hypersonic imaging, near infrared imaging, histogram analysis, singular value decomposition, eigenvalue image sharpness

  13. Instrumentation for Infrared Astronomy in the Collections of the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVorkin, David H.

    2017-01-01

    The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution is responsible for preserving the material heritage of modern astronomical history. We place emphasis on American accomplishments, on both airborne and spaceborne instrumentation, and on ground based instrumentation that stimulated and supported spaceborne efforts. At present the astronomical collection includes over 600 objects, of which approximately 40 relate to the history of infrared astronomy. This poster will provide a simple listing of our holdings in infrared and far-infrared astronomy, and will highlight particularly significant early objects, like Cashman and Ektron cells, Leighton and Neugebauer's Caltech 2.2 micron survey telescope, Low's Lear Jet Bolometer, Harwit's first Aerobee IR payload and Fazio's balloon-borne observatory. Elements from more recent missions will also be included, such as instruments from KAO, an IRAS focal plane instrument, FIRAS from COBE, the payload from Boomerang and Woody and Richards' balloonsonde payload. The poster author will invite AAS members to comment on these holdings, provide short stories of their experiences building and using them, and suggest candidates for possible collection.

  14. Infrared single mode chalcogenide glass fiber for space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houlzot, P.; Boussard-Plédel, C.; Faber, A.J.; Cheng, L.K.; Bureau, B.; Nijnatten, P.A. van; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Do Carmo, J.P.; Lucas, J.

    2007-01-01

    An important measuring technique under study for the DARWIN planet finding mission, is nulling interferometry, enabling the detection of the weak infrared emission lines of an orbiting planet. This technique requires a perfect wavefront of the light beams to be combined in the interferometer. By

  15. Infrared/submillimeter optical properties data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Phillip W.

    1989-01-01

    The general goal was to build a data base containing optical properties, such as reflectance, transmittance, refractive index, in the far infrared to submillimeter wavelength region. This data base would be limited to selected crystalline materials and temperature between 300 and 2 K. The selected materials were: lithium, lead, and strontium; the bromides of potassium and thallium; the carbides of silicone and tungsten; and the materials of KRS5, KRS6, diamond, and sapphire. Last summer, barium fluoride was selected as prototype material for building the data base. This summer the literature search, preparation of the data for barium fluoride was completed. In addition the literature search for data related to the compounds mentioned was completed. The current status is that barium fluoride is in a form suitable for a NASA internal publication. The papers containing the data on the other materials were xeroxed and they are ready to be reduced. On the reverse side, the top figure is a sample combination of data for the index of refraction at 300 K. The lower figure shows the transmittance vs wavelength at 300 and 80 K. These figures are a sample of many which were developed. Since barium fluoride was studied more than most of the materials listed above, it is clear that additional measurements should be made to fill in the gaps present on both temperature and wavelength data.

  16. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  17. The infrared sector of quantum fields on cosmological space-times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the infrared properties of massless scalar fields, with a possible coupling to the Ricci scalar on a cosmological background are studied. Our background space-time is a homogeneous, flat FLRW space-time, with the additional constraint that the deceleration parameter is constant. It

  18. Flat Panel Space Based Space Surveillance Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, R.; Duncan, A.; Wilm, J.; Thurman, S. T.; Stubbs, D. M.; Ogden, C.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional electro-optical (EO) imaging payloads consist of an optical telescope to collect the light from the object scene and map the photons to an image plane to be digitized by a focal plane detector array. The size, weight, and power (SWaP) for the traditional EO imager is dominated by the optical telescope, driven primarily by the large optics, large stiff structures, and the thermal control needed to maintain precision free-space optical alignments. We propose a non-traditional Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for EO Reconnaissance (SPIDER) imager concept that is designed to substantially reduce SWaP, by at least an order of magnitude. SPIDER maximizes performance by providing a larger effective diameter (resolution) while minimizing mass and cost. SPIDER replaces the traditional optical telescope and digital focal plane detector array with a densely packed interferometer array based on emerging photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies. Lenslets couple light from the object into a set of waveguides on a PIC. Light from each lenslet is distributed among different waveguides by both field angle and optical frequency, and the lenslets are paired up to form unique interferometer baselines by combining light from different waveguides. The complex spatial coherence of the object (for each field angle, frequency, and baseline) is measured with a balanced four quadrature detection scheme. By the Van-Cittert Zernike Theorem, each measurement corresponds to a unique Fourier component of the incoherent object intensity distribution. Finally, an image reconstruction algorithm is used to invert all the data and form an image. Our approach replaces the large optics and structures required by a conventional telescope with PICs that are accommodated by standard lithographic fabrication techniques (e.g., CMOS fabrication). The standard EO payload integration and test process which involves precision alignment and test of optical components to form a diffraction

  19. Infrared astronomy seeing the heat : from William Herschel to the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David L

    2014-01-01

    Uncover the Secrets of the Universe Hidden at Wavelengths beyond Our Optical GazeWilliam Herschel's discovery of infrared light in 1800 led to the development of astronomy at wavelengths other than the optical. Infrared Astronomy - Seeing the Heat: from William Herschel to the Herschel Space Observatory explores the work in astronomy that relies on observations in the infrared. Author David L. Clements, a distinguished academic and science fiction writer, delves into how the universe works, from the planets in our own Solar System to the universe as a whole. The book first presents the major t

  20. Astronomie spatiale infrarouge, aujourd’hui et demain = Infrared space astronomy, today and tomorrow

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, J; David, F

    2000-01-01

    This book brings together the lectures given at the Les Houches summer school "Infrared space astronomy, today and tomorrow". It gives a wide overview of infrared astronomy, a wavelength domain crucial for studies of the solar system, stars at the beginning and end of their lives, interstellar matter and galaxies at all distances. Recent developments in observational techniques have been tremendous. The first contributions give an introduction to the basic physical processes and methods of detection and data processing. They are followed by a series of lectures dealing with the wide variety of astronomical objects that can be seen in the infrared.

  1. Near- infrared imager and slitless spectrograph (NIRISS): a new instrument on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maszkiewicz, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5 m diameter deployable telescope that will orbit the L2 Earth-Sun point beginning in 2018. NASA is leading the development of the JWST mission with their partners, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. The Canadian contribution to the mission is the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS). Originally, the FGS incorporated a flexible narrow spectral band science imaging capability in the form of the Tunable Filter Imaging Module -TFI, based on a scanning Fabry-Perot etalon. In the course of building and testing of the TFI flight model, numerous technical issues arose with unforeseeable length of required mitigation effort. In addition to that, emerging new science priorities caused that in summer of 2011 a decision was taken to replace TFI with a new instrument called Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS). NIRISS preserves most of the TFI opto-mechanical design: focusing mirror, collimator and camera TMA telescopes, dual filter and pupil wheel and detectors but, instead of a tunable etalon, uses set of filters and grisms for wavelength selection and dispersion. The FGS-Guider and NIRISS have completed their instrument-level cryogenic testing and were delivered to NASA Goddard in late July 2012 for incorporation into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM).

  2. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  3. 3D Temperature Distribution Model Based on Thermal Infrared Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the construction of 3D temperature distribution reconstruction system based on binocular vision technology. Initially, a traditional calibration method cannot be directly used, because the thermal infrared camera is only sensitive to temperature. Therefore, the thermal infrared camera is calibrated separately. Belief propagation algorithm is also investigated and its smooth model is improved in terms of stereo matching to optimize mismatching rate. Finally, the 3D temperature distribution model is built based on the matching of 3D point cloud and 2D thermal infrared information. Experimental results show that the method can accurately construct the 3D temperature distribution model and has strong robustness.

  4. Infrared Resummation for Biased Tracers in Redshift Space arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Mikhail M.

    We incorporate the effects of redshift space distortions and non-linear bias in time-sliced perturbation theory (TSPT). This is done via a new method that allows to map cosmological correlation functions from real to redshift space. This mapping preserves a transparent infrared (IR) structure of the theory and provides us with an efficient tool to study non-linear infrared effects altering the pattern of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in redshift space. We give an accurate description of the BAO by means of a systematic resummation of Feynman diagrams guided by well-defined power counting rules. This establishes IR resummation within TSPT as a robust and complete procedure and provides a consistent theoretical model for the BAO feature in the statistics of biased tracers in redshift space.

  5. Upconversion based continuous-wave mid-infrared detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental work on upconversion based mid-wavelength infrared detection using silicon detectors without the need for cryogenic cooling. We consider both multi-spectral imaging and point spectroscopy targeting several specific applications.......We present theoretical and experimental work on upconversion based mid-wavelength infrared detection using silicon detectors without the need for cryogenic cooling. We consider both multi-spectral imaging and point spectroscopy targeting several specific applications....

  6. Investigation of noise sources in upconversion based infrared hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Beato, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Noise sources in infrared hyperspectral imaging based on nonlinear frequency upconversion are investigated. The effects on the spectral and spatial content of the images are evaluated and methods of combating them are suggested.......Noise sources in infrared hyperspectral imaging based on nonlinear frequency upconversion are investigated. The effects on the spectral and spatial content of the images are evaluated and methods of combating them are suggested....

  7. Cast Glance Near Infrared Imaging Observations of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Steve; Tomek, Deborah M.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Shea, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    High resolution calibrated infrared imagery of the Space Shuttle was obtained during hypervelocity atmospheric entries of the STS-119, STS-125 and STS128 missions and has provided information on the distribution of surface temperature and the state of the airflow over the windward surface of the Orbiter during descent. This data collect was initiated by NASA s Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) team and incorporated the use of air- and land-based optical assets to image the Shuttle during atmospheric re-entry. The HYTHIRM objective is to develop and implement a set of mission planning tools designed to establish confidence in the ability of an existing optical asset to reliably acquire, track and return global quantitative surface temperatures of the Shuttle during entry. On Space Shuttle Discovery s STS-119 mission, NASA flew a specially modified thermal protection system tile and instrumentation package to monitor heating effects from boundary layer transition during re-entry. On STS-119, the windward airflow on the port wing was deliberately disrupted by a four-inch wide and quarter-inch tall protuberance built into the modified tile. In coordination with this flight experiment, a US Navy NP-3D Orion aircraft was flown 28 nautical miles below Discovery and remotely monitored surface temperature of the Orbiter at Mach 8.4 using a long-range infrared optical package referred to as Cast Glance. Approximately two months later, the same Navy Cast Glance aircraft successfully monitored the surface temperatures of the Orbiter Atlantis traveling at approximately Mach 14.3 during its return from the successful Hubble repair mission. In contrast to Discovery, Atlantis was not part of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) flight experiment, thus the vehicle was not configured with a protuberance on the port wing. In September 2009, Cast Glance was again successful in capturing infrared imagery and monitoring the surface temperatures on Discovery s next

  8. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .2. Source detection and photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, P.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 mu m. We have constructed algorithmically selected 'complete' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15-mu m image, and seven sources in the 6.7-mu m...

  9. Probing the interstellar medium in early-type galaxies with Infrared Space Oberservatory observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S.; Hollenbach, D.; Helou, D.; Silbermann, N.; Valjavec, E.; Rubin, R.; Dale, D.; Hunter, D.; Lu, N.; Lord, S.; hide

    2000-01-01

    Four IRAS-detected early-type galaxies were observed with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). With the exception of the 15 mu m image of NGC 1052, the mid-IR images of NGC 1052, NGC 1155, NGC 5866, and NGC 6958 at 4.5, 7, and 15 mu m show extended emission.

  10. Long-wave infrared digital holography for the qualification of large space reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenrijt, J. F.; Thizy, C.; Georges, M. P.; Queeckers, P.; Dubois, F.; Doyle, D.

    2017-11-01

    Deformation metrology of complex and large space reflectors is a recurrent problem addressed by ESA. The challenging tasks of on-ground qualification and verification testing are to achieve the required accuracy in the measurement of these reflectors deformation and to verify their performance under simulated space conditions (vacuum, low temperature). A long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometer for the verification and validation of this type of reflector in a space environment is presented. It has been developed to fill the gap between holography/interferometry techniques in the visible wavelengths and methods based on structured light illumination like videogrammetry, stereocorrelation, and fringe/pattern projection. The former provide a good measurement uncertainty but the displacements are often too large to be measured and they require a very stable environment, while the latter provide large measurement range but with higher measurement uncertainty. The new instrument is based on digital holography and uses a CO2 lasers emitting at 10.6μm combined with a commercial thermographic camera. A diffuser is illuminated by the laser beam, producing a speckle wavefront which is observed after reflection on the reflector surface. This reflected speckle wavefront behaves exactly as if the reflector was a diffusive surface, producing its own speckle, allowing the measurement of its deformation. The advantage of this configuration compared to a classical interferometer working at 10.6μm, is that it requires no specific optics such as a null lens (in the case of parabola) or expensive illumination/collection optics (in the case of ellipse). The metrological certification of the system was performed in the laboratory by measuring the tilts of a 1.1 meter diameter parabolic reflector. The displacements are measured in parallel with a Doppler effect interferometer and the measurement uncertainty is estimated. The technique has been certified during a thermal

  11. Observations of V592 Cassiopeiae with the Spitzer Space Telescope - Dust in the Mid-Infrared

    OpenAIRE

    Hoard, D. W.; Kafka, Stella; Wachter, Stefanie; Howell, Steve B.; Brinkworth, Carolyn S.; Ciardi, David R.; Szkody, Paula; Belle, Kunegunda; Froning, Cynthia; van Belle, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    We present the ultraviolet-optical-infrared spectral energy distribution of the low inclination novalike cataclysmic variable (CV) V592 Cassiopeiae, including new mid-infrared observations from 3.5 to 24 μm obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. At wavelengths shortward of 8 μm, the spectral energy distribution of V592 Cas is dominated by the steady state accretion disk, but there is flux density in excess of the summed stellar components and accretion disk at longer wavelengths. Reproduc...

  12. Infrared image detail enhancement based on the gradient field specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenda; Xu, Zhijun; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Fan; Han, Xizhen

    2014-07-01

    Human vision is sensitive to the changes of local image details, which are actually image gradients. To enhance faint infrared image details, this article proposes a gradient field specification algorithm. First we define the image gradient field and gradient histogram. Then, by analyzing the characteristics of the gradient histogram, we construct a Gaussian function to obtain the gradient histogram specification and therefore obtain the transform gradient field. In addition, subhistogram equalization is proposed based on the histogram equalization to improve the contrast of infrared images. The experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively improve image contrast and enhance weak infrared image details and edges. As a result, it can give qualified image information for different applications of an infrared image. In addition, it can also be applied to enhance other types of images such as visible, medical, and lunar surface.

  13. High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS)...

  14. High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice...

  15. Developing quantum dot absorptive filter array based miniaturized spectrometer for space applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal is to developing a miniaturized shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectrometer that is based on quantum dot absorptive filter array. The important features of the...

  16. Space based microlensing planet searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisserand Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of extra-solar planets is arguably the most exciting development in astrophysics during the past 15 years, rivalled only by the detection of dark energy. Two projects unite the communities of exoplanet scientists and cosmologists: the proposed ESA M class mission EUCLID and the large space mission WFIRST, top ranked by the Astronomy 2010 Decadal Survey report. The later states that: “Space-based microlensing is the optimal approach to providing a true statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, over a range of likely semi-major axes”. They also add: “This census, combined with that made by the Kepler mission, will determine how common Earth-like planets are over a wide range of orbital parameters”. We will present a status report of the results obtained by microlensing on exoplanets and the new objectives of the next generation of ground based wide field imager networks. We will finally discuss the fantastic prospect offered by space based microlensing at the horizon 2020–2025.

  17. A Space Acquisition Leading Indicator Based on System Interoperation Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    uses a series of gates and reviews that demand various levels of program maturity and rigor. These gates and reviews enforce good acquisition...Integrated Circuit ( ASIC ) An inadequate architecture design and a flawed flight software development plan for the GEO satellite‘s Signal... ASIC ) 2005 DOD - Status of the Space Based Infrared System Program, Report to the Defense and Intelligence Committees SBIRS An inadequate

  18. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirmi...

  19. Design of the flame detector based on pyroelectric infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yu, Benhua; Dong, Lei; Li, Kai

    2017-10-01

    As a fire detection device, flame detector has the advantages of short reaction time and long distance. Based on pyroelectric infrared sensor working principle, the passive pyroelectric infrared alarm system is designed, which is mainly used for safety of tunnel to detect whether fire occurred or not. Modelling and Simulation of the pyroelectric Detector Using Labview. An attempt was made to obtain a simple test platform of a pyroelectric detector which would make an excellent basis for the analysis of its dynamic behaviour. After many experiments, This system has sensitive response, high anti-interference ability and safe and reliable performance.

  20. Free-space communication based on quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuanwei; Zhai Shenqiang; Zhang Jinchuan; Zhou Yuhong; Jia Zhiwei; Liu Fengqi; Wang Zhanguo

    2015-01-01

    A free-space communication based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) is presented. A room-temperature continuous-wave distributed-feedback (DFB) QCL combined with a mid-infrared detector comprise the basic unit of the communication system. Sinusoidal signals at a highest frequency of 40 MHz and modulated video signals with a carrier frequency of 30 MHz were successfully transmitted with this experimental setup. Our research has provided a proof-of-concept demonstration of space optical communication application with QCL. The highest operation frequency of our setup was determined by the circuit-limited modulation bandwidth. A high performance communication system can be obtained with improved modulation circuit system. (paper)

  1. Periodic Spacing of Protocluster Clumps in a Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James M.; Finn, S.; Rathborne, J. M.; Simon, R.

    2010-05-01

    The ''Nessie'' nebula is an extremely filamentary infrared dark cloud, with an aspect ratio of over 300:1. HNC 1-0 observations with the Australia Telescope National Facility's Mopra Telescope demonstrate that Nessie is a single, coherent cloud with high densities (n > 105 cm-3). The filamentary cloud contains a number of protocluster clumps with a nearly regular, periodic spacing of 5 pc. Such clumps naturally arise from the ''varicose'' fluid instability of a self-gravitating fluid cylinder. Because of the ubiquitous association between massive clusters and filamentary molecular clouds (e.g., Orion, NGC 6334, etc.), we speculate that clusters naturally arise from filamentary infrared dark clouds via fluid instabilities.

  2. Design of large zoom for visible and infrared optical system in hemisphere space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yang-guang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Juan

    2018-01-01

    In the field of space optical, the application of advanced optical instruments for related target detection and identification has become an advanced technology in modern optics. In order to complete the task of search in wide field of view and detailed investigation in small field of view, it is inevitable to use the structure of the zoom system to achieve a better observation for important targets. The innovation of this paper lies in using the zoom optical system in space detection, which achieve firstly military needs of searched target in the large field of view and recognized target in the small field of view. At the same time, this paper also completes firstly the design of variable focus optical detection system in the range of hemisphere space, the zoom optical system is working in the range of visible and infrared wavelengths, the perspective angle reaches 360 ° and the zoom ratio of the visible system is up to 15. The visible system has a zoom range of 60-900 mm, a detection band of 0.48-0.70μm, and a F-number of 2.0 to 5.0. The infrared system has a zoom range of 150 900mm, a detection band of 8-12μm, and a F-number of 1.2 to 3.0. The MTF of the visible zoom system is above 0.4 at spatial frequency of 45 lp / mm, and the infrared zoom system is above 0.4 at spatial frequency of 11 lp / mm. The design results show that the system has a good image quality.

  3. Cleaning space debris with a space-based laser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Shuangyan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High-energy pulsed laser radiation may be the most feasible means to mitigate the threat of collision of a space station or other valuable space assets with orbital debris in the size range of 1–10 cm. Under laser irradiation, part of the debris material is ablated and provides an impulse to the debris particle. Proper direction of the impulse vector either deflects the object trajectory or forces the debris on a trajectory through the upper atmosphere, where it burns up. Most research concentrates on ground-based laser systems but pays little attention to space-based laser systems. There are drawbacks of a ground-based laser system in cleaning space debris. Therefore the placement of a laser system in space is proposed and investigated. Under assumed conditions, the elimination process of space debris is analyzed. Several factors such as laser repetition frequency, relative movement between the laser and debris, and inclination of debris particles which may exercise influence to the elimination effects are discussed. A project of a space-based laser system is proposed according to the numerical results of a computer study. The proposed laser system can eliminate debris of 1–10 cm and succeed in protecting a space station.

  4. Detail Enhancement for Infrared Images Based on Propagated Image Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishu Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For displaying high-dynamic-range images acquired by thermal camera systems, 14-bit raw infrared data should map into 8-bit gray values. This paper presents a new method for detail enhancement of infrared images to display the image with a relatively satisfied contrast and brightness, rich detail information, and no artifacts caused by the image processing. We first adopt a propagated image filter to smooth the input image and separate the image into the base layer and the detail layer. Then, we refine the base layer by using modified histogram projection for compressing. Meanwhile, the adaptive weights derived from the layer decomposition processing are used as the strict gain control for the detail layer. The final display result is obtained by recombining the two modified layers. Experimental results on both cooled and uncooled infrared data verify that the proposed method outperforms the method based on log-power histogram modification and bilateral filter-based detail enhancement in both detail enhancement and visual effect.

  5. Semantics Based on Conceptual Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärdenfors, Peter

    The overall goal is to show that conceptual spaces are more promising than other ways of modelling the semantics of natural language. In particular, I will show how they can be used to model actions and events. I will also outline how conceptual spaces provide a cognitive grounding for word classes, including nouns, adjectives, prepositions and verbs.

  6. Infrared small target enhancement based on variance difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Mahdi; Chehresa, Saeed

    2017-05-01

    In surveillance and early warning systems, the enhancement of targets is a very important stage for the high reliability detection and tracking in Infrared images with complex backgrounds. In order to enhance small targets in an Infrared image and suppress the background clutter, consequently increasing the contrast between them, this paper proposes a method using a model for the target area with a three-layer patch-image model and based on the difference between the variance of the layers in the neighboring areas of the investigated pixel. Results of the experiments indicate that the proposed method is quite effective on the enhancement of small targets as well as suppression of the background clutter in IR images with a minimum false alarm rate. This is realized while the runtime of the proposed method is minimal compared to other commonly used methods, which makes it effective to be used in real time applications.

  7. Method of infrared image enhancement based on histogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Yan, Jie

    2011-05-01

    Aiming at the problem in infrared image enhancement, a new method is given based on histogram. Using the gray characteristics of target, the upper-bound threshold is selected adaptively and the histogram is processed by the threshold. After choosing the gray transform function based on the gray level distribution of image, the gray transformation is done during histogram equalization. Finally, the enhanced image is obtained. Compared with histogram equalization (HE), histogram double equalization (HDE) and plateau histogram equalization (PE), the simulation results demonstrate that the image enhancement effect of this method has obvious superiority. At the same time, its operation speed is fast and real-time ability is excellent.

  8. MEMS-based thermoelectric infrared sensors: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dehui; Wang, Yuelin; Xiong, Bin; Li, Tie

    2017-12-01

    In the past decade, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)-based thermoelectric infrared (IR) sensors have received considerable attention because of the advances in micromachining technology. This paper presents a review of MEMS-based thermoelectric IR sensors. The first part describes the physics of the device and discusses the figures of merit. The second part discusses the sensing materials, thermal isolation microstructures, absorber designs, and packaging methods for these sensors and provides examples. Moreover, the status of sensor implementation technology is examined from a historical perspective by presenting findings from the early years to the most recent findings.

  9. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...

  10. More Than Your Eyes Can See: Outreach at the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, M.

    2001-05-01

    Communicating the world of infrared astronomy to the public comes with a unique set of pleasures and challenges. How do you begin to visualize the universe in a kind of light that is totally invisible to the human eye? At the SIRTF Science Center, we're answering that question with a wide variety of educational projects and products. We've produced a suite of award-winning websites (all of which can be accessed at sirtf.caltech.edu) that speak to audiences as varied as kindegarteners to amateur astronomers. We've also filmed and distributed a short video about infrared light that has become a favorite with NASA education specialists as well as classroom teachers. In the coming year, we will be collaborating with SOFIA to develop an internet-based astronomy course that will be part of an online master's degree in education.

  11. Origins Space Telescope: 3D infrared surveys of star formation and black hole growth in galaxies over cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; bradford, charles; Origins Space Telescope STDT

    2018-01-01

    In the coming decade, new telescope facilities and surveys aim to provide a 3D map of the unobscured Universe over cosmic time. However, much of galaxy formation and evolution occurs behind dust, and is only observable through infrared observations. Previous extragalactic infrared surveys were fundamentally limited to a 2D mapping of the most extreme populations of galaxies due to spatial resolution and sensitivity. The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies sponsored by NASA to provide input to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. OST is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum, which will achieve spectral line sensitivities up to 1000 times deeper than previous infrared facilities. With powerful instruments such as the Medium Resolution Survey Spectrometer (MRSS), capable of simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy, the extragalactic infrared sky can finally be surveyed in 3D. In addition to spectroscopic redshifts, the rich suite of lines in the infrared provides unique diagnostics of the ongoing star formation (both obscured and unobscured) and the central supermassive black hole growth. In this poster, we present a simulated extragalactic survey with OST/MRSS which will detect millions of galaxies down to well below the knee of the infrared luminosity function. We demonstrate how this survey can map the coeval star formation and black hole growth in galaxies over cosmic time.

  12. The Mid-Infrared Imager/Spectrometer/Coronagraph Instrument (MISC) for the Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Thomas; Sakon, Itsuki; Ennico, Kimberly; MISC Instrument Study Team, Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is one of four potential flagship missions that have been funded by NASA for study for consideration in the upcoming Astrophysics Decadal Review expected in 2020. The OST telescope will be up to 9.3 meters in diameter, cooled to ~4K, and the mission will be optimized for efficient mid and far-infrared astronomical observations. An initial suite of five focal plane instruments are being baselined for this observatory. The Mid-infrared Imager Spectrometer Coronagraph (MISC) instrument will observe at the shortest wavelengths of any of these instruments, ranging from 5 to 38 microns, and consists of three separate optical modules providing imaging, spectroscopy, and coronagraph capabilities. The imaging camera covers a 3 arcmin x 3 arcmin field with filters and grisms from 6-38 microns. The spectrometers have spectral resolving powers R~1,000 from 9-38 microns (with a goal of 5-38 microns) and R~25,000 for 12-18 and 25-36 microns. The coronagraph covers 6-38 microns. There is a special densified pupil spectrometer channel that provides R~100-300 exoplanet transit and emission spectroscopy from 6-26 microns with very high spectro-photometric stability. As the shortest wavelength focal plane imager the MISC instrument will also be used for focal plane guiding as needed for the other OST science instruments. The science that MISC enables on OST includes: studying episodic accretion in protostellar envelopes, tracing the rise in metallacity and dust over cosmic time (when combined with far-infrared measurements), measuring dust in galactic outflows, assessing feedback from supernovae and AGN on the multi-phase ISM in galaxies, characterizing the AGN and starburst power in normal and massive galaxies, detecting exoplanet atmospheric biosignatures, and direct imaging of Jovian planets orbiting older stars at separations of 5-20 AU.

  13. Dust Temperatures in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Wells, M; Gallais, P; Haas, M; Heras, A M; Klaas, U; Laureijs, R J; Leech, K; Lemke, D; Metcalfe, L; Rowan-Robinson, M; Schulz, B; Telesco, C M; Bendo, George J.; Joseph, Robert D.; Wells, Martyn; Gallais, Pascal; Haas, Martin; Heras, Ana M.; Klaas, Ulrich; Laureijs, Rene J.; Leech, Kieron; Lemke, Dietrich; Metcalfe, Leo; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Schulz, Bernhard; Telesco, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We examine far-infrared and submillimeter spectral energy distributions for galaxies in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies. For the 71 galaxies where we had complete 60-180 micron data, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1 emissivities and average temperatures of 31 K or lambda^-2 emissivities and average temperatures of 22 K. Except for high temperatures determined in some early-type galaxies, the temperatures show no dependence on any galaxy characteristic. For the 60-850 micron range in eight galaxies, we fit blackbodies with lambda^-1, lambda-2, and lambda^-beta (with beta variable) emissivities to the data. The best results were with the lambda^-beta emissivities, where the temperatures were ~30 K and the emissivity coefficient beta ranged from 0.9 to 1.9. These results produced gas to dust ratios that ranged from 150 to 580, which were consistent with the ratio for the Milky Way and which exhibited relatively little dispersion compared to fits with fixed emissivities.

  14. Quasi-optical analysis of a far-infrared spatio-spectral space interferometer concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, C.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, J. A.; Donohoe, A.; Savini, G.; Lightfoot, J.; Juanola-Parramon, R.; Fisica Consortium

    2016-07-01

    FISICA (Far-Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) was a three year study of a far-infrared spatio-spectral double-Fourier interferometer concept. One of the aims of the FISICA study was to set-out a baseline optical design for such a system, and to use a model of the system to simulate realistic telescope beams for use with an end-to-end instrument simulator. This paper describes a two-telescope (and hub) baseline optical design that fulfils the requirements of the FISICA science case, while minimising the optical mass of the system. A number of different modelling techniques were required for the analysis: fast approximate simulation tools such as ray tracing and Gaussian beam methods were employed for initial analysis, with GRASP physical optics used for higher accuracy in the final analysis. Results are shown for the predicted far-field patterns of the telescope primary mirrors under illumination by smooth walled rectangular feed horns. Far-field patterns for both on-axis and off-axis detectors are presented and discussed.

  15. Near-infrared calibration transfer based on spectral regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangtao; Peng, Silong; Jiang, An; Tan, Jie

    2011-04-01

    A calibration transfer method for near-infrared (NIR) spectra based on spectral regression is proposed. Spectral regression method can reveal low dimensional manifold structure in high dimensional spectroscopic data and is suitable to transfer the NIR spectra of different instruments. A comparative study of the proposed method and piecewise direct standardization (PDS) for standardization on two benchmark NIR data sets is presented. Experimental results show that spectral regression method outperforms PDS and is quite competitive with PDS with background correction. When the standardization subset has sufficient samples, spectral regression method exhibits excellent performance.

  16. Near-infrared calibration transfer based on spectral regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangtao; Peng, Silong; Jiang, An; Tan, Jie

    2011-04-01

    A calibration transfer method for near-infrared (NIR) spectra based on spectral regression is proposed. Spectral regression method can reveal low dimensional manifold structure in high dimensional spectroscopic data and is suitable to transfer the NIR spectra of different instruments. A comparative study of the proposed method and piecewise direct standardization (PDS) for standardization on two benchmark NIR data sets is presented. Experimental results show that spectral regression method outperforms PDS and is quite competitive with PDS with background correction. When the standardization subset has sufficient samples, spectral regression method exhibits excellent performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam): Making Models, Building Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W., Jr.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2011-09-01

    Since 2003, the Near Infrared Camear (NIRCam) science team for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has conducted "Train the Trainer" workshops for adult leaders of the Girl Scout of the USA (GSUSA), engaging them in the process of scientific inquiry and equipping them to host astronomy-related activities at the troop level. Training includes topics in basic astronomy (night sky, phases of the Moon, the scale of the Solar System and beyond, stars, galaxies, telescopes, etc.) as well as JWST-specific research areas in extra-solar planetary systems and cosmology, to pave the way for girls and women to understand the first images from JWST. Participants become part of our world-wide network of 160 trainers teaching young women essential STEM-related concepts using astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, engineering, and critical thinking.

  18. Infrared Sensor System for Mobile-Robot Positioning in Intelligent Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiza, Ernesto Martín; Galilea, José Luis Lázaro; Meca, Franciso Javier Meca; Monzú, David Salido; Zapata, Felipe Espinosa; Puerto, Luis Pallarés

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to position a Mobile Robot in an Intelligent Space, and this paper presents a sensorial system for measuring differential phase-shifts in a sinusoidally modulated infrared signal transmitted from the robot. Differential distances were obtained from these phase-shifts, and the position of the robot was estimated by hyperbolic trilateration. Due to the extremely severe trade-off between SNR, angle (coverage) and real-time response, a very accurate design and device selection was required to achieve good precision with wide coverage and acceptable robot speed. An I/Q demodulator was used to measure phases with one-stage synchronous demodulation to DC. A complete set of results from real measurements, both for distance and position estimations, is provided to demonstrate the validity of the system proposed, comparing it with other similar indoor positioning systems. PMID:22163907

  19. Cryogenic and thermal design for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Brooks, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The 1-meter class cryogenically cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) planned by NASA, is scheduled for a 1992 launch. SIRTF would be deployed from the Shuttle, and placed into a sun synchronous polar orbit of 700 km. The facility has been defined for a mission with a minimum initial lifetime of one year in orbit with mission extension that could be made possible through in-orbit servicing of the superfluid helium cryogenic system, and use of a thermal control system. The superfluid dewar would use an orbital disconnect system for the tank supports, and vapor cooling of the barrel baffle. The transient analysis of the design shows that the superfluid helium tank with no active feedback comes within temperature requirements for the nominal orbital aperture heat load, quiescent instrument, and chopper conditions.

  20. Infrared Sensor System for Mobile-Robot Positioning in Intelligent Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pallarés Puerto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to position a Mobile Robot in an Intelligent Space, and this paper presents a sensorial system for measuring differential phase-shifts in a sinusoidally modulated infrared signal transmitted from the robot. Differential distances were obtained from these phase-shifts, and the position of the robot was estimated by hyperbolic trilateration. Due to the extremely severe trade-off between SNR, angle (coverage and real-time response, a very accurate design and device selection was required to achieve good precision with wide coverage and acceptable robot speed. An I/Q demodulator was used to measure phases with one-stage synchronous demodulation to DC. A complete set of results from real measurements, both for distance and position estimations, is provided to demonstrate the validity of the system proposed, comparing it with other similar indoor positioning systems.

  1. Three-element stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor array for the infrared telescope in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromoto, N; Itabe, T; Shibai, H; Matsuhara, H; Nakagawa, T; Okuda, H

    1992-02-01

    A stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor array with three elements applied to the Infrared Telescope in Space satellite was fabricated and tested in experiments at 2.0 K in very low-photon-influx conditions (~ 10(5) photons/s). Stress was applied to three Ge:Ga detectors in a series by a stable and compact stressing apparatus by using cone-disk springs. The cutoff wavelength was ~ 180 microm. Responsivity was ~ 100 A/W, and the product of quantum efficiency and photoconductive gain, etaG, was ~ 1 with a chopping frequency of 2 Hz. The noise equivalent power was noise transimpedance amplifiers were used. A slow transient response and a nonlinear response that was dependent on the background photon influx were observed in the experiments. The latter showed that the etaG had a time constant tau(c) that was proportional to N(ph)(-(1/2)).

  2. Compact IR laser for calibration of space based sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kietrick, K.M.; Dezenberg, G. [Army Space and Strategic Defense Command, Huntsville, AL (United States); Hamilton, C. [Aculight Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States); Vann, J.; LaSala, J.

    1996-04-17

    An Er:YAG laser, operating at 2.94 microns, has been developed for in-theater calibration of space based infrared sensors. The laser is used to illuminate a spaceborne sensor focal plane from a surveyed ground reference point. The known reference point is compared to the laser position reported by the sensor, and boresight corrections are made. The Er:YAG laser is side pumped by a InGaAs diode array and is tuned to an atmospheric microwindow with and intracavity etalon. This technology is being directly applied to meet Army requirements for enhanced deep strike targeting information supplied to theater weapons systems.

  3. Advanced Space-Based Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-17

    type InAs/GaSb (GaSb is gallium/ antimonide ) SLS absorber (n) and contacts (n), with an Aluminum /Galium/ Antimonide AlGaSb barrier (B). [10] We...3D – three-dimensional AEOSS – Advanced Electro-Optical Space Sensors AlGaAs – Aluminum /Galium/Arsenide AlGaSb – Aluminum /Galium/ Antimonide CNL...heterojunction between the semiconductor composed of galium and arsenide (GaAs) and one composed of aluminum , galium, and arsenide (AlGaAs). Related

  4. Design of a nano-satellite demonstrator of an infrared imaging space interferometer: the HyperCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlen, Kjetil; Vives, Sébastien; Rakotonimbahy, Eddy; Sarkar, Tanmoy; Tasnim Ava, Tanzila; Baccichet, Nicola; Savini, Giorgio; Swinyard, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    The construction of a kilometer-baseline far infrared imaging interferometer is one of the big instrumental challenges for astronomical instrumentation in the coming decades. Recent proposals such as FIRI, SPIRIT, and PFI illustrate both science cases, from exo-planetary science to study of interstellar media and cosmology, and ideas for construction of such instruments, both in space and on the ground. An interesting option for an imaging multi-aperture interferometer with km baseline is the space-based hyper telescope (HT) where a giant, sparsely populated primary mirror is constituted of several free-flying satellites each carrying a mirror segment. All the segments point the same object and direct their part of the pupil towards a common focus where another satellite, containing recombiner optics and a detector unit, is located. In Labeyrie's [1] original HT concept, perfect phasing of all the segments was assumed, allowing snap-shot imaging within a reduced field of view and coronagraphic extinction of the star. However, for a general purpose observatory, image reconstruction using closure phase a posteriori image reconstruction is possible as long as the pupil is fully non-redundant. Such reconstruction allows for much reduced alignment tolerances, since optical path length control is only required to within several tens of wavelengths, rather than within a fraction of a wavelength. In this paper we present preliminary studies for such an instrument and plans for building a miniature version to be flown on a nano satellite. A design for recombiner optics is proposed, including a scheme for exit pupil re-organization, is proposed, indicating the focal plane satellite in the case of a km-baseline interferometer could be contained within a 1m3 unit. Different options for realization of a miniature version are presented, including instruments for solar observations in the visible and the thermal infrared and giant planet observations in the visible, and an

  5. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.

    1997-08-01

    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  6. A ground-based near-infrared emission spectrum of the exoplanet HD 189733b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Mark R; Deroo, Pieter; Griffith, Caitlin A; Tinetti, Giovanna; Thatte, Azam; Vasisht, Gautam; Chen, Pin; Bouwman, Jeroen; Crossfield, Ian J; Angerhausen, Daniel; Afonso, Cristina; Henning, Thomas

    2010-02-04

    Detection of molecules using infrared spectroscopy probes the conditions and compositions of exoplanet atmospheres. Water (H(2)O), methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and carbon monoxide (CO) have been detected in two hot Jupiters. These previous results relied on space-based telescopes that do not provide spectroscopic capability in the 2.4-5.2 microm spectral region. Here we report ground-based observations of the dayside emission spectrum for HD 189733b between 2.0-2.4 microm and 3.1-4.1 microm, where we find a bright emission feature. Where overlap with space-based instruments exists, our results are in excellent agreement with previous measurements. A feature at approximately 3.25 microm is unexpected and difficult to explain with models that assume local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions at the 1 bar to 1 x 10(-6) bar pressures typically sampled by infrared measurements. The most likely explanation for this feature is that it arises from non-LTE emission from CH(4), similar to what is seen in the atmospheres of planets in our own Solar System. These results suggest that non-LTE effects may need to be considered when interpreting measurements of strongly irradiated exoplanets.

  7. Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) for ground-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravindra P Singh

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... Near Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS); nightglow emissions; mesospheric temperatures; mesospheric dynamics; gravity wave characteristics; mesospheric inversion layers; mesospheric temperature inversions. 1. Introduction. Airglow intensity and temperature variations in time and space have been ...

  8. CLPX-Ground: Ground-Based Infrared Images of the LSOS Site, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents more than 400 sub-canopy digital thermograms collected at the Fraser Experimental Forest (Fraser, Colorado, USA) using an Infrared Solutions...

  9. Hydrogenation of Very Long Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Arrays Based on Type II Superlattices, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance the Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type II superlattice (T2SL) materials technology for very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) by...

  10. CLPX-Ground: Ground-Based Infrared Images of the LSOS Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents more than 400 sub-canopy digital thermograms collected at the Fraser Experimental Forest (Fraser, Colorado, USA) using an Infrared Solutions...

  11. European agreement on James Webb Space Telescope's Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Artist's impression of the JWST hi-res Size hi-res: 1601 kb Credits: ESA Artist's impression of the JWST An artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Artist's impression of the JWST Credits: ESA Artist's impression of the JWST An artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Observing the first light, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will help to solve outstanding questions about our place in the evolving Universe. MIRI, the Mid-Infrared Instrument, is one of the four instruments on board the JWST, the mission scheduled to follow on the heritage of Hubble in 2011. MIRI will be built in cooperation between Europe and the United States (NASA), both equally contributing to its funding. MIRI’s optics, core of the instrument, will be provided by a consortium of European institutes. According to this formal agreement, ESA will manage and co-ordinate the whole development of the European part of MIRI and act as the sole interface with NASA, which is leading the JWST project. This marks a difference with respect to the previous ESA scientific missions. In the past the funding and the development of the scientific instruments was agreed by the participating ESA Member States on the basis of purely informal arrangements with ESA. In this case, the Member States involved in MIRI have agreed on formally guaranteeing the required level of funding on the basis of a multi-lateral international agreement, which still keeps scientists in key roles. Over the past years, missions have become more complex and demanding, and more costly within an ever tighter budget. They also require a more and more specific expertise which is spread throughout the vast European scientific community. As a result, a new management procedure for co-ordination of payload development has become a necessity to

  12. Just in Time in Space or Space Based JIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanOrsdel, Kathleen G.

    1995-01-01

    Our satellite systems are mega-buck items. In today's cost conscious world, we need to reduce the overall costs of satellites if our space program is to survive. One way to accomplish this would be through on-orbit maintenance of parts on the orbiting craft. In order to accomplish maintenance at a low cost I advance the hypothesis of having parts and pieces (spares) waiting. Waiting in the sense of having something when you need it, or just-in-time. The JIT concept can actually be applied to space processes. Its definition has to be changed just enough to encompass the needs of space. Our space engineers tell us which parts and pieces the satellite systems might be needing once in orbit. These items are stored in space for the time of need and can be ready when they are needed -- or Space Based JIT. When a system has a problem, the repair facility is near by and through human or robotics intervention, it can be brought back into service. Through a JIT process, overall system costs could be reduced as standardization of parts is built into satellite systems to facilitate reduced numbers of parts being stored. Launch costs will be contained as fewer spare pieces need to be included in the launch vehicle and the space program will continue to thrive even in this era of reduced budgets. The concept of using an orbiting parts servicer and human or robotics maintenance/repair capabilities would extend satellite life-cycle and reduce system replacement launches. Reductions of this nature throughout the satellite program result in cost savings.

  13. Quantum dot infrared photodetectors based on indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhard, T.

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this work is a systematic study of quantum dot infrared photodetectors based on indium-phosphide substrate by means of various spectroscopic and electronic measurement methods in order to understand the physical and technological processes. This enables a concise definition of strategies in order to realize next generation devices in this material system and to gain overall progress in the research field of quantum dot infrared photodetectors. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by analytical and numerical simulations. The samples, grown by collaboration partners, were characterized using differential transmission and fast Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, with a special emphasis on the latter one. Therefore, samples both in wedged waveguide geometry and samples with gold coated mesa structures have been processed. A large part of the discussion is dedicated to the current voltage characteristic of the devices, due to its large importance for device optimization, i.e. the reduction of the dark current plays a crucial role in the research field of high temperature infrared photon-detection. Further, results of photoluminescence measurements, performed by collaboration partners, have been used in order to attain a more complete picture of the samples' electronic band structure and in order to obtain complementary information with respect to other measurement methods applied within the experimental work and the simulation of the structures. In agreement to the simulations, a photocurrent response was observed at 6 and at 12 μm up to a temperature of 80 K, depending on the samples' design. The principle of parameter scaling was applied to the samples, in order to assign physical effects either to details in the samples' design or to technological quality aspects, i.e. the doping level and the thickness of the capping layer was varied. In addition to that a quantum well was introduced within a series of samples in order to

  14. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .1. Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.B.G.; Eaton, N.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 and 15 mu m from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observational strategy and the data...

  15. Protective infrared antireflection coating based on sputtered germanium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Des; Waddell, Ewan; Placido, Frank

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes optical, durablility and environmental performance of a germanium carbide based durable antireflection coating. The coating has been demonstrated on germanium and zinc selenide infra-red material however is applicable to other materials such as zinc sulphide. The material is deposited using a novel reactive closed field magnetron sputtering technique, offering significant advantages over conventional evaporation processes for germanium carbide such as plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The sputtering process is "cold", making it suitable for use on a wide range of substrates. Moreover, the drum format provide more efficient loading for high throughput production. The use of the closed field and unbalanced magnetrons creates a magnetic confinement that extends the electron mean free path leading to high ion current densities. The combination of high current densities with ion energies in the range ~30eV creates optimum thin film growth conditions. As a result the films are dense, spectrally stable, supersmooth and low stress. Films incorporate low hydrogen content resulting in minimal C-H absorption bands within critical infra-red passbands such as 3 to 5um and 8 to 12um. Tuning of germanium carbide (Ge(1-x)Cx) film refractive index from pure germanium (refractive index 4) to pure germanium carbide (refractive index 1.8) will be demonstrated. Use of film grading to achieve single and dual band anti-reflection performance will be shown. Environmental and durability levels are shown to be suitable for use in harsh external environments.

  16. EFFICIENT SELECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INFRARED EXCESS EMISSION STARS BASED ON AKARI AND 2MASS DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yafang; Li Jinzeng [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Rector, Travis A. [University of Alaska, 3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508 (United States); Mallamaci, Carlos C., E-mail: ljz@nao.cas.cn [Observatorio Astronomico Felix Aguilar, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina)

    2013-05-15

    The selection of young stellar objects (YSOs) based on excess emission in the infrared is easily contaminated by post-main-sequence stars and various types of emission line stars with similar properties. We define in this paper stringent criteria for an efficient selection and classification of stellar sources with infrared excess emission based on combined Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and AKARI colors. First of all, bright dwarfs and giants with known spectral types were selected from the Hipparcos Catalogue and cross-identified with the 2MASS and AKARI Point Source Catalogues to produce the main-sequence and the post-main-sequence tracks, which appear as expected as tight tracks with very small dispersion. However, several of the main-sequence stars indicate excess emission in the color space. Further investigations based on the SIMBAD data help to clarify their nature as classical Be stars, which are found to be located in a well isolated region on each of the color-color (C-C) diagrams. Several kinds of contaminants were then removed based on their distribution in the C-C diagrams. A test sample of Herbig Ae/Be stars and classical T Tauri stars were cross-identified with the 2MASS and AKARI catalogs to define the loci of YSOs with different masses on the C-C diagrams. Well classified Class I and Class II sources were taken as a second test sample to discriminate between various types of YSOs at possibly different evolutionary stages. This helped to define the loci of different types of YSOs and a set of criteria for selecting YSOs based on their colors in the near- and mid-infrared. Candidate YSOs toward IC 1396 indicating excess emission in the near-infrared were employed to verify the validity of the new source selection criteria defined based on C-C diagrams compiled with the 2MASS and AKARI data. Optical spectroscopy and spectral energy distributions of the IC 1396 sample yield a clear identification of the YSOs and further confirm the criteria defined

  17. EFFICIENT SELECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INFRARED EXCESS EMISSION STARS BASED ON AKARI AND 2MASS DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yafang; Li Jinzeng; Rector, Travis A.; Mallamaci, Carlos C.

    2013-01-01

    The selection of young stellar objects (YSOs) based on excess emission in the infrared is easily contaminated by post-main-sequence stars and various types of emission line stars with similar properties. We define in this paper stringent criteria for an efficient selection and classification of stellar sources with infrared excess emission based on combined Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and AKARI colors. First of all, bright dwarfs and giants with known spectral types were selected from the Hipparcos Catalogue and cross-identified with the 2MASS and AKARI Point Source Catalogues to produce the main-sequence and the post-main-sequence tracks, which appear as expected as tight tracks with very small dispersion. However, several of the main-sequence stars indicate excess emission in the color space. Further investigations based on the SIMBAD data help to clarify their nature as classical Be stars, which are found to be located in a well isolated region on each of the color-color (C-C) diagrams. Several kinds of contaminants were then removed based on their distribution in the C-C diagrams. A test sample of Herbig Ae/Be stars and classical T Tauri stars were cross-identified with the 2MASS and AKARI catalogs to define the loci of YSOs with different masses on the C-C diagrams. Well classified Class I and Class II sources were taken as a second test sample to discriminate between various types of YSOs at possibly different evolutionary stages. This helped to define the loci of different types of YSOs and a set of criteria for selecting YSOs based on their colors in the near- and mid-infrared. Candidate YSOs toward IC 1396 indicating excess emission in the near-infrared were employed to verify the validity of the new source selection criteria defined based on C-C diagrams compiled with the 2MASS and AKARI data. Optical spectroscopy and spectral energy distributions of the IC 1396 sample yield a clear identification of the YSOs and further confirm the criteria defined

  18. Optimal Use of Space-Borne Advanced Infrared and Microwave Soundings for Regional Numerical Weather Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Yi Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations can either be assimilated as radiances or as retrieved physical parameters to reduce error in the initial conditions used by the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model. Assimilation of radiances requires a radiative transfer model to convert atmospheric state in model space to that in radiance space, thus requiring a lot of computational resources especially for hyperspectral instruments with thousands of channels. On the other hand, assimilating the retrieved physical parameters is computationally more efficient as they are already in thermodynamic states, which can be compared with NWP model outputs through the objective analysis scheme. A microwave (MW sounder and an infrared (IR sounder have their respective observational limitation due to the characteristics of adopted spectra. The MW sounder observes at much larger field-of-view (FOV compared to an IR sounder. On the other hand, MW has the capability to reveal the atmospheric sounding when the clouds are presented, but IR observations are highly sensitive to clouds, The advanced IR sounder is able to reduce uncertainties in the retrieved atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles due to its higher spectral-resolution than the MW sounder which has much broader spectra bands. This study tries to quantify the optimal use of soundings retrieved from the microwave sounder AMSU and infrared sounder AIRS onboard the AQUA satellite in the regional Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF model through three-dimensional variational (3D-var data assimilation scheme. Four experiments are conducted by assimilating soundings from: (1 clear AIRS single field-of-view (SFOV; (2 retrieved from using clear AMSU and AIRS observations at AMSU field-of-view (SUP; (3 all SFOV soundings within AMSU FOVs must be clear; and (4 SUP soundings which must have all clear SFOV soundings within the AMSU FOV. A baseline experiment assimilating only conventional data is generated for comparison

  19. Near-infrared photochemistry at interfaces based on upconverting nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-09-13

    Near-infrared (NIR) light is better suited than ultraviolet (UV) light for biomedical applications because it penetrates deeper into tissue and causes less photodamage to biological systems. The use of NIR light to control biointerfaces has attracted increasing interest. Here, we review NIR photoreactions at interfaces based on upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs). UCNPs can convert NIR light to UV or visible light, which can then induce photoreactions of photosensitive compounds. This process is referred to as UCNP-assisted photochemistry. Recently, we and others demonstrated UCNP-assisted photochemistry at interfaces to control interfacial properties of nano-carriers, implants, emulsions, and cells. We introduce the fundamentals of UCNP-assisted photochemistry at interfaces, highlight its potential applications, and discuss remaining challenges.

  20. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2012-05-06

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr \\'1 m \\'2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  1. Computer Simulation of a Space-Based Infrared Surveillance Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-07

    he daota needed. and com~pleting and revietorng the Collection of information, Send Conmmente fegterd, de the bwderr nat mate or e.,y other =pact of INN...an axis assume that the center of rotation is viewed from the + axis direction. Thus, the usual mathematical definicion of a positive rotation... especially resampling, an%,3 it is for this reason that some displayed images, such as Fig. 4, have the outermost eight samples bli nke. cut or replaced

  2. $O(N)$ model in Euclidean de Sitter space: beyond the leading infrared approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Nacir, Diana López; Trombetta, Leonardo G

    2016-01-01

    We consider an $O(N)$ scalar field model with quartic interaction in $d$-dimensional Euclidean de Sitter space. In order to avoid the problems of the standard perturbative calculations for light and massless fields, we generalize to the $O(N)$ theory a systematic method introduced previously for a single field, which treats the zero modes exactly and the nonzero modes perturbatively. We compute the two-point functions taking into account not only the leading infrared contribution, coming from the self-interaction of the zero modes, but also corrections due to the interaction of the ultraviolet modes. For the model defined in the corresponding Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime, we obtain the two-point functions by analytical continuation. We point out that a partial resummation of the leading secular terms (which necessarily involves nonzero modes) is required to obtain a decay at large distances for massless fields. We implement this resummation along with a systematic double expansion in an effective coupling c...

  3. Infrared and visible fusion face recognition based on NSCT domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Jinquan

    2018-01-01

    Visible face recognition systems, being vulnerable to illumination, expression, and pose, can not achieve robust performance in unconstrained situations. Meanwhile, near infrared face images, being light- independent, can avoid or limit the drawbacks of face recognition in visible light, but its main challenges are low resolution and signal noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, near infrared and visible fusion face recognition has become an important direction in the field of unconstrained face recognition research. In this paper, a novel fusion algorithm in non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain is proposed for Infrared and visible face fusion recognition. Firstly, NSCT is used respectively to process the infrared and visible face images, which exploits the image information at multiple scales, orientations, and frequency bands. Then, to exploit the effective discriminant feature and balance the power of high-low frequency band of NSCT coefficients, the local Gabor binary pattern (LGBP) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) are applied respectively in different frequency parts to obtain the robust representation of infrared and visible face images. Finally, the score-level fusion is used to fuse the all the features for final classification. The visible and near infrared face recognition is tested on HITSZ Lab2 visible and near infrared face database. Experiments results show that the proposed method extracts the complementary features of near-infrared and visible-light images and improves the robustness of unconstrained face recognition.

  4. An improved contrast enhancement algorithm for infrared images based on adaptive double plateaus histogram equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li; Li, Yiyang

    2018-05-01

    Infrared thermal images can reflect the thermal-radiation distribution of a particular scene. However, the contrast of the infrared images is usually low. Hence, it is generally necessary to enhance the contrast of infrared images in advance to facilitate subsequent recognition and analysis. Based on the adaptive double plateaus histogram equalization, this paper presents an improved contrast enhancement algorithm for infrared thermal images. In the proposed algorithm, the normalized coefficient of variation of the histogram, which characterizes the level of contrast enhancement, is introduced as feedback information to adjust the upper and lower plateau thresholds. The experiments on actual infrared images show that compared to the three typical contrast-enhancement algorithms, the proposed algorithm has better scene adaptability and yields better contrast-enhancement results for infrared images with more dark areas or a higher dynamic range. Hence, it has high application value in contrast enhancement, dynamic range compression, and digital detail enhancement for infrared thermal images.

  5. Space and commodity-based society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozden Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The space is privileged in the commodity-based society. It is well known that the economic space in the 19th and 20th centuries rapidly managed to subordinate all other areas 'conveying and instilling in them their own meanings and goals' (G. Milatović. A new form of space that qualifies commodity society was created, marked by dualities: openness-closeness, private-public, sameness-difference. This paper is an attempt to criticize the usual analysis of the categories of commodity-space, linked to the ambivalent role of the state as a guarantor of the functioning of the commodity-based society, as well as its controlling instance. The increasing delocalisation of the political changes the nature of the space in the commodity-based society. Privileged areas are produced that create an illusion of protection of consumers (shopping malls, gated communities, theme parks, video surveillance, while at the same time social differentiation and identification are produced through the symbolic order of commodities and a sense of inclusion or exclusion from that order. At the same time, the examples of tourism and selling places demonstrate that such a commodity-space unusually easy reconciles sameness and difference. It entails uniformity to help achieve the fluctuation of goods, while insisting on the local as different, especially in terms of the role of particularity in the global trade.

  6. Visible-infrared micro-spectrometer based on a preaggregated silver nanoparticle monolayer film and an infrared sensor card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Peng, Jing-xiao; Ho, Ho-pui; Song, Chun-yuan; Huang, Xiao-li; Zhu, Yong-yuan; Li, Xing-ao; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    By using a preaggregated silver nanoparticle monolayer film and an infrared sensor card, we demonstrate a miniature spectrometer design that covers a broad wavelength range from visible to infrared with high spectral resolution. The spectral contents of an incident probe beam are reconstructed by solving a matrix equation with a smoothing simulated annealing algorithm. The proposed spectrometer offers significant advantages over current instruments that are based on Fourier transform and grating dispersion, in terms of size, resolution, spectral range, cost and reliability. The spectrometer contains three components, which are used for dispersion, frequency conversion and detection. Disordered silver nanoparticles in dispersion component reduce the fabrication complexity. An infrared sensor card in the conversion component broaden the operational spectral range of the system into visible and infrared bands. Since the CCD used in the detection component provides very large number of intensity measurements, one can reconstruct the final spectrum with high resolution. An additional feature of our algorithm for solving the matrix equation, which is suitable for reconstructing both broadband and narrowband signals, we have adopted a smoothing step based on a simulated annealing algorithm. This algorithm improve the accuracy of the spectral reconstruction.

  7. Application of a Near Infrared Imaging System for Thermographic Imaging of the Space Shuttle during Hypersonic Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Gibson, David M.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Tack, Steve; Bush, Brett C.; Mercer, C. David; Shea, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    High resolution calibrated near infrared (NIR) imagery was obtained of the Space Shuttle s reentry during STS-119, STS-125, and STS-128 missions. The infrared imagery was collected using a US Navy NP-3D Orion aircraft using a long-range infrared optical package referred to as Cast Glance. The slant ranges between the Space Shuttle and Cast Glance were approximately 26-41 nautical miles at point of closest approach. The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project was a NASA Langley led endeavor sponsored by the NASA Engineering Safety Center, the Space Shuttle Program Office and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to demonstrate a quantitative thermal imaging capability. HYTHIRM required several mission tools to acquire the imagery. These tools include pre-mission acquisition simulations of the Shuttle trajectory in relationship to the Cast Glance aircraft flight path, radiance modeling to predict the infrared response of the Shuttle, and post mission analysis tools to process the infrared imagery to quantitative temperature maps. The spatially resolved global thermal measurements made during the Shuttle s hypersonic reentry provides valuable flight data for reducing the uncertainty associated with present day ground-to-flight extrapolation techniques and current state-of-the-art empirical boundary-layer transition or turbulent heating prediction methods. Laminar and turbulent flight data is considered critical for the development of turbulence models supporting NASA s next-generation spacecraft. This paper will provide the motivation and details behind the use of an upgraded NIR imaging system used onboard a Navy Cast Glance aircraft and describe the characterizations and procedures performed to obtain quantitative temperature maps. A brief description and assessment will be provided of the previously used analog NIR camera along with image examples from Shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and solar tower test. These thermal

  8. Seismology and space-based geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralli, David M.; Tajima, Fumiko

    1993-01-01

    The potential of space-based geodetic measurement of crustal deformation in the context of seismology is explored. The achievements of seismological source theory and data analyses, mechanical modeling of fault zone behavior, and advances in space-based geodesy are reviewed, with emphasis on realizable contributions of space-based geodetic measurements specifically to seismology. The fundamental relationships between crustal deformation associated with an earthquake and the geodetically observable data are summarized. The response and spatial and temporal resolution of the geodetic data necessary to understand deformation at various phases of the earthquake cycle is stressed. The use of VLBI, SLR, and GPS measurements for studying global geodynamics properties that can be investigated to some extent with seismic data is discussed. The potential contributions of continuously operating strain monitoring networks and globally distributed geodetic observatories to existing worldwide modern digital seismographic networks are evaluated in reference to mutually addressable problems in seismology, geophysics, and tectonics.

  9. Discrete phase space based on finite fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, Kathleen S.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Wootters, William K.

    2004-01-01

    The original Wigner function provides a way of representing in phase space the quantum states of systems with continuous degrees of freedom. Wigner functions have also been developed for discrete quantum systems, one popular version being defined on a 2Nx2N discrete phase space for a system with N orthogonal states. Here we investigate an alternative class of discrete Wigner functions, in which the field of real numbers that labels the axes of continuous phase space is replaced by a finite field having N elements. There exists such a field if and only if N is a power of a prime; so our formulation can be applied directly only to systems for which the state-space dimension takes such a value. Though this condition may seem limiting, we note that any quantum computer based on qubits meets the condition and can thus be accommodated within our scheme. The geometry of our NxN phase space also leads naturally to a method of constructing a complete set of N+1 mutually unbiased bases for the state space

  10. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Pat

    1986-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Vibration Data Base is described. Included is a detailed description of the data base components, the data acquisition process, the more sophisticated software routines, and the future data acquisition methods. Several figures and plots are provided to illustrate the various output formats accessible to the user. The numerous vibration data recall and analysis capabilities available through automated data base techniques are revealed.

  11. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE: EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM INFRARED GRISM OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Bond, Howard E.; Meurer, Gerhardt; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 μm from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 μm grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the Hα, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 ∼ B(F098M) ≅ 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts (Δz ≅ 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude m AB(F098M) = 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and redshifts to z ∼> 2.

  12. On the Integration of Medium Wave Infrared Cameras for Vision-Based Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Wave Infrared MAMI Minor Area Motion Imagery MMSE Minimum Mean Squared Error MWIR Medium Wave Infrared NED North East Down NIR Near Infrared RANSAC...Random Sample Consensus SfM Structure from Motion SIFT Scale Invariant Feature Transform SPIDER Sensor Processing and Inertial Dynamics Error Reduction... MMSE ) optimal solution based on these measurements. The filter is recursive in that it provides an estimate of each state after each measurement is

  13. Spaces C(X) with ordered bases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferrando, J.C.; Kąkol, Jerzy; López-Pellicer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 208, August (2016), s. 30-39 ISSN 0166-8641 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : C-Suslin space * G-base * strict angelicity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.377, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864116300761

  14. The Curators of the University of Missouri Modeling the Infrared Emission of C_60 in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aigen

    Fullerenes are cage-like molecules of pure carbon, such as C_60, C_70, C_76, and C_84. C_60, also known as buckminsterfullerene, is the most stable fullerene and has a soccer- ball like structure. The presence of fullerenes in space has been suggested and observationally explored since their first synthesis in the laboratory in 1985 by Harry Kroto and his colleagues which earned them the 1996 Nobel prize in chemistry. C_60 (as well as C_70) has recently been detected in reflection nebulae, post-AGB stars, protoplanetary nebulae, planetary nebulae, Herbig Ae/Be stars, and young stellar objects through their characteristic infrared emission bands. The formation of C_60 in interstellar and circumstellar environments is not firmly established. Experimental studies have shown that C_60 can be made by gas-phase condensation (e.g. through vaporization of graphite) in a hydrogen-poor environment. In view of the simultaneous detection of C_60 and PAHs in hydrogen-rich interstellar and circumstellar regions, it has also been suggested that C_60 could be generated by the decomposition of hydrogenated amorphous carbon, or the destruction of PAHs, both induced by shocks and/or UV photoprocessing. The phase (gas or solid) and excitation mechanism of C_60 in interstellar and circumstellar conditions are also hotly debated in the literature. One model suggests that C_60 is attached to dust and emits in solid-phase at the equilibrium temperature of the dust. Another model suggests that C_60 is stochastically excited by UV photons and emits in the gas-phase. We prefer the latter model as in interstellar and circumstellar conditions the energy content of a C_60 molecule is often smaller than the energy of a single starlight photon and C_60 is expected to undergo stochastical heating. We propose a two-year project to model the vibrational excitation of C_60 and calculate its infrared emission spectra in a wide variety of regions (e.g. reflection nebulae excited by stars of a range of

  15. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...

  16. Perturbative formulation of pure space-like axial gauge QED with infrared divergences regularized by residual gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawaki, Yuji; McCartor, Gary

    2006-01-01

    We construct a new perturbative formulation of pure space-like axial gauge QED in which the inherent infrared divergences are regularized by residual gauge fields. For this purpose, we carry out our calculations in the coordinates x μ =(x + , x - , x 1 , x 2 ), where x + =x 0 sinθ + x 3 cosθ and x - = x 0 cosθ - x 3 sinθ. Here, A=A 0 cosθ + A 3 sinθ = n·A=0 is taken as the gauge fixing condition. We show in detail that, in perturbation theory, infrared divergences resulting from the residual gauge fields cancel infrared divergences resulting from the physical parts of the gauge field. As a result, we obtain the gauge field propagator proposed by Mandelstam and Leibbrandt. By taking the limit θ→π/4, we are able to construct a light-cone formulation that is free from infrared divergences. With that analysis complete, we next calculate the one-loop electron self-energy, something not previously done in the light-cone quantization and light-cone gauge. (author)

  17. Thermal Infrared Imaging-Based Computational Psychophysiology for Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Daniela; Pinti, Paola; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging has been proposed as a potential system for the computational assessment of human autonomic nervous activity and psychophysiological states in a contactless and noninvasive way. Through bioheat modeling of facial thermal imagery, several vital signs can be extracted, including localized blood perfusion, cardiac pulse, breath rate, and sudomotor response, since all these parameters impact the cutaneous temperature. The obtained physiological information could then be used to draw inferences about a variety of psychophysiological or affective states, as proved by the increasing number of psychophysiological studies using thermal infrared imaging. This paper presents therefore a review of the principal achievements of thermal infrared imaging in computational physiology with regard to its capability of monitoring psychophysiological activity.

  18. Infrared hyperbolic metasurface based on nanostructured van der Waals materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peining; Dolado, Irene; Alfaro-Mozaz, Francisco Javier; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.; Liu, Song; Edgar, James H.; Nikitin, Alexey Y.; Vélez, Saül; Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2018-02-01

    Metasurfaces with strongly anisotropic optical properties can support deep subwavelength-scale confined electromagnetic waves (polaritons), which promise opportunities for controlling light in photonic and optoelectronic applications. We developed a mid-infrared hyperbolic metasurface by nanostructuring a thin layer of hexagonal boron nitride that supports deep subwavelength-scale phonon polaritons that propagate with in-plane hyperbolic dispersion. By applying an infrared nanoimaging technique, we visualize the concave (anomalous) wavefronts of a diverging polariton beam, which represent a landmark feature of hyperbolic polaritons. The results illustrate how near-field microscopy can be applied to reveal the exotic wavefronts of polaritons in anisotropic materials and demonstrate that nanostructured van der Waals materials can form a highly variable and compact platform for hyperbolic infrared metasurface devices and circuits.

  19. Thermal Infrared Imaging-Based Computational Psychophysiology for Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Daniela; Pinti, Paola; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging has been proposed as a potential system for the computational assessment of human autonomic nervous activity and psychophysiological states in a contactless and noninvasive way. Through bioheat modeling of facial thermal imagery, several vital signs can be extracted, including localized blood perfusion, cardiac pulse, breath rate, and sudomotor response, since all these parameters impact the cutaneous temperature. The obtained physiological information could then be used to draw inferences about a variety of psychophysiological or affective states, as proved by the increasing number of psychophysiological studies using thermal infrared imaging. This paper presents therefore a review of the principal achievements of thermal infrared imaging in computational physiology with regard to its capability of monitoring psychophysiological activity. PMID:26339284

  20. Space Based Gravitational Wave Observatories (SGOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected The Gravitational Universe as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.

  1. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF COMET 73P/SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 3 USING THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lisse, Carey M.; Kelley, Michael S.; Polomski, Elisha F.; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.; Kimes, Robin L.; Harker, David E.

    2011-01-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) to observe the 5-37 μm thermal emission of comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (SW3), components B and C. We obtained low spectral resolution (R ∼ 100) data over the entire wavelength interval, along with images at 16 and 22 μm. These observations provided an unprecedented opportunity to study nearly pristine material from the surface and what was until recently the interior of an ecliptic comet-the cometary surface having experienced only two prior perihelion passages, and including material that was totally fresh. The spectra were modeled using a variety of mineral types including both amorphous and crystalline components. We find that the degree of silicate crystallinity, ∼35%, is somewhat lower than most other comets with strong emission features, while its abundance of amorphous carbon is higher. Both suggest that SW3 is among the most chemically primitive solar system objects yet studied in detail, and that it formed earlier or farther from the Sun than the bulk of the comets studied so far. The similar dust compositions of the two fragments suggest that these are not mineralogically heterogeneous, but rather uniform throughout their volumes. The best-fit particle size distribution for SW3B has a form dn/da ∼ a -3.5 , close to that expected for dust in collisional equilibrium, while that for SW3C has dn/da ∼ a -4.0 , as seen mostly in active comets with strong directed jets, such as C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp. The total mass of dust in the comae plus nearby tail, extrapolated from the field of view of the IRS peak-up image arrays, is (3-5) x 10 8 kg for B and (7-9) x 10 8 kg for C. Atomic abundances derived from the spectral models indicate a depletion of O compared to solar photospheric values, despite the inclusion of water ice and gas in the models. Atomic C may be solar or slightly sub-solar, but its abundance is complicated by the potential contribution of spectrally featureless mineral

  2. The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics and Pending US Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Charles; SPICA Consortium; SAFARI Consortium

    2017-01-01

    SPICA is a cryogenic space-borne observatory designed for optimal sensitivity in the mid-infrared through submillimeter range: 17-250 microns. The mission is an ESA / JAXA collaboration, now under review in the ESA Cosmic Visions M5 opportunity, which has final approval in 2019, and launch in the late 2020 decade. SPICA will feature a 2.5-meter telescope cooled to below 8K, this offers the potential for 100-1000-fold advances in sensitivity beyond that obtained with Herschel and SOFIA in the far-IR. With a line sensitivity of ~5x10^-20 W/m^2 (1 h, 5 sigma), SPICA will be a complement to JWST and ALMA for deep spectroscopic observations. Integrated over cosmic history, star formation has occurred predominantly in dust-obscured regions which are inaccessible in the rest-frame UV and optical. Both the luminosity history and the detailed physics that govern it can only be directly measured in the mid-IR-submillimeter. Similarly, forming stars and planetary systems cool primarily through the far-IR. By taking advantage of the low-background platform, the SPICA instruments are designed for these investigations. The SPICA mid-IR instrument (SMI) will provide R~50 imaging spectroscopy and R~1,000 full-band slit-fed spectroscopy from 17 to 36 microns, with a high-resolution (R=25,000) capability from 12-18 microns. The SPICA far-IR instrument (SAFARI) will cover 34 to at least 250 microns with multiple R~300 wide-band grating spectrometer modules coupling to high-sensitivity far-IR detectors. A R~3,000 scanned-etalon module will also be available for Galactic targets with bright continua and/or dense line spectra. In the current SPICA division of responsibilities, ESA will take the lead role, provide the telescope, the fine-attitude sensor, and the spacecraft bus. JAXA will provide the cryogenic system, the SMI instrument, integrate the telescope and instruments, and provide the launch vehicle. The SAFARI instrument will be provided by a consortium funded by the European

  3. Focal plane array based infrared thermography in fine physical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainer, Boris G

    2008-01-01

    By two examples of dissimilar physical phenomena causing thermophysical effects, the unique capabilities of one of the up-to-date methods of experimental physics-focal plane array (FPA) based infrared (IR) thermography (IRT), are demonstrated distinctly. Experimenters inexperienced in IRT can grasp how this method provides a means for combining real-time visualization with quantitative analysis. A narrow-band short-wavelength IR camera was used in the experiments. It is discussed and stated that IRT is best matched and suited to the next two test conditions-when a heated specimen is thin and when heat is generated in the immediate region of a surface of a solid. The first prerequisite is realized in the search for directional patterns of combined low-power radiation sources with the use of the IRT-aided method. The second one is realized in studies of water vapour adsorption on uneven (irregular) surfaces of solid materials. With multiple swatches taken from a set of different fabrics and used as experimental samples, a sharp distinction between adsorptivities of their surfaces is strikingly illustrated by IRT time-domain measurements exhibiting the associated thermal effect ranging within an order of magnitude. It is justified that the described IRT-aided test can find practical implementation at least in the light industry. Emissivities of different fabrics are evaluated experimentally with the described reflection method based on the narrow spectral range of IRT. On the basis of direct IR observations, attention is paid to the need for close control over the surface temperature increase while the adsorption isotherms are being measured. Sensitivity of the FPA-based IRT method, as applied to examine the kinetics of initial stages of adsorption of gaseous molecules on the solid surface, is evaluated analytically and quantitatively. The relationship between the amount of adsorbate and the measurable excess of adsorbent temperature is found. It is discovered that

  4. Synchrotron-based far-infrared spectroscopy of nickel tungstate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinko, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Roy, P.; Evarestov, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Monoclinic antiferromagnetic NiWO 4 was studied by far-infrared (30-600 cm -1 ) absorption spectroscopy in the temperature range of 5-300 K using the synchrotron radiation from SOLEIL source. Two isomorphous CoWO 4 and ZnWO 4 tungstates were investigated for comparison. The phonon contributions in the far-infrared range of tungstates were interpreted using the first-principles spin-polarized linear combination of atomic orbital calculations. No contributions from magnetic excitations were found in NiWO 4 and CoWO 4 below their Neel temperatures down to 5 K.

  5. Infrared Spectroscopy Beamline Based on a Tabletop Storage Ring

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Md. Monirul; Moon, Ahsa; Yamada, Hironari

    2012-01-01

    An optical beamline dedicated to the infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been constructed at MIRRORCLE, a tabletop storage ring. The beamline has been designed for the use of infrared synchrotron radiation (IRSR) emitted from a bending magnet of 156 mm bending radius with the acceptance angle of 355(H) × 138(V) mrad to obtain high flux. The IR emission is forced by an exactly circular optics, named photon storage ring (PhSR), placed around the electron orbit and is collected by a “magic mirror” as...

  6. Design of High-Precision Infrared Multi-Touch Screen Based on the EFM32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong XIAOLING

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low accuracy of traditional infrared multi-touch screen, it’s difficult to ascertain the touch point. Putting forward a design scheme based on ARM Cortex-M3 kernel EFM32 processor of high precision infrared multi-touch screen. Using tracking scanning area algorithm after accessed electricity for the first time to scan, it greatly improved the scanning efficiency and response speed. Based on the infrared characteristic difference, putting forward a data fitting algorithm, employing the subtraction relationship between the covering area and sampling value to curve fitting, concluding the infrared sampling value of subtraction characteristic curve, establishing a sampling value differential data tables, at last ensuring the precise location of touch point. Besides, practices have proved that the accuracy of the infrared touch screen can up to 0.5 mm. The design uses standard USB port which connected to the PC can also be widely used in various terminals.

  7. Characterisation of Rapeseed Oil Based Resins Using Infrared and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydroxylated chemical structure was crosslinked using methylene-pphenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. The cross linking process was monitored in situ using the Attenuated Total Internal Reflectance Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy and the thermogravimetric analysis techniques.

  8. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  9. History of Space-Based Infrared Astronomy and the Air Force Infrared Celestial Backgrounds Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-18

    1962a, 1986) described the pains that Rosse took in making his observations as accurate as possible. Rosse isolated the thermal emission by observing...so the six apparitions appear at different in-scan and cross-scan positions on a pixel. Figure 103 compares the single frame image on the left with

  10. Toward a Space based Gravitational Wave Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2015-01-01

    A space-based GW observatory will produce spectacular science. The LISA mission concept: (a) Long history, (b) Very well-studied, including de-scopes, (c) NASAs Astrophysics Strategic Plan calls for a minority role in ESAs L3 mission opportunity. To that end, NASA is Participating in LPF and ST7 Developing appropriate technology for a LISA-like mission Preparing to seek an endorsement for L3 participation from the 2020 decadal review.

  11. Growth and performance of superlattice-based long wavelength complementary barrier infrared detectors (CBIRDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cory J.; Soibel, Alexander; Keo, Sam A.; Lee, Michael C.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Nguyen, Jean; Rafol, B., Sir; Ting, David Z.; Yang, Baohua; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2010-04-01

    We have demonstrated the use of bulk antimonide based materials and type-II antimonide based superlattices in the development large area long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs). Barrier infrared photodetectors (BIRDS) and superlattice-based infrared photodetectors are expected to outperform traditional III-V MWIR and LWIR imaging technologies and are expected to offer significant advantages over II-VI material based FPAs. Our group has developed a novel complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) which utilizes properties unique to the antimonide material system to incorporate unipolar barriers on either side of a superlattice absorber region. We have used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology to grow InAs/GaSb CBIRD structures on large area 100mm GaSb substrates with excellent results. Furthermore, we have fabricated initial 1024x1024 pixels superlattice imaging FPAs based on the CBIRD concept.

  12. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  13. Improved calibration-based non-uniformity correction method for uncooled infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengwei; Sui, Xiubao

    2017-08-01

    With the latest improvements of microbolometer focal plane arrays (FPA), uncooled infrared (IR) cameras are becoming the most widely used devices in thermography, especially in handheld devices. However the influences derived from changing ambient condition and the non-uniform response of the sensors make it more difficult to correct the nonuniformity of uncooled infrared camera. In this paper, based on the infrared radiation characteristic in the TEC-less uncooled infrared camera, a novel model was proposed for calibration-based non-uniformity correction (NUC). In this model, we introduce the FPA temperature, together with the responses of microbolometer under different ambient temperature to calculate the correction parameters. Based on the proposed model, we can work out the correction parameters with the calibration measurements under controlled ambient condition and uniform blackbody. All correction parameters can be determined after the calibration process and then be used to correct the non-uniformity of the infrared camera in real time. This paper presents the detail of the compensation procedure and the performance of the proposed calibration-based non-uniformity correction method. And our method was evaluated on realistic IR images obtained by a 384x288 pixels uncooled long wave infrared (LWIR) camera operated under changed ambient condition. The results show that our method can exclude the influence caused by the changed ambient condition, and ensure that the infrared camera has a stable performance.

  14. Chasing Small Exoplanets with Ground-Based Near-Infrared Transit Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, K. D.; Barentsen, G.; Vinicius, Z.; Vanderburg, A.; Coughlin, J.; Thompson, S.; Mullally, F.; Barclay, T.; Quintana, E.

    2017-11-01

    I will present results from a ground-based survey to measure the infrared radius and other properties of small K2 exoplanets and candidates. The survey is preparation for upcoming discoveries from TESS and characterization with JWST.

  15. A new adaptive contrast enhancement algorithm for infrared images based on double plateaus histogram equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kun; Ma, Yong; Xie, Yue; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Rui

    2012-07-01

    In infrared images, detail pixels are easily immerged in large quantity of low-contrast background pixels. According to these characteristics, an adaptive contrast enhancement algorithm based on double plateaus histogram equalization for infrared images was presented in this paper. Traditional double plateaus histogram equalization algorithm used constant threshold and could not change the threshold value in various scenes, so that its practical usage is limited. In the proposed algorithm, the upper and lower threshold value could be calculated by searching local maximum and predicting minimum gray interval and be updated in real time. With the proposed algorithm, the background of infrared image was constrained while the details could also be enhanced. Experimental results proved that the proposed algorithm can effectively enhance the contrast of infrared images, especially the details of infrared images.

  16. An infrared small target detection method based on nonnegative matrix factorization and compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiwei; Wang, Yiming

    2017-07-01

    According to the low rank property of the background and the sparse features of the target in infrared image, a novel infrared small target detection method based on the nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and compressed sensing technology was presented in this paper. This method trained background model through NMF, and then sampled the infrared image sequences directly using the block compressed sensing technology. Through the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), the infrared small target was extracted and the background was recovered from the image. At the same time, the background was updated by the update algorithm, to adapt to the changes in the background. The simulation results show that the proposed method can detect the infrared target precisely and efficiently.

  17. MERLIN: a space-based methane monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, C.; Alpers, M.; Millet, B.; Ehret, G.; Flamant, P.; Deniel, C.

    2011-10-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas. The radiative forcing caused by methane contributes significantly to the warming of the atmosphere. To better understand the complex global Methane Cycle, it is necessary to apply space-based measurements techniques in order to obtain global coverage at high precision The Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission (MERLIN) is a joint French-German cooperation on a micro satellite mission for space-based measurement of spatial and temporal gradients of atmospheric methane columns on a global scale. MERLIN will be the first Integrated Path Differential Absorption LIDAR for methane monitoring from space. In contrast to passive methane missions, the LIDAR instrument allows to retrieve methane fluxes at all-latitudes, allseasons and during night as it is not relying on sunlight. First scientific studies show a substantial reduction of the prior methane flux uncertainties in key observational regions when using synthetic MERLIN observations in the flux inversion experiments. Furthermore, MERLIN observations can help to quantify and verify in scientific credible way national emission reduction scenarios as formulated in the Kyoto protocol. This paper reports on the present status of MERLIN and gives an overview on the joint mission concept with the German LIDAR on the French satellite platform MYRIADE.

  18. Space-based Operations Grid Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Welch, Clara L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space based Operations Grid is intended to integrate the "high end" network services and compute resources that a remote payload investigator needs. This includes integrating and enhancing existing services such as access to telemetry, payload commanding, payload planning and internet voice distribution as well as the addition of services such as video conferencing, collaborative design, modeling or visualization, text messaging, application sharing, and access to existing compute or data grids. Grid technology addresses some of the greatest challenges and opportunities presented by the current trends in technology, i.e. how to take advantage of ever increasing bandwidth, how to manage virtual organizations and how to deal with the increasing threats to information technology security. We will discuss the pros and cons of using grid technology in space-based operations and share current plans for the prototype. It is hoped that early on the prototype can incorporate many of the existing as well as future services that are discussed in the first paragraph above to cooperating International Space Station Principle Investigators both nationally and internationally.

  19. TALC: a new deployable concept for a 20m far-infrared space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Gilles; Sauvage, Marc; Bonnet, Aymeric; Rodriguez, Louis; Ronayette, Samuel; Chanial, Pierre; Scola, Loris; Révéret, Vincent; Aussel, Hervé; Carty, Michael; Durand, Matthis; Durand, Lancelot; Tremblin, Pascal; Pantin, Eric; Berthe, Michel; Martignac, Jérôme; Motte, Frédérique; Talvard, Michel; Minier, Vincent; Bultel, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    TALC, Thin Aperture Light Collector is a 20 m space observatory project exploring some unconventional optical solutions (between the single dish and the interferometer) allowing the resolving power of a classical 27 m telescope. With TALC, the principle is to remove the central part of the prime mirror dish, cut the remaining ring into 24 sectors and store them on top of one-another. The aim of this far infrared telescope is to explore the 600 μm to 100 μm region. With this approach we have shown that we can store a ring-telescope of outer diameter 20m and ring thickness of 3m inside the fairing of Ariane 5 or Ariane 6. The general structure is the one of a bicycle wheel, whereas the inner sides of the segments are in compression to each other and play the rule of a rim. The segments are linked to each other using a pantograph scissor system that let the segments extend from a pile of dishes to a parabolic ring keeping high stiffness at all time during the deployment. The inner corners of the segments are linked to a central axis using spokes as in a bicycle wheel. The secondary mirror and the instrument box are built as a solid unit fixed at the extremity of the main axis. The tensegrity analysis of this structure shows a very high stiffness to mass ratio, resulting into 3 Hz Eigen frequency. The segments will consist of two composite skins and honeycomb CFRP structure build by replica process. Solid segments will be compared to deformable segments using the controlled shear of the rear surface. The adjustment of the length of the spikes and the relative position of the side of neighbor segments let control the phasing of the entire primary mirror. The telescope is cooled by natural radiation. It is protected from sun radiation by a large inflatable solar screen, loosely linked to the telescope. The orientation is performed by inertia-wheels. This telescope carries a wide field bolometer camera using cryocooler at 0.3K as one of the main instruments. This

  20. Properties and Applications of High Emissivity Composite Films Based on Far-Infrared Ceramic Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabo Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymer matrix composite materials that can emit radiation in the far-infrared region of the spectrum are receiving increasing attention due to their ability to significantly influence biological processes. This study reports on the far-infrared emissivity property of composite films based on far-infrared ceramic powder. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to evaluate the physical properties of the ceramic powder. The ceramic powder was found to be rich in aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, and silicon oxide, which demonstrate high far-infrared emissivity. In addition, the micromorphology, mechanical performance, dynamic mechanical properties, and far-infrared emissivity of the composite were analyzed to evaluate their suitability for strawberry storage. The mechanical properties of the far-infrared radiation ceramic (cFIR composite films were not significantly influenced (p ≥ 0.05 by the addition of the ceramic powder. However, the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA properties of the cFIR composite films, including a reduction in damping and shock absorption performance, were significant influenced by the addition of the ceramic powder. Moreover, the cFIR composite films showed high far-infrared emissivity, which has the capability of prolonging the storage life of strawberries. This research demonstrates that cFIR composite films are promising for future applications.

  1. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, J.R.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of nuclear and non-nuclear power systems for lunar bases are compared with recent studies by others. Power levels from tens of kW e for early base operation up to 2000 kW e for a self-sustaining base with a Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) are considered. Permanent lunar or Martian bases will require the use of multiple nuclear units connected to loads with a power transmission and distribution system analogous to earth-based electric utility systems. A methodology used for such systems is applied to the lunar base system to examine the effects of adding 100 kW e SP-100 class and/or larger nuclear units when a reliability criterion is imposed. The results show that resource and logistic burdens can be reduced by using 1000 kW e units early in the base growth scenario without compromising system reliability. Therefore, both technologies being developed in two current programs (SP-100 and NERVA Derivative Reactor (NDR) technology for space power) can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are also described. (author)

  2. Space-compatible strain gauges as an integration aid for the James Webb Space Telescope Mid-Infrared Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Sykes, Jon; Bicknell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Space instruments are designed to be highly optimised, mass efficient hardware required to operate in extreme environments. Building and testing is extremely costly, and damage that appears to have no impact on performance at normal ambient conditions can have disastrous implications when...... to protect the structure from damage. Compatible with space flight requirements, the gauges have been used in both ambient and cryogenic environments and were successfully used to support various tasks including integration to the spacecraft. The article also discusses limitations to using the strain gauge...

  3. Number-space interactions in the human parietal cortex: Enlightening the SNARC effect with functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutini, Simone; Scarpa, Fabio; Scatturin, Pietro; Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Interactions between numbers and space have become a major issue in cognitive neuroscience, because they suggest that numerical representations might be deeply rooted in cortical networks that also subserve spatial cognition. The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) is the most robust and widely replicated demonstration of the link between numbers and space: in magnitude comparison or parity judgments, participants' reaction times to small numbers are faster with left than right effectors, whereas the converse is found for large numbers. However, despite the massive body of research on number-space interactions, the nature of the SNARC effect remains controversial and no study to date has identified its hemodynamic correlates. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we found a hemodynamic signature of the SNARC effect in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus, a core region for numerical magnitude representation, and left angular gyrus (ANG), a region implicated in verbal number processing. Activation of intraparietal sulcus was also modulated by numerical distance. Our findings point to number semantics as cognitive locus of number-space interactions, thereby revealing the intrinsic spatial nature of numerical magnitude representation. Moreover, the involvement of left ANG is consistent with the mediating role of verbal/cultural factors in shaping interactions between numbers and space.

  4. Study on general design of dual-DMD based infrared two-band scene simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Qiao, Yang; Xu, Xi-ping

    2017-02-01

    Mid-wave infrared(MWIR) and long-wave infrared(LWIR) two-band scene simulation system is a kind of testing equipment that used for infrared two-band imaging seeker. Not only it would be qualified for working waveband, but also realize the essence requests that infrared radiation characteristics should correspond to the real scene. Past single-digital micromirror device (DMD) based infrared scene simulation system does not take the huge difference between targets and background radiation into account, and it cannot realize the separated modulation to two-band light beam. Consequently, single-DMD based infrared scene simulation system cannot accurately express the thermal scene model that upper-computer built, and it is not that practical. To solve the problem, we design a dual-DMD based, dual-channel, co-aperture, compact-structure infrared two-band scene simulation system. The operating principle of the system is introduced in detail, and energy transfer process of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation experiment is analyzed as well. Also, it builds the equation about the signal-to-noise ratio of infrared detector in the seeker, directing the system overall design. The general design scheme of system is given, including the creation of infrared scene model, overall control, optical-mechanical structure design and image registration. By analyzing and comparing the past designs, we discuss the arrangement of optical engine framework in the system. According to the main content of working principle and overall design, we summarize each key techniques in the system.

  5. Prototype of microbolometer thermal infrared camera for forest fire detection from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Francois; Dantes, Didier; Bouzou, Nathalie; Chorier, Philippe; Bouchardy, Anne-Marie; Rollin, Joël.

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of the thermal infrared (TIR) camera to the Earth observation FUEGO mission is to participate; to discriminate the clouds and smoke; to detect the false alarms of forest fires; to monitor the forest fires. Consequently, the camera needs a large dynamic range of detectable radiances. A small volume, low mass and power are required by the small FUEGO payload. These specifications can be attractive for other similar missions.

  6. Cleaning space debris with a space-based laser system

    OpenAIRE

    Shen Shuangyan; Jin Xing; Chang Hao

    2014-01-01

    High-energy pulsed laser radiation may be the most feasible means to mitigate the threat of collision of a space station or other valuable space assets with orbital debris in the size range of 1–10 cm. Under laser irradiation, part of the debris material is ablated and provides an impulse to the debris particle. Proper direction of the impulse vector either deflects the object trajectory or forces the debris on a trajectory through the upper atmosphere, where it burns up. Most research concen...

  7. Auto-Navigation of Micromouse Based on Infrared Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haoming

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Micromouse is an intelligent robot that is designed to search a shortest path to the destination in a unknown maze, in order to make the mouse can memory the right complex maze information automatically after searching and dashing, different parameters decided by infrared sensors were used to record micromouse’s position in the maze, also is used as the reference to realize micromouse position compensation, which can ensure the rapidity, accuracy and good stability of micromouse in high speed exploration and dashing.

  8. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  9. A study on ultra-precision machining technique for Al6061-T6 to fabricate space infrared optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Geun-man; Lee, Gil-jae; Hyun, Sang-won; Sung, Ha-yeong; Chung, Euisik; Kim, Geon-hee

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, analysis of variance on designed experiments with full factorial design was applied to determine the optimized machining parameters for ultra-precision fabrication of the secondary aspheric mirror, which is one of the key elements of the space cryogenic infrared optics. A single point diamond turning machine (SPDTM, Nanotech 4μpL Moore) was adopted to fabricate the material, AL6061-T6, and the three machining parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were selected. With several randomly assigned experimental conditions, surface roughness of each condition was measured by a non-contact optical profiler (NT2000; Vecco). As a result of analysis using Minitab, the optimum cutting condition was determined as following; cutting speed: 122 m/min, feed rate: 3 mm/min and depth of cut: 1 μm. Finally, a 120 mm diameter aspheric secondary mirror was attached to a particularly designed jig by using mixture of paraffin and wax and successfully fabricated under the optimum machining parameters. The profile of machined surface was measured by a high-accuracy 3-D profilometer(UA3P; Panasonic) and we obtained the geometrical errors of 30.6 nm(RMS) and 262.4 nm(PV), which satisfy the requirements of the space cryogenic infrared optics.

  10. Research on the Multiple Factors Influencing Human Identification Based on Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ping; Hu, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of the multiple factors affecting human identification ability based on pyroelectric infrared technology is a complex problem. First, we examine various sensed pyroelectric waveforms of the human body thermal infrared signal and reveal a mechanism for affecting human identification. Then, we find that the mechanism is decided by the distance, human target, pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor, the body type, human moving velocity, signal modulation mask, and Fresnel lens. The mapping relationship between the sensed waveform and multiple influencing factors is established, and a group of mathematical models are deduced which fuse the macro factors and micro factors. Finally, the experimental results show the macro-factors indirectly affect the recognition ability of human based on the pyroelectric technology. At the same time, the correctness and effectiveness of the mathematical models is also verified, which make it easier to obtain more pyroelectric infrared information about the human body for discriminating human targets. PMID:29462908

  11. Research on the Multiple Factors Influencing Human Identification Based on Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the multiple factors affecting human identification ability based on pyroelectric infrared technology is a complex problem. First, we examine various sensed pyroelectric waveforms of the human body thermal infrared signal and reveal a mechanism for affecting human identification. Then, we find that the mechanism is decided by the distance, human target, pyroelectric infrared (PIR sensor, the body type, human moving velocity, signal modulation mask, and Fresnel lens. The mapping relationship between the sensed waveform and multiple influencing factors is established, and a group of mathematical models are deduced which fuse the macro factors and micro factors. Finally, the experimental results show the macro-factors indirectly affect the recognition ability of human based on the pyroelectric technology. At the same time, the correctness and effectiveness of the mathematical models is also verified, which make it easier to obtain more pyroelectric infrared information about the human body for discriminating human targets.

  12. Fusion of infrared polarization and intensity images based on improved toggle operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pan; Ding, Lei; Ma, Xiaoqing; Huang, Zhanhua

    2018-01-01

    Integration of infrared polarization and intensity images has been a new topic in infrared image understanding and interpretation. The abundant infrared details and target from infrared image and the salient edge and shape information from polarization image should be preserved or even enhanced in the fused result. In this paper, a new fusion method is proposed for infrared polarization and intensity images based on the improved multi-scale toggle operator with spatial scale, which can effectively extract the feature information of source images and heavily reduce redundancy among different scale. Firstly, the multi-scale image features of infrared polarization and intensity images are respectively extracted at different scale levels by the improved multi-scale toggle operator. Secondly, the redundancy of the features among different scales is reduced by using spatial scale. Thirdly, the final image features are combined by simply adding all scales of feature images together, and a base image is calculated by performing mean value weighted method on smoothed source images. Finally, the fusion image is obtained by importing the combined image features into the base image with a suitable strategy. Both objective assessment and subjective vision of the experimental results indicate that the proposed method obtains better performance in preserving the details and edge information as well as improving the image contrast.

  13. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  14. InN Quantum Dot Based Infra-Red Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Arjun; Kumar, Mahesh; Roull, Basanta; Vinoy, K J; Krupanidhj, S B

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled InN quantum dots (QDs) were grown on Si(111) substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Single-crystalline wurtzite structure of InN QDs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The dot densities were varied by varying the indium flux. Variation of dot density was confirmed by FESEM images. Interdigitated electrodes were fabricated using standard lithog- raphy steps to form metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector devices. The devices show strong infrared response. It was found that the samples with higher density of InN QDs showed lower dark current and higher photo current. An explanation was provided for the observations and the experimental results were validated using Silvaco Atlas device simulator.

  15. Raman and Infrared Absorption Study of Indigoid-based Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Durrer, William; Reza, Layra; Ramirez, Alejandra; Chianelli, Russell

    2009-04-01

    A fascinating aspect of Maya pigments is that despite the environmentally harsh humidity and high temperatures they resist fading and they have unprecedented stability. In this investigation, we address the question of how organic dye binds to inorganic palygorskite to form pigments. Our analysis by Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopies proves that different processes are taking place for the indigo-palygorskite system as compared with the thioindigo-palygorskite complex. While partial elimination of the selection rules for the centrosymmetric indigo and disappearance of the indigo N-H bonding, with conversion to dehydroindigo, is observed for the first compound, the latter shows no evident structure modification. The interaction between indigo and palygorskite is likely through oxygen and nitrogen. Only oxygen plays this role for the thioindigo-palygorskite complex.

  16. How to find and type red/brown dwarf stars in near-infrared imaging space observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemn Holwerda, Benne; Ryan, Russell; Bridge, Joanna; Pirzkal, Nor; Kenworthy, Matthew; Andersen, Morten; Wilkins, Stephen; Trenti, Michele; Meshkat, Tiffany; Bernard, Stephanie; Smit, Renske

    2018-01-01

    Here we evaluate the near-infrared colors of brown dwarfs as observed with four major infrared imaging space observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the EUCLID mission, and the WFIRST telescope. We use the splat ISPEX spectroscopic library to map out the colors of the M, L, and T-type brown dwarfs. We identify which color-color combination is optimal for identifying broad type and which single color is optimal to then identify the subtype (e.g., T0-9). We evaluate each observatory separately as well as the the narrow-field (HST and JWST) and wide-field (EULID and WFIRST) combinations.HST filters used thus far for high-redshift searches (e.g. CANDELS and BoRG) are close to optimal within the available filter combinations. A clear improvement over HST is one of two broad/medium filter combinations on JWST: pairing F140M with either F150W or F162M discriminates well between brown dwarf subtypes. The improvement of JWST the filter set over the HST one is so marked that any combination of HST and JWST filters does not improve the classification.The EUCLID filter set alone performs poorly in terms of typing brown dwarfs and WFIRST performs only marginally better, despite a wider selection of filters. A combined EUCLID and WFIRST observation, using WFIRST's W146 and F062 and EUCLID's Y-band, allows for a much better discrimination between broad brown dwarf categories. In this respect, WFIRST acts as a targeted follow-up observatory for the all-sky EUCLID survey. However, subsequent subtyping with the combination of EUCLID and WFIRST observations remains uncertain due to the lack of medium or narrow-band filters in this wavelength range. We argue that a medium band added to the WFIRST filter selection would greatly improve its ability to preselect against brown dwarfs in high-latitude surveys.

  17. Demonstration of mid and long-wavelength infrared antimonide-based focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cory J.; Soibel, Alexander; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Ting, David Z.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Rhiger, David R.; Kvaas, Robert E.; Harris, Sean F.

    2009-05-01

    We have demonstrated the use of bulk antimonide based materials and type-II antimonide based superlattices in the development of large area mid wavelength infrared (MWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) as well as smaller format long wavelength infrared (LWIR) arrays. Barrier infrared photodetectors (BIRDs) and superlattice-based infrared photodetectors are expected to outperform traditional III-V MWIR and LWIR imaging technologies and are expected to offer significant advantages over II-VI material based FPAs. We have used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology to grow InAs/GaSb superlattice pin photodiode and bulk InAsSb structures on GaSb substrates. The coupled quantum well superlattice device offers additional control in wavelength tuning via quantum well sizes and ternary composition. Furthermore, we have fabricated mid-wavelength 1024x1024 pixels superlattice imaging FPAs, 640x512 MWIR arrays based on the BIRD concept, and 256x256 LWIR arrays based on pin superlattice structures. These initial FPA have produced excellent infrared imagery.

  18. Research on Methods of Infrared and Color Image Fusion Based on Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Rentao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is significant difference in the imaging features of infrared image and color image, but their fusion images also have very good complementary information. In this paper, based on the characteristics of infrared image and color image, first of all, wavelet transform is applied to the luminance component of the infrared image and color image. In multi resolution the relevant regional variance is regarded as the activity measure, relevant regional variance ratio as the matching measure, and the fusion image is enhanced in the process of integration, thus getting the fused images by final synthesis module and multi-resolution inverse transform. The experimental results show that the fusion image obtained by the method proposed in this paper is better than the other methods in keeping the useful information of the original infrared image and the color information of the original color image. In addition, the fusion image has stronger adaptability and better visual effect.

  19. Infrared small target tracking based on sample constrained particle filtering and sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Ren, Kan; Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Chen, Qian

    2017-12-01

    Infrared search and track technology for small target plays an important role in infrared warning and guidance. In view of the tacking randomness and uncertainty caused by background clutter and noise interference, a robust tracking method for infrared small target based on sample constrained particle filtering and sparse representation is proposed in this paper. Firstly, to distinguish the normal region and interference region in target sub-blocks, we introduce a binary support vector, and combine it with the target sparse representation model, after which a particle filtering observation model based on sparse reconstruction error differences between sample targets is developed. Secondly, we utilize saliency extraction to obtain the high frequency area in infrared image, and make it as a priori knowledge of the transition probability model to limit the particle filtering sampling process. Lastly, the tracking result is brought about via target state estimation and the Bayesian posteriori probability calculation. Theoretical analyses and experimental results show that our method can enhance the state estimation ability of stochastic particles, improve the sparse representation adaptabilities for infrared small targets, and optimize the tracking accuracy for infrared small moving targets.

  20. New isostatic mounting concept for a space born Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) on the Meteosat Third Generation Infrared Sounder Instrument (MTG-IRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudling, Maximilian; Klammer, Jesko; Lousberg, Gregory; Schumacher, Jean-Marc; Körner, Christian

    2016-07-01

    A novel isostatic mounting concept for a space born TMA of the Meteosat Third Generation Infrared Sounder is presented. The telescope is based on a light-weight all-aluminium design. The mounting concept accommodates the telescope onto a Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CRFP) structure. This design copes with the high CTE mismatch without introducing high stresses into the telescope structure. Furthermore a Line of Sight stability of a few microrads under geostationary orbit conditions is provided. The design operates with full performance at a temperature 20K below the temperature of the CFRP structure and 20K below the integration temperature. The mounting will sustain launch loads of 47g. This paper will provide the design of the Back Telescope Assembly (BTA) isostatic mounting and will summarise the consolidated technical baseline reached following a successful Preliminary Design Review (PDR).

  1. A μ-biomimetic uncooled infrared sensor based on the infrared receptors of Melanophila acuminata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebke, Georg

    2015-11-01

    The pyrophilous beetle Melanophila acuminata possesses an organ sensitive to IR radiation. It employs a photomechanic detection principle: A liquid filled pressure chamber is heated by absorbing the radiation. The liquid expands and leads to the deflection of a mechanosensitive dendrite. In addition, a sophisticated compensation mechanism prevents the build-up of large pressures. In this work, a biomimetic IR sensor based on the IR receptors of Melanophila acuminata is developed by means of microsystems technology. The sensor consists of two liquid-filled chambers that are connected by a micro-fluidic system. Absorption of IR radiation by one of the chambers leads to the heating and expansion of a liquid. The increasing pressure deflects a membrane which is part of a plate capacitor with a diameter of 500 μm and an electrode distance of 500 nm. The micro-fluidic system and the second chamber represent a fluidic low-pass filter, preventing slow, but large pressure changes. A theoretical model is developed which is able to predict the modulation frequency dependent response. It allows to calculate the filter properties of the compensation mechanism which is verified by an experimental test. A simplified sensor without the compensation mechanism is manufactured to analyse the influence of several parameters on the sensor's sensitivity. Finally, a solution for the fabrication of the μ-capacitor is presented. The large aspect ratio between electrode diameter and distance prevents to use a standard sacrificial layer process. The obtained capacitors pave the way to fabricate the complete full-featured sensor.

  2. A μ-biomimetic uncooled infrared sensor based on the infrared receptors of Melanophila acuminata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebke, Georg

    2015-11-15

    The pyrophilous beetle Melanophila acuminata possesses an organ sensitive to IR radiation. It employs a photomechanic detection principle: A liquid filled pressure chamber is heated by absorbing the radiation. The liquid expands and leads to the deflection of a mechanosensitive dendrite. In addition, a sophisticated compensation mechanism prevents the build-up of large pressures. In this work, a biomimetic IR sensor based on the IR receptors of Melanophila acuminata is developed by means of microsystems technology. The sensor consists of two liquid-filled chambers that are connected by a micro-fluidic system. Absorption of IR radiation by one of the chambers leads to the heating and expansion of a liquid. The increasing pressure deflects a membrane which is part of a plate capacitor with a diameter of 500 μm and an electrode distance of 500 nm. The micro-fluidic system and the second chamber represent a fluidic low-pass filter, preventing slow, but large pressure changes. A theoretical model is developed which is able to predict the modulation frequency dependent response. It allows to calculate the filter properties of the compensation mechanism which is verified by an experimental test. A simplified sensor without the compensation mechanism is manufactured to analyse the influence of several parameters on the sensor's sensitivity. Finally, a solution for the fabrication of the μ-capacitor is presented. The large aspect ratio between electrode diameter and distance prevents to use a standard sacrificial layer process. The obtained capacitors pave the way to fabricate the complete full-featured sensor.

  3. Near field ice detection using infrared based optical imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moati, Hazem; Morris, Jonathan; Zeng, Yousheng; Corie, Martin Wesley; Yanni, Victor Garas

    2018-02-01

    If not detected and characterized, icebergs can potentially pose a hazard to oil and gas exploration, development and production operations in arctic environments as well as commercial shipping channels. In general, very large bergs are tracked and predicted using models or satellite imagery. Small and medium bergs are detectable using conventional marine radar. As icebergs decay they shed bergy bits and growlers, which are much smaller and more difficult to detect. Their low profile above the water surface, in addition to occasional relatively high seas, makes them invisible to conventional marine radar. Visual inspection is the most common method used to detect bergy bits and growlers, but the effectiveness of visual inspections is reduced by operator fatigue and low light conditions. The potential hazard from bergy bits and growlers is further increased by short detection range (<1 km). As such, there is a need for robust and autonomous near-field detection of such smaller icebergs. This paper presents a review of iceberg detection technology and explores applications for infrared imagers in the field. Preliminary experiments are performed and recommendations are made for future work, including a proposed imager design which would be suited for near field ice detection.

  4. A Smart Infrared Microcontroller-Based Blind Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed S. Al-Fahoum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. The partial blindness represents the lack of integration in the growth of the optic nerve or visual centre of the eye, and total blindness is the full absence of the visual light perception. In this work, a simple, cheap, friendly user, smart blind guidance system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility of both blind and visually impaired people in a specific area. The proposed work includes a wearable equipment consists of head hat and mini hand stick to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the infrared sensor which is used to scan a predetermined area around blind by emitting-reflecting waves. The reflected signals received from the barrier objects are used as inputs to PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller is then used to determine the direction and distance of the objects around the blind. It also controls the peripheral components that alert the user about obstacle's shape, material, and direction. The implemented system is cheap, fast, and easy to use and an innovative affordable solution to blind and visually impaired people in third world countries.

  5. Development of infrared water sensors based on novel light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, John R.; Masterson, Hugh J.; Maze, Gwenael; O'Dwyer, Kieran; MacCraith, Brian D.

    2003-03-01

    The detection and measurement of vapour-phase or liquid-phase water is important in many industrial and chemical processes. Water exhibits strong absorption bands compared to other substances in the near infrared (NIR), and for this reason NIR spectroscopy is especially well suited to moisture determination. A lack of suitable sources in the NIR, however, has impeded the application of optical sensors to water detection. We have developed a modulatable IR source for use in a moisture sensor. In the system, the luminescent emission from optically pumped rare earth doped glasses is used. Thulium doped zirconium fluoride glass, which luminesces at 1.83 mm was the material chosen. The spectral overlap with the water absorption band is significant, and the output stability matches that of the pump source, which is typically an internally modulated diode laser emitting at 685nm. The detection system uses a reference beam and a probe beam to monitor changes in absorption due to moisture or water vapour. Results illustrating the effectiveness of the novel IR source in a sensor platform to measure trace amounts of liquid water and water vapor will be presented.

  6. Infrared nano-sensor based on doubly splited optomechanical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeping; Ai, Jie; Xiang, Yanjun; Ma, Liehua; Li, Tao; Ma, Jingfang

    2017-10-01

    Optomechanical crystal (OMC) cavities are simultaneous have photonic and phononic bandgaps. The strong interaction between high co-localized optical mode and mechanical mode are excellent candidates for precision measurements due to their simplicity, sensitivity and all optical operation. Here, we investigate OMC nanobeam cavities in silicon operating at the near-infrared wavelengths to achieve high optomechanical coupling rate and ultra-small motion mass. Numerical simulation results show that the optical Q-factor reached to 1.2×105 , which possesses an optical mode resonating at the wavelength of 1181 nm and the extremely localized mechanical mode vibrating at 9.2GHz. Moreover, a novel type of doubly splited nanocavity tailored to sensitively measure torques and mass. In the nanomechanical resonator central hollow area suspended low-mass elements (<100fg) are sensitive to environmental stimulate. By changing the split width, an ultra-small effective motion mass of only 4fg with a mechanical frequency as high as 11.9GHz can be achieved, while the coupling rate up to 1.58MHz. Potential applications on these devices include sensing mass, acceleration, displacement, and magnetic probing the quantum properties of nanoscale systems.

  7. Infrared study of acid-base properties of thorium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamotte, J.; Lavalley, J.C.; Druet, E.; Freund, E.

    1983-01-01

    Adsorption of CO 2 , C 5 H 5 N, CH 3 OCH 3 and CD 3 OCD 2 H on ThO 2 has been studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. CO 2 adsorption gives rise to several types of species: polydentate carbonates, bidentate carboxylates, bidentate carbonates, hydrogenocarbonates, monodentate carbonates and linear CO 2 species. The carbonate species have been identified on the basis of the splitting of the ν 3 vibration and of thermal-stability considerations. These results show that thorium dioxide is a basic oxide. Considering the νsub(a)(CO 2 ) mode of linear CO 2 species, the νsub(8a) mode of pyridine, the ν(CH) band of CD 3 OCD 2 H and the ν(COC) modes of CH 3 OCH 3 , it is concluded that some Th 4+ ions are very weak Lewis-acid sites. The OH groups giving rise to the 3740 cm -1 band are basic (some are involved in the formation of hydrogenocarbonate species), while some of the OH groups corresponding to the 3655 cm -1 band are very weak proton donors. (author)

  8. Infrared detection of moist areas in monumental buildings based on thermal inertia analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinzato, Ermanno G.; Mazzoldi, Andrea

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents a technique to detect the moisture conditions of walls supporting frescoes in order to detach its in case and to understand causes of the surface wetting. An important feature of the testing procedure is to be nondestructive and appropriate to analyze large surfaces as it is based on thermographic image processing. The goal is to classify the wall surface on the basis of its moisture condition. We choose the thermal inertia as the most suitable parameter for this purpose, because the heat capacity of a porous body increases to a great extent by varying its water content. The test works modifying the wall inner thermal conditions and detecting temperature variations of the fresco, in time and space domain. For this purpose a convective thermal flux is uniformly applied to the surface while an infrared camera views it. In such a way temperature gradients appear, whose maximum directional variation curves are used to segment the surface and the mean temperature time difference is used to label each area. The key point of the proposed procedure is the freedom from the knowledge of the wall composition and its thermal and hydrologic dynamic status, depending on weather history. Other topics as the environmental radiometric reflection and emission, the 'Narcissus effect' in thermograms mosaic composition and the perspective distortions are considered. Experimental results on a XVI century church at Padua, Italy) are presented.

  9. Room temperature high-detectivity mid-infrared photodetectors based on black arsenic phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gao, Anyuan; Wang, Peng; Xia, Hui; Ott, Claudia; Pan, Chen; Fu, Yajun; Liu, Erfu; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei; Nilges, Tom; Xu, Jianbin; Wang, Xiaomu; Hu, Weida; Miao, Feng

    2017-06-01

    The mid-infrared (MIR) spectral range, pertaining to important applications, such as molecular "fingerprint" imaging, remote sensing, free space telecommunication, and optical radar, is of particular scientific interest and technological importance. However, state-of-the-art materials for MIR detection are limited by intrinsic noise and inconvenient fabrication processes, resulting in high-cost photodetectors requiring cryogenic operation. We report black arsenic phosphorus-based long-wavelength IR photodetectors, with room temperature operation up to 8.2 μm, entering the second MIR atmospheric transmission window. Combined with a van der Waals heterojunction, room temperature-specific detectivity higher than 4.9 × 10 9 Jones was obtained in the 3- to 5-μm range. The photodetector works in a zero-bias photovoltaic mode, enabling fast photoresponse and low dark noise. Our van der Waals heterojunction photodetectors not only exemplify black arsenic phosphorus as a promising candidate for MIR optoelectronic applications but also pave the way for a general strategy to suppress 1/ f noise in photonic devices.

  10. An Efficient Algorithm for Server Thermal Fault Diagnosis Based on Infrared Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Xie, Ting; Ran, Jian; Gao, Shan

    2017-10-01

    It is essential for a data center to maintain server security and stability. Long-time overload operation or high room temperature may cause service disruption even a server crash, which would result in great economic loss for business. Currently, the methods to avoid server outages are monitoring and forecasting. Thermal camera can provide fine texture information for monitoring and intelligent thermal management in large data center. This paper presents an efficient method for server thermal fault monitoring and diagnosis based on infrared image. Initially thermal distribution of server is standardized and the interest regions of the image are segmented manually. Then the texture feature, Hu moments feature as well as modified entropy feature are extracted from the segmented regions. These characteristics are applied to analyze and classify thermal faults, and then make efficient energy-saving thermal management decisions such as job migration. For the larger feature space, the principal component analysis is employed to reduce the feature dimensions, and guarantee high processing speed without losing the fault feature information. Finally, different feature vectors are taken as input for SVM training, and do the thermal fault diagnosis after getting the optimized SVM classifier. This method supports suggestions for optimizing data center management, it can improve air conditioning efficiency and reduce the energy consumption of the data center. The experimental results show that the maximum detection accuracy is 81.5%.

  11. The Infrared Eye of the Wide-Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope Reveals Multiple Main Sequences of Very Low Mass Stars in NGC 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Allard, F.; Aparicio, A.; Bellini, A.; Buonanno, R.; Monelli, M.; Pietrinferni, A.

    2012-08-01

    We use images taken with the infrared channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the multiple main sequences (MSs) of NGC 2808. Below the turnoff, the red, the middle, and the blue MS, previously detected from visual-band photometry, are visible over an interval of about 3.5 F160W magnitudes. The three MSs merge together at the level of the MS bend. At fainter magnitudes, the MS again splits into two components containing ~65% and ~35% of stars, with the most-populated MS being the bluest one. Theoretical isochrones suggest that the latter is connected to the red MS discovered in the optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and hence corresponds to the first stellar generation, having primordial helium and enhanced carbon and oxygen abundances. The less-populated MS in the faint part of the near-IR CMD is helium-rich and poor in carbon and oxygen, and it can be associated with the middle and the blue MS of the optical CMD. The finding that the photometric signature of abundance anti-correlation is also present in fully convective MS stars reinforces the inference that they have a primordial origin. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. Mesoporous Silicon Far Infrared Filters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make optical filters based on mesoporous silicon multilayers, for use at cold temperatures in the far infrared...

  13. Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...

  14. Mesoporous Silicon Far Infrared Filters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make optical filters based on mesoporous silicon multilayers, for use at cold temperatures in the far infrared...

  15. Infrared image enhancement based on atmospheric scattering model and histogram equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Yunfeng; Geng, Aihui; Cao, Lihua; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Infrared images are fuzzy due to the special imaging technology of infrared sensor. In order to achieve contrast enhancement and gain clear edge details from a fuzzy infrared image, we propose an efficient enhancement method based on atmospheric scattering model and histogram equalization. The novel algorithm optimizes and improves the visual image haze remove method which combines the characteristics of the fuzzy infrared images. Firstly, an average filtering operation is presented to get the estimation of coarse transmission rate. Then we get the fuzzy free image through self-adaptive transmission rate calculated with the statistics information of original infrared image. Finally, to deal with low lighting problem of fuzzy free image, we propose a sectional plateau histogram equalization method which is capable of background suppression. Experimental results show that the performance and efficiency of the proposed algorithm are pleased, compared to four other algorithms in both subjective observation and objective quantitative evaluation. In addition, the proposed algorithm is competent to enhance infrared image for different applications under different circumstances.

  16. Space Acquisitions: DOD's Goals for Resolving Space Based Infrared System Software Problems are Ambitious

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... between processors, and failure at the hardware interface level. Review teams comprised of personnel from the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics...

  17. Photon-Counting Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) for Far/Mid-Infrared Space Spectroscopy with the Origins Space Telescope (OST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid; Barrentine, Emily M.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Brown, Ari D.; Moseley, Samuel Harvey; Wollack, Edward; Pontoppidan, Klaus Martin; U-Yen, Konpop; Mikula, Vilem

    2018-01-01

    Photon-counting detectors are highly desirable for reaching the ~ 10-20 W/√Hz power sensitivity permitted by the Origins Space Telescope (OST). We are developing unique Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) with photon counting capability in the far/mid-IR. Combined with an on-chip far-IR spectrometer onboard OST these detectors will enable a new data set for exploring galaxy evolution and the growth of structure in the Universe. Mid-IR spectroscopic surveys using these detectors will enable mapping the composition of key volatiles in planet-forming material around protoplanetary disks and their evolution into solar systems. While these OST science objectives represent a well-organized community agreement they are impossible to reach without a significant leap forward in detector technology, and the OST is likely not to be recommended if a path to suitable detectors does not exist.To reach the required sensitivity we are experimenting with superconducting resonators made from thin aluminum films on single-crystal silicon substrates. Under the right conditions, small-volume inductors made from these films can become ultra-sensitive to single photons >90 GHz. Understanding the physics of these superconductor-dielectric systems is critical to performance. We achieved a very high quality factor of 0.5 x 106 for a 10-nm Al resonator at n ~ 1 microwave photon drive power, by far the highest value for such thin films in the literature. We measured a residual electron density of 95% efficiency at 0.5 - 1.0 THz is achievable.We report on these developments and discuss plans to test in our facility through funding from our recently awarded ROSES-APRA grant and Roman Technology Fellowship award.

  18. Infrared and submillimeter space missions in the coming decade programmes, programmatics, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvage, Marc; Gallais, Pascal; Vigroux, Laurent

    1996-01-01

    A revolution similar to that brought by CCDs to visible astronomy is still ahead in IR and submillimeter astronomy. There is certainly no wavelength range which has, over the past several years, seen such impressive advances in technology: large-scale detector arrays, new designs for cooling in space, lightweight mirror technologies. Scientific cases for observing the cold universe are outstanding. Observations in the FIR/Submm range will provide answers to such fundamental questions as: What is the spectrum of the primordial fluctuations? How do primeval galaxies look? What are the first stages of star formation? Most of the international space missions that have been triggered by these questions are presented in detail here. Technological issues raised by these missions are reviewed, as are the most recent achievements in cooling and detector technologies.

  19. Infrared problem for the Nelson model on static space-times

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard, Christian; Hiroshima, Fumio; Panati, Annalisa; Suzuki, Akito

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We consider the Nelson model with variable coefficients and investigate the problem of existence of a ground state and the removal of the ultraviolet cutoff. Nelson models with variable coefficients arise when one replaces in the usual Nelson model the flat Minkowski metric by a static metric, allowing also the boson mass to depend on position. A physical example is obtained by quantizing the Klein-Gordon equation on a static space-time coupled with a non-relativistic ...

  20. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, I: Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieke, G. H.; Wright, G. S.; Böker, T.

    2015-01-01

    in space; and (5) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low- and medium-resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: (1) imaging exoplanets; (2) transit...... and eclipse spectroscopy of exoplanets; (3) probing the first stages of star and planet formation, including identifying bioactive molecules; (4) determining star formation rates and mass growth as galaxies are assembled; and (5) characterizing the youngest massive galaxies....

  1. Research on Fault Detection System of Power Equipment Based on UV and Infrared Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiyu; Ding, Kun

    2017-09-01

    UV corona on power system can reflect the location of the fault and the severity of the fault, the traditional UV and infrared detection equipment can only use the band and the visible light band image of the power system fault detection. In this paper, a power system fault detection system based on ultraviolet and infrared dual-band images is designed. The principle of UV imaging detection and image fusion are introduced respectively. The software of the host computer is written by MFC. The software can acquire both ultraviolet and infrared, the two images are fused using the image fusion algorithm based on edge detection and cross correlation and the highest point temperature is plotted. Experiments show that the system can detect the failure of power equipment in time, and has a certain practical value, which puts forward a new idea for fault detection of power equipment.

  2. A graphene-based Fabry-Pérot spectrometer in mid-infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaosai; Chen, Chen; Pan, Liang; Wang, Jicheng

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy is of great importance in many areas and its integration with thin-film technology can economically enrich the functionalities of many existing devices. In this paper we propose a graphene-based ultra-compact spectrometer (several micrometers in size) that is compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing. The proposed structure uses a monolayer graphene as a mid-infrared surface waveguide, whose optical response is spatially modulated using electric fields to form a Fabry-Pérot cavity. By varying the voltage acting on the cavity, we can control the transmitted wavelength of the spectrometer at room temperature. This design has potential applications in the graphene-silicon-based optoelectronic devices as it offers new possibilities for developing new ultra-compact spectrometers and low-cost hyperspectral imaging sensors in mid-infrared region. PMID:27573080

  3. Hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei

    2016-06-01

    The present paper describes a hybrid particle swarm optimization-adaptive support vector regression (PSO-ASVR)-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer. The proposed hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method is based on PSO in combination with Adaptive Processing and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The optimization technique involves setting parameters in the ASVR fitting procedure, which significantly improves the fitting accuracy. However, its use in the calibration of infrared radiometer has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, the PSO-ASVR-based method, which is based on the statistical learning theory, is successfully used here to get the relationship between the radiation of a standard source and the response of an infrared radiometer. Main advantages of this method are the flexible adjustment mechanism in data processing and the optimization mechanism in a kernel parameter setting of SVR. Numerical examples and applications to the calibration of infrared radiometer are performed to verify the performance of PSO-ASVR-based method compared to conventional data fitting methods.

  4. Hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei, E-mail: heikuanghit@163.com [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-06-15

    The present paper describes a hybrid particle swarm optimization-adaptive support vector regression (PSO-ASVR)-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer. The proposed hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method is based on PSO in combination with Adaptive Processing and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The optimization technique involves setting parameters in the ASVR fitting procedure, which significantly improves the fitting accuracy. However, its use in the calibration of infrared radiometer has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, the PSO-ASVR-based method, which is based on the statistical learning theory, is successfully used here to get the relationship between the radiation of a standard source and the response of an infrared radiometer. Main advantages of this method are the flexible adjustment mechanism in data processing and the optimization mechanism in a kernel parameter setting of SVR. Numerical examples and applications to the calibration of infrared radiometer are performed to verify the performance of PSO-ASVR-based method compared to conventional data fitting methods.

  5. An expert systems application to space base data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephen M.

    1988-01-01

    The advent of space vehicles with their increased data requirements are reflected in the complexity of future telemetry systems. Space based operations with its immense operating costs will shift the burden of data processing and routine analysis from the space station to the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). A research and development project is described which addresses the real time onboard data processing tasks associated with a space based vehicle, specifically focusing on an implementation of an expert system.

  6. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen- hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during ight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced ows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle con guration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot- re test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate ight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative e ort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This presentation discusses the various trends of base convective heat ux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base ow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi- empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the ight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  7. Space-based detection of space debris by photometric and polarimetric characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuxia; Wang, Hu; Lu, Xiaoyun; Shen, Yang; Pan, Yue

    2017-10-01

    The number of space debris has been increasing dramatically in the last few years, and is expected to increase as much in the future. As the orbital debris population grows, the risk of collision between debris and other orbital objects also grows. Therefore, space debris detection is a particularly important task for space environment security, and then supports for space debris modeling, protection and mitigation. This paper aims to review space debris detection systematically and completely. Firstly, the research status of space debris detection at home and abroad is presented. Then, three kinds of optical observation methods of space debris are summarized. Finally, we propose a space-based detection scheme for space debris by photometric and polarimetric characteristics.

  8. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, II: Design and Build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, G. S.; Wright, David; Goodson, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28: 5 µm. MIRI has, within a single "package," four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R similar...... in terms of the "as-built" instrument. It also describes the test program that led to delivery of the tested and calibrated Flight Model to NASA in 2012, and the confirmation after delivery of the key interface requirements....

  9. Identification of the Infrared Counterpart of SGR 1935+2154 with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, Andrew; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fruchter, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope observations of a new magnetar source, the soft gamma-repeater SGR 1935+2154, discovered by Swift. We obtained three epochs of observations: while the source was active in 2015 March, during a quiescent period in 2015 August, and during a further active phase in 2016 May. Close to the center of the X-ray error region identified by Chandra, we find a faint (F140W(AB) = 25.3) source, which fades by a factor of ∼2 over the course of 5 months between the first two epochs of observations, before rebrightening during the second active period. If this source is indeed the counterpart to SGR 1935+2154, then it is among the faintest yet located for a magnetar. Our observations are spaced over 1.3 years and enable us to place limits on the source velocity of μ = (60 ± 40) km s‑1 kpc‑1 observations on timescales of a decade can hence probe proper motion limits smaller than the velocities observed for the majority of pulsars. The comparison of the optical/IR and X-ray light curves of the source suggests that emission in the two regimes is associated but not directly correlated, offering support for a magnetospheric versus a fallback disk origin.

  10. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY-THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter J.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G.; Haeussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh W.; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Khostovan, Ali A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R.; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z approximate to 1.5-8, and to study

  11. Determination of Peroxide-Based Explosives Using Liquid Chromatography with On-Line Infrared Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Edelmann, Andrea; Quintas, Guillermo; Lendl, Bernhard; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    A nondestructive analytical method for peroxide-based explosives determination in solid samples is described. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection is used for the analysis of triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and

  12. A study of far-infrared Michelson interferometry based on fast plasma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.V.; Hewitt, G.L.; Robinson, L.C.; Tait, G.D.

    1976-02-01

    Fast far-infrared multiplex spectroscopy based on a plasma-scanned Michelson interferometer is studied. Our experiments show that the interferometer has sub-millisecond time response and high spectral resolving power. In addition to a description of the experimental performance of the interferometer, we develop and discuss two different methods of interferogram inversion. (author)

  13. Laboratory-based grain-shape models for simulating dust infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschke, H.; Min, M.; Tamanai, A.

    2009-01-01

    Context. Analysis of thermal dust emission spectra for dust mineralogy and physical grain properties depends on comparison spectra, which are either laboratory-measured infrared extinction spectra or calculated extinction cross sections based on certain grain models. Often, the agreement between

  14. Prediction of beta-lactoglobulin genotypes based on milk Fourier transform infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Heck, J.M.L.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    ß-Lactoglobulin (ß-LG) genotypes are associated with differences in bovine milk protein composition. Therefore, ß-LG genotypes are of direct relevance for the dairy industry. In this study, we predicted ß-lactoglobulin genotypes based on routinely recorded milk Fourier transform infrared spectra

  15. Variational infrared image enhancement based on adaptive dual-threshold gradient field equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenda; Xu, Zhijun; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Fan; Han, Xizhen

    2014-09-01

    Infrared images are characterized by low signal to noise ratio (SNR) and fuzzy texture edges. This article introduces the variational infrared image enhancement algorithm based on gradient field equalization with adaptive dual thresholds. Firstly, we transform the image into gradient domain and get the gradient histogram. Then, we do the gradient histogram equalization. By setting adaptive dual thresholds to qualify the gradients, the image is prevented from over enhancement. The total variation (TV) model is adopted in the reconstruction of the enhanced image to suppress noise. It is shown from experimental results that the image edge details are significantly enhanced, and therefore the algorithm is qualified for enhancement of infrared images in different applications.

  16. Advancements in quantum cascade laser-based infrared microscopy of aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, K; Kröger-Lui, N; Pucci, A; Schönhals, A; Petrich, W

    2016-06-23

    The large mid-infrared absorption coefficient of water frequently hampers the rapid, label-free infrared microscopy of biological objects in their natural aqueous environment. However, the high spectral power density of quantum cascade lasers is shifting this limitation such that mid-infrared absorbance images can be acquired in situ within signal-to-noise ratios of up to 100. Even at sample thicknesses well above 50 μm, signal-to-noise ratios above 10 are readily achieved. The quantum cascade laser-based microspectroscopy of aqueous media is exemplified by imaging an aqueous yeast solution and quantifying glucose consumption, ethanol generation as well as the production of carbon dioxide gas during fermentation.

  17. Novel Use of Smartphone-based Infrared Imaging in the Detection of Acute Limb Ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleki, A; da Silva, A

    2016-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is based on perfusion changes reflected by skin temperature variations. It is an established non-invasive diagnostic method within vascular surgery, with applications such as peripheral arterial disease assessment and prevention of diabetic foot complications. However, owing to hardware limitations or lack of resources, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. A novel portable infrared imaging camera, easily powered via a smartphone and free App software, was used to obtain digital thermograms during the clinical evaluation of acute limb ischaemia (ALI). Portable infrared imaging represents a new promising tool for the assessment of tissue perfusion that can be applied at the bedside during clinical evaluation of suspected ALI.

  18. Infrared Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The end goal of this project is to develop proof-of-concept infrared detectors which can be integrated in future infrared instruments engaged in remote...

  19. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalski A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.

  20. Far-infrared photometry of OJ 287 with the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidger, Mark; Zola, Staszek; Valtonen, Mauri; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Järvelä, Emilia; Tornikoski, Merja; Tammi, Joni; Liakos, Alexis; Poyner, Gary

    2018-03-01

    Context. The blazar OJ 287 has shown a ≈12 year quasi-periodicity over more than a century, in addition to the common properties of violent variability in all frequency ranges. It is the strongest known candidate to have a binary singularity in its central engine. Aim. We aim to better understand the different emission components by searching for correlated variability in the flux over four decades of frequency measurements. Methods: We combined data at frequencies from the millimetric to the visible to characterise the multifrequency light curve in April and May 2010. This includes the only photometric observations of OJ 287 made with the Herschel Space Observatory: five epochs of data obtained over 33 days at 250, 350, and 500 μm with Herschel-SPIRE. Results: Although we find that the variability at 37 GHz on timescales of a few weeks correlates with the visible to near-IR spectral energy distribution, there is a small degree of reddening in the continuum at lower flux levels that is revealed by the decreasing rate of decline in the light curve at lower frequencies. However, we see no clear evidence that a rapid flare detected in the light curve during our monitoring in the visible to near-IR light curve is seen either in the Herschel data or at 37 GHz, suggesting a low-frequency cut-off in the spectrum of such flares. Conclusions.We see only marginal evidence of variability in the observations with Herschel over a month, although this may be principally due to the poor sampling. The spectral energy distribution between 37 GHz and the visible can be characterised by two components of approximately constant spectral index: a visible to far-IR component of spectral index α = -0.95, and a far-IR to millimetric spectral index of α = -0.43. There is no evidence of an excess of emission that would be consistent with the 60 μmdust bump found in many active galactic nuclei. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European

  1. Monolithic Micromachined Quartz Resonator based Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-05

    prototypes of integrated micromachined IR detectors consisting of 200 μm diameter QCM resonators, 241 MHz (6.9 μm) thick 5 x 5 resonator arrays from Y-cut...of small QCM devices. • A novel measurement method for the real-time tracking of the resonance frequency based on impedance measurement around the...miniaturize QCM ? • Micromachining Quartz • Evaluation of QCM MicroArrays • Adsorption Experiments – Human Serum Albumin, IgG, and Human Fibrinogen Adsorption

  2. 1550 nm modulating retroreflector based on coated nanoparticles for free-space optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Arnon, Shlomi

    2015-06-10

    Nowadays, there is a renaissance in the field of space exploration. Current and future missions depend on astronauts and a swarm of robots for reconnaissance. In order to reduce the power consumption, weight, and size of the robots, an asymmetric communication system may be used. This is achieved by installing modulating retroreflectors (MRRs) on one side of the link and an interrogating laser on the other side. In this paper, we theoretically study an innovative device that can serve as an MRR in the infrared range of the spectrum. The device is based on a ferroelectric PZT thin film containing TiO2 coated Ag nanoparticles, which exhibit strong plasmonic resonance in the infrared range. After intensive analyses, which included calculations and simulations, we were able to design the device to operate at the 1550 nm wavelength. This is of great importance since the design of devices operating at 1550 nm as this wavelength is a mature technology widely used in free-space optics. Hence, this MRR can serve in asymmetric communication links relying on 1550 nm transmissions, which are also eye-safe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time coated metal nanoparticles have been proposed to modulate light in the infrared region. The performance of this device is unique, reaching a 17.5 dB modulation contrast with only a ±2 V operating voltage. This modulator may also be used for terrestrial communication such as fiber optics and optical interconnects in future data centers.

  3. In-Space Internet-Based Communications for Space Science Platforms Using Commercial Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Fabian, Theodore P.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Richard, Alan M.

    1999-01-01

    The continuing technological advances in satellite communications and global networking have resulted in commercial systems that now can potentially provide capabilities for communications with space-based science platforms. This reduces the need for expensive government owned communications infrastructures to support space science missions while simultaneously making available better service to the end users. An interactive, high data rate Internet type connection through commercial space communications networks would enable authorized researchers anywhere to control space-based experiments in near real time and obtain experimental results immediately. A space based communications network architecture consisting of satellite constellations connecting orbiting space science platforms to ground users can be developed to provide this service. The unresolved technical issues presented by this scenario are the subject of research at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Assessment of network architectures, identification of required new or improved technologies, and investigation of data communications protocols are being performed through testbed and satellite experiments and laboratory simulations.

  4. Dynamic infrared scene projectors based upon the DMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, D. Brett; Bender, Matt; Crosby, Jay; Messer, Tim

    2009-02-01

    The Micromirror Array Projector System (MAPS) is an advanced dynamic scene projector system developed by Optical Sciences Corporation (OSC) for Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation and sensor test applications. The MAPS is based upon the Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) which has been modified to project high resolution, realistic imagery suitable for testing sensors and seekers operating in the UV, visible, NIR, and IR wavebands. Since the introduction of the first MAPS in 2001, OSC has continued to improve the technology and develop systems for new projection and Electro-Optical (E-O) test applications. This paper reviews the basic MAPS design and performance capabilities. We also present example projectors and E-O test sets designed and fabricated by OSC in the last 7 years. Finally, current research efforts and new applications of the MAPS technology are discussed.

  5. InN-based heterojunction photodetector with extended infrared response

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Lung-Hsing

    2015-11-21

    © 2015 Optical Society of America. The combination of ZnO, InN, and GaN epitaxial layers is explored to provide long wavelength photodetection capability in the GaN based materials. Growth temperature optimization was performed to obtain the best quality of InN epitaxial layer in the MOCVD system. The temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) can provide the information about thermal quenching in the InN PL transitions and at least two nonradiative processes can be observed. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy are applied to confirm the inclusion of indium and the formation of InN layer. The band alignment of such system shows a typical double heterojunction, which is preferred in optoelectronic device operation. The photodetector manufactured by this ZnO/GaN/InN layer can exhibit extended long-wavelength quantum efficiency, as high as 3.55%, and very strong photocurrent response under solar simulator illumination.

  6. Calibration model transfer for near-infrared spectra based on canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Liang, Yizeng; Yuan, Dalin; Wang, Jiajun

    2008-08-08

    In order to solve the calibration transformation problem in near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, a method based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) for calibration model transfer is developed in this work. Two real NIR data sets were tested. A comparative study between the proposed method and piecewise direct standardization (PDS) was conducted. It is shown that the transfer results obtained with the proposed method based on CCA were better than those obtained by PDS when the subset had sufficient samples.

  7. A Ground-Based Near Infrared Camera Array System for UAV Auto-Landing in GPS-Denied Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tao; Li, Guangpo; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yanning; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Zhuoyue; Li, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel infrared camera array guidance system with capability to track and provide real time position and speed of a fixed-wing Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) during a landing process. The system mainly include three novel parts: (1) Infrared camera array and near infrared laser lamp based cooperative long range optical imaging module; (2) Large scale outdoor camera array calibration module; and (3) Laser marker detection and 3D tracking module. Extensive automatic landing exp...

  8. Measuring the Evolution of Stellar Populations And Gas Metallicity in Galaxies with Far-Infrared Space Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Gordon

    We propose a study of the evolution of stellar populations and gas metallicities in about 80 nearby star forming galaxies based on mining the NASA data archives for observations of the [NIII] 57 µm, [OIII] 52 µm and/or 88 µm, [NII] 122 and [CII] 158 µm far-infrared (FIR) fine- structure lines and other archives for thermal radio continuum. These lines are powerful probes of both stellar populations and gas properties and our primary science derives from these tracers. For sources that show both signs of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation, we will take advantage of the readily available NASA Spitzer IRS data base that includes mid-IR [NeII] 12.8 µm, [NeIII] 15.6 µm and [NeV] 14.3 µm, [OIV] 25.9 µm and PAH observations. These complementary data reveal the relative fractions of the FIR line emission that might arise from star formation and the narrow line regions (NLR) associated with an AGN, thereby providing a robust set of observations to compare with star formation models. Subsets of the FIR lines have been detected from hundreds of nearby galaxies. From both theoretical studies and the results of these pioneering observations we know that these lines can be powerful probes of stellar populations and star formation in galaxies. Here we plan to use various combinations of the lines to constrain (1) the age of the stellar populations (through lines that trace the hardness of the stellar radiation fields, hence stellar spectral type), (2) the degree of processing of the interstellar medium (through lines that trace growth of secondary to primary element abundances for example, the N/O ratio), (3) the efficiency of star formation (through growth in absolute abundances of N and O, the N/H and O/H ratios), and (4) the current day mass function of upper main sequence stars. Surprisingly, there has been no systematic study of the large sample of these line detections made with PACS on Herschel in order to truly assess and calibrate their diagnostic

  9. Detection algorithm of infrared small target based on improved SUSAN operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingmiao; Wang, Shicheng; Zhao, Jing

    2010-10-01

    The methods of detecting small moving targets in infrared image sequences that contain moving nuisance objects and background noise is analyzed in this paper. A novel infrared small target detection algorithm based on improved SUSAN operator is put forward. The algorithm selects double templates for the infrared small target detection: one size is greater than the small target point size and another size is equal to the small target point size. First, the algorithm uses the big template to calculate the USAN of each pixel in the image and detect the small target, the edge of the image and isolated noise pixels; Then the algorithm uses the another template to calculate the USAN of pixels detected in the first step and improves the principles of SUSAN algorithm based on the characteristics of the small target so that the algorithm can only detect small targets and don't sensitive to the edge pixels of the image and isolated noise pixels. So the interference of the edge of the image and isolate noise points are removed and the candidate target points can be identified; At last, the target is detected by utilizing the continuity and consistency of target movement. The experimental results indicate that the improved SUSAN detection algorithm can quickly and effectively detect the infrared small targets.

  10. The Application of Infrared Thermographic Inspection Techniques to the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. E.; Winfree, W. P.

    2005-01-01

    The Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA s Langley Research Center has been actively involved in the development of thermographic inspection techniques for more than 15 years. Since the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA has focused on the improvement of advanced NDE techniques for the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels that comprise the orbiter s wing leading edge. Various nondestructive inspection techniques have been used in the examination of the RCC, but thermography has emerged as an effective inspection alternative to more traditional methods. Thermography is a non-contact inspection method as compared to ultrasonic techniques which typically require the use of a coupling medium between the transducer and material. Like radiographic techniques, thermography can be used to inspect large areas, but has the advantage of minimal safety concerns and the ability for single-sided measurements. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been shown effective for reducing thermographic NDE data. A typical implementation of PCA is when the eigenvectors are generated from the data set being analyzed. Although it is a powerful tool for enhancing the visibility of defects in thermal data, PCA can be computationally intense and time consuming when applied to the large data sets typical in thermography. Additionally, PCA can experience problems when very large defects are present (defects that dominate the field-of-view), since the calculation of the eigenvectors is now governed by the presence of the defect, not the "good" material. To increase the processing speed and to minimize the negative effects of large defects, an alternative method of PCA is being pursued where a fixed set of eigenvectors, generated from an analytic model of the thermal response of the material under examination, is used to process the thermal data from the RCC materials. Details of a one-dimensional analytic model and a two-dimensional finite-element model will be presented. An

  11. An Engineering Trade Space Analysis for a Space-Based Hyperspectral Chromotomographic Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    indium antimonide (InSb) or mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) based FPAs. Obviously multiple FPAs or very large FPAs will in turn drive costs, complexity...different detector materials, silicon for visible light, gallium arsenide for NIR and indium antimonide for short wave infrared (SWIR). The instrument...same material, aluminum , to minimize the possibility of induced internal structural stress from variations in material coefficients of thermal

  12. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/NEAR-INFRARED CAMERA AND MULTI-OBJECT SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLIMPSE9 STELLAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, Maria; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Trombley, Christine; Kudritzki, R. P.; Rich, R. Michael; MacKenty, John

    2010-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer photometry, and low-resolution K-band spectra of the GLIMPSE9 stellar cluster. The newly obtained color-magnitude diagram shows a cluster sequence with H - K S = ∼1 mag, indicating an interstellar extinction A K s = 1.6 ± 0.2 mag. The spectra of the three brightest stars show deep CO band heads, which indicate red supergiants with spectral type M1-M2. Two 09-B2 supergiants are also identified, which yield a spectrophotometric distance of 4.2 ± 0.4 kpc. Presuming that the population is coeval, we derive an age between 15 and 27 Myr, and a total cluster mass of 1600 ± 400 M sun , integrated down to 1 M sun . In the vicinity of GLIMPSE9 are several H II regions and supernova remnants, all of which (including GLIMPSE9) are probably associated with a giant molecular cloud (GMC) in the inner galaxy. GLIMPSE9 probably represents one episode of massive star formation in this GMC. We have identified several other candidate stellar clusters of the same complex.

  13. Multidimensional design for urban space based on the syntactical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Wang, Jingwen

    2005-10-01

    The design of urban space is the process of making better places for people. As the graphical and computational language of space, space syntax focuses specially on making physical connection to integrate people and places. In this paper, the potential important role of space syntax for urban space design is presented. After briefly introducing the basic theory of space syntax model, its advantage comparing with other computational space modeling within GIS and its future development such as the extension to third dimension are discussed. Then the basic syntactical modeling for the corresponding process of spatial design is proposed. The multidimensional design for urban space based on syntactical modeling including morphological, functional, social, perceptual, temporal dimension is separately discussed in detail. Finally, a case study for Kanmen town of Zhejiang province of P.R.China is illustrated by using Axwoman tool.

  14. A Constraint-Based Understanding of Design Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a framework for understanding and manoeuvring design spaces based on insights from research into creativity constraints. We define the design space as a conceptual space, which in addition to being co-constituted, explored and developed by the designer encompasses the creativity...... constraints governing the design process. While design spaces can be highly complex, our constraint-based understanding enables us to argue for the benefits of a systematic approach to mapping and manipulating aspects of the design space. We discuss how designers by means of a simple representation, a design...... space schema, can identify the properties of the prospective product that s/he can form. Through a case study, we show how design space schemas can support designers in various ways, including gaining an overview of the design process, documenting it, reflecting on it, and developing design concepts...

  15. Spaced-based Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2016-03-01

    The bulk of cosmic ray data has been obtained with great success by balloon-borne instruments, particularly with NASA's long duration flights over Antarctica. More recently, PAMELA on a Russian Satellite and AMS-02 on the International Space Station (ISS) started providing exciting measurements of particles and anti-particles with unprecedented precision upto TeV energies. In order to address open questions in cosmic ray astrophysics, future missions require spaceflight exposures for rare species, such as isotopes, ultra-heavy elements, and high (the ``knee'' and above) energies. Isotopic composition measurements up to about 10 GeV/nucleon that are critical for understanding interstellar propagation and origin of the elements are still to be accomplished. The cosmic ray composition in the knee (PeV) region holds a key to understanding the origin of cosmic rays. Just last year, the JAXA-led CALET ISS mission, and the DAMPE Chinese Satellite were launched. NASA's ISS-CREAM completed its final verification at GSFC, and was delivered to KSC to await launch on SpaceX. In addition, a EUSO-like mission for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and an HNX-like mission for ultraheavy nuclei could accomplish a vision for a cosmic ray observatory in space. Strong support of NASA's Explorer Program category of payloads would be needed for completion of these missions over the next decade.

  16. Research progress of infrared detecting and display integrated device based on infrared-visible up-conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junfeng; Li, Weile; He, Bo; Wang, Haowei; Song, Yong; Yang, Shengyi; Ni, Guoqiang

    2018-01-01

    Infrared detecting and display device - IR-DDD - is a newly developed optical up-conversion device that integrates the light-emitting diode - LED - onto the infrared - IR - photo-detector, in order to convert IR light into the carriers photo-generated in detection materials and inject them into LED to emit visible light. This IR-DDD can achieve the direct up-conversion from IR ray to visible light, showing the considerable potential in night-vision application. This paper attempts a review of its working principle and current research progresses.

  17. A reusable temperature-based infrared system image correction IP core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengzhang; Gao, Jin; Li, Chaowei; Sui, Xiubao; Gu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    Compared with the visible light imaging system, the infrared imaging system is more uncertain and unstable. Visible system is stable and mature, and the image quality less affected by ambient light, temperature, and other factors. The infrared detectors have a more complex process, there are many non-uniformity problems. The image quality has great influence from the environment, and the effect of temperature on the image is most serious. Especially with a closed infrared system, deterioration of image is very obvious with the temperature. The infrared detectors are vastly different, not only do the various manufacturers have different detector performance, but also detectors from the same batch by the same manufacturer; the image changes with the ambient temperature are not the same. In this case, calibration and debug of the image system is very difficult. Even when you get a better result in one system, it's difficult to apply to another system. This paper presents a real-time temperature-based correction algorithm for infrared image, and encapsulate it to configurable parameters, reusable IP core, which is based on Altera's Qsys platform, and use the Avalon-MM and Avalon-ST bus. The image data stream via the IP core by Avalon-ST bus, and the image correction parameters configured by controller through Avalon-MM bus. The IP core read from temperature chip to get ambient temperature, and correct image according to the parameters. The IP core has such a high degree of reusability and portability because compatibility for Qsys platform and using Avalon interface. And people can see the system output results in real time through the adjustable parameters. So this IP core can accelerate the development of product.

  18. Parallel algorithm of real-time infrared image restoration based on total variation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Li, Miao; Long, Yunli; Zeng, Yaoyuan; An, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Image restoration is a necessary preprocessing step for infrared remote sensing applications. Traditional methods allow us to remove the noise but penalize too much the gradients corresponding to edges. Image restoration techniques based on variational approaches can solve this over-smoothing problem for the merits of their well-defined mathematical modeling of the restore procedure. The total variation (TV) of infrared image is introduced as a L1 regularization term added to the objective energy functional. It converts the restoration process to an optimization problem of functional involving a fidelity term to the image data plus a regularization term. Infrared image restoration technology with TV-L1 model exploits the remote sensing data obtained sufficiently and preserves information at edges caused by clouds. Numerical implementation algorithm is presented in detail. Analysis indicates that the structure of this algorithm can be easily implemented in parallelization. Therefore a parallel implementation of the TV-L1 filter based on multicore architecture with shared memory is proposed for infrared real-time remote sensing systems. Massive computation of image data is performed in parallel by cooperating threads running simultaneously on multiple cores. Several groups of synthetic infrared image data are used to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed parallel algorithm. Quantitative analysis of measuring the restored image quality compared to input image is presented. Experiment results show that the TV-L1 filter can restore the varying background image reasonably, and that its performance can achieve the requirement of real-time image processing.

  19. Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers for Space-based Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Coyle, Barry; Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham R.; Li, Steven X.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present current and near-term uses of high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers for NASA science and spacecraft applications. Fiber lasers and amplifiers offer numerous advantages for the deployment of instruments on exploration and science remote sensing satellites. Ground-based and airborne systems provide an evolutionary path to space and a means for calibration and verification of space-borne systems. NASA fiber-laser-based instruments include laser sounders and lidars for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapor and methane and a pulsed or pseudo-noise (PN) code laser ranging system in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength band. The associated fiber transmitters include high-power erbium, ytterbium, and neodymium systems and a fiber laser pumped optical parametric oscillator. We discuss recent experimental progress on these systems and instrument prototypes for ongoing development efforts.

  20. Advances in Contactless Silicon Defect and Impurity Diagnostics Based on Lifetime Spectroscopy and Infrared Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of some recent developments in the field of contactless silicon wafer characterization techniques based on lifetime spectroscopy and infrared imaging. In the first part of the contribution, we outline the status of different lifetime spectroscopy approaches suitable for the identification of impurities in silicon and discuss—in more detail—the technique of temperature- and injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy. The second part of the paper focuses on the application of infrared cameras to analyze spatial inhomogeneities in silicon wafers. By measuring the infrared signal absorbed or emitted from light-generated free excess carriers, high-resolution recombination lifetime mappings can be generated within seconds to minutes. In addition, mappings of non-recombination-active trapping centers can be deduced from injection-dependent infrared lifetime images. The trap density has been demonstrated to be an important additional parameter in the characterization and assessment of solar-grade multicrystalline silicon wafers, as areas of increased trap density tend to deteriorate during solar cell processing.

  1. An adaptive enhancement algorithm for infrared video based on modified k-means clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linze; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Wen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a video enhancement algorithm to improve the output video of the infrared camera. Sometimes the video obtained by infrared camera is very dark since there is no clear target. In this case, infrared video should be divided into frame images by frame extraction, in order to carry out the image enhancement. For the first frame image, which can be divided into k sub images by using K-means clustering according to the gray interval it occupies before k sub images' histogram equalization according to the amount of information per sub image, we used a method to solve a problem that final cluster centers close to each other in some cases; and for the other frame images, their initial cluster centers can be determined by the final clustering centers of the previous ones, and the histogram equalization of each sub image will be carried out after image segmentation based on K-means clustering. The histogram equalization can make the gray value of the image to the whole gray level, and the gray level of each sub image is determined by the ratio of pixels to a frame image. Experimental results show that this algorithm can improve the contrast of infrared video where night target is not obvious which lead to a dim scene, and reduce the negative effect given by the overexposed pixels adaptively in a certain range.

  2. Silicon based near infrared photodetector using self-assembled organic crystalline nano-pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajiki, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yoshiharu-ajiki@ot.olympus.co.jp, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Micromachine Center, 67 Kanda Sakumagashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0026 (Japan); Kan, Tetsuo [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yahiro, Masayuki; Hamada, Akiko; Adachi, Chihaya [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Adachi, Junji [Office for Strategic Research Planning, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Matsumoto, Kiyoshi [IRT Research Initiative, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimoyama, Isao, E-mail: yoshiharu-ajiki@ot.olympus.co.jp, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); IRT Research Initiative, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-04-11

    We propose a silicon (Si) based near-infrared photodetector using self-assembled organic crystalline nano-pillars, which were formed on an n-type Si substrate and were covered with an Au thin-film. These structures act as antennas for near-infrared light, resulting in an enhancement of the light absorption on the Au film. Because the Schottky junction is formed between the Au/n-type Si, the electron excited by the absorbed light can be detected as photocurrent. The optical measurement revealed that the nano-pillar structures enhanced the responsivity for the near-infrared light by 89 (14.5 mA/W) and 16 (0.433 mA/W) times compared with those of the photodetector without nano-pillars at the wavelengths of 1.2 and 1.3 μm, respectively. Moreover, no polarization dependency of the responsivity was observed, and the acceptable incident angle ranged from 0° to 30°. These broad responses were likely to be due to the organic nano-pillar structures' having variation in their orientation, which is advantageous for near-infrared detector uses.

  3. Wavelet-Based Visible and Infrared Image Fusion: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel D. Sappa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different wavelet-based cross-spectral image fusion strategies adopted to merge visible and infrared images. The objective is to find the best setup independently of the evaluation metric used to measure the performance. Quantitative performance results are obtained with state of the art approaches together with adaptations proposed in the current work. The options evaluated in the current work result from the combination of different setups in the wavelet image decomposition stage together with different fusion strategies for the final merging stage that generates the resulting representation. Most of the approaches evaluate results according to the application for which they are intended for. Sometimes a human observer is selected to judge the quality of the obtained results. In the current work, quantitative values are considered in order to find correlations between setups and performance of obtained results; these correlations can be used to define a criteria for selecting the best fusion strategy for a given pair of cross-spectral images. The whole procedure is evaluated with a large set of correctly registered visible and infrared image pairs, including both Near InfraRed (NIR and Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR.

  4. Infrared vehicle recognition using unsupervised feature learning based on K-feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin; Tan, Yihua; Xia, Haijiao; Tian, Jinwen

    2018-02-01

    Subject to the complex battlefield environment, it is difficult to establish a complete knowledge base in practical application of vehicle recognition algorithms. The infrared vehicle recognition is always difficult and challenging, which plays an important role in remote sensing. In this paper we propose a new unsupervised feature learning method based on K-feature to recognize vehicle in infrared images. First, we use the target detection algorithm which is based on the saliency to detect the initial image. Then, the unsupervised feature learning based on K-feature, which is generated by Kmeans clustering algorithm that extracted features by learning a visual dictionary from a large number of samples without label, is calculated to suppress the false alarm and improve the accuracy. Finally, the vehicle target recognition image is finished by some post-processing. Large numbers of experiments demonstrate that the proposed method has satisfy recognition effectiveness and robustness for vehicle recognition in infrared images under complex backgrounds, and it also improve the reliability of it.

  5. Mid-Infrared Lasers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mid infrared solid state lasers for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems required for understanding atmospheric chemistry are not available. This program...

  6. Low Size, Weight and Power Concept for Mid-Wave Infrared Optical Communication Transceivers Based on Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzhanskiy, Edward; Choa, Fow-Sen; Merritt, Scott; Yu, Anthony; Krainak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The low complexity, low size, weight and power Mid-Wavelength Infra-Red optical communications transceiver concept presented, realized and tested in the laboratory environment. Resilience to atmospheric impairments analyzed with simulated turbulence. Performance compared to typical telecom based Short Wavelength Infra-Red transceiver.

  7. Infrared small target detection method based on local threshold attenuation of constant false alarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ke-feng; Shi, Zhi-guang; Lu, Xin-ping

    2016-03-01

    In the infrared small target detection system, CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a commonly used technology, but in the traditional single frame detection method, detection rate is requested to be improved while the false alarm rate is increasing. This paper proposes a threshold attenuation CFAR detection method based on Gauss distribution. After the preprocessing of infrared images, we came into the designing of CFAR detector based on Gauss distribution. According to the previous frame target location and attenuation of local threshold, the detection rate of the target neighbourhood can be improved to obtain the current target location. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively control the threshold, and under the precondition that the background clutter was suppressed by the global low false alarm rate, it can improve the local detection rate and reduce the probability of target loss.

  8. Biological Based Risk Assessment for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) - made up of high-energy protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, and solar particle events (SPEs) - comprised largely of low- to medium-energy protons are the primary health concern for astronauts for long-term space missions. Experimental studies have shown that HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation, making risk assessments for cancer and degenerative risks, such as central nervous system effects and heart disease, highly uncertain. The goal for space radiation protection at NASA is to be able to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessments for Mars exploration to be small enough to ensure acceptable levels of risks are not exceeded and to adequately assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as shielding or biological countermeasures. We review the recent BEIR VII and UNSCEAR-2006 models of cancer risks and their uncertainties. These models are shown to have an inherent 2-fold uncertainty as defined by ratio of the 95% percent confidence level to the mean projection, even before radiation quality is considered. In order to overcome the uncertainties in these models, new approaches to risk assessment are warranted. We consider new computational biology approaches to modeling cancer risks. A basic program of research that includes stochastic descriptions of the physics and chemistry of radiation tracks and biochemistry of metabolic pathways, to emerging biological understanding of cellular and tissue modifications leading to cancer is described.

  9. A cyanobenzo[a]phenoxazine-based near infrared lysosome-tracker for in cellulo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ru; Liu, Wu; Xu, Yu-Jie; Lu, Jian-Mei; Ge, Jian-Feng; Ihara, Masataka

    2013-11-25

    A cyanobenzo[a]phenoxazine-based pH probe with pKa = 5.0 exhibits OFF-ON emission at 625-850 nm upon excitation at 600 nm in aqueous buffers. The in cellulo imaging experiments with HeLa cells indicate that the probe can serve as a lysosome-specific probe under red light excitation (633 nm) with near infrared emission (650-790 nm).

  10. Infrared Radiation Assisted Stokes’ Law Based Synthesis and Optical Characterization of ZnS Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Beer Pal; Upadhyay, Ravish Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh; Yadav, Kamna; Areizaga-Martinez, Hector I.

    2016-01-01

    The strategy and technique exploited in the synthesis of nanostructure materials have an explicit effect on the nucleation, growth, and properties of product materials. Nanoparticles of zinc sulfide (ZnS) have been synthesized by new infrared radiation (IR) assisted and Stokes’ law based controlled bottom-up approach without using any capping agent and stirring. IR has been used for heating the reaction surface designed in accordance with the well-known Stokes law for a free body falling in a...

  11. Infrared and visible image fusion based on robust principal component analysis and compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Song, Minghui; Peng, Yuanxi

    2018-03-01

    Current infrared and visible image fusion methods do not achieve adequate information extraction, i.e., they cannot extract the target information from infrared images while retaining the background information from visible images. Moreover, most of them have high complexity and are time-consuming. This paper proposes an efficient image fusion framework for infrared and visible images on the basis of robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and compressed sensing (CS). The novel framework consists of three phases. First, RPCA decomposition is applied to the infrared and visible images to obtain their sparse and low-rank components, which represent the salient features and background information of the images, respectively. Second, the sparse and low-rank coefficients are fused by different strategies. On the one hand, the measurements of the sparse coefficients are obtained by the random Gaussian matrix, and they are then fused by the standard deviation (SD) based fusion rule. Next, the fused sparse component is obtained by reconstructing the result of the fused measurement using the fast continuous linearized augmented Lagrangian algorithm (FCLALM). On the other hand, the low-rank coefficients are fused using the max-absolute rule. Subsequently, the fused image is superposed by the fused sparse and low-rank components. For comparison, several popular fusion algorithms are tested experimentally. By comparing the fused results subjectively and objectively, we find that the proposed framework can extract the infrared targets while retaining the background information in the visible images. Thus, it exhibits state-of-the-art performance in terms of both fusion effects and timeliness.

  12. Infrared video based gas leak detection method using modified FAST features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Hong, Hanyu; Huang, Likun

    2018-03-01

    In order to detect the invisible leaking gas that is usually dangerous and easily leads to fire or explosion in time, many new technologies have arisen in the recent years, among which the infrared video based gas leak detection is widely recognized as a viable tool. However, all the moving regions of a video frame can be detected as leaking gas regions by the existing infrared video based gas leak detection methods, without discriminating the property of each detected region, e.g., a walking person in a video frame may be also detected as gas by the current gas leak detection methods.To solve this problem, we propose a novel infrared video based gas leak detection method in this paper, which is able to effectively suppress strong motion disturbances.Firstly, the Gaussian mixture model(GMM) is used to establish the background model.Then due to the observation that the shapes of gas regions are different from most rigid moving objects, we modify the Features From Accelerated Segment Test (FAST) algorithm and use the modified FAST (mFAST) features to describe each connected component. In view of the fact that the statistical property of the mFAST features extracted from gas regions is different from that of other motion regions, we propose the Pixel-Per-Points (PPP) condition to further select candidate connected components.Experimental results show that the algorithm is able to effectively suppress most strong motion disturbances and achieve real-time leaking gas detection.

  13. SAR and Infrared Image Fusion in Complex Contourlet Domain Based on Joint Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yiquan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the problems of the large grayscale difference between infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images and their fusion image not being fit for human visual perception, we propose a fusion method for SAR and infrared images in the complex contourlet domain based on joint sparse representation. First, we perform complex contourlet decomposition of the infrared and SAR images. Then, we employ the KSingular Value Decomposition (K-SVD method to obtain an over-complete dictionary of the low-frequency components of the two source images. Using a joint sparse representation model, we then generate a joint dictionary. We obtain the sparse representation coefficients of the low-frequency components of the source images in the joint dictionary by the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP method and select them using the selection maximization strategy. We then reconstruct these components to obtain the fused low-frequency components and fuse the high-frequency components using two criteria——the coefficient of visual sensitivity and the degree of energy matching. Finally, we obtain the fusion image by the inverse complex contourlet transform. Compared with the three classical fusion methods and recently presented fusion methods, e.g., that based on the Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT and another based on sparse representation, the method we propose in this paper can effectively highlight the salient features of the two source images and inherit their information to the greatest extent.

  14. MIMO Based Eigen-Space Spreading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eltawil, Ahmed

    2004-01-01

    .... Combination of this powerful technique with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based modulation and traditional time and frequency spreading techniques results in a highly secure mode of communications...

  15. High Available COTS Based Computer for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, J.; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    The availability and reliability factors of a system are central requirements of a target application. From a simple fuel injection system used in cars up to a flight control system of an autonomous navigating spacecraft, each application defines its specific availability factor under the target application boundary conditions. Increasing quality requirements on data processing systems used in space flight applications calling for new architectures to fulfill the availability, reliability as well as the increase of the required data processing power. Contrary to the increased quality request simplification and use of COTS components to decrease costs while keeping the interface compatibility to currently used system standards are clear customer needs. Data processing system design is mostly dominated by strict fulfillment of the customer requirements and reuse of available computer systems were not always possible caused by obsolescence of EEE-Parts, insufficient IO capabilities or the fact that available data processing systems did not provide the required scalability and performance.

  16. Brown dwarf photospheres are patchy: A Hubble space telescope near-infrared spectroscopic survey finds frequent low-level variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Reid, I. Neill; Flateau, Davin

    2014-01-01

    Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 μm for ≈40 minutes per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find six brown dwarfs with confident (p > 95%) variability in the relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and five brown dwarfs with tentative (p > 68%) variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction f min =27 −7 +11 % over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid-L, late-L, and mid-T spectral types; for early-T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broadband peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  17. Competitive market-based allocation of consumer attention space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bohte (Sander); E.H. Gerding (Enrico); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe amount of attention space available for recommending suppliers to consumers on e-commerce sites is typically limited. We present a competitive distributed recommendation mechanism based on adaptive software agents for efficiently allocating the 'consumer attention space', or banners.

  18. Computationally Efficient Automatic Coast Mode Target Tracking Based on Occlusion Awareness in Infrared Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohyun; Jang, Gwang-Il; Kim, Sungho; Kim, Junmo

    2018-03-27

    This paper proposes the automatic coast mode tracking of centroid trackers for infrared images to overcome the target occlusion status. The centroid tracking method, using only the brightness information of an image, is still widely used in infrared imaging tracking systems because it is difficult to extract meaningful features from infrared images. However, centroid trackers are likely to lose the track because they are highly vulnerable to screened status by the clutter or background. Coast mode, one of the tracking modes, maintains the servo slew rate with the tracking rate right before the loss of track. The proposed automatic coast mode tracking method makes decisions regarding entering coast mode by the prediction of target occlusion and tries to re-lock the target and resume the tracking after blind time. This algorithm comprises three steps. The first step is the prediction process of the occlusion by checking both matters which have target-likelihood brightness and which may screen the target despite different brightness. The second step is the process making inertial tracking commands to the servo. The last step is the process of re-locking a target based on the target modeling of histogram ratio. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is addressed by presenting experimental results based on computer simulation with various test imagery sequences compared to published tracking algorithms. The proposed algorithm is tested under a real environment with a naval electro-optical tracking system (EOTS) and airborne EO/IR system.

  19. Computationally Efficient Automatic Coast Mode Target Tracking Based on Occlusion Awareness in Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohyun Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the automatic coast mode tracking of centroid trackers for infrared images to overcome the target occlusion status. The centroid tracking method, using only the brightness information of an image, is still widely used in infrared imaging tracking systems because it is difficult to extract meaningful features from infrared images. However, centroid trackers are likely to lose the track because they are highly vulnerable to screened status by the clutter or background. Coast mode, one of the tracking modes, maintains the servo slew rate with the tracking rate right before the loss of track. The proposed automatic coast mode tracking method makes decisions regarding entering coast mode by the prediction of target occlusion and tries to re-lock the target and resume the tracking after blind time. This algorithm comprises three steps. The first step is the prediction process of the occlusion by checking both matters which have target-likelihood brightness and which may screen the target despite different brightness. The second step is the process making inertial tracking commands to the servo. The last step is the process of re-locking a target based on the target modeling of histogram ratio. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is addressed by presenting experimental results based on computer simulation with various test imagery sequences compared to published tracking algorithms. The proposed algorithm is tested under a real environment with a naval electro-optical tracking system (EOTS and airborne EO/IR system.

  20. Infrared small target detection based on local intensity and gradient properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Ding; Chen, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Infrared small target detection is a challenging task for computer vision due to the factors such as scale variations of the targets and strong clutters. Inspired by the Gaussian-like shape of the small target, we characterize two local properties of the small target from the perspective of intensity and gradient to address this problem. The two properties are that the intensity value of the target pixels is greater than the value of its locally neighboring pixels, and the gradients towards the target center often distribute regularly around the target. First, based on the two properties, the local intensity and gradient (LIG) map is calculated from the original infrared image in order to enhance the targets and suppress clutters. Next, we can obtain the targets conveniently via segmentation from the LIG map. Extensive evaluations on real data demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has satisfactory results in terms of clutter suppression and robustness.

  1. Autonomous docking based on infrared system for electric vehicle charging in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-02-21

    Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris.

  2. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris.

  3. Ground Based Support for Exoplanet Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.; Nissinen, M.

    2011-10-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused to asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2] and long term monitoring projects [3]. In the early 2011 Europlanet NA1 and NA2 organized "Coordinated Observations of Exoplanets from Ground and Space"-workshop in Graz, Austria. The workshop gathered together proam astronomers who have the equipment to measure the light curves of the exoplanets. Also there were professional scientists working in the exoplanet field who attended to the workshop. The result of the workshop was to organize coordinated observation campaign for follow-up observations of exoplanets (e.g. CoRoT planets). Also coordinated observation campaign to observe stellar CME outbreaks was planned. THO has a lot of experience in field of exoplanet light curve measurements and therefore this campaign is very supported by the research team of the observatory. In next coming observing seasons THO will concentrate its efforts for this kind of campaigns.

  4. Optimization of a space based radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Kien Fan Cesar Hung; Deng Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increased demand in satellite weight reduction for the reduction of costs. Thermal control system designers have to face the challenge of reducing both the weight of the system and required heater power while maintaining the components temperature within their design ranges. The main purpose of this paper is to present an optimization of a heat pipe radiator applied to a practical engineering design application. For this study, a communications satellite payload panel was considered. Four radiator areas were defined instead of a centralized one in order to improve the heat rejection into space; the radiator's dimensions were determined considering worst hot scenario, solar fluxes, heat dissipation and the component's design temperature upper limit. Dimensions, thermal properties of the structural panel, optical properties and degradation/contamination on thermal control coatings were also considered. A thermal model was constructed for thermal analysis and two heat pipe network designs were evaluated and compared. The model that allowed better radiator efficiency was selected for parametric thermal analysis and optimization. This pursues finding the minimum size of the heat pipe network while keeping complying with thermal control requirements without increasing power consumption. - Highlights: →Heat pipe radiator optimization applied to a practical engineering design application. →The heat pipe radiator of a communications satellite panel is optimized. →A thermal model was built for parametric thermal analysis and optimization. →Optimal heat pipe network size is determined for the optimal weight solution. →The thermal compliance was verified by transient thermal analysis.

  5. Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program delivers a completely new technology solution to isolation and sensing of power flow (current and voltage). Based on striction materials technology,...

  6. Flexible Graphene-Based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a graphene-based battery/ultra-capacitor prototype that is flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, low cost, and safe and...

  7. Activity-Based Collaboration for Interactive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Esbensen, Morten; Tabard, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Activity-based computing (ABC) is a conceptual and technological framework for designing interactive systems that offers a better mapping between the activities people conduct and the digital entities they use. In ABC, rather than interacting directly with lower-level technical entities like file...

  8. Antimony-based focal plane arrays for shortwave-infrared to visible applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop antimony-based focal plane arrays (FPAs) for NASA's imaging and spectroscopy applications in the spectral band from visible to...

  9. Antimony-Based Focal Plane Arrays for Shortwave-Infrared to Visible Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop antimony-based focal plane arrays (FPAs) for NASA's imaging and spectroscopy applications in the spectral band from visible to...

  10. Concept for fiber-based near-infrared interferometry of highest frequency resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, E. A.; Besser, F.; Prado, R.; Pallanca, L.

    2014-07-01

    We are presenting first experimental results for subsystems of a low-cost near-infrared heterodyne interferometer concept based on commercial 1.55μm fiber-components with relative phase-stabilization between both telescopes, a shot noise limited heterodyne scheme with ambient temperature operated photodiodes, an ultra-coherent fiber laser, and a ROACH-based correlator. After we worked on a first demonstration with two 14" amateur telescopes on Betelgeuse, the concept should be upgradable to connect mid- or large-class telescopes, also given that the employed fiber phase stabilization scheme will enable the operation of long baselines.

  11. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Height (Top and Base) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of cloud height (top and base) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  12. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Base Height (CBH) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Cloud Base Heights (CBH) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  13. Clinical Trial on the Characteristics of Zheng Classification of Pulmonary Diseases Based on Infrared Thermal Imaging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-xia Ni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zheng classification study based on infrared thermal imaging technology has not been reported before. To detect the relative temperature of viscera and bowels of different syndromes patients with pulmonary disease and to summarize the characteristics of different Zheng classifications, the infrared thermal imaging technology was used in the clinical trial. The results showed that the infrared thermal images characteristics of different Zheng classifications of pulmonary disease were distinctly different. The influence on viscera and bowels was deeper in phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome group than in cold-phlegm obstructing lung syndrome group. It is helpful to diagnose Zheng classification and to improve the diagnosis rate by analyzing the infrared thermal images of patients. The application of infrared thermal imaging technology provided objective measures for medical diagnosis and treatment in the field of Zheng studies and provided a new methodology for Zheng classification.

  14. Oral cancer diagnostics based on infrared spectral markers and wax physisorption kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Li-Fang; Huang, Pei-Yu; Chiang, Wei-Fan; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Lee, Yao-Chang; Shieh, Dar-Bin

    2013-02-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy is an emerging approach for disease analysis owing to its capability for in situ chemical characterization of pathological processes. Synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) provides ultra-high spatial resolution for profiling biochemical events associated with disease progression. Spectral alterations were observed in cultured oral cells derived from healthy, precancerous, primary, and metastatic cancers. An innovative wax-physisorption-based kinetic FTIR imaging method for the detection of oral precancer and cancer was demonstrated successfully. The approach is based on determining the residual amount of paraffin wax (C(25)H(52)) or beeswax (C(46)H(92)O(2)) on a sample surface after xylene washing. This amount is used as a signpost of the degree of physisorption that altered during malignant transformation. The results of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of oral cell lines indicated that the methylene (CH(2)) and methyl group (CH(3)) stretching vibrations in the range of 3,000-2,800 cm(-1) have the highest accuracy rate (89.6 %) to discriminate the healthy keratinocytes (NHOK) from cancer cells. The results of wax-physisorption-based FTIR imaging showed a stronger physisorption with beeswax in oral precancerous and cancer cells as compared with that of NHOK, which showed a strong capability with paraffin wax. The infrared kinetic study of oral cavity tissue showed a consistency in the wax physisorption of the cell lines. On the basis of our findings, these results show the potential use of wax-physisorption-based kinetic FTIR imaging for the early screening of oral cancer lesions and the chemical changes during oral carcinogenesis.

  15. Precise Temperature Mapping of GaN-Based LEDs by Quantitative Infrared Micro-Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Hee Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A method of measuring the precise temperature distribution of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs by quantitative infrared micro-thermography is reported. To reduce the calibration error, the same measuring conditions were used for both calibration and thermal imaging; calibration was conducted on a highly emissive black-painted area on a dummy sapphire wafer loaded near the LED wafer on a thermoelectric cooler mount. We used infrared thermal radiation images of the black-painted area on the dummy wafer and an unbiased LED wafer at two different temperatures to determine the factors that degrade the accuracy of temperature measurement, i.e., the non-uniform response of the instrument, superimposed offset radiation, reflected radiation, and emissivity map of the LED surface. By correcting these factors from the measured infrared thermal radiation images of biased LEDs, we determined a precise absolute temperature image. Consequently, we could observe from where the local self-heat emerges and how it distributes on the emitting area of the LEDs. The experimental results demonstrated that highly localized self-heating and a remarkable temperature gradient, which are detrimental to LED performance and reliability, arise near the p-contact edge of the LED surface at high injection levels owing to the current crowding effect.

  16. Precise Temperature Mapping of GaN-Based LEDs by Quantitative Infrared Micro-Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ki Soo; Yang, Sun Choel; Kim, Jae-Young; Kook, Myung Ho; Ryu, Seon Young; Choi, Hae Young; Kim, Geon Hee

    2012-01-01

    A method of measuring the precise temperature distribution of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by quantitative infrared micro-thermography is reported. To reduce the calibration error, the same measuring conditions were used for both calibration and thermal imaging; calibration was conducted on a highly emissive black-painted area on a dummy sapphire wafer loaded near the LED wafer on a thermoelectric cooler mount. We used infrared thermal radiation images of the black-painted area on the dummy wafer and an unbiased LED wafer at two different temperatures to determine the factors that degrade the accuracy of temperature measurement, i.e., the non-uniform response of the instrument, superimposed offset radiation, reflected radiation, and emissivity map of the LED surface. By correcting these factors from the measured infrared thermal radiation images of biased LEDs, we determined a precise absolute temperature image. Consequently, we could observe from where the local self-heat emerges and how it distributes on the emitting area of the LEDs. The experimental results demonstrated that highly localized self-heating and a remarkable temperature gradient, which are detrimental to LED performance and reliability, arise near the p-contact edge of the LED surface at high injection levels owing to the current crowding effect. PMID:22666050

  17. Ground-based infrared surveys: imaging the thermal fields at volcanoes and revealing the controlling parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Michele; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Temperature monitoring is a widespread procedure in the frame of volcano hazard monitoring. Indeed temperature changes are expected to reflect changes in volcanic activity. We propose a new approach, within the thermal monitoring, which is meant to shed light on the parameters controlling the fluid pathways and the fumarole sites by using infrared measurements. Ground-based infrared cameras allow one to remotely image the spatial distribution, geometric pattern and amplitude of fumarole fields on volcanoes at metre to centimetre resolution. Infrared mosaics and time series are generated and interpreted, by integrating geological field observations and modeling, to define the setting of the volcanic degassing system at shallow level. We present results for different volcano morphologies and show that lithology, structures and topography control the appearance of fumarole field by the creation of permeability contrasts. We also show that the relative importance of those parameters is site-dependent. Deciphering the setting of the degassing system is essential for hazard assessment studies because it would improve our understanding on how the system responds to endogenous or exogenous modification.

  18. Leaf Chlorophyll Content Estimation of Winter Wheat Based on Visible and Near-Infrared Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Han, Wenting; Huang, Lvwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yimian; Hu, Yamin

    2016-03-25

    The leaf chlorophyll content is one of the most important factors for the growth of winter wheat. Visual and near-infrared sensors are a quick and non-destructive testing technology for the estimation of crop leaf chlorophyll content. In this paper, a new approach is developed for leaf chlorophyll content estimation of winter wheat based on visible and near-infrared sensors. First, the sliding window smoothing (SWS) was integrated with the multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) or the standard normal variable transformation (SNV) to preprocess the reflectance spectra images of wheat leaves. Then, a model for the relationship between the leaf relative chlorophyll content and the reflectance spectra was developed using the partial least squares (PLS) and the back propagation neural network. A total of 300 samples from areas surrounding Yangling, China, were used for the experimental studies. The samples of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy at the wavelength of 450,900 nm were preprocessed using SWS, MSC and SNV. The experimental results indicate that the preprocessing using SWS and SNV and then modeling using PLS can achieve the most accurate estimation, with the correlation coefficient at 0.8492 and the root mean square error at 1.7216. Thus, the proposed approach can be widely used for winter wheat chlorophyll content analysis.

  19. Determination of melamine of milk based on two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ren-jie; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    The adulteration of milk with harmful substances is a threat to public health and beyond question a serious crime. In order to develop a rapid, cost-effective, high-throughput analysis method for detecting of adulterants in milk, the discriminative analysis of melamine is established in milk based on the two-dimensional (2D) correlation infrared spectroscopy in present paper. Pure milk samples and adulterated milk samples with different content of melamine were prepared. Then the Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of all samples were measured at room temperature. The characteristics of pure milk and adulterated milk were studied by one-dimensional spectra. The 2D NIR and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy were calculated under the perturbation of adulteration concentration. In the range from 1400 to 1800 cm-1, two strong autopeaks were aroused by melamine in milk at 1464 cm-1 and 1560 cm-1 in synchronous spectrum. At the same time, the 1560 cm-1 band does not share cross peak with the 1464 cm-1 band, which further confirm that the two bands have the same origin. Also in the range from 4200 to 4800 cm-1, the autopeak was shown at 4648 cm-1 in synchronous spectrum of melamine in milk. 2D NIR-IR hetero-spectral correlation analysis confirmed that the bands at 1464, 1560 and 4648 cm-1 had the same origin. The results demonstrated that the adulterant can be discriminated correctly by 2D correlation infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Space vector-based analysis of overmodulation in triangle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The equivalence of triangle-comparison-based pulse width modulation (TCPWM) and space vector based PWM (SVPWM) during linear modulation is well-known. This paper analyses triangle-comparison based PWM techniques (TCPWM) such as sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) and common-mode voltage injection PWM ...

  1. Device model for pixelless infrared image up-converters based on polycrystalline graphene heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, V.; Shur, M. S.; Ryzhii, M.; Karasik, V. E.; Otsuji, T.

    2018-01-01

    We developed a device model for pixelless converters of far/mid-infrared radiation (FIR/MIR) images into near-infrared/visible (NIR/VIR) images. These converters use polycrystalline graphene layers (PGLs) immersed in the van der Waals materials integrated with a light emitting diode (LED). The PGL serves as an element of the PGL infrared photodetector (PGLIP) sensitive to the incoming FIR/MIR due to the interband absorption. The spatially non-uniform photocurrent generated in the PGLIP repeats (mimics) the non-uniform distribution (image) created by the incident FIR/MIR. The injection of the nonuniform photocurrent into the LED active layer results in the nonuniform NIR/VIR image reproducing the FIR/MIR image. The PGL and the entire layer structure are not deliberately partitioned into pixels. We analyze the characteristics of such pixelless PGLIP-LED up-converters and show that their image contrast transfer function and the up-conversion efficiency depend on the PGL lateral resistivity. The up-converter exhibits high photoconductive gain and conversion efficiency when the lateral resistivity is sufficiently high. Several teams have successfully demonstrated the large area PGLs with the resistivities varying in a wide range. Such layers can be used in the pixelless PGLIP-LED image up-converters. The PGLIP-LED image up-converters can substantially surpass the image up-converters based on the quantum-well infrared photodetector integrated with the LED. These advantages are due to the use of the interband FIR/NIR absorption and a high photoconductive gain in the GLIPs.

  2. Monitoring breast cancer treatment using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-based computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, J; Kaznowska, E; Golowski, S; Koziorowska, A; Zawlik, I; Cholewa, M; Szmuc, K; Cebulski, J

    2017-09-05

    Breast cancer affects one in four women, therefore, the search for new diagnostic technologies and therapeutic approaches is of critical importance. This involves the development of diagnostic tools to facilitate the detection of cancer cells, which is useful for assessing the efficacy of cancer therapies. One of the major challenges for chemotherapy is the lack of tools to monitor efficacy during the course of treatment. Vibrational spectroscopy appears to be a promising tool for such a purpose, as it yields Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectra which can be used to provide information on the chemical composition of the tissue. Previous research by our group has demonstrated significant differences between the infrared spectra of healthy, cancerous and post-chemotherapy breast tissue. Furthermore, the results obtained for three extreme patient cases revealed that the infrared spectra of post-chemotherapy breast tissue closely resembles that of healthy breast tissue when chemotherapy is effective (i.e., a good therapeutic response is achieved), or that of cancerous breast tissue when chemotherapy is ineffective. In the current study, we compared the infrared spectra of healthy, cancerous and post-chemotherapy breast tissue. Characteristic parameters were designated for the obtained spectra, spreading the function of absorbance using the Kramers-Kronig transformation and the best fit procedure to obtain Lorentz functions, which represent components of the bands. The Lorentz function parameters were used to develop a physics-based computational model to verify the efficacy of a given chemotherapy protocol in a given case. The results obtained using this model reflected the actual patient data retrieved from medical records (health improvement or no improvement). Therefore, we propose this model as a useful tool for monitoring the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Amplitude modulation in infrared metamaterial absorbers based on electro-optically tunable conducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografopoulos, D. C.; Sinatkas, G.; Lotfi, E.; Shahada, L. A.; Swillam, M. A.; Kriezis, E. E.; Beccherelli, R.

    2018-02-01

    A class of electro-optically tunable metamaterial absorbers is designed and theoretically investigated in the infrared regime towards realizing free-space amplitude modulators. The spacer between a subwavelength metallic stripe grating and a back metal reflector is occupied by a bilayer of indium tin oxide (ITO) and hafnium oxide (HfO_2). The application of a bias voltage across the bilayer induces free-carrier accumulation at the HfO_2/ITO interface that locally modulates the ITO permittivity and drastically modifies the optical response of the absorber owing to the induced epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect. The carrier distribution and dynamics are solved via the drift-diffusion model, which is coupled with optical wave propagation studies in a common finite-element method platform. Optimized structures are derived that enable the amplitude modulation of the reflected wave with moderate insertion losses, theoretically infinite extinction ratio, sub-picosecond switching times and low operating voltages.

  4. Space-Based Solar Power System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    winter, and day- night cycles to less than an average of 250 W/m2”; a drop of 1117 W/m2. Current terrestrial-based solar panels can, at a maximum...CA. Harris Corporation of Melbourne , FL, developed the satellites’ 22-meter L-band reflector” (Boeing Corporation, 2010b, p. 2). c. Lockheed Martin...the long- term to increased competition and risk, PowerSat has published a white paper outlining their notional first satellite. It appears to operate

  5. Detail enhancement for high-dynamic-range infrared images based on guided image filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhao, Dongxue

    2014-11-01

    Detail enhancement and noise reduction play crucial roles in high dynamic range infrared image processing. The main focuses are to compress the high dynamic range images with an effective way to display on lower dynamic range monitors, enhance the perceptibility of small details, and reduce the noises without causing artifacts. In this paper, we propose a new method for detail enhancement and noise reduction of high dynamic range infrared images. We first apply a guided image filter to smooth the input image and separate the image into the base component and the detail component. This process also gives us an adaptive weighting coefficient associated with the details generated by the filter kernel. After the filtering process, we compress the base component into the display range by our modified histogram projection and enhance the detail component using the gain mask of the filter weighting coefficient. At last, we recombine the two parts and quantize the result to 8-bit domain. Our method is significantly better than those based on histogram equalization (HE), and it also has better visual effect than bilateral filter-based methods. Furthermore, our proposed method is much faster, non-approximate and suffers much less gradient flipping artifacts compared to the bilateral filter-based methods because the guided image filter uses the local linear model. We demonstrate that our method is both effective and efficient in a great variety of applications. Experimental verification and detailed analysis are shown in this paper.

  6. Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...

  7. Infrared dim moving target tracking via sparsity-based discriminative classifier and convolutional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Zhou, Huixin; Wang, Bingjian; Song, Shangzhen; Zhao, Dong

    2017-11-01

    Infrared dim and small target tracking is a great challenging task. The main challenge for target tracking is to account for appearance change of an object, which submerges in the cluttered background. An efficient appearance model that exploits both the global template and local representation over infrared image sequences is constructed for dim moving target tracking. A Sparsity-based Discriminative Classifier (SDC) and a Convolutional Network-based Generative Model (CNGM) are combined with a prior model. In the SDC model, a sparse representation-based algorithm is adopted to calculate the confidence value that assigns more weights to target templates than negative background templates. In the CNGM model, simple cell feature maps are obtained by calculating the convolution between target templates and fixed filters, which are extracted from the target region at the first frame. These maps measure similarities between each filter and local intensity patterns across the target template, therefore encoding its local structural information. Then, all the maps form a representation, preserving the inner geometric layout of a candidate template. Furthermore, the fixed target template set is processed via an efficient prior model. The same operation is applied to candidate templates in the CNGM model. The online update scheme not only accounts for appearance variations but also alleviates the migration problem. At last, collaborative confidence values of particles are utilized to generate particles' importance weights. Experiments on various infrared sequences have validated the tracking capability of the presented algorithm. Experimental results show that this algorithm runs in real-time and provides a higher accuracy than state of the art algorithms.

  8. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm{sup -1}) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  9. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabin, Roman M.; Safieva, Ravilya Z.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm -1 ) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  10. Automated cloud classification using a ground based infra-red camera and texture analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Emal; Kerr, David; Coupland, Jeremy M.; Sandford, Andrew P.; Brettle, Mike J.

    2013-10-01

    Clouds play an important role in influencing the dynamics of local and global weather and climate conditions. Continuous monitoring of clouds is vital for weather forecasting and for air-traffic control. Convective clouds such as Towering Cumulus (TCU) and Cumulonimbus clouds (CB) are associated with thunderstorms, turbulence and atmospheric instability. Human observers periodically report the presence of CB and TCU clouds during operational hours at airports and observatories; however such observations are expensive and time limited. Robust, automatic classification of cloud type using infrared ground-based instrumentation offers the advantage of continuous, real-time (24/7) data capture and the representation of cloud structure in the form of a thermal map, which can greatly help to characterise certain cloud formations. The work presented here utilised a ground based infrared (8-14 μm) imaging device mounted on a pan/tilt unit for capturing high spatial resolution sky images. These images were processed to extract 45 separate textural features using statistical and spatial frequency based analytical techniques. These features were used to train a weighted k-nearest neighbour (KNN) classifier in order to determine cloud type. Ground truth data were obtained by inspection of images captured simultaneously from a visible wavelength colour camera at the same installation, with approximately the same field of view as the infrared device. These images were classified by a trained cloud observer. Results from the KNN classifier gave an encouraging success rate. A Probability of Detection (POD) of up to 90% with a Probability of False Alarm (POFA) as low as 16% was achieved.

  11. Analysis of orbit determination for space based optical space surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciré, Gioacchino; Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The detection capability and orbit determination performance of a space based optical observation system exploiting the visible band is analyzed. The sensor characteristics, in terms of sensitivity and resolution are those typical of present state of the art star trackers. A mathematical model of the system has been built and the system performance assessed by numerical simulation. The selection of the observer satellite's has been done in order to maximize the number of observed objects in LEO, based on a statistical analysis of the space debris population in this region. The space objects' observability condition is analyzed and two batch estimator based on the Levenberg-Marquardt and on the Powell dog-leg algorithms have been implemented and their performance compared. Both the algorithms are sensitive to the initial guess. Its influence on the algorithms' convergence is assessed, showing that the Powell dog-leg, which is a trust region method, performs better.

  12. Evaluation of Platinum Silicide and Indium Antimonide as Detector Materials for Space-Based Remote Sensing in the 3.0-to-5.0 Micrometer Wavelength Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Reflectance Alkyd Resin .181 Epoxy Resin .614 Lacquer Resin .615 Nylon Resin .277 Polyurethane Resin .608 Polyvinyl Chloride Resin .921 Titanium Dioxide .108...Atmospheric Propagation of IR Radiation 6 MWIR Characteristics............... Sensors................... Sensitivity........... ... . .. ... 1 Photon...material. x I. Introduction Space-based infrared ( IR ) remote sensing has been in existence for over 29 years - almost from the days following the _irst

  13. Relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudimetla, V. S. Rao

    1996-01-01

    An effort was initiated last year in the Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center to examine and incorporate, if necessary, the effects of relativity in the design of space-based lidar systems. A space-based lidar system, named AEOLUS, is under development at Marshall Space Flight Center and it will be used to accurately measure atmospheric wind profiles. Effects of relativity were also observed in the performance of space-based systems, for example in case of global positioning systems, and corrections were incorporated into the design of instruments. During the last summer, the effects of special relativity on the design of space-based lidar systems were studied in detail, by analyzing the problem of laser scattering off a fixed target when the source and a co-located receiver are moving on a spacecraft. Since the proposed lidar system uses a coherent detection system, errors even in the order of a few microradians must be corrected to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio. Previous analysis assumed that the ground is flat and the spacecraft is moving parallel to the ground, and developed analytical expressions for the location, direction and Doppler shift of the returning radiation. Because of the assumptions used in that analysis, only special relativity effects were involved. In this report, that analysis is extended to include general relativity and calculate its effects on the design.

  14. Liquid scintillators with near infrared emission based on organoboron conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yamane, Honami; Hirose, Amane; Yoshii, Ryousuke; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2015-11-15

    The organic liquid scintillators based on the emissive polymers are reported. A series of conjugated polymers containing organoboron complexes which show the luminescence in the near infrared (NIR) region were synthesized. The polymers showed good solubility in common organic solvents. From the comparison of the luminescent properties of the synthesized polymers between optical and radiation excitation, similar emission bands were detected. In addition, less significant degradation was observed. These data propose that the organoboron conjugated polymers are attractive platforms to work as an organic liquid scintillator with the emission in the NIR region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A quantitative measure based infrared image enhancement algorithm using plateau histogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Rui; Yang, Yin-tang; Wang, Bing-jian; Zhou, Hui-xin

    2010-11-01

    A quantitative measure based scene-adaptive contrast enhancement algorithm for an infrared (IR) image is proposed. This method regulates the probability density function (PDF) of the raw image firstly, and then applies an improved plateau histogram equalization method whose plateau threshold is determined by the concavity of the regulated PDF to enhance the raw IR image. In the stepped parameter tuning process of the algorithm, quantitative measure EME is used as the criterion to determine the optimal PDF regulator factor and plateau threshold. The above improvements contribute to the performance promotion of the proposed algorithm, whose effectiveness is validated by the final assessment with visual quality and quantitative measures.

  16. INFRARED GLOBAL GEOSTATIONARY COMPOSITE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Infrared Global Geostationary Composite dataset contains global composite images from the infrared channels of multiple weather satellites in geosynchronous...

  17. Exoplanets -New Results from Space and Ground-based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, Stephane

    The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on

  18. Efficient exploration of chemical space by fragment-based screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J; Mortenson, Paul N; Murray, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Screening methods seek to sample a vast chemical space in order to identify starting points for further chemical optimisation. Fragment based drug discovery exploits the superior sampling of chemical space that can be achieved when the molecular weight is restricted. Here we show that commercially available fragment space is still relatively poorly sampled and argue for highly sensitive screening methods to allow the detection of smaller fragments. We analyse the properties of our fragment library versus the properties of X-ray hits derived from the library. We particularly consider properties related to the degree of planarity of the fragments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge-based machine vision systems for space station automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.

    1989-01-01

    Computer vision techniques which have the potential for use on the space station and related applications are assessed. A knowledge-based vision system (expert vision system) and the development of a demonstration system for it are described. This system implements some of the capabilities that would be necessary in a machine vision system for the robot arm of the laboratory module in the space station. A Perceptics 9200e image processor, on a host VAXstation, was used to develop the demonstration system. In order to use realistic test images, photographs of actual space shuttle simulator panels were used. The system's capabilities of scene identification and scene matching are discussed.

  20. Packet based serial link realized in FPGA dedicated for high resolution infrared image transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieszczad, Grzegorz

    2015-05-01

    In article the external digital interface specially designed for thermographic camera built in Military University of Technology is described. The aim of article is to illustrate challenges encountered during design process of thermal vision camera especially related to infrared data processing and transmission. Article explains main requirements for interface to transfer Infra-Red or Video digital data and describes the solution which we elaborated based on Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) physical layer and signaling scheme. Elaborated link for image transmission is built using FPGA integrated circuit with built-in high speed serial transceivers achieving up to 2500Gbps throughput. Image transmission is realized using proprietary packet protocol. Transmission protocol engine was described in VHDL language and tested in FPGA hardware. The link is able to transmit 1280x1024@60Hz 24bit video data using one signal pair. Link was tested to transmit thermal-vision camera picture to remote monitor. Construction of dedicated video link allows to reduce power consumption compared to solutions with ASIC based encoders and decoders realizing video links like DVI or packed based Display Port, with simultaneous reduction of wires needed to establish link to one pair. Article describes functions of modules integrated in FPGA design realizing several functions like: synchronization to video source, video stream packeting, interfacing transceiver module and dynamic clock generation for video standard conversion.

  1. A Shuttle based laser system for space communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    A key element of NASA-Goddard's plan for future laser space communications is the Space Shuttle-based Laser Technology Experiments Facility (LTEF), which will be designed to communicate with a cooperative laser system under development for the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) and will conduct a comprehensive set of acquisition, tracking, and communication experiments. Attention is presently given to the challenges faced by designers in achieving LTEF acquisition of the ACTS downlink beacon laser.

  2. Movement-based interaction in camera spaces: a conceptual framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movementbased projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space,...

  3. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we s...

  4. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    2012-01-01

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we s...

  5. Nonuniformity correction for an infrared focal plane array based on diamond search block matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng-Hui, Rong; Hui-Xin, Zhou; Han-Lin, Qin; Rui, Lai; Kun, Qian

    2016-05-01

    In scene-based nonuniformity correction algorithms, artificial ghosting and image blurring degrade the correction quality severely. In this paper, an improved algorithm based on the diamond search block matching algorithm and the adaptive learning rate is proposed. First, accurate transform pairs between two adjacent frames are estimated by the diamond search block matching algorithm. Then, based on the error between the corresponding transform pairs, the gradient descent algorithm is applied to update correction parameters. During the process of gradient descent, the local standard deviation and a threshold are utilized to control the learning rate to avoid the accumulation of matching error. Finally, the nonuniformity correction would be realized by a linear model with updated correction parameters. The performance of the proposed algorithm is thoroughly studied with four real infrared image sequences. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can reduce the nonuniformity with less ghosting artifacts in moving areas and can also overcome the problem of image blurring in static areas.

  6. Infrared image gray adaptive adjusting enhancement algorithm based on gray redundancy histogram-dealing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zi-long; Liu, Yong; Chen, Ruo-wang

    2016-11-01

    In view of the histogram equalizing algorithm to enhance image in digital image processing, an Infrared Image Gray adaptive adjusting Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gray Redundancy Histogram-dealing Technique is proposed. The algorithm is based on the determination of the entire image gray value, enhanced or lowered the image's overall gray value by increasing appropriate gray points, and then use gray-level redundancy HE method to compress the gray-scale of the image. The algorithm can enhance image detail information. Through MATLAB simulation, this paper compares the algorithm with the histogram equalization method and the algorithm based on gray redundancy histogram-dealing technique , and verifies the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  7. Diffraction analysis for DMD-based scene projectors in the long-wave infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qing; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Diffraction effects play a significant role in the digital micromirror device (DMD)-based scene projectors in the long-wave infrared (IR) band (8-12 μm). The contrast provided by these projector systems can become noticeably worse because of the diffraction characteristics of the DMD. We apply a diffraction grating model of the DMD based on the scalar diffraction theory and the Fourier transform to address this issue. In addition, a simulation calculation is conducted with MATLAB. Finally, the simulation result is verified with an experiment. The simulation and experimental results indicate that, when the incident azimuth angle is 0° and the zenith angle is between 42°and 46°, the scene projectors will have a good imaging contrast in the long-wave IR. The diffraction grating model proposed in this study provides a method to improve the contrast of DMD-based scene projectors in the long-wave IR.

  8. EMD-Based Symbolic Dynamic Analysis for the Recognition of Human and Nonhuman Pyroelectric Infrared Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiaduo; Gong, Weiguo; Tang, Yuzhen; Li, Weihong

    2016-01-20

    In this paper, we propose an effective human and nonhuman pyroelectric infrared (PIR) signal recognition method to reduce PIR detector false alarms. First, using the mathematical model of the PIR detector, we analyze the physical characteristics of the human and nonhuman PIR signals; second, based on the analysis results, we propose an empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-based symbolic dynamic analysis method for the recognition of human and nonhuman PIR signals. In the proposed method, first, we extract the detailed features of a PIR signal into five symbol sequences using an EMD-based symbolization method, then, we generate five feature descriptors for each PIR signal through constructing five probabilistic finite state automata with the symbol sequences. Finally, we use a weighted voting classification strategy to classify the PIR signals with their feature descriptors. Comparative experiments show that the proposed method can effectively classify the human and nonhuman PIR signals and reduce PIR detector's false alarms.

  9. EMD-Based Symbolic Dynamic Analysis for the Recognition of Human and Nonhuman Pyroelectric Infrared Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaduo Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an effective human and nonhuman pyroelectric infrared (PIR signal recognition method to reduce PIR detector false alarms. First, using the mathematical model of the PIR detector, we analyze the physical characteristics of the human and nonhuman PIR signals; second, based on the analysis results, we propose an empirical mode decomposition (EMD-based symbolic dynamic analysis method for the recognition of human and nonhuman PIR signals. In the proposed method, first, we extract the detailed features of a PIR signal into five symbol sequences using an EMD-based symbolization method, then, we generate five feature descriptors for each PIR signal through constructing five probabilistic finite state automata with the symbol sequences. Finally, we use a weighted voting classification strategy to classify the PIR signals with their feature descriptors. Comparative experiments show that the proposed method can effectively classify the human and nonhuman PIR signals and reduce PIR detector’s false alarms.

  10. Microspectrometer system for the near-infrared wavelength range based on LIGA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Peter; Kuehner, Thomas; Mohr, Juergen; Saile, Volker

    2000-03-01

    In recent years, microspectrometer systems fabricated by the LIGA technology for use in the visible wavelength range increasingly made their way to the market. For spectral analysis in the infrared range, a highly transmissive hollow waveguide has now been developed and demonstrated successfully. In combination with linear detector arrays, the hollow waveguide microspectrometer allows to design portable near infrared spectrometer systems. Such a system has now been applied to evaluate the spectrum from 0.9 micrometer to 1.15 micrometer in second order and from 1.15 micrometer to 1.75 micrometer in first order. Due to its outer dimensions of 54 X 36 X 7 mm3 and a low power consumption, it can be integrated in portable spectral analysis systems. It exhibits a high sensitivity (NEP below 11 pW) due to a fiber-optical entrance with a fiber core diameter of 300 micrometer. An indium-gallium-arsenide linear detector array based on a novel setup concept is incorporated in the system. Furthermore, units for preamplification of the signal and 16-bit AD conversion are contained. In the present paper, the setup and fabrication of the whole microspectrometer system, its optical features and the detector-specific solutions are described. The fabrication process which is based on molded polymer parts is presented. Using the experimental results of the electro- optical tests and the polymer spectra measured, the performance of the system will be demonstrated.

  11. Drogue pose estimation for unmanned aerial vehicle autonomous aerial refueling system based on infrared vision sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanjun; Duan, Haibin; Deng, Yimin; Li, Cong; Zhao, Guozhi; Xu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Autonomous aerial refueling is a significant technology that can significantly extend the endurance of unmanned aerial vehicles. A reliable method that can accurately estimate the position and attitude of the probe relative to the drogue is the key to such a capability. A drogue pose estimation method based on infrared vision sensor is introduced with the general goal of yielding an accurate and reliable drogue state estimate. First, by employing direct least squares ellipse fitting and convex hull in OpenCV, a feature point matching and interference point elimination method is proposed. In addition, considering the conditions that some infrared LEDs are damaged or occluded, a missing point estimation method based on perspective transformation and affine transformation is designed. Finally, an accurate and robust pose estimation algorithm improved by the runner-root algorithm is proposed. The feasibility of the designed visual measurement system is demonstrated by flight test, and the results indicate that our proposed method enables precise and reliable pose estimation of the probe relative to the drogue, even in some poor conditions.

  12. Research for fluid impurity detection based on ANN and infrared spectrum analysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiping; Yuan, Feng

    2011-08-01

    A series of economic losses is caused by the biofilm of water pipe in industrial real water systems. Combined optical fiber self-relative technology with infrared spectrum analysis technology, real time detection technique for forming thickness and ingredient is put forward in the paper, which provides technical support and reliable data for analyzing biofouling influencing factors, contaminant separation and warning. Schematic diagram of biofouling detection is presented. Compensation technology based on radial basis function (RBF) neural network and learning algorithm are studied in order to solve the problem of measurement precision and range. Biofouling forming and optical characteristics in industrial real water systems are researched and standard specimen collection is set up. Correcting model explaining quantitatively relation between substance ingredient content and infrared spectrum based on partial least squares (PLS) method. A new method is provided for the research on biofouling in real water system, which can be used in other fields such as mining, environment protection, medical treatment and transportation of oil, gas and water.

  13. Research on propane leak detection system and device based on mid infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Junlong; Wang, Yizhao; Li, Pan; Feng, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    Propane is a key component of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and crude oil volatile. This issue summarizes the recent progress of propane detection technology. Meanwhile, base on the development trend, our latest progress is also provided. We demonstrated a mid infrared propane sensor system, which is based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique with a CW interband cascade laser (ICL) emitting at 3370.4nm. The ICL laser scanned over a sharp feature in the broader spectrum of propane, and harmonic signals are obtained by lock-in amplifier for gas concentration deduction. The surrounding gas is extracted into the fine optical absorption cell through the pump to realize online detection. The absorption cell is designed in mid infrared windows range. An example experimental setup is shown. The second harmonic signals 2f and first harmonic signals1f are obtained. We present the sensor performance test data including dynamic precision and temperature stability. The propane detection sensor system and device is portable can carried on the mobile inspection vehicle platforms or intelligent robot inspection platform to realize the leakage monitoring of whole oil gas tank area.

  14. MOTION ARTIFACT REDUCTION IN FUNCTIONAL NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY SIGNALS BY AUTOREGRESSIVE MOVING AVERAGE MODELING BASED KALMAN FILTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI AMIAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is a technique that is used for noninvasive measurement of the oxyhemoglobin (HbO2 and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb concentrations in the brain tissue. Since the ratio of the concentration of these two agents is correlated with the neuronal activity, fNIRS can be used for the monitoring and quantifying the cortical activity. The portability of fNIRS makes it a good candidate for studies involving subject's movement. The fNIRS measurements, however, are sensitive to artifacts generated by subject's head motion. This makes fNIRS signals less effective in such applications. In this paper, the autoregressive moving average (ARMA modeling of the fNIRS signal is proposed for state-space representation of the signal which is then fed to the Kalman filter for estimating the motionless signal from motion corrupted signal. Results are compared to the autoregressive model (AR based approach, which has been done previously, and show that the ARMA models outperform AR models. We attribute it to the richer structure, containing more terms indeed, of ARMA than AR. We show that the signal to noise ratio (SNR is about 2 dB higher for ARMA based method.

  15. The Performance and Scientific Rationale for an Infrared Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrograph on a Large Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James R.; Abrams, Mark; Bennett, C.; Carr, J.; Cook, K.; Dey, A.; Najita, J.; Wishnow, E.

    1998-10-01

    We describe a concept for an imaging spectrograph for a large orbiting observatory such as NASA's proposed Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) based on an imaging Fourier transform spectrograph (IFTS). An IFTS has several important advantages that make it an ideal instrument to pursue the scientific objectives of NGST. We review the operation of an IFTS and make a quantitative evaluation of the signal-to-noise performance of such an instrument in the context of NGST. We consider the relationship between pixel size, spectral resolution, and diameter of the beam splitter for imaging and nonimaging Fourier transform spectrographs and give the condition required to maintain spectral modulation efficiency over the entire field of view. We give examples of scientific programs that could be performed with this facility.

  16. [Testing of germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-nian; Jiang, Dan; Liu, Ying-ying; Ding, Wei-min; Ding, Qi-shuo; Zha, Liang-yu

    2014-06-01

    Germination rate of rice seeds was measured according to technical stipulation of germination testing for agricultural crop seeds at present. There existed many faults for this technical stipulation such as long experimental period, more costing and higher professional requirement. A rapid and non-invasive method was put forward to measure the germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two varieties of hybrid rice seeds were aged artificially at temperature 45 degrees C and humidity 100% condition for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds with different aging time were acquired individually by near-infrared spectra analyzer. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds were randomly divided into calibration set (168 samples) and prediction set (112 samples). Gormination rate of rice seed with different aging time was tested. Regression model was established by using partial least squares (PLS). The effect of the different spectral bands on the accuracy of models was analyzed and the effect of the different spectral preprocessing methods on the accuracy of models was also compared. Optimal model was achieved under the whole bands and by using standardization and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing algorithms with CM2000 software for spectral data of 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds, the coefficient of determination of the calibration set (Rc) and that of the prediction set (Rp) were 0.965 and 0.931 individually, standard error of calibration set (SEC) and that of prediction set (SEP) were 1.929 and 2.899 respectively. Relative error between tested value and predicted value for prediction set of rice seeds is below 4.2%. The experimental results show that it is feasible that rice germination rate is detected rapidly and nondestructively by using the near-infrared spectroscopy analysis technology.

  17. National Coordination Office for Space-Based PNT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    In December 2004, President Bush issued the US Policy on space-based positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT), providing guidance on the management of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and other space- based PNT systems. The policy established the National Executive Committee (EXCOM) to advise and coordinate federal agencies on matters related to space-based PNT. Chaired jointly by the deputy secretaries of defense and transportation, the EXCOM includes equivalent level officials from the Departments of State, the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Homeland Security, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A National Coordination Office (NCO) supports the EXCOM through an interagency staff. Since establishing the EXCOM and NCO in 2005, the organizations have quickly grown in influence and effectiveness, leading or managing many interagency initiatives including the development of a Five-Year National Space-Based PNT Plan, the Space-Based PNT Interference Detection and Mitigation (IDM) Plan, and other strategic documents. The NCO has also facilitated interagency coordination on numerous policy issues and on external communications intended to spread a consistent, positive US message about space-based PNT. Role of the NCO - The purpose of the EXCOM is to provide top-level guidance to US agencies regarding space-based PNT infrastructure. The president established it at the deputy secretary level to ensure its strategic recommendations effect real change in agency budgets. Recognizing such high-level officials could only meet every few months, the president directed the EXCOM to establish an NCO to carry out its day-to-day business, including overseeing the implementation of EXCOM action items across the member agencies. These range from the resolution of funding issues to the assessment of strategic policy options. They also include the completion of specific tasks and documents requested by the EXCOM co

  18. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  19. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  20. A Deterministic Entropy Based on the Instantaneous Phase Space Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebner, Hans H.; Rössler, Otto E.

    1998-02-01

    A deterministic entropic measure is derived for the time evolution of Newtonian N-particle systems based on the volume of the instantaneously occupied phase space (IOPS). This measure is found as a natural extension of Boltzmann's entropy. The instantaneous arrangement of the particles is exploited in the form of spatial correlations. The new entropy is a bridge between the time-dependent Boltzmann entropy, formulated on the basis of densities in the one-particle phase space, and the static Gibbs entropy which uses densities in the full phase space. We apply the new concept in a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) using an exactly time reversible "discrete Newtonian equation of motion" recently derived from the fundamental principle of least action in discretized space-time. The simulation therefore is consistent with micro-time-reversibility. Entropy becomes an exact momentary observable in both time directions in fulfillment of a dream of Boltzmann.

  1. State space modeling of Memristor-based Wien oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2011-12-01

    State space modeling of Memristor based Wien \\'A\\' oscillator has been demonstrated for the first time considering nonlinear ion drift in Memristor. Time dependant oscillating resistance of Memristor is reported in both state space solution and SPICE simulation which plausibly provide the basis of realizing parametric oscillation by Memristor based Wien oscillator. In addition to this part Memristor is shown to stabilize the final oscillation amplitude by means of its nonlinear dynamic resistance which hints for eliminating diode in the feedback network of conventional Wien oscillator. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students’ actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how students incorporate networked and digital technologies into their group work and into the study places...... they create for themselves. We describe how in one of the programmes ‘nomadic’ groups of students used different technologies and spaces for ‘placemaking’. We then show how their experience and approach to collaborative work differs to that of the more static or ‘artisan’ groups of students in the other...

  3. Spintronic devices based on graphene nanoribbons with transition metal impurities. Towards space applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ENCIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Very recent publications draw the attention to a possible revolution that nanotechnology can cause in aviation. The effervescence in the peak field of nanomaterials is remarkable, as evidenced by the number of Nobel prizes recently awarded. A class of nanomaterials, the nanosensors, whose object of study is the present work, represents a special interest in space applications. More specifically, this article proposes the synthesis of a nanosensor based on active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in the graphene nanoribbons (GNR, the strongest known substance. Thus, the physical model, a GNR, is electrically connected to two electrodes. Different variations of Mn (Manganese impurities in graphene, with the spins having preset configurations, are considered. When a magnetic field is detected, their spin change causing changes in the total energy and hence the variation of transmission function. Therefore, the concept of active control, which originated in the flight control and structural vibration problems, is naturally extended herein to the nanosensors synthesis. The used physico-mathematical model to determine the spin transport and the transmission function is based on density functional theory, Kohn-Sham equations and the SIESTA package. The differences between distinct GNR excited states were determined and it was established that the energy range overlaps the mid-infrared wavelengths. Therefore, structures of this kind may serve in spatial applications which exploit the infrared atmospheric window.

  4. Ballistic Target PHD Filter Based on Infrared Focal Plane Ambiguous Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Space-based early warning system, the main detection means of which is passive detection based on focal plane, is an important part of ballistic missile defense system. The focal plane is mainly composed of CCD, and its size can reach the micron level, so the pixel is often regarded as point of no area in image postprocessing. The design of traditional tracking methods is based on this, and the observation based on the focal plane is modeled as the azimuth with random noise. However, this modeling is inaccurate. In the context of space-based detection, CCD cannot be simplified as a point, and its size should be considered. And the corresponding observation cannot be treated as azimuth with random noise. In this paper, the observation based on focal plane is modeled as Unambiguously Generated Ambiguous (UGA measurement. The PHD filter algorithm is redesigned and simplified. The simulation results show that the algorithm based on UGA measurement observation model has better tracking effect compared with that based on traditional observation model. This method provides technical support for more accurate target tracking for space-based early warning system.

  5. Estimating cetacean carrying capacity based on spacing behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle E Braithwaite

    Full Text Available Conservation of large ocean wildlife requires an understanding of how they use space. In Western Australia, the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae population is growing at a minimum rate of 10% per year. An important consideration for conservation based management in space-limited environments, such as coastal resting areas, is the potential expansion in area use by humpback whales if the carrying capacity of existing areas is exceeded. Here we determined the theoretical carrying capacity of a known humpback resting area based on the spacing behaviour of pods, where a resting area is defined as a sheltered embayment along the coast. Two separate approaches were taken to estimate this distance. The first used the median nearest neighbour distance between pods in relatively dense areas, giving a spacing distance of 2.16 km (± 0.94. The second estimated the spacing distance as the radius at which 50% of the population included no other pods, and was calculated as 1.93 km (range: 1.62-2.50 km. Using these values, the maximum number of pods able to fit into the resting area was 698 and 872 pods, respectively. Given an average observed pod size of 1.7 whales, this equates to a carrying capacity estimate of between 1187 and 1482 whales at any given point in time. This study demonstrates that whale pods do maintain a distance from each other, which may determine the number of animals that can occupy aggregation areas where space is limited. This requirement for space has implications when considering boundaries for protected areas or competition for space with the fishing and resources sectors.

  6. A Ground-Based Near Infrared Camera Array System for UAV Auto-Landing in GPS-Denied Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Li, Guangpo; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yanning; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Zhuoyue; Li, Zhi

    2016-08-30

    This paper proposes a novel infrared camera array guidance system with capability to track and provide real time position and speed of a fixed-wing Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) during a landing process. The system mainly include three novel parts: (1) Infrared camera array and near infrared laser lamp based cooperative long range optical imaging module; (2) Large scale outdoor camera array calibration module; and (3) Laser marker detection and 3D tracking module. Extensive automatic landing experiments with fixed-wing flight demonstrate that our infrared camera array system has the unique ability to guide the UAV landing safely and accurately in real time. Moreover, the measurement and control distance of our system is more than 1000 m. The experimental results also demonstrate that our system can be used for UAV automatic accurate landing in Global Position System (GPS)-denied environments.

  7. A Ground-Based Near Infrared Camera Array System for UAV Auto-Landing in GPS-Denied Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel infrared camera array guidance system with capability to track and provide real time position and speed of a fixed-wing Unmanned air vehicle (UAV during a landing process. The system mainly include three novel parts: (1 Infrared camera array and near infrared laser lamp based cooperative long range optical imaging module; (2 Large scale outdoor camera array calibration module; and (3 Laser marker detection and 3D tracking module. Extensive automatic landing experiments with fixed-wing flight demonstrate that our infrared camera array system has the unique ability to guide the UAV landing safely and accurately in real time. Moreover, the measurement and control distance of our system is more than 1000 m. The experimental results also demonstrate that our system can be used for UAV automatic accurate landing in Global Position System (GPS-denied environments.

  8. Nanodosimetry-based quality factors for radiation protection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, Reinhard W.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Bashkirov, Vladimir A.; Garty, Guy Y.; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, Rachel; Shchemelinin, Sergei; Gargioni, Elisabetta; Grosswendt, Bernd; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation and monitoring of the cancer risk from space radiation exposure is a crucial requirement for the success of long-term space missions. One important task in the risk calculation is to properly weigh the various components of space radiation dose according to their assumed contribution to the cancer risk relative to the risk associated with radiation of low ionization density. Currently, quality factors of radiation both on the ground and in space are defined by national and international commissions based on existing radiobiological data and presumed knowledge of the ionization density distribution of the radiation field at a given point of interest. This approach makes the determination of the average quality factor of a given radiation field a rather complex task. In this contribution, we investigate the possibility to define quality factors of space radiation exposure based on nanodosimetric data. The underlying formalism of the determination of quality factors on the basis of nanodosimetric data is described, and quality factors for protons and ions (helium and carbon) of different energies based on simulated nanodosimetric data are presented. The value and limitations of this approach are discussed. (orig.)

  9. A Thermal Infrared and Visible Images Fusion Based Approach for Multitarget Detection under Complex Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinnan Fan

    2015-01-01

    Multitarget detection. However, there are some limitations of the general D-S belief theory under complex environment. For example, the basic belief assignment is difficult to establish, and the subjective factors will influence the update process of evidence. In this paper, a new Multitarget detection approach based on thermal infrared and visible images fusion is proposed. To easily characterize the defected heterogeneous image, a basic belief assignment based on the distance distribution function of heterogeneous characteristics is presented. Furthermore, to improve the discrimination and effectiveness of the Multitarget detection, a concept of comprehensive credibility is introduced into the proposed approach and a new update rule of evidence is designed. Finally, some experiments are carried out and the experimental results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach in the Multitarget detection task.

  10. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  11. About the scheme of the infrared FEL system for the accelerator based on HF wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabanov, V.S.; Dzergach, A.I. [Moscow Radiotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Accelerators, based on localization of plasmoids in the HF wells (RF traps) of the axially-symmetric electromagnetic field E {sub omn} in an oversized (m,n>>1) resonant system, can give accelerating gradients {approximately}100 kV/{lambda}, e.g. 10 GV/m if {lambda}=10 {mu}m. One of possible variants of HF feeding for these accelerators is based on using the powerful infrared FEL System with 2 frequencies. The corresponding FEL`s may be similar to the Los Alamos compact Advanced FEL ({lambda}{sub 1,2}{approximately}10 pm, e-beam energy {approximately}15 MeV, e-beam current {approximately}100 A). Their power is defined mainly by the HF losses in the resonant system of the supposed accelerator.

  12. Dynamic modeling method for infrared smoke based on enhanced discrete phase model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhendong; Yang, Chunling; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Hongbo

    2018-03-01

    The dynamic modeling of infrared (IR) smoke plays an important role in IR scene simulation systems and its accuracy directly influences the system veracity. However, current IR smoke models cannot provide high veracity, because certain physical characteristics are frequently ignored in fluid simulation; simplifying the discrete phase as a continuous phase and ignoring the IR decoy missile-body spinning. To address this defect, this paper proposes a dynamic modeling method for IR smoke, based on an enhanced discrete phase model (DPM). A mathematical simulation model based on an enhanced DPM is built and a dynamic computing fluid mesh is generated. The dynamic model of IR smoke is then established using an extended equivalent-blackbody-molecule model. Experiments demonstrate that this model realizes a dynamic method for modeling IR smoke with higher veracity.

  13. A distributed data base management system. [for Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A. I.

    1975-01-01

    Major system design features of a distributed data management system for the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) designed for continuous two-way deep space communications are described. The reasons for which the distributed data base utilizing third-generation minicomputers is selected as the optimum approach for the DSN are threefold: (1) with a distributed master data base, valid data is available in real-time to support DSN management activities at each location; (2) data base integrity is the responsibility of local management; and (3) the data acquisition/distribution and processing power of a third-generation computer enables the computer to function successfully as a data handler or as an on-line process controller. The concept of the distributed data base is discussed along with the software, data base integrity, and hardware used. The data analysis/update constraint is examined.

  14. Silicon carbide optics for space and ground based astronomical telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Joseph; Sampath, Deepak; Wainer, Chris; Schwartz, Jay; Peton, Craig; Mix, Steve; Heller, Court

    2012-09-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical materials are being applied widely for both space based and ground based optical telescopes. The material provides a superior weight to stiffness ratio, which is an important metric for the design and fabrication of lightweight space telescopes. The material also has superior thermal properties with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and a high thermal conductivity. The thermal properties advantages are important for both space based and ground based systems, which typically need to operate under stressing thermal conditions. The paper will review L-3 Integrated Optical Systems - SSG’s (L-3 SSG) work in developing SiC optics and SiC optical systems for astronomical observing systems. L-3 SSG has been fielding SiC optical components and systems for over 25 years. Space systems described will emphasize the recently launched Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) developed for JHU-APL and NASA-GSFC. Review of ground based applications of SiC will include supporting L-3 IOS-Brashear’s current contract to provide the 0.65 meter diameter, aspheric SiC secondary mirror for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST).

  15. Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abbas K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of vital parameters is an important topic in neonatal daily care. Progress in computational intelligence and medical sensors has facilitated the development of smart bedside monitors that can integrate multiple parameters into a single monitoring system. This paper describes non-contact monitoring of neonatal vital signals based on infrared thermography as a new biomedical engineering application. One signal of clinical interest is the spontaneous respiration rate of the neonate. It will be shown that the respiration rate of neonates can be monitored based on analysis of the anterior naris (nostrils temperature profile associated with the inspiration and expiration phases successively. Objective The aim of this study is to develop and investigate a new non-contact respiration monitoring modality for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU using infrared thermography imaging. This development includes subsequent image processing (region of interest (ROI detection and optimization. Moreover, it includes further optimization of this non-contact respiration monitoring to be considered as physiological measurement inside NICU wards. Results Continuous wavelet transformation based on Debauches wavelet function was applied to detect the breathing signal within an image stream. Respiration was successfully monitored based on a 0.3°C to 0.5°C temperature difference between the inspiration and expiration phases. Conclusions Although this method has been applied to adults before, this is the first time it was used in a newborn infant population inside the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The promising results suggest to include this technology into advanced NICU monitors.

  16. Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Monitoring of vital parameters is an important topic in neonatal daily care. Progress in computational intelligence and medical sensors has facilitated the development of smart bedside monitors that can integrate multiple parameters into a single monitoring system. This paper describes non-contact monitoring of neonatal vital signals based on infrared thermography as a new biomedical engineering application. One signal of clinical interest is the spontaneous respiration rate of the neonate. It will be shown that the respiration rate of neonates can be monitored based on analysis of the anterior naris (nostrils) temperature profile associated with the inspiration and expiration phases successively. Objective The aim of this study is to develop and investigate a new non-contact respiration monitoring modality for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using infrared thermography imaging. This development includes subsequent image processing (region of interest (ROI) detection) and optimization. Moreover, it includes further optimization of this non-contact respiration monitoring to be considered as physiological measurement inside NICU wards. Results Continuous wavelet transformation based on Debauches wavelet function was applied to detect the breathing signal within an image stream. Respiration was successfully monitored based on a 0.3°C to 0.5°C temperature difference between the inspiration and expiration phases. Conclusions Although this method has been applied to adults before, this is the first time it was used in a newborn infant population inside the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The promising results suggest to include this technology into advanced NICU monitors. PMID:22243660

  17. [Detection of Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Soil Profile Based on Nondispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhi-hua; Zhao, Yang; Zheng, Li-wen; Jia, Guo-dong; Chen, Li-hua; Yu, Xin-xiao

    2015-04-01

    In order to explore the variation of CO2 concentration and soil respiration in soil profile, the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy technique was applied to continually estimate the soil CO2 concentration in different soil layers (the humus horizon, A-, B-, C-horizon) in situ. The main instrument used in this experiment was silicon-based nondispersive infrared sensor, which could work in severe environment. We collected the Measurement value by NDIR spectroscopy technique throughout 2013. The values of soil carbon flux in different soil layers were calculated based on the model of gradient method and calibrated by measuring with an automated soil CO2 efflux system (LI-8100). The results showed that: a vertical gradient for the carbon dioxide concentration in soil profile was found, and the concentration was highest in the deepest soil horizon. Moreover, A linear correlation between the soil CO2 effluxes was calculated based on model and measurement, and the model prediction correlation coefficient was 0.9069, 0.7185, 0.8382, and 0.9030 in the H-, A-, B-, and C-horizon, respectively. The roots of mean square error (RMSE) were 0.2067, 0.1041, 0.0156, and 0.0096 in the H-, A-, B-, and C-horizon, respectively. These results suggest that the gradient method based on the NDIR spectroscopy technique can be successfully used to measure soil CO2 efflux in different soil layers, which reveal that diffusion and convection transport CO2 between the soil layers. It is a promising sensor for detecting CO2 concentration in soil profile, providing the basic data for calculating the global carbon in soil profile.

  18. A debugging method of the Quadrotor UAV based on infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guangjie; Hao, Qian; Yang, Jianguo; Chen, Lizhi; Hu, Hongkang; Zhang, Lijun

    2018-01-01

    High-performance UAV has been popular and in great need in recent years. The paper introduces a new method in debugging Quadrotor UAVs. Based on the infrared thermal technology and heat transfer theory, a UAV is under debugging above a hot-wire grid which is composed of 14 heated nichrome wires. And the air flow propelled by the rotating rotors has an influence on the temperature distribution of the hot-wire grid. An infrared thermal imager below observes the distribution and gets thermal images of the hot-wire grid. With the assistance of mathematic model and some experiments, the paper discusses the relationship between thermal images and the speed of rotors. By means of getting debugged UAVs into test, the standard information and thermal images can be acquired. The paper demonstrates that comparing to the standard thermal images, a UAV being debugging in the same test can draw some critical data directly or after interpolation. The results are shown in the paper and the advantages are discussed.

  19. Laser-line rejection or transmission filters based on surface structures built on infrared transmitting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Douglas S.

    2005-05-01

    Night vision and related thermal imaging systems play a critical role in the protection of our nation's security. These systems record images using video cameras designed for operation in the infrared (IR) region of the light spectrum. As with any imaging system, increased functionality and new information is gained when discrete portions of the observed light spectrum are analyzed separately using optical filters. Highly discriminating filters are needed to increase the sensitivity of atmospheric chemical sensors, to enable multi-spectral imaging and secure laser communications links, and to protect imaging systems from damage due to attack by high power laser weapons. Today, the performance of IR light filters is inadequate for many applications. Filters capable of efficient rejection of multiple discrete wavelength bands, combined with high transmission for wavelengths outside the rejection bands, do not exist. A new type of narrow-band optical filter capable of protecting critical imaging systems from attack from laser weapons operating at multiple wavelengths, is being developed. Based on rugged surface-structure wave-guide resonant holograms, the new filters will be capable of rejecting better than 99% of IR light within each notch, while maintaining the same level of transmission outside each notch covering a broad range of the IR spectrum. The theory, design and fabrication of surface structure, laser-line rejection and transmission filters built upon infrared transmitting materials, will be described. Optical performance data for prototype structures will be presented.

  20. APPROACH TO SYNTHESIS OF PASSIVE INFRARED DETECTORS BASED ON QUASI-POINT MODEL OF QUALIFIED INTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bilizhenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with synthesis of passive infra red (PIR detectors with enhanced detection capability of qualified intruder who uses different types of detection countermeasures: the choice of specific movement direction and disguise in infrared band. Methods. We propose an approach based on quasi-point model of qualified intruder. It includes: separation of model priority parameters, formation of partial detection patterns adapted to those parameters and multi channel signal processing. Main Results. Quasi-pointmodel of qualified intruder consisting of different fragments was suggested. Power density difference was used for model parameters estimation. Criteria were formulated for detection pattern parameters choice on the basis of model parameters. Pyroelectric sensor with nine sensitive elements was applied for increasing the signal information content. Multi-channel processing with multiple partial detection patterns was proposed optimized for detection of intruder's specific movement direction. Practical Relevance. Developed functional device diagram can be realized both by hardware and software and is applicable as one of detection channels for dual technology passive infrared and microwave detectors.

  1. The Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey in the SDSS Footprint. I. Infrared-based Candidate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D.; Yang, Qian; Wu, Jin; Jiang, Linhua; Green, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Studies of the most luminous quasars at high redshift directly probe the evolution of the most massive black holes in the early universe and their connection to massive galaxy formation. However, extremely luminous quasars at high redshift are very rare objects. Only wide-area surveys have a chance to constrain their population. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has so far provided the most widely adopted measurements of the quasar luminosity function at z> 3. However, a careful re-examination of the SDSS quasar sample revealed that the SDSS quasar selection is in fact missing a significant fraction of z≳ 3 quasars at the brightest end. We identified the purely optical-color selection of SDSS, where quasars at these redshifts are strongly contaminated by late-type dwarfs, and the spectroscopic incompleteness of the SDSS footprint as the main reasons. Therefore, we designed the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS), based on a novel near-infrared JKW2 color cut using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission (WISE) AllWISE and 2MASS all-sky photometry, to yield high completeness for very bright ({m}{{i}}footprint to obtain a well-defined and complete quasar sample for an accurate measurement of the bright-end quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 3.0≤slant z≤slant 5.0. In this paper, we present the quasar selection algorithm and the quasar candidate catalog.

  2. Design and implement of infrared small target real-time detection system based on pipeline technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lihui; Wang, Yongzhong; He, Yongqiang

    2007-01-01

    The detection for motive small target in infrared image sequence has become a hot topic nowadays. Background suppress algorithm based on minim gradient median filter and temporal recursion target detection algorithm are introduced. On the basis of contents previously mentioned, a four stages pipeline structure infrared small target detection process system, which aims at characters of algorithm complexity, large amounts of data to process, high frame frequency and exigent real-time character in this kind of application, is designed and implemented. The logical structure of the system was introduced and the function and signals flows are programmed. The system is composed of two FPGA chips and two DSP chips of TI. According to the function of each part, the system is divided into image preprocess stage, target detection stage, track relation stage and image output stage. The experiment of running algorithms on the system presented in this paper proved that the system could meet acquisition and process of 50Hz 240x320 digital image and the system could real time detect small target with a signal-noise ratio more than 3 reliably. The system achieves the characters of large amount of memory, high real-time processing, excellent extension and favorable interactive interface.

  3. Resolution of an inverse heat conduction problem with a nonlinear least square method in the Hankel space. Application to photothermal infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legaie, D; Pron, H; Bissieux, C [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne Laboratoire de Thermophysique (URCA/GRESPI/LTP) UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: herve.pron@univ-reims.fr

    2008-11-01

    Integral transforms (Laplace, Fourier, Hankel) are widely used to solve the heat diffusion equation. Moreover, it often appears relevant to realize the estimation of thermophysical properties in the transformed space. Here, an analytical model has been developed, leading to a well-posed inverse problem of parameter identification. Two black coatings, a thin black paint layer and an amorphous carbon film, were studied by photothermal infrared thermography. A Hankel transform has been applied on both thermal model and data and the estimation of thermal diffusivity has been achieved in the Hankel space. The inverse problem is formulated as a non-linear least square problem and a Gauss-Newton algorithm is used for the parameter identification.

  4. Scenario-based design space exploration of MPSoCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, P.; Pimentel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Early design space exploration (DSE) is a key ingredient in system-level design of MPSoC-based embedded systems. The state of the art in this field typically still explores systems under a single, fixed application workload. In reality, however, the applications are concurrently executing and

  5. Students' Experience of Problem-Based Learning in Virtual Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbings, Peter; Lidstone, John; Bruce, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports outcomes of a study focused on discovering qualitatively different ways students experience problem-based learning in virtual space. A well-accepted and documented qualitative research method was adopted for this study. Five qualitatively different conceptions are described, each revealing characteristics of increasingly complex…

  6. Alamos: An International Collaboration to Provide a Space Based Environmental Monitoring Solution for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S. O.; Dunn, A.; Lecomte, J.; Buchheim, K.; Johansson, E.; Berger, T.

    2018-02-01

    This abstract proposes the advantages of an externally mounted instrument in support of the human physiology, space biology, and human health and performance key science area. Alamos provides Space-Based Environmental Monitoring capabilities.

  7. Conceptual design of jewellery: a space-based aesthetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzintzi Vaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual design is a field that offers various aesthetic approaches to generation of nature-based product design concepts. Essentially, Conceptual Product Design (CPD uses similarities based on the geometrical forms and functionalities. Furthermore, the CAD-based freehand sketch is a primary conceptual tool in the early stages of the design process. The proposed Conceptual Product Design concept is dealing with jewelleries that are inspired from space. Specifically, a number of galaxy features, such as galaxy shapes, wormholes and graphical representation of planet magnetic field are used as inspirations. Those space-based design ideas at a conceptual level can lead to further opportunities for research and economic success of the jewellery industry. A number of illustrative case studies are presented and new opportunities can be derived for economic success.

  8. MgB2-Based Bolometer Array for Far Infra-Red Thermal Imaging and Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-superconducting critical temperature (T(sub c) approximately 39 K) of the simple binary, intermetallic MgB, [1] makes it a very good candidate for the development of the next generation of electrooptical devices (e.g. [2]). In particular, recent advances in thin film deposition teclmiques to attain higb quality polycrystalline thin film MgB, deposited on SiN-Si substrates, with T(sub c) approximately 38K [3] coupled with the low voltage noise performance of the film [4] makes it higbly desirable for the development of moderately cooled bolometer arrays for integration into future space-bourne far infra-red (FIR) spectrometers and thermal mappers for studying the outer planets, their icy moons and other moons of interest in the 17-250 micrometer spectral wavelength range. Presently, commercially available pyroelectric detectors operating at 300 K have specific detectivity, D(*), around 7 x 10(exp 8) to 2 x 10(exp 9) centimeters square root of Hz/W. However, a MgB2 thin film based bolometer using a low-stress (less than 140 MPa) SiN membrane isolated from the substrate by a small thermal conductive link, operating at 38 K, promises to have two orders of magnitude higher specific detectivity [5][6].

  9. Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.

    2009-11-01

    Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation

  10. High-Performance Near-Infrared Phototransistor Based on n-Type Small-Molecular Organic Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng

    2016-12-13

    A solution-processed near-infrared (NIR) organic phototransistor (OPT) based on n-type organic small molecular material BODIPY-BF2 has been successfully fabricated. Its unprecedented performance, as well as its easy fabrication and good stability, mark this BODIPY-BF2 based OPT device as a very promising candidate for optoelectronic applications in the NIR regime.

  11. Chalcogenide based rib waveguide for compact on-chip supercontinuum sources in mid-infrared domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Than Singh; Tiwari, Umesh Kumar; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2017-08-01

    We have designed and analysed a rib waveguide structure in recently reported Ga-Sb-S based highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass for nonlinear applications. The proposed waveguide structure possesses a very high nonlinear coefficient and can be used to generate broadband supercontinuum in mid-infrared domain. The reported design of the chalcogenide waveguide offers two zero dispersion values at 1800 nm and 2900 nm. Such rib waveguide structure is suitable to generate efficient supercontinuum generation ranging from 500 - 7400 μm. The reported waveguide can be used for the realization of the compact on-chip supercontinuum sources which are highly applicable in optical imaging, optical coherence tomography, food quality control, security and sensing.

  12. Ultrasensitive terahertz/infrared waveguide modulators based on multilayer graphene metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, Irina; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies and classifies the electromagnetic regimes of multilayer graphene-dielectric artificial metamate- rials in the terahertz/infrared range. The employment of such composites for waveguide-integrated modulators is analysed and three examples of novel tunable devices are presented....... The first one is a modulator with excellent ON-state transmission and very high modulation depth: > 38 dB at 70 meV graphene’s electrochemical potential (Fermi energy) change. The second one is a modulator with extreme sensitivity towards graphene’s Fermi energy - a minute 1 meV variation of the latter...... leads to > 13 . 2 dB modulation depth. The third one is a tunable waveguide-based passband filter. The narrow-band cut-off con- ditions around the ON-state allow the latter to shift its central frequency by 1 . 25% per every meV graphene’s Fermi energy change...

  13. Calibration transfer based on maximum margin criterion for qualitative analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Peng, Silong; Bi, Yiming; Tang, Liang

    2012-12-21

    A traditional multivariate calibration transfer method such as piecewise direct standardization (PDS) is usually applied to quantitative analysis. To make the method apply to qualitative analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we propose an improved calibration transfer method based on the maximum margin criterion (CTMMC). The new method not only considers the spectral changes under different conditions, but also takes into account the geometric characteristics of spectra from different classes, so the transformed spectra from different classes will be separated as far as possible, and this will improve the performance of the follow-up qualitative analysis. A comparative study is provided between the proposed method CTMMC and other traditional calibration transfer methods on two data sets. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance than previous methods.

  14. A Near-Infrared Optical Tomography System Based on Photomultiplier Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huacheng Feng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse optical tomography (DOT is a rapidly growing discipline in recent years. It plays an important role in many fields, such as detecting breast cancer and monitoring the cerebra oxygenation. In this paper, a relatively simple, inexpensive, and conveniently used DOT system is presented in detail, in which only one photomultiplier tube is employed as the detector and an optical multiplexer is used to alter the detector channels. The 32-channel imager is consisted of 16-launch fibers and 16-detector fibers bundles, which works in the near-infrared (NIR spectral range under continuous-wave (CW model. The entire imaging system can work highly automatically and harmoniously. Experiments based on the proposed imaging system were performed, and the desired results can be obtained. The experimental results suggested that the proposed imaging instrumentation is effective.

  15. Integrated test system of infrared and laser data based on USB 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui Quan; Tang, Lin Bo; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Bao Jun; Li, Mao Wen

    2017-07-01

    Based on USB3.0, this paper presents the design method of an integrated test system for both infrared image data and laser signal data processing module. The core of the design is FPGA logic control, the design uses dual-chip DDR3 SDRAM to achieve high-speed laser data cache, and receive parallel LVDS image data through serial-to-parallel conversion chip, and it achieves high-speed data communication between the system and host computer through the USB3.0 bus. The experimental results show that the developed PC software realizes the real-time display of 14-bit LVDS original image after 14-to-8 bit conversion and JPEG2000 compressed image after decompression in software, and can realize the real-time display of the acquired laser signal data. The correctness of the test system design is verified, indicating that the interface link is normal.

  16. Determination of water surface temperature based on the use of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James E.

    1992-01-01

    A straightforward method for compensating Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for the influence of atmospheric path radiance and the attenuation of target energy by the atmosphere is presented. A band ratioing model useful for estimating water surface temperatures, which requires no ground truth measurements, is included. A study conducted to test the potential of the model and the magnitudes of the corrections for atmosphere encountered is presented. Results of the study, which was based on data collected during an engineering evaluation flight of TIMS, indicate errors in the estimate of the surface temperature of the water fall from +/- 1.0 C for uncorrected data to +/- 0.4 C when data have been corrected according to the model presented. This value approaches the noise-limited thermal resolution of the sensor at the time of the flight.

  17. Sediment mineralogy based on visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrard, R.D.; Vanden Berg, M.D.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (VNIS) can be used to measure reflectance spectra (wavelength 350-2500 nm) for sediment cores and samples. A local ground-truth calibration of spectral features to mineral percentages is calculated by measuring reflectance spectra for a suite of samples of known mineralogy. This approach has been tested on powders, core plugs and split cores, and we conclude that it works well on all three, unless pore water is present. Initial VNIS studies have concentrated on determination of relative proportions of carbonate, opal, smectite and illite in equatorial Pacific sediments. Shipboard VNIS-based determination of these four components was demonstrated on Ocean Drilling Program Leg 199. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

  18. Connected Filtering on Tree-Based Shape-Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongchao; Geraud, Thierry; Najman, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Connected filters are well-known for their good contour preservation property. A popular implementation strategy relies on tree-based image representations: for example, one can compute an attribute characterizing the connected component represented by each node of the tree and keep only the nodes for which the attribute is sufficiently high. This operation can be seen as a thresholding of the tree, seen as a graph whose nodes are weighted by the attribute. Rather than being satisfied with a mere thresholding, we propose to expand on this idea, and to apply connected filters on this latest graph. Consequently, the filtering is performed not in the space of the image, but in the space of shapes built from the image. Such a processing of shape-space filtering is a generalization of the existing tree-based connected operators. Indeed, the framework includes the classical existing connected operators by attributes. It also allows us to propose a class of novel connected operators from the leveling family, based on non-increasing attributes. Finally, we also propose a new class of connected operators that we call morphological shapings. Some illustrations and quantitative evaluations demonstrate the usefulness and robustness of the proposed shape-space filters.

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of extrasolar planets from ground-, space- and airborne-based observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerhausen, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    This thesis deals with techniques and results of observations of exoplanets from several platforms. In this work I present and then attempt solutions to particular issues and problems connected to ground- and space-based approaches to spectroscopic characterization of extrasolar planets. Furthermore, I present the future prospects of the airborne observatory, SOFIA, in this field of astronomy. The first part of this thesis covers results of an exploratory study to use near-infrared integral-field-spectroscopy to observe transiting extrasolar planets. I demonstrate how adaptive-optics assisted integral field spectroscopy compares with other spectroscopic techniques currently applied, foremost being slit spectroscopy. An advanced reduction method using elements of a spectral-differential decorrelation and optimized observation strategies is discussed. This concept was tested with K-Band time series observations of secondary eclipses of HD 209458b and HD 189733b obtained with the SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), at spectral resolution of R~3000. In ground-based near infrared (NIR) observations, there is considerable likelihood of confusion between telluric absorption features and spectral features in the targeted object. I describe a detailed method that can cope with such confusion by a forward modelling approach employing Earth transmission models. In space-based transit spectroscopy with Hubble's NICMOS instrument, the main source of systematic noise is the perturbation in the instrument's configuration due to the near Earth orbital motion of the spacecraft. I present an extension to a pre-existing data analysis sequence that has allowed me to extract a NIR transmission spectrum of the hot-Neptune class planet GJ 436b from a data set that was highly corrupted by the above mentioned effects. Satisfyingly, I was able to obtain statistical consistency in spectra (acquired over a broad wavelength grid) over two distinct observing visits by HST. Earlier

  20. Infrared and visible image fusion based on visual saliency map and weighted least square optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinlei; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Bo; Zong, Hua

    2017-05-01

    The goal of infrared (IR) and visible image fusion is to produce a more informative image for human observation or some other computer vision tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-scale fusion method based on visual saliency map (VSM) and weighted least square (WLS) optimization, aiming to overcome some common deficiencies of conventional methods. Firstly, we introduce a multi-scale decomposition (MSD) using the rolling guidance filter (RGF) and Gaussian filter to decompose input images into base and detail layers. Compared with conventional MSDs, this MSD can achieve the unique property of preserving the information of specific scales and reducing halos near edges. Secondly, we argue that the base layers obtained by most MSDs would contain a certain amount of residual low-frequency information, which is important for controlling the contrast and overall visual appearance of the fused image, and the conventional "averaging" fusion scheme is unable to achieve desired effects. To address this problem, an improved VSM-based technique is proposed to fuse the base layers. Lastly, a novel WLS optimization scheme is proposed to fuse the detail layers. This optimization aims to transfer more visual details and less irrelevant IR details or noise into the fused image. As a result, the fused image details would appear more naturally and be suitable for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can achieve a superior performance compared with other fusion methods in both subjective and objective assessments.

  1. [Method of infrared spectrum on-line pattern recognition of mixed gas distribution based on SVM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peng; Ji, Juan-zao; Zhang, Fa-qi; Li, Yan; Liu, Jun-hua; Zhu, Chang-chun

    2008-10-01

    In order to solve the difficulties that the spectrum training data samples of the massive mixed gas cannot be actually obtained, the analysis precision is low and it is not real time online analysis in the analysis of mixed gas component concentration, the support vector machine, a new information processing method, was used in the mixed gas infrared spectrum analysis, and the concept of mixed gas distribution pattern was proposed in the present paper. Based on the thought that the mixed gas distribution pattern recognition is carried out first, and then the analysis work of mixed gas component concentration is done, sixty kinds of mixed gas distribution pattern were determined after investigation and study, and 6000 mixed gas spectrum data samples were used for model training and testing. Sequential minimal optimization algorithm was applied to realize the decrement and the increase of online learning, and finally the model of infrared spectrum online pattern recognition of mixed gas distribution based on SVM was established. The model structure is composed of 2 levels, pattern recognition level and result output level. The pattern recognition level completes the task of mixed gas distribution pattern recognition; while the result output level is composed of 60 SVM calibration models, and it completes the task of mixed gas concentration analysis. Experimental results show that the correct recognition rate of mixture gas distribution pattern is not lower than 98.8%, and that the method can be used for online recognition of mixed gas distribution pattern under the conditions of small samples of a mixed gas, and can add new mixed gas online, and it has the practical application value.

  2. An evaluation of IASI-NH3 with ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dammers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Global distributions of atmospheric ammonia (NH3 measured with satellite instruments such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI contain valuable information on NH3 concentrations and variability in regions not yet covered by ground-based instruments. Due to their large spatial coverage and (bi-daily overpasses, the satellite observations have the potential to increase our knowledge of the distribution of NH3 emissions and associated seasonal cycles. However the observations remain poorly validated, with only a handful of available studies often using only surface measurements without any vertical information. In this study, we present the first validation of the IASI-NH3 product using ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR observations. Using a recently developed consistent retrieval strategy, NH3 concentration profiles have been retrieved using observations from nine Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC stations around the world between 2008 and 2015. We demonstrate the importance of strict spatio-temporal collocation criteria for the comparison. Large differences in the regression results are observed for changing intervals of spatial criteria, mostly due to terrain characteristics and the short lifetime of NH3 in the atmosphere. The seasonal variations of both datasets are consistent for most sites. Correlations are found to be high at sites in areas with considerable NH3 levels, whereas correlations are lower at sites with low atmospheric NH3 levels close to the detection limit of the IASI instrument. A combination of the observations from all sites (Nobs = 547 give a mean relative difference of −32.4 ± (56.3 %, a correlation r of 0.8 with a slope of 0.73. These results give an improved estimate of the IASI-NH3 product performance compared to the previous upper-bound estimates (−50 to +100 %.

  3. Non-Topographic Space-Based Laser Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Purucker, Michael; Janches, Diego; Getty, Stephanie; Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Li, Steve X.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In the past 20+ years, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has successfully developed and flown lidars for mapping of Mars, the Earth, Mercury and the Moon. As laser and electro-optics technologies expand and mature, more sophisticated instruments that once were thought to be too complicated for space are being considered and developed. We will present progress on several new, space-based laser instruments that are being developed at GSFC. These include lidars for remote sensing of carbon dioxide and methane on Earth for carbon cycle and global climate change; sodium resonance fluorescence lidar to measure environmental parameters of the middle and upper atmosphere on Earth and Mars and a wind lidar for Mars orbit; in situ laser instruments include remote and in-situ measurements of the magnetic fields; and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer to study the diversity and structure of nonvolatile organics in solid samples on missions to outer planetary satellites and small bodies.

  4. Novel Infiltration Diagnostics based on Laser-line Scanning and Infrared Temperature Field Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-12-08

    This project targets the building energy efficiency problems induced by building infiltration/leaks. The current infiltration inspection techniques often require extensive visual inspection and/or whole building pressure test. These current techniques cannot meet more than three of the below five criteria of ideal infiltration diagnostics: 1. location and extent diagnostics, 2. building-level application, 3. least surface preparation, 4. weather-proof, and 5. non-disruption to building occupants. These techniques are either too expensive or time consuming, and often lack accuracy and repeatability. They are hardly applicable to facades/facades section. The goal of the project was to develop a novel infiltration diagnostics technology based on laser line-scanning and simultaneous infrared temperature imaging. A laboratory scale experimental setup was designed to mimic a model house of well-defined pressure difference below or above the outside pressure. Algorithms and Matlab-based programs had been developed for recognition of the hole location in infrared images. Our experiment based on laser wavelengths of 450 and 1550 nm and laser beam diameters of 4-25 mm showed that the location of the holes could be identified using laser heating; the diagnostic approach however could not readily distinguish between infiltration and non-infiltration points. To significantly improve the scanning throughput and recognition accuracy, a second approach was explored, developed, and extensively tested. It incorporates a liquid spray on the surface to induce extra phase change cooling effect. In this spray method, we termed it as PECIT (Phase-change Enhanced Cooling Infrared Thermography), phase-change enhanced cooling was used, which significantly amplifies the effect of air flow (infiltration and exfiltration). This heat transfer method worked extremely well to identify infiltration and exfiltration locations with high accuracy and increased throughput. The PECIT technique was

  5. Development and application of an object-oriented graphical environment for the simulation of space-based sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, Brian; Rucker, Sean; Bearden, David A.; Barrera, Mark J.

    1996-06-01

    The simulation of developing complex systems requires flexibility to allow for changing system requirements and constraints. The object-oriented paradigm provides an environment suitable for establishing flexibility, rapid reconfiguration of new architectures, and integration of new models. This paper outlines the development and application of the brilliant eyes simulator (BESim), sponsored by the US Air FOrce Space and Missile Systems Center. BESim simulates the Space and Missile Tracking System, formerly known as Brilliant Eyes, which represents the low earth orbiting component of the space based infrared system. BESim has powerful tools for simulation setup and analysis of results. The pre-processor enables the user to specify system characteristics, output data collection, external data interfaces, and modeling fidelity. The post-processor consists of a graphical user interface which allows easy access to all simulation output in graphical or tabular form. This includes 2D and 3D graphical playback of performance results.

  6. ALBEDO PROPERTIES OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS BASED ON THE ALL-SKY SURVEY OF THE INFRARED ASTRONOMICAL SATELLITE AKARI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Matsuhara, Hideo [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kasuga, Toshihiro [Public Relations Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata-cho, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Mueller, Thomas G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ootsubo, Takafumi, E-mail: usui@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the albedo properties of main belt asteroids (MBAs) detected by the All-Sky Survey of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. The characteristics of 5120 asteroids detected by the survey, including their sizes and albedos, were cataloged in the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA). Size and albedo measurements were based on the standard thermal model, using inputs of infrared fluxes and absolute magnitudes measured at optical wavelengths. MBAs, which account for 4722 of the 5120 AcuA asteroids, have semimajor axes of 2.06-3.27 AU, except for the near-Earth asteroids. AcuA provides a complete data set of all MBAs brighter than the absolute magnitude of H < 10.3, which corresponds to the diameter of d > 20 km. We confirmed that the albedo distribution of the MBAs is strongly bimodal as was already known from the past observations, and that the bimodal distribution occurs not only in the total population, but also within inner, middle, and outer regions of the main belt. The bimodal distribution in each group consists of low-albedo components in C-type asteroids and high-albedo components in S-type asteroids. We found that the small asteroids have much more variety in albedo than the large asteroids. In spite of the albedo transition process like space weathering, the heliocentric distribution of the mean albedo of asteroids in each taxonomic type is nearly flat. The mean albedo of the total, on the other hand, gradually decreases with an increase in semimajor axis. This can be explained by the compositional ratio of taxonomic types; that is, the proportion of dark asteroids such as C- and D-types increases, while that of bright asteroids such as S-type decreases, with increasing heliocentric distance. The heliocentric distributions of X-subclasses: E-, M-, and P-types, which can be divided based on albedo values, are also examined. P-types, which are the major component in X-types, are distributed throughout the main belt regions, and the

  7. A fusion algorithm for infrared and visible images based on saliency analysis and non-subsampled Shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohua; Lu, Xiaoqi; Pei, Haiquan; Zhao, Ying

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposed a novel fusion method for the infrared and visible image based on the accurate extraction of the target region. Firstly, the super-pixels-based saliency analysis method is used to extract the salient regions of the infrared image and obtain the coarse contour of the infrared target. Then the multi-directional detection operators and the adaptive threshold algorithm are used to refine the boundary of the target region and obtain the fusion decision map. In order to capture the details of the visible image, non-subsampled Shearlet transform (NSST) is used to select the fusion coefficients of the background. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is superior to other state of the-art methods in subjective visual and objective performance.

  8. [Optical Design of Miniature Infrared Gratings Spectrometer Based on Planar Waveguide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang-yu; Fang, Yong-hua; Li, Da-cheng; Liu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In order to miniaturize an infrared spectrometer, we analyze the current optical design of miniature spectrometers and propose a method for designing a miniature infrared gratings spectrometer based on planar waveguide. Common miniature spectrometer uses miniature optical elements to reduce the size of system, which also shrinks the effective aperture. So the performance of spectrometer has dropped. Miniaturization principle of planar waveguide spectrometer is different from the principle of common miniature spectrometer. In planar waveguide spectrometer, the propagation of light is limited in a thin planar waveguide, which looks like the whole optical system is squashed flat. In the direction parallel to the planar waveguide, the light through the slit is collimated, dispersed and focused. And a spectral image is formed in the detector plane. This propagation of light is similar to the light in common miniature spectrometer. In the direction perpendicular to the planar waveguide, light is multiple reflected by the upper and lower surfaces of the planar waveguide and propagates in the waveguide. So the size of corresponding optical element could be very small in the vertical direction, which can reduce the size of the optical system. And the performance of the spectrometer is still good. The design method of the planar waveguide spectrometer can be separated into two parts, Czerny-Turner structure design and planar waveguide structure design. First, by using aberration theory an aberration-corrected (spherical aberration, coma, focal curve) Czerny-Turner structure is obtained. The operation wavelength range and spectral resolution are also fixed. Then, by using geometrical optics theory a planar waveguide structure is designed for reducing the system size and correcting the astigmatism. The planar waveguide structure includes a planar waveguide and two cylindrical lenses. Finally, they are modeled together in optical design software and are optimized as a whole. An

  9. Extragalactic infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-05-01

    The paper concerns the field of Extragalactic Infrared Astronomy, discussed at the Fourth RAL Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Fifteen papers were presented on infrared emission from extragalactic objects. Both ground-(and aircraft-) based and IRAS infrared data were reviewed. The topics covered star formation in galaxies, active galactic nuclei and cosmology. (U.K.)

  10. Comparison of Cloud Base Height Derived from a Ground-Based Infrared Cloud Measurement and Two Ceilometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloud base height (CBH derived from the whole-sky infrared cloud-measuring system (WSIRCMS and two ceilometers (Vaisala CL31 and CL51 from November 1, 2011, to June 12, 2012, at the Chinese Meteorological Administration (CMA Beijing Observatory Station are analysed. Significant differences can be found by comparing the measurements of different instruments. More exactly, the cloud occurrence retrieved from CL31 is 3.8% higher than that from CL51, while WSIRCMS data shows 3.6% higher than ceilometers. More than 75.5% of the two ceilometers’ differences are within ±200 m and about 89.5% within ±500 m, while only 30.7% of the differences between WSIRCMS and ceilometers are within ±500 m and about 55.2% within ±1000 m. These differences may be caused by the measurement principles and CBH retrieval algorithm. A combination of a laser ceilometer and an infrared cloud instrument is recommended to improve the capability for determining cloud occurrence and retrieving CBHs.

  11. Periodic array-based substrates for surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerhöfer Thomas G.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 1980s, the first reports of surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS surfaced. Probably due to signal-enhancement factors of only 101 to 103, which are modest compared to those of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS, SEIRS did not reach the same significance up to date. However, taking the compared to Raman scattering much larger cross-sections of infrared absorptions and the enhancement factors together, SEIRS reaches about the same sensitivity for molecular species on a surface in terms of the cross-sections as SERS and, due to the complementary nature of both techniques, can valuably augment information gained by SERS. For the first 20 years since its discovery, SEIRS relied completely on metal island films, fabricated by either vapor or electrochemical deposition. The resulting films showed a strong variance concerning their structure, which was essentially random. Therefore, the increase in the corresponding signal-enhancement factors of these structures stagnated in the last years. In the very same years, however, the development of periodic array-based substrates helped SEIRS to gather momentum. This development was supported by technological progress concerning electromagnetic field solvers, which help to understand plasmonic properties and allow targeted design. In addition, the strong progress concerning modern fabrication methods allowed to implement these designs into practice. The aim of this contribution is to critically review the development of these engineered surfaces for SEIRS, to compare the different approaches with regard to their performance where possible, and report further gain of knowledge around and in relation to these structures.

  12. Continuous-wave, singly resonant parametric oscillator-based mid-infrared optical vortex source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Sharma, Varun; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2017-09-15

    We report on a high-power, continuous-wave source of optical vortices tunable in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelength range. Using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) conservation of the parametric processes and the threshold conditions of the cavity modes of the singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO), we have transferred the OAM of the pump beam at the near-infrared wavelength to the idler beam tunable in the mid-IR. Pumped with a vortex beam of order l p =1 at 1064 nm, the SRO, configured in a four curved mirror-based ring cavity with a 50 mm long MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO 3 crystal, produces an idler beam with an output power in excess of 2 W in a vortex spatial profile with the order l i =1, tunable across 2217-3574 nm and corresponding signal beam in Gaussian intensity distribution across 1515-2046 nm. For pump vortices of the order l p =1 and 2, and a power of 22 W, the SRO produces idler vortices of the same order as that of the pump beam with a maximum power of 5.23 and 2.3 W, corresponding to near-IR to mid-IR vortex conversion efficiency of 23.8% and 10.4%, respectively. The idler vortex beam has a spectral width, and a passive rms power stability of 101 MHz and 4.9% over 2 h, respectively.

  13. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoops, Alexandra A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Birtola, Salvatore R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaska, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bisson, Soott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  14. Effects of Space Weathering on Thermal Infrared Emissivity Spectra of Bulk Lunar Soils Measured Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Pieters, C. M.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.

    2015-11-01

    In this initial study, TIR emissivity spectral measurements are made under lunar-like conditions of two highland soil samples that are similar in composition, but differing maturities to understand the effects of space weathering on TIR spectra.

  15. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  16. Demonstration of large format mid-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays based on superlattice and BIRD detector structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cory J.; Soibel, Alexander; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Ting, David Z.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-11-01

    We have demonstrated the use of bulk antimonide based materials and type-II antimonide based superlattices in the development of large area mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs). Barrier infrared photodetectors (BIRDs) and superlattice-based infrared photodetectors are expected to outperform traditional III-V MWIR and LWIR imaging technologies and are expected to offer significant advantages over II-VI material based FPAs. We have used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology to grow InAs/GaSb superlattice pin photodiodes and bulk InAsSb structures on GaSb substrates. The coupled quantum well superlattice device offers additional control in wavelength tuning via quantum well sizes and interface composition, while the BIRD structure allows for device fabrication without additional passivation. As a demonstration of the large area imaging capabilities of this technology, we have fabricated mid-wavelength 1024 × 1024 pixels superlattice imaging FPAs and 640 × 512 MWIR arrays based on the BIRD concept. These initial FPA have produced excellent infrared imagery.

  17. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  18. [Maize Hybrid Seed Purity Identification Based on Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-xin; Jia, Shi-qiang; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Sheng-yi; Ran, Hang; Yan, Yan-lu; An, Dong

    2015-12-01

    This article explore the feasibility of using Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectroscopy (908.1-1677.2 nm wavelength range) to identify maize hybrid purity, and compare the performance of NIR and NIT spectroscopy. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (OLDA) were used to reduce the dimension of spectra which have been pretreated by first derivative and vector normalization. The hybrid purity identification model of Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 were built by SVM. Models based on NIR spectra obtained correct identification rate as 100% and 90% for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 respectively. But NIR spectra were greatly influenced by the placement of seeds, and there existed significant difference between NIR spectra of embryo and non-embryo side. Models based on NIT spectroscopy yielded correct identification rate as 98% both for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16. NIT spectra of embryo and non-embryo side were highly similar. The results indicate that it is feasible to identify maize hybrid purity based on NIR and NIT spectroscopy, and NIT spectroscopy is more suitable to analyze single seed kernel than NIR spectroscopy.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy based neurofeedback of prefrontal cortex activity: a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Barth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback is a promising tool for treatment and rehabilitation of several patient groups. In this proof of principle study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS based neurofeedback of frontal cortical areas was investigated in healthy adults. Main aims were the assessment of learning, the effects on performance in a working memory (n-back task and the impact of applied strategies on regulation.13 healthy participants underwent 8 sessions of NIRS based neurofeedback within two weeks to learn to voluntarily up-regulate hemodynamic activity in prefrontal areas. An n-back task in pre-/post measurements was used to monitor neurocognitive changes. Mean oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb amplitudes over the course of the sessions as well as during the n-back task were evaluated. 12 out of 13 participants were able to regulate their frontal hemodynamic response via NIRS neurofeedback. However, no systematic learning effects were observed in frontal O2Hb amplitudes over the training course in our healthy sample. We found an impact of applied strategies in only 5 out of 13 subjects. Regarding the n-back task, neurofeedback appeared to induce more focused and specific brain activation compared to pre-training measurement. NIRS based neurofeedback is a feasible and potentially effective method, with an impact on activation patterns in a working memory task. Ceiling effects might explain the lack of a systematic learning pattern in healthy subjects. Clinical studies are needed to show effects in patients exhibiting pathological deviations in prefrontal function.

  20. Femtosecond laser-pumped plasmonically enhanced near-infrared random laser based on engineered scatterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummaluri, Venkata Siva; Nair, Radhika V; Krishnan, S R; Vijayan, C

    2017-12-01

    In this Letter, we report on the design, fabrication, and implementation of a novel plasmon-mode-driven low-threshold near-infrared (NIR) random laser (RL) in the 850-900 nm range based on plasmonic ZnS@Au core-shell scatterers. Plasmon modes in the NIR region are used for nanoscale scatterer engineering of ZnS@Au core-shell particles to enhance scattering, as against pristine ZnS. This plasmonic scattering enhancement coupled with femtosecond (fs) laser pumping is shown to cause a three-fold lasing threshold reduction from 325  μJ/cm 2 to 100  μJ/cm 2 and a mode Q-factor enhancement from 200 to 540 for ZnS@Au-based RL, as compared to pristine ZnS-based RL. Local field enhancement due to plasmonic ZnS@Au scatterers, as evidenced in the finite-difference time-domain simulation, further adds to this enhancement. This work demonstrates a novel scheme of plasmonic mode coupling in the NIR region and fs excitation in a random laser photonic system, overcoming the inherent deficiencies of weak absorption of gain media and poor scattering cross sections of dielectric scatterers for random lasing in the NIR spectrum.

  1. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ran, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jia [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  2. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  3. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ran; Liu, Jing; Wang, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures

  4. Free locally convex spaces with a small base

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabriyelyan, S.; Kąkol, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2017), s. 575-585 ISSN 1578-7303 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compact resolution * free locally convex space * G-base Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2016 http://link. springer .com/article/10.1007%2Fs13398-016-0315-1

  5. Dictionary-based output-space dimensionality reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Strasser, Pablo; Wang, Jung; Armand, Stéphane; Kalousis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method for output dimensionality reduction based on dictionary learning. Our final goal is the prediction of complete time series from standard input vectorial data. To do so we formulate a single learning problem which on the one hand learns a new representation of the output space, using dictionary learning, and reduces its dimension, while on the other hand learns to predict from the input data the new output representation, using standard multi-output regression...

  6. Applying Model Based Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert

    2013-01-01

    System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its

  7. Free locally convex spaces with a small base

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabriyelyan, S.; Kąkol, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2017), s. 575-585 ISSN 1578-7303 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compact resolution * free locally convex space * G-base Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13398-016-0315-1

  8. [Detecting cardiac arrhythmias based on phase space analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rongrong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Su; Fang, Zuxiang

    2008-08-01

    It is important for cardiac therapy devices such as the automated external defibrillator to discriminate different cardiac disorders based on Electrocardiogram analysis. A phase space analysis based algorithm is proposed to detect cardiac arrhythmias effectively. Firstly, the phase space of the signal is reconstructed. Then from the viewpoint of geometry and information theory, the distribution entropy of the point density in the two-dimensional reconstructed phase space is calculated as the features in the further classification. Finally the nearest-neighbour method based on Mahalanobis distance is used to classify the sinus rhythm (SR), supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVTA), atrial flutter (AFL) and atrial fibrillation (AF). To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this proposed method in the cardiac arrhythmias classification, the MIT-BIH arrhythmias database and the canine endocardial database are studied respectively. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can detect SR, SVTA, AFL and AF signals rapidly and accurately with the simple computation. It promises to find application in automated devices for cardiac arrhythmias therapy.

  9. A Novel Gradient Vector Flow Snake Model Based on Convex Function for Infrared Image Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Shiping; Zhou, Qin

    2016-10-21

    Infrared image segmentation is a challenging topic because infrared images are characterized by high noise, low contrast, and weak edges. Active contour models, especially gradient vector flow, have several advantages in terms of infrared image segmentation. However, the GVF (Gradient Vector Flow) model also has some drawbacks including a dilemma between noise smoothing and weak edge protection, which decrease the effect of infrared image segmentation significantly. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel generalized gradient vector flow snakes model combining GGVF (Generic Gradient Vector Flow) and NBGVF (Normally Biased Gradient Vector Flow) models. We also adopt a new type of coefficients setting in the form of convex function to improve the ability of protecting weak edges while smoothing noises. Experimental results and comparisons against other methods indicate that our proposed snakes model owns better ability in terms of infrared image segmentation than other snakes models.

  10. Lasers and Missile Defense: New Concepts for Space-Based and Ground-Based Laser Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Is the Department of Defense (DoD) pursuing the correct investment strategy for space-based laser weapons ? Recent advances in lasers optics and...spacecraft technologies may bring high-energy laser weapons to a sufficient level of maturity for serious consideration as space weapons against the...technology improvements have affected the strategic employment concepts for high-energy laser weapons . This study presents a comparison of competing space

  11. Mid-infrared subwavelength modulator based on grating-assisted coupling of a hybrid plasmonic waveguide mode to a graphene plasmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghan; Kwon, Min-Suk

    2017-11-16

    This work reports a mid-infrared modulator based on a hybrid plasmonic waveguide with graphene on a grating in its slot region. The modulator utilizes a graphene plasmon for electro-optic tuning in a more practical and effective way than graphene-plasmon-based waveguide devices studied up to now. The hybrid plasmonic waveguide can be easily and efficiently integrated with input and output photonic waveguides. It supports a hybrid plasmonic waveguide mode and a graphene-plasmon-based waveguide mode. Grating-assisted coupling of the former to the latter in it is demonstrated to work successfully even though the two modes have significantly different propagation constants and losses. Theoretical investigation of the modulator shows that the coupling via the grating of length 5.92 μm generates a deep rejection band at a wavelength of 8.014 μm in the transmission spectrum of the output photonic waveguide of the modulator. With the graphene chemical potential tuned between 0.6 eV and 0.65 eV, the transmission at the wavelength is modulated between -27 dB and -1.8 dB. The subwavelength modulator, which may have a large bandwidth and small energy consumption, is expected to play a key role in free-space communications and sensing requiring mid-infrared integrated photonics.

  12. Retrieval of an available water-based soil moisture proxy from thermal infrared remote sensing. Part I: Methodology and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A retrieval of soil moisture is proposed using surface flux estimates from satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) imagery and the Atmosphere-Land-Exchange-Inversion (ALEXI) model. The ability of ALEXI to provide valuable information about the partitioning of the surface energy budget, which can be l...

  13. Structure and acidity of individual Fluid Catalytic Cracking catalyst particles studied by synchrotron-based infrared micro-spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurmans, I.L.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31406592X; Soulimani, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313889449; Ruiz Martinez, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341386405; van der Bij, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328201294; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2013-01-01

    A synchrotron-based infrared micro-spectroscopy study has been conducted to investigate the structure as well as the Brønsted and Lewis acidity of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst particles at the individual particle level. Both fresh and laboratory-deactivated catalyst particles have been

  14. Physics meets fine arts: a project-based learning path on infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A.; Bozzo, G.; Sapia, P.

    2018-03-01

    Infrared imaging represents a noninvasive tool for cultural heritage diagnostics, based on the capability of IR radiation to penetrate the most external layers of different objects (as for example paintings), revealing hidden features of artworks. From an educational viewpoint, this diagnostic technique offers teachers the opportunity to address manifold topics pertaining to the physics and technology of electromagnetic radiation, with particular emphasis on the nature of color and its physical correlates. Moreover, the topic provides interesting interdisciplinary bridges towards the human sciences. In this framework, we present a hands-on learning sequence, suitable for both high school students and university freshmen, inspired by the project-based learning (PBL) paradigm, designed and implemented in the context of an Italian national project aimed at offering students the opportunity to participate in educational activities within a real working context. In a preliminary test we involved a group of 23 high school students while they were working as apprentices in the Laboratory of Applied Physics for Cultural Heritage (ArcheoLab) at the University of Calabria. Consistently with the PBL paradigm, students were given well-defined practical goals to be achieved. As final goals they were asked (i) to construct and to test a low cost device (based on a disused commercial camera) appropriate for performing educational-grade IR investigations on paintings, and (ii) to prepare a device working as a simple spectrometer (recycling the optical components of a disused video projector), suitable for characterizing various light sources in order to identify the most appropriate for infrared imaging. The proposed learning path has shown (in the preliminary test) to be effective in fostering students’ interest towards physics and its technological applications, especially because pupils perceived the context (i.e. physics applied to the protection and restoration of cultural

  15. Multiple asteroid systems : Dimensions and thermal properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Lim, L. F.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; LaCluyze, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    We collected mid-IR spectra from 5.2 to 38 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph of 28 asteroids representative of all established types of binary groups. Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the

  16. Trigonometric bases for matrix weighted Lp-spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    We give a complete characterization of 2π-periodic matrix weights W for which the vector-valued trigonometric system forms a Schauder basis for the matrix weighted space Lp(T;W). Then trigonometric quasi-greedy bases for Lp(T;W) are considered. Quasi-greedy bases are systems for which the simple...... thresholding approximation algorithm converges in norm. It is proved that such a trigonometric basis can be quasi-greedy only for p=2, and whenever the system forms a quasi-greedy basis, the basis must actually be a Riesz basis....

  17. TiAu-based micro-calorimeters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, B.P.F.; Popescu, M.; Bruijn, M.; Gottardi, L.; Hoevers, H.F.C.; Korte, P.A.J. de; Kuur, J. van der; Ridder, M.; Takei, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We present the latest results of the performance of micro-calorimeters based on transition edge sensors (TESs) for space applications. Sensors based on TiAu superconductive layers with Cu/Bi absorbers are discussed and have been characterized. Different coupling schemes between absorber and TES have been tested leading to an optimal (preferred) design for a new batch of arrays. We discuss the progress on array development for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) in terms of pixel uniformity and filling factor. Inter-pixel cross-talk is discussed as well.

  18. Condition Based Maintenance of Space Exploration Vehicles Using Structural Health Monitoring, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acellent Technologies proposes to develop an autonomous and automated diagnostic system for condition based maintenance (CBM) of safety critical structures for space...

  19. Condition Based Maintenance of Space Exploration Vehicles Using Structural Health Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acellent Technologies proposes to develop an autonomous and automated diagnostic system for condition based maintenance (CBM) of safety critical structures for space...

  20. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy versus Transcranial Doppler-Based Monitoring in Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Woo Cho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper monitoring of cerebral perfusion during carotid artery surgery is crucial for determining if a shunt is needed. We compared the safety and reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with trans-cranial Doppler (TCD for cerebral monitoring. Methods: This single-center, retrospective review was con-ducted on patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA using selective shunt-based TCD or NIRS at Daegu Catholic University Medical Center from November 2009 to June 2016. Postoperative complications were the primary outcome, and the distribution of risk factors between the 2 groups was compared. Results: The medical records of 74 patients (45 TCD, 29 NIRS were reviewed. The demographic characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. One TCD patient died within the 30-day postoperative period. Postoperative stroke (n=4, p=0.15 and neurologic complications (n=10, p=0.005 were only reported in the TCD group. Shunt usage was 44.4% and 10.3% in the TCD and NIRS groups, respectively (p=0.002. Conclusion: NIRS-based selective shunting during CEA seems to be safe and reliable for monitoring cerebral perfusion in terms of postoperative stroke and neurologic symptoms. It also reduces unnecessary shunt usage.

  1. Dynamic time warping-based averaging framework for functional near-infrared spectroscopy brain imaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Najafizadeh, Laleh

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the problem related to the averaging procedure in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain imaging studies. Typically, to reduce noise and to empower the signal strength associated with task-induced activities, recorded signals (e.g., in response to repeated stimuli or from a group of individuals) are averaged through a point-by-point conventional averaging technique. However, due to the existence of variable latencies in recorded activities, the use of the conventional averaging technique can lead to inaccuracies and loss of information in the averaged signal, which may result in inaccurate conclusions about the functionality of the brain. To improve the averaging accuracy in the presence of variable latencies, we present an averaging framework that employs dynamic time warping (DTW) to account for the temporal variation in the alignment of fNIRS signals to be averaged. As a proof of concept, we focus on the problem of localizing task-induced active brain regions. The framework is extensively tested on experimental data (obtained from both block design and event-related design experiments) as well as on simulated data. In all cases, it is shown that the DTW-based averaging technique outperforms the conventional-based averaging technique in estimating the location of task-induced active regions in the brain, suggesting that such advanced averaging methods should be employed in fNIRS brain imaging studies.

  2. Bias adjustment of infrared-based rainfall estimation using Passive Microwave satellite rainfall data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaee, Negar; Hsu, Kuolin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Braithwaite, Dan

    2017-04-01

    This study explores using Passive Microwave (PMW) rainfall estimation for spatial and temporal adjustment of Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). The PERSIANN-CCS algorithm collects information from infrared images to estimate rainfall. PERSIANN-CCS is one of the algorithms used in the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (Global Precipitation Mission) estimation for the time period PMW rainfall estimations are limited or not available. Continued improvement of PERSIANN-CCS will support Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM for current as well as retrospective estimations of global precipitation. This study takes advantage of the high spatial and temporal resolution of GEO-based PERSIANN-CCS estimation and the more effective, but lower sample frequency, PMW estimation. The Probability Matching Method (PMM) was used to adjust the rainfall distribution of GEO-based PERSIANN-CCS toward that of PMW rainfall estimation. The results show that a significant improvement of global PERSIANN-CCS rainfall estimation is obtained.

  3. "Slow-scanning" in Ground-based Mid-infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Ryou; Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Okada, Kazushi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Masahito S.; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Morii, Mikio; Ikeda, Shiro

    2018-04-01

    Chopping observations with a tip-tilt secondary mirror have conventionally been used in ground-based mid-infrared observations. However, it is not practical for next generation large telescopes to have a large tip-tilt mirror that moves at a frequency larger than a few hertz. We propose an alternative observing method, a "slow-scanning" observation. Images are continuously captured as movie data, while the field of view is slowly moved. The signal from an astronomical object is extracted from the movie data by a low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition. The performance of the "slow-scanning" observation was tested in an experimental observation with Subaru/COMICS. The quality of a resultant image in the "slow-scanning" observation was as good as in a conventional chopping observation with COMICS, at least for a bright point-source object. The observational efficiency in the "slow-scanning" observation was better than that in the chopping observation. The results suggest that the "slow-scanning" observation can be a competitive method for the Subaru telescope and be of potential interest to other ground-based facilities to avoid chopping.

  4. Polarization-selective infrared bandpass filter based on a two-layer subwavelength metallic grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohne, Andrew J.; Moon, Benjamin; Baumbauer, Carol L.; Gray, Tristan; Dilts, James; Shaw, Joseph A.; Dickensheets, David L.; Nakagawa, Wataru

    2017-08-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a polarization-selective infrared bandpass filter based on a two-layer subwavelength metallic grating for use in polarimetric imaging. Gold nanowires were deposited via physical vapor deposition (PVD) onto a silicon surface relief grating that was patterned using electron beam lithography (EBL) and fabricated using standard silicon processing techniques. Optical characterization with a broad-spectrum tungsten halogen light source and a grating spectrometer showed normalized peak TM transmission of 53% with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 122 nm, which was consistent with rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) simulations. Simulation results suggested that device operation relied on suppression of the TM transmission caused by surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation at the gold-silicon interface and an increase in TM transmission caused by a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance in the cavity between the gratings. TE rejection occurred at the initial air/gold interface. We also present simulation results of an improved design based on a two-dielectric grating where two different SPP resonances allowed us to improve the shape of the passband by suppressing the side lobes. This newer design resulted in improved side-band performance and increased peak TM transmission.

  5. Studying hemispheric lateralization during a Stroop task through near-infrared spectroscopy-based connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jinyan; Sun, Bailei; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a developing and promising functional brain imaging technology. Developing data analysis methods to effectively extract meaningful information from collected data is the major bottleneck in popularizing this technology. In this study, we measured hemodynamic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a color-word matching Stroop task using NIRS. Hemispheric lateralization was examined by employing traditional activation and novel NIRS-based connectivity analyses simultaneously. Wavelet transform coherence was used to assess intrahemispheric functional connectivity. Spearman correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between behavioral performance and activation/functional connectivity, respectively. In agreement with activation analysis, functional connectivity analysis revealed leftward lateralization for the Stroop effect and correlation with behavioral performance. However, functional connectivity was more sensitive than activation for identifying hemispheric lateralization. Granger causality was used to evaluate the effective connectivity between hemispheres. The results showed increased information flow from the left to the right hemispheres for the incongruent versus the neutral task, indicating a leading role of the left PFC. This study demonstrates that the NIRS-based connectivity can reveal the functional architecture of the brain more comprehensively than traditional activation, helping to better utilize the advantages of NIRS.

  6. Image overlay solution based on threshold detection for a compact near infrared fluorescence goggle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shengkui; Mondal, Suman B; Zhu, Nan; Liang, RongGuang; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has shown great potential for various clinical procedures, including intraoperative image guidance. However, existing NIR fluorescence imaging systems either have a large footprint or are handheld, which limits their usage in intraoperative applications. We present a compact NIR fluorescence imaging system (NFIS) with an image overlay solution based on threshold detection, which can be easily integrated with a goggle display system for intraoperative guidance. The proposed NFIS achieves compactness, light weight, hands-free operation, high-precision superimposition, and a real-time frame rate. In addition, the miniature and ultra-lightweight light-emitting diode tracking pod is easy to incorporate with NIR fluorescence imaging. Based on experimental evaluation, the proposed NFIS solution has a lower detection limit of 25 nM of indocyanine green at 27 fps and realizes a highly precise image overlay of NIR and visible images of mice in vivo. The overlay error is limited within a 2-mm scale at a 65-cm working distance, which is highly reliable for clinical study and surgical use.

  7. Plasmon polariton enhanced mid-infrared photodetectors based on Ge quantum dots in Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimov, A. I.; Kirienko, V. V.; Bloshkin, A. A.; Armbrister, V. A.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Quantum dot based infrared (IR) photodetectors (QDIPs) have the potential to provide meaningful advances to the next generation of imaging systems due to their sensitivity to normal incidence radiation, large optical gain, low dark currents, and high operating temperature. SiGe-based QDIPs are of particular interest as they are compatible with silicon integration technology but suffer from the low absorption coefficient and hence small photoresponse in the mid-wavelength IR region. Here, we report on the plasmonic enhanced Ge/Si QDIPs with tailorable wavelength optical response and polarization selectivity. Ge/Si heterostructures with self-assembled Ge quantum dots are monolithically integrated with periodic two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength holes (2DHAs) perforated in gold films to convert the incident electromagnetic IR radiation into the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waves. The resonant responsivity of the plasmonic detector at a wavelength of 5.4 μm shows an enhancement of up to thirty times over a narrow spectral bandwidth (FWHM = 0.3 μm), demonstrating the potentiality of this approach for the realization of high-performance Ge/Si QDIPs that require high spectral resolution. The possibility of the polarization-sensitive detection in Ge/Si QDIPs enhanced with a stretched-lattice 2DHA is reported. The excitation of SPP modes and the near-field components are investigated with the three-dimensional finite-element frequency-domain method. The role that plasmonic electric field plays in QDIP enhancement is discussed.

  8. Space-Based Chemical Lasers in strategic defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildt, D. (SDIO, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-07-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) has made significant progress in developing Space-Based chemical Laser (SBL) technologies and in studying the SBLs global defense capability. In this mission, a constellation of several orbiting laser platforms provides continuous global defense by intercepting threatening missiles in their boost phase, including short range ballistic missiles (SRBMs). An optional smaller constellation provides defense against launches from the low and midlatitude regions. In addition, SBLs have utility in other important related missions such as surveillance, air defense and discrimination. The hardware necessary to build such a system has been developed to the point where it is mature and ready for demonstration in space. Advances have been made in each of the following major areas of the SBL: laser device; optics/beam control; beam pointing; ATP (acquisition, tracking and pointing); uncooled optics; and laser lethality. Integration of the key laser and beam control technologies is now occurring in the ground-based ALI experiment, and a space demonstration experiment, Star LITE, is in the planning and concept development phase.

  9. Special Relativity Corrections for Space-Based Lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    RaoGudimetla, Venkata S.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The theory of special relativity is used to analyze some of the physical phenomena associated with space-based coherent Doppler lidars aimed at Earth and the atmosphere. Two important cases of diffuse scattering and retroreflection by lidar targets are treated. For the case of diffuse scattering, we show that for a coaligned transmitter and receiver on the moving satellite, there is no angle between transmitted and returned radiation. However, the ray that enters the receiver does not correspond to a retroreflected ray by the target. For the retroreflection case there is misalignment between the transmitted ray and the received ray. In addition, the Doppler shift in the frequency and the amount of tip for the receiver aperture when needed are calculated, The error in estimating wind because of the Doppler shift in the frequency due to special relativity effects is examined. The results are then applied to a proposed space-based pulsed coherent Doppler lidar at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for wind and aerosol backscatter measurements. The lidar uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and the received frequencies to determine the atmospheric wind velocities. We show that the special relativity effects are small for the proposed system.

  10. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This poster will discuss a possible mission concept, Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory (SGO-Mid) developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  11. Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2013-09-01

    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  12. Random Walk Quantum Clustering Algorithm Based on Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shufen; Dong, Yumin; Ma, Hongyang

    2018-01-01

    In the random quantum walk, which is a quantum simulation of the classical walk, data points interacted when selecting the appropriate walk strategy by taking advantage of quantum-entanglement features; thus, the results obtained when the quantum walk is used are different from those when the classical walk is adopted. A new quantum walk clustering algorithm based on space is proposed by applying the quantum walk to clustering analysis. In this algorithm, data points are viewed as walking participants, and similar data points are clustered using the walk function in the pay-off matrix according to a certain rule. The walk process is simplified by implementing a space-combining rule. The proposed algorithm is validated by a simulation test and is proved superior to existing clustering algorithms, namely, Kmeans, PCA + Kmeans, and LDA-Km. The effects of some of the parameters in the proposed algorithm on its performance are also analyzed and discussed. Specific suggestions are provided.

  13. Symmetry in Sphere-Based Assembly Configuration Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Sitharam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many remarkably robust, rapid and spontaneous self-assembly phenomena occurring in nature can be modeled geometrically, starting from a collection of rigid bunches of spheres. This paper highlights the role of symmetry in sphere-based assembly processes. Since spheres within bunches could be identical and bunches could be identical, as well, the underlying symmetry groups could be of large order that grows with the number of participating spheres and bunches. Thus, understanding symmetries and associated isomorphism classes of microstates that correspond to various types of macrostates can significantly increase efficiency and accuracy, i.e., reduce the notorious complexity of computing entropy and free energy, as well as paths and kinetics, in high dimensional configuration spaces. In addition, a precise understanding of symmetries is crucial for giving provable guarantees of algorithmic accuracy and efficiency, as well as accuracy vs. efficiency trade-offs in such computations. In particular, this may aid in predicting crucial assembly-driving interactions. This is a primarily expository paper that develops a novel, original framework for dealing with symmetries in configuration spaces of assembling spheres, with the following goals. (1 We give new, formal definitions of various concepts relevant to the sphere-based assembly setting that occur in previous work and, in turn, formal definitions of their relevant symmetry groups leading to the main theorem concerning their symmetries. These previously-developed concepts include, for example: (i assembly configuration spaces; (ii stratification of assembly configuration space into configurational regions defined by active constraint graphs; (iii paths through the configurational regions; and (iv coarse assembly pathways. (2 We then demonstrate the new symmetry concepts to compute the sizes and numbers of orbits in two example settings appearing in previous work. (3 Finally, we give formal

  14. Automated acid and base number determination of mineral-based lubricants by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: commercial laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfield, Craig; van de Voort, F R

    2014-12-01

    The Fluid Life Corporation assessed and implemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based methods using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-like stoichiometric reactions for determination of acid and base number for in-service mineral-based oils. The basic protocols, quality control procedures, calibration, validation, and performance of these new quantitative methods are assessed. ASTM correspondence is attained using a mixed-mode calibration, using primary reference standards to anchor the calibration, supplemented by representative sample lubricants analyzed by ASTM procedures. A partial least squares calibration is devised by combining primary acid/base reference standards and representative samples, focusing on the main spectral stoichiometric response with chemometrics assisting in accounting for matrix variability. FTIR(AN/BN) methodology is precise, accurate, and free of most interference that affects ASTM D664 and D4739 results. Extensive side-by-side operational runs produced normally distributed differences with mean differences close to zero and standard deviations of 0.18 and 0.26 mg KOH/g, respectively. Statistically, the FTIR methods are a direct match to the ASTM methods, with superior performance in terms of analytical throughput, preparation time, and solvent use. FTIR(AN/BN) analysis is a viable, significant advance for in-service lubricant analysis, providing an economic means of trending samples instead of tedious and expensive conventional ASTM(AN/BN) procedures. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. An inverse-polished mirror for wavefront correction of space-based telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enya, K.; Haze, K.; Chibu, Y.; Kotani, T.; Kaneda, H.; Oyabu, S.; Ishihara, D.; Oseki, S.; Abe, L.; Kobayashi, H.

    2014-07-01

    In this report we describe our development of a prototype inverse-polished mirror for the passive correction of the static and predictable wavefront errors (WFE) of space-based telescopes, in particular, especially for infrared coronagraphs. An artificial WFE pattern with a root mean square (rms) value of 350 nm was numerically generated to facilitate the design of the prototype mirror. The surface of the mirror is approximately flat, is 50.0 mm in diameter and 15.0 mm thick at the edge. The designed WFE pattern was constructed on the mirror surface by micro-polishing. Both the figure and roughness of the mirror surface were evaluated. The rms value of the measured surface figure was reduced to 135 nm after subtraction of the designed surface figure. The benefit of subtraction to mid-infrared coronagraph performance was simulated, which showed the contrast was improved by a factor of ~100 close to the core (closer than 10 λ/D where λ and D are the wavelength and telescope aperture diameter, respectively) of the coronagraphic image of a point source. An analysis of the power spectrum density shows that the lower frequencies in the WFE are well reproduced on the mirror, while the higher frequencies remain due to the limitations imposed on the controllable spatial resolution by the fabrication process. In this study, inverse-polished mirrors combined with deformable mirrors and their application to ground-based telescopes are also discussed. To fully explore the potential of the inverse-polished mirror, a systematic allocation of the error budget is essential taking into account not only the fabrication accuracy of the mirror but also an evaluation of the telescope and other factors with non-predictable uncertainties.

  16. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  17. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space. Volume 3: Key to identification of solar features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Murray

    1992-01-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 (SL-3) payload on the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a Fourier transform spectrometer, recorded over 2000 infrared solar spectra from an altitude of 360 km. Although the majority of the spectra were taken through the limb of the Earth's atmosphere in order to better understand its composition, several hundred of the 'high-sun' spectra were completely free from telluric absorption. These high-sun spectra recorded from space are, at the present time, the only high-resolution infrared spectra ever taken of the Sun free from absorptions due to constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Volumes 1 and 2 of this series provide a compilation of these spectra arranged in a format suitable for quick-look reference purposes and are the first record of the continuous high-resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space. In the Table of Identifications, which constitutes the main body of this volume, each block of eight wavenumbers is given a separate heading and corresponds to a page of two panels in Volume 1 of this series. In addition, three separate blocks of data available from ATMOS from 622-630 cm(exp -1), 630-638 cm(exp -1) and 638-646 cm(exp -1), excluded from Volume 1 because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, have been included due to the certain identification of several OH and NH transitions. In the first column of the table, the corrected frequency is given. The second column identifies the molecular species. The third and fourth columns represent the assigned transition. The fifth column gives the depth of the molecular line in millimeters. Also included in this column is a notation to indicate whether the line is a blend or lies on the shoulder(s) of another line(s). The final column repeats a question mark if the line is unidentified.

  18. Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI); Nanoshell-Based Infrared and Terahertz Adaptive Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halas, Naomi J

    2006-01-01

    ... onto silica nanoparticles. This fabrication method was developed and extended to nanoparticles with resonances ranging from the visible region of the spectrum to the mid infrared range of the spectrum (2.9 microns...

  19. A radar-infrared bi-stealth structure based on metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuomin; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Peipeng; Liu, Taijun; Huang, Jifu; Ma, Yungui

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the authors proposed a thin artificial structure that could give rise to the strong reduction of both radar wave reflection and infrared thermal emission. This is realized by the subtle combination of two specifically designed metasurface layers that control the infrared emission and microwave absorption, respectively. Our measurement shows that the fabricated sample could have wideband absorption from 3-8 GHz with attenuation efficiency larger than 90% up to incident angles of 30°. In the infrared atmosphere window, it gives a very low emission value of about 0.2. These results show that our sample is practically very promising for the application of a radar-infrared bi-stealth technology.

  20. An Interactive Concert Program Based on Infrared Watermark and Audio Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsi-Chun; Lee, Wen-Pin Hope; Liang, Feng-Ju

    The objective of this research is to propose a video/audio system which allows the user to listen the typical music notes in the concert program under infrared detection. The system synthesizes audio with different pitches and tempi in accordance with the encoded data in a 2-D barcode embedded in the infrared watermark. The digital halftoning technique has been used to fabricate the infrared watermark composed of halftone dots by both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). The results show that this interactive system successfully recognizes the barcode and synthesizes audio under infrared detection of a concert program which is also valid for human observation of the contents. This interactive video/audio system has greatly expanded the capability of the printout paper to audio display and also has many potential value-added applications.

  1. Energy Diagnoses of Nine Infrared Luminous Galaxies Based on 3-4 Micron Spectra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Dudley, C. C

    2000-01-01

    .... Assuming that nuclear compact starburst activity in these sources produces the 3.3 micron PAH emission as strongly as that in starburst galaxies with lower far-infrared luminosities, the following results are found...

  2. Drunk identification using far infrared imagery based on DCT features in DWT domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Jiang, Peng; Xiong, Ying; Li, Ke

    2016-10-01

    Drunk driving problem is a serious threat to traffic safety. Automatic drunk driver identification is vital to improve the traffic safety. This paper copes with automatic drunk driver detection using far infrared thermal images by the holistic features. To improve the robustness of drunk driver detection, instead of traditional local pixels, a holistic feature extraction method is proposed to attain compact and discriminative features for infrared face drunk identification. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain is used to extract the useful features in infrared face images for its high speed. Then, the first six DCT coefficients are retained for drunk classification by means of "Z" scanning. Finally, SVM is applied to classify the drunk person. Experimental results illustrate that the accuracy rate of proposed infrared face drunk identification can reach 98.5% with high computation efficiency, which can be applied in real drunk driver detection system.

  3. Understanding the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies based on newly developed single-burst stellar population synthesis models in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeck, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The detailed study of the different stellar populations which can be observed in galaxies is one of the most promising methods to shed light on the evolutionary histories of galaxies. So far, stellar population analysis has been carried out mainly in the optical wavelength range. The infrared spectral range, on the other hand, has been poorly studied so far, although it provides very important insights, particularly into the cooler stellar populations which are present in galaxies. However, in the last years, space telescopes like the Spitzer Space Telescope or the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and instruments like the spectrograph X-Shooter on the Very Large Telescope have collected more and more photometric and spectroscopic data in this wavelength range. In order to analyze these observations, it is necessary to dispose of reliable and accurate stellar population models in the infrared. Only a small number of stellar population models in the infrared exist in the literature. They are mostly based on theoretical stellar libraries and very often cover only the near-infrared wavelength range at a rather low resolution. Hence, we developed new single-burst stellar population models between 8150 and 50000Å which are exclusively based on 180 spectra from the empirical Infrared Telescope Facility stellar library. We computed our single stellar population models for two different sets of isochrones and various types of initial mass functions of different slopes. Since the stars of the Infrared Telescope Facility library present only a limited coverage of the stellar atmospheric parameter space, our models are of sufficient quality only for ages larger than 1 Gyr and metallicities between [Fe/H] = 0.40 and 0.26. By combining our single stellar population models in the infrared with the extended medium-resolution Isaac Newton Telescope library of empirical spectra in the optical spectral range, we created the first single stellar population models covering the

  4. An intelligent system for egg quality classification based on visible-infrared transmittance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Abdanan Mehdizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the visible infrared (Vis–IR (400–1100 nm transmittance method to assess the internal quality (freshness of intact chicken egg during storage at a temperature of 30 ± 7 °C and 25 ± 4% relative humidity was investigated. Two hundred chicken egg samples were used for measuring freshness and spectra collection during egg storage (up to 25 days. Two correlation models, firstly between Haugh unit (HU and storage time, and secondly between the yolk coefficient (YC and storage time, were developed and yielded correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.86 and 0.96, respectively. These models spanned the period for which egg quality decreased dramatically and are statistically significant (P < 0.05. In addition, to reduce the dimensionality of the spectra and extract effective wavelengths, two methods were developed based on principal component analysis (PCA and a genetic algorithm (GA. The output of PCA and GA were also used comparatively to design an egg quality intelligent system. The result of the analyses indicated that identification ratio of GA with fast Fourier transform (FFT preprocessing was superior to other methods, and that the quality classification rates of this method for one-day-old eggs are 100%. This study shows that identification of an egg’s freshness using NIR spectroscopy with GA and artificial neural network (ANN is reliable.

  5. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared thermograms to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya eGerasimova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women and despite recent advances in the medical field, there are still some inherent limitations in the currently used screening techniques. The radiological interpretation of screening X-ray mammograms often leads to over-diagnosis and, as a consequence, to unnecessary traumatic and painful biopsies. Here we propose a computer-aided multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared (IR imaging as an efficient method for identifying women with risk of breast cancer. Using a wavelet-based multi-scale method to analyze the temporal fluctuations of breast skin temperature collected from a panel of patients with diagnosed breast cancer and some female volunteers with healthy breasts, we show that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations observed in healthy breasts is lost in mammary glands with malignant tumor. Besides potential clinical impact, these results open new perspectives in the investigation of physiological changes that may precede anatomical alterations in breast cancer development.

  6. UNIVERSALITY OF THE NEAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW BASED ON THE APOGEE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shu; Jiang, B. W., E-mail: shuwang@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-06-10

    Whether the near-infrared (NIR) extinction law is universal has long been a debated topic. Based on the APOGEE H-band spectroscopic survey, a key project of SDSS-III, the intrinsic colors of a large number of giant stars are accurately determined from the stellar effective temperature. Taking advantage of this and using a sample of 5942 K-type giants, the NIR extinction law is carefully revisited. The color excess ratio E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), representative of the NIR extinction law, shows no dependence on the color excess when E(J – K {sub S}) changes from ∼0.3 to ∼4.0, which implies a universal NIR extinction law from diffuse to dense regions. The constant value of E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), 0.64, corresponds to a power law index of 1.95. The other two ratios, E(H – K {sub S})/E(J – K {sub S}) and E(J – H)/E(H – K {sub S}), are 0.36 and 1.78, respectively. The results are consistent with the MRN dust size distribution.

  7. Fusion of visible and near-infrared images based on luminance estimation by weighted luminance algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhun; Cheng, Feiyan; Shi, Junsheng; Huang, Xiaoqiao

    2018-01-01

    In a low-light scene, capturing color images needs to be at a high-gain setting or a long-exposure setting to avoid a visible flash. However, such these setting will lead to color images with serious noise or motion blur. Several methods have been proposed to improve a noise-color image through an invisible near infrared flash image. A novel method is that the luminance component and the chroma component of the improved color image are estimated from different image sources [1]. The luminance component is estimated mainly from the NIR image via a spectral estimation, and the chroma component is estimated from the noise-color image by denoising. However, it is challenging to estimate the luminance component. This novel method to estimate the luminance component needs to generate the learning data pairs, and the processes and algorithm are complex. It is difficult to achieve practical application. In order to reduce the complexity of the luminance estimation, an improved luminance estimation algorithm is presented in this paper, which is to weight the NIR image and the denoised-color image and the weighted coefficients are based on the mean value and standard deviation of both images. Experimental results show that the same fusion effect at aspect of color fidelity and texture quality is achieved, compared the proposed method with the novel method, however, the algorithm is more simple and practical.

  8. Plasmonic Glasses and Films Based on Alternative Inexpensive Materials for Blocking Infrared Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Besteiro, Lucas; Kong, Xiang-Tian; Wang, Zhiming; Rosei, Federico; Govorov, Alexander O

    2018-04-16

    The need for energy-saving materials is pressing. This Letter reports on the design of energy-saving glasses and films based on plasmonic nanocrystals that efficiently block infrared radiation. Designing such plasmonic composite glasses is nontrivial and requires taking full advantage of both material and geometrical properties of the nanoparticles. We compute the performance of solar plasmonic glasses incorporating a transparent matrix and specially shaped nanocrystals. This performance depends on the shape and material of such nanocrystals. Glasses designed with plasmonic nanoshells are shown to exhibit overall better performances as compared to nanorods and nanocups. Simultaneously, scalable synthesis of plasmonic nanoshells and nanocups is technologically feasible using gas-phase fabrication methods. The computational simulations were performed for noble metals (gold and silver) as well as for alternative plasmonic materials (aluminum, copper, and titanium nitride). Inexpensive plasmonic materials (silver, copper, aluminum, and titanium nitride) show an overall good performance in terms of the commonly used figures of merit of industrial glass windows. Together with numerical data for specific materials, this study includes a set of general rules for designing efficient plasmonic IR-blocking media. The plasmonic glasses proposed herein are good candidates for the creation of cheap optical media, to be used in energy-saving windows in warm climates' housing or temperature-sensitive infrastructure.

  9. Infrared Radiation Assisted Stokes’ Law Based Synthesis and Optical Characterization of ZnS Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy and technique exploited in the synthesis of nanostructure materials have an explicit effect on the nucleation, growth, and properties of product materials. Nanoparticles of zinc sulfide (ZnS have been synthesized by new infrared radiation (IR assisted and Stokes’ law based controlled bottom-up approach without using any capping agent and stirring. IR has been used for heating the reaction surface designed in accordance with the well-known Stokes law for a free body falling in a quiescent fluid for the synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles. The desired concentration of aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO32·4H2O and thioacetamide (CH3CSNH2 was reacted in a controlled manner by IR radiation heating at the reaction area (top layer of reactants solution of the solution which results in the formation of ZnS nanoparticles at ambient conditions following Stokes’ law for a free body falling in a quiescent fluid. The phase, crystal structure, and particle size of as-synthesized nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The optical properties of as-synthesized ZnS nanoparticles were studied by means of optical absorption spectroscopic measurements. The optical energy band gap and the nature of transition have been studied using the well-known Tauc relation with the help of absorption spectra of as-synthesized ZnS nanoparticles.

  10. Moving target detection based on temporal-spatial information fusion for infrared image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toing, Wu-qin; Xiong, Jin-yu; Zeng, An-jun; Wu, Xiao-ping; Xu, Hao-peng

    2009-07-01

    Moving target detection and localization is one of the most fundamental tasks in visual surveillance. In this paper, through analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional approaches about moving target detection, a novel approach based on temporal-spatial information fusion is proposed for moving target detection. The proposed method combines the spatial feature in single frame and the temporal properties within multiple frames of an image sequence of moving target. First, the method uses the spatial image segmentation for target separation from background and uses the local temporal variance for extracting targets and wiping off the trail artifact. Second, the logical "and" operator is used to fuse the temporal and spatial information. In the end, to the fusion image sequence, the morphological filtering and blob analysis are used to acquire exact moving target. The algorithm not only requires minimal computation and memory but also quickly adapts to the change of background and environment. Comparing with other methods, such as the KDE, the Mixture of K Gaussians, etc., the simulation results show the proposed method has better validity and higher adaptive for moving target detection, especially in infrared image sequences with complex illumination change, noise change, and so on.

  11. A bispecific peptide based near-infrared probe for in vivo tumor diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Chen, Wei R.; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and HER2 are members of recepeter tyrosine kinase family. Overexpression of EGFR and HER2 has been observed in a variety of human tumors, making these receptors promising targets for tumor diagnosis. An affibody targeting HER2 and a nanobody targeting EGFR were reported before. In this Manuscript, we described an bispecific peptide combined with an affibody and a nanonbody through a linker―(G4S)3 . And the bispecific peptide was labeled with near-infrared (NIR) fluorochrome ICG-Der-02 for in vivo tumor EGFR and HER2 targeting. Afterwards, the EGFR and HER2 specificity of the fluorescent probe was tested in vitro for receptor binding assay and fluorescence microscopy and in vivo for subcutaneous MDA-MB-231 tumor targeting. The results indicated that the bispecific peptide had a high affinity to EGFR and HER2. Besides, in vitro and in vivo tumor targeting experiment indicated that the ICG-Der-02-( bispecific peptide) showed excellent tumor activity accumulation. Noninvasive NIR fluorescence imaging is able to detect tumor EGFR and HER2 expression based upon the highly potent bispecific peptide probe.

  12. An infrared based sensor system for the detection of ethylene for the discrimination of fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvelan, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2017-09-01

    We report the fabrication and testing of a prototype ethylene sensing device for use in fruit ripening applications. A sensor based on infrared (IR) thermal emission was developed and used to detect the ethylene level released during the fruit ripening process. An IR thermal source tuned to the 10.6 μm wavelength was linked to a high-sensitivity silicon temperature detector. When introduced into the wave path between the IR source and temperature detector, ethylene absorbs the 10.6 μm IR waves and decreases the surface temperature of the detector. The output is then converted to an electrical signal (in mV), which gives a direct measurement of the ethylene level. Using this sensor, ethylene concentration measured from a fruit sample continuously decreased from 59 to 5 ppm during the natural ripening process. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 3.3 ± 0.2% (change in detector output (mV)/ppm × 100) and could measure concentrations as low as 5 ppm with rise and recovery times of 1 and 3 s, respectively. The system demonstrated good reproducibility. Devices employing this sensor system may be used for fruit ripening applications on site and in the field and for screening artificially ripened fruits, therefore contributing to ensure food safety.

  13. Probe And Enhancement Of SBS Based Phonons In Infrared Fibers Using Waveguide Coupled External Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung; Chong, Yat C.; Fong, Chee K.

    1989-06-01

    Interaction of GHz and MHz radiation with CO2 laser propagation in a silver halide fiber using sBs based phonon coupling is furthet investigated. The external signal serves to both probe and enhance laser generated sBs phonons in the fiber. Efficient coupling of microwave radiation into the fiber is accomplished by placing the fiber in a hollow metallic waveguide, designed and constructed to transmit the dominant mode in the 0.9-2.0 GHz band. MHz radiation is conveniently coupled into the fiber using the guided microwave radiation as carrier. Phonon emissions from the fiber under CO2 laser pumping are first established on a spectrum analyzer; low frequency generators ale then tuned to match these frequencies and their maximum interaction recorded. Such interactions are systematically studied by monitoring the amplitude and waveform of the reflected and transmitted laser pulse at various power levels and frequencies of the externally coupled radiation. A plot of reflected laser power versus incident laser power reveals a distinct sBs generated phonon threshold. Variouslaunch directions of the GHz and MHz radiation with respect to the direction of laser propagation are realized to verify theory governing sBs interactions. The MHz radiation and its associated phonons in the fiber are convenient tools for probing sBs related phenomenon in infrared fibers.

  14. Time and space-resolved energy flux measurements in the divertor of the ASDEX tokamak by computerized infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.R.; Steinmetz, K.; Bein, B.K.

    1984-06-01

    A new, fully computerized and automatic thermographic system has been developed. Its two central components are an AGA THV 780 infrared camera and a PDP-11/34 computer. A combined analytical-numerical method of solving the 1-dimensional heat diffusion equation for a solid of finite thickness bounded by two parallel planes was developed. In high-density (anti nsub(e) = 8 x 10 13 cm -3 ) neutral-beam-heated (L-mode) divertor discharges in ASDEX, the power deposition on the neutralizer plates is reduced to about 10-15% of the total heating power, owing to the inelastic scattering of the divertor plasma from a neutral gas target. Between 30% and 40% of the power is missing in the global balance. The power flow inside the divertor chambers is restricted to an approximately 1-cm-thick plasma scrape-off layer. This width depends only weakly on the density and heating power. During H-phases free of Edge Localized Mode (ELM) activity the energy flow into the divertor is blocked. During H-phases with ELM activity the energy is expelled into the divertor in very short intense pulses (several MW for about one hundred μs). Sawtooth events are able to transport significant amounts of energy from the plasma core to the peripheral zones and the scrape-off layer, and they are frequently correlated with transitions from the L to the H mode. (orig./AH)

  15. Fast near infra-red ferroelectric liquid crystal based Mueller matrix system for imaging and spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgren M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The science and optical engineering of imaging Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry (MME and Spectroscopic MME is currently being revitalized based on an efficient optimal design method, and through the use of the so-called Eig envalue Calibration Technique (ECT. Through the ECT one may efficiently measure the details of the polarization state generator (PSG matrix, and the polarization state analyzer (PSA matrix, and hence avoid modeling of any unknown polarizing components in the system, and in particular the exact response of complex polarizing elements such as liquid crystal retarders. We here start up with presenting a detailed an alysis of the dynamic response of a near infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal based Mueller matrix ellipsometer (NIR FLC- MME [1] . A time dependent simulation model, using the measured time response of the individual FLCs, is used to describe the measured temporal response. Furthermore, the impulse response of the detector and the pre-amplifier is characterized and in cluded in the simulation model. The measured time dependent intensity response of the MME is well explained by simulations. A FLC based NIRMME system is here shown to be able to operate accurately at the maximum speed of approximately 16 ms per Mueller matrix measurement (steady state response. We demonstrate here time dependent Mueller Matrix measurements of a dynamically changing sample, with even down to 8 ms sampling time of each complete Mueller Matrix (with some loss of accuracy. We secondly briefly present the NIR-FLC- MME imaging system, and show applications to strain imaging of a crystal subjected to an external pressure. Furthermore, we present near-infra-red Mueller matrix images and corresponding polar decomposition images of thin slices of bio-tissue [2].

  16. Toward a functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based monitoring of pain assessment for nonverbal patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Rojas, Raul; Huang, Xu; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Pain diagnosis for nonverbal patients represents a challenge in clinical settings. Neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), have shown promising results to assess neuronal function in response to nociception and pain. Recent studies suggest that neuroimaging in conjunction with machine learning models can be used to predict different cognitive tasks. The aim of this study is to expand previous studies by exploring the classification of fNIRS signals (oxyhaemoglobin) according to temperature level (cold and hot) and corresponding pain intensity (low and high) using machine learning models. Toward this aim, we used the quantitative sensory testing to determine pain threshold and pain tolerance to cold and heat in 18 healthy subjects (three females), mean age±standard deviation (31.9±5.5). The classification model is based on the bag-of-words approach, a histogram representation used in document classification based on the frequencies of extracted words and adapted for time series; two learning algorithms were used separately, K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). A comparison between two sets of fNIRS channels was also made in the classification task, all 24 channels and 8 channels from the somatosensory region defined as our region of interest (RoI). The results showed that K-NN obtained slightly better results (92.08%) than SVM (91.25%) using the 24 channels; however, the performance slightly dropped using only channels from the RoI with K-NN (91.53%) and SVM (90.83%). These results indicate potential applications of fNIRS in the development of a physiologically based diagnosis of human pain that would benefit vulnerable patients who cannot self-report pain.

  17. Feasibility of the Four-Quadrant Phase Mask in the Mid-Infrared on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoz, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Riaud, P.; Cavarroc, C.; Baudrand, J.; Reess, J. M.; Rouan, D.

    2006-05-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (formerly the Next Generation Space Telescope) will be capable of unprecedented science, owing to its large diameter, its low background, and its dedicated IR instruments. One of these instruments is a mid-IR facility called MIRI (Mid-IR Instrument), which is being studied through a collaboration of US and European teams. Our group at Observatoire de Meudon has developed a coronagraphic device for the MIRI camera. Taking advantage of the reduced star-planet contrast in this spectral range, the prime goal of this coronagraph is the direct detection of extrasolar planets. Differential imaging in several well-chosen spectral windows is foreseen. In this paper, we evaluate the manufacturing process of the coronagraphic masks and compare the intrinsic performance, as measured in the laboratory, with the scientific requirements.

  18. Space-Based Infrared System-Supportability Engineering and Acquisition Reform in an Existing Acquisition Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fickes, Richard

    1999-01-01

    .... SBIRS is being developed in three increments. This article discusses supportability requirements definition and the implementation of supportability engineering in SBIRS evolution from an Integrated Product Team (IPT) aspect...

  19. Miniature Space Dosimeter Based on Semiconductor Oxides Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro and Clemson University have teamed for a miniature, ultra low power, space radiation dosimeter. We project this unit, "MicroRad", to be 50X...

  20. Exploration of chemical space based on 4-anilinoquinazoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D-D; Hou, Y-P; Wang, W; Zhu, H-L

    2012-01-01

    Chemical space is defined as all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems, which is so vast that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Indeed, a thorough examination of all "chemical space" is practically impossible. The success of three EGFR inhibitors (Gefitnib, Erlotinib, Lapatinib) suggests that 4-anilinoquinazoline scaffold is still worth developing in the future. To date hundreds of this sort of derivatives have been synthesized and show potent anticancer activities. Most of the compounds have been proved to be EGFR/HER2 kinase inhibitors, binding at the hinge region of the ATP site and some lead compounds have been optimized against a number of different kinases, including VEGFR-2, Src, Aurora A/B, Tpl, Clk and PDE10A. Now there is now a rich pipeline of novel anticancer agents based on 4-anilinoquinazoline in early phase clinical trials. This review will highlight the exploration of chemical space of 4-anilinoquinazoline in the past ten years and we hope that increasing knowledge of the SAR and cellular processes underlying the antitumor-activity of anilinoquinazoline derivatives will be beneficial to the rational design of new generation of small molecule anticancer drugs.

  1. Feature extraction algorithm for space targets based on fractal theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Balin; Yuan, Jianping; Yue, Xiaokui; Ning, Xin

    2007-11-01

    In order to offer a potential for extending the life of satellites and reducing the launch and operating costs, satellite servicing including conducting repairs, upgrading and refueling spacecraft on-orbit become much more frequently. Future space operations can be more economically and reliably executed using machine vision systems, which can meet real time and tracking reliability requirements for image tracking of space surveillance system. Machine vision was applied to the research of relative pose for spacecrafts, the feature extraction algorithm was the basis of relative pose. In this paper fractal geometry based edge extraction algorithm which can be used in determining and tracking the relative pose of an observed satellite during proximity operations in machine vision system was presented. The method gets the gray-level image distributed by fractal dimension used the Differential Box-Counting (DBC) approach of the fractal theory to restrain the noise. After this, we detect the consecutive edge using Mathematical Morphology. The validity of the proposed method is examined by processing and analyzing images of space targets. The edge extraction method not only extracts the outline of the target, but also keeps the inner details. Meanwhile, edge extraction is only processed in moving area to reduce computation greatly. Simulation results compared edge detection using the method which presented by us with other detection methods. The results indicate that the presented algorithm is a valid method to solve the problems of relative pose for spacecrafts.

  2. Fiber-based laser MOPA transmitter packaging for space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Gonzales, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Fahey, Molly; Plants, Michael; Rodriguez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Abshire, James; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Hariharan, Anand; Mamakos, William; Bean, Brian

    2018-02-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing lidar to remotely measure CO2 and CH4 in the Earth's atmosphere. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. We are working on maturing the technology readiness of a fiber-based, 1.57-micron wavelength laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. To this end, we are building a ruggedized prototype to demonstrate the required power and performance and survive the required environment. We are building a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture. The laser is a wavelength-locked, single frequency, externally modulated DBR operating at 1.57-micron followed by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The last amplifier stage is a polarization-maintaining, very-large-mode-area fiber with 1000 μm2 effective area pumped by a Raman fiber laser. The optical output is single-frequency, one microsecond pulses with >450 μJ pulse energy, 7.5 KHz repetition rate, single spatial mode, and < 20 dB polarization extinction.

  3. Systems definition space based power conversion systems: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on earth were investigated. These systems were of three basic types: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  4. A global space-based stratospheric aerosol climatology: 1979-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Ernest, Nicholas; Millán, Luis; Rieger, Landon; Bourassa, Adam; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Manney, Gloria; Luo, Beiping; Arfeuille, Florian; Peter, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    We describe the construction of a continuous 38-year record of stratospheric aerosol optical properties. The Global Space-based Stratospheric Aerosol Climatology, or GloSSAC, provided the input data to the construction of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project stratospheric aerosol forcing data set (1979-2014) and we have extended it through 2016 following an identical process. GloSSAC focuses on the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) series of instruments through mid-2005, and on the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data thereafter. We also use data from other space instruments and from ground-based, air, and balloon borne instruments to fill in key gaps in the data set. The end result is a global and gap-free data set focused on aerosol extinction coefficient at 525 and 1020 nm and other parameters on an "as available" basis. For the primary data sets, we developed a new method for filling the post-Pinatubo eruption data gap for 1991-1993 based on data from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer. In addition, we developed a new method for populating wintertime high latitudes during the SAGE period employing a latitude-equivalent latitude conversion process that greatly improves the depiction of aerosol at high latitudes compared to earlier similar efforts. We report data in the troposphere only when and where it is available. This is primarily during the SAGE II period except for the most enhanced part of the Pinatubo period. It is likely that the upper troposphere during Pinatubo was greatly enhanced over non-volcanic periods and that domain remains substantially under-characterized. We note that aerosol levels during the OSIRIS/CALIPSO period in the lower stratosphere at mid- and high latitudes is routinely higher than what we observed during the SAGE II period. While this period had nearly continuous low-level volcanic activity, it

  5. A global space-based stratospheric aerosol climatology: 1979–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the construction of a continuous 38-year record of stratospheric aerosol optical properties. The Global Space-based Stratospheric Aerosol Climatology, or GloSSAC, provided the input data to the construction of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project stratospheric aerosol forcing data set (1979–2014 and we have extended it through 2016 following an identical process. GloSSAC focuses on the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE series of instruments through mid-2005, and on the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO data thereafter. We also use data from other space instruments and from ground-based, air, and balloon borne instruments to fill in key gaps in the data set. The end result is a global and gap-free data set focused on aerosol extinction coefficient at 525 and 1020 nm and other parameters on an "as available" basis. For the primary data sets, we developed a new method for filling the post-Pinatubo eruption data gap for 1991–1993 based on data from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer. In addition, we developed a new method for populating wintertime high latitudes during the SAGE period employing a latitude-equivalent latitude conversion process that greatly improves the depiction of aerosol at high latitudes compared to earlier similar efforts. We report data in the troposphere only when and where it is available. This is primarily during the SAGE II period except for the most enhanced part of the Pinatubo period. It is likely that the upper troposphere during Pinatubo was greatly enhanced over non-volcanic periods and that domain remains substantially under-characterized. We note that aerosol levels during the OSIRIS/CALIPSO period in the lower stratosphere at mid- and high latitudes is routinely higher than what we observed during the SAGE II period. While this period had nearly continuous low

  6. Design of a stabilized, compact gimbal for space-based free space optical communications (FSOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, A.; Shubert, P.; McNally, J.; Jacka, N.; Pierson, R.

    2017-02-01

    Data transmits via optical communications through fibers at 10's of Terabits per second. Given the recent rapid explosion for bandwidth and competing demand for radio frequency (RF) spectrum allocations among differing interests, the need for space-based free space optical communications (FSOC) systems is ever increasing. FSOC systems offer advantages of higher data rates, smaller size and weight, narrower beam divergence, and lower power than RF systems. Lightweight, small form factor, and high performance two-axis gimbals are of strong interest for satellite FSOC applications. Small gimbal and optical terminal designs are important for widespread implementation of optical communications systems; in particular, for satellite-to-satellite crosslinks where the advantages of more secure communications links (Lower Probability of Intercept (LPI)/Lower Probability of Detect (LPD)) are very important. We developed design concepts for a small gimbal focusing on the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) subsystems to establish their feasible implementation against the pointing stabilization, size, weight and power (SWaP), and performance challenges. The design drivers for the gimbal were weight, the elevation and azimuth field of regards, the form factor envelope (1U CubeSats), 100 μrad pointing accuracy, and 10 degrees per second slew capability. Innovations required in this development included a continuous fiber passed through an Azimuth Fiber Wrap and Elevation Fiber Wrap, overcoming typical mechanical and stress related limitations encountered with fiber optic cable wraps. In this presentation, we describe the configuration trades and design of such a gimbal.

  7. Adaptive Kalman filtering for histogram-based appearance learning in infrared imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Vijay; Fan, Guoliang; Havlicek, Joseph P; Fan, Xin; Zhai, Yan; Yeary, Mark B

    2012-11-01

    Targets of interest in video acquired from imaging infrared sensors often exhibit profound appearance variations due to a variety of factors, including complex target maneuvers, ego-motion of the sensor platform, background clutter, etc., making it difficult to maintain a reliable detection process and track lock over extended time periods. Two key issues in overcoming this problem are how to represent the target and how to learn its appearance online. In this paper, we adopt a recent appearance model that estimates the pixel intensity histograms as well as the distribution of local standard deviations in both the foreground and background regions for robust target representation. Appearance learning is then cast as an adaptive Kalman filtering problem where the process and measurement noise variances are both unknown. We formulate this problem using both covariance matching and, for the first time in a visual tracking application, the recent autocovariance least-squares (ALS) method. Although convergence of the ALS algorithm is guaranteed only for the case of globally wide sense stationary process and measurement noises, we demonstrate for the first time that the technique can often be applied with great effectiveness under the much weaker assumption of piecewise stationarity. The performance advantages of the ALS method relative to the classical covariance matching are illustrated by means of simulated stationary and nonstationary systems. Against real data, our results show that the ALS-based algorithm outperforms the covariance matching as well as the traditional histogram similarity-based methods, achieving sub-pixel tracking accuracy against the well-known AMCOM closure sequences and the recent SENSIAC automatic target recognition dataset.

  8. An intelligent approach for cooling radiator fault diagnosis based on infrared thermal image processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri-Garavand, Amin; Ahmadi, Hojjat; Omid, Mahmoud; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Mollazade, Kaveh; Russell Smith, Alan John; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a new intelligent fault diagnosis and condition monitoring system for classification of different conditions of cooling radiator using infrared thermal images. The system was adopted to classify six types of cooling radiator faults; radiator tubes blockage, radiator fins blockage, loose connection between fins and tubes, radiator door failure, coolant leakage, and normal conditions. The proposed system consists of several distinct procedures including thermal image acquisition, image pre-processing, image processing, two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT), feature extraction, feature selection using a genetic algorithm (GA), and finally classification by artificial neural networks (ANNs). The 2D-DWT is implemented to decompose the thermal images. Subsequently, statistical texture features are extracted from the original images and are decomposed into thermal images. The significant selected features are used to enhance the performance of the designed ANN classifier for the 6 types of cooling radiator conditions (output layer) in the next stage. For the tested system, the input layer consisted of 16 neurons based on the feature selection operation. The best performance of ANN was obtained with a 16-6-6 topology. The classification results demonstrated that this system can be employed satisfactorily as an intelligent condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for a class of cooling radiator. - Highlights: • Intelligent fault diagnosis of cooling radiator using thermal image processing. • Thermal image processing in a multiscale representation structure by 2D-DWT. • Selection features based on a hybrid system that uses both GA and ANN. • Application of ANN as classifier. • Classification accuracy of fault detection up to 93.83%

  9. Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kiemle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere after water vapour and carbon dioxide. A major handicap to quantify the emissions at the Earth's surface in order to better understand biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes and potential climate feedbacks is the lack of accurate and global observations of methane. Space-based integrated path differential absorption (IPDA lidar has potential to fill this gap, and a Methane Remote Lidar Mission (MERLIN on a small satellite in polar orbit was proposed by DLR and CNES in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. System simulations are used to identify key performance parameters and to find an advantageous instrument configuration, given the environmental, technological, and budget constraints. The sensitivity studies use representative averages of the atmospheric and surface state to estimate the measurement precision, i.e. the random uncertainty due to instrument noise. Key performance parameters for MERLIN are average laser power, telescope size, orbit height, surface reflectance, and detector noise. A modest-size lidar instrument with 0.45 W average laser power and 0.55 m telescope diameter on a 506 km orbit could provide 50-km averaged methane column measurement along the sub-satellite track with a precision of about 1% over vegetation. The use of a methane absorption trough at 1.65 μm improves the near-surface measurement sensitivity and vastly relaxes the wavelength stability requirement that was identified as one of the major technological risks in the pre-phase A studies for A-SCOPE, a space-based IPDA lidar for carbon dioxide at the European Space Agency. Minimal humidity and temperature sensitivity at this wavelength position will enable accurate measurements in tropical wetlands, key regions with largely uncertain methane emissions. In contrast to actual passive remote sensors, measurements in Polar Regions will be possible and biases due to aerosol

  10. Hubble Space Telescope and Ground-Based Observations of the Type Iax Supernovae SN 2005hk and SN 2008A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCully, Curtis; Jha, Saurabh W.; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Holtzman, Jon A.; Balam, David D.; Branch, David; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Frieman, Joshua; Fynbo, Johan; Galbany, Lluis; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Garnavich, Peter M.; Graham, Melissa L.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Leonard, Douglas C.; Li, Weidong; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sollerman, Jesper; Steele, Thea N.; Thomas, Rollin C.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Zheng, Chen

    2014-04-24

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2005hk and SN 2008A, typical members of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe). Here we focus on late-time observations, where these objects deviate most dramatically from all other SN types. Instead of the dominant nebular emission lines that are observed in other SNe at late phases, spectra of SNe 2005hk and 2008A show lines of Fe II, Ca II, and Fe I more than a year past maximum light, along with narrow [Fe II] and [Ca II] emission. We use spectral features to constrain the temperature and density of the ejecta, and find high densities at late times, with ne109 cm–3. Such high densities should yield enhanced cooling of the ejecta, making these objects good candidates to observe the expected "infrared catastrophe," a generic feature of SN Ia models. However, our HST photometry of SN 2008A does not match the predictions of an infrared catastrophe. Moreover, our HST observations rule out a "complete deflagration" that fully disrupts the white dwarf for these peculiar SNe, showing no evidence for unburned material at late times. Deflagration explosion models that leave behind a bound remnant can match some of the observed properties of SNe Iax, but no published model is consistent with all of our observations of SNe 2005hk and 2008A.

  11. GaSb substrates with extended IR wavelength for advanced space-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. P.; Flint, P.; Dallas, G.; Bakken, D.; Blanchat, K.; Brown, G. J.; Vangala, S. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Krishnaswami, K.

    2009-05-01

    GaSb substrates have advantages that make them attractive for implementation of a wide range of infrared (IR) detectors with higher operating temperatures for stealth and space based applications. A significant aspect that would enable widespread commercial application of GaSb wafers for very long wavelength IR (VLWIR) applications is the capability for transmissivity beyond 15 μm. Due largely to the GaSb (antisite) defect and other point defects in undoped GaSb substrates, intrinsic GaSb is still slightly p-type and strongly absorbs in the VLWIR. This requires backside thinning of the GaSb substrate for IR transmissivity. An extremely low n-type GaSb substrate is preferred to eliminate thinning and provide a substrate solution for backside illuminated VLWIR devices. By providing a more homogeneous radial distribution of the melt solute to suppress GaSb formation and controlling the cooling rate, ultra low doped n:GaSb has been achieved. This study examines the surface properties and IR transmission spectra of ultra low doped GaSb substrates at both room and low temperatures. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), homoepitaxy by MBE, and infrared Fourier transform (FTIR) analysis was implemented to examine material quality. As compared with standard low doped GaSb, the ultra low doped substrates show over 50% transmission and consistent wavelength transparency past 23 μm with improved %T at low temperature. Homoepitaxy and AFM results indicate the ultra low doped GaSb has a low thermal desorbtion character and qualified morphology. In summary, improvements in room temperature IR transmission and extended wavelength characteristics have been shown consistently for ultra low doped n:GaSb substrates.

  12. GaSb substrates with extended IR wavelength for advanced space based applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Lisa P.; Flint, Patrick; Dallas, Gordon; Bakken, Daniel; Blanchat, Kevin; Brown, Gail J.; Vangala, Shivashankar R.; Goodhue, William D.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

    2009-05-01

    GaSb substrates have advantages that make them attractive for implementation of a wide range of infrared (IR) detectors with higher operating temperatures for stealth and space based applications. A significant aspect that would enable widespread commercial application of GaSb wafers for very long wavelength IR (VLWIR) applications is the capability for transmissivity beyond 15 m. Due largely to the GaSb (antisite) defect and other point defects in undoped GaSb substrates, intrinsic GaSb is still slightly p-type and strongly absorbs in the VLWIR. This requires backside thinning of the GaSb substrate for IR transmissivity. An extremely low n-type GaSb substrate is preferred to eliminate thinning and provide a substrate solution for backside illuminated VLWIR devices. By providing a more homogeneous radial distribution of the melt solute to suppress GaSb formation and controlling the cooling rate, ultra low doped n:GaSb has been achieved. This study examines the surface properties and IR transmission spectra of ultra low doped GaSb substrates at both room and low temperatures. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), homoepitaxy by MBE, and infrared Fourier transform (FTIR) analysis was implemented to examine material quality. As compared with standard low doped GaSb, the ultra low doped substrates show over 50% transmission and consistent wavelength transparency past 23 m with improved %T at low temperature. Homoepitaxy and AFM results indicate the ultra low doped GaSb has a low thermal desorbtion character and qualified morphology. In summary, improvements in room temperature IR transmission and extended wavelength characteristics have been shown consistently for ultra low doped n:GaSb substrates.

  13. Hierarchical Segmentation Using Tree-Based Shape Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongchao; Carlinet, Edwin; Geraud, Thierry; Najman, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    Current trends in image segmentation are to compute a hierarchy of image segmentations from fine to coarse. A classical approach to obtain a single meaningful image partition from a given hierarchy is to cut it in an optimal way, following the seminal approach of the scale-set theory. While interesting in many cases, the resulting segmentation, being a non-horizontal cut, is limited by the structure of the hierarchy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that acts by transforming an input hierarchy into a new saliency map. It relies on the notion of shape space: a graph representation of a set of regions extracted from the image. Each region is characterized with an attribute describing it. We weigh the boundaries of a subset of meaningful regions (local minima) in the shape space by extinction values based on the attribute. This extinction-based saliency map represents a new hierarchy of segmentations highlighting regions having some specific characteristics. Each threshold of this map represents a segmentation which is generally different from any cut of the original hierarchy. This new approach thus enlarges the set of possible partition results that can be extracted from a given hierarchy. Qualitative and quantitative illustrations demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method.

  14. Tests of gravity with future space-based experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2018-03-01

    Future space-based tests of relativistic gravitation—laser ranging to Phobos, accelerometers in orbit, and optical networks surrounding Earth—will constrain the theory of gravity with unprecedented precision by testing the inverse-square law, the strong and weak equivalence principles, and the deflection and time delay of light by massive bodies. In this paper, we estimate the bounds that could be obtained on alternative gravity theories that use screening mechanisms to suppress deviations from general relativity in the Solar System: chameleon, symmetron, and Galileon models. We find that space-based tests of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ will constrain chameleon and symmetron theories to new levels, and that tests of the inverse-square law using laser ranging to Phobos will provide the most stringent constraints on Galileon theories to date. We end by discussing the potential for constraining these theories using upcoming tests of the weak equivalence principle, and conclude that further theoretical modeling is required in order to fully utilize the data.

  15. Sunlight-driven eco-friendly smart curtain based on infrared responsive graphene oxide-polymer photoactuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeladhar; Raturi, Parul; Singh, J P

    2018-02-27

    Photomechanical actuation is the conversion of light energy into mechanical energy through some smart materials. Infrared-responsive smart materials have become an emerging field of research due to easy availability and eco-friendly nature of their stimulus in the form of sunlight, which contains about 50% of near-infrared(nIR) making these materials useful at macro-scale photoactuator applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of highly versatile nIR triggered photoactuators based on graphene oxide/polycarbonate bilayers that offers fast, low-cost fabrication, large deflection, reversible actuation and wavelength-selective response. The photoactuators are realized by vacuum filtration of graphene oxide/water dispersion through polycarbonate membrane resulting graphene oxide/polymer bilayer structure. The photoactuation response was measured in the form of deflection from equilibrium position as a result of infrared-irradiation. The deflection is caused by the generated thermal stress at the interface of bilayers due to mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient as a results of nIR absorption by graphene oxide and subsequent temperature rise. A maximum deflection of 12 mm (circular-shaped structure with diameter 28 mm) with corresponding bending curvature of 0.33 cm -1 was shown by this photoactuator for illumination intensity of 106 mW/cm 2 . Few applications of these photoactuators such as sunlight-driven smart curtain, infrared actuated curtain and self-folding box are also demonstrated.

  16. Automated Detection of Small Bodies by Space Based Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidstrup, P. R.; Grillmayer, G.; Andersen, A. C.; Haack, H.; Jorgensen, J. L.

    The number of known comets and asteroids is increasing every year. Up till now this number is including approximately 250,000 of the largest minor planets, as they are usually referred. These discoveries are due to the Earth-based observation which has intensified over the previous decades. Additionally larger telescopes and arrays of telescopes are being used for exploring our Solar System. It is believed that all near- Earth and Main-Belt asteroids of diameters above 10 to 30 km have been discovered, leaving these groups of objects as observationally complete. However, the cataloguing of smaller bodies is incomplete as only a very small fraction of the expected number has been discovered. It is estimated that approximately 1010 main belt asteroids in the size range 1 m to 1 km are too faint to be observed using Earth-based telescopes. In order to observe these small bodies, space-based search must be initiated to remove atmospheric disturbances and to minimize the distance to the asteroids and thereby minimising the requirement for long camera integration times. A new method of space-based detection of moving non-stellar objects is currently being developed utilising the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) built for spacecraft attitude determination by Ørsted, Danish Technical University. The ASC serves as a backbone technology in the project as it is capable of fully automated distinction of known and unknown celestial objects. By only processing objects of particular interest, i.e. moving objects, it will be possible to discover small bodies with a minimum of ground control, with the ultimate ambition of a fully automated space search probe. Currently, the ASC is being mounted on the Flying Laptop satellite of the Institute of Space Systems, Universität Stuttgart. It will, after a launch into a low Earth polar orbit in 2008, test the detection method with the ASC equipment that already had significant in-flight experience. A future use of the ASC based automated

  17. A Web Based Approach to Integrate Space Culture and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerla, F.

    2002-01-01

    Our intention is to dedicate a large section of our web site to space education. As the national User Support and Operation Center (USOC) for the International Space Station, MARS Center is also willing to provide material, such as videos and data, for educational purposes. In order to base our initiative on authoritative precedents, our first step has been a comparative analysis between different space agency education web sites, such as ESA and NASA. As is well known, Internet is a powerful reality, capable of connecting people all over the world and rendering public a huge amount of information. The first problem, then, is to organize this information, in order to use the web as an efficient education tool. That is why studies such as User Modeling (UM), Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Semantic Web have become more important in Information Technology and Science. Traditional search engines are unable to provide an optimal retrieval of contents really searched for by users. Semantic Web is a valid alternative: according to its theories, web information should be represented using metadata language. Users should be able and enabled to successfully search, obtain and study new information from web. Forging knowledge in an intelligent manner, preventing users from making errors, and making this formidable quantity of information easily available have also been the starting points for HCI methodologies for defining Adaptable Interfaces. Here the information is divided into different sets, on the basis of the intended user profile, in order to prevent users from getting lost. Realized as an adaptable interface, an education web site can help users to effectively retrieve the information necessary for their scopes (teaching for a teacher and learning for a student). For students it's a great advantage to use interfaces designed on the basis of their age and scholastic level. Indeed, an adaptable interface is intended not just for students, but also for teachers

  18. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Y.T.D.

    1990-01-01

    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  19. Detecting ship targets in spaceborne infrared image based on modeling radiation anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Zou, Zhengxia; Shi, Zhenwei; Li, Bo

    2017-09-01

    Using infrared imaging sensors to detect ship target in the ocean environment has many advantages compared to other sensor modalities, such as better thermal sensitivity and all-weather detection capability. We propose a new ship detection method by modeling radiation anomalies for spaceborne infrared image. The proposed method can be decomposed into two stages, where in the first stage, a test infrared image is densely divided into a set of image patches and the radiation anomaly of each patch is estimated by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), and thereby target candidates are obtained from anomaly image patches. In the second stage, target candidates are further checked by a more discriminative criterion to obtain the final detection result. The main innovation of the proposed method is inspired by the biological mechanism that human eyes are sensitive to the unusual and anomalous patches among complex background. The experimental result on short wavelength infrared band (1.560 - 2.300 μm) and long wavelength infrared band (10.30 - 12.50 μm) of Landsat-8 satellite shows the proposed method achieves a desired ship detection accuracy with higher recall than other classical ship detection methods.

  20. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  1. NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF ASTEROIDS FROM DENIS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The DENIS program (Deep European Near-Infrared southern sky Survey) was a ground-based survey of the southern sky with the aim of providing an extensive I,J,Ks...

  2. Turn-key Near-Infrared Photon-Counting Detector Module for LIDAR Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and deliver a turn-key photon counting detector module for near-infrared wavelengths, based on large-area InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes...

  3. Thermal effects of an ICL-based mid-infrared CH4 sensor within a wide atmospheric temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weilin; Zheng, Chuantao; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Girija, Aswathy V.; He, Qixin; Zheng, Huadan; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2018-03-01

    The thermal effects of an interband cascade laser (ICL) based mid-infrared methane (CH4) sensor that uses long-path absorption spectroscopy were studied. The sensor performance in the laboratory at a constant temperature of ∼25 °C was measured for 5 h and its Allan deviation was ∼2 ppbv with a 1 s averaging time. A LabVIEW-based simulation program was developed to study thermal effects on infrared absorption and a temperature compensation technique was developed to minimize these effects. An environmental test chamber was employed to investigate the thermal effects that occur in the sensor system with variation of the test chamber temperature between 10 and 30 °C. The thermal response of the sensor in a laboratory setting was observed using a 2.1 ppm CH4 standard gas sample. Indoor/outdoor CH4 measurements were conducted to evaluate the sensor performance within a wide atmospheric temperature range.

  4. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the fast identification of PVC-based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, M; Rantanen, J; Harmia-Pulkkinen, T; Michiels, E; Hiltunen, R; Räsänen, M; Vuorela, H

    2001-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a non-destructive and rapid qualitative method for the analysis of plastic films used by the pharmaceutical industry for blistering. Three types of films were investigated: 250 microm PVC [poly(vinyl chloride)] films, 250 microm PVC films coated with 40 g m(-2) of PVDC [poly(vinylidene dichloride)] and 250 microm PVC films coated with 5 g m(-2) of TE (Thermoelast) and 90 g m(-2) of PVDC. Three analyses were carried out using different pre-treatment options and a PLS (partial least squares) algorithm. Each analysis was aimed at identifying one type of film and rejecting all types of false sample (different thickness, colour or layer). True and false samples from four plastics manufacturers were included in the calibration sets in order to obtain robust methods that were suitable regardless of the supplier. Specificity was demonstrated by testing validation sets against the methods. The tests showed 0% of type I (false negative identification) and 1% of type II errors (false positive identification) for the PVC method, 13 and 3%, respectively, for the PVC-PVDC method and no error for the PVC-TE-PVDC method. Type II errors, mostly due to the slight sensitivity of the methods to film thickness, are easily corrected by simple thickness measurements. This study demonstrates that NIR spectroscopy is an excellent tool for the identification of PVC-based films. The three methods can be used by the pharmaceutical industry or plastics manufacturers for the quality control of films used in blister packaging.

  5. Thrombolytic therapeutic effect monitoring based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Yaoxian; Gao, Yuan; Li, Ting

    2017-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is of serious mortality and morbidity, which often happens in inpatients and especially with the postoperative population [1]. The golden standard to diagnose DVT is venography, which relies on complicated imaging modalities requiring to be injected in a vein below the clot invasively and ionizing procedures that employing xray imaging to show where and how the DVT blocks. The near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is recently found to be an intriguing and potential method detecting DVT in clinics. It has been reported recently that employing NIRS to diagnose DVT. Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO), local extremities manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis, usually cause thrombosis and the reduction of distal blood flow. Thrombolytic therapy is to use exogenous activator to activate the dissolution system, which can dissolve intracoronary thrombus. Here we attempt to monitor the DVT and ASO patients during the whole procedure of thrombolytic treatment, then compare the data with those DVT and ASO patients did not take treatments and normal population. 8 DVT and 9 ASO patients and 12 normal subjects were recruited to take the measurements of concentration variation of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins (Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]) by NIRS-based thrombosis monitor. Thereinto, 5 DVT and 6 ASO patients has taken the thrombolytic treatment, and the data for the periods before treatment, during treatment, and after treatment were extracted for analysis. We found that Δ[HbO2] fluctuates and even decreases in DVT and ASO patients. After the thrombolytic therapy, Δ[HbO2] increases about 45% and converge to the curves of normal subjects. And the Δ[Hb] emerges the similar trends, except for the rising trend in the beginning and the downtrend after thrombolytic therapy. The findings indicated NIRS has big potential in clinical monitoring of DVT and ASO patients and offering reliable and quantitative evaluation of thrombolytic therapy outcomes.

  6. [Carbon monoxide gas detection system based on mid-infrared spectral absorption technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Lin; Dong, Ming; Song, Nan; Song, Fang; Zheng, Chuan-Tao; Wang, Yi-Ding

    2014-10-01

    Based on infrared spectral absorption technique, a carbon monoxide (CO) detection system was developed using the fundamental absorption band at the wavelength of 4.6 μm of CO molecule and adopting pulse-modulated wideband incandescence and dual-channel detector. The detection system consists of pulse-modulated wideband incandescence, open ellipsoid light-collec- tor gas-cell, dual-channel detector, main-control and signal-processing module. By optimizing open ellipsoid light-collector gas- cell, the optical path of the gas absorption reaches 40 cm, and the amplitude of the electrical signal from the detector is 2 to 3 times larger than the original signal. Therefore, by using the ellipsoidal condenser, the signal-to-noise ratio of the system will be to some extent increased to improve performance of the system. With the prepared standard CO gas sample, sensing characteris- tics on CO gas were investigated. Experimental results reveal that, the limit of detection (LOD) is about 10 ppm; the relative er- ror at the LOD point is less than 14%, and that is less than 7. 8% within the low concentration range of 20~180 ppm; the maxi- mum absolute error of 50 min long-term measurement concentration on the 0 ppm gas sample is about 3 ppm, and the standard deviation is as small as 0. 18 ppm. Compared with the CO detection systems utilizing quantum cascaded lasers (QCLs) and dis- tributed feedback lasers (DFBLs), the proposed sensor shows potential applications in CO detection under the circumstances of coal-mine and environmental protection, by virtue of high performance-cost ratio, simple optical-path structure, etc.

  7. Biodegradable starch-based films containing saturated fatty acids: thermal, infrared and raman spectroscopic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Nobrega

    Full Text Available Biodegradable films of thermoplastic starch and poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT containing fatty acids were characterized thermally and with infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The symmetrical character of the benzene ring in PBAT provided a means to illustrate the difference between these spectroscopic techniques, because a band appeared in the Raman spectrum but not in the infrared. The thermal analysis showed three degradation stages related to fatty acids, starch and PBAT. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids with different molecular mass (caproic, lauric and stearic did not change the nature of the chemical bonds among the components in the blends of starch, PBAT and glycerol, according to the thermal analysis, infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  8. Background and state of the art of near infrared spectroscopy in the forest sector base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñiz, G.I.B. de; Magalhães, W.L.E.; Carneiro, M.E.; Viana, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of wood properties is the fundamental importance for the indication of the potential and use of this material. In the search for new alternatives for a fast, simple and reliable characterization, there are the non-destructive evaluations of wood. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used as a non-destructive method that allows qualitative and quantitative information of the constituents of biomass through the interaction of electromagnetic waves with near-infrared next to the sample. This work aims to provide a review of the technique of near infrared spectroscopy and its application in forestry. The technique is used in virtually all areas due to the level of development that this technology has reached in recent years. NIR spectroscopy has proved a quick and efficient replacement of several tests that determine the quality of the wood. This is a literature review and state of the art on the theme [pt

  9. Biodegradable starch-based films containing saturated fatty acids: thermal, infrared and raman spectroscopic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobrega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable films of thermoplastic starch and poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT containing fatty acids were characterized thermally and with infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The symmetrical character of the benzene ring in PBAT provided a means to illustrate the difference between these spectroscopic techniques, because a band appeared in the Raman spectrum but not in the infrared. The thermal analysis showed three degradation stages related to fatty acids, starch and PBAT. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids with different molecular mass (caproic, lauric and stearic did not change the nature of the chemical bonds among the components in the blends of starch, PBAT and glycerol, according to the thermal analysis, infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  10. Low-loss graphene-based optical phase modulator operating at mid-infrared wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yuki; Takagi, Shinichi; Takenaka, Mitsuru

    2018-04-01

    We numerically analyzed a graphene optical phase modulator with a Si or Ge waveguide operating at a mid-infrared wavelength. We found that the change in operating wavelength from a near-infrared wavelength to a mid-infrared wavelength enables phase modulation with a significantly small optical loss at a realistic bias voltage. We analyzed the wavelength dependence of the modulation characteristics in the wavelength range from 1.55 to 10 µm, which revealed that the minimum insertion of 4 dB with 1 dB optical loss change during phase modulation can be achieved at a wavelength of 4 µm. The phase modulation efficiency was expected to be 0.045 V·cm. Thus, we can obtain a practical graphene optical phase modulator at a wavelength of 4 µm, which will be useful for optical communication and sensing.

  11. Accelerometer for Space Applications Based on Light-Pulse Atom Interferometry, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build a compact, high-precision single-axis accelerometer based on atom interferometry that is applicable to operation in space environments. Based on...

  12. Miniaturized MMIC-Based Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizers for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MMIC technology provides the technology base to reduce the size and weight of microwave and millimeter wave (MMW) equipment on board airborne and space-based...

  13. Analysing Leontiev Tube Capabilities in the Space-based Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Shchegolev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications dedicated to the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device (the Leontief tube and shows main factors affecting its efficiency. Describes an experimental installation, which is used to obtain data on the value of energy separation in the air to prove this device the operability.The assumption that there is an optimal relationship between the flow velocities in the subsonic and supersonic channels of the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device is experimentally confirmed.The paper conducts analysis of possible ways to raise the efficiency of power plants of various (including space basing, and shows that, currently, a mainstream of increasing efficiency of their operation is to complicate design solutions.A scheme of the closed gas-turbine space-based plant using a mixture of inert gases (helium-xenon one for operation is proposed. What differs it from the simplest variants is a lack of the cooler-radiator and integration into gas-dynamic temperature stratification device and heat compressor.Based on the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics, it is shown that the total pressure restorability when removing heat in a thermal compressor determines operating capability of this scheme. The exploratory study of creating a heat compressor is performed, and it is shown that when operating on gases with a Prandtl number close to 1, the total pressure does not increase.The operating capability conditions of the heat compressor are operation on gases with a low value of the Prandtl number (helium-xenon mixture at high supersonic velocities and with a longitudinal pressure gradient available.It is shown that there is a region of the low values of the Prandtl number (Pr <0.3 for which, with the longitudinal pressure gradient available in the supersonic flows of a viscous gas, the total pressure can be restored.

  14. Laser-plasma-based Space Radiation Reproduction in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, B; Karger, O; Königstein, T; Pretzler, G; Manahan, G G; McKenna, P; Gray, R; Wilson, R; Wiggins, S M; Welsh, G H; Beaton, A; Delinikolas, P; Jaroszynski, D A; Rosenzweig, J B; Karmakar, A; Ferlet-Cavrois, V; Costantino, A; Muschitiello, M; Daly, E

    2017-02-08

    Space radiation is a great danger to electronics and astronauts onboard space vessels. The spectral flux of space electrons, protons and ions for example in the radiation belts is inherently broadband, but this is a feature hard to mimic with conventional radiation sources. Using laser-plasma-accelerators, we reproduced relativistic, broadband radiation belt flux in the laboratory, and used this man-made space radiation to test the radiation hardness of space electronics. Such close mimicking of space radiation in the lab builds on the inherent ability of laser-plasma-accelerators to directly produce broadband Maxwellian-type particle flux, akin to conditions in space. In combination with the established sources, utilisation of the growing number of ever more potent laser-plasma-accelerator facilities worldwide as complementary space radiation sources can help alleviate the shortage of available beamtime and may allow for development of advanced test procedures, paving the way towards higher reliability of space missions.

  15. Far-infrared spectroscopy of lanthanide-based molecular magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Sabrina

    2015-05-13

    This thesis demonstrates the applicability of far-infrared spectroscopy for the study of the crystal-field splitting of lanthanides in single-molecular magnetic materials. The far-infrared studies of three different kinds of single-molecular-magnetic materials, a single-ion magnet, a single-chain magnet and an exchange-coupled cluster, yielded a deeper understanding of the crystal-field splitting of the lanthanides in these materials. In addition, our results offered the opportunity to gain a deeper insight into the relaxation processes of these materials.

  16. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-08-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970’s and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  17. Adaptive density trajectory cluster based on time and space distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fagui; Zhang, Zhijie

    2017-10-01

    There are some hotspot problems remaining in trajectory cluster for discovering mobile behavior regularity, such as the computation of distance between sub trajectories, the setting of parameter values in cluster algorithm and the uncertainty/boundary problem of data set. As a result, based on the time and space, this paper tries to define the calculation method of distance between sub trajectories. The significance of distance calculation for sub trajectories is to clearly reveal the differences in moving trajectories and to promote the accuracy of cluster algorithm. Besides, a novel adaptive density trajectory cluster algorithm is proposed, in which cluster radius is computed through using the density of data distribution. In addition, cluster centers and number are selected by a certain strategy automatically, and uncertainty/boundary problem of data set is solved by designed weighted rough c-means. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can perform the fuzzy trajectory cluster effectively on the basis of the time and space distance, and obtain the optimal cluster centers and rich cluster results information adaptably for excavating the features of mobile behavior in mobile and sociology network.

  18. Data Processing for the Space-Based Desis Hyperspectral Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, E.; Avbelj, J.; Alonso, K.; Bachmann, M.; Cerra, D.; Eckardt, A.; Gerasch, B.; Graham, L.; Günther, B.; Heiden, U.; Kerr, G.; Knodt, U.; Krutz, D.; Krawcyk, H.; Makarau, A.; Miller, R.; Müller, R.; Perkins, R.; Walter, I.

    2017-05-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE) have established a collaboration to develop and operate a new space-based hyperspectral sensor, the DLR Earth Sensing Imaging Spectrometer (DESIS). DESIS will provide spacebased hyperspectral data in the VNIR with high spectral resolution and near-global coverage. While TBE provides the platform and infrastructure for operation of the DESIS instrument on the International Space Station, DLR is responsible for providing the instrument and the processing software. The DESIS instrument is equipped with novel characteristics for an imaging spectrometer such high spectral resolution (2.55 nm), a mirror pointing unit or a CMOS sensor operated in rolling shutter mode. We present here an overview of the DESIS instrument and its processing chain, emphasizing the effect of the novel characteristics of DESIS in the data processing and final data products. Furthermore, we analyse in more detail the effect of the rolling shutter on the DESIS data and possible mitigation/correction strategies.

  19. A space-based radio frequency transient event classifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, K.R.; Blain, C.P.; Caffrey, M.P.; Franz, R.C.; Henneke, K.M.; Jones, R.G.

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy is currently investigating economical and reliable techniques for space-based nuclear weapon treaty verification. Nuclear weapon detonations produce RF transients that are signatures of illegal nuclear weapons tests. However, there are many other sources of RF signals, both natural and man-made. Direct digitization of RF signals requires rates of 300 MSamples per second and produces 10{sup 13} samples per day of data to analyze. it is impractical to store and downlink all digitized RF data from such a satellite without a prohibitively expensive increase in the number and capacities of ground stations. Reliable and robust data processing and information extraction must be performed onboard the spacecraft in order to reduce downlinked data to a reasonable volume. The FORTE (Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events) satellite records RF transients in space. These transients will be classified onboard the spacecraft with an Event Classifier specialized hardware that performs signal preprocessing and neural network classification. The authors describe the Event Classifier requirements, scientific constraints, design and implementation.

  20. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Even at reduced rates of growth, the demand for electric power is expected to more than triple between now and 1995, and to triple again over the period 1995-2020. Without the development of new power sources and advanced transmission technologies, it may not be possible to supply electric energy at prices that are conductive to generalized economic welfare. Solar power is renewable and its conversion and transmission from space may be advantageous. The goal of this study is to assess the economic merit of space-based photovoltaic systems for power generation and a power relay satellite for power transmission. In this study, satellite solar power generation and transmission systems, as represented by current configurations of the Satellite Solar Station (SSPS) and the Power Relay Satellite (PRS), are compared with current and future terrestrial power generation and transmission systems to determine their technical and economic suitability for meeting power demands in the period of 1990 and beyond while meeting ever-increasing environmental and social constraints.

  1. Test-Retest Reliability of an Automated Infrared-Assisted Trunk Accelerometer-Based Gait Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Yu; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Yau, Cheng-Shiang; Shie, Hung-Hai; Wu, Chu-Ming

    2016-07-23

    The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of an automated infrared-assisted, trunk accelerometer-based gait analysis system for measuring gait parameters of healthy subjects in a hospital. Thirty-five participants (28 of them females; age range, 23-79 years) performed a 5-m walk twice using an accelerometer-based gait analysis system with infrared assist. Measurements of spatiotemporal gait parameters (walking speed, step length, and cadence) and trunk control (gait symmetry, gait regularity, acceleration root mean square (RMS), and acceleration root mean square ratio (RMSR)) were recorded in two separate walking tests conducted 1 week apart. Relative and absolute test-retest reliability was determined by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC3,1) and smallest detectable difference (SDD), respectively. The test-retest reliability was excellent for walking speed (ICC = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = 0.74-0.93, SDD = 13.4%), step length (ICC = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.63-0.91, SDD = 12.2%), cadence (ICC = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.63-0.91, SDD = 10.8%), and trunk control (step and stride regularity in anterior-posterior direction, acceleration RMS and acceleration RMSR in medial-lateral direction, and acceleration RMS and stride regularity in vertical direction). An automated infrared-assisted, trunk accelerometer-based gait analysis system is a reliable tool for measuring gait parameters in the hospital environment.

  2. Space Alignment Based on Regularized Inversion Precoding in Cognitive Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For a two-tier Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO cognitive network with common receiver, the precoding matrix has a compact relationship with the capacity performance in the unlicensed secondary system. To increase the capacity of secondary system, an improved precoder based on the idea of regularized inversion for secondary transmitter is proposed. An iterative space alignment algorithm is also presented to ensure the Quality of Service (QoS for primary system. The simulations reveal that, on the premise of achieving QoS for primary system, our proposed algorithm can get larger capacity in secondary system at low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR, which proves the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  3. [Study on the genuineness and producing area of Panax notoginseng based on infrared spectroscopy combined with discriminant analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Yang, Chun-yan; Jin, Hang

    2015-01-01

    The genuineness and producing area of Panax notoginseng were studied based on infrared spectroscopy combined with discriminant analysis. The infrared spectra of 136 taproots of P. notoginseng from 13 planting point in 11 counties were collected and the second derivate spectra were calculated by Omnic 8. 0 software. The infrared spectra and their second derivate spectra in the range 1 800 - 700 cm-1 were used to build model by stepwise discriminant analysis, which was in order to distinguish study on the genuineness of P. notoginseng. The model built based on the second derivate spectra showed the better recognition effect for the genuineness of P. notoginseng. The correct rate of returned classification reached to 100%, and the prediction accuracy was 93. 4%. The stability of model was tested by cross validation and the method was performed extrapolation validation. The second derivate spectra combined with the same discriminant analysis method were used to distinguish the producing area of P. notoginseng. The recognition effect of models built based on different range of spectrum and different numbers of samples were compared and found that when the model was built by collecting 8 samples from each planting point as training sample and the spectrum in the range 1 500 - 1 200 cm-1 , the recognition effect was better, with the correct rate of returned classification reached to 99. 0%, and the prediction accuracy was 76. 5%. The results indicated that infrared spectroscopy combined with discriminant analysis showed good recognition effect for the genuineness of P. notoginseng. The method might be a hopeful new method for identification of genuineness of P. notoginseng in practice. The method could recognize the producing area of P. notoginseng to some extent and could be a new thought for identification of the producing area of P. natoginseng.

  4. Space-based laser active imaging simulation system based on HLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi; Sun, Huayan; Li, Yingchun

    2013-09-01

    This paper adopts the High Level Architecture to develop the space-based laser active imaging distribution simulation software system, and designs the system framework which contains three-step workflow including modeling, experimental and analysis. The paper puts forward the general needs of the simulation system first, then builds the simulation system architecture based on HLA and constructs 7 simulation federal members. The simulation system has the primary functions of space target scattering characteristic analysis, imaging simulation, image processing and target recognition, and system performance analysis and so on, and can support the whole simulation process. The results show that the distribution simulation system can meet the technical requirements of the space-based laser imaging simulation.

  5. Ground-based Space Weather Monitoring with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michael; van Haarlem, Michiel; Lawrence, Gareth; Reid, Simon; Bos, Andre; Rawlings, Steve; Salvini, Stef; Mitchell, Cathryn; Soleimani, Manuch; Amado, Sergio; Teresa, Vital

    As one of the first of a new generation of radio instruments, the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) will provide a number of unique and novel capabilities for the astronomical community. These include remote configuration and operation, dynamic real-time processing and system response, and the ability to provide multiple simultaneous streams of data to a community whose scientific interests run the gamut from lighting in the atmospheres of distant planets to the origins of the universe itself. The LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) system is optimized for a frequency range from 30-240 MHz and consists of multiple antenna fields spread across Europe. In the Netherlands, a total 36 LOFAR stations are nearing completion with an initial 8 international stations currently being deployed in Germany, France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR has the potential to achieve unparalleled sensitivity and spatial resolution in the low frequency radio regime. LOFAR will also be one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. As we discuss in this presentation, the same capabilities that make LOFAR a powerful tool for radio astronomy also provide an excellent platform upon which to build a ground-based monitoring system for space weather events. For example, the ability to monitor Solar activity in near real-time is one of the key scientific capabilities being developed for LOFAR. With only a fraction of its total observing capacity, LOFAR will be able to provide continuous monitoring of the Solar spectrum over the entire 10-240 MHz band down to microsecond timescales. Autonomous routines will scan these incoming spectral data for evidence of Solar flares and be

  6. Simulating Emerging Space Industries with Agent-Based Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) calls for encouraging commercial participation as a top-level objective. Given current and future commercial activities, how...

  7. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY-BASED PROPERTY-REACTIVITY CORRELATIONS FOR PREDICTING ENVIRONMENTAL FATE OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A conventional structure-activity relationship (SAP) has been established between the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant (kOH) of 12 alkyl and aryl formates and acetates and the linear combination GE the frequencies of the and infrared (SR) absorbance peaks. he inability of this r...

  8. Defects diagnosis in laser brazing using near-infrared signals based on empirical mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liyong; Mi, Gaoyang; Li, Shuo; Wang, Chunming; Hu, Xiyuan

    2018-03-01

    Real-time monitoring of laser welding plays a very important role in the modern automated production and online defects diagnosis is necessary to be implemented. In this study, the status of laser brazing was monitored in real time using an infrared photoelectric sensor. Four kinds of braze seams (including healthy weld, unfilled weld, hole weld and rough surface weld) along with corresponding near-infrared signals were obtained. Further, a new method called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) was proposed to analyze the near-infrared signals. The results showed that the EMD method had a good performance in eliminating the noise on the near-infrared signals. And then, the correlation coefficient was developed for selecting the Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) more sensitive to the weld defects. A more accurate signal was reconstructed with the selected IMF components. Simultaneously, the spectrum of selected IMF components was solved using fast Fourier transform, and the frequency characteristics were clearly revealed. The frequency energy of different frequency bands was computed to diagnose the defects. There was a significant difference in four types of weld defects. This approach has been proved to be an effective and efficient method for monitoring laser brazing defects.

  9. Lightning NOx Estimates from Space-Based Lightning Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2017-01-01

    The intense heating of air by a lightning channel, and subsequent rapid cooling, leads to the production of lightning nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) as discussed in Chameides [1979]. In turn, the lightning nitrogen oxides (or "LNOx" for brevity) indirectly influences the Earth's climate because the LNOx molecules are important in controlling the concentration of ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the atmosphere. Climate is most sensitive to O3 in the upper troposphere, and LNOx is the most important source of NOx in the upper troposphere at tropical and subtropical latitudes; hence, lightning is a useful parameter to monitor for climate assessments. The National Climate Assessment (NCA) program was created in response to the Congressionally-mandated Global Change Research Act (GCRA) of 1990. Thirteen US government organizations participate in the NCA program which examines the effects of global change on the natural environment, human health and welfare, energy production and use, land and water resources, human social systems, transportation, agriculture, and biological diversity. The NCA focuses on natural and human-induced trends in global change, and projects major trends 25 to 100 years out. In support of the NCA, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to assess lightning-climate inter-relationships. This activity applies a variety of NASA assets to monitor in detail the changes in both the characteristics of ground- and space- based lightning observations as they pertain to changes in climate. In particular, changes in lightning characteristics over the conterminous US (CONUS) continue to be examined by this author using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor. In this study, preliminary estimates of LNOx trends derived from TRMM/LIS lightning optical energy observations in the 17 yr period 1998-2014 are provided. This represents an important first step in testing the ability to make remote retrievals

  10. Large scale prediction of soil properties in the West African yam belt based on mid-infrared soil spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Philipp; Lee, Juhwan; Paule Schönholzer, Laurie; Six, Johan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Yam (Dioscorea sp.) is an important staple food in West Africa. Fertilizer applications have variable effects on yam tuber yields, and a management option solely based on application of mineral NPK fertilizers may bear the risk of increased organic matter mineralization. Therefore, innovative and sustainable nutrient management strategies need to be developed and evaluated for yam cultivation. The goal of this study was to establish a mid-infrared soil spectroscopic library and models to predict soil properties relevant to yam growth. Soils from yam fields at four different locations in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso that were representative of the West African yam belt were sampled. The project locations ranged from the humid forest zone (5.88 degrees N) to the northern Guinean savannah (11.07 degrees N). At each location, soils of 20 yam fields were sampled (0-30 cm). For the location in the humid forest zone additional 14 topsoil samples from positions that had been analyzed in the Land Degradation Surveillance Framework developed by ICRAF were included. In total, 94 soil samples were analyzed using established reference analysis protocols. Besides soils were milled and then scanned by fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy in the range between 400 and 4000 reciprocal cm. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, PLS1 calibration models that included soils from the four locations were built using two thirds of the samples selected by Kennard-Stones sampling algorithm in the spectral principal component space. Models were independently validated with the remaining data set. Spectral models for total carbon, total nitrogen, total iron, total aluminum, total potassium, exchangeable calcium, and effective cation exchange capacity performed very well, which was indicated by R-squared values between 0.8 and 1.0 on both calibration and validation. For these soil properties, spectral models can be used for cost-effective, rapid, and accurate predictions

  11. Near-infrared luminescent PMMA-supported metallopolymers based on Zn-Nd Schiff-base complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Feng, Weixu; Su, Peiyang; Lü, Xingqiang; Song, Jirong; Fan, Daidi; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Jones, Richard A; Su, Chengyong

    2014-06-16

    On the basis of self-assembly from the divinylphenyl-modified Salen-type Schiff-base ligands H2L(1) (N,N'-bis(5-(3'-vinylphenyl)-3-methoxy-salicylidene)ethylene-1,2-diamine) or H2L(2) (N,N'-bis(5-(3'-vinylphenyl)-3-methoxy-salicylidene)phenylene-1,2-diamine) with Zn(OAc)2·2H2O and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O in the presence of pyridine (Py), two series of heterobinuclear Zn-Ln complexes [Zn(L(n))(Py)Ln(NO3)3] (n = 1, Ln = La, 1; Ln = Nd, 2; or Ln = Gd, 3 and n = 2, Ln = La, 4; Ln = Nd, 5; or Ln = Gd, 6) are obtained, respectively. Further, through the physical doping and the controlled copolymerization with methyl methacrylate (MMA), two kinds of PMMA-supported hybrid materials, doped PMMA/[Zn(L(n))(Py)Ln(NO3)3] and Wolf Type II Zn(2+)-Ln(3+)-containing metallopolymers Poly(MMA-co-[Zn(L(n))(Py)Ln(NO3)3]), are obtained, respectively. The result of their solid photophysical properties shows the strong and characteristic near-infrared (NIR) luminescent Nd(3+)-centered emissions for both PMMA/[Zn(L(n))(Py)Nd(NO3)3] and Poly(MMA-co-[Zn(L(n))(Py)Nd(NO3)3]), where ethylene-linked hybrid materials endow relatively higher intrinsic quantum yields due to the sensitization from both (1)LC and (3)LC of the chromorphore than those from only (1)LC in phenylene-linked hybrid materials, and the concentration self-quenching of Nd(3+)-based NIR luminescence could be effectively prevented for the copolymerized hybrid materials in comparison with the doped hybrid materials.

  12. Characterization of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC using ground-based Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Nakajima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play an important role in ozone destruction via the occurrence of heterogeneous reactions on their surface that convert reservoir species of active chlorine and bromine (e.g., HCl, ClONO_2, HBr, or BrONO_2 into active Cl_2 or Br_2. However, a lack of direct measurements means that uncertainty remains regarding the characteristics, types, mixtures, and nature of PSCs. To address this problem, we conducted, for the first time, ground-based measurements of the features of PSCs using a low-resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectrometer at Syowa Station, Antarctica, in 2007. Many PSCs were observed between July and August 2007. We succeeded in identifying the features of Ice (Type-II, NAD and or β-NAT (Type-Ia, and STS (Type-Ib PSCs in the zenith sky infrared spectra measured by FTIR.

  13. Technology Development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a Candidate Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10?10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing & control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 µm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  14. Sensitivity Studies for Space-Based Global Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian-Ping; Kawa, S. Randolph; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is well known as the primary forcing agent of global warming. Although the climate forcing due to CO2 is well known, the sources and sinks of CO2 are not well understood. Currently the lack of global atmospheric CO2 observations limits our ability to diagnose the global carbon budget (e.g., finding the so-called "missing sink") and thus limits our ability to understand past climate change and predict future climate response. Space-based techniques are being developed to make high-resolution and high-precision global column CO2 measurements. One of the proposed techniques utilizes the passive remote sensing of Earth's reflected solar radiation at the weaker vibration-rotation band of CO2 in the near infrared (approx. 1.57 micron). We use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to explore the potential of this method. Results of sensitivity studies for CO2 concentration variation and geophysical conditions (i.e., atmospheric temperature, surface reflectivity, solar zenith angle, aerosol, and cirrus cloud) will be presented. We will also present sensitivity results for an O2 A-band (approx. 0.76 micron) sensor that will be needed along with CO2 to make surface pressure and cloud height measurements.

  15. Optimization of a pharmaceutical tablet formulation based on a design space approach and using vibrational spectroscopy as PAT tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Pierre-François; Lebrun, Pierre; Sacré, Pierre-Yves; De Bleye, Charlotte; Netchacovitch, Lauranne; Cuypers, Serge; Mantanus, Jérôme; Motte, Henri; Schubert, Martin; Evrard, Brigitte; Hubert, Philippe; Ziemons, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to optimize a tablet formulation using a quality by design approach. The selected methodology was based on the variation of the filler grade, taking into account the particle size distribution (PSD) of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in order to improve five critical quality attributes (CQAs). Thus, a mixture design of experiments (DoE) was performed at pilot scale. The blending step was monitored using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as process analytical technology tool enabling real-time qualitative process monitoring. Furthermore, some tablets were analyzed by Raman imaging to evaluate the API distribution within the samples. Based on the DoE results, design spaces were computed using a risk-based Bayesian predictive approach to provide for each point of the experimental domain the expected probability to get the five CQAs jointly within the specifications in the future. Finally, the optimal conditions of the identified design space were successfully validated. In conclusion, a design space approach supported by NIR and Raman spectroscopy was able to define a blend that complies with the target product profile with a quantified guarantee or risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. On the Assessment and Uncertainty of Atmospheric Trace Gas Burden Measurements with High Resolution Infrared Solar Occultation Spectra from Space by the ATMOS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M. C.; Chang, A. Y.; Gunson, M. R.; Abbas, M. M.; Goldman, A.; Irion, F. W.; Michelsen, H. A.; Newchurch, M. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Stiller, G. P.; hide

    1996-01-01

    The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument is a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer that measures atmospheric composition from low Earth orbit with infrared solar occultation sounding in the limb geometry. Following an initial flight in 1985, ATMOS participated in the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 1, 2, and 3 Space Shuttle missions in 1992, 1993, and 1994 yielding a total of 440 occultation measurements over a nine year period. The suite of more than thirty atmospheric trace gases profiled includes CO2, O3, N2O, CH4, H2O, NO, NO2, HNO3, HCl, HF, ClONO2, CCl3F, CCl2F2, CHF2Cl, and N2O5. The analysis method has been revised throughout the mission years culminating in the 'version 2' data set. The spectroscopic error analysis is described in the context of supporting the precision estimates reported with the profiles; in addition, systematic uncertainties assessed from the quality of the spectroscopic database are described and tabulated for comparisons with other experiments.

  17. Infrared-based blink-detecting glasses for facial pacing: toward a bionic blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alice; Hadlock, Tessa A; Murray, Elizabeth H; Heaton, James T

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Facial paralysis remains one of the most challenging conditions to effectively manage, often causing life-altering deficits in both function and appearance. Facial rehabilitation via pacing and robotic technology has great yet unmet potential. A critical first step toward reanimating symmetrical facial movement in cases of unilateral paralysis is the detection of healthy movement to use as a trigger for stimulated movement. OBJECTIVE To test a blink detection system that can be attached to standard eyeglasses and used as part of a closed-loop facial pacing system. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Standard safety glasses were equipped with an infrared (IR) emitter-detector unit, oriented horizontally across the palpebral fissure, creating a monitored IR beam that became interrupted when the eyelids closed, and were tested in 24 healthy volunteers from a tertiary care facial nerve center community. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Video-quantified blinking was compared with both IR sensor signal magnitude and rate of change in healthy participants with their gaze in repose, while they shifted their gaze from central to far-peripheral positions, and during the production of particular facial expressions. RESULTS Blink detection based on signal magnitude achieved 100% sensitivity in forward gaze but generated false detections on downward gaze. Calculations of peak rate of signal change (first derivative) typically distinguished blinks from gaze-related eyelid movements. During forward gaze, 87% of detected blink events were true positives, 11% were false positives, and 2% were false negatives. Of the 11% false positives, 6% were associated with partial eyelid closures. During gaze changes, false blink detection occurred 6% of the time during lateral eye movements, 10% of the time during upward movements, 47% of the time during downward movements, and 6% of the time for movements from an upward or downward gaze back to the primary gaze. Facial expressions

  18. Infrared camera based thermometry for quality assurance of superficial hyperthermia applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hartmann, Josefin; Bert, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    The purpose of this work was to provide a feasible and easy to apply phantom-based quality assurance (QA) procedure for superficial hyperthermia (SHT) applicators by means of infrared (IR) thermography. The VarioCAM hr head (InfraTec, Dresden, Germany) was used to investigate the SA-812, the SA-510 and the SA-308 applicators (all: Pyrexar Medical, Salt Lake City, UT, USA). Probe referencing and thermal equilibrium procedures were applied to determine the emissivity of the muscle-equivalent agar phantom. Firstly, the disturbing potential of thermal conduction on the temperature distribution inside the phantom was analyzed through measurements after various heating times (5-50 min). Next, the influence of the temperature of the water bolus between the SA-812 applicator and the phantom's surface was evaluated by varying its temperature. The results are presented in terms of characteristic values (extremal temperatures, percentiles and effective field sizes (EFS)) and temperature-area-histograms (TAH). Lastly, spiral antenna applicators were compared by the introduced characteristics. The emissivity of the used phantom was found to be ε  =  0.91  ±  0.03, the results of both methods coincided. The influence of thermal conduction with regard to heating time was smaller than expected; the EFS of the SA-812 applicator had a size of (68.6  ±  6.7) cm(2), averaged group variances were  ±3.0 cm(2). The TAHs show that the influence of the water bolus is mostly limited to depths of  <3 cm, yet it can greatly enhance or reduce heat generation in this regime: at a depth of 1 cm, measured maximal temperature rises were 14.5 °C for T Bolus  =  30 °C and 8.6 °C for T Bolus  =  21 °C, respectively. The EFS was increased, too. The three spiral antenna applicators generated similar heat distributions. Generally, the procedure proved to yield informative insights into applicator characteristics, thus making the application

  19. Utilization-based object recognition in confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Telagamsetti, Durga; Chan, Alex L.

    2017-05-01

    Recognizing substantially occluded objects in confined spaces is a very challenging problem for ground-based persistent surveillance systems. In this paper, we discuss the ontology inference of occluded object recognition in the context of in-vehicle group activities (IVGA) and describe an approach that we refer to as utilization-based object recognition method. We examine the performance of three types of classifiers tailored for the recognition of objects with partial visibility, namely, (1) Hausdorff Distance classifier, (2) Hamming Network classifier, and (3) Recurrent Neural Network classifier. In order to train these classifiers, we have generated multiple imagery datasets containing a mixture of common objects appearing inside a vehicle with full or partial visibility and occultation. To generate dynamic interactions between multiple people, we model the IVGA scenarios using a virtual simulation environment, in which a number of simulated actors perform a variety of IVGA tasks independently or jointly. This virtual simulation engine produces the much needed imagery datasets for the verification and validation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the selected object recognizers. Finally, we improve the performance of these object recognizers by incorporating human gestural information that differentiates various object utilization or handling methods through the analyses of dynamic human-object interactions (HOI), human-human interactions (HHI), and human-vehicle interactions (HVI) in the context of IVGA.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2009-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.