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Sample records for sp tritici causing

  1. Evidence for Increased Aggressiveness in a Recent Widespread Strain of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Causing Stripe Rust of Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milus, Eugene A; Kristensen, Kristian; Hovmøller, Mogens S

    2009-01-01

    Stripe rust (yellow rust) of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has become more severe in eastern United States, Australia, and elsewhere since 2000. Recent research has shown that this coincided with a global spread of two closely related strains that were similar based on vir...... that wheat rust fungi can adapt to warmer temperatures and cause severe disease in previously unfavorable environments......Stripe rust (yellow rust) of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has become more severe in eastern United States, Australia, and elsewhere since 2000. Recent research has shown that this coincided with a global spread of two closely related strains that were similar based...... regimes for latent period, lesion length, lesion width, lesion area, and spore production on adult plants of a susceptible wheat cultivar with no known genes for resistance to stripe rust. "New" isolates (since 2000) were significantly more aggressive than "old" isolates (before 2000) for all variables...

  2. Microarray analysis identified Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici genes involved in infection and sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) causes stripe rust, one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. To identify Pst genes involved in infection and sporulation, a custom oligonucleotide Genechip was made using sequences of 442 genes selected from Pst cDNA libraries. Microarray analy...

  3. Virulence of Egyptian blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici population and powdery mildew response of Egyptian wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer f. sp. tritici (Em. Marchal) is a serious disease of wheat that can cause a severe reduction in yield. In Egypt, high powdery mildew severity has been observed in the past few years on many commercial cultivars of both bread and durum wheat. Lit...

  4. Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TRTTF in the Canadian wheat cultivar 'Harvest'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.(Pgt), is a destructive disease of wheat that can be controlled by deploying effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. Highly virulent races of Pgt in Africa have been detected and characterized. These include race T...

  5. Stage-specific gene expression during urediniospore germination in Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici

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    Han Qingmei

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is an obligate biotrophic pathogen that causes leaf stripe rust on wheat. Although it is critical to understand molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in the wheat stripe rust fungus for developing novel disease management strategies, little is known about its genome and gene functions due to difficulties in molecular studies with this important pathogen. To identify genes expressed during early infection stages, in this study we constructed a cDNA library with RNA isolated from urediniospores of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici germinated for 10 h. Results A total of 4798 ESTs were sequenced from the germinated urediniospore library and assembled into 315 contigs and 803 singletons. About 23.9% and 13.3% of the resulting 1118 unisequences were homologous to functionally characterized proteins and hypothetical proteins, respectively. The rest 62.8% unisequences had no significant homologs in GenBank. Several of these ESTs shared significant homology with known fungal pathogenicity or virulence factors, such as HESP767 of the flax rust and PMK1, GAS1, and GAS2 of the rice blast fungus. We selected six ESTs (Ps28, Ps85, Ps87, Ps259, Ps261, and Ps159 for assaying their expression patterns during urediniospore germination and wheat infection by quantitative real-time PCR. All of them had the highest transcript level in germinated urediniospores and a much less transcript level in un-germinated urediniospores and infected wheat tissues (1–7 dpi. The transcript level of Ps159 increased at later infection stages (6–7 dpi. Our data indicated that these genes were highly expressed in germinated urediniospores and may play important roles in fungal-plant interactions during early infection stages in the wheat stripe rust fungus. Conclusion Genes expressed in germinated urediniospores of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici were identified by EST analysis. Six of them were confirmed by quantitative real

  6. Physiologic specialization of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Kenya in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 12 collections of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici were obtained from Kenya during 2011. Collections were made around Mount Kenya and in wheat growing areas southwest towards Nakuru in the Rift Valley. Four collections were made from the international stem rust screening nursery in Njoro....

  7. Structure and migration in U.S. Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    While wheat powdery mildew occurs throughout the south-central and eastern U.S.A, epidemics are especially damaging in the Mid-Atlantic states. The structure of the U.S. Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici population was assessed based on a sample of 238 single-spored isolates. The isolates were coll...

  8. Wheat transcription factor TaWRKY70 is positively involved in high-temperature seedling-plant resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Wheat high-temperature seedling-plant (HTSP) resistance to Pst is non-race-specific and durable. WRKY transcription factors have proven to play important roles in ...

  9. Quantitative Determination of Germinability of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Urediospores Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Technology

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    Yaqiong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is an important disease on wheat. In this study, quantitative determination of germinability of Pst urediospores was investigated by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS combined with quantitative partial least squares (QPLS and support vector regression (SVR. The near infrared spectra of the urediospore samples were acquired using FT-NIR MPA spectrometer and the germination rate of each sample was measured using traditional spore germination method. The best QPLS model was obtained with vector correction as the preprocessing method of the original spectra and 4000–12000 cm−1 as the modeling spectral region while the modeling ratio of the training set to the testing set was 4 : 1. The best SVR model was built when vector normalization was used as the preprocessing method, the modeling ratio was 5 : 1 and the modeling spectral region was 8000–11000 cm−1. The results showed that the effect of the best model built using QPLS or SVR was satisfactory. This indicated that quantitative determination of germinability of Pst urediospores using near infrared spectroscopy technology is feasible. A new method based on NIRS was provided for rapid, automatic, and nondestructive determination of germinability of Pst urediospores.

  10. Multiple displacement amplification of whole genomic DNA from urediospores of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

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    Zhang, R; Ma, Z H; Wu, B M

    2015-05-01

    Biotrophic fungi, such as Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, because they cannot be cultured on nutrient media, to obtain adequate quantity of DNA for molecular genetic analysis, are usually propagated on living hosts, wheat plants in case of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici. The propagation process is time-, space- and labor-consuming and has been a bottleneck to molecular genetic analysis of this pathogen. In this study we evaluated multiple displacement amplification (MDA) of pathogen genomic DNA from urediospores as an alternative approach to traditional propagation of urediospores followed by DNA extraction. The quantities of pathogen genomic DNA in the products were further determined via real-time PCR with a pair of primers specific for the β-tubulin gene of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints were also compared between the DNA products. The results demonstrated that adequate genomic DNA at fragment size larger than 23 Kb could be amplified from 20 to 30 urediospores via MDA method. The real-time PCR results suggested that although fresh urediospores collected from diseased leaves were the best, spores picked from diseased leaves stored for a prolonged period could also be used for amplification. AFLP fingerprints exhibited no significant differences between amplified DNA and DNA extracted with CTAB method, suggesting amplified DNA can represent the pathogen's genomic DNA very well. Therefore, MDA could be used to obtain genomic DNA from small precious samples (dozens of spores) for molecular genetic analysis of wheat stripe rust pathogen, and other fungi that are difficult to propagate.

  11. Use of some chemical inducers to improve wheat resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. Sp. Tritici

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    Al-Maaroof Emad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of DL-β-aminobutyric acid (BABA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, indoleacetic acid (IAA and salicylic acid (SA on induced systemic resistance was investigated in moderately susceptible and susceptible wheat genotypes Tamuz-2 and AL-8/70 against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Resistance was characterized by reduced infection of yellow rust disease (Yrd. Changes in peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities and in total phenolic compound content demonstrated that the resistance to Puccinia striiformis can be induced by BABA, BTH, IAA and SA in these two wheat genotypes. Further studies are needed before a practical method using many analogue compounds, such as potassium phosphate and biotic agent for Yrd resistance in wheat is developed.

  12. Proteomic analysis of the compatible interaction of wheat and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici).

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    Li, Jie; Yang, Xiwen; Liu, Xinhao; Yu, Haibo; Du, Congyang; Li, Mengda; He, Dexian

    2017-02-01

    Proteome characteristics of wheat leaves with the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) infection were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. We identified 46 unique proteins which were differentially expressed at 24, 48, and 72 h post-inoculation. The functional classification of these proteins showed that most of them were involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, defense responses, and signal transduction. Upregulated proteins included primary metabolism pathways and defense responses, while proteins related to photosynthesis and signal transduction were mostly downregulated. As expected, more antioxidative proteins were activated at the later infection stage than the earlier stage, suggesting that the antioxidative system of host plays a role in maintaining the compatible interaction between wheat and powdery mildew. A high accumulation of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in infected leaves indicated the regulation of the TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathway in parallel to the activation of host defenses. The downregulation of MAPK5 could be facilitated for the compatible interaction of wheat plants and Bgt. qRT-PCR analysis supported the data of protein expression profiles. Our results reveal the relevance of primary plant metabolism and defense responses during compatible interaction, and provide new insights into the biology of susceptible wheat in response to Bgt infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Proteomic analysis of the defense response of wheat to the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici.

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    Mandal, Md Siddikun Nabi; Fu, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Ji, Wanquan

    2014-12-01

    Powdery mildew of wheat is caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Although many wheat cultivars resistant to this disease have been developed, little is known about their resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify proteins showing changes in abundance during the resistance response of the wheat line N0308 infected by Bgt. In two-dimensional electrophoresis analyses, 45 spots on the gels showed significant changes in abundance at 24, 48, and 72 h after inoculation, as compared to non-inoculated plants. Of these 45 proteins, 44 were identified by mass spectrometry analysis using the NCBInr database of Triticum aestivum (26 spots) and closely related species in the Triticum genus (18 spots). These proteins were associated with the defense response, photosynthesis, metabolism, and other cellular processes in wheat. Most of the up-regulated proteins were identified as stress- and defense-related proteins. In particular, the product of a specific powdery mildew resistance gene (Pm3b and its homolog) and some other defense- and pathogenesis-related proteins were overexpressed. The resistance gene product mediates the immune response and coordinates other cellular processes during the resistance response to Bgt.

  14. Effect of Low Temperature and Wheat Winter-Hardiness on Survival of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici under Controlled Conditions.

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    Lijie Ma

    Full Text Available Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. Understanding the survival of Pst during the overwintering period is critical for predicting Pst epidemics in the spring. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR methods quantifying Pst DNA and RNA (cDNA were developed and compared for the ability to quantify viable Pst in leaf tissues. Both qPCR of DNA and RNA can provide reliable measurement of viable Pst in plant tissues prior to the late sporulation stage for which qPCR of DNA gave a much higher estimate of fungal biomass than qPCR of RNA. The percentage of Pst biomass that was viable in detached and attached leaves under low temperatures decreased over time. Pst survived longer on attached leaves than on detached leaves. The survival of Pst in cultivars with strong winter-hardiness at 0°C and -5°C was greater than those with weak winter-hardiness. However, such differences in Pst survival among cultivars were negligible at -10, -15 and -20°C. Results indicated that Pst mycelia inside green leaves can also be killed by low temperatures rather than through death of green leaves under low temperatures. The relationship of Pst survival in attached leaves with temperature and winter-hardiness was well described by logistic models. Further field evaluation is necessary to assess whether inclusion of other factors such as moisture and snow cover could improve the model performance in predicting Pst overwintering potential, and hence the epidemic in spring.

  15. Characterization of the Wheat Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) Fungal Effector Candidate PEC6 and Its Corresponding Host Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Changhai

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important fungal diseases on wheat worldwide and a serious threat to wheat production. Understanding the plant-microbe interaction mechanism is the basic step to assist future plant breeding aiming at increasing...... factor. By using the yeast two-hybrid system, the adenosine kinase (ADK) was identified as a host target of PEC6. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of ADK enhanced wheat susceptibility to stripe rust indicates that ADK is a positive regulator in plant defense. Based on EtHAn-mediated effector delivery......, seventy-two wheat landraces were screened to search for the presence of potential resistance (R) genes. Three landraces showed strong hypersensitive response (HR) when PEC6 was expressed in the cells, suggesting the presence of certain R gene(s) recognizing PEC6. However, these landraces did not show...

  16. Omics approaches to understand the nature of virulence in Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Kemen, Eric; Brown, James K. M.

    2009-01-01

    New genomic and transcriptomic methods greatly facilitate the study of the biology and evolution of fungal plant pathogens. The obligate biotrophic and asexually reproducing rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst) forms haustoria during plant infection and delivers proteins and other...

  17. Changing the game: using integrative genomics to probe virulence mechanisms of the stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici

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    Melania eFigueroa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent resurgence of wheat stem rust caused by new virulent races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt poses a threat to food security. These concerns have catalyzed an extensive global effort towards controlling this disease. Substantial research and breeding programs target the identification and introduction of new stem rust resistance (Sr genes in cultivars for genetic protection against the disease. Such resistance genes typically encode immune receptor proteins that recognize specific components of the pathogen, known as avirulence (Avr proteins. A significant drawback to deploying cultivars with single Sr genes is that they are often overcome by evolution of the pathogen to escape recognition through alterations in Avr genes. Thus, a key element in achieving durable rust control is the deployment of multiple effective Sr genes in combination, either through conventional breeding or transgenic approaches, to minimize the risk of resistance breakdown. In this situation, evolution of pathogen virulence would require simultaneous changes in multiple Avr genes in order to bypass recognition. However, choosing the optimal Sr gene combinations to deploy is a challenge that requires detailed knowledge of the pathogen Avr genes with which they interact and the virulence phenotypes of Pgt existing in nature. Identifying specific Avr genes from Pgt will provide screening tools to enhance pathogen virulence monitoring, assess heterozygosity and propensity for mutation in pathogen populations, and confirm individual Sr gene functions in crop varieties carrying multiple effective resistance genes. Towards this goal, much progress has been made in assembling a high quality reference genome sequence for Pgt, as well as a Pan-genome encompassing variation between multiple field isolates with diverse virulence spectra. In turn this has allowed prediction of Pgt effector gene candidates based on known features of Avr genes in other plant pathogens

  18. Changing the Game: Using Integrative Genomics to Probe Virulence Mechanisms of the Stem Rust Pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici.

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    Figueroa, Melania; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Sperschneider, Jana; Park, Robert F; Szabo, Les J; Steffenson, Brian; Ellis, Jeff G; Dodds, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    The recent resurgence of wheat stem rust caused by new virulent races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) poses a threat to food security. These concerns have catalyzed an extensive global effort toward controlling this disease. Substantial research and breeding programs target the identification and introduction of new stem rust resistance (Sr) genes in cultivars for genetic protection against the disease. Such resistance genes typically encode immune receptor proteins that recognize specific components of the pathogen, known as avirulence (Avr) proteins. A significant drawback to deploying cultivars with single Sr genes is that they are often overcome by evolution of the pathogen to escape recognition through alterations in Avr genes. Thus, a key element in achieving durable rust control is the deployment of multiple effective Sr genes in combination, either through conventional breeding or transgenic approaches, to minimize the risk of resistance breakdown. In this situation, evolution of pathogen virulence would require changes in multiple Avr genes in order to bypass recognition. However, choosing the optimal Sr gene combinations to deploy is a challenge that requires detailed knowledge of the pathogen Avr genes with which they interact and the virulence phenotypes of Pgt existing in nature. Identifying specific Avr genes from Pgt will provide screening tools to enhance pathogen virulence monitoring, assess heterozygosity and propensity for mutation in pathogen populations, and confirm individual Sr gene functions in crop varieties carrying multiple effective resistance genes. Toward this goal, much progress has been made in assembling a high quality reference genome sequence for Pgt, as well as a Pan-genome encompassing variation between multiple field isolates with diverse virulence spectra. In turn this has allowed prediction of Pgt effector gene candidates based on known features of Avr genes in other plant pathogens, including the related flax rust

  19. Glycerol-3-phosphate metabolism in wheat contributes to systemic acquired resistance against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

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    Yuheng Yang

    Full Text Available Glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P is a proposed regulator of plant defense signaling in basal resistance and systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The GLY1-encoded glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH and GLI1-encoded glycerol kinase (GK are two key enzymes involved in the G3P biosynthesis in plants. However, their physiological importance in wheat defense against pathogens remains unclear. In this study, quantification analysis revealed that G3P levels were significantly induced in wheat leaves challenged by the avirulent Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst race CYR23. The transcriptional levels of TaGLY1 and TaGLI1 were likewise significantly induced by avirulent Pst infection. Furthermore, knocking down TaGLY1 and TaGLI1 individually or simultaneously with barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS inhibited G3P accumulation and compromised the resistance in the wheat cultivar Suwon 11, whereas the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA and the expression of the SA-induced marker gene TaPR1 in plant leaves were altered significantly after gene silencing. These results suggested that G3P contributes to wheat systemic acquired resistance (SAR against stripe rust, and provided evidence that the G3P function as a signaling molecule is conserved in dicots and monocots. Meanwhile, the simultaneous co-silencing of multiple genes by the VIGS system proved to be a powerful tool for multi-gene functional analysis in plants.

  20. Genetic effects for controlling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance in wheat through joint segregation analysis

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    Kalim Ullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mixed inheritance analysis using joint segregation analysis (JSA for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance was carried out in six basic populations (P1, F1, P2, BC1, BC2 and F2 of four wheat crosses (Hashim-08 × LU-26, Farid-06 × Shafaq, Parula × Blue Silver, TD-1 × D-97603 during crop season 2009 to 2012. Genes controlling stripe rust resistance were assessed by using area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. The AUDPC was controlled by mixed two additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant-epistasis of polygenes in cross Hashim-08 × LU-26 (model E, while in Farid-06 × Shafaq, it was controlled by mixed two major additive-dominant genes plus additive-dominant polygenes (model E-2. In cross Parula × Blue Silver, the AUDPC was managed by additive, dominance and epistasis of two major genes (model B-1, however, it was controlled by mixed one major gene and additive dominant polygenes in cross TD-1 × D-97603 (model D-1. Genetic variation and heritability was higher in major genes than polygene for all the crosses showing that AUDPC was mainly controlled by major genes. The genetic behavior of the AUDPC revealed that stripe rust resistance was controlled by mixed interaction of one to two major genes plus polygenes.

  1. Modeling of the overwintering distribution of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici based on meteorological data from 2001 to 2012 in China

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    Xiaojing WANG,Zhanhong MA,Yuying JIANG,Shouding SHI,Wancai LIU,Juan ZENG,Zhiwei ZHAO,Haiguang WANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici occurs widely in China and seriously affects wheat production. Global warming could profoundly impact the incidence and prevalence of low-temperature diseases such as stripe rust. Studies on the effects of temperature on the distribution of overwintering stripe rust could help us understand the incidence and prevalence of the disease and could also provide support for monitoring, forecasting and developing control strategies. An exponential model and a spherical model of the ordinary Kriging method in the ArcGIS platform were used to predict the overwintering regions of stripe rust based on the probability that the average temperature of the coldest month from December to February was higher than -6 or -7ºC from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that the areas with a probability between 70% and 90% were transition regions for the overwintering of stripe rust. Based on annual mean temperature of the coldest month from December to February for 2001 to 2012, overwintering distribution of stripe rust was likewise evaluated. The boundary for overwintering of stripe rust was consistent with the areas where the probability was predicted to be 70% to 90% for the overwintering distribution of stripe rust, but the boundary was shifted northward toward Beijing in North China. Some areas in Xinjiang, including Akto, Pishan, Hotan and Yutian, were also predicted to be suitable for the overwintering of stripe rust.

  2. Construction and characterization of a full-length cDNA library for the wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

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    Chen Xianming

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puccinia striiformis is a plant pathogenic fungus causing stripe rust, one of the most important diseases on cereal crops and grasses worldwide. However, little is know about its genome and genes involved in the biology and pathogenicity of the pathogen. We initiated the functional genomic research of the fungus by constructing a full-length cDNA and determined functions of the first group of genes by sequence comparison of cDNA clones to genes reported in other fungi. Results A full-length cDNA library, consisting of 42,240 clones with an average cDNA insert of 1.9 kb, was constructed using urediniospores of race PST-78 of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici. From 196 sequenced cDNA clones, we determined functions of 73 clones (37.2%. In addition, 36 clones (18.4% had significant homology to hypothetical proteins, 37 clones (18.9% had some homology to genes in other fungi, and the remaining 50 clones (25.5% did not produce any hits. From the 73 clones with functions, we identified 51 different genes encoding protein products that are involved in amino acid metabolism, cell defense, cell cycle, cell signaling, cell structure and growth, energy cycle, lipid and nucleotide metabolism, protein modification, ribosomal protein complex, sugar metabolism, transcription factor, transport metabolism, and virulence/infection. Conclusion The full-length cDNA library is useful in identifying functional genes of P. striiformis.

  3. Loci associated with resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in a core collection of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum)

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    Bulli, Peter; Rynearson, Sheri; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss. (Pst) remains one of the most significant diseases of wheat worldwide. We investigated stripe rust resistance by genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) in 959 spring wheat accessions from the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service National Small Grains Collection, representing major global production environments. The panel was characterized for field resistance in multi-environment field trials and seedling resistance under greenhouse conditions. A genome-wide set of 5,619 informative SNP markers were used to examine the population structure, linkage disequilibrium and marker-trait associations in the germplasm panel. Based on model-based analysis of population structure and hierarchical Ward clustering algorithm, the accessions were clustered into two major subgroups. These subgroups were largely separated according to geographic origin and improvement status of the accessions. A significant correlation was observed between the population sub-clusters and response to stripe rust infection. We identified 11 and 7 genomic regions with significant associations with stripe rust resistance at adult plant and seedling stages, respectively, based on a false discovery rate multiple correction method. The regions harboring all, except three, of the QTL identified from the field and greenhouse studies overlap with positions of previously reported QTL. Further work should aim at validating the identified QTL using proper germplasm and populations to enhance their utility in marker assisted breeding. PMID:28591221

  4. Application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantitatively Determine Relative Content of Puccnia striiformis f. sp. tritici DNA in Wheat Leaves in Incubation Period

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    Yaqiong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is a devastating wheat disease worldwide. Potential application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in detection of pathogen amounts in latently Pst-infected wheat leaves was investigated for disease prediction and control. A total of 300 near-infrared spectra were acquired from the Pst-infected leaf samples in an incubation period, and relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were obtained using duplex TaqMan real-time PCR arrays. Determination models of the relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were built using quantitative partial least squares (QPLS, support vector regression (SVR, and a method integrated with QPLS and SVR. The results showed that the kQPLS-SVR model built with a ratio of training set to testing set equal to 3 : 1 based on the original spectra, when the number of the randomly selected wavelength points was 700, the number of principal components was 8, and the number of the built QPLS models was 5, was the best. The results indicated that quantitative detection of Pst DNA in leaves in the incubation period could be implemented using NIRS. A novel method for determination of latent infection levels of Pst and early detection of stripe rust was provided.

  5. A rapid genotyping method for an obligate fungal pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici, based on DNA extraction from infected leaf and Multiplex PCR genotyping

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    Enjalbert Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST, an obligate fungal pathogen causing wheat yellow/stripe rust, a serious disease, has been used to understand the evolution of crop pathogen using molecular markers. However, numerous questions regarding its evolutionary history and recent migration routes still remains to be addressed, which need the genotyping of a large number of isolates, a process that is limited by both DNA extraction and genotyping methods. To address the two issues, we developed here a method for direct DNA extraction from infected leaves combined with optimized SSR multiplexing. Findings We report here an efficient protocol for direct fungal DNA extraction from infected leaves, avoiding the costly and time consuming step of spore multiplication. The genotyping strategy we propose, amplified a total of 20 SSRs in three Multiplex PCR reactions, which were highly polymorphic and were able to differentiate different PST populations with high efficiency and accuracy. Conclusion These two developments enabled a genotyping strategy that could contribute to the development of molecular epidemiology of yellow rust disease, both at a regional or worldwide scale.

  6. Origin, Migration Routes and Worldwide Population Genetic Structure of the Wheat Yellow Rust Pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici

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    Ali, Sajid; Gladieux, Pierre; Leconte, Marc; Gautier, Angélique; Justesen, Annemarie F.; Hovmøller, Mogens S.; Enjalbert, Jérôme; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of large-scale population structure of pathogens enable the identification of migration patterns, diversity reservoirs or longevity of populations, the understanding of current evolutionary trajectories and the anticipation of future ones. This is particularly important for long-distance migrating fungal pathogens such as Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST), capable of rapid spread to new regions and crop varieties. Although a range of recent PST invasions at continental scales are well documented, the worldwide population structure and the center of origin of the pathogen were still unknown. In this study, we used multilocus microsatellite genotyping to infer worldwide population structure of PST and the origin of new invasions based on 409 isolates representative of distribution of the fungus on six continents. Bayesian and multivariate clustering methods partitioned the set of multilocus genotypes into six distinct genetic groups associated with their geographical origin. Analyses of linkage disequilibrium and genotypic diversity indicated a strong regional heterogeneity in levels of recombination, with clear signatures of recombination in the Himalayan (Nepal and Pakistan) and near-Himalayan regions (China) and a predominant clonal population structure in other regions. The higher genotypic diversity, recombinant population structure and high sexual reproduction ability in the Himalayan and neighboring regions suggests this area as the putative center of origin of PST. We used clustering methods and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to compare different competing scenarios describing ancestral relationship among ancestral populations and more recently founded populations. Our analyses confirmed the Middle East-East Africa as the most likely source of newly spreading, high-temperature-adapted strains; Europe as the source of South American, North American and Australian populations; and Mediterranean-Central Asian populations as the origin of

  7. Transcriptome Analyses Shed New Insights into Primary Metabolism and Regulation of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici during Conidiation

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    Fan-Song Zeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conidia of the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt play a vital role in its survival and rapid dispersal. However, little is known about the genetic basis for its asexual reproduction. To uncover the primary metabolic and regulatory events during conidiation, we sequenced the transcriptome of Bgt epiphytic structures at 3 (vegetative hyphae growth, 4 (foot cells initiation, and 5 (conidiophore erection days post-inoculation (dpi. RNA-seq analyses identified 556 and 404 (combined 685 differentially expressed genes (DEGs at 4 and 5 dpi compared with their expression levels at 3 dpi, respectively. We found that several genes involved in the conversion from a variety of sugars to glucose, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TAC, the electron transport chain (ETC, and unsaturated fatty acid oxidation were activated during conidiation, suggesting that more energy supply is required during this process. Moreover, we found that glucose was converted into glycogen, which was accumulated in developing conidiophores, indicating that it could be the primary energy storage molecule in Bgt conidia. Clustering for the expression profiles of 91 regulatory genes showed that calcium (Ca2+, H2O2, and phosphoinositide (PIP signaling were involved in Bgt conidiation. Furthermore, a strong accumulation of H2O2 in developing conidiophores was detected. Application of EGTA, a Ca2+ chelator, and trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFP, a calmodulin (CaM antagonist, markedly suppressed the generation of H2O2, affected foot cell and conidiophore development and reduced conidia production significantly. These results suggest that Ca2+ and H2O2 signaling play important roles in conidiogenesis and a crosslink between them is present. In addition to some conidiation-related orthologs known in other fungi, such as the velvet complex components, we identified several other novel B. graminis-specific genes that have not been previously

  8. TaSYP71, a Qc-SNARE, Contributes to Wheat Resistance against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs are involved in plant resistance; however, the role of SYP71 in the regulation of plant–pathogen interactions is not well known. In this study, we characterized a plant-specific SNARE in wheat, TaSYP71, which contains a Qc-SNARE domain. Three homologues are localized on chromosome 1AL, 1BL and 1DL. Using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, TaSYP71 was localized to the plasma membrane in Nicotiana benthamiana. Quantitative real-time PCR assays revealed that TaSYP71 homologues was induced by NaCl, H2O2 stress and infection by virulent and avirulent Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst isolates. Heterologous expression of TaSYP71 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe elevated tolerance to H2O2. Meanwhile, H2O2 scavenging gene (TaCAT was downregulated in TaSYP71 silenced plants treated by H2O2 compared to that in control, which indicated that TaSYP71 enhanced tolerance to H2O2 stress possibly by influencing the expression of TaCAT to remove the excessive H2O2 accumulation. When TaSYP71 homologues were all silenced in wheat by the virus-induced gene silencing system, wheat plants were more susceptible to Pst, with larger infection area and more haustoria number, but the necrotic area of wheat mesophyll cells were larger, one possible explanation that minor contribution of resistance to Pst was insufficient to hinder pathogen extension when TaSYP71were silenced, and the necrotic area was enlarged accompanied with the pathogen growth. Of course, later cell death could not be excluded. In addition, the expression of pathogenesis-related genes were down-regulated in TaSYP71 silenced wheat plants. These results together suggest that TaSYP71 play a positive role in wheat defence against Pst.

  9. Molecular implications from ssr markers for stripe rust (puccinia striiformis F.Sp. tritici) resistance gene in bread wheat line N95175

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Ji, W.G.; Hu, Y.G; Zhong, H.; Wang, C.Y.; Baloch, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat in China as well as in Pakistan. In the present studies F2 population was established by crossing N95175 resistant to stripe rust race CYR32 with two susceptible lines Huixianhong and Abbondanza to molecularly tag resistance gene existing in wheat line N95175. The segregation of phenotype was accorded with an expected 3:1 ratio in both combinations studied and fit the model of a single dominant gene controlling stripe rust resistance in N95175. Thirty five SSR primer pairs were screened on the parents and bulks and also on individuals since resistance gene to be located in chromosome 1B. The result indicated that most of resistant plants amplified same band as resistant parent while susceptible plants amplified same as susceptible parents studied and considered that markers co-segregated with resistant loci in N95175. This yellow rust resistance gene was considered to be Yr26 originally thought to be also located in chromosome arm 1BS linked to marker loci Xgwm273 and Xgwm11 with genetic distances ranging from 1.075cM to 2.74cM in both combinations studied. However, the closest loci were observed 2.67cM for Xgwm273 and 1.075cM for Xgwm11 in Huixianhong XN95175 and Abbondanza XN95175 crosses respectively. Hence, it has been concluded that the PCR-based micro satellite markers Xgwm273 and Xgwm11 located in chromosome 1B were shown to be very effective for the detection of Yr26 gene in segregating population and can be applied in future wheat breeding strategies. (author)

  10. Secretome Characterization and Correlation Analysis Reveal Putative Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Identify Candidate Avirulence Genes in the Wheat Stripe Rust Fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chongjing; Wang, Meinan; Cornejo, Omar E; Jiwan, Derick A; See, Deven R; Chen, Xianming

    2017-01-01

    Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Planting resistant cultivars is an effective way to control this disease, but race-specific resistance can be overcome quickly due to the rapid evolving Pst population. Studying the pathogenicity mechanisms is critical for understanding how Pst virulence changes and how to develop wheat cultivars with durable resistance to stripe rust. We re-sequenced 7 Pst isolates and included additional 7 previously sequenced isolates to represent balanced virulence/avirulence profiles for several avirulence loci in seretome analyses. We observed an uneven distribution of heterozygosity among the isolates. Secretome comparison of Pst with other rust fungi identified a large portion of species-specific secreted proteins, suggesting that they may have specific roles when interacting with the wheat host. Thirty-two effectors of Pst were identified from its secretome. We identified candidates for Avr genes corresponding to six Yr genes by correlating polymorphisms for effector genes to the virulence/avirulence profiles of the 14 Pst isolates. The putative AvYr76 was present in the avirulent isolates, but absent in the virulent isolates, suggesting that deleting the coding region of the candidate avirulence gene has produced races virulent to resistance gene Yr76 . We conclude that incorporating avirulence/virulence phenotypes into correlation analysis with variations in genomic structure and secretome, particularly presence/absence polymorphisms of effectors, is an efficient way to identify candidate Avr genes in Pst . The candidate effector genes provide a rich resource for further studies to determine the evolutionary history of Pst populations and the co-evolutionary arms race between Pst and wheat. The Avr candidates identified in this study will lead to cloning avirulence genes in Pst , which will enable us to understand molecular mechanisms

  11. Streptomyces tritici sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junwei; Shi, Linlin; Li, Wenchao; Wang, Jiabin; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2018-02-01

    Two novel actinomycete isolates, designated strains NEAU-A4 T and NEAU-A3, were isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the two strains coincided with those of the genus Streptomyces. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two isolates exhibited 99.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and that they were most closely related to Streptomyces violaceorectus DSM 40279 T (98.8, 99.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains clustered together and formed a separate subclade. Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some physiological and biochemical properties demonstrated that the two strains could be distinguished from its closest relative. Therefore, it is proposed that strains NEAU-A4 T and NEAU-A3 should be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomycestritici sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-A4 T (=CGMCC 4.7393 T =DSM 104540 T ).

  12. Obligate Biotrophy Features Unraveled by the Genomic Analysis of the Rust Fungi, Melampsora larici-populina and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplessis, Sebastien; Cuomo, Christina A.; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Aerts, Andrea; Tisserant, Emilie; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Joly, David L.; Hacquard, Stephane; Amselem, Joelle; Cantarel, Brandi; Chiu, Readman; Couthinho, Pedro; Feau, Nicolas; Field, Matthew; Frey, Pascal; Gelhaye, Eric; Goldberg, Jonathan; Grabherr, Manfred; Kodira, Chinnappa; Kohler, Annegret; Kues, Ursula; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Mago, Rohit; Mauceli, Evan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Park, Robert; Pearson, Matthew; Quesneville, Hadi; Rouhier, Nicolas; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Selles, Benjamin; Shapiro, Harris; Tangay, Philippe; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Peer, Yves Van de; Henrissat, Bernard; Rouze, Pierre; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Zhong, Shaobin; Hamelin, Richard C.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Szabo, Les J.; Martin1, Francis

    2011-04-27

    Rust fungi are some of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. They are obligate biotrophs, which extract nutrients only from living plant tissues and cannot grow apart from their hosts. Their lifestyle has slowed the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying host invasion and avoidance or suppression of plant innate immunity. We sequenced the 101 mega base pair genome of Melampsora larici-populina, the causal agent of poplar leaf rust, and the 89 mega base pair genome of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat and barley stem rust. We then compared the 16,841 predicted proteins of M. larici-populina to the 18,241 predicted proteins of P. graminis f. sp tritici. Genomic features related to their obligate biotrophic life-style include expanded lineage-specific gene families, a large repertoire of effector-like small secreted proteins (SSPs), impaired nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways, and expanded families of amino-acid, oligopeptide and hexose membrane transporters. The dramatic upregulation of transcripts coding for SSPs, secreted hydrolytic enzymes, and transporters in planta suggests that they play a role in host infection and nutrient acquisition. Some of these genomic hallmarks are mirrored in the genomes of other microbial eukaryotes that have independently evolved to infect plants, indicating convergent adaptation to a biotrophic existence inside plant cells

  13. Suppression of wheat TaCDK8/TaWIN1 interaction negatively affects germination of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici by interfering with very-long-chain aldehyde biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyao; Chang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Wheat TaCDK8 interacts with TaWIN1 to regulate very-long-chain aldehyde biosynthesis required for efficient germination of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) is a devastating disease of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Bgt infection initiates with its conidia germination on the aerial surface of wheat. In this study, we isolated the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (TaCDK8) from wheat cultivar Jing411 and found that silencing of TaCDK8 impeded Bgt germination. The biochemical and molecular-biological assays revealed that TaCDK8 interacts with and phosphorylates the wheat transcription factor wax inducer 1 (TaWIN1) to stimulate the TaWIN1-dependent transcription. Bgt conidia on the leaves of TaWIN1-silenced plants also showed reduced germination. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed that knockdown of TaCDK8 or TaWIN1 resulted in decreases of wax components and cutin monomers in wheat leaves. Moreover, Bgt germination on leaves of TaCDK8 or TaWIN1 silenced plants could be fully restored by application of wild-type cuticular wax. In vitro studies demonstrated that very-long-chain aldehydes absent from the cuticular wax of the TaCDK8 or TaWIN1 silenced plants were capable of chemically stimulating Bgt germination. These results implicated that the suppression of TaCDK8/TaWIN1 interaction negatively affects Bgt germination by interfering with very-long-chain aldehyde biosynthesis required for efficient fungal germination.

  14. Next generation sequencing provides rapid access to the genome of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stripe rust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cantu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The wheat stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, PST is responsible for significant yield losses in wheat production worldwide. In spite of its economic importance, the PST genomic sequence is not currently available. Fortunately Next Generation Sequencing (NGS has radically improved sequencing speed and efficiency with a great reduction in costs compared to traditional sequencing technologies. We used Illumina sequencing to rapidly access the genomic sequence of the highly virulent PST race 130 (PST-130. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained nearly 80 million high quality paired-end reads (>50x coverage that were assembled into 29,178 contigs (64.8 Mb, which provide an estimated coverage of at least 88% of the PST genes and are available through GenBank. Extensive micro-synteny with the Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (PGTG genome and high sequence similarity with annotated PGTG genes support the quality of the PST-130 contigs. We characterized the transposable elements present in the PST-130 contigs and using an ab initio gene prediction program we identified and tentatively annotated 22,815 putative coding sequences. We provide examples on the use of comparative approaches to improve gene annotation for both PST and PGTG and to identify candidate effectors. Finally, the assembled contigs provided an inventory of PST repetitive elements, which were annotated and deposited in Repbase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The assembly of the PST-130 genome and the predicted proteins provide useful resources to rapidly identify and clone PST genes and their regulatory regions. Although the automatic gene prediction has limitations, we show that a comparative genomics approach using multiple rust species can greatly improve the quality of gene annotation in these species. The PST-130 sequence will also be useful for comparative studies within PST as more races are sequenced. This study illustrates the power of NGS for

  15. A Near-Complete Haplotype-Phased Genome of the Dikaryotic Wheat Stripe Rust Fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Reveals High Interhaplotype Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Schwessinger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing biological question is how evolution has shaped the genomic architecture of dikaryotic fungi. To answer this, high-quality genomic resources that enable haplotype comparisons are essential. Short-read genome assemblies for dikaryotic fungi are highly fragmented and lack haplotype-specific information due to the high heterozygosity and repeat content of these genomes. Here, we present a diploid-aware assembly of the wheat stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici based on long reads using the FALCON-Unzip assembler. Transcriptome sequencing data sets were used to infer high-quality gene models and identify virulence genes involved in plant infection referred to as effectors. This represents the most complete Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici genome assembly to date (83 Mb, 156 contigs, N50 of 1.5 Mb and provides phased haplotype information for over 92% of the genome. Comparisons of the phase blocks revealed high interhaplotype diversity of over 6%. More than 25% of all genes lack a clear allelic counterpart. When we investigated genome features that potentially promote the rapid evolution of virulence, we found that candidate effector genes are spatially associated with conserved genes commonly found in basidiomycetes. Yet, candidate effectors that lack an allelic counterpart are more distant from conserved genes than allelic candidate effectors and are less likely to be evolutionarily conserved within the P. striiformis species complex and Pucciniales. In summary, this haplotype-phased assembly enabled us to discover novel genome features of a dikaryotic plant-pathogenic fungus previously hidden in collapsed and fragmented genome assemblies.

  16. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in compatible interaction of wheat challenged with Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lili

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is a fungal pathogen causing stripe rust, one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide. The fungus is strictly biotrophic and thus, completely dependent on living host cells for its reproduction, which makes it difficult to study genes of the pathogen. In spite of its economic importance, little is known about the molecular basis of compatible interaction between the pathogen and wheat host. In this study, we identified wheat and P. striiformis genes associated with the infection process by conducting a large-scale transcriptomic analysis using cDNA-AFLP. Results Of the total 54,912 transcript derived fragments (TDFs obtained using cDNA-AFLP with 64 primer pairs, 2,306 (4.2% displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation, of which 966 showed up-regulated and 1,340 down-regulated. 186 TDFs produced reliable sequences after sequencing of 208 TDFs selected, of which 74 (40% had known functions through BLAST searching the GenBank database. Majority of the latter group had predicted gene products involved in energy (13%, signal transduction (5.4%, disease/defence (5.9% and metabolism (5% of the sequenced TDFs. BLAST searching of the wheat stem rust fungus genome database identified 18 TDFs possibly from the stripe rust pathogen, of which 9 were validated of the pathogen origin using PCR-based assays followed by sequencing confirmation. Of the 186 reliable TDFs, 29 homologous to genes known to play a role in disease/defense, signal transduction or uncharacterized genes were further selected for validation of cDNA-AFLP expression patterns using qRT-PCR analyses. Results confirmed the altered expression patterns of 28 (96.5% genes revealed by the cDNA-AFLP technique. Conclusion The results show that cDNA-AFLP is a reliable technique for studying expression patterns of genes involved in the wheat-stripe rust interactions. Genes involved in compatible interactions between wheat and the

  17. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Yin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat. To obtain a comprehensive protein dataset of this fungal pathogen, proteomes of Z. tritici growing in nutrient-limiting and rich media and in vivo at a late stage of wheat infection were fractionated by 1D gel or strong cation...

  18. Pyricularia graminis-tritici, a new Pyricularia species causing wheat blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castroagudín, V.L.; Moreira, S.I.; Pereira, D.A.S.; Moreira, S.S.; Brunner, P.C.; Maciel, J.L.N.; Crous, P.W.; McDonald, B.A.; Alves, E.; Ceresini, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Pyricularia oryzae is a species complex that causes blast disease on more than 50 species of poaceous plants. Pyricularia oryzae has a worldwide distribution as a rice pathogen and in the last 30 years emerged as an important wheat pathogen in southern Brazil. We conducted phylogenetic analyses

  19. A Near-Complete Haplotype-Phased Genome of the Dikaryotic Wheat Stripe Rust Fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Reveals High Interhaplotype Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwessinger, Benjamin; Sperschneider, Jana; Cuddy, William S; Garnica, Diana P; Miller, Marisa E; Taylor, Jennifer M; Dodds, Peter N; Figueroa, Melania; Park, Robert F; Rathjen, John P

    2018-02-20

    A long-standing biological question is how evolution has shaped the genomic architecture of dikaryotic fungi. To answer this, high-quality genomic resources that enable haplotype comparisons are essential. Short-read genome assemblies for dikaryotic fungi are highly fragmented and lack haplotype-specific information due to the high heterozygosity and repeat content of these genomes. Here, we present a diploid-aware assembly of the wheat stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici based on long reads using the FALCON-Unzip assembler. Transcriptome sequencing data sets were used to infer high-quality gene models and identify virulence genes involved in plant infection referred to as effectors. This represents the most complete Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici genome assembly to date (83 Mb, 156 contigs, N 50 of 1.5 Mb) and provides phased haplotype information for over 92% of the genome. Comparisons of the phase blocks revealed high interhaplotype diversity of over 6%. More than 25% of all genes lack a clear allelic counterpart. When we investigated genome features that potentially promote the rapid evolution of virulence, we found that candidate effector genes are spatially associated with conserved genes commonly found in basidiomycetes. Yet, candidate effectors that lack an allelic counterpart are more distant from conserved genes than allelic candidate effectors and are less likely to be evolutionarily conserved within the P. striiformis species complex and Pucciniales In summary, this haplotype-phased assembly enabled us to discover novel genome features of a dikaryotic plant-pathogenic fungus previously hidden in collapsed and fragmented genome assemblies. IMPORTANCE Current representations of eukaryotic microbial genomes are haploid, hiding the genomic diversity intrinsic to diploid and polyploid life forms. This hidden diversity contributes to the organism's evolutionary potential and ability to adapt to stress conditions. Yet, it is

  20. Functional characterization of calcineurin homologs PsCNA1/PsCNB1 in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici using a host-induced RNAi system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcineurin plays a key role in morphogenesis, pathogenesis and drug resistance in most fungi. However, the function of calcineurin genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is unclear. We identified and characterized the calcineurin genes PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 form a calcium/calmodulin regulated protein phosphatase belonging to the calcineurin heterodimers composed of subunits A and B. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that both PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 expression reached their maximum in the stage of haustorium formation, which is one day after inoculation. Using barely stripe mosaic virus (BSMV as a transient expression vector in wheat, the expression of PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst was suppressed, leading to slower extension of fungal hyphae and reduced production of urediospores. The immune-suppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506 markedly reduced the germination rates of urediospores, and when germination did occur, more than two germtubes were produced. These results suggest that the calcineurin signaling pathway participates in stripe rust morphogenetic differentiation, especially the formation of haustoria during the early stage of infection and during the production of urediospores. Therefore PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 can be considered important pathogenicity genes involved in the wheat-Pst interaction.

  1. Divergent and convergent modes of interaction between wheat and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici isolates revealed by the comparative gene co-expression network and genome analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, William B; Salcedo, Andres; Akhunova, Alina; He, Fei; Wang, Shichen; Liang, Hanquan; Bowden, Robert L; Akhunov, Eduard

    2017-04-12

    Two opposing evolutionary constraints exert pressure on plant pathogens: one to diversify virulence factors in order to evade plant defenses, and the other to retain virulence factors critical for maintaining a compatible interaction with the plant host. To better understand how the diversified arsenals of fungal genes promote interaction with the same compatible wheat line, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of two North American isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). The patterns of inter-isolate divergence in the secreted candidate effector genes were compared with the levels of conservation and divergence of plant-pathogen gene co-expression networks (GCN) developed for each isolate. Comprative genomic analyses revealed substantial level of interisolate divergence in effector gene complement and sequence divergence. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses of the conserved and unique parts of the isolate-specific GCNs identified a number of conserved host pathways targeted by both isolates. Interestingly, the degree of inter-isolate sub-network conservation varied widely for the different host pathways and was positively associated with the proportion of conserved effector candidates associated with each sub-network. While different Pgt isolates tended to exploit similar wheat pathways for infection, the mode of plant-pathogen interaction varied for different pathways with some pathways being associated with the conserved set of effectors and others being linked with the diverged or isolate-specific effectors. Our data suggest that at the intra-species level pathogen populations likely maintain divergent sets of effectors capable of targeting the same plant host pathways. This functional redundancy may play an important role in the dynamic of the "arms-race" between host and pathogen serving as the basis for diverse virulence strategies and creating conditions where mutations in certain effector groups will not have a major effect on the pathogen

  2. Genome-wide association mapping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici) in US Pacific Northwest winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruoka, Y; Garland-Campbell, K A; Carter, A H

    2015-06-01

    Potential novel and known QTL for race-specific all-stage and adult plant resistance to stripe rust were identified by genome-wide association mapping in the US PNW winter wheat accessions. Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici; also known as yellow rust) is a globally devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a major threat to wheat production in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), therefore both adult plant and all-stage resistance have been introduced into the winter wheat breeding programs in the PNW. The goal of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular markers for these resistances through genome-wide association (GWAS) mapping in winter wheat accessions adapted to the PNW. Stripe rust response for adult plants was evaluated in naturally occurring epidemics in a total of nine environments in Washington State, USA. Seedling response was evaluated with three races under artificial inoculation in the greenhouse. The panel was genotyped with the 9K Illumina Wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and additional markers linked to previously reported genes and QTL for stripe rust resistance. The population was grouped into three sub-populations. Markers linked to Yr17 and previously reported QTL for stripe rust resistance were identified on chromosomes 1B, 2A, and 2B. Potentially novel QTL associated with race-specific seedling response were identified on chromosomes 1B and 1D. Potentially novel QTL associated with adult plant response were located on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, and 4B. Stripe rust was reduced when multiple alleles for resistance were present. The resistant allele frequencies were different among sub-populations in the panel. This information provides breeders with germplasm and closely linked markers for stripe rust resistance to facilitate the transfer of multiple loci for durable stripe rust resistance into wheat breeding lines and cultivars.

  3. Emergence of virulence to SrTmp in the Ug99 race group of wheat stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patpour, M.; Hovmøller, M. S.; Justesen, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    of wheat fields in Africa (Kenya, 9; Uganda, 28; Rwanda, 41; and Egypt, 6) were sent to the Global Rust Reference Center (GRRC, Denmark) for race analysis. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) samples were recovered on cv. Morocco, and resulting urediniospores of 53 single-pustule isolates were......Tmp) to confirm their virulence/avirulence combinations to Sr24, Sr31, Sr36, and SrTmp. Race TTKTK was also detected at two locations in Uganda (Rubaya and Muko in Kabale region) and at five locations in Rwanda (Kinigi, Rwerere, Rufungo, Gatebe, and Kamenyo). Three isolates derived from stem rust samples...

  4. The wheat WRKY transcription factors TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 confer differential high-temperature seedling-plant resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjuan Wang

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors (TFs play crucial roles in plant resistance responses to pathogens. Wheat stripe rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum worldwide. In this study, the two WRKY genes TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 were originally identified in association with high-temperature seedling-plant resistance to Pst (HTSP resistance in wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 by RNA-seq. Interestingly, the expression levels of TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 were down- and up-regulated, respectively, during HTSP resistance in response to Pst. Silencing of TaWRKY49 enhanced whereas silencing TaWRKY62 reduced HTSP resistance. The enhanced resistance observed on leaves following the silencing of TaWRKY49 was coupled with increased expression of salicylic acid (SA- and jasmonic acid (JA-responsive genes TaPR1.1 and TaAOS, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS-associated genes TaCAT and TaPOD; whereas the ethylene (ET-responsive gene TaPIE1 was suppressed. The decreased resistance observed on leaves following TaWRKY62 silencing was associated with increased expression of TaPR1.1 and TaPOD, and suppression of TaAOS and TaPIE1. Furthermore, SA, ET, MeJA (methyl jasmonate, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and abscisic acid (ABA treatments increased TaWRKY62 expression. On the other hand, MeJA did not affect the expression of TaWRKY49, and H2O2 reduced TaWRKY49 expression. In conclusion, TaWRKY49 negatively regulates while TaWRKY62 positively regulates wheat HTSP resistance to Pst by differential regulation of SA-, JA-, ET and ROS-mediated signaling.

  5. Draft genome sequences of six neonatal meningitis-causing escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65) were recovered from infants in the Netherlands from 1989 to 1997. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these six E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing te...

  6. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fen; Yin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat. To obtain a comprehensive protein dataset of this fungal pathogen, proteomes of Z. tritici growing in nutrient-limiting and rich media and in vivo at a late stage of wheat infection were fractionated by 1D gel or strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. A total of 5731, 5376 and 3168 Z. tritici proteins were confidently identified from these conditions, respectively. Of these in vitro and in planta proteins, 9 and 11% were predicted to contain signal peptides, respectively. Functional classification analysis revealed the proteins were involved in the various cellular activities. Comparison of three distinct protein expression profiles demonstrates the elevated carbohydrate, lipid and secondary metabolisms, transport, protein processing and energy production specifically in the host environment, in contrast to the enhancement of signaling, defense, replication, transcription and cell division in vitro. The data provide useful targets towards a better understanding of the molecular basis of Z. tritici growth, development, stress response and pathogenicity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) in wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2017-01-04

    Jan 4, 2017 ... 2007; Zhang et al., 2008; Li et al., 2011; Alam et al.,. 2013; Quijano et al., 2015; ..... structure of the eastern US w heat pow dery mildew population. Plant. Dis. ... Collinearity-based marker mining for the fine mapping of Pm6, a ...

  8. Battle through signaling between wheat and the fungal pathogen Septoria tritici revealed by proteomics and phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Braga, Marcella Nunes de Melo; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Septoria tritici causes the disease septoria tritici blotch in wheat, one of the most economically devastating foliar diseases in this crop. To investigate signaling events and defense responses in the wheat-S. tritici interaction, we performed a time-course study of S. tritici infection...... in resistant and susceptible wheat using quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics, with special emphasis on the initial biotrophic phase of interactions. Our study revealed an accumulation of defense and stress-related proteins, suppression of photosynthesis, and changes in sugar metabolism during...... compatible and incompatible interactions. However, differential regulation of the phosphorylation status of signaling proteins, transcription and translation regulators, and membrane-associated proteins was observed between two interactions. The proteomic data were correlated with a more rapid or stronger...

  9. Unraveling incompatibility between wheat and the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici through apoplastic proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fen; Li, Wanshun; Derbyshire, Mark; Larsen, Martin R; Rudd, Jason J; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2015-05-08

    Hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici causes severe foliar disease in wheat. However, current knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in plant resistance to Z. tritici and Z. tritici virulence factors is far from being complete. The present work investigated the proteome of leaf apoplastic fluid with emphasis on both host wheat and Z. tritici during the compatible and incompatible interactions. The proteomics analysis revealed rapid host responses to the biotrophic growth, including enhanced carbohydrate metabolism, apoplastic defenses and stress, and cell wall reinforcement, might contribute to resistance. Compatibility between the host and the pathogen was associated with inactivated plant apoplastic responses as well as fungal defenses to oxidative stress and perturbation of plant cell wall during the initial biotrophic stage, followed by the strong induction of plant defenses during the necrotrophic stage. To study the role of anti-oxidative stress in Z. tritici pathogenicity in depth, a YAP1 transcription factor regulating antioxidant expression was deleted and showed the contribution to anti-oxidative stress in Z. tritici, but was not required for pathogenicity. This result suggests the functional redundancy of antioxidants in the fungus. The data demonstrate that incompatibility is probably resulted from the proteome-level activation of host apoplastic defenses as well as fungal incapability to adapt to stress and interfere with host cell at the biotrophic stage of the interaction.

  10. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov. causes lethal chytridiomycosis in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, An; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Blooi, Mark; Bert, Wim; Ducatelle, Richard; Fisher, Matthew C; Woeltjes, Antonius; Bosman, Wilbert; Chiers, Koen; Bossuyt, Franky; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-09-17

    The current biodiversity crisis encompasses a sixth mass extinction event affecting the entire class of amphibians. The infectious disease chytridiomycosis is considered one of the major drivers of global amphibian population decline and extinction and is thought to be caused by a single species of aquatic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. However, several amphibian population declines remain unexplained, among them a steep decrease in fire salamander populations (Salamandra salamandra) that has brought this species to the edge of local extinction. Here we isolated and characterized a unique chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov., from this salamander population. This chytrid causes erosive skin disease and rapid mortality in experimentally infected fire salamanders and was present in skin lesions of salamanders found dead during the decline event. Together with the closely related B. dendrobatidis, this taxon forms a well-supported chytridiomycete clade, adapted to vertebrate hosts and highly pathogenic to amphibians. However, the lower thermal growth preference of B. salamandrivorans, compared with B. dendrobatidis, and resistance of midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) to experimental infection with B. salamandrivorans suggest differential niche occupation of the two chytrid fungi.

  11. Present status of Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola /Fuckel/ Schroter of the wheat cultures in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the Republic of Macedonia, wheat is a very important crop and it is grown on an area of around 250.000 ha. The most important regions for wheat growing are: Bitola, Kumanovo, Sveti Nikole, Skopje, Probistip, Kocani, Veles and Stip. The most important deseases on wheat are: Tapesia yallundae Wallwork and Spooner with its anamorphic stage Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron Deighton causer of the desease „eyespot“ on barley and wheat; Puccinia graminis f. spp. tritici; Puccinia racondita f. spp. tritici; Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici; Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. Shoemaker; Blumeria graminis var. tritici and Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola (Fuckel Schroter. Many new diseases on wheat causing significant economic damage to producers are observed in Macedonia. The main aim of this article is to present the symptoms, morphology and protective measures of Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola, the most widely spread fungal pathogens on wheat in the Republic of Macedonia. In the period between 2014 and 2016, the pathogen fungi on wheat with the highest intensity were: Zymoseptoria tritici, Tapesia yallundae, Puccinia graminis, Puccinia recondita, Gaeumannomyces graminis, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Blumeria graminis. The intensity of the diseases and the damages – yield losses of wheat, differed from year to year and between regions, depended on the sensitivity of the wheat varieties. The smallest yield loss was identified in wheat producers who treated the wheat with pesticides at least twice for vegetation season.

  12. Optimization of Production Conditions for Protoplasts and Polyethylene Glycol-Mediated Transformation of Gaeumannomyces tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Lanying; Han, Lirong; Zhang, Xing; Feng, Juntao

    2018-05-24

    Take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces tritici , is one of the most important wheat root diseases worldwide, as it results in serious yield losses. In this study, G. tritici was transformed to express the hygromycin B phosphotransferase using a combined protoplast and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation technique. Based on a series of single-factor experimental results, three major factors-temperature, enzyme lysis time, and concentration of the lysing enzyme-were selected as the independent variables, which were optimized using the response surface methodology. A higher protoplast yield of 9.83 × 10⁷ protoplasts/mL was observed, and the protoplast vitality was also high, reaching 96.27% after optimization. Protoplasts were isolated under the optimal conditions, with the highest transformation frequency (46⁻54 transformants/μg DNA). Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting detection indicated that the genes of hygromycin phosphotransferase were successfully inserted into the genome of G. tritici . An optimised PEG-mediated protoplast transformation system for G. tritici was established. The techniques and procedures described will lay the foundation for establishing a good mutation library of G. tritici and could be used to transform other fungi.

  13. Zymoseptoria ardabiliae and Z. pseudotritici, two progenitor species of the septoria tritici leaf blotch fungus Z. tritici (synonym: Mycosphaerella graminicola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stukenbrock, E.H.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Javan-Nikhah, M.; Zala, M.; Crous, P.W.; McDonald, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Zymoseptoria is a newly described genus that includes the prominent wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici (synonyms Mycosphaerella graminicola and Septoria tritici). Studies indicated that the center of origin of Z. tritici is in the Middle East where this important pathogen emerged during the

  14. Geographical distribution of a specific mitochondrial haplotype of Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh BOUKEF

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severity of disease caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici throughout world cereal growing regions has elicited much debate on the potential evolutionary mechanism conferring high adaptability of the pathogen to diverse climate conditions and different wheat hosts (Triticum durum and T. aestivum. Specific mitochondrial DNA sequence was used to investigate geographic distribution of the type 4 haplotype (mtRFLP4 within 1363 isolates of Z. tritici originating from 21 countries. The mtRFLP4 haplotype was detected from both durum and bread wheat hosts with greater frequency on durum wheat. The distribution of mtRFLP4 was limited to populations sampled from the Mediterranean and the Red Sea region. Greater frequencies of mtRFLP4 were found in Tunisia (87% and Algeria (60%. The haplotype was absent within European, Australian, North and South American populations except Argentina. While alternative hypotheses such as climatic adaptation could not be ruled out, it is postulated that mtRFLP4 originated in North Africa (e.g. Tunisia or Algeria as an adaptation to durum wheat as the prevailing cereal crop. The specialized haplotype has subsequently spread as indicated by lower frequency of occurrence in the surrounding Mediterranean countries and on bread wheat hosts.

  15. Host Resistance and Temperature-Dependent Evolution of Aggressiveness in the Plant Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengping Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how habitat heterogeneity may affect the evolution of plant pathogens is essential to effectively predict new epidemiological landscapes and manage genetic diversity under changing global climatic conditions. In this study, we explore the effects of habitat heterogeneity, as determined by variation in host resistance and local temperature, on the evolution of Zymoseptoria tritici by comparing the aggressiveness development of five Z. tritici populations originated from different parts of the world on two wheat cultivars varying in resistance to the pathogen. Our results show that host resistance plays an important role in the evolution of Z. tritici. The pathogen was under weak, constraining selection on a host with quantitative resistance but under a stronger, directional selection on a susceptible host. This difference is consistent with theoretical expectations that suggest that quantitative resistance may slow down the evolution of pathogens and therefore be more durable. Our results also show that local temperature interacts with host resistance in influencing the evolution of the pathogen. When infecting a susceptible host, aggressiveness development of Z. tritici was negatively correlated to temperatures of the original collection sites, suggesting a trade-off between the pathogen’s abilities of adapting to higher temperature and causing disease and global warming may have a negative effect on the evolution of pathogens. The finding that no such relationship was detected when the pathogen infected the partially resistant cultivars indicates the evolution of pathogens in quantitatively resistant hosts is less influenced by environments than in susceptible hosts.

  16. Battle through signaling between wheat and the fungal pathogen Septoria tritici revealed by proteomics and phosphoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fen; Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Larsen, Martin R; Jørgensen, Hans J L; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    The fungus Septoria tritici causes the disease septoria tritici blotch in wheat, one of the most economically devastating foliar diseases in this crop. To investigate signaling events and defense responses in the wheat-S. tritici interaction, we performed a time-course study of S. tritici infection in resistant and susceptible wheat using quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics, with special emphasis on the initial biotrophic phase of interactions. Our study revealed an accumulation of defense and stress-related proteins, suppression of photosynthesis, and changes in sugar metabolism during compatible and incompatible interactions. However, differential regulation of the phosphorylation status of signaling proteins, transcription and translation regulators, and membrane-associated proteins was observed between two interactions. The proteomic data were correlated with a more rapid or stronger accumulation of signal molecules, including calcium, H2O2, NO, and sugars, in the resistant than in the susceptible cultivar in response to the infection. Additionally, 31 proteins and 5 phosphoproteins from the pathogen were identified, including metabolic proteins and signaling proteins such as GTP-binding proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and calcium-binding proteins. Quantitative PCR analysis showed the expression of fungal signaling genes and genes encoding a superoxide dismutase and cell-wall degrading enzymes. These results indicate roles of signaling, antioxidative stress mechanisms, and nutrient acquisition in facilitating the initial symptomless growth. Taken in its entirety, our dataset suggests interplay between the plant and S. tritici through complex signaling networks and downstream molecular events. Resistance is likely related to several rapidly and intensively triggered signal transduction cascades resulting in a multiple-level activation of transcription and translation processes of defense responses. Our sensitive approaches and model provide a comprehensive

  17. Effect of organic management of soils on suppressiveness to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and its antagonist, Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.A.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Semenov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Organic management of soils is generally considered to reduce the incidence and severity of plant diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. In this study, take-all severity on roots of barley and wheat, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, was significantly lower in organically-managed

  18. Population densities of wheat thrips, Haplothrips tritici Kurdjumov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population densities of Haplothrips tritici (H. tritici) Kurdjumov (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) were studied in Kahramanmaras, Turkey. In 2002, bread wheat cultivars, Bocro 4, Pehlivan and Yüreğir 89, durum wheat cultivars, Balcali 85, Ceylan 95 and Harran 95 and barley cultivars, Esterel and Pacific, were used. In 2003 ...

  19. Distribution of races of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis in Algeria and identication of a new virulence type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamida BENSLIMANE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tan spot, caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, is a foliar disease  of wheat, responsible for high economic losses in several wheat  growing areas in the world. There are eight known races of P. tritici-repentis based on ability to induce necrosis and/or chlorosis on a set of differential cultivars. Fifty five isolates of P. tritici-repentis  originating from diverse wheat growing regions in Algeria were  studied to determine which races are present and to identify new  races. Races 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were found and a new virulence pattern was identified. Isolates with this pattern induced necrosis in durum  wheat but failed to induce any disease in the common wheat  genotypes in the differential set.

  20. First report of Fusarium wilt of alfalfa caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis, is an economically important vascular disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) throughout the world. Alfalfa plants with foliar wilt symptoms and reddish-brown arcs in roots consistent with Fusarium wilt were observed in disease assessment ...

  1. Successful treatment of an invasive fungal infection caused by Talaromyces sp. with voriconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uluhan Sili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections (IFI are on the rise due to increasing numbers of immunosuppressed and critically ill patients. A malignant-looking pulmonary nodule in an immunosuppressed patient may indeed be caused by a fungal organism. We report a patient, who was eventually diagnosed with an IFI caused by an agent of hyalohyphomycosis, Talaromyces sp. determined via molecular methods and succesfully treated with voriconazole.

  2. Development of a rapid multiplex SSR genotyping method to study populations of the fun-gal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, A.; Marcel, T.C.; Confais, J.; Crane, C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Suffert, F.; Walker, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus causing leaf blotch of wheat that often decreases yield severely. Populations of the fungus are known to be highly diverse and poorly differentiated from each other. However, a genotyping tool is needed to address further

  3. Biological control of chickpea wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, F. A.; Suliman, W. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to control chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, using antagonistic properties of soil microorganisms. It also aimed at avoiding problems resulting from the use of chemical fungicides. A trichoderma sp. was isolated from the rhizosphere of a resistant chickpea variety (ICCV-2) and a bacillus sp. from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of the same variety. Both microorganisms proved to be effective in controlling the disease. In addition, trichoderma harzianum, which was obtained from Giza Research Station in Egypt, was also antagonistic to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Wilt incidence was significantly reduced when chickpea was grown in posts containing soil mixed with any of the three antagonists or when chickpea seeds were initially treated with the seed-dressing fungicide vincit at 2 ml/kg seeds. Trichoderma harzianum proved to be the best bioagent as it gave the lowest disease incidence. In the field, the two trichoderma spp. were as effective as vincit in causing reduction in the wilt incidence. At the higher concentration of 140 g/m''2, the two antagonists were effective throughout the growth period, but they were less effective at the lower concentration of 70 g/m''2 particularly at the seedling stage.(Author)

  4. Genetics of resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici and applications to wheat breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James K M; Chartrain, Laëtitia; Lasserre-Zuber, Pauline; Saintenac, Cyrille

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about genes for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch (STB) of wheat, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (formerly Mycosphaerella graminicola). These genes can be placed into two classes, although a few may have characteristics of both classes. Qualitative resistance is controlled by genes which control large fractions of genetic variation, 21 of which have been discovered and mapped so far. Most of them have been shown to be genotype-specific, being effective against the minority of Z. tritici isolates which are avirulent, and Stb6 has been shown to control a gene-for-gene relationship. Most qualitative resistances are unlikely to be durable and some formerly effective genes have been overcome by the evolution of pathogen virulence. Quantitative resistance is generally controlled by genes with small-to-moderate effects on STB. They have generally weaker specificity than qualitative genes and have provided more durable resistance. 89 genome regions carrying quantitative trait loci (QTL) or meta-QTL have been identified to date. Some QTL have been mapped at or near loci of qualitative genes, especially Stb6, which is present in several sources of resistance. Another gene of particular interest is Stb16q, which has been effective against all Z. tritici isolates tested so far. In addition to resistance, the susceptibility of wheat cultivars to STB can also be reduced by disease escape traits, some of which may be undesirable in breeding. The fundamental requirements for breeding for STB-resistance are genetic diversity for resistance in wheat germplasm and a field trial site at which STB epidemics occur regularly and effective selection can be conducted for resistance combined with other desirable traits. If these are in place, knowledge of resistance genes can be applied to improving control of STB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic diarrhea caused by Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. in immunocompetent patient-a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, Y.; Rozi, M. F.; Saragih, R. H.; Darlan, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. are commonly associated with immunocompromised patients. Severe clinical manifestation can be produced by this organism. It varies according to immune status, and subtype of this organism. Unfortunately, we found an immunocompetent patient with chronic diarrhea caused by this organism. A 38- year old male was admitted to Adam Malik General Hospital because of watery diarrhea since four days ago. Administration of fluid replacement was done to this patient, but the frequency of diarrhea did not decrease. Loperamide as anti-spasmodic was also given in each episode of diarrhea. Surprisingly, fecal smear examination revealed that this patient positive for Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. Thus, diarrhea was resolved for four days without giving any anti-parasitic drugs to the patient.

  6. A role for random, humidity-dependent epiphytic growth prior to invasion of wheat by Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Kay, William; Cowper, Josh; Gurr, Sarah J

    2017-09-01

    Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria leaf blotch of wheat. The prevailing paradigm of the Z. tritici-wheat interaction assumes fungal ingress through stomata within 24-48h, followed by days of symptomless infection. This is extrapolated from studies testing the mode of fungal ingress under optimal infection conditions. Here, we explicitly assess the timing of entry, using GFP-tagged Z. tritici. We show that early entry is comparatively rare, and extended epiphytic growth possible. We test the hypotheses that our data diverge from earlier studies due to: i. random ingress of Z. tritici into the leaf, with some early entry events; ii. previous reliance upon fungal stains, combined with poor attachment of Z. tritici to the leaf, leading to increased likelihood of observing internal versus external growth, compared to using GFP; iii. use of exceptionally high humidity to promote entry in previous studies. We combine computer simulation of leaf-surface growth with thousands of in planta observations to demonstrate that while spores germinate rapidly on the leaf, over 95% of fungi remain epiphytic, growing randomly over the leaf for ten days or more. We show that epiphytic fungi are easily detached from leaves by rinsing and that humidity promotes epiphytic growth, increasing infection rates. Together, these results explain why epiphytic growth has been dismissed and early ingress assumed. The prolonged epiphytic phase should inform studies of pathogenicity and virulence mutants, disease control strategies, and interpretation of the observed low in planta growth, metabolic quiescence and evasion of plant defences by Zymoseptoria during symptomless infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp. after penetrating keratoplasty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stock RA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo Alexandre Stock,1 Elcio Luiz Bonamigo,2 Emeline Cadore,3 Rafael Allan Oechsler4 1Corneal Transplant Section, Santa Terezinha University Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology and Bioethics, 3University of Western Santa Catarina, Joaçaba, 4Cornea Department, Oftalmo Center Blumenau, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil Background: Infectious crystalline keratopathy is a rare, progressive infection characterized by the insidious progression of branches and crystalline corneal opacities with minimal or no inflammation. This case report describes the evolution of an infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp., which developed after tectonic keratoplasty in a patient with a history of ocular trauma.Case presentation: A 40-year-old Brazilian male was the victim of firework-induced trauma to the left eye, which resulted in a corneal laceration that could not be sutured as well as a severe traumatic cataract. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty and phacoemulsification. During postoperative follow-up, another therapeutic keratoplasty was required because unresponsive infectious keratitis was observed. The infiltrate’s characteristics were suggestive of infectious crystalline keratopathy; in particular, the infiltrate was insidious and progressive, and grayish-white branches appeared in the anterior corneal stroma. As different therapies were administered, inflammatory reactions ranging from mild to severe were observed. The infection was unresponsive to typical antifungal drugs. This lack of response most likely occurred due to steroid treatment and the diffuse corneal spread of an atypical microorganism, which was subsequently identified in culture as Cladosporium sp. After the second therapeutic keratoplasty, the patient’s eye integrity was successfully reestablished.Conclusion: This study likely provides the first report describing a case of infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp. This case

  8. First report of scuticociliatosis caused by Uronema sp. in ornamental reef fish imported into Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Magalhães Cardoso

    Full Text Available Abstract Scuticociliatosis, which is caused by an opportunistic ciliate protozoan, is responsible for significant economic losses in marine ornamental fish. This study reports the occurrence of Uronema sp., which was found to be parasitizing three species of marine reef fish imported into Brazil and maintained in quarantine: Vanderbilt’s Chromis (Chromis vanderbilti, blue-green damselfish (Chromis viridis, and sea goldie (Pseudanthias squamipinnis. During the quarantine period, some fish presented with behavioral disorders and hemorrhages and ulcerative lesions on the body surface. Histopathological analysis showed hemorrhages, inflammation comprising mononuclear and granular cells in the skeletal muscle, and necrosis of the skin and the secondary lamellae of the gills, and parasites were also observed in the renal capsule. The absence of transboundary measures available to prevent the occurrence of ornamental fish diseases is also discussed.

  9. Impact of DMI and SDHI fungicides on disease control and CYP51 mutations in populations of Zymoseptoria tritici from Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Thies Marten; Berg, Gunilla; Semaskiene, Roma

    2015-01-01

    Zymoseptoria tritici is a dominant pathogen in wheat causing Septoria leaf blotch (SLB), and sterol 14α-demethylation inhibitors fungicides (DMI) are commonly used for control in Northern Europe. In 14 winter wheat trials carried out in Denmark, Lithuania, and Sweden in the years 2011 to 2013, fu...

  10. Population densities of wheat thrips, Haplothrips tritici Kurdjumov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Key words: Thysanoptera, Haplothrips tritici, population density, bread wheat, durum wheat, barley, cultivars. INTRODUCTION. Some thrips types of the order Thysanoptera constitute one of the harmful groups found on grains (Minaei and. Mound, 2008). The most common species observed on grains in ...

  11. Identification of QoI fungicide-resistant genotypes of the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora ALLIOUI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septoria tritici blotch caused by Zymoseptoria tritici is currently one of the most damaging diseases on bread and durum wheat crops worldwide. A total of 120 monoconidial isolates of this fungus were sampled in 2012 from five distinct geographical locations of Algeria (Guelma, Annaba, Constantine, Skikda and Oran and assessed for resistance to Quinone outside Inhibitors (QoI, a widely used class of fungicides for the control of fungal diseases of wheat. Resistance was screened using a mismatch PCR assay that identified the G143A mitochondrial cytochrome b substitution associated with QoI resistance. The isolates were QoI-sensitive, since all possessed the G143 wild-type allele, except for three isolates (two from Guelma and one from Annaba, which had fungicide resistance and possessed the A143 resistant allele. QoI resistance was confirmed phenotypically using a microplate bioassay in which the resistant isolates displayed high levels of half-maximal inhibitory azoxystrobin concentrations (IC50s when compared to sensitive reference isolates. Genetic fingerprinting of all isolates with microsatellite markers revealed that the three resistant isolates were distinct haplotypes, and were are not genetically distinguishable from the sensitive isolates. This study highlights QoI-resistant genotypes of Z. tritici in Algeria for the first time, and proposes a management strategy for QoI fungicide application to prevent further spread of resistance across the country or to other areas of Northern Africa.

  12. Studies on the interaction between the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica A30, and blackleg-causing Dickeya sp. (biovar 3) in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Boer, de W.J.; Veen, van J.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In

  13. Studies on the interaction between the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica A30, and blackleg-causing Dickeya sp (biovar 3) in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; De Boer, W.J.; Van Veen, J.A.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In

  14. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. leaf extracts against multidrug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Mustaffa, Muhammed

    2013-09-01

    To investigate different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infection by agar well diffusion method and also antioxidant activities. The four different Musa species leaves were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antibacterial susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum inhibitory bacterial concentration were determined by agar well diffusion method. Total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity was determined. All the Musa sp. extracts showed moderate antibacterial activities expect Musa paradisiaca with the inhibition zone ranging from 8.0 to 18.6 mm. Among four species ethyl acetate extracts of Musa paradisiaca showed highest activity against tested pathogens particularly E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Citrobacter sp. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the value of 15.63- 250 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations were ranging from 31.25- 250 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species. The present study concluded that among the different Musa species, Musa paradisiaca displayed efficient antibacterial activity followed by Musa acuminata against multi-drug resistant nosocomial infection causing pathogens. Further, an extensive study is needed to identify the bioactive compounds, mode of action and toxic effect in vivo of Musa sp.

  15. Interpretation SP anomaly caused by subsurface fluid flow; Chika ryudokei ni yoru shizen den`i anomaly no kaishaku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Mogi, T; Kawahira, M [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    A PTSP simulator, developed by combining a fluid flow simulator and a simulator for computing the spontaneous potential (SP) out of flow velocity distribution, was used to investigate the impact of the distribution of terrain, permeability, and resistivity upon the ground surface SP. SP computation using simple models such as highlands or cliffs indicated that the terrain-caused SP anomaly was negatively dependent upon elevation. It was also indicated, however, that, in some types of resistivity distribution, the SP profile changes, the peak goes out of place, and even the apparent polarity may reverse in extreme cases. In the study of the SP profile for the Takeyu hot spa, Oita Prefecture, PTSP-aided modeling was carried out. It was then found that fluid flows caused by the terrain were not enough to explain the peak at the middle of the mountain, which suggested the existence of a fluid flow caused by temperature distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Neocosmospora perseae sp. nov., causing trunk cankers on avocado in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guarnaccia, Vladimiro; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Aiello, Dalia; Polizzi, Giancarlo; Crous, P.W.

    2018-01-01

    Trunk and branch cankers are among the most important diseases compromising avocado production worldwide. A novel species, Neocosmospora perseae sp. nov. is described isolated from trunk lesions on Persea americana in the main avocado producing area of Sicily, Italy. The new species is characterised

  17. Dissecting the molecular interactions between wheat and the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme James Kettles

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Dothideomycete fungus Zymoseptoria tritici (previously known as Mycosphaerella graminicola and Septoria tritici is the causative agent of Septoria tritici leaf blotch (STB disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In Europe, STB is the most economically damaging disease of wheat, with an estimated ~€1 billion per year in fungicide expenditure directed towards its control. Here, an overview of our current understanding of the molecular events that occur during Z. tritici infection of wheat leaves is presented. On the host side, this includes the contribution of (1 the pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI layer of the plant defence, and (2 major Stb resistance loci to Z. tritici resistance. On the pathogen side of the interaction, we consolidate evidence from recent bioinformatic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies that begin to explain the contribution of Z. tritici effector proteins to the biphasic lifestyle of the fungus. This includes the discovery of chitin-binding proteins in the Z. tritici secretome, which contribute to evasion of immune surveillance by this pathogen, and the possible existence of ‘necrotrophic’ effectors from Z. tritici, which may actively stimulate host recognition in a manner similar to related necrotrophic fungal pathogens. We finish by speculating on how some of these recent fundamental discoveries might be harnessed to help improve resistance to STB in the world’s second largest food crop.

  18. Reclassification of rhizosphere bacteria including strains causing corky root of lettuce and proposal of Rhizorhapis suberifaciens gen. nov., comb. nov., Sphingobium mellinum sp. nov., Sphingobium xanthum sp. nov. and Rhizorhabdus argentea gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Isolde M; Jochimsen, Kenneth N; De Vos, Paul; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2014-04-01

    The genus Rhizorhapis gen. nov. (to replace the illegitimate genus name Rhizomonas) is proposed for strains of Gram-negative bacteria causing corky root of lettuce, a widespread and important lettuce disease worldwide. Only one species of the genus Rhizomonas was described, Rhizomonas suberifaciens, which was subsequently reclassified as Sphingomonas suberifaciens based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the presence of sphingoglycolipid in the cell envelope. However, the genus Sphingomonas is so diverse that further reclassification was deemed necessary. Twenty new Rhizorhapis gen. nov.- and Sphingomonas-like isolates were obtained from lettuce or sow thistle roots, or from soil using lettuce seedlings as bait. These and previously reported isolates were characterized in a polyphasic study including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA G+C content, whole-cell fatty acid composition, morphology, substrate oxidation, temperature and pH sensitivity, and pathogenicity to lettuce. The isolates causing lettuce corky root belonged to the genera Rhizorhapis gen. nov., Sphingobium, Sphingopyxis and Rhizorhabdus gen. nov. More specifically, we propose to reclassify Rhizomonas suberifaciens as Rhizorhapis suberifaciens gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain, CA1(T) = LMG 17323(T) = ATCC 49355(T)), and also propose the novel species Sphingobium xanthum sp. nov., Sphingobium mellinum sp. nov. and Rhizorhabdus argentea gen. nov., sp. nov. with the type strains NL9(T) ( = LMG 12560(T) = ATCC 51296(T)), WI4(T) ( = LMG 11032(T) = ATCC 51292(T)) and SP1(T) ( = LMG 12581(T) = ATCC 51289(T)), respectively. Several strains isolated from lettuce roots belonged to the genus Sphingomonas, but none of them were pathogenic.

  19. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  20. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. Nov. Causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Minnis, Andrew M; Meteyer, Carol U; Redell, Jennifer A; White, J Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M; Muller, Laura K; Lindner, Daniel L; Verant, Michelle L; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Blehert, David S

    2015-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, US, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species of Trichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, US. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  1. In Vitro Morphological Characteristics of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Isolates from Several Algerian Agro-Ecological Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamida Benslimane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tan spot caused by the fungus Pyrenophora triticirepentis is a serious disease of wheat, which is on increase in recent years in Mediterranean region. In the field this fungus produces a diamond-shaped necrotic lesions with a yellow halo on wheat foliage. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare several monospore isolates of P. tritici-repentis collected from different infected wheat fields in various locations of Algeria, and find the morphological differences between them, if any. The results revealed wide morphologically variation among the isolates based on colony colors and texture, mycelial radial growth and conidial size.

  2. Burrowing by Sailfin Catfish (Pterygoplichthys sp.): A Potential Cause of Erosion in Disturbed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    originates at a large levee, which was built to create a water retention (to control excess water) and water bird management area. The levee and canal...each sample was dried in stainless steel trays in a 60 °C convection oven . Two methods of quantitative analysis were performed to determine the...ERDC/TN ANSRP-14-1 March 2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Burrowing by Sailfin Catfish (Pterygoplichthys sp.): A

  3. A Gene-for-Gene Relationship Between Wheat and Mycosphaerella graminicola, the Septoria Tritici Blotch Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brading, Penny A; Verstappen, Els C P; Kema, Gert H J; Brown, James K M

    2002-04-01

    ABSTRACT Specific resistances to isolates of the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola, which causes Septoria tritici blotch of wheat, have been detected in many cultivars. Cvs. Flame and Hereward, which have specific resistance to the isolate IPO323, were crossed with the susceptible cv. Longbow. The results of tests on F1 and F2 progeny indicated that a single semidominant gene controls resistance to IPO323 in each of the resistant cultivars. This was confirmed in F3 families of Flame x Longbow, which were either homozygous resistant, homozygous susceptible, or segregating in tests with IPO323 but were uniformly susceptible to another isolate, IPO94269. None of 100 F2 progeny of Flame x Hereward were susceptible to IPO323, indicating that the resistance genes in these two cultivars are the same, closely linked, or allelic. The resistance gene in cv. Flame was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 3A using microsatellite markers and was named Stb6. Fifty-nine progeny of a cross between IPO323 and IPO94269 were used in complementary genetic analysis of the pathogen to test a gene-for-gene relationship between Stb6 and the avirulence gene in IPO323. Avirulence to cvs. Flame, Hereward, Shafir, Bezostaya 1, and Vivant and the breeding line NSL92-5719 cosegregated, and the ratio of virulent to avirulent was close to 1:1, suggesting that these wheat lines may all recognize the same avirulence gene and may all have Stb6. Together, these data provide the first demonstration that isolate-specific resistance of wheat to Septoria tritici blotch follows a gene-for-gene relationship.

  4. Genome size variation in the pine fusiform rust pathogen Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme as determined by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire L Anderson; Thomas L Kubisiak; C Dana Nelson; Jason A Smith; John M Davis

    2010-01-01

    The genome size of the pine fusiform rust pathogen Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (Cqf) was determined by flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide-stained, intact haploid pycniospores with haploid spores of two genetically well characterized fungal species, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici, as size standards. The Cqf haploid genome...

  5. 'Cand. Actinochlamydia clariae' gen. nov., sp. nov., a unique intracellular bacterium causing epitheliocystis in catfish (Clarias gariepinus in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Steigen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epitheliocystis, caused by bacteria infecting gill epithelial cells in fish, is common among a large range of fish species in both fresh- and seawater. The aquaculture industry considers epitheliocystis an important problem. It affects the welfare of the fish and the resulting gill disease may lead to mortalities. In a culture facility in Kampala, Uganda, juveniles of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus was observed swimming in the surface, sometimes belly up, showing signs of respiratory problems. Histological examination of gill tissues from this fish revealed large amounts of epitheliocysts, and also presence of a few Ichthyobodo sp. and Trichodina sp. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sequencing of the epitheliocystis bacterium 16S rRNA gene shows 86.3% similarity with Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis causing epitheliocystis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the developmental stages of the bacterium is similar to that of members of the family Chlamydiaceae. The similarity of the bacterium rRNA gene sequences compared with other chlamydia-like bacteria ranged between 80.5% and 86.3%. Inclusions containing this new bacterium have tubules/channels (termed actinae that are radiating from the inclusion membrane and opening on the cell surface or in neighbouring cells. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation of tubules/channels (actinae from the inclusion membrane has never been described in any of the other members of Chlamydiales. It seems to be a completely new character and an apomorphy. We propose the name Candidatus Actinochlamydia clariae gen. nov., sp. nov. (Actinochlamydiaceae fam. nov., order Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae for this new agent causing epitheliocystis in African sharptooth catfish.

  6. Race structure of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. GAMBA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The virulence of 135 single-spore isolates of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, collected from durum wheat fields representing most of the major agro-ecological zones of Morocco from 2013 to 2015, was assessed on six international differential wheat genotypes under controlled conditions. Races 1, 5, 6 and 7 were identified with races 5 and 6 being most frequent, representing 47% and 44% of isolates tested, respectively. Only eight isolates (6% collected at two research stations and a farm field near a station in 2014 and 2015 were race 1, while three isolates collected in 2014 in a farm field in north-eastern Morocco were race 7. The uniform race structure in farm fields may be due to overreliance on a limited and narrow genetic base for durum wheat crops in Morocco. However, the identification of four races is significant since P. tritici-repentis can generate new combinations of virulence, thereby increasing race diversity. Combined with the low wheat diversity this may lead to future severe disease epidemics.

  7. In vitro Antagonistic Mechanisms of Trichoderma spp. and Talaromyces flavus to Control Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici the Causal Agent of Wheat Take-all Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddighe Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wheat take-all disease caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici has recently been detected in different regions of Iran. With respect to biocontrol effect of Trichoderma spp. on many pathogenic fungi, seven isolates of Trichoderma and four isolates of Talaromyces were in vitro evaluated in terms of their biological control against the disease causal agent. In dual culture test the five isolates showed efficient competition for colonization against pathogenic fungus and the highest percentages of inhibition belonging to Talaromyces flavus 60 and Talaromyces flavus 136 were 59.52 and 57.61%, respectively. Microscopic investigations showed that in regions where antagonistic isolates and Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici coincide, hyphal contact, penetration and fragmentation of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici were observed. Investigating the effect of volatile and non-volatile compounds at 10 ml concentration showed that the highest inhibition percentage on mycelium growth of the pathogen caused by T. harzianum (44.76% and T. longibrachiatum (52.38% respectively.

  8. Effect of ocean acidification on the benthic foraminifera Ammonia sp. is caused by a decrease in carbonate ion concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Keul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available About 30% of the anthropogenically released CO2 is taken up by the oceans; such uptake causes surface ocean pH to decrease and is commonly referred to as ocean acidification (OA. Foraminifera are one of the most abundant groups of marine calcifiers, estimated to precipitate ca. 50 % of biogenic calcium carbonate in the open oceans. We have compiled the state of the art literature on OA effects on foraminifera, because the majority of OA research on this group was published within the last three years. Disparate responses of this important group of marine calcifiers to OA were reported, highlighting the importance of a process-based understanding of OA effects on foraminifera. We cultured the benthic foraminifer Ammonia sp. under a range of carbonate chemistry manipulation treatments to identify the parameter of the carbonate system causing the observed effects. This parameter identification is the first step towards a process-based understanding. We argue that [CO32−] is the parameter affecting foraminiferal size-normalized weights (SNWs and growth rates. Based on the presented data, we can confirm the strong potential of Ammonia sp. foraminiferal SNW as a [CO32−] proxy.

  9. Root rot symptoms in sugar beet lines caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum may cause both Fusarium yellows and Fusarium root rot diseases with severe yield losses in cultivated sugar beet worldwide. These two diseases cause similar foliar symptoms but different root response and have been proposed to be due to two distinct F. oxyspo...

  10. A mutagenesis-derived broad-spectrum disease resistance locus in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust, and powdery mildew caused by the fungal pathogens Puccinia triticina, P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, respectively, are destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. The most effective and widely uti...

  11. Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Causing Banana Vascular Wilt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huicai; Fan, Dingding; Zhu, Yabin; Feng, Yue; Wang, Guofen; Peng, Chunfang; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhou, Dajie; Ni, Peixiang; Liang, Changcong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Mao, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Background The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.). To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1), the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4) has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana ‘Brazil’ in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety ‘Brazil’. Conclusions/Significance Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will thus advance

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Dickeya sp. Isolates B16 (NIB Z 2098) and S1 (NIB Z 2099) Causing Soft Rot of Phalaenopsis Orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alič, Špela; Naglič, Tina; Llop, Pablo; Toplak, Nataša; Koren, Simon; Ravnikar, Maja; Dreo, Tanja

    2015-09-10

    The genus Dickeya contains bacteria causing soft rot of economically important crops and ornamental plants. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two Dickeya sp. isolates from rotted leaves of Phalaenopsis orchids. Copyright © 2015 Alič et al.

  13. Differences between the succinate dehydrogenase sequences of isopyrazam sensitive Zymoseptoria tritici and insensitive Fusarium graminearum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubos, Tiphaine; Pasquali, Matias; Pogoda, Friederike; Casanova, Angèle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Beyer, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Forty-one Zymoseptoria tritici strains isolated in Luxembourg between 2009 and 2010 were highly sensitive towards the new succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) isopyrazam, with concentrations inhibiting fungal growth by 50% (EC50) ranging from 0.0281 to 4.53μM, whereas 41 Fusarium graminearum strains isolated in Europe and Northern America between 1969 and 2009 were insensitive with the average rate of inhibition converging towards 28% with increasing isopyrazam concentration. Seven isolates of both species covering the range of isopyrazam sensitivities observed in the present study were selected for the sequencing of the subunits B, C and D of the succinate dehydrogenase (sdh) gene. Predicted sdh amino acid sequences of subunits B, C and D were identical among F. graminearum strains. By comparing with fungal strains where resistance towards SDHIs was previously reported, three variations were unique to F. graminearum; B-D130N located in the iron-sulfur cluster [2Fe-2S], B-A275T located in the [3Fe-4S] cluster and an additional S at amino acid position 83-84 of sdhC, probably modifying structurally the ubiquinone binding site and therefore the biological activity of the fungicide. No variation was found among the Z. tritici strains in subunits B and D. Two variations were observed within the subunit C sequences of Z. tritici strains: C-N33T and C-N34T. The difference in EC50 values between Z. tritici strains with the NN and TT configuration was non-significant at P=0.289. Two outliers in the Z. tritici group with significantly higher EC50 values that were not related to mutations in the sdhB, sdhC, or sdhD were detected. The role of isopyrazam for the control of F. graminearum and Z. tritici in Luxembourg is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interactional effect of irradiation and fertilization on susceptibility of wheat to septoria tritici

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    1999-12-01

    The effect of low doses of gamma rays (0, 5, 10, 15 Gy), soil fertilizer (0, N, K, N+K), and their interaction on grain yield, and susceptibility to infection by Septoria Tritici blotch, of two wheat cultivars (Bohouth 6 and Bohouth 5), were studied. results showed that all treatments have a positive effect on traits studied. A positive effect on reducing the infection by Septoria Tritici was detected. In general doses of 10 and 15 Gy decreased the infection area by 24 and 35%, and increased grain yield by 25 and 14.9% respectively. (author)

  15. MORTALITY OF YOUTH Arapaima gigas (PISCES: ARAPAIMIDAE FROM A FISH FARMING IN THE NORTH OF BRAZIL, CAUSED BY Hysterothylacium sp. AND Goezia spinulosa (NEMATODA: ANISAKIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Batista de Azevedo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In youth A. gigas the risk of parasitic infections is very high, due to their feeding habit to prey on small invertebrates, which act as intermediate hosts of different endoparasite species, which can cause serious problems and high mortalities in fish farms. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the species that parasitize youth A. gigas raised in captivity in the Manacapuru municipality, Amazonas State and to evaluate their influence on the mortality of these fish. There were examined 66 youth A. gigas and non-parasite was recorded in the host gills. The intestine and stomach of the fish were parasitized by Hysterothylacium sp. larvae (L3 and Goezia spinulosa larvae (L4. The parasitic indexes were high for the two species, being recorded the highest rates of infection by Hysterothylacium sp. There was observed a weak positive correlation between the host standard length and the abundance of Hysterothylacium sp. The lesions observed in the stomach and intestine of the fish, together with the high parasite index values recorded for Hysterothylacium sp. and Goezia spinulosa, leads to the suspicion that the death of the fish was due to complications and damages caused by the presence of these parasites. Keywords: Amazonia; arapaima; death; nematodes.

  16. Abutilon ornamental (Abutilon sp. - Malvaceae mostrando pústulas de Synchytrium australe Pustules on stems, leaves and pods of ornamental abutilon (Abutilon sp. caused by Synchytrium australe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Barreto Figueiredo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de abutilon recebidas para análise fitopatológica pelo Instituto Biológico, São Paulo, Brasil mostrando como sintomas pústulas semelhantes a ferrugem (Uredinales sobre folhas e caule foram estudadas para determinar o agente causal. Numerosos esporângios amarelos característicos de fungos zoospóricos pertencentes à Ordem Chytridiales foram encontrados no interior de galhas superficiais. Com base no estudo de KARLING (1955, o patógeno foi identificado como Synchytrium australe Speg. O material foi herborizado e armazenado no Herbário Micológico do Instituto Biológico sob o número IBI/SP 11975. Esta foi a primeira constatação desta espécie no Brasil.The genus Abutilon includes a large number of ornamental species with nice foliage and flowers. The different species are known under several common names as Indian mallow, China jute, butterprint, etc. Plants of abutilon received for phytopathological analysis by the Instituto Biologico, São Paulo, Brazil showing curious rust like symptoms (pustules on leaves, stems and pods were studied to determine the causal agent. Numerous yellow sporangia characteristic of zoosporic fungi belonging to the Order Chytridiales were found within the superficial intact galls. Based on KARLING (1955 paper the pathogen was identified as Synchytrium australe Speg. The voucher material was saved and settled in the Mycological Herbarium of the Institution under the number IBI/SP 11975. This was the first report of the occurrence of this species in Brazil.

  17. Plasticity of the MFS1 promoter leads to multidrug resistance in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omrane, Selim; Audéon, Colette; Ignace, Amandine; Duplaix, Clémentine; Aouini, Lamia; Kema, Gert; Walker, Anne Sophie; Fillinger, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    The ascomycete Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria leaf blotch on wheat. Disease control relies mainly on resistant wheat cultivars and on fungicide applications. The fungus displays a high potential to circumvent both methods. Resistance against all unisite fungicides has been

  18. Hydroperoxide production from linoleic acid by heterologous Gaeumannomyces graminis tritici lipoxygenase: Optimization and scale-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villaverde, J.J.; Vlist, van der V.; Santos, S.A.O.; Haarmann, T.; Langfelder, K.; Pirttimaa, M.; Nyyssola, A.; Jylhä, S.; Tamminen, T.; Kruus, K.; Graaff, de L.H.; Pascoal Neto, C.; Simoes, M.M.Q.; Domingues, M.R.M.; Silvestre, A.J.D.; Eidner, J.; Buchert, J.

    2013-01-01

    Linoleic acid was converted into hydroperoxides by a Gaeumannomyces graminis tritici lipoxygenase produced recombinantly in Trichoderma reesei. Hydroperoxide production was optimized using a face-centred experimental design in order to study the effects of pH, temperature and time on the conversion

  19. Role of hydrogen peroxide during the interaction between the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Septoria tritici and wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetty, N.P.; Mehrabi, R.; Lütken, H.; Haldrup, A.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is reported to inhibit biotrophic but benefit necrotrophic pathogens. Infection by necrotrophs can result in a massive accumulation of H2O2 in hosts. Little is known of how pathogens with both growth types are affected (hemibiotrophs). The hemibiotroph, Septoria tritici,

  20. Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simón, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    KeyWord:Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella

  1. Wheat Induced Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) by Means of Biological Preparations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchet, L.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Hanazalová, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, SI (2012), s. 61-62 ISSN 1335-258X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : wheat * powdery mildew * inducers of plant origin * inducers of chemical origin Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Management of resistance to the fungicide fenpropimorph in Erysiphe graminis f.sp tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, A.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In the last three decades, plant disease control has become heavily dependent on fungicides. This practice increased yield significantly but had also negative side-effects on the environment. In many countries, integrated control programs have been initiated in order to reduce pesticide use

  3. Disease epidemiology and genetic diversity of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis, cause of fusarium wilt of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hefni Rusli, M.; Wheals, Alan E.; Sharma, Sweta; Seman, Idris A.; Cooper, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis (Foe) has devasted oil palm in west and central Africa. This study investigates the spatial distribution of Foe, whereby non-random, clustered patterns of the disease were recorded in four separate plantations in Ghana; infection from tree to tree via elongating roots therefore plays a more significant role than aerial distribution by conidiospores, with management implications. Control of Foe with disease-resistant palm lines...

  4. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the early infection of wheat roots by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Yang

    Full Text Available Take-all, which is caused by the fungal pathogen, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt, is an important soil-borne root rot disease of wheat occurring worldwide. However, the genetic basis of Ggt pathogenicity remains unclear. In this study, transcriptome sequencing for Ggt in axenic culture and Ggt-infected wheat roots was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 2.62 and 7.76 Gb of clean reads were obtained, and 87% and 63% of the total reads were mapped to the Ggt genome for RNA extracted from Ggt in culture and infected roots, respectively. A total of 3,258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified with 2,107 (65% being 2-fold up-regulated and 1,151 (35% being 2-fold down-regulated between Ggt in culture and Ggt in infected wheat roots. Annotation of these DEGs revealed that many were associated with possible Ggt pathogenicity factors, such as genes for guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-2 subunit, cellulase, pectinase, xylanase, glucosidase, aspartic protease and gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase. Twelve DEGs were analyzed for expression by qRT-PCR, and could be generally divided into those with high expression only early in infection, only late in infection and those that gradually increasing expression over time as root rot developed. This indicates that these possible pathogenicity factors may play roles during different stages of the interaction, such as signaling, plant cell wall degradation and responses to plant defense compounds. This is the first study to compare the transcriptomes of Ggt growing saprophytically in axenic cultures to it growing parasitically in infected wheat roots. As a result, new candidate pathogenicity factors have been identified, which can be further examined by gene knock-outs and other methods to assess their true role in the ability of Ggt to infect roots.

  5. Host-selective toxins of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis induce common responses associated with host susceptibility.

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    Iovanna Pandelova

    Full Text Available Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr, a necrotrophic fungus and the causal agent of tan spot of wheat, produces one or a combination of host-selective toxins (HSTs necessary for disease development. The two most studied toxins produced by Ptr, Ptr ToxA (ToxA and Ptr ToxB (ToxB, are proteins that cause necrotic or chlorotic symptoms respectively. Investigation of host responses induced by HSTs provides better insight into the nature of the host susceptibility. Microarray analysis of ToxA has provided evidence that it can elicit responses similar to those associated with defense. In order to evaluate whether there are consistent host responses associated with susceptibility, a similar analysis of ToxB-induced changes in the same sensitive cultivar was conducted. Comparative analysis of ToxA- and ToxB-induced transcriptional changes showed that similar groups of genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, RLKs, PRs, components of the phenylpropanoid and jasmonic acid pathways are activated. ROS accumulation and photosystem dysfunction proved to be common mechanism-of-action for these toxins. Despite similarities in defense responses, transcriptional and biochemical responses as well as symptom development occur more rapidly for ToxA compared to ToxB, which could be explained by differences in perception as well as by differences in activation of a specific process, for example, ethylene biosynthesis in ToxA treatment. Results of this study suggest that perception of HSTs will result in activation of defense responses as part of a susceptible interaction and further supports the hypothesis that necrotrophic fungi exploit defense responses in order to induce cell death.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas sp. causing infections in trauma patients: A 6 year experience from a south asian country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonika Rajkumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Pseudomonas sp. has spread to such a level irrespective of the type of patients, that its pattern of distribution and antibiotic resistance needs to be studied in detail, especially in trauma patients and hence the study. A 6 year study was carried out among trauma patients to see the trend and type of resistance prevalent in the apex hospital for trauma care in India among nonduplicate isolates where multidrug-resistance (MDR, cross-resistance and pan-drug resistance in Pseudomonas sp. were analyzed. Of the total 2,269 isolates obtained, the species, which was maximally isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2,224, 98%. The highest level of resistance was seen in tetracycline (2,166, 95.5%, P < 0.001 and chloramphenicol (2,160, 95.2%, P < 0.001 and least in meropenem (1,739, 76.7%, P < 0.003. Of the total, 1,692 (74.6% isolates were MDR in which P. aeruginosa (75% were maximum. MDR Pseudomonas is slowing increasing since the beginning of the study period. Of 1,797 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated during the study period, 1,763 (98% showed resistance to ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, suggesting that cross-resistance may have developed for imipenem due to prior use of fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas sp. is fast becoming a problem in trauma patients, especially in those who requires prolong hospital stay, which calls for proper antimicrobial stewardship.

  7. Biological control of wilt disease complex on tomato crop caused by Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici by Verticillium leptobactrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajji-Hedfi, Lobna; Regaieg, Hajer; Larayedh, Asma; Chihani, Noura; Horrigue-Raouani, Najet

    2017-09-23

    The efficacy of Verticillium leptobactrum isolate (HR1) was evaluated in the control of root-knot nematode and Fusarium wilt fungus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Five concentrations of V. leptobactrum (HR1) isolate were tested for their nematicidal and fungicidal activities against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in vitro. Laboratory trials showed that mycelium growth inhibition of Fusarium wilt fungus was correlated to the increase of the concentration of culture filtrate. All dilutions showed efficiency in reducing the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. The greatest nematicidal activity was observed at 50, 75, and 100% filtrate dilutions. The egg hatching percentage reached 42%, and the juvenile's corrected mortality registered 90% for the above treatments. In greenhouse experiment, the biocontrol agent fungus enhanced significantly tomato growth components (height and weight of plant and root). The multiplication rate of root-knot nematode and the Fusarium wilt disease incidence declined significantly with soil application of V. leptobactrum as with chemical treatments. The isolate HR1 was efficient to control wilt disease complex caused by M. javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.

  8. The impact of Septoria tritici Blotch disease on wheat: An EU perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen; Gurr, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of one of the European Union's most devastating foliar diseases of wheat: Septoria tritici Blotch (STB). It is also a notable pathogen of wheat grown in temperate climates throughout the world. In this commentary, we highlight the importance of STB on wheat in the EU. To better understand STB, it is necessary to consider the host crop, the fungal pathogen and their shared environment. Here, we consider the fungus per se and its interaction with its host and then focus on a more agricultural overview of the impact STB on wheat. We consider the climatic and weather factors which influence its spread and severity, allude to the agricultural practices which may mitigate or enhance its impact on crop yields, and evaluate the economic importance of wheat as a food and animal feed crop in the UK and EU. Finally, we estimate the cost of STB disease to EU agriculture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Antifungal (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) activity of various glycosides of medicagenic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Martyniuk; Marian Jurzysta

    2012-01-01

    Different concentrations of medicagenic acid and five glycosides of this acid isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were added to agar medium (corn meal agar, CMA) inoculated with cultures of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). After 7 days of incubation at 25oC colony radius was measured and % of inhibition calculated in relation to the control medium (CMA enriched with the solvent of the tested compounds). Within the tested concentrations, only 3-O-β -D -glucopiranoside medicagena...

  10. Immobilization of Ochrobactrum tritici As5 on PTFE thin films for arsenite biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Rita; Sousa, Tânia; Piedade, Ana P; Morais, Paula V

    2016-03-01

    Ochrobactrum tritici SCII24T bacteria is an environmental strain with high capacity to resist to arsenic (As) toxicity, which makes it able to grow in the presence of As(III). The inactivation of the two functional arsenite efflux pumps, ArsB and ACR3_1, resulted in the mutant O. tritici As5 exhibiting a high accumulation of arsenite. This work describes a method for the immobilization of the mutant cells O. tritici As5, on a commercial polymeric net after sputtered modified by the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) thin films, and demonstrates the capacity of immobilized cells to accumulate arsenic from solutions. Six different set of deposition parameters for PTFE thin films were developed and tested in vitro regarding their ability to immobilize the bacterial cells. The surface that exhibited a mild zeta potential value, hydrophobic characteristics, the lowest surface free energy but with a high polar component and the appropriate ratio of chemical reactive groups allowed cells to proliferate and to grow as a biofilm. These immobilized cells maintained their ability to accumulate the surrounding arsenite, making it a great arsenic biofilter to be used in bioremediation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. KP4 to control Ustilago tritici in wheat: Enhanced greenhouse resistance to loose smut and changes in transcript abundance of pathogen related genes in infected KP4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Carolina Diaz; Wichmann, Fabienne; Schlaich, Thomas; Fammartino, Alessandro; Huckauf, Jana; Schmidt, Kerstin; Unger, Christoph; Broer, Inge; Sautter, Christof

    2016-09-01

    Ustilago tritici causes loose smut, which is a seed-borne fungal disease of wheat, and responsible for yield losses up to 40%. Loose smut is a threat to seed production in developing countries where small scale farmers use their own harvest as seed material. The killer protein 4 (KP4) is a virally encoded toxin from Ustilago maydis and inhibits growth of susceptible races of fungi from the Ustilaginales. Enhanced resistance in KP4 wheat to stinking smut, which is caused by Tilletia caries, had been reported earlier. We show that KP4 in genetically engineered wheat increased resistance to loose smut up to 60% compared to the non-KP4 control under greenhouse conditions. This enhanced resistance is dose and race dependent. The overexpression of the transgene kp4 and its effect on fungal growth have indirect effects on the expression of endogenous pathogen defense genes.

  12. KP4 to control Ustilago tritici in wheat: Enhanced greenhouse resistance to loose smut and changes in transcript abundance of pathogen related genes in infected KP4 plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Diaz Quijano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ustilago tritici causes loose smut, which is a seed-borne fungal disease of wheat, and responsible for yield losses up to 40%. Loose smut is a threat to seed production in developing countries where small scale farmers use their own harvest as seed material. The killer protein 4 (KP4 is a virally encoded toxin from Ustilago maydis and inhibits growth of susceptible races of fungi from the Ustilaginales. Enhanced resistance in KP4 wheat to stinking smut, which is caused by Tilletia caries, had been reported earlier. We show that KP4 in genetically engineered wheat increased resistance to loose smut up to 60% compared to the non-KP4 control under greenhouse conditions. This enhanced resistance is dose and race dependent. The overexpression of the transgene kp4 and its effect on fungal growth have indirect effects on the expression of endogenous pathogen defense genes.

  13. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici genome and the development of microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Yanxia; Sun, Haiyan; Deng, Yuanyu; Yu, Hanshou; Chen, Huaigu

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is essential for the establishment of efficient disease control strategies. It is becoming clear that microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play an important role in genome organization and phenotypic diversity, and are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. In this study, we examined the G. graminis var. tritici genome (1) to analyze its pattern of SSRs, (2) to compare it with other plant pathogenic filamentous fungi, such as Magnaporthe oryzae and M. poae, and (3) to identify new polymorphic SSR markers for genetic diversity. The G. graminis var. tritici genome was rich in SSRs; a total 13,650 SSRs have been identified with mononucleotides being the most common motifs. In coding regions, the densities of tri- and hexanucleotides were significantly higher than in noncoding regions. The di-, tri-, tetra, penta, and hexanucleotide repeats in the G. graminis var. tritici genome were more abundant than the same repeats in M. oryzae and M. poae. From 115 devised primers, 39 SSRs are polymorphic with G. graminis var. tritici isolates, and 8 primers were randomly selected to analyze 116 isolates from China. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 7 and the expected heterozygosity (He) from 0.499 to 0.837. In conclusion, SSRs developed in this study were highly polymorphic, and our analysis indicated that G. graminis var. tritici is a species with high genetic diversity. The results provide a pioneering report for several applications, such as the assessment of population structure and genetic diversity of G. graminis var. tritici.

  14. Demodex sp. as a Potential Cause of the Abandonment of Soft Contact Lenses by Their Existing Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Tarkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Demodex mites may be a potential etiological factor in the development of various eye and skin disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of Demodex in the hair follicles of eyelashes and their potential influence on abandoning soft contact lenses which had been previously well tolerated by their users. A group of 62 users of contact lenses (28 with emerging discomfort and 34 without discomfort were examined. There is a need to check the existence of a relationship between D. folliculorum or/and D. brevis infestation and the emergence of intolerance to the presence of soft contact lenses. The removed lashes were examined under light microscopy, applying standard parasitological methods if demodicosis is suspected. A positive result was assumed if at least one adult stage, larva, protonymph/nymph, or egg of D. folliculorum and/or D. brevis was present. A positive correlation was observed between the presence of Demodex and intolerance to contact lenses by their existing users p<0.05, and Demodex sp. infections were observed in 92.86% of patients with intolerance to contact lenses. Our results provide further evidence for the pathogenic role played by the mites in the development of eye diseases.

  15. Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. strains against pea (Pisum sativum L. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Checa Coral

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The antagonistic effectiveness of native strains of Trichoderma spp. on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. in vitro, greenhouse and field conditions, were evaluated. in vitro conditions, the antagonistic capacity of 12 strains of Trichoderma spp., C2, C7, C12 and C21 strains, exhibited a better behavior measured by the following variables: inhibition halo and mycelial growth. In greenhouse conditions, the four strains, which showed the best in vitro antagonistic behavior, were evaluated using a DIA experimental design with factorial arrangement for three factors, which corresponded to strain, concentration and dose. The results of this evaluation, showed that C12 and C21 strains at doses of 20 mL, and at concentrations of 108 and 106 conidia.mL-1, respectively. The best antagonistic response was determined by variables as follows: plant height, fresh root weight and incidence. Under field conditions, the evaluations were carried out in the municipalities of Ipiales, Pupiales and Gualmatán, in the department of Nariño, Colombia. In each location, a BCA experimental design was used with four treatments and five replicates, treatments were as follows: C12 strains at 108 concentration, C21 at 106 concentration, chemical control and absolute control. In Gualmatan location, C12 and C21 strains, showed no antagonistic capacity, whereas in Ipiales and Pupiales locations, strain C12, presented a lower incidence of F. oxysporum than the control, but with no effect on yields. In Pupiales location, C21 strain surpassed in performance to the control treatment, even though the two treatments had similar incidence.

  16. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium.

  17. First report of latent infection of Cyperus rotundus caused by a biovar 3 Dickeya sp. (Syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsror, L.; Lebiush, S.; Erlich, O.; Ben-Daniel, B.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of potato blackleg in Israel, caused by Dickeya spp., on plants grown from seed tubers imported from Northern Europe, are of a great concern. The warm climatic conditions during the growing season favour disease expression, and may result in the establishment of the pathogen in the

  18. Identification of factors involved in dimorphism and pathogenicity of Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yemelin

    Full Text Available A forward genetics approach was applied in order to investigate the molecular basis of morphological transition in the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici is a dimorphic plant pathogen displaying environmentally regulated morphogenetic transition between yeast-like and hyphal growth. Considering the infection mode of Z. tritici, the switching to hyphal growth is essential for pathogenicity allowing the fungus the host invasion through natural openings like stomata. We exploited a previously developed Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT to generate a mutant library by insertional mutagenesis including more than 10,000 random mutants. To identify genes involved in dimorphic switch, a plate-based screening system was established. With this approach eleven dimorphic switch deficient random mutants were recovered, ten of which exhibited a yeast-like mode of growth and one mutant predominantly growing filamentously, producing high amount of mycelium under different incubation conditions. Using genome walking approach previously established, the T-DNA integration sites were recovered and the disrupted genomic loci of corresponding mutants were identified and validated within reverse genetics approach. As prove of concept, two of the random mutants obtained were selected for further investigation using targeted gene inactivation. Both genes deduced were found to encode known factors, previously characterized in other fungi: Ssk1p being constituent of HOG pathway and Ade5,7p involved in de novo purine biosynthesis. The targeted mutant strains defective in these genes exhibit a drastically impaired virulence within infection assays on whole wheat plants. Moreover exploiting further physiological assays the predicted function for both gene products could be confirmed in concordance with conserved biological role of homologous proteins previously described in other fungal organisms.

  19. Neozygites osornensis sp. nov., a fungal species causing mortality to the cypress aphid Cinara cupressi in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Cristian Montalva; Barta, Marek; Pérez, Eladio Rojas; Flores, Eduardo Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    An entomophthoralean fungus causing epizootics in populations of the cypress aphid, Cinara cupressi Buckton, in Chile is described as a new species, Neozygites osornensis Montalva et Barta. The aphid pathogen is described based on morphological characters. An exhaustive description, illustrations and a comparison with closely related species are provided. The fungus differs from similar Neozygites species by smaller hyphal bodies, nuclei, primary conidia, capilliconidia and capilliphores and by noticeably different shape of capilliconidia. A key to aphid-pathogenic species of Neozygites is also included.

  20. Evaluation of microbial products for the control of zucchini foot and root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta ROBERTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial products containing bacteria (Cedomon [Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA342, PC-MA342], Mycostop [Streptomyces sp. K61, SG-K61], Proradix®Agro [Pseudomonas sp. DSMZ13134, PS-DSMZ13134] and fungi (Clonotry [Trichoderma harzianum and Clonostachys rosea, TH+CR], Remedier [T. asperellum ICC012 and T. gamsii ICC080, TA-ICC012+TG-ICC080], Rootshield WP [T. harzianum T22, TH-T22] were tested for efficacy against Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1 (FSC7 strain on zucchini. They were applied to seeds (S, plant growth substrate (PGS and both (S+PGS in a growth chamber experiment, and to PGS, transplantation soil mixture (TSM and both (PGS+TSM in a greenhouse experiment. FSC7 was inoculated in PGS at sowing time in the growth chamber and in TSM at transplant in the greenhouse. In the growth chamber, the most effective products were Cedomon (S and S+PGS treatments, Rootshield (PGS treatment and Proradix (S+PGS treatment, reducing the disease by 39.7, 43.1, 25.8 and 36.4%, respectively. In the greenhouse, all tested products applied to PGS reduced the disease severity and more markedly when applied to PGS+TSM. In the PGS and PGS+TSM treatments, Cedomon was the most effective product showing a disease decrease by 42.4 and 59.5%, respectively. The data obtained in vivo were consistent with the ability of the antagonists to colonize zucchini rhizosphere and with their inhibitory effects on the growth of the pathogen in in vitro assays. The bacteria caused the greatest growth inhibition of FSC7 showing abnormal morphology, while Trichoderma spp. parasitized FSC7 hyphae. Bacteria were the most active in reducing pathogen colony growth through antibiotic metabolites. All antagonists produced exo- and endochitinase enzymes. Trichoderma strains showed greater levels of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and endochitinase, whereas SG-K61 was the most active producer of chitin 1,4-β-chitobiosidase. These results indicate that the studied bioproducts have potential

  1. Microbial Fuel Cell Inoculated with Ochrobactrum Tritici KCC210 for Chromium (VI) Measurement in Electroplating Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jongtar; Kuo, Juiling; Cheng, Chiuyu; Chung, Yingchien

    2018-01-01

    Many methods/techniques have been developed for Cr(VI) measurement, but they are often conducted offsite or/and cannot provide real-time for Cr(VI) monitoring. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a self-sustaining device and has great potential as a biosensor for in situ Cr(VI) measurement, especially for wastewater generated from different electroplating units. In this study, Ochrobactrum tritici KCC210, a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, and exoelectrogenic bacterium, was isolated and inoculated into the MFC to evaluate its feasibility as a Cr(VI) biosensor. The results indicated that O. tritici KCC210 exhibited high adaptability to pH, and temperature under anaerobic conditions. The maximum power density of the MFC biosensor was 17.5±0.9 mW/m2 at 2,000 Ω. A good linear relationship was observed between the Cr(VI) concentration (10-80 mg/L) and voltage output. The stable performance of the MFC biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. Moreover, the developed MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI) concentrations in the actual electroplating wastewater generated from different electroplating units within 15 min with low deviations (-1.8% to 7.8%) in comparison with the values determined using standard method. Thus, the MFC biosensor can measure Cr(VI) concentrations in situ in the effluents and has potential as an early warning detection device.

  2. Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium heraklionense, and a Newly Proposed Species, "Mycobacterium virginiense" sp. nov., but Not Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, as Species of the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Causing Tenosynovitis and Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wengenack, Nancy L; Eke, Uzoamaka A; Benwill, Jeana L; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Mycobacterium terrae complex has been recognized as a cause of tenosynovitis, with M. terrae and Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum reported as the primary etiologic pathogens. The molecular taxonomy of the M. terrae complex causing tenosynovitis has not been established despite approximately 50 previously reported cases. We evaluated 26 isolates of the M. terrae complex associated with tenosynovitis or osteomyelitis recovered between 1984 and 2014 from 13 states, including 5 isolates reported in 1991 as M. nonchromogenicum by nonmolecular methods. The isolates belonged to three validated species, one new proposed species, and two novel related strains. The majority of isolates (20/26, or 77%) belonged to two recently described species: Mycobacterium arupense (10 isolates, or 38%) and Mycobacterium heraklionense (10 isolates, or 38%). Three isolates (12%) had 100% sequence identity to each other by 16S rRNA and 99.3 to 100% identity by rpoB gene region V sequencing and represent a previously undescribed species within the M. terrae complex. There were no isolates of M. terrae or M. nonchromogenicum, including among the five isolates reported in 1991. The 26 isolates were susceptible to clarithromycin (100%), rifabutin (100%), ethambutol (92%), and sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70%). The current study suggests that M. arupense, M. heraklionense, and a newly proposed species ("M. virginiense" sp. nov.; proposed type strain MO-233 [DSM 100883, CIP 110918]) within the M. terrae complex are the major causes of tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis in the United States, with little change over 20 years. Species identification within this complex requires sequencing methods. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Change in surface SP caused by pressure buildup observed at the Nigorikawa geothermal area; Nigorikawa chiiki ni okeru atsuryoku buildup ji no shizen den`i henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K; Yano, Y; Matsushima, N; Ishido, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Takahashi, M; Suzuki, I; Aoyama, K; Kuwano, T

    1996-10-01

    To examine the effect of change of subsurface flow system on the surface SP (self potential), SP measurements were carried out before and after the pressure buildup and drawdown during the periodic inspection at Nigorikawa area. Relation between the SP distribution and the observed data was also examined by 2-D numerical simulation. Tendency was found that the SP increased gradually with the production near the production well, decreased during the pressure buildup, and increased again during the drawdown. There were some points having the reverse tendency in the surrounding area. Behavior during the pressure buildup and drawdown was not clear. The resistivity near the ground surface was low ranging between 2 and 5 ohm/m within the Nigorikawa basin. The variation of SP was not so large when compared with the measuring error. The SP profiles on the secondary section passing in the center of caldera at the production stop and at one week after the production start were well corresponded with the profiles under natural conditions which were reproduces using the 2-D model. It was considered that the SP profile before the production stop was affected by the production. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Antifungal (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici activity of various glycosides of medicagenic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of medicagenic acid and five glycosides of this acid isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa were added to agar medium (corn meal agar, CMA inoculated with cultures of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt. After 7 days of incubation at 25oC colony radius was measured and % of inhibition calculated in relation to the control medium (CMA enriched with the solvent of the tested compounds. Within the tested concentrations, only 3-O-β -D -glucopiranoside medicagenate (monoglucoside significantly reduced the growth of Ggt on CMA medium. This compound at 0.05 mM concentration completely inhibited the development of the fungus and the effect was shown to be fungi-toxic.

  5. Surfactin protects wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici and activates both salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent defense responses

    OpenAIRE

    Le Mire, Géraldine; Siah, Ali; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle; Gaucher, Matthieu; Deleu, Magali; Jijakli, Haissam

    2018-01-01

    Natural elicitors induce plant resistance against a broad spectrum of diseases, and are currently among the most promising biocontrol tools. The present study focuses on the elicitor properties of the cyclic lipopeptide surfactin on wheat, in order to stimulate the defenses of this major crop against the challenging fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. The protection efficacy of surfactin extracted from the strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S499 was investigated through greenhouse trials. Su...

  6. Compounds of natural origin inducing resistance in winter wheat to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchet, L.; Martínková, J.; Šindelářová, Milada; Burketová, Lenka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 10 (2005), s. 469-475 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : winter wheat * inducer of resistence * powdery mildew Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.170, year: 2004

  7. MicroRNA regulated defense responses in Triticum aestivum L. during Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Om Prakash; Permar, Vipin; Koundal, Vikas; Singh, Uday Dhari; Praveen, Shelly

    2012-02-01

    Plants have evolved diverse mechanism to recognize pathogen attack and triggers defense responses. These defense responses alter host cellular function regulated by endogenous, small, non-coding miRNAs. To understand the mechanism of miRNAs regulated cellular functions during stem rust infection in wheat, we investigated eight different miRNAs viz. miR159, miR164, miR167, miR171, miR444, miR408, miR1129 and miR1138, involved in three different independent cellular defense response to infection. The investigation reveals that at the initiation of disease, accumulation of miRNAs might be playing a key role in hypersensitive response (HR) from host, which diminishes at the maturation stage. This suggests a possible host-fungal synergistic relation leading to susceptibility. Differential expression of these miRNAs in presence and absence of R gene provides a probable explanation of miRNA regulated R gene mediated independent pathways.

  8. A major invasion of transposable elements accounts for the large size of the Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parlange, Z.; Oberhaensli, S.; Breen, J.; Platzer, M.; Taudien, S.; Šimková, Hana; Wicker, T.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Keller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2011), s. 671-677 ISSN 1438-793X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Blumeria graminis * BAC library * BAC-end sequences Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.842, year: 2011

  9. Surfactin Protects Wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici and Activates Both Salicylic Acid- and Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Le Mire

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural elicitors induce plant resistance against a broad spectrum of diseases, and are currently among the most promising biocontrol tools. The present study focuses on the elicitor properties of the cyclic lipopeptide surfactin on wheat, in order to stimulate the defenses of this major crop against the challenging fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. The protection efficacy of surfactin extracted from the strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S499 was investigated through greenhouse trials. Surfactin protected wheat by 70% against Z. tritici, similarly to the chemical reference elicitor Bion®50WG. In vitro biocidal assays revealed no antifungal activities of surfactin towards the pathogen. A biomolecular RT-qPCR based low-density microarray tool was used to study the relative expression of 23 wheat defense genes. Surfactin significantly induced wheat natural defenses by stimulating both salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways. Surfactin was successfully tested as an elicitor on the pathosystem wheat–Z. tritici. These results promote further sustainable agricultural practices and the reduction of chemical inputs.

  10. Forward Genetics Approach Reveals Host Genotype-Dependent Importance of Accessory Chromosomes in the Fungal Wheat Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Habig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici possesses a large complement of accessory chromosomes showing presence/absence polymorphism among isolates. These chromosomes encode hundreds of genes; however, their functional role and why the chromosomes have been maintained over long evolutionary times are so far not known. In this study, we addressed the functional relevance of eight accessory chromosomes in reference isolate IPO323. We induced chromosome losses by inhibiting the β-tubulin assembly during mitosis using carbendazim and generated several independent isogenic strains, each lacking one of the accessory chromosomes. We confirmed chromosome losses by electrophoretic karyotyping and whole-genome sequencing. To assess the importance of the individual chromosomes during host infection, we performed in planta assays comparing disease development results in wild-type and chromosome mutant strains. Loss of the accessory chromosomes 14, 16, 18, 19, and 21 resulted in increased virulence on wheat cultivar Runal but not on cultivars Obelisk, Titlis, and Riband. Moreover, some accessory chromosomes affected the switch from biotrophy to necrotrophy as strains lacking accessory chromosomes 14, 18, 19, and 21 showed a significantly earlier onset of necrosis than the wild type on the Runal cultivar. In general, we observed that the timing of the lifestyle switch affects the fitness of Z. tritici. Taking the results together, this study was the first to use a forward-genetics approach to demonstrate a cultivar-dependent functional relevance of the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici during host infection.

  11. Fungal cell wall polymer based nanoparticles in protection of tomato plants from wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabama, M; Charles, R Einstein

    2015-11-20

    Cell wall polymer (chitosan) was isolated from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. They were cross linked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to synthesize nanoparticles (CWP-NP). The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, DLS, SEM, XRD and NMR analyses. The isolated CWP-NP exhibit antifungal activity under in vitro condition. The foliar application of the CWP-NP to tomato plants challenged with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici showed delay in wilt disease symptom expression and reduce the wilt disease severity. Treated plants also showed enhanced yield. These results suggested the role of the CWP-NP in protecting tomato plants from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of a potato antimicrobial peptide SN1 increases resistance to take-all pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Qi, Lin; Wang, Jingfen; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Wang, Aiyun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-08-01

    Take-all, caused by soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), is a devastating root disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Breeding resistant wheat cultivars is the most promising and reliable approach to protect wheat from take-all. Currently, no resistant wheat germplasm is available to breed cultivars using traditional methods. In this study, gene transformation was carried out using Snakin-1 (SN1) gene isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) because the peptide shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro. Purified SN1 peptide also inhibits in vitro the growth of Ggt mycelia. By bombardment-mediated method, the gene SN1 was transformed into Chinese wheat cultivar Yangmai 18 to generate SN1 transgenic wheat lines, which were used to assess the effectiveness of the SN1 peptide in protecting wheat from Ggt. Genomic PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that the alien gene SN1 was integrated into the genomes of five transgenic wheat lines and heritable from T₀ to T₄ progeny. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that the introduced SN1 gene was transcribed and highly expressed in the five transgenic wheat lines. Following challenging with Ggt, disease test results showed that compared to segregants lacking the transgene and untransformed wheat plants, these five transgenic wheat lines expressing SN1 displayed significantly enhanced resistance to take-all. These results suggest that SN1 may be a potentially transgenic tool for improving the take-all resistance of wheat.

  13. Studies on resistance to Puccinia recondita tritici in wheat population after mutagenic treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borojevic, K.

    1977-01-01

    On testing mutant lines in M 12 , M 13 and M 14 generations derived from cultivar San Pastore, after treatment by gamma rays for the resistance to Puccinia recondita tritici, certain resistance was found which was expressed in lower severity, type of infection and modification of tolerance between and within the lines. The mutant lines of the resistance type 0/1, 0/4T and type 4 lines of moderate tolerance, were selected. The tolerance expressed as the kernel weight per spike on rusted/non-rusted plot, was about 1 for groups 0/1 and 0/4T compared with control which had a tolerance of 0.95. Group 4 had the same tolerance as control. The tolerance expressed by weight of 1000 kernels was 0.94 for group 0/1, 0.96 for group 0/4T, and 0.90 for control. For group 4, it was 0.87, the same as the control. On considering these results, it seems much easier and more efficient to select for type of resistance and low severity than for tolerance. (author)

  14. Phenotypic evaluation of the resistance in F1 carnation populations to vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Carolina Soto-Sedano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phytosanitary problems of the carnation crops in Colombia and in the entire world is vascular wilting produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Currently, an effective treatment against the pathogen does not exist; the search for resistant varieties has been the most successful method for control of this disease. Breeding programs are vital to solving the problem of the carnation fusariosis. The objective of this research was the phenotypic evaluation of carnation F1 populations, products of contrasting crossing, resistant per susceptible to F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, in order to determine if the resistance is inherited in the lines. This information will contribute to the selection of material and to the successful introduction of the resistant characteristic, whose expression is commercially acceptable, to the gene pool. The methodology adopted was a phenotypic evaluation of the response to the parasite in the population (450 individuals and in the parental. This evaluation estimated the area under the curve (AU DPC, using a scale of symptoms reported for carnation vascular wilt. Three different phenotypes were established with this evaluation. The moderately susceptible one is the predominant phenotype and an analysis of phenotypic frequencies was carried out on it. The results show that the individuals of the evaluated F1 population were distributed between two extreme ranges, resistant and susceptible; this shows that there is segregation for the trait resistant to F. oxysporum f.sp dianthi. We did not observe clearly differentiated classes, i.e. with complete absence or presence of the disease, indicating a possible control of the resistance in the evaluated carnation material, governed by more than one gene and with a possible additive genetic action

  15. Biological control of strawberry Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae using Bacillus velezensis BS87 and RK1 formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myeong Hyeon; Park, Myung Soo; Kim, Hong Gi; Yoo, Sung Joon

    2009-05-01

    Two isolates, Bacillus sp. BS87 and RK1, selected from soil in strawberry fields in Korea, showed high levels of antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in vitro. The isolates were identified as B. velezensis based on the homology of their gyrA sequences to reference strains. BS87 and RK1 were evaluated for control of Fusarium wilt in strawberries in pot trials and field trials conducted in Nonsan, Korea. In the pot trials, the optimum applied concentration of BS87 and RK1 for pre-plant root-dip application to control Fusarium wilt was 10(5) and 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, respectively. Meanwhile, in the 2003 and 2005 field trials, the biological control efficacies of formulations of RK1 were similar to that of a conventional fungicide (copper hydroxide) when compared with a non-treated control. The RK1 formulation was also more effective than BS87 in suppressing Fusarium wilt under field conditions. Therefore, the results indicated that formulation of B.velezensis BS87 and RK1 may have potential to control Fusarium wilt in strawberries.

  16. Identification and genetic mapping of highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from an EST database of the septoria tritici blotch pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, S.B.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Cavaletto, J.R.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Crane, C.F.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    A database of 30,137 EST sequences from Mycosphaerella graminicola, the septoria tritici blotch fungus of wheat, was scanned with a custom software pipeline for di- and trinucleotide units repeated tandemly six or more times. The bioinformatics analysis identified 109 putative SSR loci, and for 99

  17. More virulent offspring result from hybridization of invasive aphid species, Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae), with Diuraphis tritici endemic to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, invaded the United States in 1986 and soon became a significant pest of wheat. D. tritici was native to the USA and firmly established on wild grasses before the arrival of RWA. Both species are known to co-infest the same grass hosts during the time...

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Septoria tritici Blotch Resistance in Ethiopian Durum Wheat Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef G. Kidane

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Septoria tritici blotch (STB is a devastating fungal disease affecting durum and bread wheat cultivation worldwide. The identification, development, and employment of resistant wheat genetic material is the key to overcoming costs and limitations of fungicide treatments. The search for resistance sources in untapped genetic material may speed up the deployment of STB genetic resistance in the field. Ethiopian durum wheat landraces represent a valuable source of such diversity. In this study, 318 Ethiopian durum wheat genotypes, for the most part traditional landraces, were phenotyped for resistance to different aspects of STB infection. Phenology, yield and yield component traits were concurrently measured the collection. Here we describe the distribution of STB resistance traits in modern varieties and in landraces, and the relation existing between STB resistance and other agronomic traits. STB resistance sources were found in landraces as well as in modern varieties tested, suggesting the presence of alleles of breeding relevance. The genetic material was genotyped with more than 16 thousand genome-wide polymorphic markers to describe the linkage disequilibrium and genetic structure existing within the panel of genotypes, and a genome-wide association (GWA study was run to allow the identification of genomic loci involved in STB resistance. High diversity and low genetic structure in the panel allowed high efficiency GWA. The GWA scan detected five major putative QTL for STB resistance, only partially overlapping those already reported in the wheat literature. We report four putative loci for Septoria resistance with no match in previous literature: two highly significant ones on Chr 3A and 5A, and two suggestive ones on Chr 4B and 5B. Markers underlying these QTL explained as much as 10% of the phenotypic variance for disease resistance. We found three cases in which putative QTL for agronomic traits overlapped marker trait association

  19. Reaction of Global Collection of Rye (Secale cereale L. to Tan Spot and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Races in South Dakota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrat Abdullah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. serves as an alternative host of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (PTR the cause of tan spot on wheat. Rye is cultivated as a forage or cover crop and overlaps with a significant portion of wheat acreage in the U.S. northern Great Plains; however, it is not known whether the rye crop influences the evolution of PTR races. We evaluated a global collection of 211 rye accessions against tan spot and assessed the diversity in PTR population on rye in South Dakota. All the rye genotypes were inoculated with PTR races 1 and 5, and infiltrated with Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB, at seedling stage. We observed 21% of the genotypes exhibited susceptibility to race 1, whereas, 39% were susceptible to race 5. All 211 accessions were insensitive to both the Ptr toxins. It indicates that though rye exhibits diversity in reaction to tan spot, it lacks Ptr ToxA and ToxB sensitivity genes. This suggests that unknown toxins or other factors can lead to PTR establishment in rye. We characterized the race structure of 103 PTR isolates recovered from rye in South Dakota. Only 22% of the isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene and were identified as race 1 based on their phenotypic reaction on the differential set. The remaining 80 isolates were noted to be race 4. Our results show that races 1 and 4 are prevalent on rye in South Dakota with a higher frequency of race 4, suggesting a minimal role of rye in the disease epidemiology.

  20. Reaction of Global Collection of Rye (Secale cereale L.) to Tan Spot and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Races in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Sidrat; Sehgal, Sunish K; Glover, Karl D; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-06-01

    Rye ( Secale cereale L.) serves as an alternative host of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis ( PTR ) the cause of tan spot on wheat. Rye is cultivated as a forage or cover crop and overlaps with a significant portion of wheat acreage in the U.S. northern Great Plains; however, it is not known whether the rye crop influences the evolution of PTR races. We evaluated a global collection of 211 rye accessions against tan spot and assessed the diversity in PTR population on rye in South Dakota. All the rye genotypes were inoculated with PTR races 1 and 5, and infiltrated with Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB, at seedling stage. We observed 21% of the genotypes exhibited susceptibility to race 1, whereas, 39% were susceptible to race 5. All 211 accessions were insensitive to both the Ptr toxins. It indicates that though rye exhibits diversity in reaction to tan spot, it lacks Ptr ToxA and ToxB sensitivity genes. This suggests that unknown toxins or other factors can lead to PTR establishment in rye. We characterized the race structure of 103 PTR isolates recovered from rye in South Dakota. Only 22% of the isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene and were identified as race 1 based on their phenotypic reaction on the differential set. The remaining 80 isolates were noted to be race 4. Our results show that races 1 and 4 are prevalent on rye in South Dakota with a higher frequency of race 4, suggesting a minimal role of rye in the disease epidemiology.

  1. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum biomass and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain NC 92 to control leaf blight disease of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea caused by Rhizoctonia solani in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana Kanjanamaneesathian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and sixty two strains of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from 23 soil samples in which groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. and bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. had been planted in Songkhla, Phattalung, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Narathiwat and Yala provinces. These fungi were tested against Rhizoctonia solani, a causal agent of leaf blight of bambara groundnut, using dual culture technique on PDA medium. Among 462 isolates tested, 226 isolates had an ability to overgrow R. solani completely. Further testing found 13 isolates having the ability to parasitize mycelia of R. solani. Among these isolates, ThB-1-54 produced a cellulolytic enzyme on congo-red agar. This isolate was later identified as T. harzianum Rifai. In the field test, applying biomass of the isolate ThB-1-54 cultured on ground mesocarp fiber of oil palm, the combination of the isolate ThB-1-54 on ground mesocarp fiber of oil palm and Bradyrhizobium sp. (strain NC 92, or fungicide (iprodione had no effect on disease severity, yield, or the amount of total nitrogen content in stems or seeds of bambara groundnut plant.

  2. Antifungal Activity and Action Mode of Cuminic Acid from the Seeds of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Niveum (FON Causing Fusarium Wilt on Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a novel biofungicide, the antifungal activity and action mode of cuminic acid from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON on watermelon was determined systematically. In this study, the median effective concentration (EC50 value for cuminic acid in inhibiting mycelial growth of FON was 22.53 μg/mL. After treatment with cuminic acid, the mycelial morphology was seriously influenced; cell membrane permeability and glycerol content were increased markedly, but pigment and mycotoxin (mainly fusaric acid were significantly decreased. Synthesis genes of bikaverin (Bike1, Bike2 and Bike3 and fusaric acid (FUB1, FUB2, FUB3 and FUB4 both were downregulated compared with the control, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In greenhouse experiments, cuminic acid at all concentrations displayed significant bioactivities against FON. Importantly, significant enhancement of activities of SOD, POD, CAT and decrease of MDA content were observed after in vivo cuminic acid treatment on watermelon leaves. These indicated that cuminic acid not only showed high antifungal activity, but also could enhance the self-defense system of the host plant. Above all, cuminic acid showed the potential as a biofungicide to control FON.

  3. Antifungal Activity and Action Mode of Cuminic Acid from the Seeds of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Niveum (FON) Causing Fusarium Wilt on Watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Wang, Yong; Han, Li Rong; Zhang, Xing; Feng, Jun Tao

    2017-11-30

    In order to develop a novel biofungicide, the antifungal activity and action mode of cuminic acid from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) on watermelon was determined systematically. In this study, the median effective concentration (EC 50 ) value for cuminic acid in inhibiting mycelial growth of FON was 22.53 μg/mL. After treatment with cuminic acid, the mycelial morphology was seriously influenced; cell membrane permeability and glycerol content were increased markedly, but pigment and mycotoxin (mainly fusaric acid) were significantly decreased. Synthesis genes of bikaverin ( Bike1 , Bike2 and Bike3 ) and fusaric acid ( FUB1 , FUB2 , FUB3 and FUB4 ) both were downregulated compared with the control, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In greenhouse experiments, cuminic acid at all concentrations displayed significant bioactivities against FON. Importantly, significant enhancement of activities of SOD, POD, CAT and decrease of MDA content were observed after in vivo cuminic acid treatment on watermelon leaves. These indicated that cuminic acid not only showed high antifungal activity, but also could enhance the self-defense system of the host plant. Above all, cuminic acid showed the potential as a biofungicide to control FON.

  4. Effect of fungicide on the development of wheat stem rust and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici Erik. & E. Henn. is a highly destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The effects of fungicide application on stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici) epidemics and yield of three bread wheat varieties varying in reaction to the disease were studied in two major wheat ...

  5. The specifics of elicitor effect on Triticum aestivum macromorphogenesis under simultaneous lesion by Septoria tritici and Puccinia recondita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Zhuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi interrupt the macromorphogenesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum but biotic elicitors stimulate the nonspecific tolerance, growth and development of plant stems. It is shown that oxalic acid as a biotic elicitor and donor of nitric oxide signal molecule (sodium nitroprusside stimulate stem growth in height and last leaves length, as well as grain quantity and productivity both in cv. ‘Poliska 90’ and cv. ‘Stolychna’ under Septoria tritici and Puccinia recondita infection in field trials. It is detected that the degree of infected leaf area decreased in both treated cultivars under Saari-Prescott scale. Cv. ‘Poliska 90’ is more sensitive to both fungal pathogens than cv. ‘Stolychna’, but elicitor influence on its architectonics was no less than on cv. ‘Stolychna’.

  6. Effect of fluorescent pseudomonades and Trichoderma sp. and their combination with two chemicals on Penicillium digitatum caused agent of citrus green mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M; Tehrani, A Sharifi; Ahmadzadeh, M; Abadi, A Alizadeh Ali

    2006-01-01

    Citrus green mold (Penicillium digitatum) causes economic losses. Chemical fungicides such as imazalil provide the primary means for controlling green mold decay of citrus fruits. Continuous use of fungicides has faced two major obstacles- increasing public concern regarding contamination of perishables with fungicidal residues, and proliferation of resistance in the pathogen populations. The aim of this research was to determine if the attacks of green mold on orange could be reduced by usage of biocontrol agent alone or in combination with low dosage of imazalil or sodium bicarbonate. Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate PN, P. fluorescens isolate PS and Trichoderma virens isolate TE were evaluated as potential biological agents for control of green mold of oranges caused by P. digitatum. Increasing concentration of SB decreased spore germination of P. digitatum. In laboratory tests, a cell suspension (10(8) cells per ml.) of bacterial strains reduced the incidence of green mold. On fruits surface biocontrol activity of antagonistic isolates was significantly increased when combined with low dosage of imazalil (500ppm) or sodium carbonate (5%). Effect of Trichoderma virens on controlling P. digitatum was better than others with or without these chemicals.

  7. Resistance of Hordeum chilense against loose smuts of wheat and barley (Ustilago tritici and U. nuda) and its expression in amphiploids with wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiales, Diego; Moral, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is wild barley with high potential for cereal breeding purposes given its high crossability with other members of the Triticeae tribe. It is resistant to loose smuts of wheat (Ustilago tritici). The resistance is expressed in xTritordeum amphipoids, offering perspectives for its utilization both in tritordeum breeding and for its transfer to wheat. H. chilense and tritordeums are also resistant to barley loose smut (U. nuda). © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effect of seed treatment with milk powder and mustard flour in control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat and stem smut (Urocystis occulta) in rye

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders; Kristensen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In field trials mustard flour was able to control seed borne infection by common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat without decreasing the germination vigour of the treated seeds. Full control of common bunt by coating the seeds with milk powder could only be achieved at doses which reduced germination vigour of the seeds. Mustard flour can be recommended as a seed treatment in organic agriculture while a treatment based on milk powder should be developed in combination with biological control....

  9. SP. Pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gendre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'occhiello di un articolo dal titolo Il Peru dei de[Jini rosa e de/la grande pioggia si legge: "da una partenza  in aereo al «pescado»  che ti  sfamera."1 Questa parola spagnola, giustamente chiusa tra caporali, a noi pare molto interes­ sante, perche, nonostante l'apparenza, non ha nulla da spartire sotto i1 profilo se­ mantico con l'it. pescato. lnfatti, tutti i piu importanti dizionari della lingua italiana, di ieri e di oggi, etimologici e non 2, registrano  accanto a pescata,  ii lemma pescato, 3 ma lo spiegano come "quantita di pesce catturato nel corso di una battuta o di una stagione di pesca",4 mentre lo sp. pescado  indica i1 "pesce (solo nel senso di: pesGe pescato da mangiare [...]".s

  10. Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium heraklionense, and a Newly Proposed Species, “Mycobacterium virginiense” sp. nov., but Not Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, as Species of the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Causing Tenosynovitis and Osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddy, Sruthi; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Eke, Uzoamaka A.; Benwill, Jeana L.; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium terrae complex has been recognized as a cause of tenosynovitis, with M. terrae and Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum reported as the primary etiologic pathogens. The molecular taxonomy of the M. terrae complex causing tenosynovitis has not been established despite approximately 50 previously reported cases. We evaluated 26 isolates of the M. terrae complex associated with tenosynovitis or osteomyelitis recovered between 1984 and 2014 from 13 states, including 5 isolates reported in 1991 as M. nonchromogenicum by nonmolecular methods. The isolates belonged to three validated species, one new proposed species, and two novel related strains. The majority of isolates (20/26, or 77%) belonged to two recently described species: Mycobacterium arupense (10 isolates, or 38%) and Mycobacterium heraklionense (10 isolates, or 38%). Three isolates (12%) had 100% sequence identity to each other by 16S rRNA and 99.3 to 100% identity by rpoB gene region V sequencing and represent a previously undescribed species within the M. terrae complex. There were no isolates of M. terrae or M. nonchromogenicum, including among the five isolates reported in 1991. The 26 isolates were susceptible to clarithromycin (100%), rifabutin (100%), ethambutol (92%), and sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70%). The current study suggests that M. arupense, M. heraklionense, and a newly proposed species (“M. virginiense” sp. nov.; proposed type strain MO-233 [DSM 100883, CIP 110918]) within the M. terrae complex are the major causes of tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis in the United States, with little change over 20 years. Species identification within this complex requires sequencing methods. PMID:26962085

  11. Sources of resistance to yellow rust and stem rust in wheat-alien introgressions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatov, Mahbubjon

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is the staple food and the main source of caloric intake in most developing countries, and thereby an important source in order to maintain food security for the growing populations in those countries. Stem rust Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, and yellow rust P. striiformis f. sp. tritici of wheat continues to cause severe damage locally and globally, thereby contributing to food insecurity. In this paper biology and taxonomy of stem rust and yellow rust, breeding for resistance, util...

  12. Crude extracts of Drimys winteri bark to inhibit growth of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici Inhibición del crecimiento de Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici empleando extractos obtenidos de corteza de Drimys winteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Zapata

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. bark and its extracts, obtained sequentially with n-hexane, acetone, and methanol, against Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt. Ground bark of D. winteri was mixed with potato dextrose agar growth media at concentrations of 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg L-1 in Petri plates. Each extract was mixed at concentrations of 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg L-1. Petri plates were inoculated in the center with a 5-mm mycelium disk and were incubated at 24 ± 1 ºC. Daily measurements of mycelium radial growth were taken to determine growth rate and growth inhibition (%. A ground bark concentration of 978 mg L-1 was needed to inhibit Ggt growth by 50%, while extracts obtained with n-hexane and acetone only required 198 and 234 mg L-1, respectively. The methanol extract only inhibited Ggt growth by 33% when tested at the highest concentration. In conclusion, ground bark and crude extracts, obtained sequentially with n-hexane, acetone, and methanol, from D. winteri bark inhibit Ggt growth when applied in vitro. The n-hexane extract showed the highest inhibitory growth activity.El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la actividad de la corteza de Drimys winteri J.R Forst. & G. Forst. y sus extractos obtenidos secuencialmente con n-hexano, acetona y metanol sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt. Con este propósito se mezclaron en placas Petri, corteza molida de D. winteri con medio de crecimiento agar papa dextrosa a concentraciones de 250, 500, 1000, 2000 y 4000 mg L-1. Cada extracto fue mezclado a concentraciones de 100, 200, 400 y 800 mg L-1. Las placas se inocularon en su centro con un disco de 5 mm de micelio de Ggt y se incubaron a 24 ± 1 ºC. Diariamente se midió el crecimiento radial del micelio, se determinó velocidad de crecimiento e índice de inhibición del crecimiento (%. Para inhibir el crecimiento de Ggt

  13. A comparative study of the efficiency of several sources of induced resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici) in wheat under field conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchet, L.; Burketová, Lenka; Šindelářová, Milada

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2009), s. 151-154 ISSN 0261-2194 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Winter wheat * Powdery mildew * Induced resistance Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2009

  14. First Report of the Ug99 race group of Wheat Stem Rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, in Egypt in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patpour, Mehran; Hovmøller, Mogens; Shahin, Atef

    2016-01-01

    , Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan, Tanzania, Eritrea, Rwanda, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Yemen, and Iran (Patpour et al. 2015). In the 2014 crop season, the presence of virulence to Sr31 in Egypt was suspected based on preliminary field observations of high infection on sources of Sr31 planted...

  15. Comparative Genomics of a Plant-Pathogenic Fungus, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Reveals Transduplication and the Impact of Repeat Elements on Pathogenicity and Population Divergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Viola A.; Pandelova, Iovanna; Dhillon, Braham; Wilhelm, Larry J.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Berlin, Aaron M.; Figueroa, Melania; Freitag, Michael; Hane, James K.; Henrissat, Bernard; Holman, Wade H.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Martin, Joel; Oliver, Richard P.; Robbertse, Barbara; Schackwitz, Wendy; Schwartz, David C.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Yandava, Chandri; Young, Sarah; Zhou, Shiguo; Zeng, Qiandong; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Ma, Li-Jun; Ciuffetti, Lynda M.

    2012-08-16

    Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is a necrotrophic fungus causal to the disease tan spot of wheat, whose contribution to crop loss has increased significantly during the last few decades. Pathogenicity by this fungus is attributed to the production of host-selective toxins (HST), which are recognized by their host in a genotype-specific manner. To better understand the mechanisms that have led to the increase in disease incidence related to this pathogen, we sequenced the genomes of three P. tritici-repentis isolates. A pathogenic isolate that produces two known HSTs was used to assemble a reference nuclear genome of approximately 40 Mb composed of 11 chromosomes that encode 12,141 predicted genes. Comparison of the reference genome with those of a pathogenic isolate that produces a third HST, and a nonpathogenic isolate, showed the nonpathogen genome to be more diverged than those of the two pathogens. Examination of gene-coding regions has provided candidate pathogen-specific proteins and revealed gene families that may play a role in a necrotrophic lifestyle. Analysis of transposable elements suggests that their presence in the genome of pathogenic isolates contributes to the creation of novel genes, effector diversification, possible horizontal gene transfer events, identified copy number variation, and the first example of transduplication by DNA transposable elements in fungi. Overall, comparative analysis of these genomes provides evidence that pathogenicity in this species arose through an influx of transposable elements, which created a genetically flexible landscape that can easily respond to environmental changes.

  16. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  17. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of nano-carbon particles with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.S.; Wu, B.J.; Deng, Q.Y. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Guo, Y.B. [The Third People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Leng, Y.X., E-mail: yxleng@263.net [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Huang, N. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Graphitization occurs during the long-term service of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) modified artificial joint. Then, DLC wear debris, which are carbon particles with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios and sizes ranging from the nano- to micro-meter scale produced. In this paper, to promote the application of DLC coating for artificial joint modification, the cytotoxicity of DLC debris (nano-carbon particles, NCs) with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios was studied. The microstructure and physical characteristics of NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Meanwhile, osteoblasts and macrophages were applied to characterize the cytotoxicity of the NCs. In vitro cytotoxicity assay results indicated that cells incubated with NCs of different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios had greater osteogenic capacity, and these particles caused a weaker immune response in comparison with CoCrMo particles. Taken together, the results indicated that NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios presented a good cytocompatibility than CoCrMo particles. But no significant differences were observed among NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios. The better cytocompatibility of NCs is mainly attributable to their surface charge. - Highlights: • NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios have been successfully prepared by annealing treatment. • NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios show good osteogenic capacity and lower immune response. • The good cytocompatibility of NCs is mainly dependent on its surface charge.

  18. EFEKTIFITAS DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptomyces sp TERHADAP Erwinia sp PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK REBAH PADA TANAMAN LIDAH BUAYA (Aloe barbadensis Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARMILA TASNIM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

  19. ExaSP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-08

    ExaSP2 is a reference implementation of typical linear algebra algorithms and workloads for a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) electronic structure code. The algorithm is based on a recursive second-order Fermi-Operator expansion method (SP2) and is tailored for density functional based tight-binding calculations of material systems.

  20. Serum-surfactant SP-D correlates inversely to lung function in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Holmskov, Uffe; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects the lungs causing infections and inflammation. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate defense lectin primarily secreted in the lungs. We investigated the influence of the SP-D Met11Thr polymorphism on CF lung function; and serum SP-D as a marker for CF...

  1. Identification and genetic mapping of highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from an EST database of the septoria tritici blotch pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Stephen B; van der Lee, Theo A J; Cavaletto, Jessica R; Te Lintel Hekkert, Bas; Crane, Charles F; Kema, Gert H J

    2007-05-01

    A database of 30,137 EST sequences from Mycosphaerella graminicola, the septoria tritici blotch fungus of wheat, was scanned with a custom software pipeline for di- and trinucleotide units repeated tandemly six or more times. The bioinformatics analysis identified 109 putative SSR loci, and for 99 of them, flanking primers were developed successfully and tested for amplification and polymorphism by PCR on five field isolates of diverse origin, including the parents of the standard M. graminicola mapping population. Seventy-seven of the 99 primer pairs generated an easily scored banding pattern and 51 were polymorphic, with up to four alleles per locus, among the isolates tested. Among these 51 loci, 23 were polymorphic between the parents of the mapping population. Twenty-one of these as well as two previously published microsatellite loci were positioned on the existing genetic linkage map of M. graminicola on 13 of the 24 linkage groups. Most (66%) of the primer pairs also amplified bands in the closely related barley pathogen Septoria passerinii, but only six were polymorphic among four isolates tested. A subset of the primer pairs also revealed polymorphisms when tested with DNA from the related banana black leaf streak (Black Sigatoka) pathogen, M. fijiensis. The EST database provided an excellent source of new, highly polymorphic microsatellite markers that can be multiplexed for high-throughput genetic analyses of M. graminicola and related species.

  2. SP-100 Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    The SP-100 Program is expected to go through three phases: technology assessment and advancement, ground testing, and flight qualification. Currently the program is in the two- to three-year technology assessment and advancement stage. Goals are to identify the space nuclear power system concept that best meets anticipated requirements of future space missions, assess the technical feasibility of that concept, and establish a cost and schedule for developing the concept. The SP-100 Project Office has begun the implementation activities needed to meet these goals. With regard to refractory alloys, a better data base will be required before we move ahead in the program from technology assessment to ground demonstration

  3. Molecular prevalence of Bartonella, Babesia, and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in dogs with splenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanat, M; Maggi, R G; Linder, K E; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2011-01-01

    Among diseases that cause splenomegaly in dogs, lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH), splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA), and fibrohistiocytic nodules (FHN) are common diagnoses. The spleen plays an important role in the immunologic control or elimination of vector-transmitted, blood-borne pathogens, including Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. To compare the prevalence of Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. DNA in spleens from dogs with LNH, HSA, and FHN. Paraffin-embedded, surgically obtained biopsy tissues from LNH (N = 50), HSA (N = 50), and FHN (N = 37) were collected from the anatomic pathology archives. Spleens from specific pathogen-free (SPF) dogs (N = 8) were used as controls. Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and Mycoplasma sp. DNA was amplified by PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. Bartonella sp. DNA was more prevalent in FHN (29.7%) and HSA (26%) as compared to LNH (10%) (P = .019, .0373, respectively) or control spleens (0.0%). The prevalence of Babesia sp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. DNA was significantly lower than Bartonella sp. DNA in HSA (P = .0005, .006, respectively) and FHN (P = .003, .0004, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in DNA prevalence among the 3 genera in the LNH group. The higher prevalence of Bartonella sp. in FHN and HSA warrants future investigations to determine if this bacterium plays a role in the development of these splenic diseases. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Remote sensing data of SP Mountain and SP Lava flow in North-Central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain [Official name of feature (U.S. Geological Survey, 1970)] and SP flow (and vicinity) in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization, then compared with surface and aerial photography, LANDSAT multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is significantly brighter on direct-polarization K-band (0.9-cm wavelength) images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. Conversely, for the longer wavelength (25 cm) L-band radar images, the cross-polarization image returns from SP flow are brighter than the direct-polarized image. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are found to be clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data. The inability of the K- and X- (3-cm wavelength) band radars to portray the differences in roughness between the two SP flow surface units is attributed to the radar frequency dependence of the surface-relief scale, which, described as the Rayleigh criterion, represents the transition between quasispecular and primarily diffuse backscatter. ?? 1980.

  5. Cryptosporidium sp. in lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, D.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (1998), s. 8 ISSN 1066-5234. [Cryptosporidium sp. in lazards. 01.01.1998-02.01.1998, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA508/95/0273; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines

  6. Incidência de fraturas, exceto de crânio, no município de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil nos anos de 1969 - 1970: I - Distribuição segundo a causa externa, tempo e lugar de ocorrência Incidence of fractures in the county of Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil, 1969 - 1970: I - Distribution according to the external cause, place, and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo André Mércio Xavier

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a incidência de fraturas, exceto de crânio, na população residente no município de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, nos anos 1969 e 1970. Observaram-se, nesses anos, 2.635 e 2.709 fraturas, respectivamente, correspondendo a coeficientes de 13,50 e 12,72 por 1.000 habitantes. As quedas representaram a causa externa mais freqüente, com 41,6% em 1969 e 51,0% em 1970. O ambiente familiar (residência e peri-domicílio é o local de ocorrência da maioria das fraturas. O período vespertino é aquele em que se dá a maioria dos acidentes que, embora tenham uma leve tendência de concentrar-se ao redor do domingo, não parecem exibir um padrão uniforme em função da época do ano.The incidence of fractures in the county of Ribeirão Preto in the state of São Paulo, Brazil was analyzed in 1969 and 1970. The annual fracture rates were 13.50 and 12.72 per 1,000 residents, respectively. Falls were the main cause of fracture cases (41.6% in 1969 and 51% in 1970. Regarding other eventualities, fractures resulting from traffic accidents were less common than those of industrial origin. In relation to the place of accident, the majority of fractures occurred in the street. However, if we consider residential and peridomiciliary accidents together, they exceed the number of street accidents. There was no special month predominance in both years of the survey. Sundays showed slight excess in number of fracture cases. Afternoon is by far the time of greater occurrence of fractures.

  7. Inheritance and bulked segregant analysis of leaf rust and stem rust resistance genes in eight durum wheat genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt) and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to Pt-race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes to Pg...

  8. Genome-wide Association Analysis of Powdery Mildew Resistance in U.S. Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat powdery mildew (PM), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat worldwide. It can cause considerable yield losses when epidemics occur. Use of genetic resistance is the most effective approach to control the disease. To determine the genomic regions responsi...

  9. A genome-wide association study of field and seedling response to stem rust pathogen races reveals combinations of race-specific resistance genes in North American spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust of wheat caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici historically caused major yield losses of wheat worldwide. To understand the genetic basis of stem rust resistance in conventional North American spring wheat, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was conducted on a...

  10. Molecular Characterization of wheat stem rust races in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem or black rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) Erikss. & Henning causes severe losses to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), historically threatening global wheat production. Characterizing prevalent isolates of Pgt would enhance the knowledge of population dynamics and evolution of t...

  11. Increased constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. and a decrease in microflora diversity may be indicators of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a prospective study in the respiratory tracts of neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a common complication and cause of death in neonates on mechanical ventilation. However, it is difficult to define the causes of VAP. To understand the causes of VAP, we undertook a prospective study based on the diversity of the microflora in VAP. The experimental group consisted of newborns who suffered from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and VAP, while the control group suffered from RDS without VAP. Sputa were collected within 1, 3, and 5 days of ventilation and were divided into six groups. DNA was extracted from the samples, and the 16S rDNA was PCR amplified, separated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, cloned and sequenced. The resulting sequences were compared using BLAST. The DGGE pictures were measured, and the richness, Shannon-Wiener index, and cluster maps were analyzed. No differences were found regarding the constituent ratio of any genus between the Non-VAP and VAP group within 1 day after intubation. After 1 to 3 days, the constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. in the VAP group were higher than those in the Non-VAP group, and the ratios of Serratia sp. and Achromobacter sp. were lower. After 3 to 5 days, the ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., Serratia sp., and Achromobacter sp. were lower than those in the Non-VAP group. The richness and Shannon-Wiener index of the Non-VAP group were higher than those of the VAP group from 1 to 3 days after intubation, while no differences were found within 1 day and from 3 to 5 days. We conclude that during the first three days of intubation, the microflora diversity in the lower respiratory tract was reduced due to VAP, and the greater constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. in the sputum may be indicators of VAP.

  12. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Méndez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

  13. Genetic characterisation of novel resistance alleles to stem rust and stripe rust in wheat-alien introgression lines

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatov, Mahbubjon

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) is one of the most important food crops world-wide, but is attacked by many diseases and pests that cause significant yield losses. Globally, stem rust (Sr) (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss & E. Henning), stripe rust (Yr) (Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks) and leaf rust (Lr) (Puccinia triticina Eriks) are a great threat to wheat production. The majority of the Sr, Yr and Lr resistance genes are already defeated...

  14. Erros de refração como causas de baixa visual em crianças da rede de escolas públicas da regional de Botucatu - SP Refractive errors as causes of visual impairment in children from public schools of the Botucatu region - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Akemi Shiratori de Oliveira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a ocorrência dos erros refracionais em escolares de nosso meio. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliando crianças da pré-escola e do ensino básico, quanto ao sexo, tipo de erro refracional, acuidade visual e tratamento realizado. RESULTADOS: Quatro mil seiscentos e vinte e três crianças foram submetidas a exame de acuidade visual, das quais 8,1% apresentaram necessidade de exame oftalmológico completo. Houve 63,2% de portadores de astigmatismo hipermetrópico, 15,7% de astigmatismo miópico, 12,5% de astigmatismo misto, 4,9% de hipermetropia e 3,7% de miopia. Foi indicada a prescrição de lentes corretoras para 48,7% da amostra estudada. A frequência de erros refracionais na população foi de 3,9%. CONCLUSÃO: O astigmatismo hipermetrópico foi o erro de refracional mais frequente, havendo necessidade de tratamento em cerca de 50% das crianças triadas com frequência de 3,9% de erro refracional passível de correção na população de estudo.PURPOSE: To evaluate the refractive errors as cause of visual impairment in school children from the Botucatu region. METHODS: A sectional study was conducted evaluating preschool and elementary school students, according to gender, refractive error, visual acuity and treatment. RESULTS: Four thousand six hundred and twenty-three (4,623 children were submitted to visual acuity evaluation and 8.1% of them were submitted to complete ocular examination. There were 63.2% hyperopic astigmatism, 15.7% myopic astigmatism, 12.5% astigmatism, 4.9% hyperopia and 3.7% myopia. Corrective lenses were prescribed for 48.7% of the evaluated children. CONCLUSION: The most frequent refractive error was hyperopic astigmatism and 50% of the children received treatment. The frequency of refractive errors was 3.9% of the studied population.

  15. Preservacão de micélio de Batkoa sp. E. Furia sp. (Entomophthorales) em combinaçao com dessecantes e rudutores de oxigênio

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Luis G.; Alves, Sérgio B.; Filho, Antonio Batista; Almeida, J. E. M.; Roberts, Donald W.

    2002-01-01

    PRESERVATION OF BATKOA SP. AND FURIA SP. (ENTOMOPHTHORALES )DRY MYCELIUM WITH COMBINATIONS OF DESICCANTS AND OXYGEN REDUCERS. Formulation is the most difficult part of Entomophthorales development as biopesticides and bioacaricides, and has caused difficulty in evaluating the Batkoa sp. and Furia sp. for the control of the cercopids Mahanarva fimbriolata and Deois schach, pests of sugar-cane and pastures. A technique for producing dry mycelium of Entomophthorales was previously developed to a...

  16. Surfactant protein A (SP-A)-mediated clearance of Staphylococcus aureus involves binding of SP-A to the staphylococcal adhesin eap and the macrophage receptors SP-A receptor 210 and scavenger receptor class A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Krupa, Agnieszka; Davis, Jeremy; Hasan, Misbah; Yang, Ching-Hui; Szeliga, Jacek; Herrmann, Mathias; Hussain, Muzafar; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Kobzik, Lester; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2011-02-11

    Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening pneumonia in hospitals and deadly superinfection during viral influenza. The current study investigated the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in opsonization and clearance of S. aureus. Previous studies showed that SP-A mediates phagocytosis via the SP-A receptor 210 (SP-R210). Here, we show that SP-R210 mediates binding and control of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus by macrophages. We determined that SP-A binds S. aureus through the extracellular adhesin Eap. Consequently, SP-A enhanced macrophage uptake of Eap-expressing (Eap(+)) but not Eap-deficient (Eap(-)) S. aureus. In a reciprocal fashion, SP-A failed to enhance uptake of Eap(+) S. aureus in peritoneal Raw264.7 macrophages with a dominant negative mutation (SP-R210(DN)) blocking surface expression of SP-R210. Accordingly, WT mice cleared infection with Eap(+) but succumbed to sublethal infection with Eap- S. aureus. However, SP-R210(DN) cells compensated by increasing non-opsonic phagocytosis of Eap(+) S. aureus via the scavenger receptor scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), while non-opsonic uptake of Eap(-) S. aureus was impaired. Macrophages express two isoforms: SP-R210(L) and SP-R210(S). The results show that WT alveolar macrophages are distinguished by expression of SP-R210(L), whereas SR-A(-/-) alveolar macrophages are deficient in SP-R210(L) expressing only SP-R210(S). Accordingly, SR-A(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to both Eap(+) and Eap(-) S. aureus. The lungs of susceptible mice generated abnormal inflammatory responses that were associated with impaired killing and persistence of S. aureus infection in the lung. In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210(L) mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A.

  17. Role of zinc finger structure in nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tatsuo; Azumano, Makiko; Uwatoko, Chisana; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates gene expression. Our previous study demonstrated that the carboxyl terminal region of Sp1 containing 3-zinc finger region as DNA binding domain can also serve as nuclear localization signal (NLS). However, the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 has not been well understood. In this study, we performed a gene expression study on mutant Sp1 genes causing a set of amino acid substitutions in zinc finger domains to elucidate nuclear import activity. Nuclear localization of the GFP-fused mutant Sp1 proteins bearing concomitant substitutions in the first and third zinc fingers was highly inhibited. These mutant Sp1 proteins had also lost the binding ability as to the GC box sequence. The results suggest that the overall tertiary structure formed by the three zinc fingers is essential for nuclear localization of Sp1 as well as dispersed basic amino acids within the zinc fingers region.

  18. SP mountain data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  19. Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Pelecitus sp. Nematode, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Odile; Diniz, Daniel G.; Nascimento dos Santos, Jeannie; Pinto de Oliveira, Norimar; Frota de Almeida, Izabela Negrão; Frota de Almeida, Rafael Negrão; Frota de Almeida, Luciana Negrão; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sobrinho, Edmundo Frota de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    A male nematode was extracted from iris fibers of a man from the Brazilian Amazon region. This nematode belonged to the genus Pelecitus but was distinct from the 16 known species in this genus. Similarities with Pelecitus spp. from neotropical birds suggested an avian origin for this species. PMID:21529397

  20. Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Dirofilaria sp. Nematode, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniel G.; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Casiraghi, Maurizio; de Almeida, Izabela N.F.; de Almeida, Luciana N.F.; Nascimento dos Santos, Jeannie; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Sobrinho, Edmundo F. de Almeida; Bain, Odile

    2011-01-01

    A case of human intraocular dirofilariasis is reported from northern Brazil. The nematode was morphologically and phylogenetically related to Dirofilaria immitis but distinct from reference sequences, including those of D. immitis infesting dogs in the same area. A zoonotic Dirofilaria species infesting wild mammals in Brazil and its implications are discussed. PMID:21529396

  1. Linking surfactant protein SP-D and IL-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qaseem, Asif S; Sonar, Sanchaita; Mahajan, Lakshna

    2012-01-01

    of allergen-IgE interaction, histamine release by sensitised mast cells, downregulation of specific IgE production, suppression of pulmonary and peripheral eosinophilia, inhibition of mechanisms that cause airway remodelling, and induction of apoptosis in sensitised eosinophils. SP-D can also shift helper T......Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune molecule that plays a protective role against lung infection, allergy, asthma and inflammation. In vivo experiments with murine models have shown that SP-D can protect against allergic challenge via a range of mechanisms including inhibition...... cell polarisation following in vivo allergenic challenge, from pathogenic Th2 to a protective Th1 cytokine response. Interestingly, SP-D gene deficient (-/-) mice show an IL-13 over-expressing phenotype. IL-13 has been shown to be involved in the development of asthma. Transgenic mice over...

  2. SP-100 Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    Preparatory activities are well under way at Hanford to convert the 309 Containment Building and its associated service wing to a 2.5 MWt nuclear test facility for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Preliminary design is complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system to enclose the high temperature reactor, a test assembly cell and handling system, control and data processing systems, and safety and auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 75% complete. The facility has been cleared of obstructing equipment from its earlier reactor test. Current activities are focusing on definitive design and preparation of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) aimed at procurement and construction approvals and schedules to achieve reactor criticality by January 1992. 6 refs

  3. Somatic recombination in wheat stem rust leads to virulence for Ug99-effective SR50 resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race-specific resistance genes protect much of the global wheat crop from stem rust disease caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), but often break down due to evolution of new virulent pathogen races. To understand the molecular mechanisms of virulence evolution in Pgt we identified the p...

  4. Genome-wide association study for Identification and validation of novel SNP markers for Sr6 stem rust resistance gene in bread wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn.), is a major disease in wheat (Triticum aestivium L.). However, in recent years it occurs rarely in Nebraska due to weather and the effective selection and gene pyramiding of resistance genes. To understand the genetic basis of...

  5. Sources of stem rust resistance in wheat-alien introgression lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and the novel highly virulent race of TTKSK and its lineage are threatening wheat production worldwide. The objective of the study was to identify new sources of resistance in wheat-alien introgre...

  6. Re-engineering of the Pm21 transfer from Haynaldia villosa to bread wheat by induced homoeologous recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, the cause of powdery mildew, can generate serious grain yield losses in wheat. To expand the range of resistance genes freely available to wheat breeders, a Haynaldia villosa derived resistance gene Pm21 was transferred to chromosome 6AS of wheat by homoeologous rec...

  7. Discovery of a novel stem rust resistance allele in durum wheat that exhibits differential reactions to Ug99 isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses on susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot. Though several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effec...

  8. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race...

  9. Sources of stem rust resistance in Ethiopian tetraploid wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem or black rust of wheat caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Ericks and Henn (Pgt) is an important disease on wheat worldwide. Pgt is an obligate biotroph, heteroceous in its life cycle and heterothallic in mating type. Seedlings of 41 emmer (Triticum dicoccum), 56 durum (T. durum) wheat accessions were ...

  10. Genomic dissection of nonhost resistance to wheat stem rust in Brachypodium distachyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt) is a devastating disease that has largely been controlled for decades by the deployment of resistance genes. However, new races of this pathogen have emerged that overcome many important wheat stem rust resistance genes used ...

  11. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of wheat introgression lines carrying the stem rust resistance gene Sr39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn., poses a serious threat to global wheat production because of the emergence of Pgt-TTKSK (Ug99). The TTKSK resistant gene Sr39 was derived from Aegilops speltoides through chromosome translocation. In this study, we ch...

  12. Wheat stem rust in South Africa: Current status and future research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . In South Africa, stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici. Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt) is an important disease of wheat. Records of stem rust occurrence in South Africa date back to the late 1720's, when it was first discovered in the ...

  13. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this resear...

  14. stem rust seedling resistance genes in ethiopian wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  15. Genomic analysis of a novel gene conferring resistance to Ug99 stem rust in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat production is threatened by the disease stem rust, which is caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici (Pgt). Among all known Pgt races, TTKSK (Ug99) and TRTTF are significant threats to North American wheat production due to their virulence against f...

  16. Molecular mapping of Yr53, a new gene for stripe rust resistance in durum wheat accession PI 480148 and its transfer to common wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. It is essential to identify new genes for effective resistance against the disease. Durum wheat PI 480148, originally from Ethiopia, was resistant in all seedling tests with s...

  17. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens causing considerable damage on crop plants. P. graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and M. larici-populina, the poplar rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impact on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. The recently r...

  18. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  19. Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murros-Kontiainen, Anna; Johansson, Per; Niskanen, Taina; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    The taxonomic position of three strains from water, soil and lettuce samples was studied by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strains were reported to lack the virulence-encoding genes inv and virF in a previous study. Controversially, API 20 E and some other phenotypic tests suggested that the strains belong to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which prompted this polyphasic taxonomic study. In both the phylogenetic analyses of four housekeeping genes (glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60) and numerical analyses of HindIII and EcoRI ribopatterns, the strains formed a separate group within the genus Yersinia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains were related to Yersinia aldovae and Yersinia mollaretii, but DNA-DNA hybridization analysis differentiated them from these species. Based on the results of the phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, a novel species, Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is ÅYV7.1KOH2(T) ( = DSM 22769(T)  = LMG 25369(T)).

  20. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Key words: Antimicrobial peptides, Capsicum sp, Capsicum chinense, chili pepper, agronomical options, ..... of this human activity is resumed by the simple phrase: produce .... It will be interesting to scale the AMPs extraction.

  1. Degradation of morpholine by Mycobacterium sp. isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodegradation of morpholine has attracted much interest because morpholine causes environmental pollution. Ten species belonging to nine genera were tested for their abilities to degrade morpholine in mineral salts medium containing morpholine (1 g/l). Mycobacterium sp. isolated from polluted water sample ...

  2. Acanthamoeba Sp. S-11 phagocytotic activity on Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) is a pathogenic bacterium that causes leprosy. The presence of M. leprae in the environment is supported by microorganisms that act as the new host for M. leprae. Acanthamoeba's potential to be a host of M. leprae in the environment. Acanthamoeba sp. is Free Living ...

  3. Evaluation of biocontrol ability of native strains of Trichoderma spp on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium sp in coffee (Coffea arabica in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the indiscriminate use agrochemicals in conventional agriculture, it is causing pollution problems in the environment (soil, air and water, hence the search for alternatives that contribute to agricultural production by agro-chemical free sustainable production. This paper studies the biological control of damping off in coffee (Coffea arabica by applying antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp. Under experimental conditions at laboratory facilities of the Academic Unit Carmen Pampa Campesina, a community of Carmen Pampa, Township Coroico. The aim of this study was to biologically control the "damping off", they found two genera that cause damping off in seedbed of coffee: Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.To determine the percentage of growth and control in the culture medium, we used the method of counting quarters, where they gave the mycelial growth of antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp., And the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. Statistically there was a highly significant difference in the variable growth rate of Trichoderma sp. on pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. at 3, 6 and 9 days that announces the time factor and treatments are interdependent. The control variable showed a highly significant difference in the time factor and treatment, but the interaction shows no significant difference this makes known factors that are independent, so the fungus Trichoderma sp. not depend on time in treatment, thus showing its inhibitory power to Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp .. This test gives references that there is antagonistic fungus control on the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.

  4. In-vivo parasitological response to SP in pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria in pregnancy is a significant cause of maternal and infant ... intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxinepyrimethamine (SP) for the control ... Women were screened for malaria and anaemia at the first antenatal visit.

  5. Ketahanan Kultivar Pisang Lokal Kalimantan Selatan terhadap Penyakit Bercak Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Mariana; Rodinah Rodinah; Ismed Setya Budi

    2017-01-01

    Sigatoka of banana caused by Mycospherella sp. is an important disease, since it causes yield losses. Resistant variety is considered a promising approach for sigatoka disease management. This study was aimed to evaluate the resistance of local banana cultivars from South Kalimantan against sigatoka disease. The fungus was isolated from leaves of Kapas cultivar showing severe symptoms of sigatoka disease, onto potato dextrose agar medium. The isolate was then confirmed as Mycosphaerella sp. f...

  6. Seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. Ehrlichia sp. en trabajadores rurales del departamento de Sucre, Colombia Seroprevalence of Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. in rural workers of Sucre, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ríos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determinar la seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. en trabajadores de áreas rurales del departamento de Sucre. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio escriptivo, prospectivo, de corte transversal, que pretendió determinar la seroprevalencia e Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. en 90 trabajadores de áreas rurales del departamento de Sucre. Se estableció la presencia de anticuerpos séricos anti-IgM específicos anti-Leptospira por la técnica de ELISA indirecta. Para la determinación de Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. se uso la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. La población evaluada estaba compuesta por 27 (30% ordeñadores, 21 (23% jornaleros, 18 (20% profesionales del campo y 24 (27% que realizaban otras actividades. Ventidós (24% muestras resultaron positivas en alguna de las pruebas. De éstas, 12 (13,3% fueron positivas para Leptospira sp., 7 (7,8% para Rickettsia sp. y 3 (3,3% ara Ehrlichia sp. Conclusión. Este fue el primer estudio que se llevó a cabo en el departamento de Sucre y permitió demostrar que existe una prevalencia importante de Leptospira p.,Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp.. Los factores de riesgo ocupacional fueron factores determinantes en la seropositividad.Objective. To determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. in agricultural workers of Sucre. Methods. A descriptive prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in ninety rural workers of Sucre. Presence of serum antibodies anti-IgM specific anti-Leptospira by indirect ELISA was established. For the determination of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia indirect inmunoflorescence was used. Results.The population was composed by 27 (30% milkers, 21 (23% day workers, 18 farm professionals (20% and 24 (26% workers in others activities. A total of 22 (24% samples were positive to some test. Twelve (13.3% were positive to Leptospira sp., seven (7.8% to Rickettsia sp

  7. Effect of tea saponin on ephyrae and polyps of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting; Liang, Likun; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1) is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments. The 24 h and 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC50) values of tea saponin for Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were 1.9 and 1.1 mg L-1 respectively, while the LC50 value for Aurelia sp.1 polyps was 0.4 mg L-1 after 24h and 48 h of exposure to tea saponin. Comparison with literature results of tea saponin on A. japonicus indicates that the resistance of A. japonicus to tea saponin is 12-18 times greater than that of Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae. Therefore, the appropriate tea saponin dosage for the control of Aurelia sp.1 should be paid enough attention in order to minimize possible damage for sea cucumber. We suggest that the recommended level of tea saponin to eradicate Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in sea cucumber culture ponds be lower than 1.35 mg L-1.

  8. Effect of tea saponin on ephyrae and polyps of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Dong

    Full Text Available The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1 is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments. The 24 h and 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC50 values of tea saponin for Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were 1.9 and 1.1 mg L-1 respectively, while the LC50 value for Aurelia sp.1 polyps was 0.4 mg L-1 after 24h and 48 h of exposure to tea saponin. Comparison with literature results of tea saponin on A. japonicus indicates that the resistance of A. japonicus to tea saponin is 12-18 times greater than that of Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae. Therefore, the appropriate tea saponin dosage for the control of Aurelia sp.1 should be paid enough attention in order to minimize possible damage for sea cucumber. We suggest that the recommended level of tea saponin to eradicate Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in sea cucumber culture ponds be lower than 1.35 mg L-1.

  9. SP-100 reactor cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, A.D.

    1991-09-01

    There are plans to test the SP-100 space reactor for 2 yr in the test facility shown in Figure 1. The vacuum vessel will be in the reactor experiment (RX) cell surrounded by an inert gas atmosphere. It is proposed that the reactor test cell could contain removable-water- shielding tanks to reduce the residual activation dose rates in the test cell after the tests are completed. This reduction will allow the facility to be considered for other uses after the SP-100 tests are completed. The radiation dose rates in the test cell were calculated for several configurations of water-shielding tanks to help evaluate this concept

  10. Occurrence of Euplatypus parallelus, Euplatypus sp. (col.: Euplatypodidae and Xyleborus affinis (col.: Scolytidae in Pinus sp. in Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanuncio José Cola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood borer species of the families Euplatypodidae and Scolytidae were observed attacking trees of Pinus sp. in the Municipality of Ribas do Rio Pardo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in March 2000. This plantation had been previously burned in an accidental fire in January 2000, causing the trees to become partially or totally unhealthy, rendering them more susceptible to attack of these pests. Galleries of these wood borers were opened with a chisel to observe parameters such as their direction and form of these galleries. Species observed as wood borers of Pinus sp. were Euplatypus parallelus, Euplatypus sp. (Coleoptera: Euplatypodidae and Xyleborus affinis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae.

  11. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of oxytetracycline-resistant isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. and Serratia sp. associated with Costa Rican crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Wachlin, A; Altendorf, K; García, F; Lipski, A

    2007-12-01

    To ameliorate the identification, evaluate the diversity, and determine the antimicrobial sensitivity of 19 oxytetracycline-resistant isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. and Serratia sp. associated with Costa Rican crops. Phenotypical, chemotaxonomical, and molecular data allocated most isolates to the species Sten. maltophilia and Ser. marcescens. The API profiles, antimicrobial resistance patterns (ATB system), and BOX-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genomic fingerprints of isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. exhibited a higher degree of heterogeneity than those obtained for the isolates of Serratia sp. The former group of bacteria exhibited multiresistance to antimicrobials. In contrast, isolates of Serratia sp. were sensitive to the majority of the drugs tested. Changes in the results of the antibiograms throughout incubation, which indicate an induction of tolerance, were observed for isolates of both the species. Minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline, determined using E-test stripes, were rather elevated. The occurrence of two species of opportunistic pathogens in crop-associated materials poses a risk to consumers in the community. The phenotypic and genotypic data presented could support epidemiologist and physicians dealing with infections caused by environmental strains of these taxa.

  12. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in powdered infant milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palilu, Prayolga Toban; Budiarso, Tri Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Staphylococcus sp. is one of the most dangerous bacteria that could cause food poisoning. It is a pathogenic bacterium which is able to produce enterotoxin in foods. Milk is an ideal growth medium for Staphylococcus sp., that may cause problem if it is to be consumed, especially by infant. It is the objective of this research to detect the presence of Staphylococcus sp. in powdered infant milk. As many as 14 samples obtained from market were used as samples for bacterial isolation. The isolation were done by employing enrichment step on BHI-broth, continued with Baird-Parker Agar which will produce a typical colony. It is then picked and grown on Mannitol Salt Agar, and gram staining, coagulase assay, and fermentation tests. The confirmation step was done by using API-Staph which gives the identification of Staphylococcus hemoliticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a percentage of identity ranging from 65.9-97.7%. Two isolates with the highest identification similarity values were then picked for molecular detection. A PCR primer pair targeting gene coding for enterotoxin A was used, and it gives positive result for the two isolates being tested. It is then concluded that the two isolates belong to Staphylococcus sp., and further research need to be done to correctly identify these isolates.

  13. Occurrence of Pyemotes sp. on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the population reduction of the tomato leafminer moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, by Pyemotes sp. in the laboratory. The mite became greenish when fed on caterpillars, pupae, and adults of T. absoluta. The caterpillars and adults of T. absoluta were quickly paralyzed by the mite venom. A single T. absoluta could host many Pyemotes sp, physogastric females, which were allowed to grow on the moth. Pyemotes sp. can be a new alternative for the biological control of T. absoluta. However, this possibility must be better understood before it could be recommended, because Pyemotes sp. could also cause dermatitis in the humans.O ácaro Pyemotes sp. (Acari: Pyemotidae é um parasita de várias espécies de insetos e exibe o processo de fisogastria na reprodução. É registrada a ocorrência de Pyemotes sp. sobre a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, que sofreu redução considerável de suas populações em condições de laboratório. Este ácaro foi observado parasitando larvas, pupas e adultos de T. absoluta e suas fêmeas fisogástricas apresentaram coloração esverdeada. As larvas e adultos de T. absoluta atacados por Pyemotes sp. exibiram paralisia em poucos minutos, devido à injeção de toxinas por parte do ácaro. Observou-se que um único indivíduo de T. absoluta pode suportar muitas fêmeas fisogástricas de Pyemotes sp., permitindo que outra geração do ácaro continuasse a se reproduzir. O ácaro Pyemotes sp. surge como uma possibilidade para o controle biológico de T. absoluta, mas sua utilização deve ser melhor avaliada já que é uma espécie causadora de dermatites em humanos.

  14. Population Genetic Analysis of an Eastern U.S. Wheat Powdery Mildew Population Reveals Geographic and Recent Common Ancestry with U.K. and Israeli Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of the U.S. wheat powdery mildew population (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) has not been investigated, and the global evolutionary history of B. g. tritici is largely unknown. After gathering 141 single-ascoporic B. g. tritici isolates from 10 eastern U.S. locations, 34 isolates fr...

  15. The effectiveness of Penicillium sp. mixed with silica nanoparticles in controlling Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersanti, Hidayat, Syarif; Susanto, Agus; Virgiawan, Regi; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    Myzus persicae is one of the major potato plant pests, and also a vector of potato viruses. This pest may cause low quality as well as quantity of potato production. Entomopathogenic fungi can be used to control M. persicae. Penicillium sp. and has been reported as pathogenic to many insect pests. However, it was not that effective in controlling M. persicae. To increase its effectiveness, it can be mixed with plant micro nutrients such as silica, which also protects plants from biotic stress. This experiment was aimed to study the effect of applications of the mixture of Penicillium sp.+ nanosilica in various concentrations on the mortality of M. persicae. There were 8 treatments i.e., applications of single Penicillium sp, single nanosilica 1, 3, and 5 %, and the mixture of Penicillium sp.+ nanosilica 1, 3, and 5 %, and a control (without Penicillium sp.and nanosilica). Each cabbage plant grown in the greenhouse was infested with 20 Penicillium sp. instar II-III, and sprayed according to the treatments. Mortality of M. persicae was assessed after five days of application. The results showed that application of the mixture of Penicillium sp.106spora/ml+nanosilica 5%, and single nanosilica 5% increased the mortality of M. persicae. The mortalities were 37.5%, and 32.5% respectively, compared with 12.5% mortality on the treatment of single Penicillium sp.

  16. Corrosive Metabolic Activity of Desulfovibrio sp. on 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkan, Simge; Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Cansever, Nurhan

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of chemical parameters (SO4 2-, PO4 3-, Cl-, pH) and the contents of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) regarding the growth of Desulfovibrio sp. on the microbiologically induced corrosion of 316L stainless steel (SS). The experiments were carried out in laboratory-scaled test and control systems. 316L SS coupons were exposed to Desulfovibrio sp. culture over 720 h. The test coupons were removed at specific sampling times for enumeration of Desulfovibrio sp., determination of the corrosion rate by the weight loss measurement method and also for analysis of carbohydrate and protein in the EPS. The chemical parameters of the culture were also established. Biofilm/film formation and corrosion products on the 316L SS surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry analyses in the laboratory-scaled systems. It was found that Desulfovibrio sp. led to the corrosion of 316L SS. Both the amount of extracellular protein and chemical parameters (SO4 2- and PO4 3-) of the culture caused an increase in the corrosion of metal. There was a significantly positive relationship between the sessile and planktonic Desulfovibrio sp. counts ( p < 0.01). It was detected that the growth phases of the sessile and planktonic Desulfovibrio sp. were different from each other and the growth phases of the sessile Desulfovibrio sp. vary depending on the subspecies of Desulfovibrio sp. and the type of metal when compared with the other published studies.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosio, M.; Gallo, G.; Pozzi, R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC...

  18. Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov., Penicillium elleniae sp. nov., Penicillium penarojense sp. nov., Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. and Penicillium wotroi sp. nov., isolated from leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; López-Quintero, Carlos A; Frisvad, Jens C; Boekhout, Teun; Theelen, Bart; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza; Samson, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    Several species of the genus Penicillium were isolated during a survey of the mycobiota of leaf litter and soil in Colombian Amazon forest. Five species, Penicillium penarojense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113178(T) = IBT 23262(T)), Penicillium wotroi sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118171(T) = IBT 23253(T)), Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113149(T) = IBT 23247(T)), Penicillium elleniae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118135(T) = IBT 23229(T)) and Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 126216(T) = IBT 23203(T)) are described here as novel species. Their taxonomic novelty was determined using a polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular (ITS and partial β-tubulin sequences) and extrolite data. Phylogenetic analyses showed that each novel species formed a unique clade for both loci analysed and that they were most closely related to Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium daleae and Penicillium brasilianum. An overview of the phylogeny of this taxonomically difficult group is presented, and 33 species are accepted. Each of the five novel species had a unique extrolite profile of known and uncharacterized metabolites and various compounds, such as penicillic acid, andrastin A, pulvilloric acid, paxillin, paspaline and janthitrem, were commonly produced by these phylogenetically related species. The novel species had a high growth rate on agar media, but could be distinguished from each other by several macro- and microscopical characteristics.

  19. Neues vom Heringsparasiten Ichthyophonus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Seit dem Massensterben von Heringen entlang der schwedischen Südküste im Sommer 1991, aufgrund einer Infektion mit dem parasitischen Pilz Ichthyophonus sp., wird der Gesundheitszustand der Heringsbestände in den europäischen Seegebieten intensiv überwacht. Diese Untersuchungen, an denen sich auch die Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei beteiligt, werden koordiniert von der "Arbeitsgruppe über Pathologie und Krankheiten mariner Organismen" des Internationalen Rates für Meeresforschung (IC...

  20. Suicide in Sorocaba-SP: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Nobrega Vasques de Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Introduction: suicide is a major worldwide public health issue and appears as one of the ten most frequent causes of death in all ages. Objective: to perform an epidemiological analysis of suicide rates recorded between 2000 and 2009 in the city of Sorocaba-SP and compare them to national epidemiological data. Methods: We performed a descriptive analysis of suicide data in Sorocaba-SP in the period 2000 to 2009 collected by the Surveillance of Violence and Injuries (VIVA and the Municipal Health Secretariat of Sorocaba-SP. Results: a total of 229 suicide cases were recorded between 2000 and 2009. Total suicide rate suffered an increase of 3.8% in 2005, as compared to previous years, and remained constant in subsequent years. The highest average rates were recorded in 2005 and 2007. Men are more likely to commit suicide. The highest rates of suicide were recorded in the age group 35-44 years. Being single was the most common sociodemographic characteristic of suicides during the study period. The most common methods of suicide were hanging and firearms. Conclusion: The rate of suicide in Sorocaba-SP, despite low, is consistent with the national and international growth trends. Members of the younger population are killing themselves with increasing frequency, although the highest rates of suicide are still found among those aged 35 - 44 years

  1. [Influence of staphylococcin T on Enterococcus sp. growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białucha, Agata; Kozuszko, Sylwia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Bugalski, Roman Marian; Gierlotka, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesised, extracellular bacterial products. Generally, spectrum of inhibition is limited to the same or closely related species to bacteriocin producer. Staphylococcin T is produced by Staphylococcus cohnii strain. The present study concerns influence of StT to 267 Enterococcus sp. strains growth isolated between 2003 and 2006 in Department of Microbiology University Hospital of dr. A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz. S. cohnii T antagonistic ability evaluated towards bacteries on Mueller-Hinton Agar (bio Mérieux) in aerobic conditions. After 24 and 48 hours tested enterococci suspensions were plated perpendiculary. Susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed by disc diffusion method according to the guideless of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and National Reference Centre for Antimicrobial Susceptibility. Among Enterococcus sp. strains tested 7.1% were sensitive to StT. The highest percentage of sensitive enterococci isolated from wound swabs, urine, blood and pus. Enterococcus faecium strains dominated (63.2%) among enterococci sensitive to StT. Moderate inhibition degree on S. cohnii T bacteriocin action was observed in majority sensitive enterococci strains. Enterococcus sp. sensitive to StT strains were frequently multidrug resistant (68.4%). According to the study results and increasing resistance to antibiotics, StT could be an alternative agent used to treat infections caused by Enterococcus sp.

  2. Effect of Indigenous Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. Strains on Yield and Main Chemical Growth Parameters of Radicchio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković-Sebić Aleksandra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. belong to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria which are able to colonize the plants roots and stimulate growth. In this study, the effect of two indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains Pseudomonas sp. Q4 and Bacillus sp. Q10 and their mixture (mix Q4+Q10 on content of the main chemical growth parameters (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium and the yield of dry biomass of radicchio (Cichorium spp. var. rossa di treviso aerial parts and root, was investigated. The study was carried out with stagnosol type of soil in pot experiments under semi-controlled conditions in the Institute of Soil Science (Belgrade, in the period from July to October in 2013. Phosphorus was determined by spectrophotometer, potassium - by flame emission photometry and total nitrogen and carbon - using elemental CNS analyzer, while calcium and magnesium were determined by AAS. The data on yield of both aerial parts and root dry biomass of radicchio showed that its treatment with Q4 and Q10 strains, as well as with their mixture, caused noticeably increase in this parameter in relation to the control, whereby the strain Q4 was more effective for aerial parts, while mix Q4+Q10 - for roots. The obtained data on the studied chemical parameters of radicchio root and aerial parts were in total accordance with their yield. Concluding, studied strains have a potential in promoting the biomass yield and main chemical growth parameters of both aerial parts and root of radicchio.

  3. Hydrolysis of surimi wastewater for production of transglutaminase by Enterobacter sp. C2361 and Providencia sp. C1112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H-Kittikun, Aran; Bourneow, Chaiwut; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2012-12-01

    Surimi wastewater (SWW) is an industrial wastewater, released during the washing step of surimi preparation from minced fish, that causes environmental problem. In this study, SWW produced from ornate threadfin bream (Nemipterus hexodon) was hydrolysed and used to cultivate Enterobacter sp. C2361 and Providencia sp. C1112 for the production of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase, EC 2.3.2.13). The SWW was repeatedly used to wash the fish mince that gained a final protein content of 3.20% (w/v). The commercial protease, Delvolase was the most appropriate protease used to produce fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) from SWW. The FPH at 40% degree of hydrolysis was used instead of a peptone portion in the SPY medium (3.0% starch, 2.0% peptone, 0.2% yeast extract, 0.2% MgSO(4), 0.2% K(2)HPO(4) and 0.2% KH(2)HPO(4), pH 7.0) to cultivate the tested strains at 37°C, shaking speed at 150rpm. Providencia sp. C1112 produced higher MTGase activity (1.78±0.05U/ml) than Streptoverticillium mobaraense (1.61±0.02U/ml) at 18h of cultivation in FPH medium. On the other hand, the Enterobacter sp. C2361 produced lower MTGase activity (1.18±0.03U/ml). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DISTRIBUSI Solen sp DI PERAIRAN KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ari Wahyuni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DISTRIBUTION OF Solen sp IN BANGKALAN WATERSSolen sp potential needs to be developed on the island of Madura, particularly in Bangkalan. Solen sp utilization has increased which has the potential to overfishing. Therefore, this study aims to determine the density of Solen sp and their ecology in the waters Modung village, Modung District, Bangkalan. The experiment was conducted in April 2015 using the descriptive method. The materials used include Solen sp and physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, salinity, pH, and substrate. The analyzes were conducted at the Laboratory of Marine Science, Department of Marine Sciences, Trunojoyo University of Madura by using the tool grabsampler, sieveshaker, and pipetting with gravimetric method. The analysis shows the range of values of temperature between 29-300C, salinity between 31-32 ppt, pH were 7.9-8.0 and the type of substrate in the form of sandy mud, as well as the density of Solen sp from 8-10 individuals/m2. All measurement results indicate normal conditions and in accordance with the sea water quality standard for marine life, which can be a suitable habitat for the growth and development of Solen sp. This condition is thought to affect the density of Solen sp.Keywords: Bangkalan, density, distribution, Solen sp, substrate.ABSTRAKPotensi Solen sp perlu dikembangkan di pulau Madura, khususnya di Kabupaten Bangkalan. Pemanfaatan Solen sp mengalami peningkatan sehingga berpotensi overfishing. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kepadatan Solen sp dan ekologinya di perairan desa Modung, Kecamatan Modung, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2015 dengan metode deskriptif. Materi dan bahan yang digunakan diantaranya Solen sp dan parameter fisika-kimia lingkungan (suhu, salinitas, pH, dan substrat. Analisa dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Kelautan, Program studi/Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Trunojoyo Madura dengan menggunakan alat

  5. Evaluation of methods to detect the cotton pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is an important disease of cotton. Fov race 4, identified in the San Joaquin Valley of California, has caused serious losses and is a potential threat to US cotton production. Tests have been developed to rapidly identify race 4 i...

  6. Watery rot of pseudo-stem (Dickeya sp. management in banana (Musa sp. under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This crop has serious constraints with diseases, including those caused by bacteria, such as Dickeya sp. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of 4 resistance inductors and 3 doses in Chlorine Dioxide in handling watery rot of pseudo-stem (Dickeya sp. in banana. Resistance inducers and their doses were Potassium Phosphite: 1.5 cm 3 .l -1 ; 3-Aminobutanoic Acid: 1.0 g.l -1 ; Methyl Jasmonate: 0.2 g.l -1 ; S-Methyl-Acibenzolar: 0.3 ml.l -1 , all by foliar application, while Chlorine Dioxide was injected into the pseudo-stem, in doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg.l -1 . The evaluated variables were: development of the disease, total biomass and quantification of the bacterium in the inoculated pseudo-stems. Applications of Chlorine Dioxide achieved a reduction of disease by 65.4, 91.99 and 61.5%, in addition to an inhibition of 100% of the pathogen, using 30 and 50 mg.l -1 doses. Meanwhile, the use of resistance inductors reduced up to 60.6% of the disease, but this effect failed to improve plant growth.

  7. Introduction to the SP theory of intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to the "Theory of Intelligence" and its realisation in the "SP Computer Model". The overall goal of the SP programme of research, in accordance with long-established principles in science, has been the simplification and integration of observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human learning, perception, and cognition. In broad terms, the SP system is a brain-like system that takes in "New" infor...

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Cynobacteria, Limnothrix sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. from Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Vinothkumar, S.; Gupta, S.; Jasmin, C.; Joseph, V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Nair, S.

    The hexane fractions of the marine cyanobacteria: Leptolyngbya sp. and Limnothrix sp., collected from Arabian Sea were found to display promising antioxidant properties than their ethyl acetate fraction during radical scavenging ABTS/DPPH assays (IC...

  9. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Jalal, T.

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, alfa-L-arabinofuranosidase (alfa-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp and Lactobacillus sp was investigated using different carbon sources Induction...

  10. APPLICATIONS OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZER AND Bacillus sp. BIOPESTICIDE FOR INCREASING TOMATO RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL WILT DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Prihatiningsih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt on tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a crucial disease, because it can reduce yield until 50%. The aims of this research were: 1 to find out biopesticide formula for Bacillus sp.growth, 2 to test Bacillus sp. against R. solanacearum in vitro, 3 to test potassium fertilizer combined with Bacillus sp. for enhancing tomato resistance to the bacterial wilt disease. The research was conducted in 2 steps i.e to test the persistence of Bacillus sp. in biopesticide formula, and to test the best combination of both potassium and the Bacillus sp. biopesticide. The results showed that Bacillus B298 was the best isolate in its persistence on the biopesticide formula of organic growth medium+CaCO3+CMC 1%+mannitol 1%, and in inhibiting R. solanacearum. The best biopesticide formula for the Bacillus sp. persistence was growth organic media+ CaCO3+CMC 1%+mannitol 1%. Bacillus sp. was able to increase tomato resistance to the bacterial wilt disease from the category of susceptible to be tolerant and becoming resistant.

  11. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense) dengan Trichoderma SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second...

  12. Selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond cleavage: the nitrogenation of alkynes to amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chong; Feng, Peng; Ou, Yang; Shen, Tao; Wang, Teng; Jiao, Ning

    2013-07-22

    Breakthrough: A novel catalyzed direct highly selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond functionalization of alkynes to amides has been developed. Nitrogenation is achieved by the highly selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond cleavage of aryl-substituted alkynes. The oxidant-free and mild conditions and wide substrate scope make this method very practical. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. First report of Anisakis sp. in Epinephelus sp. in East Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Annytha Ina Rohi Detha; Diana Agustiani Wuri; Julianty Almet; Yuni Riwu; Christin Melky

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The present research was conducted to identify the prevalence of Anisakis sp. as fish-borne zoonoses in Epinephelus sp. in territorial waters of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Materials and methods: A total of 50 fish (Epinephelus sp.) were collected from Kupang Fish Market in East Nusa Tenggara. Identification of Anisakis sp. was performed based on morphological observations considering shape of ventriculus, boring tooth, and mucron using binocular microscope. Results: Prev...

  14. Identificación de hongos fitopatógenos y presencia de salmonella sp en compost de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Silva-Leal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows adapted methodologies to identify of phytopathogens fungi (Botrytis spp, Fusarium sp., Phytophthora sp., Rhizoctonia sp and bacteria as Salmonella sp. Presence of mentioned microorganism was evaluated in compost samples produced from dewatering primary sludge, generated in Cañaveralejo Wastewater Treatment Plant -WWTPC. The adapted methodologies shown that the appropriate dilutions for isolation of phytopathogens fungi in compost are 10-3,10-4and 10-5 and the most appropriated selective culture medium for the salmonella sp identification is the Salmonella-Shigella agar. Fusarium sp was the only phytopathogens fungi founded in compost; Salmonella sp was also founded. Therefore, it is recommended the quantification in order to define the concentrations that can cause health problems; additionally, it is necessary sanitization of compost for use in agriculture, mainly in industrial crops.

  15. Bioactive Compounds of Edible Purple Laver Porphyra sp. (Nori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei; Watanabe, Fumio

    2017-12-13

    Porphyra sp. (nori) is widely cultivated as an important marine crop. Dried nori contains numerous nutrients, including vitamin B 12 , which is the only vitamin absent from plant-derived food sources. Vegetarian diets are low in iron and vitamin B 12 ; depletion of both causes severe anemia. Nori also contains large amounts of iron compared with other plant-derived foods and eicosapentaenoic acid, which is an important fatty acid found in fish oils. In nori, there are also many bioactive compounds that exhibit various pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidative activities, indicating that consumption of nori is beneficial to human health. However, Porphyra sp. contains toxic metals (arsenic and cadmiun) and/or amphipod allergens, the levels of which vary significantly among nori products. Further evidence from human studies of such beneficial or adverse effects of nori consumption is required.

  16. Novel genetic linkage of rat Sp6 mutation to Amelogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Taro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is an inherited disorder characterized by abnormal formation of tooth enamel. Although several genes responsible for AI have been reported, not all causative genes for human AI have been identified to date. AMI rat has been reported as an autosomal recessive mutant with hypoplastic AI isolated from a colony of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat strain, but the causative gene has not yet been clarified. Through a genetic screen, we identified the causative gene of autosomal recessive AI in AMI and analyzed its role in amelogenesis. Methods cDNA sequencing of possible AI-candidate genes so far identified using total RNA of day 6 AMI rat molars identified a novel responsible mutation in specificity protein 6 (Sp6. Genetic linkage analysis was performed between Sp6 and AI phenotype in AMI. To understand a role of SP6 in AI, we generated the transgenic rats harboring Sp6 transgene in AMI (Ami/Ami + Tg. Histological analyses were performed using the thin sections of control rats, AMI, and Ami/Ami + Tg incisors in maxillae, respectively. Results We found the novel genetic linkage between a 2-bp insertional mutation of Sp6 gene and the AI phenotype in AMI rats. The position of mutation was located in the coding region of Sp6, which caused frameshift mutation and disruption of the third zinc finger domain of SP6 with 11 cryptic amino acid residues and a stop codon. Transfection studies showed that the mutant protein can be translated and localized in the nucleus in the same manner as the wild-type SP6 protein. When we introduced the CMV promoter-driven wild-type Sp6 transgene into AMI rats, the SP6 protein was ectopically expressed in the maturation stage of ameloblasts associated with the extended maturation stage and the shortened reduced stage without any other phenotypical changes. Conclusion We propose the addition of Sp6 mutation as a new molecular diagnostic criterion for the

  17. Novel genetic linkage of rat Sp6 mutation to Amelogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is an inherited disorder characterized by abnormal formation of tooth enamel. Although several genes responsible for AI have been reported, not all causative genes for human AI have been identified to date. AMI rat has been reported as an autosomal recessive mutant with hypoplastic AI isolated from a colony of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat strain, but the causative gene has not yet been clarified. Through a genetic screen, we identified the causative gene of autosomal recessive AI in AMI and analyzed its role in amelogenesis. Methods cDNA sequencing of possible AI-candidate genes so far identified using total RNA of day 6 AMI rat molars identified a novel responsible mutation in specificity protein 6 (Sp6). Genetic linkage analysis was performed between Sp6 and AI phenotype in AMI. To understand a role of SP6 in AI, we generated the transgenic rats harboring Sp6 transgene in AMI (Ami/Ami + Tg). Histological analyses were performed using the thin sections of control rats, AMI, and Ami/Ami + Tg incisors in maxillae, respectively. Results We found the novel genetic linkage between a 2-bp insertional mutation of Sp6 gene and the AI phenotype in AMI rats. The position of mutation was located in the coding region of Sp6, which caused frameshift mutation and disruption of the third zinc finger domain of SP6 with 11 cryptic amino acid residues and a stop codon. Transfection studies showed that the mutant protein can be translated and localized in the nucleus in the same manner as the wild-type SP6 protein. When we introduced the CMV promoter-driven wild-type Sp6 transgene into AMI rats, the SP6 protein was ectopically expressed in the maturation stage of ameloblasts associated with the extended maturation stage and the shortened reduced stage without any other phenotypical changes. Conclusion We propose the addition of Sp6 mutation as a new molecular diagnostic criterion for the autosomal recessive AI patients

  18. Enhancement of sp3 hybridized C in amorphous carbon films by Ar ion bombardment and Si incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hae-Suk; Park, Hyung-Ho; Mendieta, I.R.; Smith, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We report an effective method of increasing the sp 3 hybridization fraction in sputtered amorphous carbon (a-C) film by the combination of Ar ion bombardment and Si incorporation. In the deposition of an a-C film, Ar ion bombardment by controlling the applied bias voltage plays a role in creating high stress in film and causes the local bonding configuration to change to a sp 3 hybridized bond. Simultaneously, the incorporated Si in an a-C network breaks the sp 2 hybridized bonded ring and promotes the formation of a sp 3 hybridized bond. This enhancement of the sp 3 hybridized bonding characteristic is maximized for an a-C film with 23 at. % of Si and 100-150 V of applied bias voltage. In this region, the increase of resistivity, optical band gap, and mechanical hardness of a-C is attributed to the reduction of the sp 2 hybridized bonded ring and increased fraction of the sp 3 hybridized bond. However, at a higher bias voltage above 150 V, the enhancement effect is reduced due to the resputtering and thermally activated reconversion of a sp 3 to a sp 2 hybridized bond

  19. Pseudoxanthomonas koreensis sp. nov. and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deok-Chun; Im, Wan-Taek; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2005-03-01

    Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria, T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T), were isolated from soil from a ginseng field in South Korea and characterized to determine their taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two isolates shared 99.5 % sequence similarity. Strains T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T) were shown to belong to the Proteobacteria and showed the highest levels of sequence similarity to Pseudoxanthomonas broegbernensis DSM 12573(T) (98.1 %), Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana AMX 26B(T) (97.4-97.5 %), Pseudoxanthomonas japonensis 12-3(T) (96.5-96.6 %), Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis ATCC BAA-404(T) (95.7 %) and Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 33913(T) (96.3-96.5 %). The sequence similarity values with respect to any species with validly published names in related genera were less than 96.5 %. The detection of a quinone system with Q-8 as the predominant compound and a fatty acid profile with C(15 : 0) iso as the predominant acid supported the assignment of the novel isolates to the order 'Xanthomonadales'. The two isolates could be distinguished from the established species of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas by the presence of quantitative unsaturated fatty acid C(17 : 1) iso omega9c and by their unique biochemical profiles. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization clearly demonstrated that T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T) represent separate species. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that T7-09(T) (=KCTC 12208(T)=IAM 15116(T)) and TR6-08(T) (=KCTC 12207(T)=IAM 15115(T)) be classified as the type strains of two novel Pseudoxanthomonas species, for which the names Pseudoxanthomonas koreensis sp. nov. and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis sp. nov., respectively, are proposed.

  20. Inhibition of xyloglucanase from an alkalothermophilic Thermomonospora sp. by a peptidic aspartic protease inhibitor from Penicillium sp. VM24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vishnu; Rao, Mala

    2012-11-01

    A bifunctional inhibitor from Penicillium sp VM24 causing inactivation of xyloglucanase from Thermomonospora sp and an aspartic protease from Aspergillus saitoi was identified. Steady state kinetics studies of xyloglucanase and the inhibitor revealed an irreversible, non-competitive, two-step inhibition mechanism with IC(50) and K(i) values of 780 and 500nM respectively. The interaction of o-phthalaldehyde (OPTA)-labeled xyloglucanase with the inhibitor revealed that the inhibitor binds to the active site of the enzyme. Far- and near-UV spectrophotometric analysis suggests that the conformational changes induced in xyloglucanase by the inhibitor may be due to irreversible denaturation of enzyme. The bifunctional inhibitor may have potential as a biocontrol agent for the protection of plants against phytopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Specialised predation by Palpimanus sp. (Araneae: Palpimanidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first detailed report on the natural prey and the prey-capture tactics of a Palpimanus sp. from Entebbe (Uganda). Although this species fed occasionally on insects, its dominant prey in the field was other spiders, especially jumping spiders (Salticidae) and their eggs. Encounters between Palpimanus sp. and ...

  2. Kultivasi Scenedesmus SP. Pada Medium Air Limbah

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaroe, Mujizat

    2011-01-01

    Proses fotosintesis pada mikroalga membutuhkan CO2 dan cahaya matahari serta nutrien untuk pertumbuhannya. Kultivasi Scenedesmus sp. pada medium air limbah bertujuan guna mencukupi kebutuhan mikroalga akan nutrien dan mengurangi masukan dari bahan kimia yang terkandung dalam air limbah tersebut ke lingkungan. Kultivasi Scenedesmus sp. dilakukan selama tujuh hari pada medium air limbah industri tanpa penambahan nutri...

  3. Guide til gode spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henning

    Spørgeskemaundersøgelser bliver ofte brugt til at dokumentere forskellige forhold og begrunde politiske beslutninger. Men resultaterne kan være forbundet med stor usikkerhed. Det kræver omhu og stor sproglig formåen at udarbejde spørgeskemaer. Seniorforsker Henning Olsen har i flere år arbejdet med...... viden om, hvordan folk forstår sproglige meddelelser og genkalder sig informationer. I guiden behandles emner som fx styrende problemstillinger og spørgsmåls fokus og neutralitet, formulering af åbne eller lukkede spørgsmål og svarkategorier, tematiske spørgeforløb, aflastning af svarpersoners...

  4. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3- 14 C] glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO 2 . Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with [3- 14 C]glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with [3- 14 C]glyphosate revealed that [3- 14 C]sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates

  5. Trichoderma sp. dalam Pengendalian Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat

    OpenAIRE

    Novita, Trias

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran Trichoderma sp dalam pengendalianpenyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca FakultasPertanian Universitas Jambi, perlakuannya terdiri dari : t0 = tanpa Trichoderma sp; t1 = 25 gTrichoderma sp/8 kg media; t2 = 50 g Trichoderma sp/8 kg media; t3 = 75 g Trichoderma sp/8 kgmedia; dan t4 = 100 g Trichoderma sp /8 kg media. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichodermasp berperan dalam mengendalikan penyakit layu...

  6. INTERAKSI ANTARA Trichoderma Harzianum, Penicillium SP. DAN Pseudomonas SP. SERTA KAPASITAS ANTAGONISMENYA TERHADAP Phytophthora CapsicilN VITRO*[Interaction Among Trichoderma Harzianum, Penicillium SP., Pseudomonas SP. and Antagonism Capacities Against Phy

    OpenAIRE

    Suharna, Nandang

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study has been done to know antagonism capacities of three isolates of Trichoderma harzianum, two isolates of Penicillium sp.and one isolate of Pseudomonas sp.against Phytophthora capsici in vitro and interaction among those six antagonists.The highest antagonism capacity possessed by Penicillium sp. KN1, respectively followed by Penicillium sp.KN2,Pseudomonas sp. GH1 and the three T. harzianum isolates. Except for those three T. harzianum isolates, the two Penicillium sp.isolat...

  7. Streptomycetes antagonism against Cladosporium fulvum Cooke and Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. lycopersici Antagonismo de estreptomicetos a Cladosporium fulvum Cooke e Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. lycopersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Fermino Soares

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the secondary effects of secondary metabolites produced by streptomycetes on spore germination and mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium fulvum Cooke and Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. lycopersici from tomato plants. Metabolites produced by streptomycete isolates codified as AC-147 and AC-92 caused 94.1% inhibition of C. fulvum while AC-95 isolate caused 33.9% inhibition. AC-92 was the most efficient for F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, causing 94.2% inhibition of spore germination. For mycelial growth, AC-26 and AC-92 were the most efficient in inhibiting C. fulvum growth by 46.6% and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by 29.9%. These streptomycetes are potential agents for biocontrol development methods of these tomato plant pathogenic fungi.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de metabólitos secundários produzidos por estreptomicetos na germinação de esporos e no crescimento micelial dos fungos Cladosporium fulvum Cooke e Fusarium oxysporum sp. f. lycopersici da cultura do tomateiro. Metabólitos produzidos pelos isolados AC-147 e AC-92 causaram 94,1% de inibição da germinação de esporos de C. fluvum, enquanto que o isolado AC-95 causou 33,9% de inibição. O AC-92 foi o mais eficiente para F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, causando 94,2% de inibição na germinação de esporos. Para o crescimento micelial, AC-26 e AC-92 foram os mais eficientes na inibição dos fungos C. fulvum, em 46,6%, e F. oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici, em 29,9%. Esses estreptomicetos são potenciais agentes para o desenvolvimento de métodos de controle biológico desses fungos fitopatogênicos do tomateiro.

  8. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Saare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients.

  9. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for ant...

  10. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  11. The genomes of Mycosphaerella graminicola and M. fijiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, S.B.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Mycosphaerella graminicola (synonym: Zymoseptoria tritici) and Mycosphaerella fijiensis in the Ascomycetes order Capnodiales are economically important pathogens causing Septoria tritici blotch of wheat and black Sigatoka or leaf streak of banana, respectively. Both diseases occur wherever their

  12. Ammonium Tolerance of Methanoculleus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, A.; Broberg, A.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia, released during anaerobic degradation (AD) of protein rich materials, such as slaughter house waste, pig manure or waste water from fish industries, are inhibitory to methanogens causing instability of the AD-process. Previous studies showed that ammonia initiated an alternative methane producing pathway, likely caused by the inhibition of the acetate utilizing methanogens. (Author)

  13. The UP/SP merger could derail Western bituminous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaninetti, J.; Leshock, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The 3 billion dollars per year US Western bituminous coal industry annually produces more than 100 million tons of compliance coal to utility, industrial and export markets. About half of production is consumed locally, this sector has grown most in recent years. New markets are utilities in the Mid-west. The UP and SP railroads have profited accordingly. The merger may cause a change in the pricing strategies for the new company, leading to increased freight and coal prices. 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Leuconostoc sp. Meningitis in a Patient Treated with Rituximab for Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Holik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a 64-year-old man who was treated with R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone chemoimmunotherapy for mantle cell lymphoma and developed purulent meningitis, probably caused by Leuconostoc sp. The patient had severe hypogammaglobulinemia, which is a possible complication of rituximab therapy. To our knowledge and after reviewing the available medical literature, this is the first described case of purulent meningitis caused by Leuconostoc sp. in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma that appeared after treatment with the R-CHOP protocol. The diagnosis of purulent meningitis was based on clinical, laboratory and cytological cerebrospinal fluid findings, in addition to blood culture results in which we isolated Leuconostoc sp. The patient was treated with meropenem with full recovery.

  15. TurboSP and the Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    TurboSP was originally proposed as an alternative to Full stream in LHCb data flow. TurboSP is a data flow strategy which not only selects events that should be preserved, like in Full stream, but also provides selective persistence. This is achieved by saving candidates and subset of the reconstruction. During this summer project we investigated the physics viability of using TurboSP with the topological lines and found out a possibility to reduce the number of kept tracks per event by two times while keeping a ratio of fully picked up interesting decay modes on $\\sim 97 \\%$ level.

  16. Optimasi Air Perasan Buah Merah (Pandanus sp. Pada Pemeriksaan Telur Cacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Oktari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Worm infections or can be called by worming included into an infection caused by a parasite. Soil Transmitted Helminths Intestinal Nematodes are worms groups are in their life cycle to reach the infective stage requires soil with certain conditions. Eosin 2% is the dye that is used in the examination of Intestinal Nematode worm eggs. Red fruit (Pandanus sp. which is a natural plant material and acidic contain carotenoids which produces orange-red pigment. Beta carotene is the predominant pigment of red-orange color that is found naturally in plants and fruits. The aim of this research is to determine the best concentration from variation of red fruit (Pandanus sp. juice that optimally to color the eggs of the worm. Research conducted experiments with various concentration ratio of red fruit (Pandanus sp. juice and distilled water (1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5. From this research it found that the results indicate the ratio of concentrations of red fruit (Pandanus sp. juice and distilled water (1:2 can be used as an alternative reagent eosin 2% for their examination of worm eggs. But in the visual field that uses red fruit (Pandanus sp. juice and distilled water (1:2 still looks much dirt as a nuisance and does not give a contrasting background. It can conclude that red fruit (Pandanus sp. juice can use to color the eggs of the worm.

  17. Toleransi Tanaman Peneduh Polyalthia longifolia dan Pterocarpus indicus terhadap Ganoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Muslimah Widyastuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Urban Trees Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus to Infection of  the red root rot fungus Ganoderma sp. Urban trees on the Gadjah Mada University (UGM area play an important role in increasing environmental qualities as well as in supporting the teaching and learning processes. However, red root rot disease caused by Basidiomycete Ganoderma sp. has severely infected some existing urban trees. This experiment was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Polyalthia longifolia (glodokan and Pterocarpus indicus (angsana to the infection of Ganoderma sp. Identification of infected trees was performed in UGM area. Further steps were carried out to achieve those objectives : (1 isolation of Ganoderma spp. and testing of Koch’s postulate and (2 examination of the susceptibility of  P. longifolia and P. indicus to infection of Ganoderma sp. The susceptibility test of P. longifolia and P. indicus to Ganoderma sp. indicated that P. longifolia was more resistant to fungal pathogen infection than that of P. indicus. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that P. longifolia is a species that is more suitable than P. indicus.  P. longifolia should be planted on the areas that have been infested with inocula of Ganoderma sp..

  18. First report of Peronospora sp. causing downy mildew disease on Geum sp. in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants in the genus Geum are clump-forming perennials in the family Rosaceae. Known for long bloom times and the ability to attract pollinators, Geum hybrids are popular ornamental plants commonly grown in borders and rock gardens (Brickell & Cathey, 2004). In early April 2017, the entire crop of Ge...

  19. De novo assembly and phasing of dikaryotic genomes from two isolates of Puccini coronata f. sp. avenae, the causal agent of oat crown rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa E. Miller; Ying Zhang; Vahid Omidvar; Jana Sperschneider; Benjamin Schwessinger; Castle Raley; Jonathan M. Palmer; Diana Garnica; Narayana Upadhyaya; John Rathjen; Jennifer M. Taylor; Robert F. Park; Peter N. Dodds; Cory D. Hirsch; Shahryar F. Kianian; Melania. Figueroa

    2018-01-01

    Oat crown rust, caused by the fungus Pucinnia coronata f. sp. avenae, is a devastating disease that impacts worldwide oat production. For much of its life cycle, P. coronata f. sp. avenae is dikaryotic, with two separate haploid nuclei that may vary in virulence genotype, highlighting...

  20. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense dengan Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Sudirman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag, second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation. Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4. The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag. Faktor kedua

  1. Habitat Perkembangbiakan Spesifik Anopheles sp Di Tambang Emas Kura-Kura Banian (Perubahan Perilaku Anopheles sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liestiana Indriyati, SKM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of Health Research 2010, showed that malaria was an infectious disease that the sixth cause of death cause of the sixth of death in Indonesia. Kotabaru is a malaria endemic district, especially in Puskesmas Banian, Annual Parasite Incidence 241.19 in 2014 where the cases of malaria with occurring in illegal gold mines on the slopes of Banian Mountain. It’s needed to know the factors that affect the existence of malaria in these locations. This research was observational study doing by cross-sectional study and analyzed by descriptively. Research conducted at the Gold Mine Banian Buluh Kuning village, Sungai Durian subdistric, Kotabaru district, South Kalimantan Province in February and March, 2015. The activities were catching larva and adult mosquitoes, environmental and mosquito breeding habitats observation and Mass Blood Survey. It was found Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles leucosphyrus with very low densities in area with the number of malaria cases by 22.99%. It was found divers breeding habitats of Anopheles sp on a former gold wash, former drum and former plastic containers. This indicated a behavioral change of Anopheles breeding places because previous to this the Anopheles breed in puddles on the ground or direct contact with the ground.

  2. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was < 5 x 105 colony/g sample.

  3. Superhard sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Four sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772. The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  4. IAA-producing Penicillium sp. NICS01 triggers plant growth and suppresses Fusarium sp.-induced oxidative stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Shim, Kang-Bo; Lee, Byeong-Won; Hwang, Chung-Dong; Pae, Suk-Bok; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Up; Lee, Choon-Ki; Baek, In-Youl

    2013-06-28

    Application of rhizospheric fungi is an effective and environmentally friendly method of improving plant growth and controlling many plant diseases. The current study was aimed to identify phytohormone-producing fungi from soil, to understand their roles in sesame plant growth, and to control Fusarium disease. Three predominant fungi (PNF1, PNF2, and PNF3) isolated from the rhizospheric soil of peanut plants were screened for their growth-promoting efficiency on sesame seedlings. Among these isolates, PNF2 significantly increased the shoot length and fresh weight of seedlings compared with controls. Analysis of the fungal culture filtrate showed a higher concentration of indole acetic acid in PNF2 than in the other isolates. PNF2 was identified as Penicillium sp. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. The in vitro biocontrol activity of Penicillium sp. against Fusarium sp. was exhibited by a 49% inhibition of mycelial growth in a dual culture bioassay and by hyphal injuries as observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, greenhouse experiments revealed that Fusarium inhibited growth in sesame plants by damaging lipid membranes and reducing protein content. Co-cultivation with Penicillium sp. mitigated Fusarium-induced oxidative stress in sesame plants by limiting membrane lipid peroxidation, and by increasing the protein concentration, levels of antioxidants such as total polyphenols, and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. Thus, our findings suggest that Penicillium sp. is a potent plant growthpromoting fungus that has the ability to ameliorate damage caused by Fusarium infection in sesame cultivation.

  5. VIRULANCE FACTOR OF Staphylococcus sp. ISOLATED FROM SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN ETTAWA GRADE GOAT’S MILK IN SLEMAN REGENCY -YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Suwito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stapphylococcus sp., is bacteria that caused subclinical mastitis in Ettawa Grade (EG goat. Thepurpose of this study was to determine virulance factor Stapphylococcus sp., which was isolated fromsubclinical mastitis EG goat’s milk in Sleman regency, Yogyakarta. A total of 7 isolate Stapphylococcussp., were isolated from subclinical mastitis EG goat’s milk were determinated by several virulancefactors such as haemolysin, clumping factor, and coagulase. Haemolysin was determinated by culture inblood agar plate and incubated in the temperature of 37°C for 24 hours. Clumping factor wasdeterminated by mixing the rabbit plasma with Stapphylococcus sp., in the glass objects. Coagulase wasdeterminated by mixing the rabbit plasma and broth culture of Stapphylococcus sp. After incubated inthe temperature of 37°C for 24 hours in tube, then the gel formation was observed. Haemolytic type ßwas yielded from 5 isolate Stapphylococcus sp., whereas 2 isolates were not haemolytic. Clumpingfactor and coagulase were produced from 2 isolate Stapphylococcus sp. This study showed that not all ofStapphylococcus sp., isolate causing subclinical mastitis in EG goat have virulance factor.

  6. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Paul C. C.; Baley, G. James; Clinton, William P.; Bunkers, Greg J.; Alibhai, Murtaza F.; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. ...

  7. EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  8. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  9. SP (4,R) symmetry in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A classification of nuclear states according to the noncompact sympletic Lie algebras sp(2n,R), n = 1, 2, 3, is investigated. Such a classification has recently been shown to be physically meaningful. This classification scheme is the appropriate generalization fo Elliott's SU 3 model of rotational states in deformed light nuclei to include core excitations. A restricted classification according to the Lie algebra, sp(4,R), is motivated. Truncation of the model space to a single sp(4,R) irreducible representation allows the inclusion of states possessing very high excitation energy. An sp(4,R) model study is performed on S = T = 0 positive-parity rotational bands in the deformed light nuclei 16 O and 24 Mg. States are included in the model space that possess up to 10h ω in excitation energy. Results for the B(E2) transition rates compare favorable with experiment, without resort to effective charges

  10. Progress in SP-100 tribological coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, P.J.; Roy, P.; Schuster, G.B.; Busboom, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor will operate at temperatures up to 1500K in high vacuum. To address the SP-100 needs, a tribology development program has been established at GE to investigate candidate coating materials. Materials were selected based on their high thermodynamic stability, high melting point, compatibility with the substrate, and coefficients of thermal expansion similar to niobium-1% zirconium-the candidate structural material for SP-100. An additional requirement was that the deposition processes should be commercially available to coat large components. This paper presents the details regarding the SP-100 Tribology Development Program including background information, specific bearing requirements, basis for coating material selection, testing methods and the initial results covering the early years of this program

  11. Alternate hosts of spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea identification in colombia by bioassay / identificación de hospederos alternos de spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea en colombia por bioensayos

    OpenAIRE

    Arcila Aristizabal, Ivon Magaly; González Jaimes, Elena Paola; Zuluaga Amaya, Catalina María; Cotes Torres, José Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Potato powdery scab, caused by Spongosporasubterranea f. sp. subterranea, is a disease that limits worldwide potato crop production. Incidence of the disease has been increasing in Colombia, thereby affecting tubers production, so far effective control methods have yet to be developed. The aim of this research was to establish the host range plants for Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea by artificial inoculations. Thus, 33 species were inoculated with 1×106 sporosori.mL-1 solution for...

  12. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... are regarded as waste after plants' fruits or seeds have been harvested. AMPs from ... including bacteria, fungi, viruses and oomycetes causing ..... Antibacterial effect of protein fraction from seeds of Capsicum chinense Jacq.

  13. Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid—Mediated Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway.

  14. Cellulose powder from Cladophora sp. algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, R; Gustafsson, C; Nutt, A; Iversen, T; Nyström, C

    1998-01-01

    The surface are and crystallinity was measured on a cellulose powder made from Cladophora sp. algae. The algae cellulose powder was found to have a very high surface area (63.4 m2/g, N2 gas adsorption) and build up of cellulose with a high crystallinity (approximately 100%, solid state NMR). The high surface area was confirmed by calculations from atomic force microscope imaging of microfibrils from Cladophora sp. algae.

  15. Genetic transformation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli with Agrobacterium to study pathogenesis in Gladiolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Fog) is one of the most serious diseases of Gladiolus, both in the field and in stored bulbs. In order to study the pathogenesis of this fungus, we have transformed Fog with Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vectors containing the hygromycin B...

  16. Curtobacterium sp. Genome Sequencing Underlines Plant Growth Promotion-Related Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Minio, Andrea; Casati, Paola; Quaglino, Fabio; Delledonne, Massimo; Bianco, Piero A

    2014-07-17

    Endophytic bacteria are microorganisms residing in plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. Here, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Curtobacterium sp. strain S6, isolated from grapevine plant. The genome assembly contains 2,759,404 bp in 13 contigs and 2,456 predicted genes. Copyright © 2014 Bulgari et al.

  17. Comparison of virulence between vascular competent and incompetent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum pathotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian biotype and California race 4 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum (Fov) are pathologically distinct from the Fov U.S. race 1 isolates in that they do not cause disease when stem-puncture inoculated while race 1 isolates do. When root-dip inoculation method was used, bot...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. FMQ74, a Dairy-contaminating Isolate from Raw Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okshevsky, Mira Ursula; Regina, Viduthalai R.; Marshall, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Bacillus are common milk contaminants that cause spoilage and flavor alterations of dairy products. Bacillus sp. FMQ74 was isolated from raw milk on a Danish dairy farm. To elucidate the genomic basis of this strain’s survival in the dairy industry, a high-quality draft...

  19. PATOGENISITAS BAKTERI LAYU PISANG (RALSTONIA SP. PADA BEBERAPA TANAMAN LAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Nur Aeny1 .

    2011-10-01

    Pathogenicity of banana wilt  bacteria (Ralstonia sp. on  several other  plants.  This experiment was conducted to investigate the pathogenicity of bacterial wilt of banana pathogen (Ralstonia sp. isolated from infected plants in Lampung on tomato, chili pepper, eggplant, and ginger.  The experiment was conducted in Laboratory of Plant Protection Department,  Faculty of Agricultural University of Lampung, from May 1999 to February 2000.  Treatments in this experiment were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments were tomato, eggplant, chili pepper, and  ginger.  Banana was used as the control. The results of this experiment showed that up to 30 days after inoculation, the bacteria isolated from banana found  in Lampung was not able to cause symptom on tomato,  chili pepper, eggplant, nor ginger. However, this bacteria caused wilting on banana eight days after inoculation; the incubation period of this bacteria on banana was eight days.

  20. Functions for fission yeast splicing factors SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 in alternative splice-site choice and stress-specific regulated splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Melangath

    Full Text Available Budding yeast spliceosomal factors ScSlu7 and ScPrp18 interact and mediate intron 3'ss choice during second step pre-mRNA splicing. The fission yeast genome with abundant multi-intronic transcripts, degenerate splice signals and SR proteins is an apt unicellular fungal model to deduce roles for core spliceosomal factors in alternative splice-site choice, intron retention and to study the cellular implications of regulated splicing. From our custom microarray data we deduce a stringent reproducible subset of S. pombe alternative events. We examined the role of factors SpSlu7 or SpPrp18 for these splice events and investigated the relationship to growth phase and stress. Wild-type log and stationary phase cells showed ats1+ exon 3 skipped and intron 3 retained transcripts. Interestingly the non-consensus 5'ss in ats1+ intron 3 caused SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent intron retention. We validated the use of an alternative 5'ss in dtd1+ intron 1 and of an upstream alternative 3'ss in DUF3074 intron 1. The dtd1+ intron 1 non-canonical 5'ss yielded an alternative mRNA whose levels increased in stationary phase. Utilization of dtd1+ intron 1 sub-optimal 5' ss required functional SpPrp18 and SpSlu7 while compromise in SpSlu7 function alone hampered the selection of the DUF3074 intron 1 non canonical 3'ss. We analysed the relative abundance of these splice isoforms during mild thermal, oxidative and heavy metal stress and found stress-specific splice patterns for ats1+ and DUF3074 intron 1 some of which were SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent. By studying ats1+ splice isoforms during compromised transcription elongation rates in wild-type, spslu7-2 and spprp18-5 mutant cells we found dynamic and intron context-specific effects in splice-site choice. Our work thus shows the combinatorial effects of splice site strength, core splicing factor functions and transcription elongation kinetics to dictate alternative splice patterns which in turn serve as an additional

  1. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma SP. Dan Gliocladium SP. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Ramadhina, Arie Ramadhina; Lisnawita, Lisnawita; Lubis, Lahmuddin

    2013-01-01

    The use of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. for controlling wilt(Fusarium oxysporum) in red onion plants. The aim of the research was to know the effectiviness ofantagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants.The research used non-factorial RAK (random group design) with eight treatments: control, 10grams of F. oxysporum, 12 grams of Trichoderma sp., 18 grams of Trichoderma sp., 24 grams ofTrichoderma sp., and 12 grams ...

  2. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Lysková, P.; Frisvad, J.C.; Peterson, S.W.; Skořepová, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2014), s. 565-576 ISSN 1369-3786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus candidus * Aspergillus tritici * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2014

  3. Subclinical mastitis in sheep: Causes and their sensitivity to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The California mastitis test (CMT was used to examine the milk of 6609 sheep, actually, from 13218 mammary complexes. A total of 986 milk samples were found to contain an increased number of somatic cells, and causes of mastitis were isolated from 910 (92.3% of these samples. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were: E. coli isolated from 189 (20.76% samples, Micrococcus sp from 186 (20.43% samples, Bacillus sp. from 177 (19.45%, Staphylococcus aureus from 172 (18.9% samples, and Proteus sp. from 121 (13.29% samples of sheep milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were isolated in a much smaller number, from 25 (2.74% samples, Streptococcus sp. was isolated from 19 (2.08% samples, Pseudomonas sp. from 14 (1.53% samples, haemolytic E. coli was isolated from only 6 (0.65% samples, and Streptococcus agalactiae from only one sample. Among the 25 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 16 (64% isolates were identified as Staphylococcus chromogenes, and 9 (36% isolates as Staphylococcus simulans. The sensitivity of the isolated causes of mastitis to antibiotics was examined using the disc diffusion method. .

  4. Entamoeba bangladeshi nov. sp., Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, TL; Gilchrist, C; Kabir, M; Arju, T; Ralston, KS; Haque, R; Clark, CG; Petri, WAJr

    2012-01-01

    : TO THE EDITOR: Diarrheal diseases have a major effect on global health, particularly the health of malnourished children (1). The enteric parasites Entamoeba histolytica and E. moshkovskii are potential causes of diarrheal disease in children (2). For the past 20 years, we have been studying Entamoeba infections in children from the urban slum of Mirpur in Dhaka, Bangladesh (3).

  5. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print ... son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who ...

  6. Interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozaki, Naofumi; Ozaki, Takuro; Samadfam, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    Uptake of uranium by higher fungi, such as mushroom is little elucidated. We have studied the interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp. (a mushroom) in pure culture over a wide range of U concentration (50-3000 mg/L). The Pleurotus sp. was cultured in two different media. One was rice bran medium, and the other was agar (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) medium. The uptake of uranium in Pleurotus sp. was examined by alpha ray autoradiography (A,A), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning microcopy (SEM) equipped with EDS. In the agar medium, the higher uranium concentration gave lower growth of mycelia, and no fruiting body was observed. In the rice bran medium, the fruiting body was grown at U concentrations up to 1000 mg/L. The AA and XRF analysis showed that uranium taken up in the fruiting body was below the detection limit. The SEM-EDS analysis indicated that U was distributed in the limited region and was not transported to the mycelia far from U containing medium. It is concluded that uranium affects the growth of Pleurotus sp., and little uranium is taken up by Pleurotus sp. during the growth of both mycelia and fruiting body. (author)

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_L.png Synecho...cystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis

  8. Polymorphisms of SP110 are associated with both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis among the Vietnamese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Gregory J; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Yu, Bing; Ellis, Magda K; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen Kim; Thi Lien, Luu; Marks, Guy B; Saunders, Bernadette M; Britton, Warwick J

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet the reasons why only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on to develop clinical disease are poorly understood. Genetically determined variation in the host immune response is one factor influencing the response to M. tuberculosis. SP110 is an interferon-responsive nuclear body protein with critical roles in cell cycling, apoptosis and immunity to infection. However association studies of the gene with clinical TB in different populations have produced conflicting results. To examine the importance of the SP110 gene in immunity to TB in the Vietnamese we conducted a case-control genetic association study of 24 SP110 variants, in 663 patients with microbiologically proven TB and 566 unaffected control subjects from three tertiary hospitals in northern Vietnam. Five SNPs within SP110 were associated with all forms of TB, including four SNPs at the C terminus (rs10208770, rs10498244, rs16826860, rs11678451) under a dominant model and one SNP under a recessive model, rs7601176. Two of these SNPs were associated with pulmonary TB (rs10208770 and rs16826860) and one with extra-pulmonary TB (rs10498244). SP110 variants were associated with increased susceptibility to both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in the Vietnamese. Genetic variants in SP110 may influence macrophage signaling responses and apoptosis during M. tuberculosis infection, however further research is required to establish the mechanism by which SP110 influences immunity to tuberculosis infection.

  9. Flocculation mechanism of the actinomycete Streptomyces sp. hsn06 on Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2017-09-01

    In this study, an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. hsn06 with the ability to harvest Chlorella vulgaris biomass was used to investigate the flocculation mechanism. Streptomyces sp. hsn06 exhibited flocculation activity on algal cells through mycelial pellets with adding calcium. Calcium was determined to promote flocculation activity of mycelial pellets as a bridge binding with mycelial pellets and algal cells, which implied that calcium bridging is the main flocculation mechanism for mycelial pellets. Characteristics of flocculation activity confirmed proteins in mycelial pellets involved in flocculation procedure. The morphology and structure of mycelial pellets also caused dramatic effects on flocculation activity of mycelial pellets. According to the results, Streptomyces sp. hsn06 can be used as a novel flocculating microbial resource for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proliferative enteritis in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) associated with Cryptosporidium sp. infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Scott P; Uhl, Elizabeth W; Funk, Richard S

    2003-03-01

    Twenty-three leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) with various clinical histories of weight loss, anorexia, lethargy, and diarrhea were submitted either intact or as biopsy specimens to the University of Florida Anatomic Pathology Service. Gross necropsy findings in the intact geckos included marked reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue stores at the tail base and mild thickening and reddening of the small intestine. Histologic examination revealed Cryptosporidium sp. infection associated with hyperplasia and mononuclear inflammation of the small intestine in all geckos. Parasites and lesions were only rarely observed in the stomach and large intestine of geckos. The histologic and ultrastructural lesions in the small intestine of leopard geckos infected with Cryptosporidium sp. have not been well characterized previously. This report implicates Cryptosporidium sp. as the cause of disease in the geckos and describes the range of histologic lesions observed.

  11. Inheritance and Bulked Segregant Analysis of Leaf Rust and Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Meriem; Kolmer, James A; Rouse, Matthew N; Chao, Shiaoman; Bulbula, Worku Denbel; Elias, Elias M; Acevedo, Maricelis

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, and stem rust, caused by P. graminis f. sp. tritici, are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to P. triticina race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK in durum accessions. Eight leaf-rust-resistant genotypes were used to develop biparental populations. Accessions PI 192051 and PI 534304 were also resistant to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK. The resulting progenies were phenotyped for leaf rust and stem rust response at seedling stage. The Lr and Sr genes were mapped in five populations using single-nucleotide polymorphisms and bulked segregant analysis. Five leaf-rust-resistant genotypes carried single dominant Lr genes whereas, in the remaining accessions, there was deviation from the expected segregation ratio of a single dominant Lr gene. Seven genotypes carried Lr genes different from those previously characterized in durum. The single dominant Lr genes in PI 209274, PI 244061, PI387263, and PI 313096 were mapped to chromosome arms 6BS, 2BS, 6BL, and 6BS, respectively. The Sr gene in PI 534304 mapped to 6AL and is most likely Sr13, while the Sr gene in PI 192051 could be uncharacterized in durum.

  12. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM

  13. SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hornung, Thomas; Meier, Michael; Pinkel, Christoph; Lausen, Georg

    A meaningful analysis and comparison of both existing storage schemes for RDF data and evaluation approaches for SPARQL queries necessitates a comprehensive and universal benchmark platform. We present SP2Bench, a publicly available, language-specific performance benchmark for the SPARQL query language. SP2Bench is settled in the DBLP scenario and comprises a data generator for creating arbitrarily large DBLP-like documents and a set of carefully designed benchmark queries. The generated documents mirror vital key characteristics and social-world distributions encountered in the original DBLP data set, while the queries implement meaningful requests on top of this data, covering a variety of SPARQL operator constellations and RDF access patterns. In this chapter, we discuss requirements and desiderata for SPARQL benchmarks and present the SP2Bench framework, including its data generator, benchmark queries and performance metrics.

  14. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzacco, D [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    1992-08-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4{pi} detector array for advanced {gamma}-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4{pi} calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs.

  15. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzacco, D.

    1992-01-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4π detector array for advanced γ-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4π calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs

  16. SP-100/Brayton power system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Use of closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion technology has been investigated for use with SP-100 reactors for space power systems. The CBC power conversion technology is being developed by Rockwell International under the Dynamic Isotype Power System (DIPS) and Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power system programs to provide highly efficient power conversion with radioisotype and solar collector heat sources. Characteristics including mass, radiator area, thermal power, and operating temperatures for systems utilizing SP-100 reactor and CBC power conversion technology were determined for systems in the 10-to 100-kWe power range. Possible SP-100 reactor/CBC power system configurations are presented. Advantages of CBC power conversion technology with regard to reactor thermal power, operating temperature, and development status are discussed

  17. The Effectiveness of Extracts Basil Leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) against Saprolegnia sp. by in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarno; Luthfi Hakim, Muhammad; Kusdarwati, Rahayu

    2017-02-01

    Saprolegnia SP. is a fungi which is opportunistic and generally as a secondary pathogen on fish. Saprolegnia sp. infects epidermis tissue that begins at the head or fins and can spread over the entire surface of the body. The result of the using of chemicals to control infections of Saprolegnia spp. can cause pollution of the environment and harm the consumer. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential and the minimum concentration of extracts basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) as antifungi against the growth of Saprolegnia sp. by vitro. The research was held in Fish Quarantine Kelas I Juanda Suarabaya in January 2015. A positive result was obtained in the test of the effectiveness of basil leaves in inhibiting the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. Concentration of the extract given to treatment 90% and 100% was able to inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia sp., indicated by the formation of the inhibitory zones at a concentration of treatment, and had the best results on the concentration of 100%.

  18. Modifications of Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Moshin, P.Yu

    2003-12-04

    We propose a modification of the Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization to realize a superalgebra of generating operators isomorphic to the massless limit of the corresponding superalgebra of the osp(1,2) covariant formalism. The modified scheme ensures the compatibility of the superalgebra of generating operators with extended BRST symmetry without imposing restrictions eliminating superfield components from the quantum action. The formalism coincides with the Sp(2) covariant superfield scheme and with the massless limit of the osp(1,2) covariant quantization in particular cases of gauge-fixing and solutions of the quantum master equations.

  19. SP-100 converter multicouple thermoelectric cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, R.A.; Terrill, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The General Electric Company is under contract to DOE to design, fabricate, and test an SP-100 Ground Engineering System. This paper provides a description of the SP-100 space reactor power system configuration, and a more detailed description of the power conversion subsystem (PCSS) and the key building block of the power converter, the thermoelectric cell. The functions of the various elements of the PCSS and the cells are also presented. These cells convert the thermal energy from the reactor into electrical power at the desired voltage while being conductively coupled to the hot and cold side heat exchangers to maximize the power output and system specific power

  20. Fatty acid composition of Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp. and Chaetoceros sp. microalgae and introduction as potential new sources to extinct omega 3 and omega 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Gorjzdadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out to determine the oil fatty acids from two special species of microalgae; Spirulina sp.,Chlorella sp. and also Chaetoceros sp. collected from Bahmanshir River. Materials and Methods: Sampling of microalgae Chaetoceros sp. from Bahmanshir River was under taken using bottle samplers during spring season of 2013. Microalgae Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. were supplied from Shrimp Research Institute of Iran in Bushehr Province. Samples then were cultured under controlled laboratory conditions and mass culture for 100 liters was undertaken. Isolation of microalgae species from water of cultured media was carried out using filtration and centrifugation methods. The fatty acid compositions were determined by Gas – FID chromatography. Results: Results showed that regarding Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA obtained from purified culture of Chaetoceros sp., Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. the maximum amount of total fatty acids were belonged to palmitic acids (C16:0 with 15.21%, 30.1% and 25.17% of total fatty acids  respectively. Analysis of Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA showed that in the Oleic acid was maximum amount of 34% in Spirulina sp. In addition the amount of MUFA in Chlorella sp. was 16.37% of total fatty acids. On the other hand the amount of palmeotic acid in purified culture of Chaetoceros sp. was 30.33% from total content of fatty acids. Analysis of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA, Linoleic acid (C18:2 (Omega 6, revealed maximum percentage in Spirulina sp. with 18.8%. Results of Alpha linoleic acid (C18:3 (Omega3 analysis showed maximum amount of 9.66% in Chlorella sp. compared to other microalgae with lower omega 3 contents. Spirulina sp. contained maximum amount of Linoleic acid (C18:2 with 18.8% of total fatty acids. Therefore, Spirulina sp. can be considered as a rich source of omega 6 for the purpose of fatty acid extractions. The presence of PUFA in Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. was

  1. Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolkar, A V; Durai, D; Desai, A J

    2010-07-01

    Application of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) for the acceleration of fish sauce fermentation. Traditional fish sauce fermentation was mimicked using Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as starter culture. Protease activity, peptide release and α-amino content (parameters used to monitor the progress of the fermentation) were high at day 10 in tests and day 20 in un-inoculated controls. The total protein and nitrogen contents were also high in tests compared with controls. The amino acid profile observed at the end of fermentation in experimental samples, when compared with the commercial sauce preparation, was found to be better with respect to flavour and aroma contributing amino acids as well as essential amino acid lysine. Microflora analysis of the final fish sauce revealed the absence of any nonhalophilic or halotolerant micro-organisms. The protease-producing halophilic isolates obtained from the fish sauce of eviscerated and uneviscerated controls were identified as Halobacterium sp. F1 and F2, respectively, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Exogenous augmentation of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) accelerated the fish sauce fermentation process with an additive effect on the existing natural microflora present in the fish during fermentation. Halobacterium sp SP1(1), therefore, can be used as an important starter culture for accelerating the fish fermentation process, which is attributed to its extracellular protease. The present study is the first report on use of Halobacterium species as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation. Use of halobacterial starter cultures may revolutionize the process in fish sauce industries by reducing the fermentation time and making the process more economical with improved nutritive value of product. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Indian Government works.

  2. 76 FR 56876 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... and 9789(SP), Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS). DATES: Written comments should be received on or before November 14, 2011 to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS). OMB...

  3. SP-A binding sites on bovine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, S; Plattner, H; Schlepper-Schaefer, J

    1998-11-25

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) binding to bovine alveolar macrophages was examined in order to characterize SP-A binding proteins on the cell surface and to isolate putative receptors from these cells that could be obtained in large amounts. Human SP-A, unlabeled or labeled with gold particles, was bound to freshly isolated macrophages and analyzed with ELISA or the transmission electron microscope. Binding of SP-A was inhibited by Ca2+ chelation, by an excess of unlabeled SP-A, or by the presence of 20 mg/ml mannan. We conclude that bovine alveolar macrophages expose binding sites for SP-A that are specific and that depend on Ca2+ and on mannose residues. For isolation of SP-A receptors with homologous SP-A as ligand we isolated SP-A from bovine lung lavage. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified SP-A showed a protein of 32-36 kDa. Functional integrity of the protein was demonstrated. Bovine SP-A bound to Dynabeads was used to isolate SP-A binding proteins. From the fractionated and blotted proteins of the receptor preparation two proteins bound SP-A in a Ca2+-dependent manner, a 40-kDa protein showing mannose dependency and a 210-kDa protein, showing no mannose sensitivity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. What Causes SIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Look Like? How Can Caregivers Create a Safe Sleep Environment? Babies Need Tummy ... exactly what causes SIDS at this time. Scientists and health care providers are working very hard to find the cause or causes ...

  5. MIB-producing cyanobacteria (Planktothrix sp.) in a drinking water reservoir: distribution and odor producing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Yu, Jianwei; Zhang, Junzhi; Chen, Hui; An, Wei; Vogt, Rolf D; Andersen, Tom; Jia, Dongmin; Wang, Jingshi; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    The production of odorant 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in water bodies by Planktothrix sp. have not been understood very well. Through a four-year investigation in Miyun Reservoir, a huge mesotrophic drinking water reservoir known to have the MIB episodes, we found that the Planktothrix sp. bloomed during September and October causing the high levels of MIB in the reservoir. The concentration of MIB and the biomass of MIB-producing cyanobacteria Planktothrix were measured (n = 887) at different sites and depths during different seasons. The results indicated that the shallow region of the reservoir is the major habitat for Planktothrix sp. due to that the light is able to penetrate down to the relatively high concentrations of nutrients close to the sediments. Quantile regression analysis between Planktothrix biomass and MIB concentration shows that the risk of MIB exceeding the odor threshold (15 ng L⁻¹) in water was as high as 90% when the Planktothrix density was more than 4.0 × 10⁵ cells L⁻¹, while the risk was reduced to 10% when the Planktothrix density remained below 1.6 × 10⁴ cells L⁻¹. This study will improve the understanding of the environmental behaviors of Planktothrix sp., and can provide useful information for better management of drinking water lakes/reservoirs experiencing the taste and odor (T&O) problems caused by deep living cyanobacterial species.

  6. Gilliamella intestini sp. nov., Gilliamella bombicola sp. nov., Gilliamella bombi sp. nov. and Gilliamella mensalis sp. nov.: Four novel Gilliamella species isolated from the bumblebee gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praet, Jessy; Cnockaert, Margo; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Vandamme, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Spectra of five isolates (LMG 28358 T , LMG 29879 T , LMG 29880 T , LMG 28359 T and R-53705) obtained from gut samples of wild bumblebees of Bombus pascuorum, Bombus lapidarius and Bombus terrestris were grouped into four MALDI-TOF MS clusters. RAPD analysis revealed an identical DNA fingerprint for LMG 28359 T and R-53705 which also grouped in the same MALDI-TOF MS cluster, while different DNA fingerprints were obtained for the other isolates. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the four different strains identified Gilliamella apicola NCIMB 14804 T as nearest neighbour species. Average nucleotide identity values of draft genome sequences of the four isolates and of G. apicola NCIMB 14804 T were below the 96% threshold value for species delineation and all four strains and G. apicola NCIMB 14804 T were phenotypically distinct. Together, the draft genome sequences and phylogenetic and phenotypic data indicate that the four strains represent four novel Gilliamella species for which we propose the names Gilliamella intestini sp. nov., with LMG 28358 T as the type strain, Gilliamella bombicola sp. nov., with LMG 28359 T as the type strain, Gilliamella bombi sp. nov., with LMG 29879 T as the type strain and Gilliamella mensalis sp. nov., with LMG 29880 T as the type strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  8. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T.; Ferreira, Rafael V. de P.; Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  9. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. ...

  10. Rhodotorula bloemfonteinensis sp. nov., Rhodotorula eucalyptica sp. nov., Rhodotorula orientis sp. nov. and Rhodotorula pini sp. nov., yeasts isolated from monoterpene-rich environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Carolina H; Smit, Martha S; Albertyn, Jacobus

    2011-09-01

    Recent rDNA sequencing of 25 isolates from a previous study, during which limonene-utilizing yeasts were isolated from monoterpene-rich environments by using 1,4-disubstituted cyclohexanes as sole carbon sources, led to the identification of four hitherto unknown Rhodotorula species. Analyses of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 region as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain indicated that two isolates (CBS 8499(T) and CBS 10736) were identical and were closely related to Rhodotorula cycloclastica, a previously described limonene-utilizing yeast. These novel isolates differed from known yeast species and could be distinguished from R. cycloclastica by standard physiological tests. The other three isolates represent three novel Rhodotorula species, closely related to Sporobolomyces magnisporus. These three species could also be distinguished from other Rhodotorula species by standard physiological tests. Based on these results, we suggest that the new isolates represent novel species, for which the names Rhodotorula eucalyptica sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8499(T)  = NRRL Y-48408(T)), Rhodotorula pini sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10735(T)  = NRRL Y-48410(T)), Rhodotorula bloemfonteinensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8598(T)  = NRRL Y-48407(T)) and Rhodotorula orientis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8594(T)  = NRRL Y-48719(T)) are proposed. R. eucalyptica and R. pini can also utilize limonene.

  11. Test af spørgeskema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i •design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, •formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, •metoder til at analysere resultaterne....

  12. Lipid contents of the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Several fatty acids, sterols, batyl alcohol and its analogs and an N-acylated sphingosine (ceramide) have been isolated from the lipid fraction of the extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. The major sterol is found to be cholesterol (54%), followed...

  13. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    / 1000 felter= 0.370 (95% CI: 0.160-0.729), (p= 0.020)). Der var ingen statistisk forskel mellem optisk scanning (fejl/ 1000 felter= 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258)) og manuel dobbelt indtastning (p=1.000). Konklusioner: Optisk scanning er et godt alternativ til manuel dobbelt indtastning for spørgeskema med......Formål og baggrund: Patient rapporterede outcomes i form af spørgeskemaer bruges i øgende grad i sundhedssektoren både i klinisk praksis og forskning. Ofte bruges spørgeskemaer i papirformat. Manuel dobbelt indtastning er defineret som guld standard for overføring af data til et elektronisk format......, men processen er tidkrævende. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer med automatisk registrering af svar kan være et alternativ, men videre validering af metoden er nødvendig. Design: 200 patienter blev tilfældigt udvalgt fra en kohorte på 5777 patienter der tidligere havde svaret på to forskellige...

  14. Aerococcus sp. with an antimycobacterial effect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... In this study, we reported data on a strain that was isolated from different areas of Fez. (Morocco), which ... sp. The antibacterial activity of the genus Aerococcus have .... able to amplify the 16S rRNA gene from eubacteria.

  15. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  16. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol

    2014-01-01

    A major carotenoid in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, originally isolated from a river in Daejon City, South Korea, was identified as astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside. Gene clusters encoding the astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthetic enzymes were identified by screening Sphingomonas sp. PB304 fosmid...

  17. SP-100 initial startup and restart control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, Frank J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Switick, Dennis M.; Shukla, Jaikaran N.

    Startup control strategies for SP-100 are described. Revised control and operating strategies are discussed which have been developed and tested using the SP-100 dynamic simulation model Aries-GFS (Generic Flight System).

  18. Identificación de especies de cepas nativas de Trichoderma sp. y Bacillus sp. y evaluación de su potencial antagonista in vitro frente al hongo fitopatógeno nativo Moniliophthora roreri en el departamento de Norte de Santander

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Yanet-Suárez; Claudia Patricia Cabrales

    2008-01-01

    The Molinasis is caused fungus Moniliophthora roreri. Which is the most seriuos disease which attacks cocoa, and appears in almost anywhere across the country, causing significant losses to farmers. The recognition of the six kind of fungus Trichoderma sp. Obtained from: El Zulia, El Tarra, Bucarasica, Cúcuta and Agua Clara has been realized, along with the bacterial strain Bacillus sp. Isolationed of Bucarasica, which were evaluated, in order to determinate their antagonic potential in front...

  19. Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov., aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Nina V; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Tourova, Tatjana P; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2002-05-01

    Two aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains F20T and RXM(T), are described taxonomically. On the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic properties, the isolates are proposed as novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. (type strain F20T = VKM B-2238T = NCIMB 13778T) and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov. (type strain RXMT = VKM B-2239T = NCIMB 13779T).

  20. Analisis Fosfor pada Cacing Tanah (Megascolex sp. dan Fridericia sp.) Secara Spektrofotometri Sinar Tampak

    OpenAIRE

    Safira, Cut Shafa

    2015-01-01

    Earthworm is natural resource which can be used for medication due to its highly amount of minerals. One of these minerals is phosphorus. The aim of this research are to identify, determine and know the difference content of phosphorus in Megascolex sp. and Fridericia sp. Qualitative analysis shows positive results with addition of ammonium molybdate 4% and BaCl2 5%. Quantitative analysis was done using visible spectrophotometer with ascorbic acid method, measuring blu-colored molybdenum ...

  1. Nanocrystalline sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M. L. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy); Rossi, M. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Sapienza,” via A. Scarpa, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria and Centro di Ricerca per le Nanotecnologie Applicate all’Ingegneria (CNIS) (Italy); Tamburri, E., E-mail: emanuela.tamburri@uniroma2.it [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp{sup 2}- and sp{sup 3}-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  2. Differences in nutrient uptake capacity of the benthic filamentous algae Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. under varying N/P conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vyverman, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The N/P ratio of wastewater can vary greatly and directly affect algal growth and nutrient removal process. Three benthic filamentous algae species Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were isolated from a periphyton bioreactor and cultured under laboratory conditions on varying N/P ratios to determine their ability to remove nitrate and phosphorus. The N/P ratio significantly influenced the algal growth and phosphorus uptake process. Appropriate N/P ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal were 5-15, 7-10 and 7-20 for Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp., respectively. Within these respective ranges, Cladophora sp. had the highest biomass production, while Pseudanabaena sp. had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This study indicated that Cladophora sp. had a high capacity of removing phosphorus from wastewaters of low N/P ratio, and Pseudanabaena sp. was highly suitable for removing nitrogen from wastewaters with high N/P ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anomalous self potential (sp) log signatures observed in a water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical logging was done after drilling had been completed in a water well at Okwudor, South Eastern Nigeria. Three electric logs were run viz: Self Potential (SP), Resistivity N16″ and N64″ logs. An anomaly was observed in the SP log. The SP results from this well show some deviation from the standard norm.

  4. Biosorption of chromium by mangrove-derived Aplanochytrium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial dried biomass of Thraustochytrids is used as bioadsorbent for the removal of the chromium in aqueous solution. In this investigation, three species of Thraustochydrids namely Aplanochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp. and Schizochytrium sp. were tested for the efficiency of chromium accumulation by culturing ...

  5. Babesia peircei sp. nov. from the jackass penguin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-01-09

    Jan 9, 1992 ... An avian piroplasm, Babesia peircei sp. nov. is described from the jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus. Morphological differences between Babesia peircei sp. nov. and the other valid Babesia spp. are discussed together with the possible vectors. 'n Voal-piroplasma, Babesia peircei sp. nov. afkomstig ...

  6. Environmental conditions affecting exopolysaccharide production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönül

    2008-06-15

    Three different chromium-resistant microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.) were tested with regard to their EPS production at different pH levels, temperatures, Cr(VI) concentrations, and incubation periods. The optimum pH level was 7 for P. aeruginosa and Micrococcus sp., while it was 8 for Ochrobactrum sp. according to the highest EPS amount at 100 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration. The highest production of EPSs by the three bacteria was obtained under different environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa produced the highest EPS (863.3 mg/L) after incubation for 96 h on media with 50 mg/L Cr(VI) at 20 degrees C, Micrococcus sp. gave the highest yield (444.6 mg/L) after incubation for 72 h on media with 100 mg/L Cr(VI) at the same temperature, and Ochrobactrum sp. had the highest production (430.5 mg/L) on media with 150 mg/L Cr(VI) at 30 degrees C at the end of 48 h of incubation.

  7. Two new species of suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov. epizoic on ostracods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Two, species of protozoic suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov., are described. These were found attached on the body of the marine ostracod, Cypridina dentata (Muller), collected from the shelf and slope...

  8. Thermoelectric converter for SP-100 space reactor power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, W. R.; Haley, V. F.

    1986-01-01

    Conductively coupling the thermoelectric converter to the heat source and the radiator maximizes the utilization of the reactor and radiator temperatures and thereby minimizes the power system weight. This paper presents the design for the converter and the individual thermoelectric cells that are the building block modules for the converter. It also summarizes progress on the fabrication of initial cells and the results obtained from the preparation of a manufacturing plan. The design developed for the SP-100 system utilizes thermally conductive compliant pads that can absorb the displacement and distortion caused by the combinations of temperatures and thermal expansion coefficients. The converter and cell designs provided a 100 kWe system which met the system requirements. Initial cells were fabricated and tested.

  9. Thermoelectric converter for SP-100 space reactor power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, W.R.; Haley, V.F.

    1986-01-01

    Conductively coupling the thermoelectric converter to the heat source and the radiator maximizes the utilization of the reactor and radiator temperatures and thereby minimizes the power system weight. This paper presents the design for the converter and the individual thermoelectric cells that are the building block modules for the converter. It also summarizes progress on the fabrication of initial cells and the results obtained from the preparation of a manufacturing plan. The design developed for the SP-100 system utilizes thermally conductive compliant pads that can absorb the displacement and distortion caused by the combinations of temperatures and thermal expansion coefficients. The converter and cell designs provided a 100 kWe system which met the system requirements. Initial cells were fabricated and tested. The manufacturing plan showed that the chosen materials and processes are compatible with today's production techniques, that the production volume can readily be achieved and that the costs are reasonable

  10. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra, E-mail: esungur@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Unsal-Istek, Tuba [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cansever, Nurhan [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemistry-Metallurgy, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel.

  11. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Unsal-Istek, Tuba; Cansever, Nurhan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel

  12. The toxicity of brown algae (Sargassum sp extract to mice (Mus muscullus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Wariz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian is a country with very large and overflow marine biological resources. Utilization of seaweed has been developed and become a source of revenue for Indonesian who live in coastal areas with high potential for seaweed.The demand of seaweed in the world increases as increasing in the use of seaweed for various purposeamong others in the fields of industry, food, textile, paper, paints, cosmetics, medical and pharmaceutical field. Alginate is one of materials that commonly used in the field of dentistry as printed materials to create study models. Materials in the field of dentistry must be biocompatible to the oral cavity tissues. The materials should be stable, safe, comfortable, and certainly doesn’t have a toxicity character to the oral cavity tissues and other tissues in human body. The purpose of this study is to know the toxicity of extract brown algaeSargassum sp given orally to mice.The research perform experimental laboratory research type withexperimental post-tes-only control group design. The reseach samples applyfemales white mice (Mus muscullus. Research samples divided into 5 groups of 5 female mices for each treatment group. Treatment group 1 was given 500mg/kgBW doses of Sargassum sp, group 2 was given 1000mg/KgBW doses of Sargassum sp, group 3 was given 1500mg/KgBW doses of Sargassum sp, group 4 were 2000mg/KgBW doses of Sargassum sp, and a control group was given only dose of Na CMC. The result of this study isdose in humans are converted into 2000mg/KgBW in mice, is a doses that doesn’t cause the death of whole animals. Based of acute toxicity category, the extracts of Sargassum sp that obtained from Punaga Takalar Regency, South Sulawesi includes in the mild toxic.

  13. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin α. → Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. → Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin α in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin α including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin α. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  14. INMUNOTOXICIDAD DE MALATIÓN Y CLORPIRIFOS EN LA LOMBRIZ DE TIERRA Eisenia sp. (ANNELIDA: OLIGOCHAETA | IMMUNOTOXICITY OF MALATHION AND CHLORPYRIFOS IN THE EARTHWORM Eisenia sp. (ANNELIDA: OLIGOCHAETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cortesia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of malathion and chlorpyrifos on immune responses of Eisenia sp. were assessed using standard toxicity assays. In plastic containers with natural soils as substrate, mature sexually earthworms were exposed to malathion (300 mg kg-1of soil and chlorpyrifos (300 mg kg-1of soil during 7 and 21 days. After exposure periods, cellular viability, total number of coelomocytes (NTC, percentage of phagocytic cells (PCF, lysozyme activity and hemolytic percentage were determined. Malathion and chlorpyrifos exposures caused a significant decrease in NTC, lysozyme and hemolytic activities, but these variables were not affected by time of exposure. PCF declined in earthworms exposed to both pesticides; this decline was dependent of the time-exposure. The results suggest an immunotoxic action of both agrochemicals on humoral and cellular immune responses of Eisenia sp., which could intensify the detrimental effects caused by biotic stressors, such as pathogens microrganisms that live in the soil. The immune responses mediated by the coelocmocytes of Eisenia sp. evaluated in this study were negatively affected by malathion and chlorpyrifos, demonstrating their sensitivity as potential biomarkers useful in early detection of environmental impact by organophosphate pesticides.

  15. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia sp. NV-1 detected from wild American Mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Haruyuki; Ishinabe, Satoki; Jinnai, Michio; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne protozoan disease affecting many mammalian species worldwide, caused by the intraerythrocytic multiplication of Babesia spp. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Babesia sp. in 13 American mink from Hokkaido, Japan. One of 13 animals was positive, as indicated by nested PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and subunit 7 (eta) of the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT7) genes from species of Babesia and Theileria. Sequencing of the PCR product of SSU rDNA revealed 99% homology to the isolates of Babesia sp. SAP#131 found in raccoons in Hokkaido, whereas that of the CCT7 gene showed 80% homology to the isolates of Babesia gibsoni in dogs as determined by BLAST analysis. We refer to the cognate sequence as Babesia sp. NV-1. Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA and CCT7 genes from Babesia sp. NV-1 revealed them to be most closely related to the Babesia sp. SAP#131 from a raccoon in Hokkaido and to canine B. gibsoni, respectively. Here, we provide the first molecular evidence of the Babesia sp. NV-1 parasite in feral American mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

  16. A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kirsty L.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Davis, Katie S.; Van Den Berg, Albert H.; Christie, James S.; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J.; Van West, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments. PMID:25088077

  17. A superhard sp3 microporous carbon with direct bandgap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yilong; Xie, Chenlong; Xiong, Mei; Ma, Mengdong; Liu, Lingyu; Li, Zihe; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Gao, Guoying; Zhao, Zhisheng; Tian, Yongjun; Xu, Bo; He, Julong

    2017-12-01

    Carbon allotropes with distinct sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridization possess various different properties. Here, a novel all-sp3 hybridized tetragonal carbon, namely the P carbon, was predicted by the evolutionary particle swarm structural search. It demonstrated a low density among all-sp3 carbons, due to the corresponding distinctive microporous structure. P carbon is thermodynamically stable than the known C60 and could be formed through the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) compression. P carbon is a direct bandgap semiconductor displaying a strong and superhard nature. The unique combination of electrical and mechanical properties constitutes P carbon a potential superhard material for semiconductor industrial fields.

  18. Family-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and case-control association studies reveal surfactant protein A (SP-A) susceptibility alleles for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and possible race differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floros, J.; Fan, R.; Matthews, A.; DiAngelo, S.; Luo, J.; Nielsen, H.; Dunn, M.; Gewolb, I. H.; Koppe, J.; Van Sonderen, L.; Farri-Kostopoulos, L.; Tzaki, M.; Rämet, M.; Merrill, J.

    2001-01-01

    A key cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in the prematurely born infant is deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein complex. Both low levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-A alleles have been associated with RDS. Using the candidate gene approach, we performed family-based

  19. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  20. Insulin utilizes the PI 3-kinase pathway to inhibit SP-A gene expression in lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Jeanne M

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that high insulin levels may cause delayed lung development in the fetuses of diabetic mothers. A key event in lung development is the production of adequate amounts of pulmonary surfactant. Insulin inhibits the expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A, the major surfactant-associated protein, in lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in insulin inhibition of SP-A gene expression. Methods H441 cells, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, or human fetal lung explants were incubated with or without insulin. Transcription run-on assays were used to determine SP-A gene transcription rates. Northern blot analysis was used to examine the effect of various signal transduction inhibitors on SP-A gene expression. Immunoblot analysis was used to evaluate the levels and phosphorylation states of signal transduction protein kinases. Results Insulin decreased SP-A gene transcription in human lung epithelial cells within 1 hour. Insulin did not affect p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation and the insulin inhibition of SP-A mRNA levels was not affected by PD98059, an inhibitor of the p44/42 MAPK pathway. In contrast, insulin increased p70 S6 kinase Thr389 phosphorylation within 15 minutes. Wortmannin or LY294002, both inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase, or rapamycin, an inhibitor of the activation of p70 S6 kinase, a downstream effector in the PI 3-kinase pathway, abolished or attenuated the insulin-induced inhibition of SP-A mRNA levels. Conclusion Insulin inhibition of SP-A gene expression in lung epithelial cells probably occurs via the rapamycin-sensitive PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

  1. Analysis list: SP2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SP2 Blood,Liver,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/hg19/target/SP2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.5.tsv http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Liver.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc

  2. Biodegradation of resorcinol byPseudomonas sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nader Hajizadeh; Najibeh Shirzad; Ali Farzi; Mojtaba Salouti; Azra Momeni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the ability ofPseudomonas sp. isolated from East Azarbaijan, Iran in bioremediation of resorcinol. Methods: Resorcinol biodegradation was evaluated using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results:This isolate was able to remove up to 37.12% of resorcinol from contaminated water. Reusability experiments had confirmed the biodegradation process which produced seven intermediate compounds. These intermediates were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The products of resorcinol biodegradation were apparently 1, 4-cyclohexadiene, nonadecene, 2-heptadecanone, 1-isopropyl-2-methoxy-4-methylbenzene, hexadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, phenol and 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl). Conclusions: The findings revealed thatPseudomonas sp. is able to degrade resorcinol. Because of being an indigenous organism, this isolate is more compatible with the climate of the northwest region of Iran and possibly will be used for degradation of other similar aromatic compounds.

  3. SP-100 space reactor power system readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Matteo, D.N.; Bailey, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System which is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar/Mars surface power for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The technology and design is now at a state of readiness to support the definition of early flight demonstration missions. Of particular importance is that SP-100 meets the demanding U.S. safety performance, reliability and life requirements. The system is scalable and flexible and can be configured to provide 10's to 100's of kWe without repeating development work and can meet DoD goals for an early, low-power demonstration flight in the 1996-1997 time frame

  4. A Study of Fish Lice (Argulus Sp.) Infection in Freshwater Food Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Aalberg K.; Koščová L.; Šmiga Ľ.; Košuth P.; Koščo J.; Oros M.; Barčák D.; Lazar P.

    2016-01-01

    Argulus sp., commonly referred to as fish lice, are crustacean ectoparasites of fishes. The hematophagous parasites attach to and feed off the integument of their hosts. Outbreaks of epizootics have been reported worldwide, causing mass mortalities and having serious economic implications for fish farms and culture efforts. Argulus fish lice may also serve as vectors of infectious diseases and as intermediate hosts of other parasites. Two native European species, A. foliaceus and A. coregoni,...

  5. Aerobic degradation of buprofezin via novel degradation intermediates by Rhodococcus sp. strain RX-3

    OpenAIRE

    Ruixue Li; Chun Dai; Guangli Wang; Shaoxian Wu; Yubao Gong; Yuanyuan Jiang; Zhijia Wang; Naiyue Sun

    2016-01-01

    Buprofezin is a commonly used chemical with satisfactory efficacy against sucking insect pests, but its disposal causes serious environmental problems. In this study, a bacterial strain RX-3 isolated by continuous enrichment from buprofezin-treated soil was tested for biodegradation of buprofezin. The bacteria were most similar to Rhodococcus sp. based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, as well as phylogenetic placement inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequence....

  6. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna; Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M.T.; Formisano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in the rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1–100 μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via the activation of caspase-3 in neuroblastoma cells. Intriguingly, this harmful effect was prevented by the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, by the class II HDAC inhibitor MC-1568, but not by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Furthermore, DEHP reduced specificity protein 3 (Sp3) gene expression, but not Sp3 mRNA, after 24 and 48 h exposures. However, Sp3 protein reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with MC-1568, suggesting the involvement of class II HDACs in causing this effect. Then, we investigated the possible relationship between DEHP-induced neuronal death and the post-translational mechanisms responsible for the down-regulation of Sp3. Interestingly, DEHP-induced Sp3 reduction was associated to its deacetylation and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Sp3 physically interacted with HDAC4 after DEHP exposure, while HDAC4 inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reverted the DEHP-induced degradation of Sp3. Notably, Sp3 overexpression was able to counteract the detrimental effect induced by DEHP. Taken together, these results suggest that DEHP exerts its toxic effect by inducing deacetylation of Sp3 via HDAC4, and afterwards, Sp3-polyubiquitination. - Highlights: • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. • DEHP-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. • DEHP-induced apoptotic cell death is inhibited by class II HDAC MC-1568. • DEHP neurotoxicity is caused by HDAC4-mediated Sp3 degradation by ubiquitin

  7. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna [Laboratorio di Immunologia, Istituto di Endocrinologia e Oncologia Sperimentale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IEOS-CNR), Napoli (Italy); Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Renzo, Gianfranco [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Canzoniero, Lorella M.T., E-mail: canzon@unisannio.it [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy); Formisano, Luigi, E-mail: cformisa@unisannio.it [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in the rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1–100 μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via the activation of caspase-3 in neuroblastoma cells. Intriguingly, this harmful effect was prevented by the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, by the class II HDAC inhibitor MC-1568, but not by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Furthermore, DEHP reduced specificity protein 3 (Sp3) gene expression, but not Sp3 mRNA, after 24 and 48 h exposures. However, Sp3 protein reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with MC-1568, suggesting the involvement of class II HDACs in causing this effect. Then, we investigated the possible relationship between DEHP-induced neuronal death and the post-translational mechanisms responsible for the down-regulation of Sp3. Interestingly, DEHP-induced Sp3 reduction was associated to its deacetylation and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Sp3 physically interacted with HDAC4 after DEHP exposure, while HDAC4 inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reverted the DEHP-induced degradation of Sp3. Notably, Sp3 overexpression was able to counteract the detrimental effect induced by DEHP. Taken together, these results suggest that DEHP exerts its toxic effect by inducing deacetylation of Sp3 via HDAC4, and afterwards, Sp3-polyubiquitination. - Highlights: • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. • DEHP-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. • DEHP-induced apoptotic cell death is inhibited by class II HDAC MC-1568. • DEHP neurotoxicity is caused by HDAC4-mediated Sp3 degradation by ubiquitin.

  8. Superfield quantization in Sp(2) covariant formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    2001-01-01

    The rules of the superfield Sp(2) covariant quantization of the arbitrary gauge theories for the case of the introduction of the gauging with the derivative equations for the gauge functional are generalized. The possibilities of realization of the expanded anti-brackets are considered and it is shown, that only one of the realizations is compatible with the transformations of the expanded BRST-symmetry in the form of super translations along the Grassmann superspace coordinates

  9. Spøgelsets egne ord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemzøe, Anker

    2012-01-01

    refleksioner over den gengangerscene, der åbner Shakespeares Hamlet. Ifølge Derridas ’hantologie’ opererer spøgelser i en eksistentiel tidslighed, der har at gøre med sorg, sprog og forvandling. Genremæssigt, tilføjer Gemzøe, har gengangeren det med at husere i tragedien. Med Derridas ’hantologie’ som en af de...

  10. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelli, Ivano E; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment. (paper)

  11. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  12. Commercial technologies from the SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.; Fujita, T.; Mondt, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    For more than a decade, Jet Propulsion Labortory and Los Alamos have managed a multi-agency funded effort to develop a space reactor power system. This SP-100 Program has developed technologies required for space power systems that can be implemented in the industrial and commercial sectors to improve competitiveness in the global economy. Initial steps taken to transfer this technology from the laboratories to industrial and commercial entities within United States include: (1) identifying specific technologies having commercial potential; (2) distributing information describing the identified technologies and interacting with interested commercial and industrial entities to develop application-specific details and requirements; and (3) providing a technological data base that leads to transfer of technology or the forming of teaming arrangements to accomplish the transfer by tailoring the technology to meet application-specific requirements. SP-100 technologies having commercial potential encompass fabrication processes, devices, and components. Examples: a process for bonding refractory metals to graphite, a device to sense the position of an actuator and a component to enable rotating machines to operate without supplying lubrication (self-lubricating ball bearing). Shortly after the NASA Regional Technology Transfer Centers widely disseminated information covering SP-100 technologies, over one hundred expressions of interest were received, which indicate that there is a large potential benefit in transferring SP-100 technology. Interactions with industrial and commercial entities have identified a substantial need for creating teaming arrangements involving the interested entity and personnel from laboratories and their contractors, who have the knowledge and ability to tailor the technology to meet application-specific requirements. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Thermomucor abortosporangium sp. nov. (Fungi: Mucorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Swathi Sri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermomucor abortosporangium A. Swathi Sri & A. Subrahm., sp. nov. is described as the second species of Thermomucor. It differs from the type species of T. indicae-seudaticae in the branching pattern of sporangiophores, size and shape of sporangiospores and production of abortosporangia. Zygospores are reddish brown, globose, psilate, isogamic and formed at low (37°C temperature whilst the higher temperatures are prohibitive. The fungus grows well at 50°C on PDA, SMA and MEA.

  14. Występowanie fuzariozy tulipanów (Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht. S. et H. f. sp. tulipae Apt. na plantacjach produkcyjnych w Polsce [Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht. S. et H. f. sp. tulipae Apt. in tulip plantations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cz. Zamorski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae has been observed on 'bud'b coming from different plantations. The number of diseased bulbs depended on the conditions of cultivation, the manner of storing, and the variety. Among the varieties most strongly affected were: Red Giant (up to 70%, Brilliant Star, Blizzard, Cellini, and Prominence.

  15. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, H N; Ramanjaneyulu, G; Rajasekhar Reddy, B

    2016-12-01

    The production of cellulolytic enzymes (β-exoglucanase, β-endoglucanase and β-glucosidase) by Penicillium sp. on three different media in liquid shake culture conditions was compared. The organism exhibited relatively highest activity of endoglucanase among three enzymes measured at 7-day interval during the course of its growth on Czapek-Dox medium supplemented with 0.5 % (w/v) cellulose. Cellulose at 0.5 %, lactose at 0.5 %, sawdust at 0.5 %, yeast extract at 0.2 % as a nitrogen source, pH 5.0 and 30 °C temperature were found to be optimal for growth and cellulase production by Penicillium sp. Yields of Fpase, CMCase and β-glucosidase, attained on optimized medium with Penicillium sp. were 8.7, 25 and 9.52 U/ml, respectively with increment of 9.2, 5.9 and 43.8-folds over titers of the respective enzyme on unoptimised medium. Cellulase of the fungal culture with the ratio of β-glucosidase to Fpase greater than one will hold potential for biotechnological applications.

  16. Biosorption of 241Am by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Hua Xinfeng

    2003-01-01

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241 Am from solutions by Candida sp., and the influences of experimental conditions on the adsorption were studied. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 4h and the optimum pH=2. No significant differences on 241 Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 degree C, or challenged with Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times over 241 Am, respectively. The adsorption rate could reach 97.8% by dry Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L in 241 Am solutions (pH=2) of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.04-873.0 μg/L) (C 0 ), with maximum adsorption capacity (W) of 63.5 MBq/g (501.8 μg/g), implying that the removal of 241 Am by Candida sp. from solutions was feasible. The relationship between activities (C 0 ) and adsorption capacities (W) of 241 Am indicated that the biosorption process could be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  17. Biosorption of americium-241 by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali

    2003-01-01

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, americium-241 is one of the most serious contamination concerns duo to its high toxicity and long half-life. In this experiment, the biosorption of 241 Am from solution by Candida sp., and the effects of various experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the adsorption of 241 Am by Candida sp. was efficient. 241 Am could be removed by Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L (dry weight) from 241 Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.3-877.2 μg/L)(C 0 ), with maximum adsorption rate (R) of 98% and maximum adsorption capacities (W) of 63.5 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (501.8 μg/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 4 hour and the optimum pH was pH = 2. No significant differences on 241 Am adsorption were observed at 10 C-45 C, or in solutions containing Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times above the 241 Am concentration, respectively. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241 Am indicated the biosorption process should be described by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. (orig.)

  18. Upper airway obstruction in a llama caused by aberrant nasopharyngeal bots (Cephenemyia sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattoon, J.S.; Gerros, T.C.; Parker, J.E.; Carter, C.A.; LaMarche, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    A 9 month old female llama was presented with inspiratory dyspnea. Radiographically, there was a large soft tissue mass nearly occluding the nasopharynx. During endoscopic examination three nasopharyngeal bots were identified embedded in the mass. The larvae were removed and the patient treated with ivermectin. The patient was discharged one week later free of clinical respiratory disease. In follow-up radiographs made 6 weeks later, only residual radiopacity in the area of the mass remained

  19. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; Gruyter, de J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range

  20. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range

  1. Microsporum aenigmaticum sp nov from M. gypseum complex, isolated as a cause of tinea corporis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Dobiášová, S.; Dobiáš, R.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2014), s. 387-396 ISSN 1369-3786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Arthroderma * geophilic dermatophytes * keratinophilic fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2014

  2. Granulomas caused by Mycobacterium sp. in farmed Turbot Scopthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. JERONIMO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbot, Scophthlalmus maximus, is a Pleuronectiformes fish that occurs in northeast Atlantic along the European coast and in the Mediterranean Sea and is produced in aquaculture since the last quarter of the twentieth century. During a survey conducted in a turbot fish farm nodular formations were occasionally observed in several organs, especially in the kidney and in the spleen. Microscopic observations showed that these nodules contained acid-fast bacilli. The molecular identification of the isolated bacteria conducted to the Mycobacterium genus. Although no abnormal mortalities were evident morbidity was observed. The normal development and welfare of infected fish decrease and the condition factor, the haematocrit and the haemoglobin concentration in blood decreases significantly with the increase of nodules abundance.

  3. Death of endemic Virgilia oroboides trees in South Africa caused by Diaporthe virgiliae sp. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machingambi, N. M.; Dreyer, L. L.; Oberlander, Kenneth; Roux, J.; Roets, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2015), s. 1149-1156 ISSN 0032-0862 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bark beetle * root pathogen * Geosmithia * Phomopsis * tree death Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.383, year: 2015

  4. Mycobacterium arosiense sp. nov., a slowly growing, scotochromogenic species causing osteomyelitis in an immunocompromised child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Herlin, T.; Stegger, M.

    2008-01-01

    A yellow-pigmented, scotochromogenic, slowly growing mycobacterial strain, designated T1921(T), was isolated from the disseminated osteomyelitic lesions of a 7-year-old child with an underlying partial gamma interferon receptor alpha-1 deficiency. Hybridization by the line probe assay indicated...

  5. Xylella taiwanensis sp. nov. cause of pear leaf scorch disease in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a group of xylem-limited and nutritionally fastidious plant pathogenic bacteria. While mostly found in the Americas, new X. fastidiosa strains have been reported from other continents such as Asia, including a pear leaf scorch (PLS) strain from Taiwan. Current taxonomy of X. fa...

  6. What Causes Cushing's Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What causes Cushing syndrome? Cushing syndrome can develop for two reasons: Medication ... uhs ), thyroid, or thymus How Tumors Can Cause Cushing Syndrome Normally, the pituitary gland in the brain controls ...

  7. What Causes COPD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD What Causes COPD? Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents Long- ... and the airways usually is the cause of COPD. In the United States, the most common irritant ...

  8. Biological control of Orobanche aegyptiaca by Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. Orobanchein northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, H; Okhovvat, S M

    2008-01-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) is one of the most serious weed pathogen on many plants all over the world, especially in northwest Iran. It causes damage on some plants particularly on tomato, cucumber and other dicotyledonous crops in zanjan province. Broomrape as weed, caused reductions in crop yield, adversely affected crop quality, and resulted in loss of cultivated land due to reduced crop alternatives. Since there were no any chemical methods and other proper technique to control this plant parasite we tried to find a good mechanism for its management in the fields. Our study showed there was a specific species, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. orobonche that had infected Broomrapes naturally in the field. In point of fact the species was isolated from naturally infected Broomrape in studied Locations. Our surveys showed F. oxysporum f. sp. orobanche caused disease on orobanche spp. in different agricultural fields. Although there were other fungal species which can nearly manage the orobanche but it can be fungal pathogen to other plants. However the best fungal isolate can be F. oxysporum f. sp. orobanche since it may not be pathogen for other plants.

  9. First Report of Granulicatella sp. Endocarditis in a Kidney Transplant Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Jota de Paula

    Full Text Available Abstract Granulicatella and Abiotrophia are genera of fastidious Gram-positive cocci commensal of the oral, genitourinary, and intestinal flora. We report the first case of infective endocarditis caused by Granulicatella sp. in a kidney transplant recipient. A 67-year-old male kidney transplant recipient was admitted to the hospital for investigation of fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. On physical examination, he was dehydrated. Laboratory tests identified impaired renal function (creatinine level of 15.5 mg/dl; reference, 3.0 mg/dl, metabolic acidosis, and electrolyte disturbances. Cryptosporidium sp. was identified as the cause of the diarrhea, and the infection was treated with nitazoxanide. On admission, cultures of blood, urine, and stool samples were negative. Echocardiography results were normal. Despite the antimicrobial treatment, the fever persisted. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, and Granulicatella spp. were isolated in blood cultures. Although the patient was treated with penicillin and amikacin, he evolved to septic shock of pulmonary origin and died. Infective endocarditis caused by Granulicatella sp. should be suspected in cases of culture-negative endocarditis.

  10. Uji Efektivitas Pestisida terhadap Beberapa Patogen Penyebab Penyakit Penting pada Buah Naga (Hylocereus sp. secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Widiastuti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem caused by pathogen in Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus sp. cultivation became very important because it decreased significantly the quantity and quality of the fruit production. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of some pesticides against pathogens that cause diseases of dragon fruit in several plantations in the DIY (Sleman and Kulon Progo and Central Java (Magelang and Batang. Test of fungicide effectiveness was done in vitro on PDA medium (potato dextrose agar by poisoned food technique. The fungicides were mancozeb 80 %, methyl tiofanat 70 %, copper hydroxide 80 %, chlorotalonil 75 %, mancozeb 64 % + metalaxyl 4 %, mancozeb karbendazim 73.8 % + 6.8 %,benomyl 50 % at a concentration of 1g/L. The bactericides used were streptomycin sulfate 20 % and oxytetracycline 150 AL with each concentration of 1 g/L and 1 mL /L. The results showed that benomyl 50 % was the most effective fungicide to suppress the growth of Fusarium sp. (brown spot, Colletotrichum sp. (anthracnose and Pestalotiopsis sp. (scab, followed by mancozeb 73.8 % +karbendazim 6.8 % and 73.8 % mancozeb. Bactericide which was able to suppress the growth of Erwinia sp. (stem rot was streptomycin sulfate 20 %.   Gangguan patogen pada buah naga (Hylocereus sp. saat ini menjadi masalah penting karena secara signifikan menurunkan kuantitas dan kualitas hasil panen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keefektivan beberapa pestisida terhadap patogen penyebab penyakit-penyakit penting pada tanaman buah naga yang ditanaman pada beberapa sentra pertanaman di Propinsi DIY (Sleman dan Kulon Progo dan Jawa Tengah (Magelang dan Batang. Uji keefektivan pestisida dilakukan secara in vitro pada medium PDA (potato dextrose agar dengan metode teknik makanan beracun (poisoned food technique. Fungisida yang dipergunakan adalah mankozeb 80%, tiofanat metil 70%, tembaga hidroksida 80%, klorotalonil 75%, mankozeb 64% + metalaksil 4%, mankozeb 73,8% + karbendazim 6,8%, benomil 50% dengan

  11. Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov. prevail in diverse enzootic transmission cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margos, Gabriele; Lane, Robert S; Fedorova, Natalia; Koloczek, Johannes; Piesman, Joseph; Hojgaard, Andrias; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Two species of the genus Borrelia , Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov., were first described by Postic and co-workers on the basis of genetic analyses of several loci. Multilocus sequence analysis of eight housekeeping loci confirmed that these two Borrelia genomospecies are distinct members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. B. bissettiae sp. nov. was initially described in transmission cycles involving Neotoma fuscipes wood rats and Ixodes pacificus ticks in California, and Neotoma mexicana and Ixodes spinipalpis in Colorado. The preferred host of B. californiensis sp. nov. appears to be the California kangaroo rat, Dipodomys californicus ; Ixodes jellisoni , I. spinipalipis and I. pacificus ticks are naturally infected with it. Thus, the ecological associations of the two genomospecies and their genetic distance from all other known Borrelia genomospecies species justify their description as separate genomospecies: B. bissettiae sp. nov. (type strain DN127 T  = DSM 17990 T  =  CIP 109136 T ) and B. californiensis (type strain CA446 T  = DSM 17989 T  = ATCC BAA-2689 T ).

  12. Intensitas dan Luas Serangan Beberapa Isolat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi pada Jahe Gajah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermawati Cahyaningrum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginger is one of the spices and medicinal commodities which is cultivated in Indonesia. One of the obstacles encountered in the cultivation of ginger is the rhizome rot disease which is mainly caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. zingiberi Trujillo. This study is aimed to know the growth ability and virulence level of the isolates on ginger rhizome and plants. The research was conducted in the laboratory and in the screen house by using Complete Random Design consisted of 10 treatments and 4 replications. The parameters observed were growth ability of F. oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi, rhizome rot disease symptoms, incubation period, extensive decay and weight difference of the rhizomes. The results showed that F. oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi which was stored for 4 years in sterile soil medium was still capable to cause damage to the rhizome and plants. Incubation periods of rhizome decay and plant symptoms were from 3 to 11.5 and 55.5 to 68.5 days, respectively. The most virulent isolate was MSO1 with extensive decay of rhizome and the wilting intensity were 108.95 mm2 dan 33.88%, respectively.   Intisari Jahe merupakan salah satu komoditas rempah dan obat yang banyak dibudidayakan di Indonesia. Salah satu kendala yang dihadapi dalam budidaya jahe adalah adanya gangguan penyakit busuk rimpang yang disebabkan (terutama oleh Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. zingiberi Trujillo. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menguji daya tumbuh dan virulensi isolat F. oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi pada rimpang dan tanaman jahe gajah. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium dan di rumah kasa menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok Lengkap (RAKL yang masing-masing terdiri dari 10 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Parameter yang diamati meliputi daya tumbuh F. oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi, gejala penyakit busuk rimpang, masa inkubasi, luas pembusukan dan selisih bobot basah rimpang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa F. oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi yang telah di simpan 4 tahun dalam medium tanah

  13. Improvement in solvent tolerance by exogenous glycerol in Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Lim, B R; Park, Y J; Joo, W H

    2017-08-01

    Solvent hypertolerant Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 still has some underlying growth limitation in solvents. Therefore, efficient mass cultivation methods are needed to pursue its applications in biotechnology. Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 was cultured in a medium supplemented with 0·05 mol l -1 glycerol and cell survival was monitored during its cultivation in the presence of 1% (v/v) toluene. Exogenously supplemented glycerol provided more protection against damage caused by toluene stress and conferred higher solvent tolerance of Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 to toluene compared to control Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 without the supplementation of glycerol. This low-cost mass cultivation method can be used to efficiently apply solvent-tolerant bacteria in biotransformation and biodegradation. Protection against toluene and improvement in bacterial cell growth by supplementation of glycerol in the presence of toluene are demonstrated in this study. This result can be used to solve growth-related hindrances of solvent-tolerant bacteria and establish their low-cost mass cultivation, thereby broadening their industrial and environmental applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Penapisan Cendawan Antagonis Indigenos Rizosfer Jahe dan Uji Daya Hambatnya terhadap Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. zingiberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbailis Nurbailis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginger rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. zingiberi is difficult to control because the pathogen is soil borne and is able to form clamidospore as resting structure. The aim of this study was to obtain indigenous antagonistic fungi from ginger rhizosphere which is potential for suppressing the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. zingiberi. Fungi isolated from ginger rhizosphere were subjected for antagonism assay using dual culture method. Fungi isolates showed capability to inhibit F. oxysporum f. sp. zingiberii were then identified based on morphology characters. Eleven isolates were successfully isolated, but only 9 isolates showed the potentials of suppressing the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp.  zingiberi. All 9 isolates i.e. AB4, GC1, BB1, AB1, AB2, K12, GC3, K11 and GC2 had antibiosis activity, and 3 isolates among them i.e. AB2, BB1 and K11 showed competition mechanism. Based on morphology characters the isolates were identified as Penicillium spp. (4 isolates, Trichoderma spp. (3 isolates, and Aspergillus spp. (2 isolates.

  15. ACANTHAMOEBA SP.S-11 PHAGOCYTOTIC ACTIVITY ON MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE IN DIFFERENT NUTRIENT CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paling, Sepling; Wahyuni, Ratna; Ni'matuzahroh; Winarni, Dwi; Iswahyudi; Astari, Linda; Adriaty, Dinar; Agusni, Indropo; Izumi, Shinzo

    2018-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae ( M. leprae ) is a pathogenic bacterium that causes leprosy. The presence of M. leprae in the environment is supported by microorganisms that act as the new host for M. leprae . Acanthamoeba 's potential to be a host of M. leprae in the environment. Acanthamoeba sp. is Free Living Amoeba (FLA) that classified as holozoic, saprophytic, and saprozoic. The existence of nutrients in the environment influence Acanthamoeba ability to phagocytosis or pinocytosis. This study is aimed to determine Acanthamoeba sp.S-11 phagocytic activity to Mycobacterium leprae ( M. leprae ) which cultured in non-nutrient media and riched-nutrient media. This research conducted by culturing Acanthamoeba sp.S-11 and M. leprae on different nutrient media conditions. M. leprae intracellular DNA were isolated and amplified by M. leprae specific primers through Real Time PCR (Q-PCR). The results showed that Acanthamoeba co-cultured on non-nutrient media were more active to phagocyte M. leprae than on rich-nutrient media. The use of non-nutrient media is recommended to optimize Acanthamoeba sp. phagocytic activity to M. leprae .

  16. Identification of an entomopathogenic bacterium, Serratia sp. ANU101, and its hemolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonggyun; Kim, Keunseob; Seo, Jiae; Shrestha, Sony; Kim, Hosanna H; Nalini, Madanagopal; Yi, Youngkeun

    2009-03-01

    Four different bacterial colonies were isolated from an old stock of an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema monticolum. They all showed entomopathogenicity to final instar larvae of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, by hemocoelic injection. However, they varied in colony form, susceptibility to antibiotics, and postmortem change of the infected host insects. Biolog microbial identification and 16S rDNA sequence analyses indicate that these are four different species classified into different bacterial genera. owing to high entomopathogenicity and a cadaver color of infected insect host, Serratia sp. was selected as a main symbiotic bacterial species and analyzed for its pathogenicity. Although no virulence of Serratia sp. was detected at oral administration, the bacteria gave significant synergistic pathogenicity to fifth instar S. exigua when it was treated along with a spore-forming entomopathogenic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. The synergistic effect was explained by an immunosuppressive effect of Serratia sp. by its high cytotoxic effect on hemocytes of S. exigua, because Serratia sp. caused septicemia of S. exigua when the bacterial cells were injected into S. exigua hemocoel. The cytotoxic factor(s) was present in the culture medium because the sterilized culture broth possessed high potency in the cytotoxicity, which was specific to granular cells and plasmatocytes, two main immune-associated hemocytes in insects.

  17. Evidence for frequent OspC gene transfer between Borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. and other Lyme disease spirochetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; van Dam, A. P.; Dankert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular polymorphism of the ospC gene has been reported in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii, the spirochetes causing human Lyme borreliosis. To assess the genetic relationship between ospC genes from the recently described Borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. and

  18. Estimating grain yield losses caused by septoria leaf blotch on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Berraies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm. Quaedvlieg & Crous, 2011 (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel J. Schrot., is an important wheat disease in the Mediterranean region. In Tunisia, SLB has become a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum [Desf.] Husn. particularly during favorable growing seasons where significant yield losses and increase of fungicides use were recorded over the last three decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SLB severity on grain yield of new elite durum wheat breeding lines and to measure the relative effect of fungicide control on grain yield. Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons. A set of 800 breeding lines were screened for reaction to SLB under natural infection at Beja research station. To estimate the disease effect, correlation between disease severity at early grain filling stage and grain yield was performed. Results showed that susceptible varieties yield was significantly reduced by SLB. Average yield reduction was as high as 384 and 325 kg ha-1 for every increment in disease severity on a 0-9 scale in both seasons, respectively. A negative correlation coefficient varied between -0.61 and -0.66 in both seasons. Treated and untreated trials conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 showed that yield of treated plots increased by 50% on the commonly cultivated susceptible varieties. The results of this investigation suggested that septoria incidence is related to large grain yield losses particularly on susceptible high yielding cultivars. However, appropriate fungicide application at booting growth stage could be beneficial for farmers. The development and use of more effective fungicide could be sought to alleviate the disease effects and therefore could be considered as a part of the integrated pest management and responsible use strategy on septoria leaf blotch in Tunisia.

  19. Nanoscale transformation of sp2 to sp3 of graphite by slow highly charged ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, T.; Hida, A.; Koguchi, Y.; Miyamoto, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Takai, H.; Maeda, K.; Aoyagi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale transformation of electronic states by highly charged ion (HCI) impact on graphite surfaces is described. The high potential energy of slow HCI, which induces multiple emission of electrons from the surface, provides a strong modification of the electronic states of the local area upon graphite surfaces. The HCI impact and the subsequent surface treatment either by electron injection from a scanning tunneling microscopy tip or by He-Cd laser irradiation induce a localized transition from sp 2 to sp 3 hybridization in graphite, resulting in the formation of nanoscale diamond-like structures (nanodiamond) at the impact region. From Raman spectroscopic measurements on sp 2 related peaks, it is found that the HCI irradiation creates vacancy complexes in contrast to ions having a lower charge state, which generate single vacancies. It is of interest that a single impact of HCI creates one nanodiamond structure, suggesting potential applications of HCI in nanoscale material processing

  20. Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov., Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil and rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-09-01

    Strains Y-12(T) and Y-47(T) were isolated from mountain forest soil and strain WR43(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil, at Daejeon, Korea. The three strains grew at 10-55 °C (optimal growth at 28-30 °C), at pH 3.0-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 6.0) and in the presence of 0-4.0% (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally in the absence of added NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three strains were found to belong to the genus Burkholderia, showing the closest phylogenetic similarity to Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.2-97.7%); the similarity between the three sequences ranged from 98.3 to 98.7%. Additionally, the three strains formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees based on the housekeeping genes recA and gyrB. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8, the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C17  : 0 cyclo and the DNA G+C content of the novel isolates was 61.6-64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the three strains and the type strains of the closest species of the genus Burkholderia was less than 50%. On the basis of 16S rRNA, recA and gyrB gene sequence similarities, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the three strains represent three novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-12(T)= KACC 17601(T) = NBRC 109933(T) = NCAIM B 02543(T)), Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-47(T) = KACC 17602(T)= NBRC 109934(T) = NCAIM B 02539(T)) and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain WR43(T) = KACC 17603(T) = NBRC 109935(T) = NCAIM B 02541(T)) are proposed.

  1. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Fermentation of Azolla sp. leaves and the utilization as a feed ingredient of tilapia Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to study the effect of incubation period on the nutritional content of Azolla sp. meal fermented by Trichoderma harzianum, and its optimum supplementation level in the feed of tilapia Oreochromis sp. In incubation period treatments, fermentation of Azolla meal was performed in two, six, eight, and ten days (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10 using Trichoderma harzianum as the fermentor. The fish used in this study was tilapia Oreochromis sp. with an average weight of 10.59±1.29 g. The design of the feeding treatments was repeletting commercial feed with Azolla leaves by with different supplementation levels, i.e. 0% (A/control, 30% (B, 60% (C, and 90% (D. Faecal collection for digestibility measurement was conducted for 15 days and fish growth rate was observed for 40 days. Azolla meal fermented for two days (AF2 showed the best results among the other treatments with a crude fiber decrease of 37.19% and protein increase of 38.65%. The results of this study indicate that fermentation can increase the nutritional quality of Azolla meal and its most optimal supplementation level in the diet of tilapia is 30%.Keywords: crude fiber, Azolla sp., tilapiaABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama waktu fermentasi daun mata lele Azolla sp. menggunakan kapang Trichoderma harzianum serta dosis optimal dalam pakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. Proses fermentasi tepung daun mata lele dilakukan selama dua, enam, delapan, dan sepuluh hari (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10. Ikan uji pada penelitian ini menggunakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. dengan bobot rata-rata 10,59±1,29 g yang ditebar sebanyak 6 ekor/akuarium berukuran 50×45×30 cm3. Sebagai pakan perlakuan yakni repeletting daun mata lele dengan pakan komersil pada tingkat suplementasi 0% (A/kontrol, 30% (B, 60% (C, dan 90% (D. Pemeliharaan ikan uji dan pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan feses ikan untuk uji ketercernaan selama 15 hari dan mengamati pertumbuhan

  3. Isolation of C11 Cyclopentenones from Two Didemnid Species, Lissoclinum sp. and Diplosoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Ueda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new C11 cyclopentenones 1-7 was isolated, together with four known metabolites 9/10, 12 and 13, from the extract of the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum sp. The other didemnid ascidian Diplosoma sp. contained didemnenones 1, 2 and 5, and five known metabolites 8-12. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (HCT116, A431 and A549.

  4. Role of surfactant protein A (SP-A)/lipid interactions for SP-A functions in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, C

    2001-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), an oligomeric glycoprotein, is a member of a group of proteins named collectins that contain collagen-like and Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate recognition domains. SP-A interacts with a broad range of amphipathic lipids (glycerophospholipids, sphingophospholipids, glycosphingolipids, lipid A, and lipoglycans) that are present in surfactant or microbial membranes. This review summarizes SP-A/lipid interaction studies regarding the lipid system used (i.e., phospholipid vesicles, phospholipid monolayers, and lipids immobilized on silica or adsorbed on a solid support). The effect of calcium, ionic strength, and pH on the binding of SP-A to lipids and the subsequent lipid aggregation process is discussed. Current evidence suggests that hydrophobic-binding forces are involved in the peripherical association of SP-A to membranes. It is also proposed that fluid and liquid-ordered phase coexistence in surfactant membranes might favor partition of SP-A into those membranes. The binding of SP-A to surfactant membranes containing hydrophobic surfactant peptides makes possible the formation of a membrane reservoir in the alveolar fluid that is protected by SP-A against inactivation and improves the rate of surfactant film formation. In addition, the interaction of SP-A with membranes might enhance the affinity of SP-A for terminal carbohydrates of glycolipids or glycoproteins on the surface of invading microorganisms.

  5. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Srivastava

    Full Text Available An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732 were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29 and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498 cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress.

  6. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress.

  7. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  8. Pectobacterium polaris sp. nov., isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Lysøe, Erik; Rossmann, Simeon; Perminow, Juliana; Brurberg, May Bente

    2017-12-01

    The genus Pectobacterium, which belongs to the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, contains numerous species that cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants. The species Pectobacterium carotovorum is highly heterogeneous, indicating a need for re-evaluation and a better classification of the species. PacBio was used for sequencing of two soft-rot-causing bacterial strains (NIBIO1006 T and NIBIO1392), initially identified as P. carotovorumstrains by fatty acid analysis and sequencing of three housekeeping genes (dnaX, icdA and mdh). Their taxonomic relationship to other Pectobacterium species was determined and the distance from any described species within the genus Pectobacterium was less than 94 % average nucleotide identity (ANI). Based on ANI, phylogenetic data and genome-to-genome distance, strains NIBIO1006 T , NIBIO1392 and NCPPB3395 are suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Pectobacterium, for which the name Pectobacterium polaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIBIO1006 T (=DSM 105255 T =NCPPB 4611 T ).

  9. Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods ISO 10272: 2006 in Curitiba - Parana State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Konell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection.

  10. SOME IMPORTANT SHOOT AND STEM FUNGI IN PINE (Pinus spp.) AND FIRS (Abies sp.) IN WESTERN BLACKSEA REGION, TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAZANÇ, Nuri Kaan; MADEN, Salih

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine fungal diseases of pines and firs observed on the shoots and the stems in the Western Blacksea Region (Karabük, Ulus and Bartın State Forest Enterprises) between the years of 2001–2004. Five different fungi were determined on pines (Pinus sp.) and firs (Abies sp.) by this study. Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum which cause rust diseases were determined only on pines. Sphaeropsis sapinea and Gremmeniella abietina were determined on pines an...

  11. The Cause of Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Einstein said that gravity is an acceleration like any other acceleration. But gravity causes relativistic effects at non-relativistic speeds; so gravity could have relativistic origins. And since the strong force is thought to cause most of mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the strong force is therefore also proportional to gravity. The strong force could thus cause relativistic increases of mass through the creation of virtual gluons; along with a comparable contraction of space ar...

  12. Metode Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk Melacak Campylobacter sp. pada Daging Ayam (DIRECT POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION METHOD FOR DETECTION CAMPYLOBACTER SP. OF POULTRY MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani .

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter sp. is the most commonly reported as agent of foodborne zoonosis causing acutegastroenteritis in humans. Poultry meat is considered as a major source of C. jejuni infection in human.The conventional methods for detecting foodborne bacteria is time-consuming which rely on the of thebacteria in culture media, followed by biochemical identification. In this study polymerase chain reaction(PCR technique was used for rapid identification of the pathogenic Campylobacter sp. The samples usedwere 298 chicken carcass with sold in supermarkets and traditional markets, and were carried out inaccordance the isolation protocol ISO/ DIS 10272-1994. Identification was performed using biochemicalAPI Campy. The direct PCR (DPCR assay with two sets of primers was employed for isolation andidentification of C. jejuni and C. coli. The result of the isolation and identification both by conventional orPCR methods showed that chicken carcasses both from supermarket and traditional market werecontaminated with C. jejuni and or C. coli. Prevalence of Campylobacter sp. contamination in chicken meatwas higher by DPCR (62.6% than by conventional (19.8%, indicating that DPCR technique was moresensitive than conventional method with detection limit for C. jejuni was103 cfu/ml.

  13. Dominancy of Trichodesmium sp. in the Biawak Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihadi, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    The Biawak Island is one of the small islands in West Java Province with an abundance of marine biological resources. This research was conducted to collect the primary producer zooplankton and water quality parameters. Direct observation is done by field surveys and measurement in situ for plankton and environmental parameters such as temperature, water transparency, water current, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Trichodesmium sp. was found dominance in where some other types of zooplankton were found in the area, like Scenedesmus sp., Sagitta sp., Acartia sp. also occurred. Further, the most abundance of Trichodesmium sp. was found in southern of Biawak Island where mangroves, coral and seagrass ecosystem provide nutrients which indirectly support the abundance of planktons. Trichodesmium sp. is plankton that can survive in water with minimum nutrient.

  14. Green Decision Making: Sustainable Transport and Systemic Planning (SP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    and infrastructure assessment and on the methodology and process of systemic planning (SP). SP theory development has interchanged with practical application and testing of the SP approach in a large number of cases. The word systemic in SP indicates that complex planning problems and provision of decision support...... in today’s strategic planning needs a focus on what may be addressed as systemic insights in balance with more conventional, systematically-based findings where causal linkages can be modelled and made use of. In practice this means that SP is based on a study-specific combination of hard (quantitative......) and soft (qualitative) operations research (OR) methods; especially the latter have a function as regards knowledge generation that relates to obtaining systemic insights. Furthermore, SP applies a process that drives group-based learning forward. The group should be formed with the different stakeholder...

  15. The SP Theory of Intelligence: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gerard Wolff

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of the SP theory of intelligence, which aims to simplify and integrate concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. It is conceived of as a brain-like system that receives "New" information and stores some or all of it in compressed form as "Old" information; and it is realised in the form of a computer model, a first version of the SP machine. The matching and unification of patterns and the concept of multiple alignment are central ideas. Using heuristic techniques, the system builds multiple alignments that are "good" in terms of information compression. For each multiple alignment, probabilities may be calculated for associated inferences. Unsupervised learning is done by deriving new structures from partial matches between patterns and via heuristic search for sets of structures that are "good" in terms of information compression. These are normally ones that people judge to be "natural", in accordance with the "DONSVIC" principle—the discovery of natural structures via information compression. The SP theory provides an interpretation for concepts and phenomena in several other areas, including "computing", aspects of mathematics and logic, the representation of knowledge, natural language processing, pattern recognition, several kinds of reasoning, information storage and retrieval, planning and problem solving, information compression, neuroscience and human perception and cognition. Examples include the parsing and production of language with discontinuous dependencies in syntax, pattern recognition at multiple levels of abstraction and its integration with part-whole relations, nonmonotonic reasoning and reasoning with default values, reasoning in Bayesian networks, including "explaining away", causal diagnosis, and the solving of a geometric analogy problem.

  16. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos; Lima, Danielle Dos; da Silva, Edson Moura; Moreira, André Lucas de Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Amaral, Rodrigo de; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2017-09-20

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoans that can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. Due to the growing importance of diseases caused by protozoan parasites in aquatic species, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic and marine mammals in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. We collected 553 fecal samples from 15 species of wild-ranging and captive aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil. All samples were analyzed by the Kinyoun technique for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Giardia sp. cysts were identified by means of the centrifugal-flotation technique in zinc sulfate solution. Subsequently, all samples were submitted for direct immunofluorescence testing. The overall frequency of infection was 15.55% (86/553) for Cryptosporidium spp. and 9.04% (50/553) for Giardia sp. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in samples from 5 species: neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (15.28%), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (41.66%), Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (9.67%), Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (16.03%), and Antillean manatee T. manatus (13.79%). Giardia sp. was identified in L. longicaudis (9.23%), P. brasiliensis (29.16%), pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (100%), dwarf sperm whale K. sima (25%), S. guianensis (9.67%), T. inunguis (3.81%), and T. manatus (10.34%). This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in L. longicaudis, P. brasiliensis, and S. guianensis, while the occurrence of Giardia sp., in addition to the 2 otter species, was also identified in manatees, thus extending the number of hosts susceptible to these parasitic agents.

  17. Methyl (Sp-2-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene-1-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Štěpnička

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Fe(C5H5(C19H16O2P], obtained serendipitously during recrystallization of 1-hydroxybenzotriazolyl (Sp-2-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene-1-carboxylate from methanol, crystallizes in the chiral space group P212121. Its crystal structure not only confirms the anticipated absolute configuration but also establishes a rather regular geometry for the ferrocene unit, devoid of any significant deformation due to the attached substituents. In the crystal, symmetry-related molecules are linked via weak C—H...O interactions.

  18. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  19. SP-100 radiator design trade study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewell, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a design trade study of the SP-100 heat rejection subsystem (HRSS) which was made. A system code was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the HRSS mass and performance to changes. Variations in heat pipe diameter and cross-section, fin length and thickness, armor thickness, and overall configuration and materials were evaluated. The analysis indicates that the minimum system mass occurs for the case with many small diameter heat pipes, with ducting that maximizes the fraction of the heat pipe evaporator perimeter in contract with it

  20. Prepare for an SpR interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J P; Heppell, P S J

    2003-03-01

    By the time you attend an interview for a military SpR number you should have no real problems but it pays to be prepared. Begin preparations early, reading widely and talk to as many people as possible. Your consultants will have a useful viewpoint on the proceedings and may be able to help you refine your answers to the common questions. Arrive at your interview in a smart and timely fashion and answer questions with confidence and common sense. Avoid confrontation and bluff and be courteous at all times, whatever you may be feeling inside and thank the interview panel as you leave.

  1. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  2. Incidence and distribution of seed-borne fungi associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and identification of seed-borne fungi were conducted according to standard tests described by the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). ... tritici, Ustilago tritici, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Microdochium nivale, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Alternaria alternata, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, ...

  3. PRODUCTION OF FIBRINOLYTIC ENZYME (NATTOKINASE) FROM BACILLUS SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Padma Singh, Rekha Negi*, Vani Sharma, Alka Rani, Pallavi and Richa Prasad

    2018-01-01

    During present study Nattokinase which is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme was produced by Bacillus sp. To screen and extract nattokinase enzyme from Bacillus sp. were isolated from soil of different agricultural field by serial dilution method. Out of 10 isolate, one strain i.e. B3 produced nattokinase on screening medium. B3 was identified by biochemical characterization. The caseinolytic activity of Nattokinase was 0.526 U/ml and the selected isolate Bacillus sp. could produce active nattokinas...

  4. Indirect Manganese Removal by Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Brazilian Mine Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Rocha Barboza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is a contaminant in the wastewaters produced by Brazilian mining operations, and the removal of the metal is notoriously difficult because of the high stability of the Mn(II ion in aqueous solutions. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II, we investigated the potential of Mn(II oxidation by both consortium and bacterial isolates from a Brazilian manganese mine. A bacterial consortium was able to remove 99.7% of the Mn(II. A phylogenetic analysis of isolates demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Lysinibacillus genera. Mn(II removal rates between 58.5% and 70.9% were observed for Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. while the Lysinibacillus isolate 13P removes 82.7%. The catalytic oxidation of Mn(II mediated by multicopper oxidase was not properly detected; however, in all of the experiments, a significant increase in the pH of the culture medium was detected. No aggregates inside the cells grown for a week were found by electronic microscopy. Nevertheless, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the isolates revealed the presence of manganese in Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. grown in K medium. These results suggest that members of Stenotrophomonas and Lysinibacillus genera were able to remove Mn(II by a nonenzymatic pathway.

  5. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  6. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time. Also, the degree of substrate conversion was studied by the varying the dilution rate as an independent parameter. The dilution rate (ratio of feed flow rate to the culture volume) was varied by varying the feed volumetric rate from 110-170 mL/h for inlet hexavalent chromium concentrations of 70 mg/dm3. The results show that a chemostat with recycle gives a better performance in terms of substrate conversion than a chemostat without a recycle. Moreover, the degree of substrate conversion decreases as the dilution rate is increased. Also, Bacillus sp. was found to give higher conversions compared to pseudomonas sp.

  7. Genetic diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and F. redolens f.sp. dianthi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baayen, R.P.; Dreven, van F.; Krijger, M.C.; Waalwijk, C.

    1997-01-01

    Pathogenic isolates were selected representing all known vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and races of Fusarium oxysporum sensu lato from Dianthus spp. On basis of differences in the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, six VCGs were classified as F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

  8. SHEAR STRENGTH IN THE GLUE LINE OF Eucalyptus sp. AND Pinus sp.WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate the adhesive efficiency on the union of glued joints in a particular temperature and humidity conditions for a specified time the adhesive must be submitted to specific load tests, such as shear in the glue line. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shear strength in the glue line of Eucalyptus sp and Pinus sp.woods. Five adhesives (castor oil, sodium silicate, modified silicate, , PVA and resorcinol-formaldehyde, three weights (150 g/m2, 200 g/m2, and 250 g/m2 and two species (Eucalyptus sp. and Pinus sp. of wood were used. Twelve specimens were obtained from each repetition per treatment, corresponding to 108 specimens that were conditioned at a temperature of 23 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 50 ± 2%. The interaction between the weight and type of adhesive was significant for the shear strength in the glue line of eucalyptus wood. However, no interaction between the weight and the adhesive was found for pinus, only the isolated from the adhesive effect. Chemical bonds originated in the polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives and castor bi-component conferred upon these adhesives the greatest resistance in the glue line. Castor and resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives showed the highest shear strength values in the line of glue and wood failure. Castor adhesive presented satisfactory performance for bonding of eucalyptus and pine woods.

  9. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  10. SP@CE - An SP-based programming model for consumer electronics streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varbanescu, Ana Lucia; Nijhuis, Maik; Escribano, Arturo González; Sips, Henk; Bos, Herbert; Bal, Henri

    2007-01-01

    Efficient programming of multimedia streaming applications for Consumer Electronics (CE) devices is not trivial. As a solution for this problem, we present SP@CE, a novel programming model designed to balance the specific requirements of CE streaming applications with the simplicity and efficiency

  11. Antifungal activity of indigenous bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycobiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jošić Dragana Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshmallow is a host of a number of saprophytic and parasitic fungi in Serbia. The seeds of marshmallow are contaminated with fungi from different genera, especially Alternaria and Fusarium, which significantly reduced seed germination and caused seedling decay. In this study we investigate antagnonism of indigenous Bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycopopulation. Bacillus sp. Q3 was isolated from maize rhizosphere, characterized by polyphasic approch and tested for plant growth promoting treats. Bacillus sp. Q3 produced antifungal metabolites with growth inhibition activity against numerous fungi in dual culture: 61.8% of Alternaria alternata, 74.8% of Myrothecium verrucaria and 33.6% of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. That effect could be caused by different antifungal metabolites including siderophores, hydrolytic enzymes, organic acids and indole acetic acid (IAA. Suppression of natural marshmallow seed infection by Q3 isolate was observed. The seeds were immersed in different concentrations of bacterial suspension during 2h and their infections by phytopathogenic fungi were estimated. The results showed significant reduction of seed infection by Alternaria spp. The presented results indicate possible application of this isolate as promising biological agent for control of marshmallow seed pathogenic fungi.

  12. Isolation and identification of biocontrol agent Streptomyces rimosus M527 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dandan; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Xianhao; Yu, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents against fungal plant pathogens and as plant growth promoters. In this study, a total of 320 actinomycetes were isolated from various habitats in China. Among which, 77 strains have been identified as antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum which usually caused fusarium wilt of cucumber. Of these, isolate actinomycete M527 not only displayed broad-spectrum antifungal activity but also showed the strongest antagonistic activity against the spore germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. In pot experiments, the results indicated that isolate M527 could promote the shoot growth and prevent the development of the disease on cucumber caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. The control efficacy against seedling fusarium wilt of cucumber after M527 fermentation broth root-irrigation was up to 72.1% as compared to control. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate M527 was identified as Streptomyces rimosus. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sensitivitas Salmonella Sp. Penyebab Demam Tifoid Terhadap Beberapa Antibiotik di Rumah Sakit Immanuel Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Mulyana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is an enteric fever caused by Salmonella sp. especially Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Various antibiotics used for therapy beside chloramphenicol as drug of choice. Non rational use of antibiotics may result increasing of resistence in bacteria. The aim of the research is to know the sensitivity of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi to some antibiotics. The purpose is to gather information about antibiotics which are still effective for typhoid fever and enteric therapy. Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi strain from positive cultures diagnose typhoid fever patients at Immanuel Hospital Bandung during 2004-2007. The method of resistance is Kirby Bauer's disk diffusion assay with NCCLS standard. The disk antibiotics used are amoxicillin, amoxicillinclavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The result showed penicillin group, amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid had 96.3–99.68% sensitive against Salmonella sp. Sensitivity of chloramphenicol as drug of choice of typhoid fever still 99.05%. Since the sensitivity less than 100%, it means there was about 8% resistence. Thats why eventhough this data can be used as empiric therapy, the writer suggest to do sensitivity test to Salmonella sp. that caused typhoid to get rationally dan effective treatment. From the result, it's concluded that Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi are still sensitive to all that antibiotics.

  14. Biological control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in yam by Streptomyces sp.MJM5763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, S A; Yang, S H; Cheng, J H; Meng, L; Suh, J-W

    2011-08-01

    To find a suitable biocontrol agent for yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. An actinobacterial strain, MJM5763, showing strong antifungal activity, multiple biocontrol and plant growth-promoting traits was isolated from a yam cultivation field in Yeoju, South Korea. Based on morphological and physiological characteristics and analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence, strain MJM5763 was identified as a novel strain of Streptomyces and was designated as Streptomyces sp. MJM5763. Treatment with MJM5763 and the crude culture filtrate extract (CCFE) was effective in suppressing anthracnose in detached yam leaves in vitro and reduced incidence and severity of anthracnose in yam plants under greenhouse conditions. The CCFE treatment was the most effective of all the treatments and reduced the anthracnose severity by 85-88% and the incidence by 79-81%, 90 days after inoculation with the pathogen. CCFE treatment was also effective under field conditions and showed a reduction of 86 and 75% of anthracnose severity and incidence, respectively. Streptomyces sp. strain MJM5763 was effective in biocontrolling anthracnose in yam caused by C. gloeosporioides. Streptomyces sp. MJM5763 is a potential alternative to chemical fungicides for reducing yield losses to anthracnose in yam. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Role of surfactant protein-A (SP-A) in lung injury in response to acute ozone exposure of SP-A deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Rizwanul; Umstead, Todd M.; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Guo Xiaoxuan; Hawgood, Samuel; Phelps, David S.; Floros, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Millions are exposed to ozone levels above recommended limits, impairing lung function, causing epithelial damage and inflammation, and predisposing some individuals to pneumonia, asthma, and other lung conditions. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) plays a role in host defense, the regulation of inflammation, and repair of tissue damage. We tested the hypothesis that the lungs of SP-A(-/-) (KO) mice are more susceptible to ozone-induced damage. We compared the effects of ozone on KO and wild type (WT) mice on the C57BL/6 genetic background by exposing them to 2 parts/million of ozone for 3 or 6 h and sacrificing them 0, 4, and 24 h later. Lungs were subject to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or used to measure endpoints of oxidative stress and inflammation. Despite more total protein in BAL of KO mice after a 3 h ozone exposure, WT mice had increased oxidation of protein and had oxidized SP-A dimers. In KO mice there was epithelial damage as assessed by increased LDH activity and there was increased phospholipid content. In WT mice there were more BAL PMNs and elevated macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Changes in MIP-2 and MCP-1 were observed in both KO and WT, however mRNA levels differed. In KO mice MIP-2 mRNA levels changed little with ozone, but in WT levels they were significantly increased. In summary, several aspects of the inflammatory response differ between WT and KO mice. These in vivo findings appear to implicate SP-A in regulating inflammation and limiting epithelial damage in response to ozone exposure

  16. Eficiencia de pseudomonas sp, rhodopseudomonas sp, micrococcus sp y bacillus sp empleados como cultivos individuales y en consorcio, en la degradación de petróleo diesel ii

    OpenAIRE

    Otiniano García, Nélida Milly Esther

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Pseudomonas sp, Rhodopseudomonas sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus sp, and the consortium formed by these four microorganisms in the diesel II petroleum degradation, it was worked in 5 bioreactors of aerated and shaken tank of 1.5 litters of capacity, with speed agitation of 120 rpm, and air flow of 0.5 vvm; in which were placed; 940 mL of Minimum Broth of Davies pH 7.0; 50 mL of diesel II petroleum as source of carbon and 10 mL of a suspension of approx...

  17. Sp(2) covariant quantisation of general gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Bello, J L

    1994-11-01

    The Sp(2) covariant quantization of gauge theories is studied. The geometrical interpretation of gauge theories in terms of quasi principal fibre bundles Q(M{sub s}, G{sub s}) is reviewed. It is then described the Sp(2) algebra of ordinary Yang-Mills theory. A consistent formulation of covariant Lagrangian quantisation for general gauge theories based on Sp(2) BRST symmetry is established. The original N = 1, ten dimensional superparticle is considered as an example of infinitely reducible gauge algebras, and given explicitly its Sp(2) BRST invariant action. (author). 18 refs.

  18. Sp(2) covariant quantisation of general gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Bello, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    The Sp(2) covariant quantization of gauge theories is studied. The geometrical interpretation of gauge theories in terms of quasi principal fibre bundles Q(M s , G s ) is reviewed. It is then described the Sp(2) algebra of ordinary Yang-Mills theory. A consistent formulation of covariant Lagrangian quantisation for general gauge theories based on Sp(2) BRST symmetry is established. The original N = 1, ten dimensional superparticle is considered as an example of infinitely reducible gauge algebras, and given explicitly its Sp(2) BRST invariant action. (author). 18 refs

  19. Enkapsulasi B. bassiana menggunakan maizena dan daya infeksinya terhadap larva Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp., Culex sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Widawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Encapsulation formulae of mycoinsecticide have to be able to maintain fungus viability and pathogenicity. This mycoinsecticide was developed as an alternative way to control mosquito borne disease. The aim of this study was to encapsulate Beauveria bassiana as viable storage and have the capability to kill larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp. and Culex sp. Mosquito larvae obtained from laboratory reared at health research laboratory; Loka Litbang P2B2 Ciamis. The treatments made in this study were the formu-lation of cornstarch and controls for comparison. This study showed potential formulation of cornstarch encapsulation as a biolarvacidal. Cornstarch formulations proven to be succeed in maintaining fungus viability, however, the pathogenicity of the microcapsule still not effective to kill Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Keywords: encapsulation, Beauveria bassiana, Ae.aegypti, Anopheles sp., Culex sp. Abstrak. Pembuatan formula bioinsektisida yang optimal sebagai salah satu alternatif untuk pengen-dalian nyamuk vektor perlu di kembangkan. Sediaan mikoinsektisida yang dibuat harus dapat memper-tahankan viabilitas jamur B. bassiana sehingga masih efektif pada saat penggunaannya. Salah satu cara yang digunakan untuk menjaga kestabilan sediaan mikoinsektisida yang berdampak langsung pada via-bilitas jamur adalah dengan menerapkan metode enkapsulasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meng-hasilkan sediaan mikokapsul dari Beauvaria bassiana melalui proses enkapsulasi menggunakan maizena yang memiliki kapabilitas tinggi sebagai penyimpan B. bassiana dan efektif dalam membunuh larva dan telur Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp. dan Culex sp. Semua larva uji berasal dari insektarium laboratorium penelitian kesehatan Loka litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Pembuatan enkapsulasi dimulai dengan kultur dan pema-nenan B. bassiana, uji viabilitas, proses enkapsulasi serta uji larvasida di laboratorium. Uji dilakukan dengan satu perlakuan dan satu kontrol untuk

  20. What causes education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Why do universities not give priority to education? The article suggests a formal answer on the basis of Lacan’s four discourses. Why education? Why do we learn? Is it caused by a natural curiosity or is it caused by anxiety? Is it at all possible to control the influence that we undoubtedly have...

  1. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  2. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also

  3. Influence of Moraxella sp. colonization on the kidney proteome of farmed gilthead sea breams (Sparus aurata, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viale Iolanda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, presence of Moraxella sp. in internal organs of fish is not considered detrimental for fish farming. However, bacterial colonization of internal organs can affect fish wellness and decrease growth rate, stress resistance, and immune response. Recently, there have been reports by farmers concerning slow growth, poor feed conversion, and low average weight increase of fish farmed in offshore floating sea cages, often associated with internal organ colonization by Moraxella sp. Therefore, presence of these opportunistic bacteria deserves further investigations for elucidating incidence and impact on fish metabolism. Results A total of 960 gilthead sea breams (Sparus aurata, L., collected along 17 months from four offshore sea cage plants and two natural lagoons in Sardinia, were subjected to routine microbiological examination of internal organs throughout the production cycle. Thirteen subjects (1.35% were found positive for Moraxella sp. in the kidney (7, brain (3, eye (1, spleen (1, and perivisceral fat (1. In order to investigate the influence of Moraxella sp. colonization, positive and negative kidney samples were subjected to a differential proteomics study by means of 2-D PAGE and mass spectrometry. Interestingly, Moraxella sp. infected kidneys displayed a concerted upregulation of several mitochondrial enzymes compared to negative tissues, reinforcing previous observations following lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge in fish. Conclusions Presence of Moraxella sp. in farmed sea bream kidney is able to induce proteome alterations similar to those described following LPS challenge in other fish species. This study revealed that Moraxella sp. might be causing metabolic alterations in fish, and provided indications on proteins that could be investigated as markers of infection by Gram-negative bacteria within farming plants.

  4. Polymorphisms of SP110 are associated with both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis among the Vietnamese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Fox

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet the reasons why only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on to develop clinical disease are poorly understood. Genetically determined variation in the host immune response is one factor influencing the response to M. tuberculosis. SP110 is an interferon-responsive nuclear body protein with critical roles in cell cycling, apoptosis and immunity to infection. However association studies of the gene with clinical TB in different populations have produced conflicting results.To examine the importance of the SP110 gene in immunity to TB in the Vietnamese we conducted a case-control genetic association study of 24 SP110 variants, in 663 patients with microbiologically proven TB and 566 unaffected control subjects from three tertiary hospitals in northern Vietnam.Five SNPs within SP110 were associated with all forms of TB, including four SNPs at the C terminus (rs10208770, rs10498244, rs16826860, rs11678451 under a dominant model and one SNP under a recessive model, rs7601176. Two of these SNPs were associated with pulmonary TB (rs10208770 and rs16826860 and one with extra-pulmonary TB (rs10498244.SP110 variants were associated with increased susceptibility to both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in the Vietnamese. Genetic variants in SP110 may influence macrophage signaling responses and apoptosis during M. tuberculosis infection, however further research is required to establish the mechanism by which SP110 influences immunity to tuberculosis infection.

  5. Single Cystosorus Isolate Production and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Characterization of the Obligate Biotroph Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xinshun; Christ, Barbara J

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea causes powdery scab in potatoes and is distributed worldwide. Genetic studies of this pathogen have been hampered due, in part, to its obligate parasitism and the lack of molecular markers for this pathogen. In this investigation, a single cystosorus inoculation technique was developed to produce large amounts of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea plasmodia or zoosporangia in eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum) roots from which DNA was extracted. Cryopreservation of zoosporangia was used for long-term storage of the isolates. S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were developed from randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments. Cystosori of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea were used for RAPD assays and putative pathogen-specific RAPD fragments were cloned and sequenced. The fragments were screened for specificity by Southern hybridization and subsequent DNA sequence BLAST search. Four polymorphic S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea-specific probes containing repetitive elements, and one containing single copy DNA were identified. These RFLP probes were then used to analyze 24 single cystosorus isolates derived from eight geographic locations in the United States and Canada. Genetic variation was recorded among, but not within, geographic locations. Cluster analysis separated the isolates into two major groups: group I included isolates originating from western North America, with the exception of those from Colorado, and group II included isolates originating from eastern North America and from Colorado. The techniques developed in this study, i.e., production of single cystosorus isolates of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea and development of RFLP markers for this pathogen, provide methods to further study the genetic structure of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea.

  6. Polymorphisms of SP110 Are Associated with both Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis among the Vietnamese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Gregory J.; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Yu, Bing; Ellis, Magda K.; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen Kim; Thi Lien, Luu; Marks, Guy B.; Saunders, Bernadette M.; Britton, Warwick J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet the reasons why only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on to develop clinical disease are poorly understood. Genetically determined variation in the host immune response is one factor influencing the response to M. tuberculosis. SP110 is an interferon-responsive nuclear body protein with critical roles in cell cycling, apoptosis and immunity to infection. However association studies of the gene with clinical TB in different populations have produced conflicting results. Methods To examine the importance of the SP110 gene in immunity to TB in the Vietnamese we conducted a case-control genetic association study of 24 SP110 variants, in 663 patients with microbiologically proven TB and 566 unaffected control subjects from three tertiary hospitals in northern Vietnam. Results Five SNPs within SP110 were associated with all forms of TB, including four SNPs at the C terminus (rs10208770, rs10498244, rs16826860, rs11678451) under a dominant model and one SNP under a recessive model, rs7601176. Two of these SNPs were associated with pulmonary TB (rs10208770 and rs16826860) and one with extra-pulmonary TB (rs10498244). Conclusion SP110 variants were associated with increased susceptibility to both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in the Vietnamese. Genetic variants in SP110 may influence macrophage signaling responses and apoptosis during M. tuberculosis infection, however further research is required to establish the mechanism by which SP110 influences immunity to tuberculosis infection. PMID:25006821

  7. Quality improvement on half-fin anchovy (Setipinna taty) fish sauce by Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yu; He, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Chen, Meiling; Jiang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    A method of improving fish sauce quality during fermentation was investigated. Psychrobacter sp. SP-1, a halophilic protease-producing bacterium, was isolated from fish sauce with flavor-enhancing properties and non-biogenic amine-producing activity. The performance of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 in Setipinna taty fish sauce fermentation was investigated further. The inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 did not significantly affect pH or NaCl concentration changes (P > 0.05), although it significantly increased total moderately halophilic microbial count, protease activity, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acid nitrogen content, and also promoted the umami taste and meaty aroma (P sauce quality by fermentation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Occurrence of the internal parasite Portunion sp. (Isopoda: Entoniscidae) and its effect on reproduction in intertidal crabs (Decapoda: Grapsidae) from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockerhoff, A M

    2004-12-01

    The parasite fauna of 4 intertidal grapsid crabs from New Zealand was studied between 1998 and 2000. The occurrence of an undescribed entoniscid species, Portunion sp. (Isopoda: Epicaridea), is presented. Portunion sp. was found in Cyclograpsus lavauxi (34.1%, n = 1650), Hemigrapsus crenulatus (19.0%, n = 2300), and Helice crassa (11.6%, n = 825) but was absent from Hemigrapsus sexdentatus (n = 636). Parasitized hosts contained mostly 1 female Portunion sp. but occasionally up to 7 females were found. One to 3 dwarf males typically occurred on each mature female Portunion sp. Most developmental stages of female Portunion sp. were found throughout the year, demonstrating that reproduction and infection occurred continuously. Portunion sp. differentially affected male and female hosts. Prevalence was generally higher in male hosts than in female hosts and increased significantly with host size. Female hosts were castrated, whereas males were not. Portunion sp., therefore, influenced the operational sex ratio in its host species, causing a more male-biased ratio.

  9. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of a positron emission tomographic ligand, 18F-SP203, to image metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yasuyuki; Simeon, Fabrice G.; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Fujita, Masahiro; Hatazawa, Jun; Mozley, P.D.

    2010-01-01

    A new PET ligand, 3-fluoro-5-(2-(2- 18 F-(fluoromethyl)-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)benzonitrile ( 18 F-SP203), is a positron emission tomographic radioligand selective for metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors. The purposes of this study were to estimate the radiation-absorbed doses of 18 F-SP203 in humans and to determine from the distribution of radioactivity in bone structures with various proportions of bone and red marrow whether 18 F-SP203 undergoes defluorination. Whole-body images were acquired for 5 h after injecting 18 F-SP203 in seven healthy humans. Urine was collected at various time points. Radiation-absorbed doses were estimated by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme. After injecting 18 F-SP203, the two organs with highest radiation exposure were urinary bladder wall and gallbladder wall, consistent with both urinary and fecal excretion. In the skeleton, most of the radioactivity was in bone structures that contain red marrow and not in those without red marrow. Although the dose to red marrow (30.9 μSv/MBq) was unusually high, the effective dose (17.8 μSv/MBq) of 18 F-SP203 was typical of that of other 18 F radiotracers. 18 F-SP203 causes an effective dose in humans typical of several other 18 F radioligands and undergoes little defluorination. (orig.)

  10. Complete genome sequence of Serratia sp. YD25 (KCTC 42987) presenting strong antagonistic activities to various pathogenic fungi and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun; Liu, Yibo; Sun, Yan; Li, Zhi

    2017-03-10

    Serratia sp. YD25 (KCTC 42987) was originally isolated from rhizosphere soil in a continuous cropping tobacco-planting farm. Here, we show that its metabolites efficiently suppress the growth of various important pathogenic fungi and bacteria, causing infection in both plants and humans. In addition, Serratia sp. YD25 has a special trait of simultaneous production of both serrawettin W2 and prodigiosin, two important bioactive secondary metabolites produced by Serratia strains. Such co-production has not been reported in other Serratia strains. The complete genome sequence of Serratia sp. YD25 is presented, which is valuable for further exploration of its biotechnological applications in agriculture and medicine. The genome sequence reported here is also useful for understanding the unique regulatory mechanisms underlying biosynthesis of active compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Coccidia, X-cell pseudotumors and Ichthyophonus sp. infections in walleye pollock (Theregra chalcogramma) from Auke Bay, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, W D; Kent, M L; Meyers, T R

    1991-01-01

    One hundred twenty-five walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) were collected from Auke Bay, Alaska (USA) in 1985 and examined for histologic evidence of disease-causing infectious agents in 1987. A Goussia sp.-like coccidium was found in the kidney tubules of 75% and an Eimeria sp.-like coccidium was found in the intestine of 18% of the fish examined. The kidney coccidium was associated with sloughing of the tubular epithelium, peritubular fibrosis and granuloma formation. The intestinal coccidium was associated with severe tissue displacement and inflammation. In addition, X-cell pseudotumors were observed in the pseudobranchs (4%), and the fungus Ichthyophonus sp. was observed in the kidney, intestine or brain of 2% of the pollock.

  12. Borrelia sp. phylogenetically different from Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-related Borrelia spp. in Amblyomma varanense from Python reticulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Sudsangiem, Ronnayuth; Lijuan, Wanwisa; Boonkusol, Duangjai; Baimai, Visut; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2016-06-24

    Species of the genus Borrelia are causative agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. However, in some parts of the world Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever may be caused by novel Borrelia genotypes. Herein, we report the presence of a Borrelia sp. in an Amblyomma varanense collected from Python reticulatus. Ticks were collected from snakes, identified to species level and examined by PCR for the presence of Borrelia spp. flaB and 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbour-joining method. Three A. varanense ticks collected from P. reticulatus were positive for a unique Borrelia sp., which was phylogenetically divergent from both Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-associated Borrelia spp. The results of this study suggest for the first time that there is a Borrelia sp. in A. varanense tick in the snake P. reticulatus that might be novel.

  13. Penggunaan Streptomyces sp. Sebagai Biokontrol Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Cabai Merah (Capsicum annuum L. yang Disebabkan Oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANINDA OKTAVIA RAHARINI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted to find out Streptomyces bacteria at Bukit Jimbaran, to inhibitionpotency of Streptomyces sp. to pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici, and to find outantifungal activity of Streptomyces filtrate to F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici in chili (Capsicum annuumL. plants. Streptomyces sp. isolation was done by platting method with selective media YMA (ISP4.Identification of Streptomyces sp. used Bergey’s book entitled Manual Determinative Bacteriology.Test inhibition against F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici and in vivo test used by dying the roots of the chili(C.annuum L. plant with F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici and after 30 seconds the roots were dying withStreptomyces sp. culture, furthermore sterile soil on polybag watered by F.oxysporum f.sp. capsicispore and Streptomyces sp. culture at the same time. The result found five isolates Streptomyces sp.with different morphological. The antagonis test showed Streptomyces sp. 4 had ability (82% againstFusarium, Streptomyces sp.1 (72%, Streptomyces sp.2 (64%, Streptomyces sp.3 (76%, andStreptomyces sp. 5 (32%. All Streptomyces suppressed the growth of Fusarium on chili plants inglass house (p<0,05. Streptomyces sp.4 suppressed Fusarium wilt disease in chili from 80% in controlto 8%.

  14. Preparation of miniantibodies to Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 surface antigens and their use for bacterial detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A; Staroverov, Sergei A; Guliy, Olga I; Ignatov, Oleg V; Fomin, Alexander S; Vidyasheva, Irina V; Karavaeva, Olga A; Bunin, Viktor D; Burygin, Gennady L

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the first preparation of miniantibodies to Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 surface antigens by using a combinatorial phage library of sheep antibodies. The prepared phage antibodies were used for the first time for lipopolysaccharide and flagellin detection by dot assay, electro-optical analysis of cell suspensions, and transmission electron microscopy. Interaction of A. brasilense Sp245 with antilipopolysaccharide and antiflagellin phage-displayed miniantibodies caused the magnitude of the electro-optical signal to change considerably. The electro-optical results were in good agreement with the electron microscopic data. This is the first reported possibility of employing phage-displayed miniantibodies in bacterial detection aided by electro-optical analysis of cell suspensions.

  15. UTILIZAÇÃO DE ADESIVO PVA EM COMPENSADOS DE Pinus sp. E Eucalyptus sp. / UTILIZATION OF PVA ADHESIVES IN Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. PLYWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. De Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre novos adesivos ou resinas para colagem de madeira e derivados estão sendo realizados com a intenção de diminuir o impacto ambiental sem alterar suas propriedades. Por este motivo, novas formulações de adesivos PVA (Acetato de Polivinila vêm sendo desenvolvidas. Este trabalho testou a utilização deste adesivo na produção de compensado de Eucalyptus sp. e Pinus sp., com tempo e temperatura de prensagem, respectivamente, de 10 minutos e90°C. Foram realizados os ensaios físicos de densidade, teor de umidade e absorção, e os ensaios mecânicos de flexão estática e de resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, todos de acordo com as normas ABNT. Obtiveram-se bons resultados com relação à resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, a qual foi superior para os adesivos PVA, se comparados com compensados produzidos com ureia-formaldeído e o fenol-formaldeído, enquanto que os resultados de MOE e MOR apresentaram-se inferiores em ambos os casos. 

  16. Microbial transformation of citral by Penicillium sp..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Tavassoli, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Thymol is present in the essential oils from herbs and spices, such as thyme. It is produced by these plant species as a chemical defense against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this compound has attracted great attention in food industry, i.e., it has been used as a natural preservative in foods such as cheese to prevent fungal growth. Previous studies concerning the biotransformation of nerol by Penicillium sp. and microbial transformation of citral by sporulated surface cultures method (SSCM) of Penicillium digitatum have been reported. The objective of this research was to study the pathway involved during biotransformation of citral by Penicillium sp. using two methods. The culture preparation was done using different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain Penicillium for citral biotransformation. The biotransformation products were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). A comparison of the two methods showed that SSCM was more effective, its major products were thymol (21.5 %), geranial (18.6 %) and nerol (13.7 %). LM produced only one compound — thymol — with a low efficiency.

  17. Burkholderia cordobensis sp. nov., from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghi, Walter O; Peeters, Charlotte; Cnockaert, Margo; Snauwaert, Cindy; Wall, Luis G; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from agricultural soils in Córdoba province in central Argentina. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that they belong to the genus Burkholderia, with Burkholderia zhejiangensis as most closely related formally named species; this relationship was confirmed through comparative gyrB sequence analysis. Whole-cell fatty acid analysis supported their assignment to the genus Burkholderia. Burkholderia sp. strain YI23, for which a whole-genome sequence is available, represents the same taxon, as demonstrated by its highly similar 16S rRNA (100% similarity) and gyrB (99.1-99.7%) gene sequences. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and physiological and biochemical characterization further substantiated the genotypic and phenotypic distinctiveness of the Argentinian soil isolates, for which the name Burkholderia cordobensis sp. nov. is proposed, with strain MMP81(T) ( = LMG 27620(T) = CCUG 64368(T)) as the type strain. © 2014 IUMS.

  18. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of “Deqi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation. Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min–10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant–5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant–5 min interval and 10 min–20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min–10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations.

  19. Activation of Pathogenesis-related Genes by the Rhizobacterium, Bacillus sp. JS, Which Induces Systemic Resistance in Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Seong; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Chan-Hui; Woo, Su Young; Kang, Hoduck; Seo, Sang-Gyu; Kim, Sun-Hyung

    2015-06-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to confer disease resistance to plants. Bacillus sp. JS demonstrated antifungal activities against five fungal pathogens in in vitro assays. To verify whether the volatiles of Bacillus sp. JS confer disease resistance, tobacco leaves pre-treated with the volatiles were damaged by the fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani and oomycete Phytophthora nicotianae. Pre-treated tobacco leaves had smaller lesion than the control plant leaves. In pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression analysis, volatiles of Bacillus sp. JS caused the up-regulation of PR-2 encoding β-1,3-glucanase and acidic PR-3 encoding chitinase. Expression of acidic PR-4 encoding chitinase and acidic PR-9 encoding peroxidase increased gradually after exposure of the volatiles to Bacillus sp. JS. Basic PR-14 encoding lipid transfer protein was also increased. However, PR-1 genes, as markers of salicylic acid (SA) induced resistance, were not expressed. These results suggested that the volatiles of Bacillus sp. JS confer disease resistance against fungal and oomycete pathogens through PR genes expression.

  20. Quantitative and microscopic assessment of compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B; Kang, Seogchan; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Navas-Cortés, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized 'JG-62' xylem vessels of root and stem but in 'WR-315', it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms.

  1. Genetic and Pathogenic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Isolated from Onion and Welsh Onion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakahara, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae causes Fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and Fusarium wilt in Welsh onion. Although these diseases have been detected in various areas in Japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is very limited. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was isolated from onion and Welsh onion grown in 12 locations in Japan, and a total of 55 F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates (27 from onion and 28 from Welsh onion) were characterized based on their rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) nucleotide sequences, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), and the presence of the SIX (secreted in xylem) homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of IGS sequences showed that these isolates were grouped into eight clades (A to H), and 20 onion isolates belonging to clade H were monophyletic and assigned to the same VCG. All the IGS-clade H isolates possessed homologs of SIX3, SIX5, and SIX7. The SIX3 homolog was located on a 4 Mb-sized chromosome in the IGS-clade H isolates. Pathogenicity tests using onion seedlings showed that all the isolates with high virulence were in the IGS-clade H. These results suggest that F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates belonging to the IGS-clade H are genetically and pathogenically different from those belonging to the other IGS clades.

  2. Quantitative and microscopic assessment of compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jiménez-Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. METHODOLOGY: We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. FINDINGS: The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized 'JG-62' xylem vessels of root and stem but in 'WR-315', it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms.

  3. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Sioud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002, as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch.

  4. Potential of Microbispora sp. V2 as biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causative agent of southern blight of Zea mays L (Baby corn)--in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, N N; Waghmode, M S; Gaikwad, P S; Gajbhiye, M H; Gunjal, A B; Nawani, N N; Kapadnis, B P

    2014-11-01

    The study was undertaken with the aim of exploring novel and beneficial agro activities of rare actinomycetes like Microbispora sp. V2. The antagonistic activity of Microbispora sp. V2 was evaluated as a biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen. The methodology performed for evaluation of biocontrol agent was in vitro evaluation assay which comprised of three tests viz., cellophane overlay technique, seed germination test and Thiram (fungicide) tolerance of Microbispora sp. V2. The isolate was found to inhibit the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii to 91.43% in cellophane assay. In seed germination assay, Microbispora sp. V2 treated seeds resulted in 25.75% increased germination efficiency, as compared to seeds infected by Sclerotium rolfsii. The isolate Microbispora sp. V2 could tolerate 1000 microg mL(-1) of Thiram (fungicide). The in vitro assay studies proved that Microbispora sp. V2 can be used as antifungal antagonist and thus posses' great potential as biocontrol agent against southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Zea mays L (Baby corn) which causes large economical losses.

  5. Effect of garlic solution to Bacillus sp. removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, N.; Rahim, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Biofilm is a microbial derived sessile community characterized by cells that are irreversibly attached to a substratum or interface to each other, embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. Bacillus sp. was used as biofilm model in this study. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Garlic solution in term of ratio of water and Garlic solution (W/G) and ratio of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. (GS/B) on Bacillus sp removal. Garlic solution was used to remove Bacillus sp. In this study, Garlic solution was prepared by crushing the garlic and mixed it with water. the Garlic solution was added into Bacillus sp. mixture and mixed well. The mixture then was spread on nutrient agar. The Bacillus sp. weight on agar plate was measured by using dry weight measurement method. In this study, initially Garlic solution volume and Garlic solution concentration were studied using one factor at time (OFAT). Later two-level-factorial analysis was done to determine the most contributing factor in Bacillus sp. removal. Design Expert software (Version 7) was used to construct experimental table where all the factors were randomized. Bacilus sp removal was ranging between 42.13% to 99.6%. The analysis of the results showed that at W/G of 1:1, Bacillus sp. removal increased when more Garlic solution was added to Bacillus sp. Effect of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. will be understood which in turn may be beneficial for the industrial purpose.

  6. Rhodotorula rosulata sp. nov., Rhodotorula silvestris sp. nov. and Rhodotorula straminea sp. nov., novel myo-inositol-assimilating yeast species in the Microbotryomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, Wladyslav I; Scorzetti, Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Three novel species are described as Rhodotorula rosulata sp. nov. (type strain VKM Y-2962(T) =CBS 10977(T)), Rhodotorula silvestris sp. nov. (type strain VKM Y-2971(T) =CBS 11420(T)) and Rhodotorula straminea sp. nov. (type strain VKM Y-2964(T) =CBS 10976(T)) based on the study of eight isolates from needle litter. The new species, phylogenetically located within the Microbotryomycetes, are related to glucuronate-assimilating species of the genus Rhodotorula. Sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rDNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, as well as physiological characterization, revealed their distinct taxonomic positions.

  7. Control of Ectoparasitic Monogenean Infestation on GIFT Tilapia (Oreochromis sp. using Salt Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Hadiroseyani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasitic monogenean infestation is one of fish diseases which may cause mass mortality, therefore controlling the parasites is one of the important factors to ensure the success of aquaculture activities. Salt addition is one of disease curative and controlling techniques which is cheap, easy and environmental friendly as well as effective to control ectoparasites in freshwater environment. The objectives of this study were to examine monogenean parasites species in GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia tilapia, their tolerance to salt concentration and the most effective salt concentration to control the parasites. Identification, intensity and prevalence of parasitic monogenean were carried out on the external parts (body surface, fins and gills of 31 fishes. Subsequently, two different experiments were carried out  to determine parasites and fish resistance on various salt concentration at a range of 0 - 24 g/l with an interval of 2 g/l. To confirm the results of previous experiment, parasites infected fish was immersed in salt water at various concentration based on previous experiments. Two genera of monogenean were identified in GIFT tilapia, i.e. Gyrodactylus sp. on body surface and fins, and Cichlidogyrus sp. on gills with the same prevalence (100%. The intensity of those parasites was different, namely 27.84 ind/fish for Gyrodactylus sp. and 6.06 ind/fish for Cichlidogyrus sp. The intensity of both parasites was found to be lower as salt concentration increase. Salt concentration of 24 g/l was the most effective concentration to reduce parasites infestation and could totally treat the infested fish within 6 days. Keyword : tilapia, Oreochromis, monogenea, parasite and salt     ABSTRAK Serangan monogenea ektoparasitik merupakan salah satu masalah penyakit ikan yang dapat menyebabkan kematian masal, sehingga pengendaliannya merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan dalam usaha budidaya. Garam merupakan agen penyembuh atau

  8. Biological control of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli the causal agent of root rot of bean using Bacillus subtilis CA32 and Trichoderma harzianum RU01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Abeysinghe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, is one of the main root diseases impacting production of common bean in Sri Lanka. Rhizobacteria were screened in dual Petri plate assays to select antagonistic strains against F. solani f. sp. phaseoli. B. subtilis CA32 effectively antagonized the pathogen. T. harzianum RU01 also showed the antagonistic activity. The efficacy of the B. subtilis CA32 and the T. harzianum RU01 were tested in greenhouse pot experiments against F. solani f. sp. phaseoli. Seed bacterization with B. subtilis CA32 and T. harzianum RU01 significantly protected bean seedlings from F. solani f. sp. phaseoli compared to the untreated control plants. Plant protection was more pronounced in T. harzianum RU01 treated plants than bacterized plants. Enhanced root growth was observed only T. harzianum RU01 treated plants, suggesting that the biotic modifications of the mycorrhizosphere as a result of colonization with T. harzianum RU01.

  9. Contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. em solo no município de Moreno, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lancart de Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The contaminated soil with Toxocara sp. eggs is an important factor of risk to development of the zoonotic disease. Human infection is acquired by ingestion of embryonated Toxocara sp. eggs with contaminated water, food and also with dirt hands contaminated too. Usually Toxocara sp. infected dogs and cats, but sometimes humans can be affected, mainly children, causing visceral larva migrans. The goal of this study was determine the prevalence of Toxocara eggs in the sand of the locality Cidade Evangelica dos orfaos, Moreno County, northeast of Brazil. Twenty-five soil samples were collected and analyzed by centrifugal flotation technique by using zinc sulfate solution at 33%. The analysis of soil samples showed 12% (3/25 of some contamination level of sand by Toxocara sp eggs. As human can be infect by accidental ingestion of embryonated Toxocara eggs, the results of this research suggest the adoption of measures who prevent the transmission of this zoonotic disease.

  10. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  11. What Causes a Toothache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... See a Dentist? What is Dental Amalgam (Silver Filling)? Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Men: Looking for a Better ... sinus or ear infections and tension in the facial muscles can cause discomfort that resembles a toothache, ...

  12. Causes of Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and often disabling disease of the central nervous system. > Muscular dystrophy MD is characterized by the degeneration of skeletal muscles. > Neurofibromatosis Progressive disorder of the nervous system that causes tumors on the nerves. > Post-polio ...

  13. What causes IBD?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What causes IBD? An overly aggressive cell-mediated immune response to luminal commensal bacteria in genetically susceptible individuals. Sartor, Gastroenterology 2004.

  14. Potential topical natural repellent against Ae. aegypti, Culex sp. and Anopheles sp. mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Hodijah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Minyak atsiri daun sirih diketahui mempunyai daya proteksi. Dibuatkan losion berdasarkan pengantar sediaan farmasi yang ditambahkan minyak atsiri daun nilam. Sediaan losion dipilih agar dapat menempel lebih lama di permukaan kulit. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk membandingkan daya proteksi antara losion dengan penambahan minyak nilam dan losion tanpa penambahan minyak nilam dibandingkan daya proteksi dengan DEET. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratorium. Semua nyamuk uji berasal dari insektarium laboratorium penelitian kesehatan Loka litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Konsentrasi minyak atsiri daun sirih dalam losion adalah 4%; konsentrasi minyak nilam sebagai zat pengikat adalah 0,4%. Formula yang digunakan yaitu formula dasar yang ada pada pengantar sediaan farmasi. Uji repelensi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metoda yang direkomendasikan oleh Komisi pestisida.Hasil: Dihasilkan formulasi losion yang stabil dan masih memenuhi standar formulasi sediaan. Berdasarkan hasil, diperoleh data bahwa DEET dan losion hasil modifikasi memiliki rata-rata daya proteksi di atas 90% selama 6 jam terhadap nyamuk Ae.aegypti dan Culex sp. Kesimpulan: Penambahan minyak nilam pada losion sirih dapat meningkatkan daya proteksi terhadap hinggapan nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan Culex sp. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:44-8Kata kunci:repelen alamiah, minyak atsiri, daun sirih, daun nilam, Ae. aegypti, Culex sp.AbstractBackground: Betel leaf essential oil lotion has been known to have insect repellent properties. A lotion was made based on a pharmaceutical formula from a monograph where patchouli leaf essential oil was added. A lotion preparation was intended to enhance adherence of the formula on the surface of the skin. The purpose of this study was to compare protection percentage of lotion with patchouli oil and without patchouli oil lotion compared to DEET.Methods: This study is an experimental laboratory-based research. All mosquitoes

  15. Do big gods cause anything?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2014-01-01

    Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere.......Dette er et bidrag til et review symposium vedrørende Ara Norenzayans bog Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict (Princeton University Press 2013). Bogen er spændende men problematisk i forhold til kausalitet, ateisme og stereotyper om jægere-samlere....

  16. Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida), a parasitic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida) is described from both sexes collected from the gills of spinner sharks, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle, 1839), captured in the Indian Ocean off the coast of South Africa. Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. can easily be distinguished from all of its congeners because the ...

  17. Enhancement of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces sp MU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance clavulanic acid production using UV-mutagenesis on Streptomyces sp. NRC77. Methods: UV-mutagenesis was used to study the effect of Streptomyces sp. NRC77 on CA production. Phenotypic and genotypic identification methods of the promising mutant strain were characterized. Optimization of the ...

  18. HANSENULA WICKERHAMII SP. N., A NEW YEAST FROM FINNISH SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (l'Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n., a new yeast from Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:259–360. 1961.—Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n. is described; it was isolated from a Finnish soil, and is named in honor of Lynferd J. Wickerham. Images PMID:13690638

  19. Truncated recombinant human SP-D attenuates emphysema and type II cell changes in SP-D deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlfeld Christian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein D (SP-D deficient mice develop emphysema-like pathology associated with focal accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, an excess of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space and both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells. These findings are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with a truncated recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D has been shown to decrease the lipidosis and alveolar macrophage accumulation as well as production of proinflammatory chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate if rfhSP-D treatment reduces the structural abnormalities in parenchymal architecture and type II cells characteristic of SP-D deficiency. Methods SP-D knock-out mice, aged 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks were treated with rfhSP-D for 9, 6 and 3 weeks, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at age 12 weeks and compared to both PBS treated SP-D deficient and wild-type groups. Lung structure was quantified by design-based stereology at the light and electron microscopic level. Emphasis was put on quantification of emphysema, type II cell changes and intracellular surfactant. Data were analysed with two sided non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Main Results After 3 weeks of treatment, alveolar number was higher and mean alveolar size was smaller compared to saline-treated SP-D knock-out controls. There was no significant difference concerning these indices of pulmonary emphysema within rfhSP-D treated groups. Type II cell number and size were smaller as a consequence of treatment. The total volume of lamellar bodies per type II cell and per lung was smaller after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with rfhSP-D leads to a reduction in the degree of emphysema and a correction of type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. This supports the concept that rfhSP-D might become a therapeutic option in diseases that are

  20. Solar drying of rose (Rosa sp.) petals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

    1999-10-01

    The rose (Rosa sp.) petals can be dried after 2 days at about 30degC reaching an equilibrium moisture content after 16 h using the solar wire basket dryer. The initial moisture content (wet wt basis) and final moisture content (dry wt basis), determined by the Dean-Stark toluene were 65.7 and 25.2% respectively. The intensity of the rose red coloured pigment (pelargonidin) decreased by a factor of 2.5 after drying. The pelargonidin ethanoic extract as an acid-base indicator, has a K{sub 4} value of 1 x 10{sup -4} mol 1{sup -1} and pH of end point 4 and imbibed on filter paper and allowed to air dry for 5 min showed excellent properties as acid-based test tapes. (Author)

  1. Electron microscope study of Sarcocystis sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeve, V.H.; Price, D.L.; Herman, C.M.

    1966-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. obtained from wild populations of grackles, Quiscalus quiscula (Linn.), were examined to clarify the effect of the parasite on the host. Electron micrographs are presented to show areas of muscle destruction adjacent to the parasite which appear to be mechanically produced by the parasite. The microtubules within the villus-like projections of the cyst suggest that their possible function is absorptive and/or conductive with regard to the production of a toxin or the conveyance of nutritive material to the developing cells. The proposed function of submembranous filaments and their relation to the conoid is discussed. Similarities in the ultrastructure to Toxoplasma and other protozoa tend to negate the relegation of Sarcocystis to the fungi and further emphasize its protozoan nature.

  2. Polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation by a Serratia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, Harriet; Sammons, Rachel L; Marquis, Peter M; Hewitt, Christopher J; Yong, Ping; Paterson-Beedle, Marion; Redwood, Mark D; Stamboulis, Artemis; Kashani, Mitra; Jenkins, Mike; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2008-03-01

    A strain of Serratia sp. showed intracellular electron-transparent inclusion bodies when incubated in the presence of citrate and glycerol 2-phosphate without nitrogen source following pre-growth under carbon-limitation in continuous culture. About 1.3 mmol citrate were consumed per 450 mg biomass, giving a calculated yield of maximally 55% of stored material per g of biomass dry wt. The inclusion bodies were stained with Sudan Black and Nile Red (NR), suggesting a lipid material, which was confirmed as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by analysis of molecular fragments by GC and by FTIR spectroscopy of isolated bio-PHB in comparison with reference material. Multi-parameter flow cytometry in conjunction with NR fluorescence, and electron microscopy, showed that not all cells contained heavy PHB bodies, suggesting the potential for increasing the overall yield. The economic attractiveness is enhanced by the co-production of nanoscale hydroxyapatite (HA), a possible high-value precursor for bone replacement materials.

  3. In vitro rootting of Dioscoreas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Quintero

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The Universidad de Córdoba s Vegetal Tissue Culture Laboratory evaluated the effect of naphthalenacetic acid (NAA on in vitro rooting of three yam cultivars (Dioscorea sp. in 2000. The effect of four hormone levels (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mg/1 was studied on three yam cultivars (Diamantes-22,003 and 005. A random experimental design was used employing 4x3 factorial arrangement and 20 repetitions; each experimental unit consisted of a glass receptacle containing the culture medium and the explant (one segment nodal. The variables considered were the number of roots and their thickness, culture medium oxidation and callus production. Findings showed that both the hormone and genotype had an effect on all those variables considered in the study and interaction was significant (P

  4. Predicting fuel performance for SP-100 conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baars, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports on methods for analyzing fuel designs proposed for the thermionic and thermoelectric concepts for SP-100 application. The proposed fuel design for the thermionic concept consisted of fully-enriched oxide fuel clad in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tungsten, which also served as the emitter for the thermionic fuel element (TFE). The fuel density was 95% of theoretical with the linear heat rate flattened radially by removing fuel from the center of the fuel pellet. The fuel inner diameter varied from approx.0.45 in. at the core center to zero at the edge of the core. The as-fabricated gap between fuel and emitter was 10 mils radial. The emitter thickness was 80 mils, and the outer diameter was 1.099 in. The LIFE-4 code was used for evaluation of this concept after extensive review of the code and development of a procedure that corrects certain deficiencies noted in analysis of several tests

  5. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Peterson, Stephen W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266T=Thom 4138.HS2T=IBT 31900T......). Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov. was isolated from water with high boracic acid anions content in Dukovany nuclear power station (Czech Republic). The sexual stage of this species is unknown, but the MAT1-1 locus was successfully amplified suggesting that the species is probably heterothallic and teleomorphic...... but is represented by only the ex-type isolate CCM 8003T (=CCF 4037T=NRRL 62486T=IBT 31279T=IFM 60873T). Both species can be distinguished from all previously described species in section Fumigati based on morphology, maximum growth temperature, sequence data from five unlinked loci and unique secondary metabolites...

  6. Six New Polyacetylenic Alcohols from the Marine Sponges Petrosia sp. and Halichondria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Adeyemi Francis; Li, Zhen; Kusuda, Ryouhei; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi

    2015-01-01

    Six new polyacetylenic alcohols, termed strongylotriols A and B; pellynols J, K, and L; and isopellynol A, together with three known polyacetylenic alcohols, pellynols A, B, and C were isolated from the marine sponges Petrosia sp., and Halichondria sp. collected in Okinawa, Japan. Their planer structures were determined based on 2D-NMR and mass spectrometric analysis of the degraded products by RuCl3 oxidation. The absolute stereochemistry of isolates was examined by their Mosher's esters. The strongylotriols were found to be optically pure compounds, whereas the pellynols are diastereomeric mixtures at the C-6 position. Proliferation experiments using the HeLa and K562 cell lines suggested that the essential structural units for activity are the "hexa-2,4-diyn-1,6-diol" and "pent-1-en-4-yn-3-ol" on the termini.

  7. Kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sukenda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to assess performance of Bacillus sp. probiotic on catfish juvenile Clarias sp. infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The probiotic content in the diets were 0% (K+ and K-, 1%, and 2% in duplicates. This experiment used randomized design with four treatments and two replications. Juveniles with average body weight of 3.22±0.15 g/fish were reared in the 1.5×2.8×0.5 m3 pond with density of 800 fish/pond. Fish were reared for 30 days and fed three times a day at rate 8% of  total body weight. At day 31, catfish were challenged by A. hydrophila 0.1 mL (106 cfu/mL. Post infection observation was carried out ten days with density 10 fish/aquaria. The result showed that fish fed diet containing 2% probiotic gave the best probiotic performance with survival rate of catfish 83.33% after challenged, spesific growth rate 5.40%, and 0,75 of feed conversion ratio. The results of the blood profile showed significantly better results in the treatment of probiotics compared to the positive control after challenge test A. hydrophila. Probiotic Bacillus sp. has given as much as 2% on feed provides better performance on catfish juvenile. Keywords: probiotic, Bacillus sp., A. hydrophila, catfish juvenille, growth  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. dalam pakan pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yaitu kandungan probiotik dalam pakan perlakuan yaitu 0% (K+ dan K-, 1%,  dan 2%, masing-masing dengan dua ulangan. Ikan lele yang digunakan memiliki bobot rata-rata 3,22±0,15 g/ekor, dipelihara dalam kolam terpal berukuran 1,5×2,8×0,5 m3 dengan kepadatan 800 ekor/kolam. Ikan dipelihara selama 30 hari dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan tiga kali sehari sebanyak 8% dari bobot tubuh ikan. Hari ke-31 benih lele diinjeksi bakteri A. hydrophila dosis 0,1 m

  8. Prevalence of Haemoglobine s in Araraquara-SP Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rocha de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sickle Cell Anemia is a genetic hemoglobionopathy, characterized by an alteration in the hemoglobin molecule struture (HbA1, called hemoglobin S (HbS, which causes a distortion in the erythocytes structure, changing from spherical shape to sickle shape (sickle-cell, a sickling phenomenon, which leads to severe anemia in homozygous, while sickle cell trait (heterozygote leads to pain crisis, according to pathophysiology, in low O2 blood pressure situations. The most specific and sensitive test used to diagnose this anemia is the hemoglobin eletrophoresis test, which is, however, hard to be incorporated in routine laboratories, due to its high cost. The objective of this work was to estimate the sickle cell trait prevalence in Araraquara - SP population. The prevalence of asymptomatic individuals with the sickle cell trait was 1.5%. Considering the study of race prevalence, 0,6% of sickle cell trait in white individuals and 15,4% in black ones were found.

  9. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao; Wang, Daosheng; Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Xinyun; Li, Qing X.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation

  10. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Wang, Daosheng [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Hua, Rimao, E-mail: rimaohua@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Tang, Xinyun [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Li, Qing X. [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East–West Road, Honolulu, HI 957822 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation.

  11. Critical analysis of the potential for the therapeutic targeting of the Sp1 transcription factor in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutooru I

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indira Jutooru,1 Gayathri Chadalapaka,1 Stephen Safe1,21Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is a major cause of cancer-related deaths in developed countries and, in 2013, it is estimated that in excess of 45,220 new cases were diagnosed in the United States. PDAC is a highly aggressive disease that invariably evades early diagnosis. The mean survival time for patients with metastatic disease is only 3–6 months, and only 20%–30% of pancreatic cancer patients are alive after 12 months. Because pancreatic cancers are frequently detected at an advanced stage, treatments have provided very limited improvements in tumor regression and overall survival times after diagnosis. 5-Fluorouracil alone or in combination with other drugs has been extensively used for treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer, and gemcitabine has partially replaced 5-fluorouracil as a treatment for pancreatic cancer. Gemcitabine provides increased clinical benefits in terms of response rate; however, future studies need to focus on developing treatment modalities that will improve the survival rate for pancreatic cancer patients. Specificity protein 1 (Sp1 is overexpressed in PDAC patients, and high expression is associated with poor prognosis, lymph node metastasis, and low survival. Knockdown studies have shown that Sp1 plays an important role in cell growth, angiogenesis, inflammation, survival, and metastasis. Sp1 expression is low in normal tissue when compared to tumor tissue, which makes Sp1 a potential target for development of new mechanism-based drugs for treatment of pancreatic cancer. Several drugs such as tolfenamic acid, betulinic acid, and methyl-2-cyano3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11-dien-28-oate are shown to downregulate Sp1 expression through various pathways

  12. Cancer-causing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, R.L.; Holland, J.M.; Storer, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation causes cancer. That simple fact was known by the early 1900s. Further, radiation can induce cancer in almost any tissue in animals and humans. But the cancer-causing dose may vary by 20-fold for different tissues in animals. Such variation is also seen in people who are exposed, typically, to low radiation doses. Hence, the minimum dose that causes human cancer is not known. Thus, the crucial question becomes what factors, including amount of exposure, trigger cancer. Radiation is divided into two types, ionizing and nonionizing. Of the two, ionizing radiation involves higher energies. Thus by ejecting electrons from molecules, charged particles called ion pairs are formed. They are short-lived, and often break down to form highly reactive free radicals, which are molecular fragments containing unpaired electrons. Nonionizing radiation, which involves ultraviolet light and micro- and radiowaves, causes molecular excitations such as vibrations and electron movement, but produces no ions. And though ultraviolet light causes skin cancer, ionizing radiation is, by far, the more potent carcinogen

  13. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, V V S; Somvanshi, Vishal S; Bajaj, Harish K

    2015-03-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b' = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c' = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b' = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c' = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism.

  14. Neorickettsia risticii, Rickettsia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Tadarida brasiliensis bats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; La Rosa, Isabel; Dohmen, Federico E Gury

    2017-06-01

    Bats are potential reservoirs of many vector-borne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to detect species of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia, Borrelia and Bartonella in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis, Molossidae) from Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Between 2012 and 2013, 61 T. brasiliensis from urban areas of Buenos Aires city were studied. The samples were molecularly screened by PCR and sequencing. Five bats (8.2%) were positive to Neorickettsia risticii, one (1.6%) was positive to Rickettsia sp. and three bats (4.9%) to Bartonella sp. For molecular characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification and sequencing of a fragment of p51 gene for N. risticii, a fragment of citrate synthase gene (gltA) for Rickettsia genus and a fragment of gltA for Bartonella genus. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the maximum-likelihood method. Phylogenetic analysis of N. risticii detect in our study revealed that it relates to findings in the USA West Coast; Rickettsia sp. detected is phylogenetically within R. bellii group, which also includes many other Rickettsia endosymbionts of insects; and Bartonella sp. found is related to various Bartonella spp. described in Vespertilionidae bats, which are phylogenetically related to Molossidae. Our results are in accordance to previous findings, which demonstrate that insectivorous bats could be infected with vector-borne bacteria representing a potential risk to public health. Future research is necessary to clarify the circulation of these pathogens in bats from Buenos Aires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Endosulfan induced alteration in bacterial protein profile and RNA yield of Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6, and Rhodococcus sp. M2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu; Singh, Dileep Kumar

    2014-01-30

    Three bacterial strains identified as Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2 were isolated by soil enrichment with endosulfan followed by shake flask enrichment technique. They were efficiently degrading endosulfan in the NSM (non sulfur medium) broth. Degradation of endosulfan was faster with the cell free extract of bacterial cells grown in the sulfur deficient medium (NSM) supplemented with endosulfan than that of nutrient rich medium (Luria Bertani). In the cell free extract of NSM supplemented with endosulfan as sole sulfur source, a unique band was visualized on SDS-PAGE but not with magnesium sulfate as the sole sulfur source in NSM and LB with endosulfan. Expression of a unique polypeptide band was speculated to be induced by endosulfan under sulfur starved condition. These unique polypeptide bands were identified as OmpK35 protein, sulfate binding protein and outer membrane porin protein, respectively, in Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2. Endosulfan showed dose dependent negative effect on total RNA yield of bacterial strains in nutrient rich medium. Absence of plasmid DNA indicated the presence of endosulfan metabolizing gene on genomic DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. From spent graphite to amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated sp2 graphite for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhuang, Yuchan; Deng, Yaoming; Song, Xiaona; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Xiao, Xin; Nan, Junmin

    2018-02-01

    Today, with the massive application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the portable devices and electric vehicles, to supply the active materials with high-performances and then to recycle their wastes are two core issues for the development of LIBs. In this paper, the spent graphite (SG) in LIBs is used as raw materials to fabricate two comparative high-capacity graphite anode materials. Based on a microsurgery-like physical reconstruction, the reconstructed graphite (RG) with a sp2+sp3 carbon surface is prepared through a microwave exfoliation and subsequent spray drying process. In contrast, the neural-network-like amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated graphite (AC@G) is synthesized using a self-reconfigurable chemical reaction strategy. Compared with SG and commercial graphite (CG), both RG and AC@G have enhanced specific capacities, from 311.2 mAh g-1 and 360.7 mAh g-1 to 409.7 mAh g-1 and 420.0 mAh g-1, at 0.1C after 100 cycles. In addition, they exhibit comparable cycling stability, rate capability, and voltage plateau with CG. Because the synthesis of RG and AC@G represents two typical physical and chemical methods for the recycling of SG, these results on the sp2+sp3 carbon layer coating bulk graphite also reveal an approach for the preparation of high-performance graphite anode materials derived from SG.

  17. Wnt-mediated down-regulation of Sp1 target genes by a transcriptional repressor Sp5

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fujimura, Naoko; Vacík, Tomáš; Machoň, Ondřej; Vlček, Čestmír; Scalabrin, S.; Speth, M.; Diep, D.; Krauss, S.; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 2 (2007), s. 1225-1237 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Wnt -mediated signaling * Sp5 transcription factor * Sp1 target genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.581, year: 2007

  18. Structural Analysis of Planar sp3 and sp2 Films: Diamond-Like Carbon and Graphene Overlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    pure sp2 as in graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, to pure sp3 as in diamond. Amorphous and diamond-like carbon consists of a mixture of both hybridizations. This variation in hybridization in carbon materials enables a wide spectrum

  19. Formulation of a minimal nutritional medium for enhanced lipid productivity in Chlorella sp. and Botryococcus sp. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Rashi; Dhar, Dolly Wattal; Pabbi, Sunil

    2018-03-01

    Chlorella sp. MCC 7 and Botryococcus sp. MCC 31 were investigated to enable large-scale biodiesel production from minimal constituents in the growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to maximise the biomass productivity and lipid yield using only nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) as urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash. The optimum values were 0.42 g/L nitrogen; 0.14 g/L phosphorus and 0.22 g/L potassium for Chlorella sp.; and 0.46 g/L; 0.14 g/L and 0.25 g/L for Botryococcus sp. Lipid yield of 42% for Chlorella sp. and 52% in Botryococcus sp. was observed. An enhancement in lipid yield by approximately 55% for Chlorella sp. and 73% for Botryococcus sp. was registered as compared to original nutrient medium. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of extracted lipids revealed characteristic bands for triglycerides. This study provided utilisation of a practicable nutrient recipe in the form of N, P, K input for enhanced lipid yield from the selected microalgal strains.

  20. Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongxin; Guo Yingqiu; Ge Xijin; Itoh, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Akira; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21 WAF1 ). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers

  1. The human luteinizing hormone receptor gene promoter: activation by Sp1 and Sp3 and inhibitory regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Y; Tsai-Morris, C H; Zhang, Y; Dufau, M L

    1999-09-24

    To understand the transcriptional mechanism(s) of human LH receptor (LHR) gene expression, we have identified the dominant functional cis-elements that regulate the activity of the promoter domain (-1 to -176 bp from ATG). Mutagenesis demonstrated that the promoter activity was dependent on two Sp1 domains (-79 bp, -120 bp) in a transformed normal placental cell (PLC) and the choriocarcinoma JAR cell. Both elements interacted with endogenous Sp1 and Sp3 factors but not with Sp2 or Sp4. In Drosophila SL2 cells, the promoter was activated by either Sp1 or Sp3. An ERE half-site (EREhs) at -174 bp was inhibitory (by 100%), but was unresponsive to estradiol and did not bind the estrogen receptor or orphan receptors ERR1 and SF-1. The 5' upstream sequence (-177 to -2056 bp) inhibited promoter activity in PLC by 60%, but only minimally in JAR cells. Activation of the human LHR promoter through Sp1/3 factors is negatively regulated through EREhs and upstream sequences to exert control of gene expression. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK BIOTA LAUTAGLAOPHENIA SP. UNTUK MENGENDALIKANFUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP.VANILLAE PENYEBAB BUSUK BATANG VANILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KETUT SUADA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Aglaophenia sp. Marine Biota Extract to Control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vanillae, a Pathogen of Vanilla Stem Rot The use of marine biota for organic fungicide material has enormous potential to be developed. The organic fungicide was directed to substitute synthetic fungicide for vanilla cultivation. Application of synthetic fungicide degraded environmental quality, therefore its applications does not support sustainable agriculture. The objective of this research was to know the potence of Aglaopheniain suppressing the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp.vanillae, the pathogen of vanilla stem rot. The research was done in green house in order to find the best substance for formulation of the extract. The substances screened were water, tween-80, and detergents with two different concentrations. Subsequently, two best formulas were chosen to apply in endemic area in Tabanan. The green house and field trial research used Randomized Completely Design with three and five replications respectively. Results showed that tween was the best substance used for formulation and concentration of 0.2% was better than other concentrations. The extract diluted in tween-80 on the concentration of 0.2% showed the lowest rot on stem, longest shoot, and the most leaves on vanilla shoot. Because of its significant performance, the 0.1% extract ofAglaopheniain 0.1% tween-80 was proposed to be the best formula to suppress the vanilla stem rot disease.

  3. Vulvovaginitis: causes and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A M; Hart, C A

    1992-01-01

    Over a period of 33 months in a paediatric accident and emergency department, the clinical pattern and possible causes of vulvovaginitis were studied prospectively in 200 girls presenting with genital discharge, irritation, pain, or redness. The major causes were poor hygiene and threadworms. The suspicion of sexual abuse arose in a few girls but no organisms of sexually transmitted disease were found. Urinary symptoms were common but only 20 patients had a significant bacteriuria and 40 had sterile pyuria. Specific skin problems occurred in 28 cases. Simple measures to improve hygiene and treatment of threadworms gave effective relief. Genital irritation caused urinary symptoms with no clinical evidence of infection, and it is advised that antibiotic treatment should await urine culture. Specific skin problems require help from a dermatologist. The possibility of sexual abuse must be considered especially if the vulvovaginitis is persistent or recurrent after adequate treatment. PMID:1580682

  4. Monoclonal antibody-based Surface Plasmon Resonance sensors for pathogen detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2007-01-01

    .sp. tritici, the cause of wheat yellow rust and Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late blight disease in potato. As no antibody existed against urediniospores from P. striiformis, mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced and characterised. IgM-isotype mAbs from nine hybridoma cell lines were...... to the initial cell concentration. Assay performance was investigated by cross-reactivity studies against other rust fungi. Cross-reactivity was found with Puccinia recondita and Puccinia hordei, suggesting that the ~ 39 kDa mAb8-antigen might be a conserved structural component in the surface of Puccinia...

  5. A sp2+sp3 hybridized carbon allotrope transformed from AB stacking graphyne and THD-graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New carbon allotropes can be designed by combining sp, sp2 and sp3 three hybridization states. And the hybridization states or coordination numbers of carbon atoms can be changed by applying high pressure on carbon materials. In this study, a common high pressure phase (named as TBBC transformed from AB-stacking graphyne or THD-graphene is predicted. Its kinetic stability is examined using finite displacement method. We find that the sp2 and sp3 hybridized carbon atoms behave different vibration features at high frequency region. Both graphene-like and diamond-like vibration peaks occurs. Phase transition energy barriers from both graphyne and THD-graphene to TBBC are estimated. Electronic structure calculations show that the TBBC is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 0.66 eV. The ideal tensile strength of TBBC is high in [0001] and [11¯00] directions, but is weak along [12¯10] direction.

  6. Kinetics of petroleum oil biodegradation by a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kachieng’a

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum oil is a complex mixture of substances, the majority of which are hydrocarbons; the latter represent an extremely important and heterogeneous group of compounds that find their way into water resources by anthropogenic or natural ways. The majority of toxic hydrocarbon components of petroleum are biodegradable, where bioremediation using microbial species has become an integral process for the restoration of oil-polluted areas. In this study, three bioremediation processes, namely natural attenuation, nutrient supplementation by adding glucose and biostimulation by adding Tween® 80, were carried out in various petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in polluted water media using a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.. A first-order kinetics model was fitted to the biodegradation data to evaluate the biodegradation rate and to determine the corresponding half-life time. First-order kinetics satisfactorily described the biodegradation of the petroleum-based contaminants under abiotic conditions. The results showed an increase in the percentage removal of petroleum oil at the lower petroleum concentrations and a gradual percentage decrease in removing petroleum oil residues occurred when there was an increase in the initial concentrations of the petroleum oil: 39%, 27%, 22%, 12%, 10% for various petroleum oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/L, respectively. A similar trend was also observed in the glucose-supplemented culture media where the reduction was 45% and 78% for petroleum concentrations of 250 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Biodegradation of between 33 and 90% was achieved at a Tween® 80 concentration of between 50 mg/L and 250 mg/L. The degradation rate constants for the natural attenuation process ranged between ≥0 to ≤0.50, ≥0 to ≤0.35, ≥0 to ≤0.25, ≥0 to ≤ 0.14 and ≥ 0 to ≤0.11 for petroleum oil concentrations varying from 50, 100, 150

  7. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  8. Cr(VI) reduction from contaminated soils by Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 isolated from chromium deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tsubasa; Ishino, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Akane; Tsutsumi, Kadzuyo; Morita, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 are chromate-resistant filamentous fungi that were isolated from Cr(VI) contaminated soil based on their ability to decrease hexavalent chromium levels in the growth medium. After 120 h of growth in a medium containing 50 ppm Cr(VI) at near neutral pH, Aspergillus sp. N2 reduced the Cr(VI) concentration by about 75%. Penicillium sp. N3 was able to reduce the Cr(VI) concentration by only 35%. However, Penicillium sp. N3 reduced the Cr(VI) concentration in the medium by 93% under acidic conditions. Interestingly, the presence of Cu(II) enhanced the Cr(VI) reducing ability of Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 at near neutral pH. Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 reduced the Cr(VI) concentration in the growth medium to a virtually undetectable level within 120 h. For both Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3, mycelial seed cultures were more efficient at Cr(VI) reduction than conidium seed cultures. The mechanisms of Cr(VI) reduction in Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 were enzymatic reduction and sorption to mycelia. Enzymatic activity contributed significantly to Cr(VI) reduction. Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 reduced the levels of Cr(VI) in polluted soil samples, suggesting that these strains might be useful for cleaning up chromium-contaminated sites.

  9. DAN IDENTIFIKASI PATOGEN POTENSIAL YANG MENGINFEKSI IKAN RAINBOW (Melanotaenia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sholichah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemeliharaan ikan rainbow (Melanotaenia sp. di Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Ikan Hias selalu terjadi kematian secara bertahap mulai calon induk hingga proses pemijahan. Hal ini terjadi berulang kali sehingga ketersediaan induk Melanotaenia sp. sangat terancam. Ikan ini berasal dari Papua yang diperoleh mengandalkan penangkapan di alam. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menginventarisir dan mengidentifikasi berbagai patogen (parasit, jamur, bakteri potensial yang menginfeksi ikan rainbow yang dipelihara di dalam akuarium berukuran 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm dengan sistem aliran air stagnan. Tiga jenis rainbow yang dipelihara yaitu: rainbow Sungai Salawati, asal Sungai Sawiat, dan asal Danau Kurumoi. Setiap ikan masing-masing berjumlah 100 ekor dipelihara di akuarium dengan penambahan batu karang dan tanpa penambahan karang (kontrol ke dalam akuarium. Ikan diberi pakan sekenyangnya berupa jentik nyamuk dan cacing rambut beku setiap pagi dan sore hari. Sampling dilakukan secara random sebulan sekali dan secara unrandom setiap ada kejadian ikan sakit. Gejala klinis ikan yang sakit sebagai berikut: ikan berenang di permukaan dan menggosok-gosokkan badan di dinding akuarium, nafsu makan berkurang, gerakan berputar-putar, warna memudar menjadi putih, penekanan warna hitam pada sirip punggung dan perut meningkat, pendarahan pada perut, lendir berlebihan dan sangat berbau, serta sisik berdiri/terbuka. Diagnosa dan deteksi penyakit awal berupa pengamatan parasit baik ektoparasit maupun endoparasit, pengamatan dan isolasi jamur pada media selektif jamur, dan isolasi bakteri dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis patogen yang menginfeksi ketiga jenis ikan rainbow. Selanjutnya dilakukan uji histologi dan analisa DNA beberapa patogen. Hasil pengamatan diperoleh patogen berupa parasit (Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., dan Trichodina sp. dan bakteri (Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinetobacter sp

  10. Mutation effects of C2+ ion irradiation on the greasy Nitzschia sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.N.; Liu, C.L.; Wang, Y.K.; Xue, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal conditions of C 2+ ion irradiation on Nitzschia sp. were discussed. • Get the “saddle type” survival curve. • One mutant whose lipid content improved significantly was selected. • The C 2+ ion irradiation didn’t change the algae's morphology and growth rate. - Abstract: Screening and nurturing algae with high productivity, high lipid content and strong stress resistance are very important in algae industry. In order to increase the lipid content, the Nitzschia sp. was irradiated with a 3 MeV C 2+ beam. The sample pretreatment method was optimized to obtain the best mutagenic condition and the survival ratio curve. The positive mutants with a significant improvement in lipid content were screened and their C 2+ mutagenic effects were analyzed by comparing the greasiness and growth characteristics with the wild type algae. Results showed that when the Nitzschia sp. was cultivated in nutritious medium containing 10% glycerol solution, and dried on the filter for 5 min after centrifugation, the realization of the microalgae heavy ion mutagenesis could be done. The survival ratio curve caused by C 2+ irradiation was proved to be “saddle-shaped”. A positive mutant was screened among 20 survivals after irradiation, the average lipid content of the mutation increased by 9.8% than the wild type after 4 generations. But the growth rate of the screened mutation didn’t change after the heavy ion implantation compared to the wild type algae

  11. Optimised selenium enrichment of Artemia sp. feed to improve red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Péter; Lengyel, Szvetlana; Udvari, Zsolt; Sándor, Alex Nagy; Stündl, László

    2017-09-01

    Selenium is an essential microelement for the normal functioning of life processes. Moreover, it is a component of enzymes with antioxidant effects. However, it has the smallest window of any micronutrient between requirement and toxicity. Selenium is a regularly used element in fish feeds; moreover, enriching zooplankton with selenium to rear larvae is also a well-known technology. It is accepted that the most common starter foods of fish larvae, natural rotifers contain the smallest dosage of selenium, but providing selenium enriched Artemia sp. instead could increase survival and growth rate of fish. However, no such references are available for the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae. Therefore, in this study, Artemia sp. was enriched with nano-selenium of verified low toxicity and easy availability in 5 treatments (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 mg/l Se), and then, fish larvae were fed with four of these enriched Artemia stocks (1, 5, 10, 50 mg/l Se) and a control group. At the end of the 9-day-long experiment, survival rate (S) and growth parameters (SL, W, K-factor, SGR) of fish larvae were calculated as well as their selenium retention and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity were analysed. It was revealed that a moderate level of selenium enrichment (~4 mg/kg dry matter) of Artemia sp. positively influences the rearing efficiency (i.e. survival and growth) of fish larvae, but higher dosages of selenium could cause adverse effects.

  12. Interactions of protamine with the marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. NCIMB 2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustam, A; Smith, C; Deering, C; Grosicki, K M T; Leng, T Y; Lin, S; Yang, J; Pink, D; Gill, T; Graham, L; Derksen, D; Bishop, C; Demont, M E; Wyeth, R C; Smith-Palmer, T

    2014-03-01

    Pseudoalteromonas sp. NCIMB 2021 (NCIMB 2021) was grown in synthetic seawater (SSW) containing pyruvate, in the presence (SSW(++) ) and absence (SSW(-) ) of divalent cations. Cultures contained single cells. Addition of the cationic antibacterial peptide (CAP), protamine, did not inhibit, but rather increased, the growth of NCIMB 2021 in SSW(++) and caused the bacteria to grow in chains. Bacterial growth was assessed using turbidity, cell counts and the sodium salt of resazurin. In SSW(-) , NCIMB 2021 was no longer resistant to protamine. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 5 mg ml(-1) . Protamine is a cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP), which is active against a variety of bacteria. This is the first in-depth study of the interaction of protamine with a marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. NCIMB 2021. Our results show that protamine is only active in seawater in the absence of divalent cations. In the presence of the divalent cations, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) , protamine enhances the growth of Pseudoalteromonas sp. NCIMB 2021 and produces chains rather than individual cells. These are important considerations when deciding on applications for protamine and in terms of understanding its mechanism of action. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Anticestodal Activity of Endophytic Pestalotiopsis sp. on Protoscoleces of Hydatid Cyst Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay C. Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is still the main treatment in hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus, which is a global health problem in human and animals. So, there is need for some natural protoscolicidal agents for instillation to prevent their reoccurrence at therapeutic doses. In this present investigation, anticestodal activity of one of the endophytic fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. from Neem plant was observed on protoscoleces of hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% aqueous eosin red stain method, where mortality was observed at different concentrations with respect to time. An average anticestodal activity was observed with different endophytic fungal strains, that is, Nigrospora (479 ± 2.9, Colletotrichum (469 ± 25.8, Fusarium (355 ± 14.5, and Chaetomium (332 ± 28.3 showing 64 to 70% protoscolicidal activity, except Pestalotiopsis sp. (581 ± 15.0, which showed promising scolicidal activity up to 97% mortality just within 30 min of incubation. These species showed significant reduction in viability of protoscoleces. This is the first report on the scolicidal activity of endophytic Pestalotiopsis sp. We conclude that ultrastructural changes in protoscoleces were due to endophytic extract suggesting that there may be some bioactive compounds that have selective action on the tegument layer of protoscoleces. As compared with that of standard drug used, endophytic species of Neem plant shows significant anticestodal activity.

  14. PENGUJIAN TRICHODERMA SP. SEBAGAI PENGENDALI HAWAR DAUN BIBIT KAKAO YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH PHYTHOPTHORA PALMIVORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarman .

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysist for Trichoderma sp. as the controller of the cocoa seedlings leaf blight which caused by Phythopthora palmivora. This study aims to determine: survival and ability to live of Trichoderma sp. isolates TCN-Klp supported by predisposing wounding or without wounding the leaves as well as the ability to suppress P. palmivora inoculated on the leaves of cocoa seedlings with and without wounding the leaves before inoculation. The research conducted at the Microbiology Laboratory and Greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo on March-July 2015. There were two kinds of experiments: inoculation without wounding the leaves (1st experiment and inoculation with wounding leaves (2nd experiment. Both of them were done by inoculation treatment: pathogens, Trichoderma, pathogens and Trichoderma simultaneously, then pathogens and incubated for 2x24 hours then inoculated. Both kinds of experiments were arranged in a complete randomize design (CRD with 3 times of replication for 1st experiment and 4 times of replication for 2nd experiment. The data of result was analyzed by ANOVA followed by 5% test level of Duncan test. The results showed that the isolates TCN-Klp of Trichoderma sp: (i had own survival and ability to live well in the leaf surface without injury, and (ii was able to suppress pathogens by inoculation simultaneously, which was preceded and precede the pathogens with a gap of 24 hours on with and without wounding leaves at 10 days after inoculation.

  15. dlx and sp6-9 Control optic cup regeneration in a prototypic eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain W Lapan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Optic cups are a structural feature of diverse eyes, from simple pit eyes to camera eyes of vertebrates and cephalopods. We used the planarian prototypic eye as a model to study the genetic control of optic cup formation and regeneration. We identified two genes encoding transcription factors, sp6-9 and dlx, that were expressed in the eye specifically in the optic cup and not the photoreceptor neurons. RNAi of these genes prevented formation of visible optic cups during regeneration. Planarian regeneration requires an adult proliferative cell population with stem cell-like properties called the neoblasts. We found that optic cup formation occurred only after migration of progressively differentiating progenitor cells from the neoblast population. The eye regeneration defect caused by dlx and sp6-9 RNAi can be explained by a failure to generate these early optic cup progenitors. Dlx and Sp6-9 genes function as a module during the development of diverse animal appendages, including vertebrate and insect limbs. Our work reveals a novel function for this gene pair in the development of a fundamental eye component, and it utilizes these genes to demonstrate a mechanism for total organ regeneration in which extensive cell movement separates new cell specification from organ morphogenesis.

  16. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  17. Landslides - Cause and effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  18. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than half of all people in the United States either will have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. Common symptoms are: Blurry vision Colors that seem faded Glare Not being able to ...

  19. Aliteracy : causes and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, Thijs Martinus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The reading motivation of the majority of students declines in the upper half of primary school, which implies a risk for aliteracy: Students can read but, due to lack of practice, their skills remain underdeveloped (Chapter 2). In this thesis we have explored causes and solutions for this important

  20. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more