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Sample records for sp oocysts subspheroidal

  1. Sporulation of Cyclospora sp. oocysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H V; Paton, C A; Mitambo, M M; Girdwood, R W

    1997-01-01

    Cyclospora sp. oocysts sporulated maximally at 22 and 30 degrees C for 14 days retarded sporulation. Up to 12% of human- and baboon-derived oocysts previously stored at 4 degrees C for 1 to 2 months sporulated when stored for 6 to 7 days at 30 degrees C.

  2. Oocyst shedding by green-winged-saltator (Saltator similis) in the diagnostic of coccidiosis and Isospora similisi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Oliveira, Vinícius Modesto de; Flausino, Walter; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Diurnal periodicity is a phenomenon that has been observed in coccidian of Isospora parasites of passerines, which have been eliminated great number of oocysts at dusk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of periodicity of oocysts presence in the green-winged-saltator Saltator similis, and its use in the diagnosis of coccidiosis in wild birds in captivity. A total of 220 fecal samples were collected from birds, apprehended from illegal trading and kept in quarantine in CETAS∕IBAMA, in the morning and late afternoon, from May to November 2010. It was observed that 1.82% of the samples collected in the morning were positive, while 31.36% of samples were positive in the late afternoon. In addition, the number of oocysts shed was greater in the afternoon. Therefore, it was concluded that the sampling in the late afternoon provided greater reliability for the diagnosis of coccidiosis in green-winged-saltators. Moreover, in this study a new isosporoid coccidian parasite from the green-winged-saltator S. similis was observed and is herein described. Isospora similisi n. sp. oocysts are spheroidal to sub-spheroidal, 27.5 × 25.9 µm, with a smooth and bi-layered wall, ∼1.2 mm. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but splinter-like or comma-like granules are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal or slightly ovoidal, 17.4 × 12.2 mm. A stieda body and substieda body are present. The sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with a single refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting S. similis and the sixth description from Cardinalidae.

  3. A new coccidian, Isospora rheae sp. nov. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae), from Rhea americana (Aves, Rheidae) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Samira S.M.; Ederli, Nicole B.; Berto, Bruno P.; de Oliveira, Francisco C.R.

    2014-01-01

    A new species of coccidian (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from rheas, Rhea americana, is reported in Brazil. Oocysts of Isospora rheae sp. nov. are spherical to subspheroidal, measuring 22.6 × 21.0 µm, and have a double and smooth wall that is approximately 1.7 µm thick. The micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are slightly ovoid, measuring 13.9 × 9.6 µm. The Stieda body is flattened, the substieda body is pointed, irregular and wavy and the sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules of varying sizes. Sporozoites have an oblong refractile body and one nucleus. This is the first description of an isosporid coccidian infecting birds of the family Rheidae. PMID:25426418

  4. A new coccidian, Isospora rheae sp. nov. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae, from Rhea americana (Aves, Rheidae from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira S.M. Gallo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of coccidian (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae obtained from rheas, Rhea americana, is reported in Brazil. Oocysts of Isospora rheae sp. nov. are spherical to subspheroidal, measuring 22.6 × 21.0 µm, and have a double and smooth wall that is approximately 1.7 µm thick. The micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are slightly ovoid, measuring 13.9 × 9.6 µm. The Stieda body is flattened, the substieda body is pointed, irregular and wavy and the sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules of varying sizes. Sporozoites have an oblong refractile body and one nucleus. This is the first description of an isosporid coccidian infecting birds of the family Rheidae.

  5. Oocyst shedding by green-winged-saltator (Saltator similis in the diagnostic of coccidiosis and Isospora similisi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae Eliminação de oocistos por trinca-ferro-verdadeiro (Saltator similis no diagnóstico da coccidiose e Isospora similisi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Domingues Coelho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal periodicity is a phenomenon that has been observed in coccidian of Isospora parasites of passerines, which have been eliminated great number of oocysts at dusk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of periodicity of oocysts presence in the green-winged-saltator Saltator similis, and its use in the diagnosis of coccidiosis in wild birds in captivity. A total of 220 fecal samples were collected from birds, apprehended from illegal trading and kept in quarantine in CETAS∕IBAMA, in the morning and late afternoon, from May to November 2010. It was observed that 1.82% of the samples collected in the morning were positive, while 31.36% of samples were positive in the late afternoon. In addition, the number of oocysts shed was greater in the afternoon. Therefore, it was concluded that the sampling in the late afternoon provided greater reliability for the diagnosis of coccidiosis in green-winged-saltators. Moreover, in this study a new isosporoid coccidian parasite from the green-winged-saltator S. similis was observed and is herein described. Isospora similisi n. sp. oocysts are spheroidal to sub-spheroidal, 27.5 × 25.9 µm, with a smooth and bi-layered wall, ∼1.2 mm. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but splinter-like or comma-like granules are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal or slightly ovoidal, 17.4 × 12.2 mm. A stieda body and substieda body are present. The sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with a single refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting S. similis and the sixth description from Cardinalidae.A periodicidade diurna é um fenômeno que tem sido observado em coccídios do gênero Isospora parasitas de pássaros, os quais eliminam uma maior quantidade de oocistos ao entardecer. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a periodicidade de eliminação de oocistos pelas fezes no trinca

  6. Effect of three concentration techniques on viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts recovered from bovine feces.

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhari, Z; Smith, H V

    1995-01-01

    Bovine fecal samples (1 g) negative for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were seeded with 7 x 10(4) Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and purified by either water-ether concentration, sucrose density flotation, or zinc sulfate flotation to evaluate oocyst recovery. The effect of these purification techniques on the viability of recovered oocysts was also evaluated. Significantly higher numbers of seeded oocysts were recovered by water-ether concentration (recovery rate, 46 to 75%) than by sucrose den...

  7. Effect of three concentration techniques on viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts recovered from bovine feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Z; Smith, H V

    1995-01-01

    Bovine fecal samples (1 g) negative for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were seeded with 7 x 10(4) Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and purified by either water-ether concentration, sucrose density flotation, or zinc sulfate flotation to evaluate oocyst recovery. The effect of these purification techniques on the viability of recovered oocysts was also evaluated. Significantly higher numbers of seeded oocysts were recovered by water-ether concentration (recovery rate, 46 to 75%) than by sucrose density (24 to 65%) or zinc sulfate (22 to 41%) flotation methods. In addition, water-ether concentration did not exert a significant effect on the viability of the population of oocysts recovered, whereas sucrose density flotation and zinc sulfate flotation selectively concentrated viable oocysts. The water-ether concentration procedure is recommended for use in epidemiological studies in which both oocyst enumeration and viability assessment are required. PMID:8567888

  8. First report of predation of Giardia sp. cysts by ciliated protozoa and confirmation of predation of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by ciliate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Bonatti, Tais Rondello; Yamashiro, Sandra; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Ciliated protozoa are important components of the microbial food web in various habitats, especially aquatic environments. These organisms are useful bioindicators for both environmental quality assessment and the wastewater purification process. The pathogenic parasitic protozoan species Giardia and Cryptosporidium represent a significant concern for human health, being responsible for numerous disease outbreaks worldwide. The predation of cysts and oocysts in 15 ciliate species from water and sewage samples collected in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil were verified under laboratory conditions. The ciliated protozoan species were selected based on their mode of nutrition, and only bacterivorous and suspension-feeders were considered for the experiments. The species Blepharisma sinuosum, Euplotes aediculatus, Sterkiella cavicola, Oxytricha granulifera, Vorticella infusionum, Spirostomum minus, and Stentor coeruleus ingested cysts and oocysts, the resistance forms of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. This is the first time that the ingestion of Giardia cysts by ciliated protozoa has been reported. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the biological removal of these pathogens from aquatic environments.

  9. Molecular fingerprinting of Cryptosporidium oocysts isolated during water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Rosely A B; Campbell, Brian M; Smith, Huw V

    2006-08-01

    We developed and validated a PCR-based method for identifying Cryptosporidium species and/or genotypes present on oocyst-positive microscope slides. The method involves removing coverslips and oocysts from previously examined slides followed by DNA extraction. We tested four loci, the 18S rRNA gene (N18SDIAG and N18SXIAO), the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene (STN-COWP), and the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene (by multiplex allele-specific PCR), for amplifying DNA from low densities of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts experimentally seeded onto microscope slides. The N18SDIAG locus performed consistently better than the other three tested. Purified oocysts from humans infected with C. felis, C. hominis, and C. parvum and commercially purchased C. muris were used to determine the sensitivities of three loci (N18SDIAG, STN-COWP, and N18SXIAO) to detect low oocyst densities. The N18SDIAG primers provided the greatest number of positive results, followed by the N18SXIAO primers and then the STN-COWP primers. Some oocyst-positive slides failed to generate a PCR product at any of the loci tested, but the limit of sensitivity is not entirely based on oocyst number. Sixteen of 33 environmental water monitoring Cryptosporidium slides tested (oocyst numbers ranging from 1 to 130) contained mixed Cryptosporidium species. The species/genotypes most commonly found were C. muris or C. andersoni, C. hominis or C. parvum, and C. meleagridis or Cryptosporidium sp. cervine, ferret, and mouse genotypes. Oocysts on one slide contained Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype II DNA.

  10. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Urbano Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP and to ii purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8 when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7. As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively. Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2 were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1 was positive (12.5%. The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.Giardia e Cryptosporidium causaram vários surtos epidêmicos de gastroenterite, associados à água potável. Efluentes de esgoto contaminados foram incriminados como uma fonte potencial de cistos e oocistos. Uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado de uma Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto. Para isto as amostras foram submetidas: i a concentração pelo

  11. RESEARCH NOTE: AUTOFLUORESCENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of a blue autofluorescence as a useful characteristic in the microscopic identification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. This autofluorescence appears to be of high intensity. Similar to the autofluorescence of related coccidia, the oocysts glow pale blue ...

  12. sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    adopted as the first line drug. SP has few untoward effects if used carefully in therapeutic doses. Nausea, vomiting, generalized body weakness; diarrhea, skin rashes and hematological reactions are some of the associated side effects. The drug can cause severe skin reactions such as Steven Johnson's syndrome. This.

  13. ISOLATION OF PURIFIED OOCYST WALLS AND SPOROCYSTS FROM TOXOPLASMA GONDII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxaplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan that infects a wide range of vertebrates, including humans. This report describes methods that have been developed for separation of oocyst components starting with the mechanical fragmentation of oocysts. Use of iodixoanol gradients a...

  14. Viability Assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts by Vital Dyes: Dry Mounts Overestimate the Number of “Ghost” Oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2017-01-01

    Viability assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts is crucial for evaluation of the public health significance of this important zoonotic protozoon. Viability is commonly assessed in wet mounts after acid pretreatmentand staining with fluorogenic vital dyes. However, in some studies, oocyst...

  15. Mechanics of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of microorganisms to survive under extreme conditions is closely related to the physicochemical properties of their wall. In the ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the oocyst stage possesses a bilayered wall that protects the dormant but potentially infective parasites from...

  16. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in a Silicon Micromodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Changyong; Hilpert, Markus; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B.; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2012-02-01

    Effective removal of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by granular filtration requires the knowledge of oocyst transport and deposition mechanisms, which can be obtained based on real time microscopic observation of oocyst transport in porous media. Attachment of oocysts to silica surface in a radial stagnation point flow (RSPF) cell and in a micromodel, which has 2-dimensional (2-D) microscopic pore structures consisting of an array of cylindrical collectors, was studied and compared. Real time transport of oocysts in the micromodel was recorded to determine the attached oocyst distributions in transversal and longitudinal directions. In the micromodel, oocysts attached to the forward portion of clean collectors, where the flow velocity was lowest. After initial attachment, oocysts attached onto already attached oocysts. As a result, the collectors ripened and the region available for flow was reduced. Results of attachment and detachment experiments suggest that surface charge heterogeneity allowed for oocyst attachment. In addition to experiments, Lattice-Boltzmann simulations helped understanding the slightly non-uniform flow field and explained differences in the removal efficiency in the transversal direction. However, the hydrodynamic modeling could not explain differences in attachment in the longitudinal direction.

  17. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts among children with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts among children with acute gastroenteritis in Zaria, Nigeria by Kinyoun Modified Carbol-Fuchsin Staining (Modified Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) Technique. The results for the screening of Cryptosporidium oocysts showed that out of 372 stool ...

  18. Prevalence of cryptosporidium infection and characteristics of oocyst shedding in a breeding colony of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Clare; Greiner, Ellis; Uhl, Elizabeth W

    2008-12-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging problem in reptile medicine and has been associated with a wasting syndrome in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). This study determined the prevalence of infection in a breeding colony of leopard geckos to be 9.8%. Two groups of 20 geckos, one that was fecal positive for oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., and one, whose individuals were fecal negative at the inception of the study, were followed for 2 mo. Fecal samples were tested for oocysts every 2 wk, body weights were measured, and a body condition score was assigned for each gecko. Selected geckos from these two groups were euthanized and necropsied. There were statistically significant differences (P geckos with a subclinical or carrier state of infection. These animals continued to be infected with Cryptosporidium sp. but gained weight and remained in good body condition. Only one gecko in the entire group of 40 was confirmed to be negative for oocysts or developmental stages by repeated fecal exams and histopathology. An additional 37 severely emaciated geckos from the breeding colony were euthanized, and all were positive for Cryptosporidium sp. on histopathologic examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The results of this study indicate that although some animals can recover from a clinical infection, if a gecko is severely wasted, it should be euthanized because of the poor prognosis and possible source of infection to other geckos.

  19. Schizogony and gametogony of the vaccine, oocyst-deficient, strain T-263 of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oocysts are important stage for the spread of Toxoplasma gondii because they are environmentally resistant. Among all hosts of T. gondii, only felids can excrete oocysts. Cats that have excreted T. gondii oocysts after primary infection become immune to re-excretion of oocysts, and this immunity app...

  20. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum treatment of moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Bostwick, E F

    1999-01-01

    Therapy based on the protective passive immunity of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) was applied to 12 moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp. The geckos were lethargic and moderately to severely emaciated, weighing on average 36% of the baseline body weight value. Seven gastric HBC treatments at 1-week intervals each decreased the relative output of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and the prevalence of oocyst-positive fecal specimens. Histologically, after 8 weeks of therapy, seven out of 12 geckos had only single developmental stages of Cryptosporidium sp. in the intestinal epithelium, and three, one and one geckos had low, moderate and high numbers, respectively, of the pathogen developmental stages. The HBC therapy was efficacious in decreasing the parasite load in moribund geckos. Morphometric and immunologic analysis of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyst isolates originating from Leopard geckos (E. macularius) demonstrated differences between gecko-derived oocyst isolates and isolates of C. serpentis recovered from snakes.

  1. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Hillard Farret; Vinicius da Rosa Fanfa; Luisa Ragagnin; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was ...

  2. Using Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR and Cell Culture Plaque Assays to Determine Resistance of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts to Chemical Sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are highly resistant to many chemical sanitizers. Current methods used to determine oocyst infectivity have relied exclusively on mouse, chicken, and feline bioassays. Although considered gold standards, they only provide a qualitative assessment of oocyst infectivity. I...

  3. Determining UV Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts by Using Cell Culture and a Mouse Bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of UV exposure on Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has not been completely defined for use in water disinfection. This study evaluated UV irradiated oocysts by three assays: a SCID mouse bioassay, an in vitro T. gondii oocyst plaque assay (TOP-assay), and a quantitative reve...

  4. Surface binding properties of aged and fresh (recently excreted) Toxoplasma gondii oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface properties of aged (stored for 10 years) and fresh (recently excreted) oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii were investigated using monoclonal antibody (mAb) and lectin-binding assays. Fresh oocysts bound a wall-specific mAb labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate while aged oocysts did not. In ...

  5. The search for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    associated with feacal pollution does not necessarily indicate the absence of Cryptosporidium or Giardia. Being a common cause of waterborne disease, the requirement for detecting the presence of these organisms in environmental and treated water samples is growing. Although cysts and oocysts can be found in natural ...

  6. The search for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although cysts and oocysts can be found in natural waters from any source, the risks of contamination are much greater in surface waters than in ground waters. A number of waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis, from potable and recreational water have been recorded. In many cases these outbreaks have occurred ...

  7. Prevalence of cryptosporidium oocyst in calves grazing along river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the point prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts infection in calves grazing along the bank of Rima River Sokoto in October 2011. The river bank is a converging zone for domestic animals reared in different quarters of the town and the surrounding settlements. A total number ...

  8. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J. A.; Riber, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    AimsTo develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water.Methods and ResultsThis unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx...... was assessed by seeding ColorSeed (10 replicates) into the filter unit followed by air backwash to a glass slide and counting of (oo-)cysts by epifluorescent microscopy. High recovery rates (meanSD) were found: 849%48 for Giardia cysts and 70%+/- 65 for Cryptosporidium oocysts. DNA of seeded wild type (oo...

  9. Macrophages facilitate the excystation and differentiation of Toxoplasma gondii sporozoites into tachyzoites following oocyst internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freppel, Wesley; Puech, Pierre-Henri; Ferguson, David J P; Azas, Nadine; Dubey, Jitender P; Dumètre, Aurélien

    2016-09-19

    Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of humans and animals, which is transmitted via oocysts in cat faeces or tissue cysts in contaminated meat. The robust oocyst and sporocyst walls protect the infective sporozoites from deleterious external attacks including disinfectants. Upon oocyst acquisition, these walls lose their integrity to let the sporozoites excyst and invade host cells following a process that remains poorly understood. Given the resistance of the oocyst wall to digestive enzymes and the ability of oocysts to cause parenteral infections, the present study investigated the possible contribution of macrophages in supporting sporozoite excystation following oocyst internalisation. By using single cell micromanipulations, real-time and time-point imaging techniques, we demonstrated that RAW macrophages could interact rapidly with oocysts and engulfed them by remodelling of their actin cytoskeleton. Internalised oocysts were associated to macrophage acidic compartments and showed evidences of wall disruption. Sporozoites were observed in macrophages containing oocyst remnants or in new macrophages, giving rise to dividing tachyzoites. All together, these results highlight an unexpected role of phagocytic cells in processing T. gondii oocysts, in line with non-classical routes of infection, and open new perspectives to identify chemical factors that lead to oocyst wall disruption under physiological conditions.

  10. Recovery of Waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts by Freshwater Benthic Clams (Corbicula fluminea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Fayer, Ronald; Cranfield, Michael R.; Conn, David Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Asian freshwater clams, Corbicula fluminea, exposed for 24 h to 38 liters of water contaminated with infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (1.00 × 106 oocysts/liter; approximately 1.9 × 105 oocysts/clam) were examined (hemolymph, gills, gastrointestinal [GI] tract, and feces) on days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 postexposure (PE). No oocysts were detected in the water 24 h after the contamination event. The percentage of oocyst-containing clams varied from 20 to 100%, depending on the type of tissue examined and the technique used—acid-fast stain (AFS) or immunofluorescent antibody (IFA). The oocysts were found in clam tissues and feces on days 1 through 14 PE; the oocysts extracted from the tissues on day 7 PE were infectious for neonatal BALB/c mice. Overall, the highest number of positive samples was obtained when gills and GI tracts were processed with IFA (prevalence, 97.5%). A comparison of the relative oocyst numbers indicated that overall, 58.3% of the oocysts were found in clam tissues and 41.7% were found in feces when IFA was used; when AFS was used, the values were 51.9 and 48.1%, respectively. Clam-released oocysts were always surrounded by feces; no free oocysts or oocysts disassociated from fecal matter were observed. The results indicate that these benthic freshwater clams are capable of recovery and sedimentation of waterborne C. parvum oocysts. To optimize the detection of C. parvum oocysts in C. fluminea tissue, it is recommended that gill and GI tract samples be screened with IFA (such as that in the commercially available MERIFLUOR test kit). PMID:9464376

  11. Immunization with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae-live attenuated oocysts protect goat kids from clinical coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Antonio; Muñoz, María Carmen; Molina, José Manuel; Hermosilla, Carlos; Andrada, Marisa; Lara, Pedro; Bordón, Elisa; Pérez, Davinia; López, Adassa María; Matos, Lorena; Guedes, Aránzazu Carmen; Falcón, Soraya; Falcón, Yaiza; Martín, Sergio; Taubert, Anja

    2014-01-17

    Caprine coccidiosis, affecting mainly young goat kids around the weaning period, is worldwide the most important disease in the goat industry. Control of caprine coccidiosis is increasingly hampered by resistances developed against coccidiostatic drugs leading to an enhanced need for anticoccidial vaccines. In the current study we conducted an oral immunization trial with live attenuated sporulated Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae oocysts. Sporulated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts were attenuated by X-irradiation technique. The experimental design included a total of 18 goat kids divided into the following groups: (i) animals immunized with attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts at 5 weeks of age and challenged 3 weeks later with non-irradiated homologous oocysts (group 1); (ii) animals infected with non-attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts at 5 weeks of age and challenged 3 weeks later with non-attenuated homologous oocysts (group 2); (iii) animals primary-infected with untreated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts at 8 weeks of age (control of the challenge infection, group 3); (iv) non-infected control animals (group 4). Goat kids immunized with live attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts (group 1) excreted significantly less oocysts in the faeces (95.3% reduction) than kids infected with non-attenuated ones (group 2). Furthermore, immunization with live but attenuated oocysts resulted in ameliorated clinical coccidiosis compared to goat kids infected with untreated oocysts (group 2) and resulted in equally reduced signs of coccidiosis after challenge infection compared to acquired immunity driven by non-attenuated oocysts. Overall, the present study demonstrates for the first time that live attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts orally administered showed almost no pathogenicity but enough immunogenicity in terms of immunoprotection. Importantly, vaccinated animals still shed low amounts of oocysts, guaranteeing environmental contamination and consecutive booster

  12. Choleoeimeria ghaffari n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the gallbladder of Eryx jayakari Boulenger (Serpentes: Boidae) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Duszynski, Donald W

    2014-02-01

    Choleoeimeria ghaffari n. sp. is described from the gallbladder of Eryx jayakari Boulenger in Saudi Arabia. Oöcysts are tetrasporocystic, cylindroidal, 23 × 14 μm, with a smooth bi-layered wall and length/width ratio of 1.5, without micropyle, oöcyst residuum and polar granule. Sporocysts are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 8 × 6 μm, with length/width ratio of 1.4, without Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies but with sporocyst residuum. Sporozoites are banana-shaped measuring 10 × 1.5 μm. The endogenous development was found to occur in the gallbladder epithelium and the extrahepatic bile ducts. Mature meronts are spheroidal, c.10 μm wide, and suspected to produce 12-16 merozoites. Microgamonts are irregular in shape, 13 × 10 μm, whereas macrogamonts are mostly subspheroidal, c.12 μm wide, with a prominent centrally-located nucleus. Based on oöcyst morphology and the site of endogenous development (epithelium of the gallbladder and bile ducts) the new eimeriid coccidian was placed in the genus Choleoeimeria Paperna & Landsberg, 1989.

  13. Eimeria oocyst concentrations and species composition in litter from commercial broiler farms during anticoccidial drug or live Eimeria oocyst vaccine control programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Eimeria oocyst concentrations and species composition in commercial broiler house litter changed during different cycles of anticoccidial drug (ACD) or live Eimeria oocyst vaccine (VAC) control programs, and if there was a correlation between Eimeria ooc...

  14. Detection and molecular status of Isospora sp. from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Murakoshi, Fumi; Nomura, Osamu; Suzuki, Toru; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-10-01

    The domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica, is reared for meat production, as a pet, or for racing. Few reports have characterized the parasitic protists from the genus Isospora isolated from Columbiformes. We detected Isospora-like oocysts from C. livia reared for racing. The oocyst contained two sporocysts, and each sporocyst included four sporozoites. The sporulated oocysts (n=4) were spherical; their mean diameters were 25.6 (24.0-27.2)×24.7 (23.4-26.0) μm. Micropyles, polar granules, and oocyst residuum were absent. The mean length and width of the sporocysts (n=8) were 19.5 (18.5-20.5) and 11.2 (10.2-12.1) μm, respectively. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were observed. Single-oocyst PCR revealed two different 18S rRNA gene sequences and one 28S rRNA gene sequence in a single oocyst of Isospora sp. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene, the two sequences made a group which fell within a cluster of known avian Isospora species. A tree based on the 28S rRNA gene sequence indicated that sequences from the pigeon Isospora sp. fell within a cluster of avian Isospora species. Both trees failed to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among the avian Isospora species due to limited resolution. Because the morphological description of Isospora sp. is based on only four oocysts, Isospora sp. is not proposed as a novel species here. This is the first description of Isospora sp. isolated from the domestic pigeon C. livia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exit of Plasmodium sporozoites from oocysts is an active process that involves the circumsporozoite protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium sporozoites develop within oocysts residing in the mosquito midgut. Mature sporozoites exit the oocysts, enter the hemolymph, and invade the salivary glands. The circumsporozoite (CS protein is the major surface protein of salivary gland and oocyst sporozoites. It is also found on the oocyst plasma membrane and on the inner surface of the oocyst capsule. CS protein contains a conserved motif of positively charged amino acids: region II-plus, which has been implicated in the initial stages of sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes. We investigated the function of region II-plus by generating mutant parasites in which the region had been substituted with alanines. Mutant parasites produced normal numbers of sporozoites in the oocysts, but the sporozoites were unable to exit the oocysts. In in vitro as well, there was a profound delay, upon trypsin treatment, in the release of mutant sporozoites from oocysts. We conclude that the exit of sporozoites from oocysts is an active process that involves the region II-plus of CS protein. In addition, the mutant sporozoites were not infective to young rats. These findings provide a new target for developing reagents that interfere with the transmission of malaria.

  16. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period.......63) with the total number of oocysts found. Destructively sampling of the soil columns showed that type of slurry and irrigation played a role in the vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespectively of irrigation status. Further studies are needed...

  17. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Hillard Farret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. This is the first report this protozoa in blue macaw.

  18. Four new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Owen Stanley Skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September and November 1991, 12 Owen Stanley skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Booulenger) were collected from various localities on Papua New Guinea and examined for coccidians. Six (50%) were found to harbour four eimerians that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria burseyi sp. n. were elongate to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (length x width, L x W) 36.0 x 24.0 microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.5. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria goldbergi sp. n. were ellipsoidal, with a bilayered wall, and measured 21.4 x 16.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.3. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria boulengeri sp. n. were spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, with a thin, single-layered wall that readily collapses, and measured 16.0 microm, L/W ratio was 1.0. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but usually one (sometimes two) polar granule(s) were present. Oocysts of Eimeria niuginiensis sp. n. were oblong to tapered with a bilayered wall, and measured 20.0 x 13.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.5. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. To our knowledge, these represent the only coccidians ever described from P. stanleyanus.

  19. Movement of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Unsaturated Natural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Erin; Korte, Caroline; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Dubey, Jitender; Dumetre, Aurélien; Darnault, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has a complex lifecycle that involves a wide variety of intermediate hosts with felids as the definitive host. Because of its numerous hosts and the prevalence of cats, T.gondii has spread throughout nearly the entire globe. Oocysts have been found not only in the feces of cats, but also in soils, animal feeds and water. Exposure through consumption of infected meat or following contact with cat feces can cause damage to the eyes, brain and other organs of immunocompromised populations as well as fetuses if they are exposed in utero. The prevalence of T.gondii and potential health risks necessitate a better understanding of the transport of T.gondii through soils, which to this point has not been well studied. This work aims to characterize the transport and retention of T.gondii oocysts in a number of unsaturated natural soils where fast transport and preferential flow paths have been prevented. The soils used are classified as loamy sands and sandy loams. They were placed in soil columns at a known bulk density and were then subjected to an artificial rain of 1 mM KCl solution. Flow in the columns was vertical and gravity driven. After steady state was reached, a pulse containing 2.5 million T.gondii oocysts and KBr as a conservative tracer was applied to the top of the column, after which steady rainfall was resumed. Leachate samples were collected throughout the experiment. qPCR for T.gondii was performed and KBr ions were measured to create breakthrough curves for both. After the completion of the rainfall portion of the experiment, soil columns were cut into 1 to 2 cm sections and analyzed for T.gondii with qPCR to characterize retention within the column and for soil water content.

  20. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocyst vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Jenkins, Mark C; Miska, Katarzyna B; Barfield, Ruth C

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, 1-day-old chicks were immunized with oocysts of Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina, or Eimeria tenella exposed to gamma radiation ranging from 0-500 Gy. The litter oocyst counts at 7 days postimmunization, and the effect on weight gain following a challenge infection, decreased with an optimum dose between 150-200 Gy. Based on this finding, broiler chicks were immunized with a mixture of E. maxima, E. acervulina, and E tenella that had been exposed to 150 or 200 Gy. This resulted in more than a 100-fold reduction in litter oocyst counts and significant protection from a challenge infection, as measured by improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Immunization of birds with oocysts receiving 200 Gy was less effective in providing protection from a challenge infection. An additional formulation of vaccines containing two different oocyst doses of the three species that had been irradiated with 150 Gy were evaluated in their ability to attenuate oocyst output and convey protection to challenge. Results were similar with both high and low numbers of irradiated oocysts. Immunized chicks shed less oocysts at 7 days postimmunization and were protected from negative effects of challenge infection as measured by FCR, changes in weight gain, lesion scores, and measurement of body composition. However, the level of protection was somewhat less than that achieved by immunization with nonirradiated oocysts. The overall conclusion is that an irradiated oocyst vaccine developed in this study can effectively protect chicks that are raised on litter from challenge infection with multiple species of Eimeria, comparable to vaccines with virulent or precocious strains.

  1. RNA Extraction Methods for Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time PCR and Microarray Analysis of Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of infectious oocyst forms of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium spp. to resist disinfection treatments and cause disease may have significant public health implications. Currently, little is known about oocyst-specific factors involved during host cell invasion p...

  2. RNA Extraction Methods for Real-Time PCR and Microarray Analyses of Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts - 2nd Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of infectious oocyst forms of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium spp. to resist disinfection treatments and cause disease may have significant public health implications. Currently, little is known about oocyst-specific factors involved during host cell invasion pr...

  3. Macrophages facilitate the excystation and differentiation of Toxoplasma gondii sporozoites into tachyzoites following oocyst internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of humans and domestic animals, which is transmitted via oocysts in cat faeces or tissue cysts in contaminated meat. The oocyst and sporocyst walls are multilayered polymeric structures that protect the infective sporozoites from deleterious physical and chemic...

  4. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract: Impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Woolsey, Ian; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  5. Quantitative comparison of different purification and detection methods for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sirri; Gawlowska, Sandra; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2011-05-11

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is the causal agent of cryptosporidiosis in many animals, mainly cattle, and possesses a high zoonotic potential. It occurs worldwide and ubiquitously. Detection of C. parvum is mainly performed directly but purification of the oocysts is useful to increase sensitivity and to obtain oocyst material for further use. The study was designed to compare (a) three different direct diagnostic methods, namely modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining, carbol fuchsin staining and conventional PCR, and (b) three routine oocyst purification methods, in particular flotation with saturated sodium chloride solution, Sheather's sucrose solution and a Percoll(®) gradient. During comparison of purification methods, special regard was paid to the ability to separate morphologically intact oocysts from the morphologically degenerated fraction or viable from non-viable oocysts, respectively. (a) Most effective in C. parvum oocysts detection in calf faeces was PCR; carbol fuchsin and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stainings achieved comparable results. (b) Purification methods: Oocyst flotation using sodium chloride solution showed to be superior to Percoll(®) gradient centrifugation and sugar flotation in terms of purification quality, recovery efficacy (yield) and reduction of the proportion of degenerated or non-viable oocysts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Viability staining of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts combined with flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; MGB

    1998-01-01

    The incorporation of flow cytometry as an additional purification step has improved the detection method for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water. Flow cytometry allows separation of (oo)cysts from interfering debris particles present in water concentrates and thus enables the

  7. ELISA study of oocyst-sporozoite transition in malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czeher C.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic vector characteristics and environmental factors affect the sporogonic development of P. falciparum in Anopheles mosquitoes. We tested for the presence of the circumsporozoite protein, as a marker of the oocyst to sporozoite transition in naturally infected Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus. Malaria vectors were collected in a village in the Sahel of Niger during the rainy and dry seasons. ELISA-CSP was carried out on abdomen and head/thorax portions from more than 2,000 samples. No significant difference was found in the overall rates of infection of An. gambiae s.l. (4.13% and An. funestus (3.58%. Given the differences in duration of the two parasite stages, P. falciparum CSP antigen prevalence was nearly as high in the abdomen as in the head/thorax, and did not differ significantly between An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus. These preliminary results suggest that development from oocysts to salivary gland sporozoites is similar in the two vectors. However, these developmental indices varied as a function of the season in which samples were collected, particularly for An. gambiae s.l. This simple method may be useful for field studies assessing the effect of environmental and genetic factors on parasite survival.

  8. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solo-Gabriele Helena María

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L than Giardia cysts (6/100 L, suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

  9. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

  10. Gel-Bead Delivery of Eimeria oocysts protects chickens against coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; Klopp, Spangler; O'Brien, Celia; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines composed of either virulent or attenuated Eimeria spp. oocysts have been developed as an alternative to medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of gel-beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine against coccidiosis. Newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel-beads. Control day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(4) total) by oral gavage. After 3 days, chicks were randomly assigned to individual cages, and feces were collected between days 5 and 8 postinfection. All samples were processed for total Eimeria oocysts. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E acervulina, E maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Oocyst excretion by chicks fed gel-beads or inoculated by oral gavage was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of chicks spray-vaccinated with the Eimeria oocysts mixture (log 6.3-6.6 vs. log 4.8). Subsequent protection against challenge as measured by weight gain and feed conversion efficiency was significantly greater (P 0.05) in weight gain and feed conversion efficiency compared with nonchallenged controls. These findings indicate that incorporation of Eimeria spp. oocysts in gel-beads may represent an effective way to deliver live oocyst vaccines to day-old chicks for preventing subsequent outbreaks of coccidiosis in the field.

  11. Isospora celata n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Bruno Pereira; Medina, Juan Pablo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-11-01

    A new coccidian species (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) collected in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico at 3,000 metres above sea level. Isospora celata n. sp. has subspheroidal oöcysts, measuring 28.4 × 26.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.2 μm thick. Micropyle and polar granule are absent, but oöcyst residuum is present as a compact mass. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 18.2 × 12.8 µm. Stieda body knob-like and sub-Stieda body irregular and barely discernible. Sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the third description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  12. Eimeria Oocyst Concentrations and Species Composition in Litter from Commercial Broiler Farms During Anticoccidial Drug or Live Eimeria Oocyst Vaccine Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; Ritter, Donald

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Eimeria oocyst concentrations and species composition in commercial broiler house litter changed during different cycles of anticoccidial drug (ACD) or live Eimeria oocyst vaccine (VAC) control programs and if there was a correlation between Eimeria oocyst levels and broiler performance. Litter samples were collected from a total of 15 different broiler farms encompassing a total of 45 individual houses during at least one complete grow-out cycle over a 21-mo period. Of these 15 broiler farms, three were followed for the entire 21-mo period spanning three ACD and four VAC cycles. Samples were collected at 2, 4, and 7-8 wk of grow-out corresponding to starter, grower, and withdraw periods of the ACD cycle. On a number of occasions, litter samples were obtained just prior to chick placement. Eimeria oocysts were isolated from all samples, counted by microscopy, and extracted for DNA to identify Eimeria species by ITS1 PCR. In general, Eimeria oocyst concentration in litter reached peak levels at 2-4 wk of grow-out regardless of coccidiosis control measure being used. However, peak oocyst numbers were sometimes delayed until 7-8 wk, indicating some level of Eimeria spp. drug resistance or incomplete vaccine coverage. Eimeria maxima , Eimeria acervulina , Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella were generally present in all samples, and no difference in the species composition was noted between houses on a particular farm. While Eimeria species composition was similar among houses, Eimeria spp. oocyst levels exhibited sporadic peaks in one house of a given location's houses. Of particular interest was the observed correlation between E. maxima oocyst abundance and chick mortality. However, no correlation was observed in E. maxima oocyst levels, and the performance parameters adjusted feed conversion ratio and average daily weight gain. This study showed that understanding the dynamics of Eimeria spp. oocyst levels and species

  13. A new Isospora sp. from Carduelis tristis (Aves: Fringillidae) from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, V A; Gissing, G J; Barta, J R; Middleton, A L

    1998-02-01

    Isospora gryphoni n. sp. is described from oocysts found in the feces of the American goldfinch, Carduelis tristis, from Guelph, Ontario, Canada. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, with a double-layered, smooth, colorless oocyst wall, 29.2 x 30.7 microm (25-33 x 28-34; n = 30) with 2-4 rice-grain-shaped polar bodies; no micropyle or residuum. Sporocysts are ovoid, 22.2 x 13.4 microm (15-25 x 12-14.5; n = 30) with a small Stieda body, indistinct substiedal body, and prominent sporocyst residuum. Sporozoites are vermiform, each with a large refractile body at the posterior end. Forty-nine of 52 (94%) wild-caught adult C. tristis and 1 juvenile bird (minimum 12 days old) were excreting oocysts of I. gryphoni. None of 36 nestlings (maximum 10 days old) was excreting oocysts. Fecal encrustations from 7 of 10 used nests were found to contain oocysts of I. gryphoni.

  14. Patterns of Cryptosporidium oocyst shedding by eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting an Australian watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michelle L; Sangster, Nicholas C; Slade, Martin B; Veal, Duncan A

    2005-10-01

    The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in feces from a population of wild eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting a protected watershed in Sydney, Australia, was investigated. Over a 2-year period, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 239 of the 3,557 (6.7%) eastern grey kangaroo fecal samples tested by using a combined immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometric technique. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in this host population was estimated to range from 0.32% to 28.5%, with peaks occurring during the autumn months. Oocyst shedding intensity ranged from below 20 oocysts/g feces to 2.0 x 10(6) oocysts/g feces, and shedding did not appear to be associated with diarrhea. Although morphologically similar to the human-infective Cryptosporidium hominis and the Cryptosporidium parvum "bovine" genotype oocysts, the oocysts isolated from kangaroo feces were identified as the Cryptosporidium "marsupial" genotype I or "marsupial" genotype II. Kangaroos are the predominant large mammal inhabiting Australian watersheds and are potentially a significant source of Cryptosporidium contamination of drinking water reservoirs. However, this host population was predominantly shedding the marsupial-derived genotypes, which to date have been identified only in marsupial host species.

  15. Fate of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts during secondary wastewater treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Wen A; Lucy, Frances E; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Broaders, Michael A; Tamang, Leena; Connolly, Michelle

    2009-09-01

    This study investigates the fate of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts at four Irish municipal wastewater treatment plants (i.e., Plant A, B, C, and D) that utilize sludge activation or biofilm-coated percolating filter systems for secondary wastewater treatment. The fate of these pathogens through the sewage treatment processes was determined based on their viable transmissive stages, i.e., oocysts for Cryptosporidium and cysts for Giardia. Analysis of final effluent indicated that over 97% of viable oocysts and cysts were eliminated, except at Plant C, which achieved only 64% of oocyst removal. A significant correlation between the removal of oocysts and cysts was found at Plants A, B, and D (R = 0.98, P hominis, and G. duodenalis, with maximum concentrations of 20 oocysts and eight cysts per gram in primary sludge indicating the need for further sludge sanitization treatments. This study provides evidence that C. parvum and C. hominis oocysts and G. duodenalis cysts are present throughout the wastewater processes and in end-products, and can enter the aquatic environment with consequent negative implications for public health.

  16. Effect of batch-process solar disinfection on survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Hermida, F; Castro-Hermida, J A; Ares-Mazás, E; Kehoe, S C; McGuigan, K G

    2005-03-01

    The results of batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water are reported. Oocyst suspensions were exposed to simulated sunlight (830 W m(-2)) at 40 degrees C. Viability assays (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]/propidium iodide and excystation) and infectivity tests (Swiss CD-1 suckling mice) were performed. SODIS exposures of 6 and 12 h reduced oocyst infectivity from 100% to 7.5% (standard deviation = 2.3) and 0% (standard deviation = 0.0), respectively.

  17. Movement of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts through Soils without Preferential Pathways: Exploratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe J. G. Darnault

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contamination by oocysts of the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a significant cause of animal and human disease worldwide. Although research has been undertaken in the past to determine how specific physical and chemical properties of soils affect the risk of groundwater contamination by C. parvum, there is as yet no clear conclusion concerning the range of mobility of C. parvum that one should expect in field soils. In this context, the key objective of this research was to determine the magnitude of C. parvum transport in a number of soils, under conditions in which fast and preferential transport has been successfully prevented. C. parvum oocysts were applied at the surface of different soils and subjected to artificial rainfall. Apparently for the first time, quantitative PCR was used to detect and enumerate oocysts in the soil columns and in the leachates. The transport of oocysts by infiltrating water, and the considerable retention of oocysts in soil was demonstrated for all soils, although differences in the degree of transport were observed with soils of different types. More oocysts were found in leachates from sandy loam soils than in leachates from loamy sand soils and the retention of oocysts in different soils did not significantly differ. The interaction of various processes of the hydrologic system and biogeochemical mechanisms contributed to the transport of oocysts through the soil matrix. Results suggest that the interplay of clay, organic matter, and Ca2+ facilitates and mediates the transfer of organic matter from mineral surfaces to oocysts surface, resulting in the enhanced breakthrough of oocysts through matrices of sandy loam soils compared to those of loamy sand soils. Although the number of occysts that penetrate the soil matrix account for only a small percentage of initial inputs, they still pose a significant threat to human health, especially in groundwater systems with a water table not

  18. In Vitro Interactions of Asian Freshwater Clam (Corbicula fluminea) Hemocytes and Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, T. K.; Fayer, R.; Cranfield, M. R.; Conn, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    Corbicula fluminea hemocytes phagocytosed infectious oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro. After 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min of incubation, averages of 35.8, 58.0, 69.7, 77.7, and 81.6% of the oocysts were phagocytosed by 24.3, 70.0, 78.5, 87.3, and 93.0% of the hemocytes, respectively. A single clam can retain by phagocytosis an average of 1.84 x 10(sup6) oocysts per ml of hemolymph. C. fluminea bivalves can serve as biological indicators of contamination of wastewaters and agricultural drainages with Cryptosporidium. PMID:16535656

  19. Loss of infectivity of Neospora caninum oocysts maintained for a prolonged time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeda, Rosangela Soares; Costa, Kattyanne De Souza; Santos, Sara Lima; Pinheiro, Alexandre Moraes; De Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; McAllister, Milton M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sporulated Neospora caninum oocysts, which had been stored for 46 mo in a 2% sulfuric acid solution at 4℃, remain morphologically viable and infective to gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Six gerbils were orally inoculated with doses of 400 or 1,200 oocysts. Two mo after inoculation, the animals did not show any clinical signs, had no histological lesions, and were seronegative for N. caninum at 1: 50 in an immunofluorescent antibody test. PCR using the brain from each gerbil did not reveal N. caninum specific DNA. We conclude that oocysts preserved for 46 mo are not infective, despite being morphologically intact. PMID:18165712

  20. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623: EVALUATION OF A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are the benchmarks for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in water. These methods consist of filtration, elution, purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis after staining with a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate...

  1. Sensor detection of parasite eggs and (oo-)cysts - possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    of immunofluorescence stained (oo-)cysts. These methods have low recovery rates, are time consuming, costly, and require well equipped laboratory facilities. Likewise, microscopy is the universal diagnostic method for detection of helminth eggs and protozoa in food and feed despite low sensitivity, difficulties......To secure the safety and quality of food and water presence of pathogens including parasites must be controlled. This relies among other things on implementation of sensitive and specific tests which are able to rule out the occurrence of parasites. Worldwide environmentally resistant oocysts...... system and ultrasound to obtain high recovery rates of apparently undamaged protozoa: 84.9% (Standard deviation (±) 4.8) for Giardia cysts and 70% (± 6.5) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Ultrasound in the current system is tuned into a useful tool for enhanced elution of filtered (oo-)cysts. The combined...

  2. Sensor detection of parasite eggs and (oo-)cysts - possibilities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Enemark, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    To secure the safety and quality of food and water presence of pathogens including parasites must be controlled. This relies among other things on implementation of sensitive and specific tests which are able to rule out the occurrence of parasites. Worldwide environmentally resistant oocysts and cysts ((oo-)cysts) of the protozoan genera Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea. Methods for routine recovery and detection of waterborne Giardia and/or Cr...

  3. Role of Wall Shear Stress in Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Attachment to Environmental Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xia; Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Jellison, Kristen L

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst deposition onto biofilms as a function of shear stress under laminar or turbulent flow. Annular rotating bioreactors were used to grow stabilized stream biofilms at shear stresses ranging from 0.038 to 0.46 Pa. These steady-state biofilms were then used to assess the impact of hydrodynamic conditions on C. parvum oocyst attachment. C. parvum deposition onto biofilms followed a pseudo-second-order model under both laminar (after a lag phase) and turbulent flows. The total number of oocysts attached to the biofilm at steady state decreased as the hydrodynamic wall shear stress increased. The oocyst deposition rate constant increased with shear stress but decreased at high shear, suggesting that increasing wall shear stress results in faster attachment of Cryptosporidium due to higher mass transport until the shear forces exceed a critical limit that prevents oocyst attachment. These data show that oocyst attachment in the short and long term are impacted differently by shear: higher shear (to a certain limit) may be associated with faster initial oocyst attachment, but lower shear is associated with greater numbers of oocysts attached at equilibrium. IMPORTANCE This research provides experimental evidence to demonstrate that shear stress plays a critical role in protozoan-pathogen transport and deposition in environmental waters. The data presented in this work expand scientific understanding of Cryptosporidium attachment and fate, which will further influence the development of timely and accurate sampling strategies, as well as advanced water treatment technologies, to target protozoan pathogens in surface waters that serve as municipal drinking water sources. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Contamination of River Water by Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Kazuo; Tsuji, Hidetaka; Rai, Shiba Kumar; Yamamoto, Akio; Masuda, Kuniyoshi; Endo, Takuro; Hotta, Hak; Kawamura, Takashi; Uga, Shoji

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, only a few rivers have been inspected for Cryptosporidium parvum contamination, and the methods used had low sensitivity. In 1998 and 1999, we used a method with higher sensitivity to examine all large rivers used as sources of water supply in one prefecture (which we divided into four areas) in western Japan for Cryptosporidium oocysts. One sample was collected at each of 156 sites along 18 rivers, and samples were tested for Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunomagnetic separation. Sa...

  5. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Samples of Raw Surface Water and Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lihua; Singh, Ajaib; Limor, Josef; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Gradus, Steve; Lal, Altaf

    2001-01-01

    Recent molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium parasites make it possible to differentiate the human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium parasites from those that do not infect humans and to track the source of Cryptosporidium oocyst contamination in the environment. In this study, we used a small-subunit rRNA-based PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique to detect and characterize Cryptosporidium oocysts in 55 samples of raw surface water collected from several areas in t...

  6. Batch solar disinfection inactivates oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, K G; Méndez-Hermida, F; Castro-Hermida, J A; Ares-Mazás, E; Kehoe, S C; Boyle, M; Sichel, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Meyer, B P; Ramalingham, S; Meyer, E A

    2006-08-01

    To determine whether batch solar disinfection (SODIS) can be used to inactivate oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in experimentally contaminated water. Suspensions of oocysts and cysts were exposed to simulated global solar irradiation of 830 W m(-2) for different exposure times at a constant temperature of 40 degrees C. Infectivity tests were carried out using CD-1 suckling mice in the Cryptosporidium experiments and newly weaned CD-1 mice in the Giardia experiments. Exposure times of > or =10 h (total optical dose c. 30 kJ) rendered C. parvum oocysts noninfective. Giardia muris cysts were rendered completely noninfective within 4 h (total optical dose >12 kJ). Scanning electron microscopy and viability (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole/propidium iodide fluorogenic dyes and excystation) studies on oocysts of C. parvum suggest that inactivation is caused by damage to the oocyst wall. Results show that cysts of G. muris and oocysts of C. parvum are rendered completely noninfective after batch SODIS exposures of 4 and 10 h (respectively) and is also likely to be effective against waterborne cysts of Giardia lamblia. These results demonstrate that SODIS is an appropriate household water treatment technology for use as an emergency intervention in aftermath of natural or man-made disasters against not only bacterial but also protozoan pathogens.

  7. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts on Fresh Produce Using DNA Aptamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Iqbal

    Full Text Available There are currently no standard methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp., or other protozoan parasites, in foods, and existing methods are often inadequate, with low and variable recovery efficiencies. Food testing is difficult due to the low concentrations of parasites, the difficulty in eluting parasites from some foods, the lack of enrichment methods, and the presence of PCR inhibitors. The main objectives of the present study were to obtain DNA aptamers binding to the oocyst wall of C. parvum, and to use the aptamers to detect the presence of this parasite in foods. DNA aptamers were selected against C. parvum oocysts using SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment. Ten rounds of selection led to the discovery of 14 aptamer clones with high affinities for C. parvum oocysts. For detecting parasite-bound aptamers, a simple electrochemical sensor was employed, which used a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode. This aptasensor was fabricated by self-assembling a hybrid of a thiolated ssDNA primer and the anti- C. parvum aptamer. Square wave voltammetry was employed to quantitate C. parvum in the range of 150 to 800 oocysts, with a detection limit of approximately 100 oocysts. The high sensitivity and specificity of the developed aptasensor suggests that this novel method is very promising for the detection and identification of C. parvum oocysts on spiked fresh fruits, as compared to conventional methods such as microscopy and PCR.

  8. Method for detection and enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in feces, manures, and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, E; Shelton, D R

    1999-07-01

    Eight concentration and purification methods were evaluated to determine percentages of recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from calf feces. The NaCl flotation method generally resulted in the highest percentages of recovery. Based on the percentages of recovery, the amounts of fecal debris in the final oocyst preparations, the relatively short processing time (flotation method was chosen for further evaluation. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by using oocyst concentrations of 25, 50, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), and 10(5) oocysts g of bovine feces-1. The percentages of recovery ranged from 10.8% (25 oocysts g-1) to 17.0% (10(4) oocysts g-1) (r2 = 0.996). A conservative estimate of the detection limit for bovine feces is ca. 30 oocysts g of feces-1. Percentages of recovery were determined for six different types of animal feces (cow, horse, pig, sheep, deer, and chicken feces) at a single oocyst concentration (10(4) oocysts g-1). The percentages of recovery were highest for bovine feces (17. 0%) and lowest for chicken feces (3.2%). Percentages of recovery were determined for bovine manure after 3 to 7 days of storage. The percentages of recovery ranged from 1.9 to 3.5% depending on the oocyst concentration, the time of storage, and the dispersing solution. The percentages of oocyst recovery from soils were evaluated by using different flotation solutions (NaCl, cold sucrose, ZnSO4), different dispersing solutions (Triton X-100, Tween 80, Tris plus Tween 80), different dispersion techniques (magnetic stirring, sonication, blending), and different dispersion times (5, 15, and 30 min). Twenty-five-gram soil samples were used to reduce the spatial variability. The highest percentages of recovery were obtained when we used 50 mM Tris-0.5% Tween 80 as the dispersing solution, dispersion for 15 min by stirring, and saturated NaCl as the flotation solution. The percentages of oocyst recovery from freshly spiked sandy loam, silty clay loam, and clay loam soils were ca

  9. Production of anti-Cryptosporidium polyclonal antibodies and standardization of direct immunofluorescence for detecting oocysts in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Silvia Cristina; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; Troiano, Ludmilla Della Coletta; Kruger, Ernesto Renato; Pereira, Juliana Tracz; Fernandes, Nelson Luis Mello; Silva, Márcia Benedita de Oliveira; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2011-10-01

    The production of anti-Cryptosporidium polyclonal antibodies and its use in direct immunofluorescence assays to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium in water are described in the present work. Two rabbits were immunized with soluble and particulate antigens from purified Cryptosporidium oocysts. The sera produced were prepared for immunoglobulin G extraction, which were then purified and conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Slides containing known amounts of oocysts were prepared to determine the sensitivity of the technique. To test the specificity, slides containing Giardia duodenalis cysts were prepared. The conjugate was successfully used in water samples experimentally contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts, and it was possible to detect up to five oocysts/spot, corresponding to contamination of 250 oocysts/mL. The three immunizations performed in the rabbits were enough to produce antibodies against Cryptosporidium, the standard direct immunofluorescence assay permitted the detection of five oocysts in 20% of the samples, and no cross-reaction with Giardia duodenalis cysts occurred.

  10. Detection of UV-induced thymine dimers in individual Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts by immunofluorescence microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Adhami, B.H.; Nichols, R.A.B.; Kusel, J.R.; O'Grady, J.; Smith, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effect of UV light on Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in vitro, we exposed intact oocysts to 4-, 10-, 20-, and 40-mJ·cm−2 doses of UV irradiation. Thymine dimers were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy using a monoclonal antibody against cyclobutyl thymine dimers (anti-TDmAb). Dimer-specific fluorescence within sporozoite nuclei was confirmed by colocalization with the nuclear fluorogen 4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Oocyst walls we...

  11. Comparison of transport and attachment behaviors of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and oocyst-sized microspheres being advected through three minerologically different granular porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, Arvind; Ray, Chittaranjan; Harvey, Ronald W.; Metge, David W.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Chorover, Jon; Eberl, D.D.

    2010-01-01

    In order to gain more information about the fate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in tropical volcanic soils, the transport and attachment behaviors of oocysts and oocyst-sized polystyrene microspheres were studied in the presence of two soils. These soils were chosen because of their differing chemical and physical properties, i.e., an organic-rich (43–46% by mass) volcanic ash-derived soil from the island of Hawaii, and a red, iron (22–29% by mass), aluminum (29–45% by mass), and clay-rich (68–76% by mass) volcanic soil from the island of Oahu. A third agricultural soil, an organic- (13% by mass) and quartz-rich (40% by mass) soil from Illinois, was included for reference. In 10-cm long flow-through columns, oocysts and microspheres advecting through the red volcanic soil were almost completely (98% and 99%) immobilized. The modest breakthrough resulted from preferential flow-path structure inadvertently created by soil-particle aggregation during the re-wetting process. Although a high (99%) removal of oocysts and microsphere within the volcanic ash soil occurred initially, further examination revealed that transport was merely retarded because of highly reversible interactions with grain surfaces. Judging from the slope of the substantive and protracted tail of the breakthrough curve for the 1.8-μm microspheres, almost all (>99%) predictably would be recovered within ∼4000 pore volumes. This suggests that once contaminated, the volcanic ash soil could serve as a reservoir for subsequent contamination of groundwater, at least for pathogens of similar size or smaller. Because of the highly reversible nature of organic colloid immobilization in this soil type, C. parvum could contaminate surface water should overland flow during heavy precipitation events pick up near-surface grains to which they are attached. Surprisingly, oocyst and microsphere attachment to the reference soil from Illinois appeared to be at least as sensitive to changes in pH as

  12. Comparison of transport and attachment behaviors of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and oocyst-sized microspheres being advected through three minerologically different granular porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, A.; Ray, C.; Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Ryan, J.N.; Chorover, J.; Eberl, D.D.

    2010-01-01

    In order to gain more information about the fate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in tropical volcanic soils, the transport and attachment behaviors of oocysts and oocyst-sized polystyrene microspheres were studied in the presence of two soils. These soils were chosen because of their differing chemical and physical properties, i.e., an organic-rich (43-46% by mass) volcanic ash-derived soil from the island of Hawaii, and a red, iron (22-29% by mass), aluminum (29-45% by mass), and clay-rich (68-76% by mass) volcanic soil from the island of Oahu. A third agricultural soil, an organic- (13% by mass) and quartz-rich (40% by mass) soil from Illinois, was included for reference. In 10-cm long flow-through columns, oocysts and microspheres advecting through the red volcanic soil were almost completely (98% and 99%) immobilized. The modest breakthrough resulted from preferential flow-path structure inadvertently created by soil-particle aggregation during the re-wetting process. Although a high (99%) removal of oocysts and microsphere within the volcanic ash soil occurred initially, further examination revealed that transport was merely retarded because of highly reversible interactions with grain surfaces. Judging from the slope of the substantive and protracted tail of the breakthrough curve for the 1.8-??m microspheres, almost all (>99%) predictably would be recovered within ~4000 pore volumes. This suggests that once contaminated, the volcanic ash soil could serve as a reservoir for subsequent contamination of groundwater, at least for pathogens of similar size or smaller. Because of the highly reversible nature of organic colloid immobilization in this soil type, C. parvum could contaminate surface water should overland flow during heavy precipitation events pick up near-surface grains to which they are attached. Surprisingly, oocyst and microsphere attachment to the reference soil from Illinois appeared to be at least as sensitive to changes in pH as was observed

  13. PROTOZOÁRIOS GASTRINTESTINAIS EM BUGIOS (Alouatta sp. MANTIDOS EM CATIVEIRO GASTROINTESTINAL PROTOZOA IN CAPTIVE HOWLER MONKEYS (Alouatta sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bonfim Carregaro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o parasitismo gastrintestinal por protozoários em bugios (Alouatta sp. mantidos em cativeiro no município de Santa Maria, RS. Foram analisadas amostras de fezes de oito macacos das espécies Alouatta caraya e Alouatta guariba, pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. Observaram-se oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. nas fezes de todos os animais pesquisados, sendo que em três deles havia infecção mista com cistos de Giardia spp. Analisando a água oferecida aos primatas detectou-se a presença elevada de oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. e raros oocistos de outro coccidio. Conclui-se que os macacos A. caraya e A. guariba, mantidos em cativeiro, são hospedeiros dos gêneros Giardia e Cryptosporidium.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alouatta sp., bugio, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp.

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal parasitism by protozoa in captive howler monkeys (Alouatta sp. in the city of Santa Maria, RS. Fecal samples from eight monkeys of the Alouatta caraya and Alouatta guariba species were analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation method. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were observed in the feces of all the studied animals, three of which having mixed infection with Giardia spp. cysts. Analyzing the water offered to the primates it was detected elevated presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and rare oocysts of other coccidium. In conclusion, A. caraya and A. guariba monkeys, kept in captivity, are hosts for Giardia and Cryptosporidium genus.

    KEY WORDS:  Alouatta sp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., howler monkey.

  14. Mini-FLOTAC for counting Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from cat feces--comparison with cell counting plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic, Vitomir; Blaga, Radu; Rinaldi, Laura; Le Roux, Delphine; Ducry, Tamara; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Perret, Catherine; Djurkovic Djakovic, Olgica; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Boireau, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    Oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii represent one of the most common environmental contaminants causing the zoonotic infection toxoplasmosis. The aim of the present study was to compare the Mini-FLOTAC device with traditional cell counting plates (Kova Slide) for the detection of T. gondii oocysts from feline feces. Two types of experiments were performed: (i) purified oocysts were counted in different dilutions and (ii) specific pathogen free T. gondii-negative cat feces was inoculated with numbers of purified oocysts and counting was performed directly from feces. Our analysis showed a thousand times higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC (5 × 10(2) oocysts) compared to Kova Slide (5 × 10(5) oocysts). Also, when compared by McNemar's test, counting of the purified oocysts showed a higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC compared to Kova Slide, for a dilution of 10(3) oocysts/ml (chi(2) = 6.1; P microscopes in any laboratory or field conditions. We therefore recommend its use for regular screening. Further studies are needed to validate Mini-FLOTAC for the detection of oocysts in soil and water samples in field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aranciocystis muskarensis n. gen., n. sp., a neogregarine pathogen of the Anisoplia segetum Herbst (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekircan, Çağrı; Cüce, Mustafa; Baki, Hilal; Tosun, Onur

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a new genus and species of neogregarine which is a pathogen of Anisoplia segetum Herbst (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is described. The adult beetles of A. segetum were collected from Nevşehir, Turkey and neogregarine infection rates were determined as 18.52%. The Giemsa-stained mature oocysts are lemon-shaped and measured 9.34±0.82μm in length and 5.77±0.77μm in width. The oocyst wall surface of the mature oocysts is similar to an osage orange (tuberculate). Morphological, ultrastructural and molecular features indicate that the previously undescribed neogregarine is dissimilar to all known neogregarine taxa and represents the first record from Anisoplia segetum and is named here as Aranciocystis muskarensis n. gen., n. sp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential cryptosporidium surrogates and evaluation of compressible oocysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.Y.; Goodrich, J.A.; Owens, J.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Cryptosporidium has been recognized as an important waterborne agent of gastroenteritis and a biological contaminant in drinking water. The widespread presence of Cryptosporidium in surface source water and either untreated or insufficiently treated drinking water has led to Cryptosporidium outbreaks in the United States and worldwide. Among the conventional control practices, filtration and high temperature distillation appear to be the potentially viable technologies for protection against Cryptosporidium in drinking water. As employed in many water plants, filtration is likely to be the most practical treatment technology utilized for Cryptosporidium removal in the near future. Consequently, accurate and reliable methods for evaluation of Cryptosporidium removal rates for filtration-based systems are necessary to assist States in determining drinking water quality and complying with the up-coming national standard for Cryptosporidium in drinking water. Furthermore, searching for reliable and non-hazardous surrogates for evaluation of treatment plant efficiency has been intensified because of the potential health risk associated with Cryptosporidium. Additionally, during the filtration procedure Cryptosporidium may squeeze and fold through pores size of the filtration systems that are smaller than the diameter of the organism; a fraction of these Cryptosporidium oocysts may still remain a certain degree of viability. These uncertainties are critical for the evaluation and optimization of filtration-based physical treatment systems. The in-house research studies described below consist of two parts. One is a potential surrogate study using bag filtration systems at the US EPA Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. The second is Cryptosporidium compressibility and viability investigation.

  17. Development of Eimeria nieschulzi (Coccidia, Apicomplexa Gamonts and Oocysts in Primary Fetal Rat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus Eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. Until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some Eimeria species. For several mammalian Eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. This study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the black rat (Rattus norvegicus concerning the qualitative in vitro development of the rat parasite Eimeria nieschulzi. With the help of transgenic parasites, the developmental progress was documented. The selected Eimeria nieschulzi strain constitutively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein and a macrogamont specific upregulated red tandem dimer tomato. In the majority of all investigated host cells the development stopped at the second merozoite stage. In a mixed culture of cells derived from inner fetal organs the development of schizont generations I-IV, macrogamonts, and oocysts were observed in crypt-like organoid structures. Microgamonts and microgametes could not be observed and oocysts did not sporulate under air supply. By immunohistology, we could confirm that wild-type E. nieschulzi stages can be found in the crypts of the small intestine. The results of this study may be helpful for characterization of native host cells and for development of an in vitro cultivation system for Eimeria species.

  18. [Investigation of Cryptosporidium sp. in workers of the Van municipality slaughterhouse and in slaughtered animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciçek, Mutalip; Körkoca, Hanifi; Gül, Abdurrahman

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. in slaughtered animals and workers of the Van municipality slaughterhouse in Van. Animals slaughtered at different times and workers who had been working in different departments of the slaughter house were included in the study for three months. A total of 309 fecal specimens from animals including 167 sheep, 56 goats and 86 cattle and 87 fecal specimens from workers were examined for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. In slaughtered animals, the modified acid-fast staining method was used to determine the oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. The fecal samples of slaughter workers were examined by using RIDA (R) Quick Cryptosporidium Strip Test (R-Biopharm, Germany) and the modified acid-fast staining method. Fecal samples found to be positive by stripe test were also confirmed with the ELISA method (R-Biopharm, Germany). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. were found in fecal specimens of 22 sheep (13.17%), 6 goats (10.71%) and 7 cattle (8.13%). Intestinal parasites were observed in 34 fecal specimens of workers (39.08%). Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii were found in the specimen of one worker (1.14%), Entamoeba coli in 4 workers (4.59%), Blastocystis hominis (9.19%) in 8 workers, and Giardia intestinalis (19.54%) in 17 workers.

  19. Cryptosporidium oocysts in Ghanaian AIDS patients with diarrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, no enterobacteria was found in the HIV-seronegative patients. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. in both HIV/ AIDS and HIV-seronegative individuals in Ghana. However, there was no statistical association between cryptosporidiosis and HIV/AIDS (p>0.05). East African ...

  20. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in sewage effluents and correlation with microbial, chemical and physical water variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Lucia; Briancesco, Rossella; Ottaviani, Massimo; Veschetti, Enrico

    2002-05-01

    Contaminated water are recognized as a potential source of Cryptosporidium oocysts. In Italy studies on the environmental spread of the parasite are still scarce even if a high frequency of serological responses could suggest high rates of endemic Cryptosporidium infections. In this investigation the occurrence of the parasite in water samples from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was monitored with the aim to evaluate possible correlation between oocysts and bacterial indicators, pathogens and physico-chemical parameters using a multivariate analysis. Data collected showed high numbers of oocysts, with a high percentage of positive samples and a significant correlation with pH, redox potential and total organic carbon. No correlation was found between Cryptosporidium concentration and that of the other microrganisms. The results, through a probing statistical analysis, show that none of the selected microrganisms was a reliable predictor of the presence of the parasite.

  1. Determination of the recovery efficiency of cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts from seeded bivalve mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schets, Franciska M; van den Berg, Harold H J L; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia are transmitted by water and food and cause human gastroenteritis. Filter-feeding bivalve mollusks, such as oysters and mussels, filter large volumes of water and thus concentrate such pathogens, which makes these bivalves potential vectors of disease. To assess the risk of infection from consumption of contaminated bivalves, parasite numbers and parasite recovery data are required. A modified immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedure was used to determine Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst numbers in individually homogenized oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis). About 12% of the commercial bivalves were positive, with low (oo)cyst numbers per specimen. The recovery efficiency of the IMS procedure was systematically evaluated. Experiments included seeding of homogenized bivalves and whole animals with 100 to 1,000 (oo)cysts. Both seeding procedures yielded highly variable recovery rates. Median Cryptosporidium recoveries were 7.9 to 21% in oysters and 62% in mussels. Median Giardia recoveries were 10 to 25% in oysters and 110% in mussels. Giardia recovery was significantly higher than Cryptosporidium recovery. (Oo)cysts were less efficiently recovered from seeded whole animals than from seeded homogenates, with median Cryptosporidium recoveries of 5.3% in oysters and 45% in mussels and median Giardia recoveries of 4.0% in oysters and 82% in mussels. Both bivalve homogenate seeding and whole animal seeding yielded higher (oo)cyst recovery in mussels than in oysters, likely because of the presence of less shellfish tissue in IMS when analyzing the smaller mussels compared with the larger oysters, resulting in more efficient (oo)cyst extraction. The data generated in this study may be used in the quantitative assessment of the risk of infection with Cryptosporidium or Giardia associated with the consumption of raw bivalve mollusks. This information may be used for making risk management

  2. Effect of tillage and rainfall on transport of manure-applied Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Norma E; Wang, Ping; Lejeune, Jeff; Shipitalo, Martin J; Ward, Lucy A; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Dick, Warren A

    2009-01-01

    Most waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been attributed to agricultural sources due to the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal wastes and manure spreading on farmlands. No-till, an effective conservation practice, often results in soil having higher water infiltration and percolation rates than conventional tillage. We treated six undisturbed no-till and six tilled soil blocks (30 by 30 by 30 cm) with 1 L liquid dairy manure containing 10(5) C. parvum oocysts per milliliter to test the effect of tillage and rainfall on oocyst transport. The blocks were subjected to rainfall treatments consisting of 5 mm or 30 mm in 30 min. Leachate was collected from the base of the blocks in 35-mL increments using a 64-cell grid lysimeter. Even before any rain was applied, approximately 300 mL of water from the liquid manure (30% of that applied) was transported through the no-till soil, but none through the tilled blocks. After rain was applied, a greater number and percentage of first leachate samples from the no-till soil blocks compared to the tilled blocks tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In contrast to leachate, greater numbers of oocysts were recovered from the tilled soil, itself, than from the no-till soil. Although tillage was the most important factor affecting oocyst transport, rainfall timing and intensity were also important. To minimize transport of Cryptosporidium in no-till fields, manure should be applied at least 48 h before heavy rainfall is anticipated or methods of disrupting the direct linkage of surface soil to drains, via macropores, need to be used.

  3. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract and impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Woolsey, Ian David; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  4. Antibody responses measured by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with low numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J. P.; Andrews, C.D.; Lind, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Objective-To follow antibody responses measured by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with low (less than or equal to 10 oocysts) numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Animals-24, 2- to 3-month-old pigs. Procedure-Pigs (n = 42) were inoculated orally with 10 (14 pigs) or 1 (28 pigs...

  5. Quantitative characterization, classification and reconstruction of oocyst shapes of Eimeria species from cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.

    1998-01-01

    by multivariate statistical techniques. The morphology of 810 Eimeria specimens was defined in binary (b/w) digital images by pixels of their oocyst outline. A Fourier transform of pixel positions yielded size and shape features. To classify coccidia, the quantitative data were employed in an agglomerative...... clustering by average linkage algorithm with equal weight assigned to size and shape. An inverse Fourier transform served to reconstruct oocyst outlines, i.e. outlines of average shape and size, from mean values of features in resulting clusters. Clusters were subsequently identified based on their average...... after reconstruction by inverse Fourier transform and comparison with earlier studies....

  6. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryp...

  7. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae) from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shahawy,Ismail Saad

    2010-01-01

    Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16) × 12 (10-12.9) μm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3). The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an ooc...

  8. BLIND TRIALS EVALUATING IN VITRO INFECTIVITY OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS USING CELL CULTURE IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optimized cell culture-immunofluorescence (IFA) procedure, using the HCT-8 cell line, was evaluated in 'blind' trials to determine the sensitivity and reproducibility for measuring infectivity of flow cytometry prepared inocula of C. parvum oocysts. In separate trials, suspens...

  9. Elimination of viruses, bacteria and protozoan oocysts by slow sand filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Visser, Ate; Schijven, J.F.; Bonné, P.; Medema, Gerriet Jan

    2004-01-01

    The decimal elimination capacity (DEC) of slow sand filters (SSF) for viruses, bacteria and oocysts of Cryptosporidium has been assessed from full-scale data and pilot plant and laboratory experiments. DEC for viruses calculated from experimental data with MS2-bacteriophages in the pilot plant

  10. Occurrence of Cryptosporidiumspp. oocysts in low quality water and on vegetables in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T. B.; Petersen, H. H.; Abaidoo, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium are transmitted e.g. by food and water and may cause severe diarrhoea, dehydration, weight loss and malnutrition. Ingestion of 10 oocysts can lead to infection and pathogenic symptoms. Thus, to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. contaminat...

  11. DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G (LGG ANTIBODIES IN NATURALLY INFECTED CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatullah Rind, A.J. Probert1 and M.I. Rind2

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty three faecal as well as blood samples from a group of 15 young Friesian calves under 2 months of age at Aber Farm Bangor, U.K. were collected on monthly basis and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies, Twelve (19.23 % were found positive with Cryptosporium species while in 5 (7.9 % faecal samples both Cryptosporidium and Eimeria were present but 46 (73.0 % samples were negative. In 9 out of 12 (75.0 % cases where Cryptosporidium ocysts were present, a positive IF AT was observed while in 4 out of 5 (80.0 % positives were seen in the presence of both Cryptosporium and Eimeria oocysts. In contrast only 6 out of 46 (13.1% cases, a positive IFAT was also seen when no oocysts were recorded. Oocysts fluoresced brightly with positive serum samples and only faintly or not at all with the negative samples or the conjugate alone.

  12. Effects of low and high temperatures on infectivity of Cryptosporidium muris oocysts suspended in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neumayerová, H.; Koudela, Břetislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 153, 3/4 (2008), s. 197-202 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium muris * oocysts * low and high temperatures * infectivity Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.039, year: 2008

  13. Assessment of methods for detection of infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in reclaimed effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Betancourt, W; Gennaccaro, A L; Scott, T M; Rose, J B

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluates the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in reclaimed effluents if method 1623 with the Envirochek capsule filters (standard and high-volume [HV] filters) and a modified version of the Information Collection Rule method (ICR) with the polypropylene yarn-wound cartridge filter are used. The recovery efficiency of the analytical methods was evaluated with samples of reagent, tap, and reclaimed water by using flow cytometer-sorted spike suspensions. (Oo)cyst recovery efficiency determined filter performance and method reproducibility in the water matrix tested. Method 1623 with the Envirochek HV capsule filter generated significantly higher recovery rates than did the standard Envirochek filter and the modified ICR method. Notwithstanding, large variations in recovery rates (>80%) occurred with samples of reclaimed water, and none of the water quality parameters analyzed in the reclaimed effluents could explain such variability. The highest concentrations of indigenous oocysts were detected by method 1623 with the HV filter, which provided a sufficient number of oocysts for further confirmation of infectious potential. Confirmation of species and potential infectivity for all positive protozoan samples was made by using a nested PCR restriction fragment polymorphism assay and the focus detection method most-probable-number assay, respectively. The methodology and results described in the present investigation provide useful information for the establishment of pathogen numeric standards for reclaimed effluents used for unrestricted irrigation.

  14. Gamma irradiation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts affects intracelluar levels of the viral symbiont CPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown a dose-dependent effect of gamma irradiation on Cryptosporidium parvum development in neonatal mice and newborn calves. In mice, C. parvum oocysts exposed to 200 Gy showed nearly complete inability to develop as measured by C. parvum-specific quantitative PCR of ileal ti...

  15. A gel delivery system for coccidiosis vaccine: uniformity of distribution of oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, T; Lee, E H

    2000-01-01

    A patented gel delivery system being used to deliver coccidiosis vaccine to poultry hatchlings is assessed. For effective vaccination, the coccidial oocysts must be uniformly suspended before exposure to birds. The uniformity of distribution within the gel was evaluated by incorporating a culture of chicken gut flora into gel sausages, placing sections of the sausage on culture plates, determining the appearance and distribution of bacterial colonies on culture plates after incubation, and verifying by cell counts. The uniformity of distribution of similarly prepared coccidial oocysts was verified by infecting birds with 40,000 Eimeria tenella oocysts delivered via the gel. Gel-inoculated birds were compared with control birds inoculated PO with 40,000 oocysts suspended in water by using cecal lesion scores. Both the appearance and colony counts of chicken gut flora from the gel were uniform. The standard deviation in the lesion scores for the gel-inoculated group and the water-inoculated groups were 0.51 and 0.69, respectively. The results indicate that a gel delivery system can provide uniform distribution of live organisms and vaccine agents to birds. Images Figure 1a. Figure 1b. PMID:10945126

  16. Studies on the prevalence of giardia cysts and cryptosporidium oocysts in South-African water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available per sample and the number of positive samples. Almost 50% of sewage samples studied contained Giardia cysts and 30% contained both Giardia cysts and Cryptosporium oocysts. Treatment of sewage resulted in a reduction in the percentage of samples...

  17. Eimeriosis in Danish Dairy Calves – Correlation between Species, Oocyst Excretion and Diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg M Dehn

    2013-01-01

    samples from dairy herds (n = 52) with > 50 cows and a history of diarrhoea in young stock. Individual faecal samples were collected 3–4 weeks following re-housing to common pens from calves (n = 453) aged 3 weeks to 6 months. Faecal consistency and total number of oocysts per gram of faeces (opg) were...

  18. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Charge Heterogeneous Porous Media: Microfluidics Experiment and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Meng, X.; Guo, Z.; Zhang, C.; Nguyen, T. H.; Hu, D.; Ji, J.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Colloidal attachment on charge heterogeneous grains has significant environmental implications for transport of hazardous colloids, such as pathogens, in the aquifer, where iron, manganese, and aluminium oxide minerals are the major source of surface charge heterogeneity of the aquifer grains. A patchwise surface charge model is often used to describe the surface charge heterogeneity of the grains. In the patchwise model, the colloidal attachment efficiency is linearly correlated with the fraction of the favorable patches (θ=λ(θf - θu)+θu). However, our previous microfluidic study showed that the attachment efficiency of oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum, a waterborne protozoan parasite, was not linear correlated with the fraction of the favorable patches (λ). In this study, we developed a pore scale model to simulate colloidal transport and attachment on charge heterogeneous grains. The flow field was simulated using the LBM method and colloidal transport and attachment were simulated using the Lagrange particle tracking method. The pore scale model was calibrated with experimental results of colloidal and oocyst transport in microfluidic devices and was then used to simulate oocyst transport in charge heterogeneous porous media under a variety of environmental relative conditions, i.e. the fraction of favorable patchwise, ionic strength, and pH. The results of the pore scale simulations were used to evaluate the effect of surface charge heterogeneity on upscaling of oocyst transport from pore to continuum scale and to develop an applicable correlation between colloidal attachment efficiency and the fraction of the favorable patches.

  19. Evaluating the transport of bacillus subtilis spores as a potential surrogate for Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA has recommended the use of aerobic spores as an indicator for Cryptosporidium oocysts when determining groundwater under the direct influence of surface water. Surface properties, interaction energies, transport, retention, and release behavior of B. subtilis spores were measured over a r...

  20. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis halieti n. sp., Sarcocystis lari and Sarcocystis truncata in the intestine of a white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Gjerde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An emaciated white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla from Western Norway was found and nursed briefly before it died. The necropsy revealed that the principal cause of death was an inflammation and occlusion of the bile ducts. A secondary finding was the presence in the intestinal mucosa of numerous sporulated Sarcocystis oocysts measuring 21.8–22.8 × 16.0–17.0 μm. The aim of this study was to identify these oocysts to species level using molecular methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from 10 mucosal scrapings containing oocysts and subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing of four DNA regions: the 18S and 28S rRNA genes, the ITS1 region and the cox1 gene. DNA of three previously known Sarcocystis spp. was identified, but only two of these, Sarcocystis halieti n. sp. and Sarcocystis lari, both employing sea birds as intermediate hosts, were considered to have used the sea eagle as a definitive host and to have formed oocysts in its intestine. The third species found, Sarcocystis truncata, employs red deer as intermediate hosts and seems to use felids as definitive hosts based on its phylogenetic position and prevalence. The sea eagle had probably recently ingested portions of one of the latter hosts (red deer or cat/lynx containing stages (sarcocysts/oocysts and thus DNA of S. truncata. The species S. halieti and S. lari could only be unambiguously separated from their most closely related congeners on the basis of their ITS1 sequences. This is the first report of Sarcocystis oocysts in sea eagles and the first identification to species level of Sarcocystis oocysts in any type of eagle. The sea eagle also acted as intermediate host of an unidentified Sarcocystis spp. as evidenced by the finding of six thin-walled sarcocysts in a histological section of cardiac muscle. Keywords: Sarcocystis, Haliaeetus albicilla, Oocysts, ITS1, Cox1, Phylogeny

  1. A New Species ofEimeria(Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Green Frog,Lithobates clamitans(Anura: Ranidae) from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcallister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Bursey, Charles R; Trauth, Stanley E; Connior, Matthew B; Robison, Henry W

    2014-07-01

    Between April and October 2012, 20 juvenile and adult green frogs ( Lithobates clamitans ) were collected by hand or dipnet from 3 counties of Arkansas and examined for coccidial parasites. A single frog (5%) was found to be passing oocysts of a new eimerian species. Oocysts of Eimeria menaensis n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 25.4 × 15.6 (23-27 × 13-17) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.6. A micropyle was absent but an oocyst residuum and polar granule were present. Sporocysts were spheroidal to subspheroidal and measured 5.0 × 5.0 (4-6) µm with L/W of 1.1. An indistinct Stieda body was present, but sub-and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate and attenuated at both ends with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the second report of coccidia from L. clamitans and the first time a coccidian has been reported from a green frog from Arkansas.

  2. Unrecognized Ingestion of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts Leads to Congenital Toxoplasmosis and Causes Epidemics in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Kenneth; Hill, Dolores; Mui, Ernest; Wroblewski, Kristen; Karrison, Theodore; Dubey, J. P.; Sautter, Mari; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Withers, Shawn; Swisher, Charles; Heydemann, Peter; Hosten, Tiffany; Babiarz, Jane; Lee, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    (See the Editorial Commentary by Linn, on pages 1090–1.) Background. Congenital toxoplasmosis presents as severe, life-altering disease in North America. If mothers of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis could be identified by risks, it would provide strong support for educating pregnant women about risks, to eliminate this disease. Conversely, if not all risks are identifiable, undetectable risks are suggested. A new test detecting antibodies to sporozoites demonstrated that oocysts were the predominant source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 4 North American epidemics and in mothers of children in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS). This novel test offered the opportunity to determine whether risk factors or demographic characteristics could identify mothers infected with oocysts. Methods. Acutely infected mothers and their congenitally infected infants were evaluated, including in-person interviews concerning risks and evaluation of perinatal maternal serum samples. Results. Fifty-nine (78%) of 76 mothers of congenitally infected infants in NCCCTS had primary infection with oocysts. Only 49% of these mothers identified significant risk factors for sporozoite acquisition. Socioeconomic status, hometown size, maternal clinical presentations, and ethnicity were not reliable predictors. Conclusions. Undetected contamination of food and water by oocysts frequently causes human infections in North America. Risks are often unrecognized by those infected. Demographic characteristics did not identify oocyst infections. Thus, although education programs describing hygienic measures may be beneficial, they will not suffice to prevent the suffering and economic consequences associated with congenital toxoplasmosis. Only a vaccine or implementation of systematic serologic testing of pregnant women and newborns, followed by treatment, will prevent most congenital toxoplasmosis in North America. PMID:22021924

  3. Protecting chickens against coccidiosis in floor pens by administering Eimeria oocysts using gel beads or spray vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Persyn, Joseph; Barlow, Darren; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2013-09-01

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect broilers raised in contact with litter. Newly hatched chicks were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel beads. Control, 1-day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(3) total) by oral gavage or received no vaccine (nonimmunized controls). All chicks were raised in floor-pen cages in direct contact with litter. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Chickens immunized with Eimeria oocysts in gel beads or by spray vaccination displayed significantly (P 0.05) from chickens immunized by oral gavage or from nonimmunized, noninfected controls. Oocyst excretion after Eimeria challenge by all immunized groups was about 10-fold less than in nonimmunized controls. These findings indicate that immunization efficacy of gel beads and spray vaccination is improved by raising immunized chicks in contact with litter.

  4. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. from Pipistrellus kuhlii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dakhil, Mohamed; Al-Shawa, Yaser

    1999-01-01

    Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.8×23.2 (22-27×20-25) µm, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.6×8.3 (10.5-13×7.5-9) µm, with a prominent Stieda body, but without a substiedal body; sporozoites lay head to tail in sporocysts and contained one large posterior refractile body. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. is the 3rd species of the genus Eimeria found from bats of the genus Pipistrellus. PMID:10188376

  5. Transport and survival of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts in Soil Columns Following Applications of Raw and Separated Liquid Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.H.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, A.

    The widespread waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is primarily transmitted to humans via contaminated drinking and recreational water. Nearly all drinking water in Denmark is groundwater, but this can be contaminated with oocysts from application of contaminated manure to the field. Oocysts...... in the leachates from soil columns to which Cryptosporidium positive slurry had been injected. Although recovery rates were low, regardless of slurry type, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns. Variations in the leachate patterns were recorded between soil columns added raw and liquid slurry...

  6. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water samples with a Becton Dickinson FACSort flow cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Boschman GD; LWL; Becton Dickinson Europe, Aalst, Belgie

    1995-01-01

    Current detection techniques for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water samples combine filtration of large volumes of water, concentration by centrifugation and flotation and immunofluorescense microscopy. The techniques are extremely labour-intensive and inefficient. The various steps

  7. Quantitative characterization, classification and reconstruction of oocyst shapes of Eimeria species from cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports on morphological variability of Eimeria species, which may be given either by drawings or as quantitative data. The drawings may be used to facilitate identification by eye of 'unknown' Eimeria specimens, whereas quantitative data may serve as a reference set for identification...... by multivariate statistical techniques. The morphology of 810 Eimeria specimens was defined in binary (b/w) digital images by pixels of their oocyst outline. A Fourier transform of pixel positions yielded size and shape features. To classify coccidia, the quantitative data were employed in an agglomerative...... clustering by average linkage algorithm with equal weight assigned to size and shape. An inverse Fourier transform served to reconstruct oocyst outlines, i.e. outlines of average shape and size, from mean values of features in resulting clusters. Clusters were subsequently identified based on their average...

  8. Isolation of Cyclospora oocysts from fruits and vegetables using lectin-coated paramagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B; Campbell, A T

    2000-10-01

    Published techniques for recovering parasites from fruit and vegetables are generally inadequate, with low and variable recovery efficiencies. Herein, we describe an improved method for analyzing fruit and vegetables for Cyclospora oocysts. The technique includes washing procedures, sonication, and separation using lectin-coated paramagnetic beads. Identification is by microscopy (differential interference contrast and fluorescence). Oocyst recovery efficiencies from mushrooms, lettuce, and raspberries were approximately 12%. Recovery efficiencies from bean sprouts were approximately 4%. Although no significant difference in recovery efficiency could be detected between samples processed using the lectin-coated beads and samples processed without this procedure, distinct advantages were apparent when the lectin-coated beads were used. A considerably smaller, cleaner final volume remained for microscopy, which increases the sensitivity of the technique and reduces operator time.

  9. Some remarks on the distribution and dispersion of Coccidia from icterid birds in South America: Isospora guaxi n. sp. and Isospora bellicosa Upton, Stamper & Whitaker, 1995 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red-rumped cacique Cacicus haemorrhous (L.) (Passeriformes: Icteridae) in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lidiane Maria; Rodrigues, Mariana Borges; de Pinho, Irlane Faria; do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Berto, Bruno Pereira

    2017-01-01

    A new species of coccidian, Isospora guaxi n. sp., and Isospora bellicosa Upton, Stamper & Whitaker, 1995 (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are recorded from red-rumped caciques Cacicus haemorrhous (L.) in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Brazil. Isospora guaxi n. sp. has sub-spheroidal oöcysts, measuring on average 30.9 × 29.0 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.9 μm thick. Micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 19.3 × 13.8 μm. Stieda body is knob-like and sub-Stieda body is prominent and compartmentalized. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules. Sporozoites are vermiform, with one refractile body and a nucleus. Isospora bellicosa has sub-spheroidal to ovoidal oöcysts, measuring on average 27.1 × 25.0 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.5 μm thick. Micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but one or two polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 18.1 × 10.9 μm. Stieda body is knob-like and sub-Stieda body is rounded to rectangular. Sporocyst residuum is composed of a cluster of compact or diffuse granules. Sporozoites are vermiform, with one refractile body and a nucleus. Isospora bellicosa was originally described from the Peruvian meadowlark Sturnella bellicosa deFilippi, a trans-Andean icterid which is allopatric with the cis-Andean C. haemorrhous. Therefore, in conclusion, this current study reveals the dispersion of coccidia from Icteridae across the Andes Mountains, besides describing the sixth isosporoid coccidium infecting an icterid bird.

  10. Immunoproteomic analysis of the protein repertoire of unsporulated Eimeria tenella oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhenchao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan protozoans Eimeria spp. cause coccidioses, the most common intestinal diseases in chickens. Coccidiosis is associated with significant animal welfare issues and has a high economic impact on the poultry industry. Lack of a full understanding of immunogenic molecules and their precise functions involved in the Eimeria life cycles may limit development of effective vaccines and drug therapies. In this study, immunoproteomic approaches were used to define the antigenic protein repertoire from the total proteins of unsporulated Eimeria tenella oocysts. Approximately 101 protein spots were recognized in sera from chickens infected experimentally with E. tenella. Forty-six spots of unsporulated oocysts were excised from preparative gels and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. For unsporulated oocysts, 13 known proteins of E. tenella and 17 homologous proteins to other apicomplexan or protozoan parasites were identified using the ‘Mascot’ server. The remaining proteins were searched against the E. tenella protein sequence database using the ‘Mascot in-house’ search engine (version 2.1 in automated mode, and 12 unknown proteins were identified. The amino acid sequences of the unknown proteins were searched using BLAST against non-redundant sequence databases (NCBI, and 9 homologous proteins in unsporulated oocyst were found homologous to proteins of other apicomplexan parasites. These findings may provide useful evidence for understanding parasite biology, pathogenesis, immunogenicity and immune evasion mechanisms of E. tenella.

  11. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) River System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Aahmad, R A

    2004-12-01

    A survey of the river water frequently used by the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) indicated that 66.7% of the river water samples were Giardia cyst positive and 5.6% were Cryptosporidium oocyst positive. Although Giardia cysts were detected in samples from all the sites (e.g. upstream, midstream, and downstream), Cryptosporidium was only present in one river water sample taken from downstream from a village. The only sample of upstream water which contained Giardia cysts had a concentration of 0.7 cysts/l. All samples taken from midstream contained cysts with a mean concentration of 9.8 +/- 6.6 cysts/l (range = 1-20 cysts/l). Eighty-three point three percent of the samples collected from downstream contained cysts and 16.7% had oocysts. The average concentration of cysts was 12.9 +/- 16.4 cysts/l (range = 0-44 cysts/l), whereas the oocyst concentration was 0.4 oocysts/l. All river samples tested positive for the presence of E. coli, indicating fecal contamination. The results of this study imply that the river system is contaminated with fecal-oral transmitted parasites. The river water, used by the Orang Asli, is a probable route for Giardia and Cryptosporidium transmission in this community. Long term strategies, incorporating health education regarding personal hygiene, and provision of toilets and the importance of their proper usage, need to be embraced by this community in order to control the spread of these parasites.

  12. An improved stool concentration procedure for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in Orang Asli stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati; Yasin, Azlin Mohd; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul

    2014-11-01

    To improve the stool concentration procedure, we modified different steps of the standard formalin-ether concentration technique and evaluated these modifications by examining stool samples collected in the field. Seven samples were found positive by the modified formalin-ether concentration technique (M-FECT). Therefore, the M-FECT procedure provides enhanced detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Occurrence of eggs and oocysts of gastrointestinal parasites in passerine birds kept in captivity in Para State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Magalhães-Matos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to detect helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts in samples of feces from birds of the order Passeriformes in Para State, Brazil. Fecal samples were collected individually from 403 passerine birds seized and kept in captivity in Para State. Samples were processed by the double centrifugation technique in saturated sucrose solution and the coccidial oocyst-positive samples were submitted to sporulation in potassium dichromate 2.0%. Helminth eggs and/or protozoan oocysts were observed in 43.18% (174/403 of the fecal samples examined. Coccidial oocysts were detected in 93.68% (163/174 of the positive samples, whereas helminth eggs were observed in 10.34% (18/174 of the positive samples. Oocyst sporulation occurred in 43.56% (71/163 of the samples, and only Isospora spp. oocysts were detected. Nematode eggs of the superfamilies Trichostrongyloidea (4.60%; 8/174, Ascaridoidea (0.57%; 1/174, and Trichuroidea (0.57%; 1/174 were diagnosed in the positive samples. Cestoda eggs were diagnosed in 2.87% (5/174, whereas Trematoda eggs were detected in 2.30% (4/174 of positive samples. Passerine birds seized and kept in captivity in the visited local presented parasitism by intestinal helminths and protozoan, with a predominance of infection with coccidia of the gender Isospora.

  14. Efficacy of the solar water disinfection method in turbid waters experimentally contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under real field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Couso, H; Fontán-Saínz, M; Sichel, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Ares-Mazás, E

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of the solar water disinfection (SODIS) method for inactivating Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in turbid waters using 1.5 l polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles under natural sunlight. All experiments were performed at the Plataforma Solar de Almería, located in the Tabernas Desert (Southern Spain) in July and October 2007. Turbid water samples [5, 100 and 300 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)] were prepared by addition of red soil to distilled water, and then spiked with purified C. parvum oocysts. PET bottles containing the contaminated turbid waters were exposed to full sunlight for 4, 8 and 12 h. The samples were then concentrated by filtration and the oocyst viability was determined by inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide. Results After an exposure time of 12 h (cumulative global dose of 28.28 MJ/m(2); cumulative UV dose of 1037.06 kJ/m(2)) the oocyst viabilities were 11.54%, 25.96%, 41.50% and 52.80% for turbidity levels of 0, 5, 100 and 300 NTU, respectively, being significantly lower than the viability of the initial isolate (P < 0.01). SODIS method significantly reduced the potential viability of C. parvum oocysts on increasing the percentage of oocysts that took up the dye PI (indicator of cell wall integrity), although longer exposure periods appear to be required than those established for the bacterial pathogens usually tested in SODIS assays. SODIS.

  15. Production of anti-Cryptosporidium polyclonal antibodies and standardization of direct immunofluorescence for detecting oocysts in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Osaki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The production of anti-Cryptosporidium polyclonal antibodies and its use in direct immunofluorescence assays to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium in water are described in the present work. METHODS: Two rabbits were immunized with soluble and particulate antigens from purified Cryptosporidium oocysts. The sera produced were prepared for immunoglobulin G extraction, which were then purified and conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC. Slides containing known amounts of oocysts were prepared to determine the sensitivity of the technique. To test the specificity, slides containing Giardia duodenalis cysts were prepared. RESULTS: The conjugate was successfully used in water samples experimentally contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts, and it was possible to detect up to five oocysts/spot, corresponding to contamination of 250 oocysts/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The three immunizations performed in the rabbits were enough to produce antibodies against Cryptosporidium, the standard direct immunofluorescence assay permitted the detection of five oocysts in 20% of the samples, and no cross-reaction with Giardia duodenalis cysts occurred.

  16. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water: proposition of a strategy and evaluation in Champagne-Ardenne Region, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Aubert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is a vehicle for disseminating human and veterinary toxoplasmosis due to oocyst contamination. Several outbreaks of toxoplasmosis throughout the world have been related to contaminated drinking water. We have developed a method for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water and we propose a strategy for the detection of multiple waterborne parasites, including Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia. Water samples were filtered to recover Toxoplasma oocysts and, after the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts by immunofluorescence, as recommended by French norm procedure NF T 90-455, the samples were purified on a sucrose density gradient. Detection of Toxoplasma was based on PCR amplification and mouse inoculation to determine the presence and infectivity of recovered oocysts. After experimental seeding assays, we determined that the PCR assay was more sensitive than the bioassay. This strategy was then applied to 482 environmental water samples collected since 2001. We detected Toxoplasma DNA in 37 environmental samples (7.7%, including public drinking water; however, none of them were positive by bioassay. This strategy efficiently detects Toxoplasma oocysts in water and may be suitable as a public health sentinel method. Alternative methods can be used in conjunction with this one to determine the infectivity of parasites that were detected by molecular methods.

  17. Eimeria peltocephali n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae from the Freshwater Turtle Peltocephalus dumerilianus (Chelonia:Pelomusidae and Eimeria molossi n. sp., from the Bat, Molossus ater (Mammalia:Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson R

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The oocyst is described of Eimeria peltocephali n.sp. from faeces of the freshwater turtle Peltocephalus dumerilianus from Barcelos, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts are elongate, ellipsoidal or cylindrical, frequently curved to a banana-shape, 54.4 x19.1 (37.5 - 68.7 x 18.7-20.0 µm, shape-index 2.8 (1.8 -3.9. The oocyst wall is a single thin, colourless layer about 1 µm thick, with no micropyle. There is a bulky oocyst residuum, at first spherical to ellipsoidal, 19 x 16 (16. 2 -26.2 x 16 - 21.5µm , but becoming dispersed on maturation. There are no polar bodies. The sporocysts, 19.1 x 6.8 ( 17.5 -21.2 x 6.2 -7.5 µm, shape- index 2.8 (2.3 -3.2, are usually disposed in pairs at each end of the oocyst, and bear an inconspicuous Stieda body in the form of a flat cap. The sporozoites are elongate and slightly curved around the residuum. No refractile bodies were seen. Eimeria molossi n.sp., is described from the molossid bat Molossus ater. Sporulation is exogenous and the mature oocysts are predominantly broadly ellipsoidal, 23.4 x 17.5 (18-30 x 15-22.5 µm, shape-index 1.3 (1-1.6. The oocyst wall is about 2 µm thick, and of three layers: an inner thin, colourless one and two outer layers which are thicker, yellowish-brown, prominently striated and in close apposition. There is no micropyle or oocyst residuum, but one and occasionally two polar bodies are usually present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.2 x 7.5 (10-12.5 x 7.5 µm, shape-index 1.4 (1.3-1.7 with an inconspicuous Stieda body. Endogenous stages are described in the epithelial cells of the small intestine

  18. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the maintenance water of Antillean manatees (Trichechusmanatus in captivity

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    Jeane Kury Nobre Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to verify the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the water consumption and supply of pools used by Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus in captivity. Six samples were collected from the pool's supply system (at the beach, water used for manatee consumption, mineral water used in the preparation of artificial milk formulas offered to orphan manatee calves, also used in permanent maintenance pools in the visitation area, and water utilized in the rehabilitation area, where calves of all ages were kept. Before the water samples were processed, each sample was submitted to a filtration process. The diagnosis of the parasite was obtained by Kinyoun technique and the positive samples were submitted to the Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 66.67% (4/6 of the samples from the water supply system and pool, with eight to 56 oocysts per liter. There was evidence that the water used in the maintenance of the Antillean manatees could be an important medium for hydric transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and that it may be a predisposing factor to the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis in Antillean manatees in captivity.

  19. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

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    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryptosporidium and 17.14% for Giardia, the low rates were in Mosul city 10% for both protozoa. The highest prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium was in March 38.46% and the lowest was in November and July 0%. The highest prevalence rate of Giardia was in October 23.53% and the lowest rate in July 0%. This first study shows the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water (Ground water in Nineveh governorate.

  20. Oocyst Discharge, Rumen Metabolism and Performance of Early Weaned Lambs with Naturally Occurring Coccidiosis Fed Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, G. M. J.; Stockdale, P. H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-six 9.5 kg early-weaned lambs with naturally occurring coccidiosis were fed monensin either at 0, 11, 22, or 33 mg/kg of feed for 105 days. Fecal oocyst discharge during the first three days was highest with monensin 22 mg, lowest with monensin 33 mg and averaged 149.6 × 103 oocysts per gram feces for all lambs. Monensin at 22 mg/kg of feed reduced Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae and E. ahsata oocyst discharge. Organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were highest (P ≤ 0.05) in lambs fed monensin 22 mg/kg of feed. Monensin increased (P ≤ 0.01) rumen ammonia and propionic acid and decreased (P ≤ 0.01) acetic acid. Feeding monensin 33 mg decreased (P ≤ 0.05) feed intake by 5% and had no effect on gain or feed efficiency. Optimal responses were observed with monensin at 11 mg, feed consumption was not affected, gains were 8% higher (P ≤ 0.05) and feed was utilized 9% more efficiently (P ≤ 0.05) than the controls. In conclusion, monensin was an effective therapeutic agent against naturally occurring coccidial infections in early weaned lambs. Performance responses were largest with monensin fed at the rate of 11 mg/kg of feed. PMID:7197187

  1. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes

    KAUST Repository

    Roques, Magali

    2015-11-13

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei.

  2. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Magali; Wall, Richard J; Douglass, Alexander P; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Ferguson, David J P; Kaindama, Mbinda L; Brusini, Lorenzo; Joshi, Nimitray; Rchiad, Zineb; Brady, Declan; Guttery, David S; Wheatley, Sally P; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Holder, Anthony A; Pain, Arnab; Wickstead, Bill; Tewari, Rita

    2015-11-01

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei.

  3. Investigation of Nematopsis spp. oocysts in 7 species of bivalves from Chonburi province, Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiwaranuruk, C; Chalermwat, K; Upatham, E S; Kruatrachue, M; Azevedo, C

    2004-01-28

    This is the first detailed report of Nematopsis spp. in Thai bivalves. A monthly survey was conducted on 7 species of commercial bivalves from Chonburi province, on the eastern seaboard of Thailand, from November 2000 to November 2001 to investigate the prevalence of the apicomplexan parasite Nematopsis Schneider, 1892. Nematopsis spp. sporozoites were found in the cultivated bivalves Arcuatula arcuatula, Anadara granosa and Perna viridis as well as the locally harvested Paphia undulata. They were not found in Donax faba, Meretrix meretrix or Saccostrea cucullata. Using light microscopy, we were able to identiby 4 oocyst morphotypes of the gregarine Nematopsis spp. Prevalence of Nematopsis spp. during the 13 mo sampling period was highest in A. arcuatula (91.8%; n = 110) and lowest in A. granosa (59.2%; n = 130). The morphology of the oocysts differed between hosts, with an average (x +/- SD) length/width of 16.28 +/- 0.64/12.01 +/- 0.35 microm (n = 50) for A. arcuatula, 16.90 +/- 0.71/12.69 +/- 0.33 microm (n = 50) for A. granosa, 17.61 +/- 0.69/12.72 +/- 0.36 microm (n = 50) for P. viridis, and 11.21 +/- 0.62/8.55 +/- 0.52 microm (n = 50) for P. undulata. Identification of oocysts of these apicomplexan gregarines to species was not attempted. The prevalence of infection in relation to habitat and time of sampling is discussed.

  4. Isospora serinuse n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-01

    A new species, Isospora serinuse n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) is described from a single domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (subspecies S. c. domestica) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. are spherical or subspherical, 25.5 (24.4-27.0) × 23.5 (22.0-24.8) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.09; and a smooth bilayered oocyst wall, 1.2 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.3 μm). A polar granule is present, but a micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 18.9 (17.8-20.2) × 11.8 (10.6-13.0) μm, with a shape index of 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies are present, the Stieda body being a small crescent shape and the substieda being indistinct. Each sporocyst with four vermiform sporozoites arranged head to tail. A sporocyst residuum is present and composed of numerous granules of different sizes that are scattered among the sporozoites. Morphologically, the oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. were different from those of all known valid Isospora spp. Molecular analysis was conducted at 3 loci: the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and two separate regions of subunit I of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene (designated COIa and COIb). At the 18S locus, Isospora serinuse n. sp. exhibited 97.5% similarity to Isospora sp. Tokyo from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in Japan. At the 28S locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 94.9% similarity to Isospora anthochaerae n. sp. from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) in Australia. At the COIa locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 95.7% similarity to Isospora sospora sp. ex Apodemus flavicollis from a yellow-necked mouse and Isospora gryphoni from an American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) respectively. At the COIb locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 96.7% similarity to an Isospora (iSAT4) from a European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new

  5. Contamination microbiologique des eaux souterraines par les oocystes de Cryptosporidium en Haïti. Evaluation des risques pour la santé de la population

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazard-Accou , Ketty; Emmanuel , Evens; Diouf , Momar; Agnamey , Patrice

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Contamination of natural aquatic ecosystems by Cryptosporidium is a major environmental and human health issue. In Haiti, environmental Cryptosporidium oocysts pollution has been well documented by previous studies conducted in several cities of the country. In groundwater from Les Cayes of Haiti, significant concentrations from 1 to 989 oocysts in 100 liters of filtered water were calculated. Results of these studies revealed high level of Cryptosporidium oocysts poll...

  6. Quantitative toxoplasma gondii oocyst detection by a modified Kato Katz test using Kinyoun staining (KKK) in ME49 strain experimentally infected cats

    OpenAIRE

    Meireles, Luciana Regina; Tsutsui, Vinícius Suehiro; Carmo, Claudia Villano do; Galisteo Jr., Andrés Jimenez; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Terentowicz, Henrique César Katsumi; Andrade Júnior, Heitor Franco de

    2008-01-01

    We detected Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in feces of experimentally infected cats, using a Kato Katz approach with subsequent Kinyoun staining. Animals serologically negative to T. gondii were infected orally with 5x10² mice brain cysts of ME49 strain. Feces were collected daily from the 3rd to the 30th day after challenge. Oocysts were detected by qualitative sugar flotation and the quantitative modified Kato Katz stained by Kinyoun (KKK). In the experimentally infected cats, oocysts were detec...

  7. Quantification of viable Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater using propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José L; Amorós, Inmaculada; Guy, Rebecca A

    2014-07-01

    Real-time PCR (qPCR) is a rapid tool to quantify pathogens in the aquatic environment; however, it quantifies all pathogens, including both viable and nonviable. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a membrane-impairment dye that penetrates only membrane-damaged cells. Once inside the cell, PMA is covalently cross-linked to DNA through light photoactivation, and PCR amplification is strongly inhibited. The goal of this study was to evaluate PMA-qPCR assays for rapid quantification of viable and heat-treated Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater. We observed a reduction in detection of heat-treated Giardia duodenalis cysts of 83.2, 89.9, 98.2, or 97% with PMA-qPCR assays amplifying a 75 base-pair (bp) β-giardin target, 77-bp triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), 133-bp glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and 143-bp β-giardin gene target, respectively. Thus, the exclusion of dead cysts was more effective when qPCR assays that produced larger amplicons were used. The PMA treatment of Cryptosporidium oocysts plus/minus heat treatment abolished the fluorescent signal for dead oocysts with a PMA-qPCR assay amplifying a Cryptosporidium parvum (150-bp) oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. The PMA-qPCR 143-bp β-giardin assay for Giardia and the PMA-qPCR 150-bp COWP assay for Cryptosporidium accurately quantified live oo(cysts), and failed to detect dead oo(cysts), when phosphate-buffered saline and tertiary effluent wastewater were spiked with concentrations of 10(3) or 10(2) dead oo(cysts), respectively. Therefore, these assays are suitable for the detection of viable parasites that are typically present in tertiary wastewater effluents at concentrations of <10(3) oo(cysts)/l and can provide rapid risk assessments of environmental water.

  8. Rapid detection and quantification of Cryptosporidium baileyi oocysts in feces and organs of chickens using a microscopic slide flotation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, H; Wyers, M; Cabaret, J; Naciri, M

    2000-03-01

    A simple semiquantitative microscopic slide flotation (MSF) method using modified Sheather's sugar solution (MSSS) is presented for the rapid detection and quantification of Cryptosporidium baileyi oocysts in the feces and mucosal and/or organ scrapings of chickens. Oocyst shedding was evaluated by examination of the surface of coverslips, and the average quantitative score (0-5) recorded for 10 microscopic fields (magnification x250) is reported. The equivalence between these scores and the actual number of oocysts counted per gram of feces was assessed (rs = 0.89; P < 0.001). The applicability of this method was tested by comparison of the kinetics of oocyst shedding in feces of inoculated chickens with those reported by other authors working under similar conditions. In organs the MSF method was compared to histology. Fewer false-negative results were obtained using MSF versus the histology method. The MSF method was particularly more efficient in tracheae with low levels of infection and in the lungs, regardless of the level of infection. The MSF method was also very efficient in detecting oocysts in air sacs from chickens with aerosacculitis. It provides a specific and sufficiently sensitive, simple, rapid, reliable, and low-cost means of diagnosing C. baileyi in the feces and organs of chickens. This method can be used in the routine diagnosis of cryptosporidia in chickens, and it could be extended to other avian species and used in epidemiology studies to evaluate the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in fowl.

  9. rROP2 from Toxoplasma gondii as a potential vaccine against oocyst shedding in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauton Luiz Zulpo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate oocyst shedding in cats immunized by nasal route with T. gondii proteins ROP2. Twelve short hair cats (Felis catus were divided in three groups G1, G2 and G3 (n=4. Animals from G1 received 100 μg of rROP2 proteins plus 20 μg of Quil-A, G2 received 100 μg of BSA plus 20 μg of Quil-A, and the G3 only saline solution (control group. All treatments were done by intranasal route at days 0, 21, 42, and 63. The challenge was performed in all groups on day 70 with ≅ 800 tissue cysts of ME-49 strain by oral route. Animals from G1 shed less oocysts (86.7% than control groups. ELISA was used to detect anti-rROP2 IgG and IgA, however, there were no correlation between number of oocyst shedding by either IgG or IgA antibody levels. In the present work, in spite of lesser oocysts production in immunized group than control groups, it was not possible to associate the use of rROP2 via nostrils with protection against oocyst shedding. For the future, the use of either other recombinant proteins or DNA vaccine, in combination with rROP2 could be tested to try improving the efficacy of this kind of vaccine.

  10. A no film slot blot for the detection of developing P. falciparum oocysts in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Grabias

    Full Text Available Non-microscopy-based assays for sensitive and rapid detection of Plasmodium infection in mosquitoes are needed to allow rapid and high throughput measurement of transmission intensity and malaria control program effectiveness. Here, we report on a modified enhanced chemiluminescence-based slot blot assay for detection of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf circumsporozite protein (PfCSP expressed on parasite oocysts developing inside the mosquito midgut. This modified assay has several novel features that include eliminating the need for exposure to autoradiography (AR film, as well as utilizing a novel high affinity anti-CSP antibody, and optimizing assay procedures resulting in significant reduction in the time required to perform the assay. The chemiluminescent signal for the detection of PfCSP in mosquito samples was captured digitally utilizing the C-Digit blot scanner that, allowed the detection of 0.01 pg of recombinant P. falciparum CSP and as few as 0.02 P. falciparum oocysts in a little over two hours. The earlier ECL-SB detected rCSP and oocysts and took approximately 5 h to perform. Whole mosquito lysates from both high and low prevalence-infected mosquito populations were prepared and evaluated for PfCSP detection on the ECL-SB by both AR film and digital data capture and analysis. There was a 100% agreement between the AR film and the C-Digit scanner methods for PfCSP detection in randomly sampled mosquitoes. This novel "No Film" Slot Blot assay obviates the need for AR film exposure and development and significantly reduces the assay time enabling widespread use in field settings.

  11. Improved risk analysis by dual direct detection of total and infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts on cell culture in combination with immunofluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    The inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocysts is a main driver in the selection of water treatment disinfection strategies, and microbial risk analysis provides a sound basis for optimizing water treatment processes. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1622/23 provides an estimate of the total oocyst count; however, it cannot be used directly for risk assessment, as it does not determine the fraction of infectious oocysts. Improved assessment of the risk for designated sources or in treated water requires evaluation of the total number of oocysts and an estimate of their infectivity. We developed a dual direct detection method using differential immunofluorescent staining that allows detection of both oocysts and cell culture infection foci for each sample. Using Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, various pH levels, proteases, and gastroenteric compounds and substrates were assessed to determine their abilities to enhance the number of infection foci. The results showed that the key trigger for oocyst stimulation was acidification. Addition of a low concentration of D-glucose (50 mM) to the infection media increased rates of infectivity, while a higher dose (300 mM) was inhibitory. The total number of oocysts in each sample was determined by counting the oocysts remaining on a cell monolayer and the oocysts recovered from cell monolayer washes during processing using a simple filtration technique. With the dual direct detection on cell culture with immunofluorescence assay method, it is now possible to determine the numbers of total and infectious oocysts for a given sample in a single analysis. Direct percentages of infectivity are then calculated, which allows more accurate assessments of risk.

  12. Cryptosporidium parvum infection in SCID mice infected with only one oocyst: qPCR assessment of parasite replication in tissues and development of digestive cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Benamrouz

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone (Dex treated Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID mice were previously described as developing digestive adenocarcinoma after massive infection with Cryptosporidium parvum as soon as 45 days post-infection (P.I.. We aimed to determine the minimum number of oocysts capable of inducing infection and thereby gastrointestinal tumors in this model. Mice were challenged with calibrated oocyst suspensions containing intended doses of: 1, 10, 100 or 10(5 oocysts of C. parvum Iowa strain. All administered doses were infective for animals but increasing the oocyst challenge lead to an increase in mice infectivity (P = 0.01. Oocyst shedding was detected at 7 days P.I. after inoculation with more than 10 oocysts, and after 15 days in mice challenged with one oocyst. In groups challenged with lower inocula, parasite growth phase was significantly higher (P = 0.005 compared to mice inoculated with higher doses. After 45 days P.I. all groups of mice had a mean of oocyst shedding superior to 10,000 oocyst/g of feces. The most impressive observation of this study was the demonstration that C. parvum-induced digestive adenocarcinoma could be caused by infection with low doses of Cryptosporidium, even with only one oocyst: in mice inoculated with low doses, neoplastic lesions were detected as early as 45 days P.I. both in the stomach and ileo-caecal region, and these lesions could evolve in an invasive adenocarcinoma. These findings show a great amplification effect of parasites in mouse tissues after challenge with low doses as confirmed by quantitative PCR. The ability of C. parvum to infect mice with one oocyst and to develop digestive adenocarcinoma suggests that other mammalian species including humans could be also susceptible to this process, especially when they are severely immunocompromised.

  13. Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay targeting MIC1 for detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hønsvall, Birgitte K; Robertson, Lucy J

    2017-01-01

    Both Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis are often associated with cryptosporidiosis in humans, but whereas humans are the main host for C. hominis, C. parvum is zoonotic and able to infect a variety of species. The oocyst transmission stages of both species of parasites are morphologically identical and molecular techniques, usually polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are required to distinguish between oocysts detected by standard methods in environmental samples, such as water. In this study, we developed two primer sets for real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), targeting the MIC1 transcript in C. parvum (CpMIC1) and C. hominis (ChMIC1). Using these primer sets, we were not only able to detect low numbers of C. parvum and C. hominis oocysts (down to 5 oocysts in 10 μl, and down to 1 oocyst using diluted RNA samples), but also distinguish between them. One of the primer sets targeted an exon only occurring in CpMIC1, thereby providing a tool for distinguishing C. parvum from other Cryptosporidium species. Although mRNA has been suggested as a tool for assessing viability of Cryptosporidium oocysts, as it is short-lived and may have high transcription, this NASBA assay detected MIC1 mRNA in inactivated oocysts. RNA within the oocysts seems to be protected from degradation, even when the oocysts have been killed by heating or freeze-thawing. Thus, our approach detects both viable and non-viable oocysts, and RNA does not seem to be a suitable marker for assessing oocyst viability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of common fecal flotation techniques for the recovery of parasite eggs and oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, M W; Payne, P A; Ridley, R; Smith, V

    2005-01-01

    A variety of procedures are available to detect parasite eggs or oocysts in feces. This study compared the efficacy of simple flotation, a commercial assay, and various centrifugation techniques and three common flotation solutions. Results indicate that centrifugation consistently recovered more eggs than other methods. Proper technique is critical, including ensuring that the specific gravity of the flotation solution is correct and allowing the sample to stand for a sufficient amount of time before examining the coverslip. Because of the zoonotic health risks of many companion animal parasites, veterinarian and their staff should better utilize fecal examinations in their routine diagnostic plan.

  15. Metabolic alterations in broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,Fagner Luiz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected). The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5×103 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi). In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and...

  16. Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in low quality water using Moringa oleifera seed extract as coagulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Petersen, T. B.; Enemark, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    was carried out to investigate the effect of a coagulant produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater and stream water. Glass jars (n = 60) containing 500 mL wastewater obtained from the inlet to the primary settling tanks from.......7% reduction) in the treated wastewater and stream water, respectively. In contrast, the turbidity was 55.3 ± 4.4 NTU and 46.2 ± 1.6 NTU in untreated wastewater and stream water, respectively. M. oleifera seeds are readily available in many tropical countries where the tree is common, and our results clearly...

  17. Investigating Attachment Behaviors of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts Using Collision Efficiency in Laboratory Column Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.; Hou, L.; Atwill, R.; Packman, A. I.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most common enteric parasites of humans and domestic animals, and a number of outbreaks of Cryprosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium have been reported worldwide. Natural porous media has been demonstrated to be an effective filter for removing Cryptosporidium parvum from contaminated water and the amount of Cryptosporidium filtered is known to be highly dependent on physical and chemical conditions of the porous media and the water. Cryptosporidium deposition in saturated porous media involves two main steps: approach and attachment. In contrast to the approach mechanisms, attachment processes have not been systematically described to predict a priori because theories that represent attachment behavior (colloid stability) such as DLVO are insufficient to explain experimental data. For this reason, attachment efficiency is calculated based on empirical data, typically experimental breakthrough curves in laboratory columns or field experiments. In this study, collision (attachment) efficiencies (α) of C. parvum oocyst were calculated to test the effect of chemical property changes on the association of oocysts with sand grains. The breakthrough curve data obtained from twelve column experiments and three models were employed to calculate single collector efficiency (η) and α. The first ten experiments were conducted by changing ionic strength and pH, and mixing with natural sediments under the same physical properties (same η). Our experiment results show that iron coating or clay/suspended solids mixture drastically enhanced oocyst deposition. The experiments also showed that increase in ionic strength and decrease in pH enhanced the attachment efficiency. However, the experiment with 100mM NaCl resulted in low attachment efficiency and the experiment with pH 8.5 showed similar attachment efficiency to the one at pH 7. Based on the results from two additional experiments with different flow velocities, it

  18. Tyzzeria boae n. sp., (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae, a New Coccidium from the Kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tyzzeria is described from the kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor Linnaeus, from the State of Pará, north Brazil. Oocysts from the coacal contents matured in eight days, at approximately 24°C. They measured 19.0 x 18.0 (15.0 x 15.0 - 22.5 x 21.5 µm, shape-index (length/width 1.0 (1.0 - 1.1. The oocyst wall is of an extremely delicate single, colourless layer, with no micropyle. Division of the oocyst contents into the 8 naked sporozoites leaves a bulky, spherical oocyst residuum averaging 15.5 x 14.8 (13.5 x 13.5 - 18.5 x 17.5 µm; the sporozoites measure an average of 11.0 x 1.8 (8.5 x 1.25 - 12.5 x 2.0 µm, and possess both anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Tyzzeria boae n.sp. is unique among the recorded species of the genus by virtue of its development in the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules of the kidney: stages in the merogony and gametogony of the parasite are described and figured.

  19. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae) from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad

    2010-12-01

    Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16) × 12 (10-12.9) microm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3). The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an oocyst residuum. The oocysts have a distinct two-layered wall, which is ~approximately1.7 microm thick. The outer layer has a smooth texture; it fills ~¾ of the total thickness and appears bicolored. The sporocysts are boat-shaped, of about 10 (9-11) × 4 (4-4.7) microm; their average shape-index is 2.5 microm with a small pointed Stieda body and a smooth, thin single-layered wall. No substieda body is detected. The sporocysts contain numerous, nearly uniform granular residua. The sporozoites are banana-shaped, 6 × 3 microm and each has two different-sized refractile bodies.

  20. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Saad El-Shahawy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16 × 12 (10-12.9 μm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3. The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an oocyst residuum. The oocysts have a distinct two-layered wall, which is ~1.7 μm thick. The outer layer has a smooth texture; it fills ~¾ of the total thickness and appears bicolored. The sporocysts are boat-shaped, of about 10 (9-11 × 4 (4-4.7 μm; their average shape-index is 2.5 μm with a small pointed Stieda body and a smooth, thin single-layered wall. No substieda body is detected. The sporocysts contain numerous, nearly uniform granular residua. The sporozoites are banana-shaped, 6 × 3 μm and each has two different-sized refractile bodies.

  1. Transport and survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Enemark, Heidi; Olsen, Annette

    The widespread waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated drinking and recreational water. Nearly all drinking water in Denmark is groundwater, which can be contaminated with oocysts e.g. from application of contaminated manure to the field...... in the leachates from soil columns to which Cryptosporidium positive slurry had been injected. Although recovery rates were low, regardless of slurry type, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns. Variations in the leachate patterns were recorded between soil columns added raw and liquid slurry...

  2. Microscopic and Molecular Tracing of Cryptosporidium Oocysts: Identifying a Possible Reservoir of Infection in Red Grouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baines

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Infection by Cryptosporidium baileyi causes respiratory cryptosporidiosis in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica. First diagnosed in 2010, it has since been detected across half of moors managed for grouse shooting in northern England. We hypothesised that contaminated grouse faeces within communal trays visited by grouse containing grit coated with flubendazole, provided to control Trichostrongylus tenuis parasites of grouse, is a reservoir of infection. To establish the basis to this hypothesis, contents of 23 trays from a grouse moor were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Contents were subjected to Immuno Magnetic Separation oocyst concentration techniques prior to examination by Immuno Fluorescence Antibody Test microscopy and molecular analysis on the 18S rRNA gene. Seven of 13 (54% grit trays known to be used by infected grouse were positive for Cryptosporidium by IMS-IFAT, compared to two of 10 (20% random background trays. Ten of the 13 (77% trays used by infected birds amplified positive for Cryptosporidium by Polymerase Chain Reaction and three of the 10 (30% random trays. All PCR amplified products sequenced matched with C. baileyi, with C. parvum also present in one tray. These data suggest that trays used to “worm” grouse may act as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection and their future design may need to be reconsidered to minimise contamination.

  3. Validation of Romanowsky staining as a novel screening test for the detection of faecal cryptosporidial oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, A P S; Sood, N K; Singla, L D; Kaur, P; Gupta, K; Sandhu, B S

    2017-03-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne protozoan disease and one of the major causes of neonatal diarrhea in humans and animals. But the disease remains under diagnosed due to lack of availability of special stains in majority of laboratories at primary health centers. Therefore, it requires a rapid screening test for routine diagnosis in conventional laboratory set up. In this pursuit, the present study was planned. During this study, fecal samples from 100 representative animals randomly selected from 17 out breaks of bovine calf diarrhea, were stained with modified Ziehl Neelsen staining (mZN) and Leishman's stain to demonstrate cryptosporidial oocysts and for routine fecal examination, respectively. By mZN staining, 25 cases confirmed the presence of cryptosporidial oocysts. However, examination of Leishman's stained fecal smears revealed round hollow unstained bodies resembling cryptosporidia in 20 cases. Therefore, a comparative morphometric analysis was made between the two techniques to determine their relative efficacy in demonstrating cryptosporidia in the feces of affected animals. The analyses showed that the Leishman's stain can be effective in making a presumptive diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis with a little experience. Confirmation of cryptosporidiosis was done by histopathological examination of intestinal sections of calves died during these out breaks. The findings appear to have great clinical value for routine laboratory screening of fecal samples for cryptosporidiosis as conventional Romanowsky stains are readily available and used for multipurpose examination in most of the laboratories at grass root level. Perusal of literature proved this to be the first attempt at easy diagnostics for cryptosporidiosis.

  4. Microscopic and Molecular Tracing of Cryptosporidium Oocysts: Identifying a Possible Reservoir of Infection in Red Grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, David; Giles, Michaela; Richardson, Michael

    2017-11-13

    Infection by Cryptosporidium baileyi causes respiratory cryptosporidiosis in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica . First diagnosed in 2010, it has since been detected across half of moors managed for grouse shooting in northern England. We hypothesised that contaminated grouse faeces within communal trays visited by grouse containing grit coated with flubendazole, provided to control Trichostrongylus tenuis parasites of grouse, is a reservoir of infection. To establish the basis to this hypothesis, contents of 23 trays from a grouse moor were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Contents were subjected to Immuno Magnetic Separation oocyst concentration techniques prior to examination by Immuno Fluorescence Antibody Test microscopy and molecular analysis on the 18S rRNA gene. Seven of 13 (54%) grit trays known to be used by infected grouse were positive for Cryptosporidium by IMS-IFAT, compared to two of 10 (20%) random background trays. Ten of the 13 (77%) trays used by infected birds amplified positive for Cryptosporidium by Polymerase Chain Reaction and three of the 10 (30%) random trays. All PCR amplified products sequenced matched with C. baileyi , with C. parvum also present in one tray . These data suggest that trays used to "worm" grouse may act as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection and their future design may need to be reconsidered to minimise contamination.

  5. Cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts on salad products irrigated with contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, Inmaculada; Alonso, José L; Cuesta, Gonzalo

    2010-06-01

    A field study in Valencia, Spain, was done to determine the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium on salad products that are frequently eaten raw, such as lettuces and Chinese cabbage, and in irrigation waters. Four water samples were taken weekly 1 month before harvesting the vegetables. All water samples were analyzed using techniques included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623. Standard methods for detecting protozoan parasites on salad vegetables are not available. Published techniques for the isolation of parasites from vegetables generally have low and variable recovery efficiencies. In this study, vegetables were analyzed using a recently reported method for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts on salad products. The waters tested were positive for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Of 19 salad products studied, we observed Cryptosporidium in 12 samples and Giardia in 10 samples. Recoveries of the Texas Red-stained Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which were used as internal controls, were 24.5% +/- 3.5% for Cryptosporidium and 16.7% +/- 8.1% for Giardia (n = 8). This study provides data on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in salad products in Spain. The method was useful in the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts on the vegetables tested, and it provides a useful analytical tool for occurrence monitoring.

  6. Disinfection of drinking water contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under natural sunlight and using the photocatalyst TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Hermida, Fernando; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; McGuigan, Kevin G; Boyle, Maria; Sichel, Cosima; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2007-09-25

    The results of a batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) and solar photocatalytic disinfection (SPCDIS) on drinking water contaminated with Cryptosporidium are reported. Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst suspensions were exposed to natural sunlight in Southern Spain and the oocyst viability was evaluated using two vital dyes [4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI)]. SODIS exposures (strong sunlight) of 8 and 12h reduced oocyst viability from 98% (+/-1.3%) to 11.7% (+/-0.9%) and 0.3% (+/-0.33%), respectively. SODIS reactors fitted with flexible plastic inserts coated with TiO2 powder (SPCDIS) were found to be more effective than those which were not. After 8 and 16 h of overcast and cloudy solar irradiance conditions, SPCDIS reduced oocyst viability from 98.3% (+/-0.3%) to 37.7% (+/-2.6%) and 11.7% (+/-0.7%), respectively, versus to that achieved using SODIS of 81.3% (+/-1.6%) and 36.0% (+/-1.0%), respectively. These results confirm that solar disinfection of drinking water can be an effective household intervention against Cryptosporidium contamination.

  7. Antibody responses measured by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with low numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J. P.; Andrews, C.D.; Lind, Peter

    1996-01-01

    ) infective oocysts, and 6 pigs served as uninoculated controls. Blood (serum) samples were obtained at 1- to 3-week intervals until euthanasia. At necropsy, the brain, heart, and tongue of pigs were bioassayed in mice and cats for isolation of T gondii. Modified agglutination test (MAT), using whole, fixed...

  8. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623 WITH A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION PROCEDURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S.EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are used for the detection of waterborne Cryptosporium. These methods consist of filtration, elution, purificaiton by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis for oocysts stained by a fluorescent monoclonal antibody and counter stai...

  9. An easy 'one tube' method to estimate viability of Cryptosporidium oocysts using real-time qPCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paziewska-Harris, A.; Schoone, G.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Viability estimation of the highly resistant oocysts of Cryptosporidium remains a key issue for the monitoring and control of this pathogen. We present here a simple 'one tube' quantitative PCR (qPCR) protocol for viability estimation using a DNA extraction protocol which preferentially solubilizes

  10. A Cryptosporidium hominis outbreak in north-west Wales associated with low oocyst counts in treated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B W; Chalmers, R M; Carnicer-Pont, D; Casemore, D P

    2010-06-01

    An outbreak in the autumn of 2005 resulted in 218 confirmed cases of Cryptosporidium hominis. The attack rate (relative risk 4.1, 95%CI 2.8-9.1) was significantly higher in the population supplied by Cwellyn Water Treatment Works (WTW). A case-control study demonstrated a statistically significant association (odds ratio 6.1, 95% CI 1.8-23.8) between drinking unboiled tap water and C. hominis infection. The association remained significant in a logistic regression analysis, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.30 (95 CI 1.05-1.61) per glass of unboiled tap water consumed per day. This evidence together with environmental and associated microbiological investigations, and the absence of effective treatment to remove Cryptosporidium oocysts at the WTW, led to the conclusion that the outbreak was waterborne. Oocyst counts in final treated water at the WTW and at different points in the distribution system were consistently very low, maximum count in continuous monitoring 0.08 oocysts per 10 litres. Data from continuous monitoring and the epidemic curve is consistent with the hypothesis that low numbers of oocysts of C hominis were present in treated water continuously during the outbreak and these were of sufficient infectivity to cause illness. All surface water derived water supplies present a potential risk to human health and appropriate control measures should be in place to minimise these risks.

  11. Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo)cysts in water: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Beerendonk, E.F.; Medema, Gerriet Jan

    2006-01-01

    UV disinfection technology is of growing interest in the water industry since it was demonstrated that UV radiation is very effective against (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, two pathogenic micro-organisms of major importance for the safety of drinking water. Quantitative Microbial Risk

  12. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia...

  13. Isolation and enumeration of Giardia cysts, cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs from fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2000-06-01

    Published techniques for recovering parasites from fruit and vegetables are generally inadequate, with low and variable recovery efficiencies. Here we describe an improved methodology for analyzing fruit and vegetables for Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs. The method includes washing procedures, sonication, and, for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, immunomagnetic separation. Identification is by immunofluorescence (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) or brightfield microscopy (Ascaris). Recovery efficiencies from lettuce, Chinese leaves, and strawberries were found to be approximately 67% for Giardia, 42% for Cryptosporidium, and 72% for Ascaris. Recovery efficiencies from bean sprouts tended to be more variable and lower. This could be due to material removed with the parasites during the washing procedures, which, in turn, appeared related to the age of the bean sprouts. It is therefore recommended that fruit and vegetables should be as fresh as possible when analyzed for parasites.

  14. A new coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Galápagos tortoise, Chelonoidis sp. (Testudines: Testudinidae), from the Dallas Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Roberts, David T

    2014-02-01

    During January 1994, feces from a captive juvenile Galápagos tortoise, Chelonoidis sp., from the Dallas Zoo, Dallas County, Texas was examined for coccidia. The tortoise was found to harbor an eimerian which is described as new. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria iversoni n. sp. were ovoidal with a smooth, single-layered wall (∼ 0.5-0.8) that measured (L × W) 13.5 × 10.3 μm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule(s) were all absent; 2 conical projections were present on 1 end of oocyst and measured 1.0-1.5. Sporocysts were elongate-ellipsoidal and measured 8.3 × 4.5 μm, with L/W of 1.8; a Stieda body (∼ 0.5 high) was present, but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent; a sporocyst residuum was composed of 2-5 granules in a compact mass between sporozoites; sporozoites were banana-shaped and measured 9.5 × 2.5 in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. This is only the second time an eimerian has been reported from Galápagos tortoises.

  15. SP. Pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gendre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'occhiello di un articolo dal titolo Il Peru dei de[Jini rosa e de/la grande pioggia si legge: "da una partenza  in aereo al «pescado»  che ti  sfamera."1 Questa parola spagnola, giustamente chiusa tra caporali, a noi pare molto interes­ sante, perche, nonostante l'apparenza, non ha nulla da spartire sotto i1 profilo se­ mantico con l'it. pescato. lnfatti, tutti i piu importanti dizionari della lingua italiana, di ieri e di oggi, etimologici e non 2, registrano  accanto a pescata,  ii lemma pescato, 3 ma lo spiegano come "quantita di pesce catturato nel corso di una battuta o di una stagione di pesca",4 mentre lo sp. pescado  indica i1 "pesce (solo nel senso di: pesGe pescato da mangiare [...]".s

  16. Seasonality in the proportions of domestic cats shedding Toxoplasma gondii or Hammondia hammondi oocysts is associated with climatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schares, G; Ziller, M; Herrmann, D C; Globokar, M V; Pantchev, N; Conraths, F J

    2016-04-01

    A previous study on domestic cats in Germany and neighbouring countries suggested seasonality in shedding Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether this seasonality in shedding could be explained by climatic effects and whether differences between years in the proportions of cats shedding oocysts could also be explained by climatic factors. To this end, a long-term study over a period of 55 months on domestic cats for T. gondii and Hammondia hammondi oocysts was performed and the results compared with climatic data. Using species-specific PCR, T. gondii oocysts were identified in 0.14% (84/61,224) and H. hammondi in 0.10% (61/61,224) of the samples. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were predominantly observed from summer to autumn, while H. hammondi oocysts were mainly found during autumn and winter. In statistical analyses using climatic data, even differences in parasitological findings between years could be partially modelled using monthly temperature, North Atlantic Oscillation indices and precipitation. Of the three climatic variables analysed, precipitation as an explanatory variable had the lowest impact in the statistical models while those taking only temperature and North Atlantic Oscillation indices into account were sufficiently predictive. Interestingly, time lags between the climatic event and the parasitological findings had to be implemented in all models. For T. gondii, North Atlantic Oscillation indices with a time lag of 7 months and temperature with a time lag of 2 months had the best predictive value. In contrast, temperature (with a time lag of 6 months) and the interaction of precipitation (with a time lag of 5 months) and North Atlantic Oscillation indices (with a time lag of 11 months) were optimal for predicting the seasonality of H. hammondi. These results suggest prominent differences in the life cycles of the two closely related parasites. Previous findings showed that H. hammondi lack avian hosts, in

  17. Effect of turbulent gas-liquid contact in a static mixer on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation by ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Stephen A; Smith, Daniel W; Chandrakanth, Mysore; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2003-09-01

    Static mixers may be used to dissolve gaseous ozone in water treatment facilities in order to provide protection against the waterborne parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a brief exposure to turbulent gas-liquid mixing conditions in a static mixer on inactivation of C. parvum oocysts by ozone. Inactivation measured in an ozone contacting apparatus that employed a static mixer for ozone dissolution was compared to predictions based on a previously published kinetic model of C. parvum inactivation by dissolved ozone in gently stirred batch reactors. Although initial contact in the static mixer had no immediate effect on the oocysts, a 20% increase in the rate of inactivation during subsequent contact with dissolved ozone was observed. Increasing the degree of turbulence within the static mixer did not yield additional inactivation. Use of static mixers for dissolution of ozone in drinking water treatment systems may provide limited enhancement of C. parvum inactivation by dissolved ozone.

  18. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract and impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Woolsey, Ian David; Dalsgaard, Anders

    The use of low quality water for irrigation in agriculture is common practise in many countries due to limited freshwater resources. Pathogens may contaminate vegetables when faeces polluted water is used for irrigation. A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the effect of a coagulant ...... water free of C. parvum oocysts as well as other protozoan parasites.......The use of low quality water for irrigation in agriculture is common practise in many countries due to limited freshwater resources. Pathogens may contaminate vegetables when faeces polluted water is used for irrigation. A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the effect of a coagulant...... in the untreated wastewater. Furthermore, the number of oocysts L-1was significantly (pwater, which was significantly (p

  19. Draft genome sequences of six neonatal meningitis-causing escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65) were recovered from infants in the Netherlands from 1989 to 1997. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these six E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing te...

  20. Development of resistance to coccidiosis in the absence of merogonic development using X-irradiated Eimeria acervulina oocysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, M.C.; Augustine, P.C.; Barta, J.R.; Castle, M.D.; Danforth, H.D. (US Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Sporulated oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria acervulina were subjected to 0, 10, 15, 20, or 30 krad of X-irradiation and inoculated into susceptible outbred chickens to determine if radioattenuated coccidia could induce protection against parasite challenge. Irradiation treatment had an appreciable dose-dependent effect on parasite development. Insignificant numbers of oocysts were produced by chickens inoculated with parasites that had been exposed to greater than 10 krad X-irradiation. Sporozoites exposed to 15 or 20 krad irradiation conferred significant protection against the appearance of intestinal lesions after parasite challenge. Sporozoites subjected to the highest dose level (30 krad) did not produce any significant level of protection. To investigate this phenomenon further and assess intracellular parasite development, susceptible outbred strains of chickens were administered either nonirradiated (0 krad) oocysts or oocysts that were exposed to an optimal dose (15 krad) or a high dose (30 krad) of X-irradiation. Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from each treatment group at various intervals after the initial administration of irradiated parasites indicated that sporozoites exposed to 15 krad irradiation were as capable of invading the host intestinal epithelium as nonirradiated sporozoites. However, at 48, 60, 72, and 96 hr, there was a marked reduction in merogonic development in groups receiving irradiated sporozoites compared to those inoculated with nonirradiated parasites. The latter parasites underwent profuse merogonic development; in contrast, irradiated parasites demonstrated little (15 krad) or no (30 krad) merogonic development. These results suggest that induction of a protective immune response occurs during a critical period early in intracellular development of E. acervulina.

  1. The Administration of Garlic Extract on Eimeria stiedai Oocysts and the Hematological Profile of the Coccidia Infected Rabbits

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    D. Indrasanti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the potential of garlic as the coccidiosis control in rabbits either in vitro or in vivo. During in vitro, observed variables were rabbits oocysts that were sporulated, unsporulated, and abnormal in incubation for 3 days with the addition of garlic extract. The treatments were doses of garlic extract administration (0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 8% and sulfaquinoxalline as a standard anticoccidiosis. Meanwhile during in vivo, the variables observed were the hematological profile of the experimental rabbits naturally infected with coccidia. The doses of garlic extract was administered orally to the experimental rabbits infected with coccidia were 0 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg/rabbit.  As a standard coccidiosis drugs, the combination of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim was used.  The treatments were given for 6 days. The variables observed were the hematological profile of the coccidiosis rabbits, including the erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrits, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and thrombocytes. The research employed a completely randomized design, with 5 repetitions. The data were further analyzed using the honestly significant difference test. The results showed that garlic extract administration significantly decreased (P<0.01 both the number of the sporulated and unsporulated oocysts (P<0.05, yet did not significantly influence the abnormal oocysts, but there was no significant difference within the entire hematological variables except in thrombocytes (P<0.05. Garlic extract administration decreased the excretion number of oocysts in the feces either in vitro or in vivo and influenced some hematological variables which provided a new propect for controlling coccidiosis naturally in rabbits.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for shedding of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in dairy calves of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

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    Carlos J. Garro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the prevalence and risk factors for shedding of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy calves, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the northeastern region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Fecal samples from a total of 552 calves from 27 dairy herds were collected, along with a questionnaire about management factors. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by light microscopy using Kinyoun staining. Putative risk factors were tested for association using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs. Oocyst shedding calves were found in 67% (CI95% = 49–84 of herds (corresponding to a true herd prevalence of 98% and 16% (CI95% = 13–19 of calves (corresponding to a true calve prevalence of 8%. Within-herd prevalence ranged from 0 to 60%, with a median of 8%. Cryptosporidium spp. excretion was not associated with the type of liquid diet, gender, time the calf stayed with the dam after birth, use of antibiotics, blood presence in feces, and calving season. However, important highly significant risk factors of oocyst shedding of calves was an age of less or equal than 20 days (OR = 7.4; 95% CI95% = 3–16; P < 0.0001 and occurrence of diarrhea (OR = 5.5; 95% CI95% = 2–11; P < 0.0001. The observed association with young age strongly suggests an early exposure of neonatal calves to Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in maternity pens and/or an age-related susceptibility. Association with diarrhea suggests that Cryptosporidium spp. is an important enteropathogen primarily responsible for the cause of the observed diarrheal syndrome. Results demonstrate that Cryptosporidium spp. infection is widespread in the study region. Monitoring and control of this parasitic protozoan infection in dairy herds is recommended.

  3. Anticoccidial efficacy of drinking water soluble diclazuril in the control of Eimeria acervulina oocysts on experimentally-infected broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.L. Assis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with 150 Cobb broiler chickens divided into 3 groups with 50 birds each. The groups of infected chickens orally received 1ml of inoculum containing 3x103 Eimeria acervulina sporulated oocysts at 12 days of age. Group 1 was kept as a positive control with infected non-medicated birds, group 2 was medicated with diclazuril (1% with a dose of 1mL/4 L of drinking water for 2 successive days, 5 days after infection, while group 3 was kept as negative control with non-infected and non-medicated birds. Oocysts count per gram of feces, score of macroscopic intestinal lesions and weight gain were evaluated. The group treated with diclazuril showed significant and satisfactory improvement in the assessment criteria when compared to the infected non-medicated group. The results revealed more reduction in the total oocyst count and intestinal lesion score in the medicated than in the infected non-treated group. The results confirmed that (1% liquid diclazuril is effective to control Eimeria infection.

  4. Cryptosporidium rubeyi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae in multiple Spermophilus ground squirrel species

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    Xunde Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previously we reported the unique Cryptosporidium sp. “c” genotype (e.g., Sbey03c, Sbey05c, Sbld05c, Sltl05c from three species of Spermophilus ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi, Spermophilus beldingi, Spermophilus lateralis located throughout California, USA. This follow-up work characterizes the morphology and animal infectivity of this novel genotype as the final step in proposing it as a new species of Cryptosporidium. Analysis of sequences of 18S rRNA, actin, and HSP70 genes of additional Cryptosporidium isolates from recently sampled California ground squirrels (S. beecheyi confirms the presence of the unique Sbey-c genotype in S. beecheyi. Phylogenetic and BLAST analysis indicates that the c-genotype in Spermophilus ground squirrels is distinct from Cryptosporidium species/genotypes from other host species currently available in GenBank. We propose to name this c-genotype found in Spermophilus ground squirrels as Cryptosporidium rubeyi n. sp. The mean size of C. rubeyi n. sp. oocysts is 4.67 (4.4–5.0 μm × 4.34 (4.0–5.0 μm, with a length/width index of 1.08 (n = 220. Oocysts of C. rubeyi n. sp. are not infectious to neonatal BALB/c mice and Holstein calves. GenBank accession numbers for C. rubeyi n. sp. are DQ295012, AY462233, and KM010224 for the 18S rRNA gene, KM010227 for the actin gene, and KM010229 for the HSP70 gene.

  5. Metabolic alterations in broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima

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    Fagner Luiz da Costa Freitas

    Full Text Available Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected. The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5×103 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi. In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum fragments were collected after necropsy for histological analysis. Villus biometry was determined by means of a slide graduated in microns that was attached to a binocular microscope. To evaluate the biochemical data, 5 ml of blood were sampled from the birds before sacrifice. The statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad 5 statistical software for Windows. Tukey's multiple comparison test (p <0.05 was performed for the different dpi's and the unpaired t test for the difference between the groups. Infection by E. maxima causes both qualitative and quantitative alterations to the structure of the intestinal villi, thereby interfering with the absorption of nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein and lipids, with consequent reductions in the birds' weights.

  6. Metabolic alterations in broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Fagner Luiz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected). The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5 × 10³ sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi). In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum fragments were collected after necropsy for histological analysis. Villus biometry was determined by means of a slide graduated in microns that was attached to a binocular microscope. To evaluate the biochemical data, 5 ml of blood were sampled from the birds before sacrifice. The statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad 5 statistical software for Windows. Tukey's multiple comparison test (p <0.05) was performed for the different dpi's and the unpaired t test for the difference between the groups. Infection by E. maxima causes both qualitative and quantitative alterations to the structure of the intestinal villi, thereby interfering with the absorption of nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein and lipids, with consequent reductions in the birds' weights.

  7. Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L S; Bruckner, D A; Brewer, T C; Shimizu, R Y

    1983-07-01

    Due to increasing numbers of patients with documented infections with Cryptosporidium and other coccidia, it is important for the physician and clinical laboratory to be aware of the appropriate diagnostic techniques necessary for organism recovery and identification. Although Cryptosporidium is found in the gastrointestinal tract, tissue biopsies may be insufficient for organism recovery; the examination of stool specimens is a noninvasive procedure and will provide better overall opportunities for organism recovery. Human clinical specimens were examined from 45 patients with confirmed cryptosporidiosis or suspected of having the infection. Tissue biopsy sections, fecal wet preparations, and permanent stained smears were examined. Stool specimens were submitted in 10% Formalin, 2.5% potassium dichromate, and polyvinyl alcohol and were examined for oocysts by using 15 different methods: phase-contrast and light microscopy; Sheather's sugar flotation; Formalin concentration techniques; 10% potassium hydroxide; Giemsa; trichrome; periodic acid-Schiff; modified periodic acid-Schiff; silver methenamine; acridine orange; auramine-rhodamine; Kinyoun acid-fast; Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin; and a modified acid-fast procedure. Each technique or combination of techniques was assessed by organism quantitation, organism morphology, and ease of visual recognition. Based on these comparative studies, the modified Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin stain on 10% Formalin-preserved stool is recommended for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium.

  8. Cryptosporidium sp. em intestinos, bursa de Fabricius e traquéia de frangos (Gallus gallus sp Cryptosporidium sp. in intestines, bursa of Fabricius and poultry trachea (Gallus gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Jacobsen

    2006-04-01

    Ziehl Neelsen technique modified with Dimetil Sulfóxido (DMSO, Ziehl Neelsen modifed by Henriksen and Pohlens (HP, Ziehl Neelsen (ZN and Kinyoun (K, completing 1872 printings analyzed in optical microscopy (1000 x. At this final number, at the different colorations done, oocysts of the parasite Cryptosporidium sp. were viewed in 18 trachea printings, 42 of bursa de Fabricius and 29 of intestine, resulting positive, 89 printings. From these 89, 44 were identified through the technique DMSO, 32 through HP, three through ZN and 10 through K. Cryptosporidium sp. parasites oocysts were found with more frequency from printings of bursa the Fabricius. The coloration method, of those utilized, was the one which had the better visualization of the oocysts was the DMSO.

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria purpureicephali n. sp. (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae in a red-capped parrot (Purpureicephalus spurius, Kuhl, 1820 in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongchang Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new Eimeria species is described from a red-capped parrot (Purpureicephalus spurius. Sporulated oocysts (n = 31 were spherical to subspherical, with a rough bilayered oocyst wall 0.8 μm thick. Oocysts measured 24.0 × 22.8 (20.4–26.4 × 18.3–25.9 μm, oocyst length/width ratio, 1.10. Oocyst residuum, polar granule and micropyle were absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 11.0 × 7.3 (12.7–9.2 × 7.9–6.6 μm, sporocyst length/width ratio, 1.51 (1.33–1.71. The thin convex Stieda body and indistinct substieda bodies were present and the sporocyst residuum was composed of numerous small granules less than 1.0 μm in diameter dispersed randomly. Each sporocyst contained 2 sausage-shaped sporozoites in head-to-tail arrangement. The sporozoite nuclei were located centrally surrounded by refractile bodies. Molecular analysis was conducted at two loci; the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. At the18S locus, the new isolate shared 99.0% genetic similarity with Eimeria dispersa and Eimeria innocua from the turkey. At the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene locus, this new isolate was most closely related to E. dispersa and E. innocua, presented 99.0% and 98.0% genetic similarity, respectively. This new isolate and E. dispersa grouped together in the same clade. Based on the morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of coccidian parasite, which is named Eimeria purpureicephali n. sp. after its host, the red-capped parrot (Purpureicephalus spurius.

  10. A new coccidian, Isospora parnaitatiaiensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae), from the white-shouldered fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera (Passeriformes, Thamnophilidae) from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lidiane Maria; Rodrigues, Mariana Borges; Lopes, Bruno do Bomfim; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-02-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Isospora) parasitizing the white-shouldered fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera (Vieillot, 1818) is described in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia. This park is a protected area in southeastern Brazil with a high degree of vulnerability, representing a "conservation island" of biodiversity. Isospora parnaitatiaiensis n. sp. has oocysts that are ellipsoidal, 23.8 × 19.4 μm, with smooth, bilayered wall, ~1.1 μm thick. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but one or two polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 14.6 × 9.3 μm. The Stieda body is nipple- to knob-like and sub-Stieda body rounded to rectangular. Sporocyst residuum is present, usually as a cluster of numerous granules. Sporozoites are vermiform with two refractile bodies and a nucleus. This is the second isosporoid coccidian described from antbirds (Thamnophilidae).

  11. Parasites of the squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae from Amazonian Brasil, with particular reference to Eimeria damnosa n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson R.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A description is given of the mature oocysts and endogenous stages of Eimeria damnosa n. sp. from the small intestine of the red squirrel, Sciurus spadiceus, from the State of Acre, north Brazil. Ten of 12 animals examined were infected. Oocysts ovoid to ellipsoidal, occasionally cylindrical but not with parallel sides, 30.2 × 20.0 μm (18.0 × 15.0-40.2 × 30.0, shapeindex (ratio length/width 1.5 (1.3-1.8, n = 40. Oocyst wall smooth, colourless, with no micropyle, apparently of a single layer measuring approximately 1.0-1.5 μm thick. No oocyst residuum, but approximately 50 % of the oocysts with a single spherical, ovoid or dumbbell-shaped polar body. Sporocysts pear-shaped, 15.0 × 8.0 μm (11.0 × 6.0-16.0 × 8.0, shape index 1.9 (1.8-2.0, n = 33. Stieda body, if it merits this name, appears only as a slight thickening of the sporocyst wall at the more pointed extremity. Endogenous stages intracytoplasmic in the epithelial cells of the duodenum and throughout the ileum, above the host cell nucleus. Sporulation frequently completed in the lumen of the intestine, but most oocysts mature outside the host at some time within 24 hours. Massive infections may result in extensive desquamation of the gut epithelium, and sometimes in the death of the animal. In addition to this coccidian, one squirrel showed abundant trophozoites of a Giardia sp., in the ileum. The liver of two others contained developing and mature meronts, producing large numbers of slender merozoites, and other cyst-like bodies containing a small number of large zoites (sporozoites?. No parasites were detected in the blood of any of the squirrels that could be associated with this unidentified protozoan. Histological sections of the ileum of one squirrel revealed a globidium-like parasite in the lamina propria: it contained a very large number of slender, curved zoites. Three animals were with a sheathed microfilaria in the peripheral blood and liver smears. Finally, a

  12. β-1,3-Glucan, Which Can Be Targeted by Drugs, Forms a Trabecular Scaffold in the Oocyst Walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushkin, G. Guy; Motari, Edwin; Magnelli, Paula; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Dubey, Jitender P.; Miska, Katarzyna B.; Bullitt, Esther; Costello, Catherine E.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The walls of infectious pathogens, which are essential for transmission, pathogenesis, and diagnosis, contain sugar polymers that are defining structural features, e.g., β-1,3-glucan and chitin in fungi, chitin in Entamoeba cysts, β-1,3-GalNAc in Giardia cysts, and peptidoglycans in bacteria. The goal here was to determine in which of three walled forms of Toxoplasma gondii (oocyst, sporocyst, or tissue cyst) is β-1,3-glucan, the product of glucan synthases and glucan hydrolases predicted by whole-genome sequences of the parasite. The three most important discoveries were as follows. (i) β-1,3-glucan is present in oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria (a chicken parasite that is a model for intestinal stages of Toxoplasma) but is absent from sporocyst and tissue cyst walls. (ii) Fibrils of β-1,3-glucan are part of a trabecular scaffold in the inner layer of the oocyst wall, which also includes a glucan hydrolase that has a novel glucan-binding domain. (iii) Echinocandins, which target the glucan synthase and kill fungi, arrest development of the Eimeria oocyst wall and prevent release of the parasites into the intestinal lumen. In summary, β-1,3-glucan, which can be targeted by drugs, is an important component of oocyst walls of Toxoplasma but is not a component of sporocyst and tissue cyst walls. PMID:23015739

  13. Four New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Emoia spp. Skinks (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea and the Insular Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Austin, Christopher C; Fisher, Robert N

    2017-02-01

    Between September and November 1991, 54 adult skinks from 15 species were collected by hand or blowpipe from several localities on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, Ovalau Island, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea (PNG), and their feces were examined for coccidians. Species included 5 seaside skinks (Emoia atrocostata), 1 Pacific blue-tailed skink (Emoia caeroleocauda), 2 Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor), 15 white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), 1 Bulolo River forest skink (Emoia guttata), 6 dark-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia impar), 5 Papua five-striped skinks (Emoia jakati), 2 Papua slender treeskinks (Emoia kordoana), 3 Papua robust treeskinks (Emoia longicauda), 1 brown-backed forest skink (Emoia loveridgei), 3 Papua black-sided skinks (Emoia pallidiceps), 2 Papua white-spotted skinks (Emoia physicae), 2 Papua yellow-head skinks (Emoia popei), 1 Papua brown forest skink (Emoia submetallica), and 5 Fiji barred treeskinks (Emoia trossula) Species of Eimeria (Ei.) were detected from these Emoia (Em.) spp. and are described here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria iovai n. sp. from Em. pallidiceps from PNG were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall (L × W) 26.5 × 18.1 μm, with a length/width ratio (L/W) of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granule was present. This eimerian also was found in Em. atrocostata from PNG. Oocysts of Eimeria kirkpatricki n. sp. from Em. atrocostata from PNG were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, 18.6 × 13.5 μm, L/W 1.4. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granule was present. This eimerian was also shared by Em. cyanura from the Cook Islands and Fiji, Em. impar from the Cook Islands, Em. loveridgei from PNG, Em. pallidiceps from PNG, Em. popei from PNG, and Em. submetallica from PNG. Oocysts of Eimeria stevejayuptoni n. sp. from Em. longicauda were subspheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, 18.7 × 16.6 μm, L/W 1.1. A micropyle and oocyst residuum

  14. Isolation and biological and molecular characterization of Neospora caninum (NC-SP1) from a naturally infected adult asymptomatic cattle (Bos taurus) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Solange; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Aizawa, Juliana; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Chiebao, Daniela Pontes; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Silva, Natália Quadros Bressa; Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima Jesus

    2017-05-01

    The biological and genetic diversity of Neospora caninum is very limited because of availability of only a few viable isolates worldwide. This study describes the isolation and biological and molecular characterization of a new viable isolate of N. caninum (NC-SP1), from a cattle in Brazil. Approximately 400 g of brain from a naturally infected adult male cattle from an abattoir was fed to a 2-month-old dog. Neospora-like oocysts were observed on day 7 post-inoculation (PI) and the duration of oocyst shedding was 14 days. The DNA obtained from oocysts was characterized molecularly and the final sequence was 99% identical to homologous sequences of N. caninum available in GenBank®. For bioassay, gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were orally inoculated with 10 100 and 1000 oocysts; all gerbils remained clinically normal but developed N. caninum antibodies 14 days PI. Cell culture isolation was successful using the brain homogenate from one of the gerbils and tachyzoites were observed 24 days PI. Microsatellite genotyping revealed a unique genetic profile for this new reference isolate.

  15. Serum Metabolic Profiling of Oocyst-Induced Toxoplasma gondii Acute and Chronic Infections in Mice Using Mass-Spectrometry

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    Chun-Xue Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite causing severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals and congenitally infected neonates, such as encephalitis and chorioretinitis. This study aimed to determine whether serum metabolic profiling can (i identify metabolites associated with oocyst-induced T. gondii infection and (ii detect systemic metabolic differences between T. gondii-infected mice and controls. We performed the first global metabolomics analysis of mice serum challenged with 100 sporulated T. gondii Pru oocysts (Genotype II. Sera from acutely infected mice (11 days post-infection, dpi, chronically infected mice (33 dpi and control mice were collected and analyzed using LC-MS/MS platform. Following False Discovery Rate filtering, we identified 3871 and 2825 ions in ESI+ or ESI− mode, respectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA identified metabolomic profiles that clearly differentiated T. gondii-infected and -uninfected serum samples. Acute infection significantly influenced the serum metabolome. Our results identified common and uniquely perturbed metabolites and pathways. Acutely infected mice showed perturbations in metabolites associated with glycerophospholipid metabolism, biosynthesis of amino acid, and tyrosine metabolism. These findings demonstrated that acute T. gondii infection induces a global perturbation of mice serum metabolome, providing new insights into the mechanisms underlying systemic metabolic changes during early stage of T. gondii infection.

  16. Deteksi Koproantigen Cryptosporidium sp pada Pasien HIV/AIDS dengan Diare Kronis

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    Sri Wahdini

    2016-06-01

    .6%. Sensitivity and specificity of coproantigen detection compared with the microscopic was 100% and 71.4%. Detection coproantigen necessary in patients with high suspicion of cryptosporidiosis but oocysts detection was negative. Key words: Cryptosporidium sp, HIV/AIDS, chronic diarrhea, coproantigen

  17. ExaSP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-08

    ExaSP2 is a reference implementation of typical linear algebra algorithms and workloads for a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) electronic structure code. The algorithm is based on a recursive second-order Fermi-Operator expansion method (SP2) and is tailored for density functional based tight-binding calculations of material systems.

  18. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in low quality water and on vegetables irrigated with low quality water in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tobias B; Petersen, Heidi H.; Abaidoo, Robert C.

    Protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium are transmitted e.g. by food and water and may cause severe diarrhoea, dehydration, weight loss and malnutrition. Ingestion of 10 oocysts can lead to infection and pathogenic symptoms. Thus, to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. contaminat...

  19. Long-term humoral antibody responses by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with oocysts of four strains of Toxoplasma gondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Andrews, C.D.; Thulliez, P.

    1997-01-01

    Antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 16 pigs orally inoculated with 1000 or 10000 oocysts of one of the four strains (GT-1, ME-49, TS-2, TC-2) of T. gondii. Pigs were euthanized on postinoculation days 103-875 and their tissues were bioassayed for T. gondii. Antibody titers wer...

  20. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA by qPCR in the feces of a cat that recently ingested infected prey does not necessarily imply oocyst shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Forin-Wiart, Marie-Amélie; Josse-Dupuis, Émilie; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in cat feces is considered indicative of the presence of T. gondii oocysts. This study aims to demonstrate that the high sensitivity of qPCR can lead to T. gondii DNA detection in cat feces in the absence of oocysts. A cat immune to toxoplasmosis was fed with a mouse experimentally infected with T. gondii. Detection of DNA of this parasite was performed by qPCR on feces passed: (i) on the day the cat ingested the infected prey; (ii) during the three previous days; and (iii) during the three following days. The kinetics of qPCR results are clearly not linked to oocyst shedding and this result demonstrates that qPCR can detect T. gondii DNA related to bradyzoites from an infected prey, in the absence of oocysts. Caution is thus recommended when interpreting T. gondii qPCR results for samples of cat feces. © M.-L. Poulle et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  1. Lectin-Magnetic Separation (LMS) for isolation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from concentrated water samples prior to detection by microscopy or qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although standard methods for analyzing water samples for the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are available and widely used, equivalent methods for analyzing water samples for Toxoplasma oocysts are lacking. This is partly due to the lack of a readily available, relia...

  2. Mattesia weiseri sp. nov., a new neogregarine (Apicomplexa: Lipotrophidae) pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Radek, Renate

    2015-08-01

    A new neogregarine pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is described based on light microscopy and ultrastructural characteristics. The pathogen infects the fat body and the hemolymph of the beetle. The infection was nonsynchronous so that different developmental stages could be observed simultaneously in the hemolymph. All life stages from sporozoite to oocyst of the pathogen including micronuclear and macronuclear merozoites were detected. The sporozoites measured about 8.7 × 1.9 μm and trophozoites, 11.9 × 3.3 μm. Micronuclear merozoites seen in the hemolymph were motile, elongate, slightly broader at the anterior pole, and measured 18.4 × 2.0 μm. Macronuclear merozoites had a size of ca. 16.4 × 2.3 μm. Gametogamy results in the formation of two paired oocysts within a gametocyst. The lemon-shaped oocyst measured 10.9 × 6.1 μm and had a very thick wall (375-450 nm). All morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the life cycle stages indicate that the described neogregarine in D. micans is clearly different from known Mattesia species infecting bark beetles, and from any other described Mattesia spp. Therefore, we create a new species, Mattesia weiseri sp. nov.

  3. CCp5A protein from Toxoplasma gondii as a serological marker of oocyst-driven infections in humans and domestic animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Silva Santana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the current immunoassays are not able to distinguish the infective forms that cause Toxoplasma gondii infection, the present study was carried out to evaluate the reactivity of two recombinant proteins (CCp5A and OWP1 from oocyst/sporozoite, in order to differentiate infections occurring by ingestion of oocysts or tissue cysts. The reactivity of the recombinant proteins was assessed against panels of serum samples from animals (chickens, pigs and mice that were naturally or experimentally infected by different infective stages of the parasite. Also, we tested sera from humans who have been infected by oocysts during a well-characterized toxoplasmosis outbreak, as well as sera from pregnant women tested IgM+/IgG+ for T. gondii, which source of infection was unknown. Only the sporozoite-specific CCp5A protein was able to differentiate the parasite stage that infected chickens, pigs and mice, with specific reactivity for oocyst-infected animals. Furthermore, the CCp5A showed preferential reactivity for recent infection by oocyst/sporozoite in pigs and mice. In humans, CCp5A showed higher reactivity with serum samples from the outbreak, compared with serum from pregnant women. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the usefulness of the CCp5A protein as a new tool to identify the parasite state of T. gondii infection, allowing its application for diagnosis and epidemiological investigations in animals and humans. The identification of parasite infective stage can help to design effective strategies to minimize severe complications in immunocompromised people and, particularly, in pregnant women to prevent congenital infection.

  4. Role of collector alternating charged patches on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst in a patchwise charged heterogeneous micromodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Changyong; Hu, Dehong; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B.; Mylon, Steven E.; Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2013-02-04

    The role of collector surface charge heterogeneity on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst and carboxylate microsphere in 2-dimensional micromodels was studied. The cylindrical silica collectors within the micromodels were coated with 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100% Fe2O3 patches. The experimental values of average single collector removal efficiencies (η) of the Fe2O3 patches and on the entire collectors were determined. In the presence of significant (>3500 kT) Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) energy barrier between the microspheres and the silica collectors at pH 5.8 and 8.1, the values of η determined for Fe2O3 patches were significantly less (p < 0.05, t-test) than that obtained for collectors coated entirely with Fe2O3. However, η on Fe2O3 patches for microspheres at pH 4.4 and for oocysts at pH 5.8 and 8.1, where the DLVO energy barrier was relatively small (ca. 200-360 kT), were significantly greater (p < 0.05, t-test) than that on the collectors coated entirely with Fe2O3. The dependence of η determined for Fe2O3 patches on the DLVO energy barrier indicated the importance of periodic favorable and unfavorable electrostatic interactions between colloids and collectors with alternating Fe2O3 and silica patches. Differences between experimentally determined η and that predicted by a patchwise geochemical heterogeneous model was observed, but can be explained by the model’s lack of consideration for the spatial distribution of charge heterogeneity on the collector surface and colloid migration on patchwise heterogeneous collectors.

  5. Extra-intestinal localization of Goussia sp (Apicomplexa) oocysts in Rana dalmatina (Anura: Ranidae), and the fate of infection after metamorphosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2006), s. 237-241 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Goussia * Rana * Coccidia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  6. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1991 and June 1992, feces from 4 species of tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. from Papua New Guinea, were collected and examined for coccidia. Two species, P. flavipes and P. prehensicauda were found to harbor eimerians which are described as new. Oocysts of Eimeria krausi sp. nov. from P. flavipes were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a smooth bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 19.2 × 16.9 μm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 6.7 μm, L/W of 1.5. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many small granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, 11.7 × 2.7 μm, in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. Oocysts of Eimeria greeri sp. nov. from P. prehensicauda were ellipsoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, (L × W) 23.0 × 18.3 μm, with a L/W of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 8.4 μm, with a L/W of 1.2. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many large granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. We document here the first report of coccidia from skinks of the genus Prasinohaema.

  7. Fuzzy SP-irresolute functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, fuzzy SP-irresolute, fuzzy SP-irresolute open and fuzzy SP-irresolute closed functions between fuzzy topological spaces in Sostak sense are defined. Their properties and the relationships between these functions and other functions introduced previously are investigated. Next fuzzy SP-connectedness is introduced and studied with the help of r-fuzzy strongly preopen sets

  8. Factors associated with the occurrence and level of Isospora suis oocyst excretion in nursing piglets of Greek farrow-to-finish herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skampardonis, Vasilis; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Leontides, Leonidas

    2012-11-22

    Piglet isosporosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in modern pig production. To prevent clinical disease, prophylactic treatment of piglets with toltrazuril (BAYCOX® 5%, Bayer HealthCare, Animal Health, Monheim, Germany) is widely practiced in the past 20 years. There are only very few reports documenting the likely effect of managerial practices, such as hygiene measures, all-in-all-out management of farrowing facilities and piglet manipulations, and/or farm-specific environment - i.e. design and materials of the farrowing pen and room - in the risk of disease occurrence and transmission. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study, we identified litter- and herd-level factors associated with the odds and the level of Isospora suis oocyst excretion in nursing piglets of Greek farrow-to-finish pig herds. Faecal samples were collected from 314 liters of 55 randomly selected herds. Oocyst counts were determined by a modified McMaster technique and possible risk-factor data were collected through a questionnaire. In the analysis, we employed a two-part model that simultaneously assessed the odds and the level of oocyst excretion. Factors associated with lower odds of oocyst excretion were: use of toltrazuril treatment, all-in all-out management of the farrowing rooms, no cross-fostering or fostering during the first 24 hours after farrowing, plastic flooring in the farrowing pens, farrowing rooms with more than fourteen farrowing pens and employment of more than two caretakers in the farrowing section. Factors associated with lower oocyst excretion level were: use of toltrazuril treatment and caretakers averting from entering into farrowing pens. Apart from prophylactic treatment with toltrazuril, the risk and the level of I. suis oocyst excretion from piglets in their second week of life, was associated with managerial and environmental factors. Changes in these factors, which may enhance prevention of piglet isosporosis - either alternatively or

  9. Factors associated with the occurrence and level of Isospora suis oocyst excretion in nursing piglets of Greek farrow-to-finish herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skampardonis Vasilis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piglet isosporosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in modern pig production. To prevent clinical disease, prophylactic treatment of piglets with toltrazuril (BAYCOX® 5%, Bayer HealthCare, Animal Health, Monheim, Germany is widely practiced in the past 20 years. There are only very few reports documenting the likely effect of managerial practices, such as hygiene measures, all-in-all-out management of farrowing facilities and piglet manipulations, and/or farm-specific environment - i.e. design and materials of the farrowing pen and room - in the risk of disease occurrence and transmission. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study, we identified litter- and herd-level factors associated with the odds and the level of Isospora suis oocyst excretion in nursing piglets of Greek farrow-to-finish pig herds. Faecal samples were collected from 314 liters of 55 randomly selected herds. Oocyst counts were determined by a modified McMaster technique and possible risk-factor data were collected through a questionnaire. In the analysis, we employed a two-part model that simultaneously assessed the odds and the level of oocyst excretion. Results Factors associated with lower odds of oocyst excretion were: use of toltrazuril treatment, all-in all-out management of the farrowing rooms, no cross-fostering or fostering during the first 24 hours after farrowing, plastic flooring in the farrowing pens, farrowing rooms with more than fourteen farrowing pens and employment of more than two caretakers in the farrowing section. Factors associated with lower oocyst excretion level were: use of toltrazuril treatment and caretakers averting from entering into farrowing pens. Conclusion Apart from prophylactic treatment with toltrazuril, the risk and the level of I. suis oocyst excretion from piglets in their second week of life, was associated with managerial and environmental factors. Changes in these factors, which may enhance prevention

  10. New exogenous stages of oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites of Goussia cichlidarum Landsberg and Paperna 1985 (Sporozoa: Coccidia) and impact of endogenous stages on the swim bladder of tilapias in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mansy, Amina

    2008-01-01

    Obviously, the present study reports the coccidian parasite so-called Goussia cichlidarum for the first time in Egypt. Altogether, 25 exogenous stages were clearly distinguished from specimens of naturally infected fishes of Oreochromis niloticus, O. auraeus, and Tilapia zillii from different locations. The total prevalence of infection was about 41%. Mostly, infected fish grossly seemed with a healthy body, although severe lesions have been detected microscopically in massive infection. Portions of thick wall swim bladder have been placed in vitro. The released parasitic stages have been photographed, sketched, measured, described, and compared with previously described species. Oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites have also been differentiated morphologically and morphometrically. Maturity stages of sporozoites containing sporocysts within either an oocyst or those released and sporulated outside the oocyst were considerably discernible. In addition, endogenous stages have also been investigated in histological sections included gamonts, merozoites, oocysts, and different stages of sporozoites.

  11. Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

    2012-06-08

    Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum

  12. Patterns of shedding of cryptosporidial oocysts by ewes and lambs kept indoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Elisa Green

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a variação na eliminação de oocistos de Cryptosporidium parvum nas fezes de cordeiros e ovelhas, mantidos confinados do nascimento a desmama, em uma criação localizada em Botucatu -SP. Um grupo de 20 ovelhas da raça Ile de France em final de gestação foi confinado em instalações com piso de concreto. O piso era lavado três vezes por semana e as fezes eram removidas diariamente. O nascimento dos cordeiros ocorreu em Agosto e Setembro/2001. Amostras de fezes foram colhidas das ovelhas e dos cordeiros no dia do nascimento, 4, 8, 16, 32 e 64 dias pós-parto. As amostras foram processadas pela técnica de centrífugo-sedimentação em éter. Esfregaços foram confeccionados e corados com auramina O e pela técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Do total de amostras de cordeiros e ovelhas, 26,7% e 31,9%, respectivamente (P>;0,05 apresentaram oocistos de Crypostosporidium. Quatro dos 20 cordeiros e duas das 20 ovelhas não apresentaram oocistos em nenhuma das amostras examinadas. O percentual mais alto de amostras positivas ocorreu nas amostras dos cordeiros com quatro dias de vida. Nas ovelhas o maior percentual de amostras positivas foi registrado quatro dias após o parto. Apesar da taxa relativamente elevada de animais que eliminaram oocistos nas fezes, a infecção por C. parvum foi subclínica nas ovelhas e nos cordeiros.

  13. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification-Lateral-Flow Dipstick (LAMP-LFD) to detect Toxoplasma gondii oocyst in ready-to-eat salad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalle, Marco; Possenti, Alessia; Dubey, Jitender P; Pozio, Edoardo

    2018-04-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, a foodborne zoonosis with a global distribution and estimated to cause up to 20% of the total foodborne disease burden in Europe. Association between T. gondii infection and the consumption of unwashed raw fruits and vegetables contaminated with oocysts has been reported and the increasing habit to eat pre-washed ready-to-eat salads poses a new potential risk for consumers. It is therefore important to trace the occurrence of potential contamination with this parasite to guarantee the safety of ready-to-eat vegetables. Detection of T. gondii in vegetables by molecular techniques has been achieved but low sensitivity (PCR) or expensive equipments (qPCR) limit routine applicability. Here, we describe the development and validation of a sensitive and robust method relying on a LAMP assay, targeting the 529 bp locus, to detect T. gondii oocysts down to 25 oocysts/50 g in ready-to-eat baby lettuce. The LAMP has been also adapted for a faster visualization of the result by a lateral flow dipstick chromatographic detection method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of free-ranging, captive, and domestic birds of Western Poland in environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna C; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Tamang, Leena; Jedrzejewski, Szymon; Zduniak, Piotr; Solarczyk, Piotr; Nowosad, Andrzej; Nowosad, Piotr

    2009-04-01

    As Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia can be disseminated in the environment by avian hosts, a total of 499 fecal dropping from 308 free-ranging, 90 captive, and 101 domestic birds were tested by conventional, immunological, and molecular techniques for these human enteropathogens. Twenty-six (5.2%) tested positive for G. lamblia cysts and 19 (3.8%) for C. parvum oocysts. A bird total of 23 (7.5%) free-ranging, two (2.2%) captive, and one (0.1%) domestic tested positive for cysts, whereas 18 (5.8%) free-ranging, one (1.1%) captive, and zero livestock birds tested positive for oocysts. G. lamblia cysts and C. parvum oocysts were found significantly more frequently in fecal droppings of free-ranging aquatic birds than in birds not normally associated with water. No specimen tested positive for both pathogens simultaneously. Aquatic birds represent an important epidemiologic link in water-associated transmission cycles of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and play a significant role in environmental contamination of aquatic habitats with these anthropozoonotic pathogens.

  15. Assessing viability and infectivity of foodborne and waterborne stages (cysts/oocysts of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Toxoplasma gondii: a review of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau Angélique

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoan parasites that have been highlighted as emerging foodborne pathogens by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. According to the European Food Safety Authority, 4786 foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were reported in Europe in 2016, of which 0.4% were attributed to parasites including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Trichinella. Until 2016, no standardized methods were available to detect Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma (oocysts in food. Therefore, no regulation exists regarding these biohazards. Nevertheless, considering their low infective dose, ingestion of foodstuffs contaminated by low quantities of these three parasites can lead to human infection. To evaluate the risk of protozoan parasites in food, efforts must be made towards exposure assessment to estimate the contamination along the food chain, from raw products to consumers. This requires determining: (i the occurrence of infective protozoan (oocysts in foods, and (ii the efficacy of control measures to eliminate this contamination. In order to conduct such assessments, methods for identification of viable (i.e. live and infective parasites are required. This review describes the methods currently available to evaluate infectivity and viability of G. duodenalis cysts, Cryptosporidium spp. and T. gondii oocysts, and their potential for application in exposure assessment to determine the presence of the infective protozoa and/or to characterize the efficacy of control measures. Advantages and limits of each method are highlighted and an analytical strategy is proposed to assess exposure to these protozoa.

  16. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by marine snails demonstrate a novel mechanism for transmission of terrestrial zoonotic pathogens in coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusor, Colin; Smith, Woutrina A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Silver, Mary; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an environmentally persistent pathogen that can cause fatal disease in humans, terrestrial warm-blooded animals and aquatic mammals. Although an association between T. gondii exposure and prey specialization on marine snails was identified in threatened California sea otters, the ability of kelp-dwelling snails to transmit terrestrially derived pathogens has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to measure concentration and retention of T. gondii by marine snails in laboratory aquaria, and to test for natural T. gondii contamination in field-collected snails. Following exposure to T. gondii-containing seawater, oocysts were detected by microscopy in snail faeces and tissues for 10 and 3 days respectively. Nested polymerase chain reaction was also applied as a method for confirming putative T. gondii oocysts detected in snail faeces and tissues by microscopy. Toxoplasma gondiiwas not detected in field-collected snails. Results suggest that turban snails are competent transport hosts for T. gondii. By concentrating oocysts in faecal pellets, snails may facilitate entry of T. gondii into the nearshore marine food web. This novel mechanism also represents a general pathway by which marine transmission of terrestrially derived microorganisms can be mediated via pathogen concentration and retention by benthic invertebrates.

  17. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos; Lima, Danielle Dos; da Silva, Edson Moura; Moreira, André Lucas de Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Amaral, Rodrigo de; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2017-09-20

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoans that can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. Due to the growing importance of diseases caused by protozoan parasites in aquatic species, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic and marine mammals in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. We collected 553 fecal samples from 15 species of wild-ranging and captive aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil. All samples were analyzed by the Kinyoun technique for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Giardia sp. cysts were identified by means of the centrifugal-flotation technique in zinc sulfate solution. Subsequently, all samples were submitted for direct immunofluorescence testing. The overall frequency of infection was 15.55% (86/553) for Cryptosporidium spp. and 9.04% (50/553) for Giardia sp. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in samples from 5 species: neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (15.28%), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (41.66%), Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (9.67%), Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (16.03%), and Antillean manatee T. manatus (13.79%). Giardia sp. was identified in L. longicaudis (9.23%), P. brasiliensis (29.16%), pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (100%), dwarf sperm whale K. sima (25%), S. guianensis (9.67%), T. inunguis (3.81%), and T. manatus (10.34%). This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in L. longicaudis, P. brasiliensis, and S. guianensis, while the occurrence of Giardia sp., in addition to the 2 otter species, was also identified in manatees, thus extending the number of hosts susceptible to these parasitic agents.

  18. Cryptosporidium sp. in lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, D.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (1998), s. 8 ISSN 1066-5234. [ Cryptosporidium sp. in lazards. 01.01.1998-02.01.1998, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA508/95/0273; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines

  19. Description of Eimeria motelo sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from the yellow footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (Chelonia: Testudinidae, and replacement of Eimeria carinii Lainson, Costa & Shaw, 1990 by Eimeria lainsoni nom. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Hurková

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria motelo sp. n. is described from faeces of the yellow-footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (L.. Oocysts are irregularly ellipsoidal or cylindrical, with slightly expressed lobed protrusions and irregularities at the poles, possibly caused by wrinkling of the oocyst wall, 17 (15-19 × 9.4 (8.5-11 µm, shape index (length/width being 1.81 (1.45-2. The oocyst wall is smooth, single-layered, 0.5 µm thick with no micropyle. There are no polar bodies. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 8.9 (7.5-10 × 4.4 (4-5 µm, shape index 2.03 (1.7-2.5. A sporocyst residuum is present, composed of many granules of irregular size. The sporozoites are elongate, lying lengthwise in the sporocysts. Comparison with other species of the genus Eimeria parasitising members of family Testudinidae indicates that the presently described coccidium represents a new species. The name of Eimeria carinii Lainson, Costa & Shaw, 1990 is found to be preoccupied by a homonym, Eimeria carinii Pinto 1928 given to a coccidium from Rattus norvegicus. Therefore, it is replaced by Eimeria lainsoni nom. nov.

  20. Avispora mochogalegoi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae in the little owl, Athene noctua (Strigiformes: Strigidae, in mainland Portugal

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    Sergian Vianna Cardozo

    Full Text Available Abstract The little owl Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769 is a small raptor that is widely distributed from northern to southern Portugal and several other countries in Europe, Asia and North Africa, and which has been introduced into New Zealand. In the current study, 18 fecal samples were collected from little owls kept at the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, which is located in Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Twelve (67% of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Avispora in their feces. The oocysts of Avispora mochogalegoi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 38.9 × 32.9 µm, with a shape index of 1.18. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 21.1 × 20.1 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of a compact subspherical mass of granules. This is the fourth species of Avispora reported in Strigiformes.

  1. Cryptosporidium sp. in children suffering from acute diarrhea at Uberlândia City, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Leitão Gennari-Cardoso

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available This study's objective was to search for Cryptosporidium sp. in diarrheic feces from children aged zero to 12 years and cared for at medical units within Universidade Federal de Uberlândia or at a private practice in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from September 1992 to August 1993. Three fecal samples preserved in 10% formalin, were collected from 94 children. Oocyst concentration was performed through Ritchie's (modified method and staining of fecal smears for each sample (total of 1128 slides was done by the "Safranin/Methylene Blue" and the "Kinyoun (modified" techniques. The Hoffmann, Pons & Janer method was also employed to look for other enteroparasites. From 94 children, 4.26% excreted fecal Cryptosporidium oocysts. The infection seemed to vary according to age: 5.08% of patients aged zero to two years old; 33.33% of those aging eight to ten years (P>0.05. Cryptosporidium appeared in November, December and March, during the rainy season. 20.21% of the children harbored at least one enteroparasite different from Cryptosporidium, mainly Giardia intestinalis (12.77%. From Cryptosporidium infected patients, two had only this kind, another harbored Giardia intestinalis; the last one hosted Strongyloides stercoralis.

  2. Tsukamurella inchonensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, A F; Rainey, F A; Brzezinka, H; Burghardt, J; Lee, H J; Schaal, K P

    1995-07-01

    Chemotaxonomic and genomic 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses of two isolates obtained from two different clinical materials clearly delineated a new species of the genus Tsukamurella. This new species can be identified by its 16S ribosomal DNA similarity values, as well as its physiological characteristics. The name Tsukamurella inchonensis sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates, which are represented by strain IMMIB D-771T (= DSM 44067T) (T = type strain). This strain exhibits only 45% DNA relatedness to Tsukamurella paurometabola.

  3. SP-100 surety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This report describes surety evaluations conducted during GFY 1985 in support of the General Electric design for a Space Nuclear Power System - SP-100. Those surety evaluations address both safety and safeguards requirements, which are derived from OSNP-1 and supporting documents. The report includes results of neutronics (criticality) calculations performed by Los Alamos. The results have been benchmarked against independent calculations performed by General Electric with different codes. These comparisons show close agreement, and are summarized. Los Alamos has also provided specifications of explosion and fire environments, which have been used in evaluation of the GE SP-100 concept. Following the summary of key results, surety requirements are given and recommendations toward specification of requirements for later SP-100 project phases are presented. A conceptual design summary is presented. To establish a comprehensive background for surety evaluations, a reference mission profile and potential accidents for each phase of the mission are identified. The main body of the report addresses surety of the General Electric Thermoelectric Conversion design. GE has also developed a Stirling Engine concept, and performed comprehensive surety evaluations for it. These evaluations are reported

  4. Hepatozoon kisrae n. sp. infecting the lizard Agama stellio is transmitted by the tick Hyalomma cf. aegyptium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paperna I.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatozoon kisrae n. sp. was found infecting a starred lizard at a site in southeastern Samaria, Palestine. These lizards were also hosts to the ixodid tick Hyolomma cf. aegyptium, which was demonstrated to be the vector of this hemogregarine. Hepatozoon and tick infections occurred in lizards within a very restricted locality; at a second site, nearby, ticks occurred without Hepatozoon infection. Micro- and macromeronts occurred mainly in the lungs, while cyst-like merogonic stages, mainly dizoic, occurred in the liver. Mature intraerythrocytic gametocytes were stout and encapsulated. Development from oocysts to sporocysts took place in the tick hemocoel, and was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Lizards were successfully infected when fed on sporocyst-infected ticks or viscera of infected lizards. Ticks become infected when fed on infected lizards; sporogony was complete when the ticks reached adult stage, over 40 days after initial attachment.

  5. Removals of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and cryptosporidium-sized polystyrene microspheres from swimming pool water by diatomaceous earth filtration and perlite-sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Amburgey, James E; Hill, Vincent R; Murphy, Jennifer L; Schneeberger, Chandra L; Arrowood, Michael J; Yuan, Tao

    2017-06-01

    Removal of Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from swimming pools was investigated using diatomaceous earth (DE) precoat filtration and perlite-sand filtration. In pilot-scale experiments, microsphere removals of up to 2 log were obtained with 0.7 kg·DE/m 2 at a filtration rate of 5 m/h. A slightly higher microsphere removal (2.3 log) was obtained for these DE-precoated filters when the filtration rate was 3.6 m/h. Additionally, pilot-scale perlite-sand filters achieved greater than 2 log removal when at least 0.37 kg/m 2 of perlite was used compared to 0.1-0.4 log removal without perlite both at a surface loading rate of 37 m/h. Full-scale testing achieved 2.7 log of microspheres and oocysts removal when 0.7 kg·DE/m 2 was used at 3.6 m/h. Removals were significantly decreased by a 15-minute interruption of the flow (without any mechanical agitation) to the DE filter in pilot-scale studies, which was not observed in full-scale filters. Microsphere removals were 2.7 log by perlite-sand filtration in a full-scale swimming pool filter operated at 34 m/h with 0.5 kg/m 2 of perlite. The results demonstrate that either a DE precoat filter or a perlite-sand filter can improve the efficiency of removal of microspheres and oocysts from swimming pools over a standard sand filter under the conditions studied.

  6. Molecular identification of Neospora caninum from calf/foetal brain tissue and among oocysts recovered from faeces of naturally infected dogs in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, K; Skjerve, E; Bekele, J; Sheferaw, D; Stachurska-Hagen, T; Robertson, L J

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to confirm and investigate further recently published information regarding the occurrence of Neospora caninum in cattle in Ethiopia and investigate infection in dogs, the canine definitive host, in this region. Faecal samples from 383 dogs in Hawassa, Ethiopia were examined by microscopy for Neospora-like oocysts, and positive samples then analysed by a molecular approach (DNA isolation, PCR and sequencing at the ITS1 gene). Brain tissue samples from four late term aborted foetuses, one congenitally defective calf (hind leg arthrogryposis) and placental tissue from cattle in the same area were also examined by the same molecular approach. All foetal, calf and placental tissue were associated with Neospora seropositive dams. A high prevalence of Neospora-like oocysts (11.5 μm±1.5 μm diameter) was observed in faecal samples from dogs (37 positive samples; 9.7% prevalence), and in 17 of these the identification was confirmed by PCR, giving a prevalence of confirmed infection of 4.4%. N. caninum DNA was also detected in all foetal and calf brain tissue samples. Sequencing revealed only minor differences among all PCR products, whether from oocysts or from brain tissue samples. These data provide molecular evidence of the presence of N. caninum infection in both dog and cattle in this region of Ethiopia. Moreover these findings highlight the role of dogs in maintaining and spreading the infection horizontally in the study area. The high frequency of N. caninum infection in household dogs as well as farm dogs is worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Méndez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

  8. Long-term humoral antibody responses by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with oocysts of four strains of Toxoplasma gondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Andrews, C.D.; Thulliez, P.

    1997-01-01

    Antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 16 pigs orally inoculated with 1000 or 10000 oocysts of one of the four strains (GT-1, ME-49, TS-2, TC-2) of T. gondii. Pigs were euthanized on postinoculation days 103-875 and their tissues were bioassayed for T. gondii. Antibody titers were...... measured in the modified agglutination test (MAT) using formalin-preserved (test A) or acetone-preserved (test B) tachyzoites, latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHA), enzyme-linked immunobsorbant assay (ELISA), and the Sabin-Feldman dye test (DT). Toxoplasma gondii...

  9. Tsukamurella pulmonis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, A F; Rainey, F A; Brzezinka, H; Burghardt, J; Rifai, M; Seifert, P; Feldmann, K; Schaal, K P

    1996-04-01

    Chemotaxonomic and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses of an isolate from the sputum of a patient with a mycobacterial lung infection clearly delineated a new species of the genus Tsukamurella. This new species can be defined on the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data. The name Tsukamurella pulmonis sp. nov. is proposed for this organism; the type strain is IMMIB D-1321T (= DSM 44142T). This isolate shows 44.2 and 36.2% DNA relatedness to Tsukamurella paurometabola DSM 20162T (T = type strain) and Tsukamurella inchonensis DSM 44067T, respectively.

  10. Roles of tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins and dityrosine- and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-mediated protein cross-linking in development of the oocyst wall in the coccidian parasite Eimeria maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belli, Sabina I; Wallach, Michael G; Luxford, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    infection by several organisms of medical and veterinary importance such as Eimeria, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cyclospora, and Neospora could be developed. Here, we show that two tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins, gam56 and gam82, found in specialized organelles (wall-forming bodies) in the sexual stage......, together with the detection of a UV autofluorescence in intact oocysts, implicates dityrosine- and possibly DOPA-protein cross-links in oocyst wall hardening. In addition, the identification of peroxidase activity in the wall-forming bodies of macrogametes supports the hypothesis that dityrosine- and DOPA......-mediated cross-linking might be an enzyme-catalyzed event. As such, the mechanism of oocyst wall formation in Eimeria, is analogous to the underlying mechanisms involved in the stabilization of extracellular matrices in a number of organisms, widely distributed in nature, including insect resilin, nematode...

  11. Roles of tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins and dityrosine- and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-mediated protein cross-linking in development of the oocyst wall in the coccidian parasite Eimeria maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belli, Sabina I; Wallach, Michael G; Luxford, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    The oocyst wall of apicomplexan parasites protects them from the harsh external environment, preserving their survival prior to transmission to the next host. If oocyst wall formation could be disrupted, then logically, the cycle of disease transmission could be stopped, and strategies to control...... infection by several organisms of medical and veterinary importance such as Eimeria, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cyclospora, and Neospora could be developed. Here, we show that two tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins, gam56 and gam82, found in specialized organelles (wall-forming bodies) in the sexual stage...

  12. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain.

  13. Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, A F; Rainey, F A; Burghardt, J; Brzezinka, H; Schmitt, S; Seifert, P; Zimmermann, O; Mauch, H; Gierth, D; Lux, I; Schaal, K P

    1997-07-01

    Chemotaxonomic and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses of four bacterial isolates from blood cultures from patients with cardiac pacemaker implants and sputa of patients with chronic lung infections clearly demonstrated that these bacteria belong to the genus Tsukamurella. DNA-DNA hybridization data, as well as the physiological characteristics of the isolates, indicate that they are closely related and belong to a single species that differs from previously described members of the genus Tsukamurella. The name Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates, and the new species is represented by strain IMMIB D-1397T (= DSM 44234T). Strain IMMIB D-1397T exhibits 53.4, 53.5, and 54.7% DNA-DNA relatedness to Tsukamurella paurometabola DSM 20162T, Tsukamurella inchonensis DSM 44067T, and Tsukamurella pulmonis DSM 44142T, respectively.

  14. Description of Eimeria arabukosokokensis sp. n. (Apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from Telescopus semiannulatus (Serpentes: Colubridae) with notes on eimerian coccidia from snakes of Eastern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapeta, Jan R; Modrý, David; Ashe, James; Koudela, Bretislav

    2003-03-01

    Parasitological examination of faeces of 26 snakes kept in Bio-Ken Snake Farm, Watamu, Kenya revealed new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 in Telescopus semiannulatus Smith, 1849. Oocysts of Eimeria arabukosokokensis sp. n. are cylindrical 26.8 (25-29) x 15.1 (14-16) microm with smooth, bilayered oocyst wall and a single polar granule. The broadly ellipsoidal sporocysts average 9.3 (8.5-10) x 7.1 (6.5-7.5) microm and possess single-layered wall composed of two plates joined by longitudinal suture. Caryospora cf. regentensis Daszak et Ball, 2001 is reported from Dendroaspis angusticeps (Smith, 1849) and two additional forms of Caryospora Léger, 1904 are reported and morphologically characterised from a single specimen of Psammophis orientalis Broadley, 1977. Systematic status of Caryospora spp. in sub-Saharan Psammophis Boie, 1827 is discusses and all species reported by various authors to date are suggested to be treated as species inquirendae until more detailed data on these parasites and their hosts are available.

  15. Quantification of Eimeria acervulina in faeces of broilers: Comparison of McMaster oocyst counts from 24 h faecal collections and single droppings to real-time PCR from cloacal swabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Blake, D.P.; Graat, E.A.M.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Coccidiosis is an economically important disease in chickens, caused by infection with Eimeria species parasites. Diagnosis of coccidiosis is frequently based on oocyst enumeration in pooled faecal samples or litter. In studies on infection dynamics and for monitoring in the field, samples from

  16. Comparison of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR for viability detection of fresh Cryptosporidium oocysts following disinfection and after long-term storage in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purified oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were used to evaluate applicability of two quantitative PCR (qPCR) viability detection methods in raw surface water and disinfection treated water. Propidium monoazide-qPCR targeting hsp70 gene was compared to reverse transcription (RT)-...

  17. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  18. SP-100 reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.; Atwell, J.; Pluta, P.R.; Smith, M.A.; Solorzano, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    The SP-100 space reactor power system is being designed and developed as part of the Ground Engineering System (GES) contract between General Electric Company as the system developer and the Department of Energy. Other key participants in the GES program include Westinghouse Hanford Company (site operator), Los Alamos National Laboratory (fuel development and production), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (materials), and Westinghouse, Advanced Energy Systems Division (shield, HTS equipment). The GES Program includes two major elements. First, the development of a Reference Flight System design at 100 kWe output to the user, and second the validation of the Reference Flight System design by analysis and by testing. Development of key technologies along with component and system testing is an essential part of the validation program. The nuclear subsystem validation includes the design, manufacture, assembly and operational testing of a Ground Reactor Test Assembly. The subject of this paper is the reactor design for the Reference Flight System. The reference flight design is in the preliminary design stage and will evolve over the next year

  19. Faecal helminth egg and oocyst counts of a small population of African lions (Panthera leo in the southwestern Kalahari, Namibia : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Smith

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An endoparasite survey of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter and summer of 2003 and 2004, respectively. Overall, 23 fresh lion scats were collected opportunistically during fieldwork trials. A flotation technique was employed for the diagnosis of parasites. Three nematodes, Ancylostoma braziliense, Gnathostoma spinigerum and Uncinaria stenocephala and two coccidians, Toxoplasma gondii and Isospora felis were recorded. By using the McMaster method for quantification, a maximum number of 14 866 oocysts per gram of faeces was obtained for I. felis during winter 2003. Endoparasite taxa carried by the different individuals in the pride were found to be related to their levels of association. Rates of infection were relatively low as a result of the habitat, semi-captive conditions and earlier sporadic deworming.

  20. Intestinal coccidiosis of anadromous and landlocked alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, caused by Goussia ameliae n. sp. and G. alosii n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lovy

    2015-08-01

    . alosii n. sp., was described based on morphological characters of the sporulated oocysts in fresh parasitological preparations.

  1. Effects of vaccination against coccidiosis, with and without a specific herbal essential oil blend, on performance, oocyst excretion and serum IBD titers of broilers reared on litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çınar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of oral administration of a live attenuated vaccine (VAC and an essential oil blend (EOB, either alone or in combination, as a novel anticoccidial strategy for broiler chickens with a mixed Eimeria spp. infection. A total of 624 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of six treatments. Two of the groups, only one of which was challenged with coccidiosis, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The other two groups, also infected, were given a basal diet supplemented with monensin sodium (MON, 100 mg/kg or the EOB (75 mg/kg. Of the remaining two groups, which were infected with coccidiosis, one was vaccinated against coccidiosis (VAC and the other was both vaccinated and fed a diet with an EOB (VAC+EOB. Birds treated with VAC and VAC+EOB had comparable live performance to MON-fed birds challenged with coccidiosis. Conversely, EOB diet supplementation had negative effects on growth, feed intake and feed conversion ratio throughout the growth period. None of the coccidial control strategies affected the overall performance of uninfected birds. There was no significant difference in mortality among treatments. All of the anticoccidial procedures kept serum infectious bursal disease titers at high levels after coccidial infection and reduced fecal oocyst excretion, with the exception of the MON-based procedure. The results indicate that vaccination against coccidiosis, with or without EOB, demonstrated the same efficacy in promoting recovery from coccidial infection and in reducing oocyst shedding as MON.

  2. Ante-mortem diagnosis, diarrhea, oocyst shedding, treatment, isolation, and genetic typing of Toxoplasma gondii associated with clinical toxoplasmosis in a naturally infected cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Prowell, M

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and other animals, but clinical disease is relatively rare. It is unknown whether the severity of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent hosts is due to the parasite strain, host variability, or to other factors. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic variability among T. gondii isolates from apparently healthy and sick hosts. Whether T. gondii genetic makeup plays a part in the pathogenesis of clinical feline toxoplasmosis is uncertain because little is known of genetic typing of strains associated with clinical feline toxoplasmosis. A 6-mo-old domestic male cat was hospitalized because of lethargy, anorexia, fever, and diarrhea. Numerous (6 million in 1 sample) T. gondii oocysts were found in feces of the cat and antibodies to T. gondii (titer 1:800) were found in its serum by the modified agglutination test. The cat was medicated orally with Clindamycin for 10 days; it became asymptomatic after 10 days and was discharged from the hospital. Viable T. gondii (designated TgCatUs9) was isolated from feces (oocysts) by bioassays in mice. Genetic typing using the DNA extracted from the brains of infected mice and 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers revealed Type II allele at the SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, and PK1 loci and Type I at the L358 and Apico loci; therefore, this isolate belongs to the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype no. 4, which is grouped into the Type 12 lineage that is dominant in wildlife from North America. To our knowledge, this is the first T. gondii isolate characterized genetically from a sick cat in the USA.

  3. Cryptosporidium testudinis sp. n., Cryptosporidium ducismarci Traversa, 2010 and Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype III (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezkova, Jana; Horcickova, Michaela; Hlaskova, Lenka; Sak, Bohumil; Kvetonova, Dana; Novak, Jan; Hofmannova, Lada; McEvoy, John; Kvac, Martin

    2016-10-14

    Understanding of the diversity of species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 in tortoises remains incomplete due to the limited number of studies on these hosts. The aim of the present study was to characterise the genetic diversity and biology of cryptosporidia in tortoises of the family Testudinidae Batsch. Faecal samples were individually collected immediately after defecation and were screened for presence of cryptosporidia by microscopy using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining, and by PCR amplification and sequence analysis targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and actin genes. Out of 387 faecal samples from 16 tortoise species belonging to 11 genera, 10 and 46 were positive for cryptosporidia by microscopy and PCR, respectively. All samples positive by microscopy were also PCR positive. Sequence analysis of amplified genes revealed the presence of the Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype I (n = 22), C. ducismarci Traversa, 2010 (n = 23) and tortoise genotype III (n = 1). Phylogenetic analyses of SSU, COWP and actin gene sequences revealed that Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype I and C. ducismarci are genetically distinct from previously described species of Cryptosporidium. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype I, measuring 5.8-6.9 µm × 5.3-6.5 µm, are morphologically distinguishable from C. ducismarci, measuring 4.4-5.4 µm × 4.3-5.3 µm. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype I and C. ducismarci obtained from naturally infected Russian tortoises (Testudo horsfieldii Gray) were infectious for the same tortoise but not for Reeve's turtles (Mauremys reevesii [Gray]), common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis [Linnaeus]), zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata [Vieillot]) and SCID mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus). The prepatent period was 11 and 6 days post infection (DPI) for Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype I and C. ducismarci, respectively; the patent period was longer than 200 days for both cryptosporidia

  4. Vertebrate host specificity and experimental vectors of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from the eastern wild turkey in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B M; Barnes, H J; Rowley, W A

    1983-07-01

    Vertebrate host specificity, experimental laboratory vectors, and a description of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris Vieillot) in Iowa are presented. Plasmodium kempi is infective for domestic turkeys, bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), chukars (Alectoris graeca), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), peacocks (Pavo cristatus), and canaries (Serinus canaria), produces a transient infection in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and domestic geese (Anser anser), but will not infect ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), pigeons (Columba livia), Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix), leghorn white chickens (Gallus gallus), or starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Oocysts and (or) sporozoites were recovered from 68% (84/124) and 98% (60/61) of the Culex pipiens pipiens and C. tarsalis examined, respectively. Oocysts developed faster and sporozoites invaded the salivary glands sooner in C. tarsalis (6 days) than in C. p. pipiens (7 days). Culex tarsalis transmitted P. kempi more effectively than C. p. pipiens, although both species were capable of transmitting the parasite by natural feeding. Oocysts developed and sporozoites also were produced in C. restuans, but its ability to transmit the parasite was not determined. Aedes aegypti (Rockefeller strain) and A. triseriatus were refractive to P. kempi. Plasmodium kempi produces trophozoites with large refractile globules and fine cytoplasmic extensions, mature schizonts in the form of a condensed fan containing four to eight nuclei (usually 5), and elongate gametocytes with irregular borders. All stages are confined almost exclusively to mature erythrocytes, with no effect on host cell size or position of host cell nucleus. Plasmodium kempi is most similar morphologically to P. (Novyella) hexamerium and P. (Novyella) vaughani. It differs from P. hexamerium in having large refractile globules in trophozoites and immature schizonts, an inability to infect starlings, an absence of

  5. Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov., Penicillium elleniae sp. nov., Penicillium penarojense sp. nov., Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. and Penicillium wotroi sp. nov., isolated from leaf litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; López-Quintero, Carlos A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    Several species of the genus Penicillium were isolated during a survey of the mycobiota of leaf litter and soil in Colombian Amazon forest. Five species, Penicillium penarojense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113178T = IBT 23262T), Penicillium wotroi sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118171T = IBT 23253T......), Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113149T = IBT 23247T), Penicillium elleniae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118135T = IBT 23229T) and Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 126216T = IBT 23203T) are described here as novel species. Their taxonomic novelty was determined using......, andrastin A, pulvilloric acid, paxillin, paspaline and janthitrem, were commonly produced by these phylogenetically related species. The novel species had a high growth rate on agar media, but could be distinguished from each other by several macro- and microscopical characteristics....

  6. Uji Fitokimia, Kandungan Total Fenol dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Mikroalga Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp., dan Nannochloropsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diini Fithriani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan fitokimia, total fenol, dan aktivitas antioksidan dari mikroalga Spirulina sp., Nannochloropsis sp., dan Chlorella sp. Mikroalga diekstrak dengan ekstraksi tunggal menggunakan etanol. Skrining fitokimia dilakukan secara kualitatif. Analisis total fenol dilakukan secara spektrofotometri dengan metode Folin-Ciocalteu. Analisis antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH dan Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. Skrining fitokimia menunjukkan keberadaan tanin, flavonoid, steroid, glikosida, dan alkaloid pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga, sedangkan saponin hanya terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dan Chlorella sp., adapun triterpenoid tidak terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan total fenol, aktivitas antioksidan (IC50, dan kapasitas antioksidan (FRAP tertinggi diperoleh pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dengan nilai berturut turut sebesar 0,32 ± 0,025 mg GAE g-1D.W., 518,94 ppm, dan  49,95 ± 2,02 (mmol Fe2+ eq.g-1D.W. Dalam penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kandungan fenol total memiliki korelasi  yang kuat  dengan kapasitas antioksidan metode FRAP (R2= 0,84, dan aktivitas antioksidan metode DPPH (R2= 0,79.

  7. Uji Fitokimia, Kandungan Total Fenol Dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Mikroalga Spirulina Sp., Chlorella Sp., dan Nannochloropsis Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diini Fithriani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan fitokimia, total fenol, dan aktivitas antioksidan dari mikroalga Spirulina sp., Nannochloropsis sp., dan Chlorella sp. Mikroalga diekstrak dengan ekstraksi tunggal menggunakan etanol. Skrining fitokimia dilakukan secara kualitatif. Analisis total fenol dilakukan secara spektrofotometri dengan metode Folin-Ciocalteu. Analisis antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH dan Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. Skrining fitokimia menunjukkan keberadaan tanin, flavonoid, steroid, glikosida, dan alkaloid pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga, sedangkan saponin hanya terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dan Chlorella sp., adapun triterpenoid tidak terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan total fenol, aktivitas antioksidan (IC50, dan kapasitas antioksidan (FRAP tertinggi diperoleh pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dengan nilai berturut turut sebesar 0,32 ± 0,025 mg GAE g-1D.W., 518,94 ppm, dan  49,95 ± 2,02 (mmol Fe2+ eq.g-1D.W. Dalam penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kandungan fenol total memiliki korelasi  yang kuat  dengan kapasitas antioksidan metode FRAP (R2= 0,84, dan aktivitas antioksidan metode DPPH (R2= 0,79.

  8. Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Lankesterellidae from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Paperna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. is described from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru. Merogony and oogony occur in the capillary endothelium and the macrophages in the liver, spleen and kidneys. Meronts are oval, 25,2–29,4 x 15,7–16,8 μm in size and yield 35–46 merozoites. Oocysts are 26,3–29,4 x 15,1–17,6 μm in size; sporozoites 9,2-9,8 x 4,2–5,0 μm in size, assemble in macrophages. Released 8,7–9,8 x 2,8–3,1 μm sporozoites enter erythrocytes. L. poeppigii is compared with Lankesterella petiti Lainson & Paperna, 1995 infecting Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. The above mentioned specific characters, added to differences in hosts and geographical location warrant the description of Lankesterella poeppigii from B. poeppigii as a new species.

  9. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT ( = DSM 26257T = CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT ( = DSM 26254T = CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT ( = DSM 26255T = CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT ( = DSM 26256T = CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT ( = DSM 26263T = CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT ( = DSM 26265T = CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT ( = DSM 26262T = CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

  10. Ecdysteroids from a Zoanthus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksamrarn, Apichart; Jankam, Aroon; Tarnchompoo, Bongkoch; Putchakarn, Sumaitt

    2002-08-01

    A new ecdysteroid, zoanthusterone, has been isolated from a marine zoanthid, Zoanthus sp. Ten known ecdysteroids, ponasterone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone 2-acetate, viticosterone E, integristerone A 25-acetate, 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone, ecdysone, ajugasterone C, dacryhainansterone, inokosterone, and 20-hydroxyecdysone, have also been isolated. This is the first report of ecdysteroids in a Zoanthus species.

  11. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17–20 × 14–16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10–11 × 7–8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28–35 × 18–24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14–16 × 10–12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  12. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks, Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17-20 × 14-16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10-11 × 7-8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28-35 × 18-24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14-16 × 10-12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  13. An Sp1/Sp3 binding polymorphism confers methylation protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanis A Boumber

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of genes show aberrant DNA hypermethylation in cancer, yet little is known about the causes of this hypermethylation. We identified RIL as a frequent methylation target in cancer. In search for factors that influence RIL hypermethylation, we found a 12-bp polymorphic sequence around its transcription start site that creates a long allele. Pyrosequencing of homozygous tumors revealed a 2.1-fold higher methylation for the short alleles (P<0.001. Bisulfite sequencing of cancers heterozygous for RIL showed that the short alleles are 3.1-fold more methylated than the long (P<0.001. The comparison of expression levels between unmethylated long and short EBV-transformed cell lines showed no difference in expression in vivo. Electrophorectic mobility shift assay showed that the inserted region of the long allele binds Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, a binding that is absent in the short allele. Transient transfection of RIL allele-specific transgenes showed no effects of the additional Sp1 site on transcription early on. However, stable transfection of methylation-seeded constructs showed gradually decreasing transcription levels from the short allele with eventual spreading of de novo methylation. In contrast, the long allele showed stable levels of expression over time as measured by luciferase and approximately 2-3-fold lower levels of methylation by bisulfite sequencing (P<0.001, suggesting that the polymorphic Sp1 site protects against time-dependent silencing. Our finding demonstrates that, in some genes, hypermethylation in cancer is dictated by protein-DNA interactions at the promoters and provides a novel mechanism by which genetic polymorphisms can influence an epigenetic state.

  14. Toltrazuril (Baycox) treatment against coccidiosis caused by Eimeria sp. in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokół, R; Gesek, M; Raś-Noryńska, M; Michalczyk, M

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the most predominant parasitic disease affecting Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in commercial farms. Coccidiosis as a subclinical infection is difficult to diagnose without parasitological examinations. Oocysts of two Eimeria species, E. bateri and E. tsunodai, were determined in the analysed quail flock. Infected birds were administered Baycox 2.5% at the dose of: group I--7 mg toltrazuril/kg BW per day provided in drinking water (1.5 ml/0.5 1 H2O) that was available 24 h for 2 days, group II--14 mg/kg BW (3 ml/0.5 1 H2O), and group III-- 24.5 mg/kg BW (5 ml/0.5 1 H2O); in groups II and III, the solutions were available 8 h/24 h for 2 days. After the first day of the treatment, the number of excreted oocysts (OPG - oocysts per gram) increased, a steady decrease in oocyst counts began on the second day of Baycox administration and lasted until a three-day period when no oocyst were determined in faecal samples. Regardless of the dose applied, toltrazuril (Baycox) completely eliminated E. bateri coccidia and led to a highly significant reduction in the number of E. tsunodai oocysts. The results suggest that the effectiveness of toltrazuril varies depending on coccidia species and developmental stages of the parasite. From the clinical point of view, the treatment applied significantly reduces the number of coccidia oocysts in commercial flocks of Japanese quails.

  15. Antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content and iron bioavailability from algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria N; Ramírez, José; Leets, Irene; Pereira, Ana C; Quiroga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Marine algae are easily produced and are good sources of Fe. If this Fe is bioavailable, algae consumption could help to combat Fe deficiency and anaemia worldwide. The objective of the present study was to evaluate Fe bioavailability, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity from three species of marine algae distributed worldwide. A total of eighty-three subjects received maize- or wheat-based meals containing marine algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in different proportions (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g) added to the water to prepare the dough. All meals administered contained radioactive Fe. Absorption was evaluated calculating radioactive Fe incorporation in subjects' blood. The three species of marine algae were analysed for polyphenol content and reducing power. Algae significantly increased Fe absorption in maize- or wheat-based meals, especially Sargassum sp., due to its high Fe content. Increases in absorption were dose-dependent and higher in wheat- than in maize-based meals. Total polyphenol content was 10.84, 18.43 and 80.39 gallic acid equivalents/g for Ulva sp., Porphyra sp. and Sargassum sp., respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also significantly higher in Sargassum sp. compared with the other two species analysed. Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp. are good sources of bioavailable Fe. Sargassum sp. resulted in the highest Fe intake due to its high Fe content, and a bread containing 7.5 g Sargassum sp. covers daily Fe needs. The high polyphenol content found in Sargassum sp. could be partly responsible for the antioxidant power reported here, and apparently did not affect Fe absorption.

  16. Pantoea rodasii sp. nov., Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov., isolated from Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; van der Westhuizen, Lorinda; Venter, Stephanus N; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Several Gram-negative-staining, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from Eucalyptus seedlings showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Colombia, Rwanda and South Africa. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, together with partial gyrB sequencing, placed the isolates in the genus Pantoea and indicated that they constituted three novel species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD revealed Pantoea dispersa, Pantoea eucrina and Pantoea cypripedii as their closest phylogenetic relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of the new isolates as three novel species and phenotypic tests allowed them to be differentiated from their closest phylogenetic neighbours. The names Pantoea rodasii sp. nov. [type strain LMG 26273(T)=BD 943(T) (deposited with the Plant Pathogenic and Plant Protecting Bacteria Collection, South Africa)=BCC 581(T) (deposited with the Bacterial Culture Collection, Forestry and Agricultural Institute, South Africa)], Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26275(T)=BD 944(T)=BCC 571(T)) and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26277(T)=BD 946(T)=BCC 682(T)) are proposed.

  17. Spatial distribution of soil contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in relation to the distribution and use of domestic cat defecation sites on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J A; Kurdzielewicz, S; Jeanniot, E; Dupuis, E; Marnef, F; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Poulle, M-L

    2017-05-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between the spatial distribution of zoonotic parasites in soil and the pattern of hosts' faeces deposition at a local scale. In this study, the spatial distribution of soil contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in relation to the distribution and use of the defecation sites of its definitive host, the domestic cat (Felis catus). The study was conducted on six dairy farms with a high number of cats (seven to 30 cats). During regular visits to the farms over a 10month period, the cat population and cat defecation sites (latrines and sites of scattered faeces) on each farm were systematically surveyed. During the last visit, 561 soil samples were collected from defecation sites and random points, and these samples were searched for T. gondii DNA using real-time quantitative PCR. Depending on the farm, T. gondii DNA was detected in 37.7-66.3% of the soil samples. The proportion of contaminated samples at a farm was positively correlated with the rate of new cat latrines replacing former cat latrines, suggesting that inconstancy in use of a latrine by cats affects the distribution of T. gondii in soil. On the farms, known cat defecation sites were significantly more often contaminated than random points, but 25-62.5% of the latter were also found to be contaminated. Lastly, the proportion of positive T. gondii samples in latrines was related to the proximity of the cats' main feeding and resting sites on the farms. This study demonstrates that T. gondii can be widely distributed in farm soil despite the heterogeneous distribution of cat faeces. This supports the hypothesis that farms are hotspot areas for the risk of T. gondii oocyst-induced infection in rural environments. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of host cell invasion and proliferation among Neospora caninum isolates obtained from oocysts and from clinical cases of naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarupe, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Jiménez-Ruiz, E; Schares, G; Unzaga, J M; Venturini, M C; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2014-10-01

    In a previous study we have shown that the in vitro invasion rate (IR) and tachyzoite yield (TY) are associated with the virulence phenotypes of Neospora caninum isolates of bovine origin. In addition, we recently observed marked differences in virulence when canine isolates were compared in a pregnant BALB/c mouse model. In this study, we investigated whether invasion and proliferation capacities could be used as virulence-related N. caninum phenotypic traits. Of the isolates compared in mice, four canine isolates obtained from oocysts (Nc-Ger2, Nc-Ger3, Nc-Ger-6, Nc-6 Arg) had shown a low-moderate virulence, and two further isolates obtained from dogs with neurological signs (Nc-Bahia, Nc-Liv) were highly virulent. The IR for each isolate was determined by a plaque assay and the counting of immunofluorescence-labeled parasitophorous vacuoles at 3 days post-inoculation (p.i.). The TY was determined by the quantification of tachyzoites at 56 h p.i. by real-time PCR. Most of the canine isolates showed similar IR values under controlled invasion conditions for 4h and 72 h p.i., indicating a limited time period for invasion similar to that observed for bovine isolates. The Nc-Ger3, Nc-Bahia, and Nc-Liv isolates showed a significantly higher IR and TY than the Nc-Ger2 and Nc-Ger6 isolates (P0.885, P0.8117, P<0.058) in mice. These results demonstrate the importance both the invasive and proliferative capacities have on the virulence of canine N. caninum isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. DISTRIBUSI Solen sp DI PERAIRAN KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ari Wahyuni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DISTRIBUTION OF Solen sp IN BANGKALAN WATERSSolen sp potential needs to be developed on the island of Madura, particularly in Bangkalan. Solen sp utilization has increased which has the potential to overfishing. Therefore, this study aims to determine the density of Solen sp and their ecology in the waters Modung village, Modung District, Bangkalan. The experiment was conducted in April 2015 using the descriptive method. The materials used include Solen sp and physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, salinity, pH, and substrate. The analyzes were conducted at the Laboratory of Marine Science, Department of Marine Sciences, Trunojoyo University of Madura by using the tool grabsampler, sieveshaker, and pipetting with gravimetric method. The analysis shows the range of values of temperature between 29-300C, salinity between 31-32 ppt, pH were 7.9-8.0 and the type of substrate in the form of sandy mud, as well as the density of Solen sp from 8-10 individuals/m2. All measurement results indicate normal conditions and in accordance with the sea water quality standard for marine life, which can be a suitable habitat for the growth and development of Solen sp. This condition is thought to affect the density of Solen sp.Keywords: Bangkalan, density, distribution, Solen sp, substrate.ABSTRAKPotensi Solen sp perlu dikembangkan di pulau Madura, khususnya di Kabupaten Bangkalan. Pemanfaatan Solen sp mengalami peningkatan sehingga berpotensi overfishing. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kepadatan Solen sp dan ekologinya di perairan desa Modung, Kecamatan Modung, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2015 dengan metode deskriptif. Materi dan bahan yang digunakan diantaranya Solen sp dan parameter fisika-kimia lingkungan (suhu, salinitas, pH, dan substrat. Analisa dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Kelautan, Program studi/Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Trunojoyo Madura dengan menggunakan alat

  20. Especificidad del hongo micorrizico (Rhizoctonia sp.) en Phalaenopsis sp., Cymbidium sp., Trichoceros antenifer, Oncidium excavatum, y Cyrtochilum sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ordoñez, Silvia L.; Pillacela Zhunio, Dora Priscila; Salazar, Jazmín M.; Peña Tapia, Denisse Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Las orquídeas producen abundantes semillas pequeñas, careciendo de endospermo, cotiledones y sustancias de reserva para llevar a cabo su germinación. Es por esto que estratégicamente las semillas establecen una relación simbiótica con un hongo micorrízico que favorece a su germinación y desarrollo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la especificidad del hongo micorrízico (Rhizoctonia sp.) en la germinación de cinco géneros de orquídeas. Se usaron dos medios de cultivo: 1) PhytamaxTM y...

  1. Rodentibacter gen. nov including Rodentibacter pneumotropicus comb. nov., Rodentibacter heylii sp nov., Rodentibacter myodis sp nov., Rodentibacter ratti sp nov., Rodentibacter heidelbergensis sp nov., Rodentibacter trehalosifermentans sp nov., Rodentibacter rarus sp nov., Rodentibacter mrazii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikary, Sadhana; Nicklas, Werner; Bisgaard, Magne

    2017-01-01

    genomic comparison allowed the estimation of DNA–DNA renaturation. Rodentibacter heylii sp. nov. was proposed for a group that included the biovar Heyl of [ Pasteurella ] pneumotropica with the type strain ATCC 12555T (=CCUG 998T). A group was proposed as Rodentibacter ratti sp. nov., which included...

  2. The immunogenicity of Eimeria tenella sporozoite proteins and living oocyst vaccines in broilersImunogenicidade de vacina com proteínas de esporozoítos e oocistos vivos de Eimeria tenella em frangos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Vidotto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the immunity of broilers inoculated with sporulated oocysts and sporozoite proteins of Eimeria tenella against challenge with homologous infectives oocysts. Broiler chickens of Hubbard strain, females, coccidian-free, were kept in wire cages and inoculated on the third day (day 0. Three treatments were used: T1, the negative control; T2, received 500 sporulated oocysts by gavage; T3, positive control; T4, received 50 ?g of sporozoite protein with Quil A; and T5, received Quil A without sporozoite protein and PBS, the last two protocols were administered via nasal route on days 0, 7, and 21. On the 31st day, all groups, with the exception of T1, were challenged with homologous virulent strain of E. tenella at the dose of 8.0×104 oocysts. Immunogenicity was assessed by carotenoids, ELISA assay, histopathological analysis, oocysts count and lesion score. Antibody kinetics were measured weekly and showed a gradual increase in levels of immunoglobulin for treatment T2 and T4, reaching a peak on day 21. Based on the parameters evaluated, a total protecting immunological effect for the infectant oocysts vaccine (T2 and partial protection for the sporozoite protein vaccine (T4 against homologous virulent strain challenge were observed. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a imunidade de frangos de corte inoculados com oocistos esporulados e proteínas de esporozoítos de Eimeria tenella utilizando um desafio com oocistos esporulados homólogos. Frangos de corte da linhagem Hubbard, fêmeas, livres de coccidiose, foram mantidos em gaiolas de arame e inoculados no terceiro dia (dia 0. O delineamento experimental consistiu de cinco tratamentos com três repetições: T1- controle negativo; T2- recebeu 500 oocistos esporulados por gavagem; T3- controle positivo; T4- receberam 50 ?g de proteína de esporozoítos adicionados a Quil-A, e finalmente o T5- que recebeu apenas Quil A e PBS, os últimos dois

  3. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Jalal, T.

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, alfa-L-arabinofuranosidase (alfa-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp and Lactobacillus sp was investigated using different carbon sources Induction...

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Cynobacteria, Limnothrix sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. from Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Vinothkumar, S.; Gupta, S.; Jasmin, C.; Joseph, V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Nair, S.

    The hexane fractions of the marine cyanobacteria: Leptolyngbya sp. and Limnothrix sp., collected from Arabian Sea were found to display promising antioxidant properties than their ethyl acetate fraction during radical scavenging ABTS/DPPH assays (IC...

  5. First report of Anisakis sp. in Epinephelus sp. in East Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Annytha Ina Rohi Detha; Diana Agustiani Wuri; Julianty Almet; Yuni Riwu; Christin Melky

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The present research was conducted to identify the prevalence of Anisakis sp. as fish-borne zoonoses in Epinephelus sp. in territorial waters of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Materials and methods: A total of 50 fish (Epinephelus sp.) were collected from Kupang Fish Market in East Nusa Tenggara. Identification of Anisakis sp. was performed based on morphological observations considering shape of ventriculus, boring tooth, and mucron using binocular microscope. Results: Prev...

  6. Specialised predation by Palpimanus sp. (Araneae: Palpimanidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first detailed report on the natural prey and the prey-capture tactics of a Palpimanus sp. from Entebbe (Uganda). Although this species fed occasionally on insects, its dominant prey in the field was other spiders, especially jumping spiders (Salticidae) and their eggs. Encounters between Palpimanus sp. and ...

  7. Adverse Socioeconomic Conditions and Oocyst-Related Factors Are Associated with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Population-Based Study in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carellos, Ericka Viana Machado; de Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; da Silva, Fabiana Maria; Loures, Ivy Rosa Coelho; de Andrade, Juliana Queiroz; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Objective Congenital toxoplasmosis is a public health problem in Brazil. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with congenital toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais which is the second largest Brazilian State based on number of inhabitants, and its territorial extension is larger than that of France. Methods: Population-based case-control study to assess the association between congenital toxoplasmosis and maternal exposure to infection risk factors. The study included mothers/children participating in the Minas Gerais Newborn Screening Program. The cases consisted of 175 mothers of infected children, and the controls consisted of 278 mothers of children without suspected infection. The associations were assessed through binomial logistic regression with p≤0.05. Results The variables associated with lower probability of toxoplasmosis were: older mother age (OR = 0.89; CI95% = 0.85–0.93), higher level of education (OR = 0.85; CI95% = 0.78–0.92), access to potable water (OR = 0.21; CI95% = 0.08–0.51), and home with flush toilet (OR = 0.18; CI95% = 0.04–078). The variables associated with higher probability of infection were: cats in the neighborhood (OR = 2.27; CI95% = 1.27–4.06), owning or visiting homes with domestic cats (OR = 1.90; CI95% = 1.09–3.31), handling the soil (OR = 2.29; CI95% = 1.32–3.96), and eating fresh meat not previously frozen (OR = 3.97; CI95% = 2.17–7.25). After stratification according region of residence (rural or urban/peri-urban), home with flush toilet and consumption of treated water were protective against the disease only in the rural stratum. Conclusions In Minas Gerais, congenital toxoplasmosis has been associated with poor socioeconomic conditions. Considering maternal exposure to sources of Toxoplasma gondii, the predominating risk factors were those related to the ingestion of oocysts. It is expected that these results will contribute to

  8. Guide til gode spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henning

    Spørgeskemaundersøgelser bliver ofte brugt til at dokumentere forskellige forhold og begrunde politiske beslutninger. Men resultaterne kan være forbundet med stor usikkerhed. Det kræver omhu og stor sproglig formåen at udarbejde spørgeskemaer. Seniorforsker Henning Olsen har i flere år arbejdet med...... viden om, hvordan folk forstår sproglige meddelelser og genkalder sig informationer. I guiden behandles emner som fx styrende problemstillinger og spørgsmåls fokus og neutralitet, formulering af åbne eller lukkede spørgsmål og svarkategorier, tematiske spørgeforløb, aflastning af svarpersoners...

  9. Listeria floridensis sp. nov., Listeria aquatica sp. nov., Listeria cornellensis sp. nov., Listeria riparia sp. nov. and Listeria grandensis sp. nov., from agricultural and natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Bakker, Henk C; Warchocki, Steven; Wright, Emily M; Allred, Adam F; Ahlstrom, Christina; Manuel, Clyde S; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Burrell, Angela; Roof, Sherry; Strawn, Laura K; Fortes, Esther; Nightingale, Kendra K; Kephart, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Sampling of agricultural and natural environments in two US states (Colorado and Florida) yielded 18 Listeria-like isolates that could not be assigned to previously described species using traditional methods. Using whole-genome sequencing and traditional phenotypic methods, we identified five novel species, each with a genome-wide average BLAST nucleotide identity (ANIb) of less than 85% to currently described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and amino acid sequences of 31 conserved loci showed the existence of four well-supported clades within the genus Listeria; (i) a clade representing Listeria monocytogenes, L. marthii, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which we refer to as Listeria sensu stricto, (ii) a clade consisting of Listeria fleischmannii and two newly described species, Listeria aquatica sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1188(T) = DSM 26686(T) = LMG 28120(T) = BEI NR-42633(T)) and Listeria floridensis sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1187(T) = DSM 26687(T) = LMG 28121(T) = BEI NR-42632(T)), (iii) a clade consisting of Listeria rocourtiae, L. weihenstephanensis and three novel species, Listeria cornellensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0210(T) = FSL F6-0969(T) = DSM 26689(T) = LMG 28123(T) = BEI NR-42630(T)), Listeria grandensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0212(T) = FSL F6-0971(T) = DSM 26688(T) = LMG 28122(T) = BEI NR-42631(T)) and Listeria riparia sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1204(T) = DSM 26685(T) = LMG 28119(T) = BEI NR- 42634(T)) and (iv) a clade containing Listeria grayi. Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that the novel species are non-pathogenic. © 2014 IUMS.

  10. Predictive value of Sp1/Sp3/FLIP signature for prostate cancer recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roble G Bedolla

    Full Text Available Prediction of prostate cancer prognosis is challenging and predictive biomarkers of recurrence remain elusive. Although prostate specific antigen (PSA has high sensitivity (90% at a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL, its low specificity leads to many false positive results and considerable overtreatment of patients and its performance at lower ranges is poor. Given the histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer, we propose that a panel of markers will be a better tool than a single marker. We tested a panel of markers composed of the anti-apoptotic protein FLIP and its transcriptional regulators Sp1 and Sp3 using prostate tissues from 64 patients with recurrent and non-recurrent cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment for prostate cancer and were followed with PSA measurements for at least 5 years. Immunohistochemical staining for Sp1, Sp3, and FLIP was performed on these tissues and scored based on the proportion and intensity of staining. The predictive value of the FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 signature for clinical outcome (recurrence vs. non-recurrence was explored with logistic regression, and combinations of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 and Gleason score were analyzed with a stepwise (backward and forward logistic model. The discrimination of the markers was identified by sensitivity-specificity analysis and the diagnostic value of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 was determined using area under the curve (AUC for receiver operator characteristic curves. The AUCs for FLIP, Sp1, Sp3, and Gleason score for predicting PSA failure and non-failure were 0.71, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.76, respectively. However, this increased to 0.93 when combined. Thus, the "biomarker signature" of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 combined with Gleason score predicted disease recurrence and stratified patients who are likely to benefit from more aggressive treatment.

  11. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in sewage and their reduction in treatment process; Gesuichu no Giardia shisuto oyobi Cryptosporidium oshisuto noudo to gesui syori ni okeru jyokyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A.; Hirata, T. [Azabu University, Kanagawa (Japan); Magara, Y. [National Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Ogaki, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-10

    Recently, the water system infection owing to protozoan, virus and so on which is different from the conventional infection like represented by bacteria, is reported. There are few examples for the infection conditional study and epidemiological investigation of these protozoan and virus in Japan. Authors carried out a field survey at nine sewage treatment plants, in order to investigate the occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw sewage and the removal in sewage treatment processes. As a result, in all plants, Giardia cysts were detected in raw sewage and effluent of primary sedimentation. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected from only one raw sewage sample. Indicator bacteria counts tested, C.perfringens spores, coliforms and E.coli, were statistically correlated with Giardia cyst densities and the most significant relationship was observed between C.perfringens spore counts and Giardia cyst densities. It was found that turbidity was the most appropriate indicator for Giardia cyst removal in activated sludge treatment process. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  13. TurboSP and the Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    TurboSP was originally proposed as an alternative to Full stream in LHCb data flow. TurboSP is a data flow strategy which not only selects events that should be preserved, like in Full stream, but also provides selective persistence. This is achieved by saving candidates and subset of the reconstruction. During this summer project we investigated the physics viability of using TurboSP with the topological lines and found out a possibility to reduce the number of kept tracks per event by two times while keeping a ratio of fully picked up interesting decay modes on $\\sim 97 \\%$ level.

  14. Amphibian (Xenopus sp.) iodothyronine deiodinase ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA-MED amphibian thyroid group is currently screening chemicals for inhibition of human iodothyronine deiodinase activity as components of the thyroid system important in human development. Amphibians are a bellwether taxonomic group to gauge toxicity of chemicals in the environment. Amphibian thyroid function is not only important in development but also metamorphosis. Xenopus sp. have been used extensively as model organisms and are well characterized genetically. We propose to screen a list of chemicals (selected from the human DIO screening results) to test for inhibition of Xenopus deiodinases. Large quantities of the enzymes will be produced using an adenovirus system. Our preliminary results show that there may be catalytic differences between human and Xenopus deiodinases. The Twin Ports Early Career Scientists is a new group formed within the Duluth-Superior scientific community. This presentation will provide a basic introduction to my research and our mission at EPA, and help to establish networking and collaboration relationships across disciplines and institutions.

  15. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was sample.

  16. Helicotylenchus stylocercus n. sp. and Rotylenchus phaliurus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, M R; Pinochet, J

    1979-10-01

    Two new species of plant-parasitic nematodes from Costa Rica are described. Helicotygenchus styloeercus n. sp., from soil around roots of banana at Coto, is distinguished hy the female tail, which bears a large pillarlike ventral projection. Rotylenchus phaliurus n. sp., from soil artmnd roots of Dioscoroea sp. at Sixaola, differs from R. caudaphasmidius in having the conus equal to or more than half the spear length, and large terminal annules on the female tail.

  17. SP (4,R) symmetry in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A classification of nuclear states according to the noncompact sympletic Lie algebras sp(2n,R), n = 1, 2, 3, is investigated. Such a classification has recently been shown to be physically meaningful. This classification scheme is the appropriate generalization fo Elliott's SU 3 model of rotational states in deformed light nuclei to include core excitations. A restricted classification according to the Lie algebra, sp(4,R), is motivated. Truncation of the model space to a single sp(4,R) irreducible representation allows the inclusion of states possessing very high excitation energy. An sp(4,R) model study is performed on S = T = 0 positive-parity rotational bands in the deformed light nuclei 16 O and 24 Mg. States are included in the model space that possess up to 10h ω in excitation energy. Results for the B(E2) transition rates compare favorable with experiment, without resort to effective charges

  18. EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  19. Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid—Mediated Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway.

  20. An anatomopathological study of hepatic coccidiosis (Calyptospora sp. in the Acará-pixuna, Aequidens plagiozonatus Kullander, 1984 from the Brazilian state of Pará Estudo anatomopatológico de coccidiose hepática (Calyptospora sp. em Acará-pixuna, Aequidens plagiozonatus Kullander, 1984, no Brasil, estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Videira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the anatomopathological alterations provoked by parasitism by Calyptospora sp. in 40 specimens of Aequidens plagiozonatus collected in Pará, Brazil. Examinations of the fresh material by compression of the hepatopancreas and histological sections showed immature forms and oocysts characteristic of the genus Calyptospora, in addition to a large quantity of melanomacrophagic centers spread throughout the organ. No significant inflammation of the hepatic tissue was observed. The melanomacrophagic centers and the compression of the hepatocytes are part of the response of the host to the parasite. This study represents the first record of parasitism by Calyptospora in A. plagiozonatus.Descreveram-se as alterações anatomopatológicas provocadas pelo parasitismo por Calyptospora sp. em 40 espécimes de Aequidens plagiozonatus, provenientes do município de Peixe-boi, Pará, Brasil. Foram encontradas formas imaturas e oocistos característicos do gênero Calyptospora, nos exames frescos por compressão e cortes histológicos, além de um grande número de centros melanomacrofágicos dispersos por todo o órgão. Digna de nota foi a ausência de inflamação significativa no tecido hepático. Centros melanomacrofágicos e compressão dos hepatócitos estão envolvidos na resposta do hospedeiro ao parasito. Este é o primeiro registro de ocorrência de parasitismo por Calyptospora sp. na espécie estudada.

  1. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma SP. Dan Gliocladium SP. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Ramadhina, Arie Ramadhina; Lisnawita, Lisnawita; Lubis, Lahmuddin

    2013-01-01

    The use of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. for controlling wilt(Fusarium oxysporum) in red onion plants. The aim of the research was to know the effectiviness ofantagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants.The research used non-factorial RAK (random group design) with eight treatments: control, 10grams of F. oxysporum, 12 grams of Trichoderma sp., 18 grams of Trichoderma sp., 24 grams ofTrichoderma sp., and 12 grams ...

  2. Detection of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from urban areas of Curitiba, Southern Brazil Detecção de anticorpos anti-Neospora sp. em cavalos de carroceiros de áreas urbanas de Curitiba, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Monteforte Cassaro Villalobos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which affects dogs as definitive hosts and several mammalian species as intermediate hosts mainly causing abortions and central nervous system disorders. The reemerging population of cart horses for carrying recycling material in urban areas of major cities in Brazil may have an impact on disease spreading, and these animals may be used as sentinels for environmental surveillance. Thus, the present study investigated the frequency of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from Curitiba and surrounding areas, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. IgG antibodies against Neospora sp. were detected using indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT, and titers equal to or higher than 1:50 were considered reactive. Of all samples, 14/97 (14.4% were positive: 2/29 (6.9% were younger than 5; 5/26 (19.2% between 6 and 9; and 6/31 (19.4% older than 10 years of age. One of the 11 animals with unknown age was positive (9.1%. Cart horses are likely to be more exposed to dog feces and to Neospora sp. oocyst contamination in urban settings and a lower frequency of disease in dogs may have a negative impact on horse infection risk in these areas.Neospora caninum é um protozoário parasita que afeta cães como hospedeiros definitivos e diversos mamíferos como hospedeiros intermediários, envolvido em abortos e distúrbios do sistema nervoso central. A população reemergente de cavalos de carroceiros utilizados para transportar material reciclável em áreas urbanas de grandes cidades brasileiras na disseminação de doenças, e estes animais podem ser utilizados como sentinelas para vigilância ambiental. Deste modo, no presente estudo foi investigada a frequência de anticorpos anti-Neospora sp. em cavalos de carroceiros da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Anticorpos da classe IgG anti-Neospora sp. foram detectados utilizando a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, e t

  3. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum H. Yildirim, Kit Tan, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii Kit Tan, H. Yildirim, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae, C. sect. Microrrhinum) from east Anatolia are described and illustrated. They are both narrow endemics related to the rare C...

  4. A report of intestinal sarcocystosis in the bullsnake (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi) and a re-evaluation of Sarcocystis sp. from snakes of the genus Pituophis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszak, P; Cunningham, A

    1995-07-01

    We report a severe enteric infection of Sarcocystis sp. from a wild-caught bullsnake (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi). The animal was collected in October 1988 by a commercial dealer, imported into the United Kingdom during November 1988 and purchased by the London Zoo, in December 1988. The animal was not fed after capture and was anorexic from the time of purchase to the time of death in January 1989. On necropsy, the animal was emaciated and the mucosa of the proximal intestine was markedly thickened. The lamina propria was packed with oocysts, and enterocytes were parasitized by an organism which closely resembled Sarcocystis roudabushi and Sarcocystis idahoensis, two bisporocystid coccidia described previously from Pituophis melanoleucus. We propose that Sarcocystis idahoensis and Sarcocystis roudabushi are synonymous since both occur in the same host species, both invade the intestinal lamina propria and entreocytes, and sporocyst measurement ranges of both species overlap. This is the first report of death believed to be due to sarcocytosis in a naturally-infected definitive host.

  5. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp3-sp3 cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig P.; Smith, Russell T.; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-08-01

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp2-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp3-sp3 bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp3-sp3 bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp3-sp3 coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp3-sp3 bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox protocol is suitable for

  6. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM

  7. SP-100/Brayton power system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Use of closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion technology has been investigated for use with SP-100 reactors for space power systems. The CBC power conversion technology is being developed by Rockwell International under the Dynamic Isotype Power System (DIPS) and Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power system programs to provide highly efficient power conversion with radioisotype and solar collector heat sources. Characteristics including mass, radiator area, thermal power, and operating temperatures for systems utilizing SP-100 reactor and CBC power conversion technology were determined for systems in the 10-to 100-kWe power range. Possible SP-100 reactor/CBC power system configurations are presented. Advantages of CBC power conversion technology with regard to reactor thermal power, operating temperature, and development status are discussed

  8. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kurniawan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained with modified acid fast staining, and the rest of the concentrates were DNA extracted by freezing and thawing cycles and proteinase K digestion, then direct PCR was done to detect 18S rRNA gene.Result The proportion of positive stools for Cryptosporidium sp by acid fast staining from concentrated stools and 18S rRNA PCR were 4.8% and 34.6% respectively, which showed statistically significant difference.Conclusion The frequency of Cryptosporidium infection among children ≤ 3 years old was very high and stool storage in K2Cr2O7 for 13 months did not affect the PCR result. High prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection indicated high transmission in that area and the potential to be transmitted to other individuals such as the immunocompromised. (Med J Indones 2009;18:147-52Key words: 18S rRNA, cryptosporidiosis

  9. Developmental stages of Hepatozoon hemprichii sp. nov. infecting the skink Scincus hemprichii and the tick Hyalomma impeltatum from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-10-01

    The life cycle of Hepatozoon hemprichi n. sp. is described; the vertebrate host is Scincus hemprichii and it is vectored by Hyalomma impeltatum. Erythrocytic stages of 18 ± 1.8 × 4 ± 0.8 µm developed in the hemocoel of ticks to sporozoites within 16-18 days. Schizogony occurred in the liver parenchyma and the endothelial cells of blood capillaries in lung and spleen. Mature schizonts measuring 27 ± 3.11 × 20.13 ± 3.0 µm produced 28 merozoites (on average). The merozoites were 13 ± 1.21 × 1.21 ± 0.72 µm with nuclei 5 ± 0.65 × 2.1 ± 0.51 µm. Syzygy and differentiation of gamonts took place in tick's hemocoel up to the third day post-infection (PI). The microgamont (16 ± 0.31 × 18 ± 0.42 µm) produced 4, uniflagellated microgametes at 4-5 days PI. The microgamete measured 15.2 ± 0.31 µm while the flagellum was always at least 26 µm. The macrogamete was very large in size (31 ± 3.11 µm) with a central nucleus. After fertilization, (5-6 days PI) zygotes developed into oocysts (55 ± 3.41 × 52 ± 4.11 µm) in which repeated mitotic divisions with centripetal invaginations occurred; each contained 18 banana-shaped sporozoites, 13.61 ± 0.8 × 1.2 ± 0.31 µm in size. Experimental transmission was successfully carried out by oral administration or by intra-peritoneal inoculation of the infective stages (sporozoites) to uninfected skinks and led to the appearance of blood stages after 5 wk and 4 wk, respectively.

  10. Description of the first cryptic avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium homocircumflexum n. sp., with experimental data on its virulence and development in avian hosts and mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinauskas, Vaidas; Žiegytė, Rita; Ilgūnas, Mikas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Bernotienė, Rasa; Bolshakov, Casimir; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2015-01-01

    For over 100 years studies on avian haemosporidian parasite species have relied on similarities in their morphology to establish a species concept. Some exceptional cases have also included information about the life cycle and sporogonic development. More than 50 avian Plasmodium spp. have now been described. However, PCR-based studies show a much broader diversity of haemosporidian parasites, indicating the possible existence of a diverse group of cryptic species. In the present study, using both similarity and phylogenetic species definition concepts, we believe that we report the first characterised cryptic speciation case of an avian Plasmodium parasite. We used sequence information on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and constructed phylogenies of identified Plasmodium spp. to define their position in the phylogenetic tree. After analysis of blood stages, the morphology of the parasite was shown to be identical to Plasmodium circumflexum. However, the geographic distribution of the new parasite, the phylogenetic information, as well as patterns of development of infection, indicate that this parasite differs from P. circumflexum. Plasmodium homocircumflexum n. sp. was described based on information about genetic differences from described lineages, phylogenetic position and biological characters. This parasite develops parasitemia in experimentally infected birds - the domestic canary Serinus canaria domestica, siskin Carduelis spinus and crossbill Loxia curvirostra. Anaemia caused by high parasitemia, as well as cerebral paralysis caused by exoerythrocytic stages in the brain, are the main reasons for mortality. Exoerythrocytic stages also form in other organs (heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen, intestines and pectoral muscles). DNA amplification was unsuccessful from faecal samples of heavily infected birds. The sporogonic development initiates, but is abortive, at the oocyst stage in two common European mosquito species, Culex pipiens pipiens (forms

  11. Quantitative toxoplasma gondii oocyst detection by a modified Kato Katz test using Kinyoun staining (KKK in ME49 strain experimentally infected cats Detecção quantitativa de oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii, por um teste modificado de Kato Katz usando coloração de Kinyoun (KKK, em gatos infectados experimentalmente com a cepa ME49

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Regina Meireles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We detected Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in feces of experimentally infected cats, using a Kato Katz approach with subsequent Kinyoun staining. Animals serologically negative to T. gondii were infected orally with 5x10² mice brain cysts of ME49 strain. Feces were collected daily from the 3rd to the 30th day after challenge. Oocysts were detected by qualitative sugar flotation and the quantitative modified Kato Katz stained by Kinyoun (KKK. In the experimentally infected cats, oocysts were detected from the 7th to 15th day through sugar flotation technique, but oocysts were found in KKK from the 6th to 16th day, being sensitive for a larger period, with permanent documentation. The peak of oocysts excretion occurred between the 8th to 11th days after challenge, before any serological positive result. KKK could be used in the screening and quantification of oocysts excretion in feces of suspected animals, with reduced handling of infective material, decreasing the possibility of environmental and operator contamination.Detectamos oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii em fezes de gatos experimentalmente infectados, usando a abordagem de Kato Katz, com subseqüente coloração pelo método de Kinyoun. Animais sorologicamente negativos ao T. gondii foram infectados por via oral com 5x10² cistos da cepa ME49 de cérebros de camundongos. Fezes foram colhidas diariamente a partir do 3º até o 30º dia pós-infecção. Oocistos foram detectados por centrífugo-flutuação em sacarose qualitativa e pelo método quantitativo de Kato Katz modificado corado pela técnica de Kinyoun (KKK. Em gatos experimentalmente infectados, oocistos foram detectados do 7º ao 15º dia pela técnica de centrífugo-flutuação em sacarose, mas oocistos foram detectados do 6º ao 16º dia pelo KKK, sendo sensível por um período maior, com documentação permanente. O pico da excreção de oocistos ocorreu entre 8º a 11º dia pós-infecção, antes de resultado sorológico positivo

  12. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  13. Nitrogen fixation in Asaia sp. (family Acetobacteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaddar, Neeloy; Paul, Arundhati; Chakravorty, Somnath; Chakraborty, Writachit; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Chowdhuri, Debarati; Gachhui, Ratan

    2011-08-01

    The genus Asaia (family Acetobacteraceae) was first introduced with a single species-Asaia bogorensis and later six more species were described namely A. siamensis, A. krungthepensis, A. lannaensis, A. platycodi, A. prunellae, and A. astilbes. Acetobacteraceae family has been divided into ten genera but, only three of them include nitrogen fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Acetobacter, and Swaminathania. This article originated from our study primarily aimed to isolate new endosymbiotic nitrogen fixer among Acetobacteraceae during which we have isolated, for the first time in India, four different strains of Asaia sp. from three different sources: Michalia champaca flower, Anopheles mosquito, and ant Tetraponera rufonigra. All the endosymbiotic strains isolated possess the ability to fix nitrogen. Evidence for both nitrogenase activity and the presence of nifH gene in isolated Asaia sp. is presented. Asaia bogorensis (MTCC 4041(T)) and A. siamensis (MTCC 4042(T)), two of the validated type strains available from the repository, were tested positive for the presence of functional nitrogenase. The nifH gene sequences from these type strains were also confirmed and compared with other nitrogen fixing members of the family Acetobacteraceae. Our result corroborate with the previous reports that Asaia sp. are indeed widely distributed in nature but this is the first time demonstration of their functional nitrogenase activity. This study shows Asaia sp. as fourth genera of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the family Acetobacteraceae.

  14. Molecular characterization of Trichoderma sp. isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic relatedness among 15 isolates of Trichoderma sp. was analyzed with six micro-satellite primers. ISSR profiles showed 83.7% genetic diversity among the isolates with the formation of four clusters. Analysis of dendrogram revealed that similarity coefficient ranged from 0.27 to 0.95. ITS-PCR of rDNA region with ...

  15. Som man spørger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lars

    Indhold: Input og outputinterview ; Tre interviewtyper ; Tre grundprincipper ; De syv dødssynder ; Åbne, simple og neutrale spørgsmål ; Skuffespørgsmål ; Fokus ; Aktiv lytning ; Mål ; Strategi ; Abstrakt og konkret ; Det kritiske interview ; Kilder med et budskab ; Oldfruens fif ; Resumé i punktform...

  16. POTENSI MELANOTUS SP. DALAM MENDEGRADASI LIGNIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNIK SULISTINAH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of fungus were isolated from oil palm stem at oil palm plantation in Medan All of them were tested its abilities to degrade lignin. The results showed that one of them was able to grow on ligninase media and the fungi has the ability to degrade ligin. The fungi is identified as Melanotus sp.

  17. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  18. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T.; Ferreira, Rafael V. de P.; Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  19. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We...

  20. Lipid contents of the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Several fatty acids, sterols, batyl alcohol and its analogs and an N-acylated sphingosine (ceramide) have been isolated from the lipid fraction of the extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. The major sterol is found to be cholesterol (54%), followed...

  1. Test af spørgeskema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i •design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, •formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, •metoder til at analysere resultaterne....

  2. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  3. Eimeria divinolimai sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in the rufous casiornis Casiornis rufus Vieillot, 1816 (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae in Brazil Eimeria divinolimi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae no caneleiro, Casiornis rufus Vieillot, 1816 (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria divinolimai sp. n. from the rufous casiornis, Casiornis rufus (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae was described in Brazil. Oocysts are subspherical 17.84 ± 1.52 by 15.90 ± 0.99µm (15.61-20.00 x 14.15-17.80. Shape-index (length/ width of 1.12 ± 0.05 (1.01-1.20. Wall smooth and bilayered, being yellowish outer and darker inner, 2.13 ± 0.16 µm (2.00-2.38 thick. Micropyle and residuum are absents, but one subspherical polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoid ranging from 14.98 ± 0.85 by 7.50 ± 0.44 µm (13.81-1619 x 6.76-8.09, with smooth, thin and single-layered wall. Stieda body prominent, without substiedal body and with residuum granulated. Sporozoites with refractile body at one end.Eimeria divinolimi sp. n. do caneleiro (Casiornis rufus foi descrita no Brasil. Os oocistos são subsféricos medindo 17,84 ± 1,52 por 15,90 ± 0,99 µm (15,61-20,00 x 14,15-17,80. O índice morfométrico de 1,12 ± 0,05 (1,01-1,20. Parede do oocisto lisa e dupla, sendo a externa amarelada e a interna escura, medindo 2,13 ± 0,16 µm (2,00-2,38. A micrópila e o resíduo estão ausentes, mas um grânulo polar subesférico está presente. Os esporocistos são ovóides medindo de 14,98 ± 0,85 por 7,50 ± 0,44 µm (13,81-16,19 x 6,76-8,09. A parede do esporocisto é única, lisa e fina. O corpo de Stieda é proeminente, sem corpo de substieda e com resíduo granular. Os esporozoítas com corpos refráteis em uma das extremidades.

  4. C (sp2)–C (sp2) cross coupling reaction catalyzed by a palladacycle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (sp2) cross coupling reaction catalyzed by a palladacycle phosphine complex: A simple and sustainable protocol in aqueous media. Seyyed Javad Sabounchei Marjan Hosseinzadeh. Articles Volume 127 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 1919- ...

  5. Nanocrystalline sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M. L. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy); Rossi, M. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Sapienza,” via A. Scarpa, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria and Centro di Ricerca per le Nanotecnologie Applicate all’Ingegneria (CNIS) (Italy); Tamburri, E., E-mail: emanuela.tamburri@uniroma2.it [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp{sup 2}- and sp{sup 3}-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  6. Analisis Fosfor pada Cacing Tanah (Megascolex sp. dan Fridericia sp.) Secara Spektrofotometri Sinar Tampak

    OpenAIRE

    Safira, Cut Shafa

    2015-01-01

    Earthworm is natural resource which can be used for medication due to its highly amount of minerals. One of these minerals is phosphorus. The aim of this research are to identify, determine and know the difference content of phosphorus in Megascolex sp. and Fridericia sp. Qualitative analysis shows positive results with addition of ammonium molybdate 4% and BaCl2 5%. Quantitative analysis was done using visible spectrophotometer with ascorbic acid method, measuring blu-colored molybdenum ...

  7. Differences in nutrient uptake capacity of the benthic filamentous algae Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. under varying N/P conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vyverman, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The N/P ratio of wastewater can vary greatly and directly affect algal growth and nutrient removal process. Three benthic filamentous algae species Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were isolated from a periphyton bioreactor and cultured under laboratory conditions on varying N/P ratios to determine their ability to remove nitrate and phosphorus. The N/P ratio significantly influenced the algal growth and phosphorus uptake process. Appropriate N/P ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal were 5-15, 7-10 and 7-20 for Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp., respectively. Within these respective ranges, Cladophora sp. had the highest biomass production, while Pseudanabaena sp. had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This study indicated that Cladophora sp. had a high capacity of removing phosphorus from wastewaters of low N/P ratio, and Pseudanabaena sp. was highly suitable for removing nitrogen from wastewaters with high N/P ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anomalous self potential (sp) log signatures observed in a water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical logging was done after drilling had been completed in a water well at Okwudor, South Eastern Nigeria. Three electric logs were run viz: Self Potential (SP), Resistivity N16″ and N64″ logs. An anomaly was observed in the SP log. The SP results from this well show some deviation from the standard norm.

  9. Biosorption of chromium by mangrove-derived Aplanochytrium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial dried biomass of Thraustochytrids is used as bioadsorbent for the removal of the chromium in aqueous solution. In this investigation, three species of Thraustochydrids namely Aplanochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp. and Schizochytrium sp. were tested for the efficiency of chromium accumulation by culturing ...

  10. Babesia peircei sp. nov. from the jackass penguin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-01-09

    Jan 9, 1992 ... An avian piroplasm, Babesia peircei sp. nov. is described from the jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus. Morphological differences between Babesia peircei sp. nov. and the other valid Babesia spp. are discussed together with the possible vectors. 'n Voal-piroplasma, Babesia peircei sp. nov. afkomstig ...

  11. Occurrence of Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., and aflatoxins in corn hybrids with different systems of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sbardelotto Di Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess alternatives for viable corn storage for small rural properties in two annual storage experiments. A 4×5 factorial design was used with four types of storage (conventional bags, hermetic bags, metal silos and corncobs and five periods of storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. We used corn hybrids 2B688RR and 30K73Hx cultivated in winter 2012 and summer 2012/2013 in the city of Dois Vizinhos, Paraná, Brazil. The moisture contents, counts of Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp., and the occurrence of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 were assessed. The kernels stored in hermetic bags had lower moisture contents. Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. were observed in 20.37 and 86.11% of winter storage samples, respectively, and in 83.3 and 91.6% of summer storage samples, respectively. The storage system and time of storage had no influence on the occurrence of Aspergillus sp. and aflatoxins in the winter crop samples. The corncobs from the summer crop samples had the lowest counts of Aspergillus sp. and did not have aflatoxins. We detected aflatoxins at concentrations of 2.8-14.5 and 3-197.5 µg kg-1 in the winter and summer crop samples, respectively.

  12. Two new species of suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov. epizoic on ostracods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Two, species of protozoic suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov., are described. These were found attached on the body of the marine ostracod, Cypridina dentata (Muller), collected from the shelf and slope...

  13. The family Carabodidae (Acari, Oribatida) VIII. The genus Machadocepheus (first part) Machadocepheusleoneae sp. n. and Machadocepheusrachii sp. n. from Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine; Leiva, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The genus Machadocepheus, being one of the more complex genera of the Carabodidae family, is briefly outlined to demonstrate this complexity. Descriptions of two new species from Gabon, Machadocepheusleoneae sp. n. and Machadocepheusrachii sp. n. are given.

  14. Agromyces italicus sp. nov., Agromyces humatus sp. nov. and Agromyces lapidis sp. nov., isolated from Roman catacombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Valme; Groth, Ingrid; Gonzalez, Juan M; Laiz, Leonila; Schuetze, Barbara; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2005-03-01

    A polyphasic study was carried out to clarify the taxonomic positions of three Gram-positive isolates from the Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome (Italy). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons placed these strains within the genus Agromyces. The morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of these isolates were consistent with the description of the genus Agromyces. The three isolates could be readily distinguished from one another and from representatives of all Agromyces species with validly published names by a broad range of phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness studies. Therefore, these isolates are proposed to represent three novel species of the genus Agromyces, Agromyces italicus sp. nov. (type strain CD1(T)=HKI 0325(T)=DSM 16388(T)=NCIMB 14011(T)), Agromyces humatus sp. nov. (type strain CD5(T)=HKI 0327(T)=DSM 16389(T)=NCIMB 14012(T)) and Agromyces lapidis sp. nov. (type strain CD55(T)=HKI 0324(T)=DSM 16390(T)=NCIMB 14013(T)).

  15. Cryptotrichosporon argae sp. nov., Cryptotrichosporon brontae sp. nov. and Cryptotrichosporon steropae sp. nov., isolated from forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Ana; Röhl, Oliver; Maldonado, Cristina; Yurkov, Andrey M; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2017-09-01

    Yeast strains belonging to the basidiomycetous genus Cryptotrichosporon were isolated from forest soils in Serra da Arrábida Natural Park in Portugal. Similar to the already-known representatives of this genus, the new isolates formed pigmented colonies of a distinctive pale orange colour. Phylogenetic analyses employing concatenated sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S (large subunit) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region supported the recognition of three novel species: Cryptotrichosporon argae sp. nov. (type strain CM 19T=CBS 14376T=PYCC 7010T=DSM 104550T; MycoBank accession number MB 817168), Cryptotrichosporon brontae sp. nov. (type strain CM 1562T=CBS 14303T=PYCC 7011T=DSM 104551T; MycoBank accession number MB 817077) and Cryptotrichosporon steropae sp. nov. (type strain OR 395T=CBS 14302T=PYCC 7012T=DSM 104552T; MycoBank accession number MB 817078).

  16. Fitoremediasi limbah budidaya sidat menggunakan filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Apriadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi dari filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp. sebagai agen bioremediasi dalam mereduksi kandungan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan perbedaan dosis limbah (25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100%. Wadah penelitian berupa akuarium resirkulasi menggunakan sistem carrousel. Dilakukan pengukuran secara rutin terhadap beberapa parameter kualitas air serta perubahan bobot Spirogyra sp. selama dua minggu retensi. Diperoleh hasil bahwa penurunan konsentrasi bahan organik menggunakan Spirogyra sp. berlangsung efektif hingga hari keenam. Spirogyra sp. mampu mentolelir limbah budidaya sidat pada dosis limbah 25% dan 50%. Spirogyra sp. pada perlakuan dosis limbah 50% memiliki kemampuan yang lebih baik dalam menurunkan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat.

  17. A superhard sp3 microporous carbon with direct bandgap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yilong; Xie, Chenlong; Xiong, Mei; Ma, Mengdong; Liu, Lingyu; Li, Zihe; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Gao, Guoying; Zhao, Zhisheng; Tian, Yongjun; Xu, Bo; He, Julong

    2017-12-01

    Carbon allotropes with distinct sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridization possess various different properties. Here, a novel all-sp3 hybridized tetragonal carbon, namely the P carbon, was predicted by the evolutionary particle swarm structural search. It demonstrated a low density among all-sp3 carbons, due to the corresponding distinctive microporous structure. P carbon is thermodynamically stable than the known C60 and could be formed through the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) compression. P carbon is a direct bandgap semiconductor displaying a strong and superhard nature. The unique combination of electrical and mechanical properties constitutes P carbon a potential superhard material for semiconductor industrial fields.

  18. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  19. Bioakumulasi logam berat Cu oleh Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riesta Primaharinastiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the ability of Bacillus sp in accumulating Cu and how much it can be acumulated. Themedium used to growth the bacterium was Nutrient Broth and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry methods was used to assay theCu, both in the cells and medium. The result of this study showed that Bacillus sp incubated in the Nutrient Broth medium containing10 ppm of Cu, with continuous stirring in the room temperature was able to reduce Cu in the medium 8.912–12.623% and accumulateCu in the cell 0.1149–0.1400 %/mg cells. Based on this result, it is necessary to develop more studies to find out what factors thatinfluence the accumulation process and to optimize the bioprocess.

  20. Analysis list: SP2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SP2 Blood,Liver,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/hg19/target/SP2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.B...lood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Liver.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc

  1. Superfield quantization in Sp(2) covariant formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    2001-01-01

    The rules of the superfield Sp(2) covariant quantization of the arbitrary gauge theories for the case of the introduction of the gauging with the derivative equations for the gauge functional are generalized. The possibilities of realization of the expanded anti-brackets are considered and it is shown, that only one of the realizations is compatible with the transformations of the expanded BRST-symmetry in the form of super translations along the Grassmann superspace coordinates

  2. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  3. Commercial technologies from the SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.; Fujita, T.; Mondt, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    For more than a decade, Jet Propulsion Labortory and Los Alamos have managed a multi-agency funded effort to develop a space reactor power system. This SP-100 Program has developed technologies required for space power systems that can be implemented in the industrial and commercial sectors to improve competitiveness in the global economy. Initial steps taken to transfer this technology from the laboratories to industrial and commercial entities within United States include: (1) identifying specific technologies having commercial potential; (2) distributing information describing the identified technologies and interacting with interested commercial and industrial entities to develop application-specific details and requirements; and (3) providing a technological data base that leads to transfer of technology or the forming of teaming arrangements to accomplish the transfer by tailoring the technology to meet application-specific requirements. SP-100 technologies having commercial potential encompass fabrication processes, devices, and components. Examples: a process for bonding refractory metals to graphite, a device to sense the position of an actuator and a component to enable rotating machines to operate without supplying lubrication (self-lubricating ball bearing). Shortly after the NASA Regional Technology Transfer Centers widely disseminated information covering SP-100 technologies, over one hundred expressions of interest were received, which indicate that there is a large potential benefit in transferring SP-100 technology. Interactions with industrial and commercial entities have identified a substantial need for creating teaming arrangements involving the interested entity and personnel from laboratories and their contractors, who have the knowledge and ability to tailor the technology to meet application-specific requirements. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  4. Sterols from the Madagascar sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-12-17

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ(5), Δ(7) and Δ(5,7), were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ(5,7) sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays.

  5. Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel Kashman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, D5, D7 and D5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in D5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5a,8a-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5a,8a-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and b-caroten bleaching assays.

  6. Description of Pythonella scleruri n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a brazilian bird rufous-breasted-leaftosser Sclerurus scansor, 1835 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, U; Gouvêa, H

    1999-01-01

    Coccidian oocysts containing 16 sporocysts with 4 sporozoites in each were observed in a faecal sample from Sclerurus scansor collected in the Itatiaia National Park, southeastern region of Brazil. The oocysts are characterized by ellipsoidal shape measuring 42.5 x 32.8 mm, with smooth, thick double-layered wall of a greenish-orange colour. An oocyst residuum of numerous scattered granules among the sporocysts in sporulated ones; 16 round sporocysts, averaging 10.5 x 10 mm each containing four elongated sporozoites; presence of residuum; absence of Stieda body. The presently described coccidian, recorded for the first time in birds, is a new species named P. scleruri.

  7. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  8. Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov. prevail in diverse enzootic transmission cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margos, Gabriele; Lane, Robert S.; Fedorova, Natalia; Koloczek, Johannes; Piesman, Joseph; Hojgaard, Andrias; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Two species of the genus Borrelia, Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov., were first described by Postic and co-workers on the basis of genetic analyses of several loci. Multilocus sequence analysis of eight housekeeping loci confirmed that these two Borrelia genomospecies are distinct members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. B. bissettiae sp. nov. was initially described in transmission cycles involving Neotoma fuscipes wood rats and Ixodes pacificus ticks in California, and Neotoma mexicana and Ixodes spinipalpis in Colorado. The preferred host of B. californiensis sp. nov. appears to be the California kangaroo rat, Dipodomys californicus; Ixodes jellisoni, I. spinipalipis and I. pacificus ticks are naturally infected with it. Thus, the ecological associations of the two genomospecies and their genetic distance from all other known Borrelia genomospecies species justify their description as separate genomospecies: B. bissettiae sp. nov. (type strain DN127T=DSM 17990T= CIP 109136T) and B. californiensis (type strain CA446T=DSM 17989T=ATCC BAA-2689T). PMID:26813420

  9. Nematopsis gigas n. sp. (Apicomplexa), a parasite of Nerita ascencionis (Gastropoda, Neritidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carlos; Padovan, Isaíras

    2004-01-01

    A new species of Nematopsis (Apicomplexa, Porosporidae) is described from the mantle tissues of the seawater gastropod, Nerita ascencionis (Neritidae), collected in the Atlantic North off the coast of "Fernando de Noronha" Island (3 degrees 47' 57'' S, 32 degrees 25' 12'' W) situated about 350 km from the northeast coast of Brazil. Numerous oocysts, each contained in a parasitophorous vacuole, were found in the cytoplasm of phagocytes in the mantle tissue of the host. The phagocytes were surrounded by a thin wall composed of lucent material. The phagocyte cytoplasm contained a nucleus surrounded by numerous vesicles and some dense masses. The oocysts were 21.9 +/- 0.5 microm long, and 11.5 +/- 0.6 microm wide. The oocyst wall was 0.18-0.25 microm thick, and the apical zone contained a micropyle, 1.0-1.2 microm in diameter, covered by a canopy-like operculum about 0.25 microm thick. Externally, the oocyst wall was surrounded by numerous anastomosing microfibrils attached to the wall and extending towards the periphery of the parasitophorous vacuole. Some microfibrils formed a dense complex network that surrounded the oocyst in the middle of the parasitophorous vacuole, which opened only at the apical zone near the external region of the opercular system. On the basis of the data obtained by light and transmission electron microscopy and host specificity, the gregarine Nematopsis gigas is distinguished from the nearest species as a new species. The taxonomic affinities and morphological comparisons with other similar species of the same genus are discussed.

  10. EFEKTIFITAS DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptomyces sp TERHADAP Erwinia sp PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK REBAH PADA TANAMAN LIDAH BUAYA (Aloe barbadensis Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARMILA TASNIM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

  11. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    Full Text Available In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1 mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1, were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase.

  12. Copper resistance of different ectomycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus microcarpus, Pisolithus sp., Scleroderma sp. and Suillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environments contaminated with heavy metals negatively impact the living organisms. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have shown important role in these impacted sites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the copper-resistance of ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates Pisolithus microcarpus - UFSC-Pt116; Pisolithus sp. - UFSC-PT24, Suillus sp. - UFSM RA 2.8 and Scleroderma sp. - UFSC-Sc124 to different copper doses in solid and liquid media. The copper doses tested were: 0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mmol L-1 in the solid medium and 0.00, 0.32, 0.64 and 0.96 mmol L-1 in the liquid medium. Copper was amended as copper sulphate in order to supplement the culture medium MNM at pH 4.8, with seven replicates to each fungus-dose combination. The fungal isolates were incubated for 30 days at 28 °C. UFSC-Pt116 showed high copper-resistance such as accessed by CL50 determinations (concentration to reduce 50% of the growth as while as UFSC-PT24 displayed copper-resistance mechanism at 0.50 mmol L-1 in solid medium. The UFSC-PT24 and UFSC-Sc124 isolates have increased copper-resistance in liquid medium. The higher production of extracellular pigment was detected in UFSC-Pt116 cultures. The UFSC-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 isolates showed higher resistance for copper and produced higher mycelium biomass than the other isolates. In this way, the isolates UFSG-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 can be important candidates to survive in copper-contaminated areas, and can show important role in plants symbiosis in these contaminated sites.

  13. Isolation of C11 Cyclopentenones from Two Didemnid Species, Lissoclinum sp. and Diplosoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Ueda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new C11 cyclopentenones 1-7 was isolated, together with four known metabolites 9/10, 12 and 13, from the extract of the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum sp. The other didemnid ascidian Diplosoma sp. contained didemnenones 1, 2 and 5, and five known metabolites 8-12. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (HCT116, A431 and A549.

  14. Construction of human MASP-2-CCP1/2SP, CCP2SP, SP plasmid DNA nanolipoplexes and the effects on tuberculosis in BCG-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Dong, Xinfang; Luo, Yanping; Zhang, Guochao; Shan, Jinyu; Wang, Qian; He, Qi; Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Jingqiu; Zhu, Bingdong; Ma, Xingming

    2017-08-01

    The lectin pathway, one of the complement cascade systems, provides the primary line of defense against invading pathogens. The serine protease of MASP-2 plays an essential role in complement activation of the lectin pathway. The C-terminal segment of MASP-2 is comprised of the CCP1-CCP2-SP domains, and is the crucial catalytic segment. However, what is the effect of CCP1-CCP2-SP domains in controlling chronic infection is unknown. In order to evaluate the potential impact of CCP1-CCP2-SP domains on tuberculosis, we constructed the human MASP-2 CCP1/2SP, CCP2SP and SP recombinant plasmids, and delivered these plasmids by DNA-DOTAP:cholesterol cationic nanolipoplexes to BCG-infected mice. After 21 days post DNA-DOTAP:chol nanolipoplexes application, we analyzed bacteria loads of pulmonary, pathology of granuloma, lymphocyte subpopulations. The C3a, C4a and MASP-2 levels in serum were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Compared to the control group that received GFP DNA-DOTAP:chol nanolipoplexes, MASP-2 CCP1/2SP DNA-DOTAP:chol nanolipoplexes treated group showed significantly enlarged pulmonary granulomas lesion (P  0.05). These findings provided experimental evidence that MASP-2 CCP1/2SP DNA nanolipoplexes shown the negative efficacy in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and displayed a potential role of down-regulating T-cell-mediated immunity in tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality improvement on half-fin anchovy (Setipinna taty) fish sauce by Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yu; He, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Chen, Meiling; Jiang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    A method of improving fish sauce quality during fermentation was investigated. Psychrobacter sp. SP-1, a halophilic protease-producing bacterium, was isolated from fish sauce with flavor-enhancing properties and non-biogenic amine-producing activity. The performance of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 in Setipinna taty fish sauce fermentation was investigated further. The inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 did not significantly affect pH or NaCl concentration changes (P > 0.05), although it significantly increased total moderately halophilic microbial count, protease activity, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acid nitrogen content, and also promoted the umami taste and meaty aroma (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 significantly decreased total volatile basic nitrogen content and biogenic amines content (P < 0.05), which were regarded as harmful compounds in foods. The results of the present study demonstrate that Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 can be used as a potential starter culture for improving fish sauce quality by fermentation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Dominancy of Trichodesmium sp. in the Biawak Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihadi, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    The Biawak Island is one of the small islands in West Java Province with an abundance of marine biological resources. This research was conducted to collect the primary producer zooplankton and water quality parameters. Direct observation is done by field surveys and measurement in situ for plankton and environmental parameters such as temperature, water transparency, water current, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Trichodesmium sp. was found dominance in where some other types of zooplankton were found in the area, like Scenedesmus sp., Sagitta sp., Acartia sp. also occurred. Further, the most abundance of Trichodesmium sp. was found in southern of Biawak Island where mangroves, coral and seagrass ecosystem provide nutrients which indirectly support the abundance of planktons. Trichodesmium sp. is plankton that can survive in water with minimum nutrient.

  17. The SP Theory of Intelligence: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gerard Wolff

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of the SP theory of intelligence, which aims to simplify and integrate concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. It is conceived of as a brain-like system that receives "New" information and stores some or all of it in compressed form as "Old" information; and it is realised in the form of a computer model, a first version of the SP machine. The matching and unification of patterns and the concept of multiple alignment are central ideas. Using heuristic techniques, the system builds multiple alignments that are "good" in terms of information compression. For each multiple alignment, probabilities may be calculated for associated inferences. Unsupervised learning is done by deriving new structures from partial matches between patterns and via heuristic search for sets of structures that are "good" in terms of information compression. These are normally ones that people judge to be "natural", in accordance with the "DONSVIC" principle—the discovery of natural structures via information compression. The SP theory provides an interpretation for concepts and phenomena in several other areas, including "computing", aspects of mathematics and logic, the representation of knowledge, natural language processing, pattern recognition, several kinds of reasoning, information storage and retrieval, planning and problem solving, information compression, neuroscience and human perception and cognition. Examples include the parsing and production of language with discontinuous dependencies in syntax, pattern recognition at multiple levels of abstraction and its integration with part-whole relations, nonmonotonic reasoning and reasoning with default values, reasoning in Bayesian networks, including "explaining away", causal diagnosis, and the solving of a geometric analogy problem.

  18. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Shepard, N.F.; Kirpich, A.S.; Murata, R.; Smith, M.A.; Stephen, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kW e system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW 2 , Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kW e in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions

  19. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  20. SP-100 control drive assembly development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Thomas; Gilchrist, A. Richard; Schuster, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 is an electrical generating nuclear power system for space operation. This paper describes the nuclear reactor control systems and the methods used to assure reliable performance for the 10-year design life. Reliable performance is achieved by redundancy and by selecting highly reliable components and design features. Reliability is quantified by analysis using established reliability data. Areas lacking reliability data are identified for development testing. A specific development test description is provided as an example to demonstrate how this process is meeting the system reliability goals.

  1. ANCAMAN DARI NYAMUK Culex sp YANG TERABAIKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumrotus Sholichah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nyamuk Culex sp lebih menyukai meletakkan telurnya pada genangan air berpolutan tinggi, berkembang biak di air keruh dan lebih menyukai genangan air yang sudah lama daripada genangan air yang baru. Aktif menggigit pada malam hari. Tempat yang gelap, sejuk dan lembab merupakan tempat yang disukai untuk beristirahat. Nyamuk betina dewasa menggigit dengan abdomen terletak sejajar dengan permukaan induk semang yang sedang digigit.Gangguan yang ditimbulkan oleh nyamuk selain dapat menularkan penyakit juga dapat sangat mengganggu dengan dengungan dan gigitannya sehingga bagi orang-orang tertentu dapat menimbulkan phobi (entomopobhia serta dapat menyebabkan dermatitis dan urticaria.

  2. Methyl (Sp-2-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene-1-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Štěpnička

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Fe(C5H5(C19H16O2P], obtained serendipitously during recrystallization of 1-hydroxybenzotriazolyl (Sp-2-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene-1-carboxylate from methanol, crystallizes in the chiral space group P212121. Its crystal structure not only confirms the anticipated absolute configuration but also establishes a rather regular geometry for the ferrocene unit, devoid of any significant deformation due to the attached substituents. In the crystal, symmetry-related molecules are linked via weak C—H...O interactions.

  3. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain Tü6071▿

    OpenAIRE

    Erxleben, Anika; Wunsch-Palasis, Julia; Grüning, Björn A.; Luzhetska, Marta; Bechthold, Andreas; Günther, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. Tü6071 is a soil-dwelling bacterium which has a highly active isoprenoid biosynthesis. Isoprenoids are important precursors for biopharmaceutical molecules such as antibiotics or anticancer agents, e.g., landomycin. Streptomyces sp. Tü6071 produces the industrially important terpene glycosides phenalinolactones, which have antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive bacteria. The availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. Tü6071 allows for understanding ...

  4. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  5. SHEAR STRENGTH IN THE GLUE LINE OF Eucalyptus sp. AND Pinus sp.WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate the adhesive efficiency on the union of glued joints in a particular temperature and humidity conditions for a specified time the adhesive must be submitted to specific load tests, such as shear in the glue line. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shear strength in the glue line of Eucalyptus sp and Pinus sp.woods. Five adhesives (castor oil, sodium silicate, modified silicate, , PVA and resorcinol-formaldehyde, three weights (150 g/m2, 200 g/m2, and 250 g/m2 and two species (Eucalyptus sp. and Pinus sp. of wood were used. Twelve specimens were obtained from each repetition per treatment, corresponding to 108 specimens that were conditioned at a temperature of 23 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 50 ± 2%. The interaction between the weight and type of adhesive was significant for the shear strength in the glue line of eucalyptus wood. However, no interaction between the weight and the adhesive was found for pinus, only the isolated from the adhesive effect. Chemical bonds originated in the polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives and castor bi-component conferred upon these adhesives the greatest resistance in the glue line. Castor and resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives showed the highest shear strength values in the line of glue and wood failure. Castor adhesive presented satisfactory performance for bonding of eucalyptus and pine woods.

  6. Genetic diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and F. redolens f.sp. dianthi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baayen, R.P.; Dreven, van F.; Krijger, M.C.; Waalwijk, C.

    1997-01-01

    Pathogenic isolates were selected representing all known vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and races of Fusarium oxysporum sensu lato from Dianthus spp. On basis of differences in the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, six VCGs were classified as F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

  7. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time. Also, the degree of substrate conversion was studied by the varying the dilution rate as an independent parameter. The dilution rate (ratio of feed flow rate to the culture volume) was varied by varying the feed volumetric rate from 110-170 mL/h for inlet hexavalent chromium concentrations of 70 mg/dm3. The results show that a chemostat with recycle gives a better performance in terms of substrate conversion than a chemostat without a recycle. Moreover, the degree of substrate conversion decreases as the dilution rate is increased. Also, Bacillus sp. was found to give higher conversions compared to pseudomonas sp.

  8. Sp(2) covariant quantisation of general gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Bello, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    The Sp(2) covariant quantization of gauge theories is studied. The geometrical interpretation of gauge theories in terms of quasi principal fibre bundles Q(M s , G s ) is reviewed. It is then described the Sp(2) algebra of ordinary Yang-Mills theory. A consistent formulation of covariant Lagrangian quantisation for general gauge theories based on Sp(2) BRST symmetry is established. The original N = 1, ten dimensional superparticle is considered as an example of infinitely reducible gauge algebras, and given explicitly its Sp(2) BRST invariant action. (author). 18 refs

  9. Lagenidium callinectes INFECTION ON ROTIFERS Brachionus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Roza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Milkfish, Chanos chanos and humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis hatcheries have developed at Gondol, Bali since 1995 and until now still rely on rotifers, the main natural food, supply. Recent problem on mass culture of rotifer, Brachionus sp. is harvest failure caused by fungus infection. Under light microscope, infected eggs and bodies of the rotifers was filled with numerous aseptate hyphae. Two isolates of fungi were isolated from rotifer eggs and carcass on June 21st, 2004 and on June 25th, 2004 obtained from milkfish and humpback grouper hatcheries at Gondol. Based on its morphological characteristics, the pathogenic fungus was identified as Lagenidium callinectes which grows optimally at 25°C and survives in 1.0%, 2.5%, and 5.0% NaCl as well as in 1.0% and 2.5% KCl. Both of the present isolates utilize only 8 out of 26 carbohydrates and derivatives tested as carbon, nutrition and energy sources. This finding is the first report on rotifer, Brachionus sp. infected with L. callinectes causing up to 100% mortality.

  10. Polyhydroxybutyrate by Streptomyces sp.: Production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sivakumar; Chinnadurai, Gandhi Shree; Perumal, Palani

    2017-11-01

    A total number of 20 actinomycetes isolates were isolated from soil sediments obtained from Semmancheri coastal areas of Bay of Bengal, India and they were qualitatively screened for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on a medium containing Sudan black stain. Nine of the 20 isolates produced PHB and the quantity of PHB produced varied from 1.79 to 4.26g -L . Among the positive isolates an actinomycete isolate which was identified as Streptomyces sp. through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis (Accession No: KF667247) produced relatively higher PHB than other positive isolates. Subsequently, the growth conditions were optimized for the maximum PHB production by the chosen organism. Attempt was also made to utilize natural carbon sources such as paddy straw, wheat bran, rice bran, sugarcane molasses and oil cake for the production of PHB in an attempt to reduce the cost production of PHB. The purified PHB was analyzed by Solid-State 13 C NMR, Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy, Powder X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopic analyses to determine the structure, crystallinity, purity and thermal stability. The present investigation has revealed that Streptomyces sp. could be a potential source for the production of PHB with desirable characteristics and could also be exploited for the industrial production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Fluorescence Properties of Chlorella sp. Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Teplicky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality and its fast and reliable monitoring is the challenge of the future. Design of appropriate biosensors that would be capable of non-invasive identification of water pollution is an important prerequisite for such challenge. Chlorophylls are pigments, naturally presented in all plants that absorb light. The main forms of chlorophyll in algae are chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, other pigments include xantophylls and beta-carotenes. Our aim was to characterize endogenous fluorescence of the Chlorella sp. algae, present naturally in drinking water. We recorded spatial, spectral and lifetime fluorescence distribution in the native algae. We noted that the fluorescence was evenly distributed in the algae cytosol, but lacked in the nucleus and reached maximum at 680-690 nm. Fluorescence decay of chlorella sp. was double-exponential, and clearly shorter than that of its isolated pigments. For the first time, fluorescence lifetime image of the algae is presented. Study of the fluorescence properties of algae is aimed at the improvement of water supply contamination detection and cleaning.

  12. Karakterisasi protease Bacillus sp. UGM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Purwati Widowati

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment is to indentify the characters of proetease produced by Bacillus sp.UGM5.the protease secreted by Bacillus sp.UGM5 was first isolated,purified and then charactirezed.The crude enzyme has spesific actifity of 1.14 U/mg,however,the spesific activity of purified enzyme was increased by 23.8 times fold and recovery was 33.69%.The Page of nondenatured crude enzymes showes two type of proreases,however ,the SDS-Page of denatured purified enzyme showed four protein-bends with molecular weights of 55.5 kDa,18kDa respecetively.The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme acrivity are 8.5 and 420C and belongs to serin protease type,with Km 3 X 10-3mM and Vmax 0.0890mM/30 minutes.The activity is not inhibited by Ca+2,Fe+2 and EDTA.

  13. UTILIZAÇÃO DE ADESIVO PVA EM COMPENSADOS DE Pinus sp. E Eucalyptus sp. / UTILIZATION OF PVA ADHESIVES IN Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. PLYWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. De Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre novos adesivos ou resinas para colagem de madeira e derivados estão sendo realizados com a intenção de diminuir o impacto ambiental sem alterar suas propriedades. Por este motivo, novas formulações de adesivos PVA (Acetato de Polivinila vêm sendo desenvolvidas. Este trabalho testou a utilização deste adesivo na produção de compensado de Eucalyptus sp. e Pinus sp., com tempo e temperatura de prensagem, respectivamente, de 10 minutos e90°C. Foram realizados os ensaios físicos de densidade, teor de umidade e absorção, e os ensaios mecânicos de flexão estática e de resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, todos de acordo com as normas ABNT. Obtiveram-se bons resultados com relação à resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, a qual foi superior para os adesivos PVA, se comparados com compensados produzidos com ureia-formaldeído e o fenol-formaldeído, enquanto que os resultados de MOE e MOR apresentaram-se inferiores em ambos os casos. 

  14. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of “Deqi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation. Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min–10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant–5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant–5 min interval and 10 min–20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min–10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations.

  15. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Sioud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002, as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch.

  16. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp. in non diarrheal faeces from children, in a day care center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Detecção de Cryptosporidium sp. em fezes não diarréicas de crianças, em uma escola de educação infantil de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therezinha T. Carvalho-Almeida

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan Cryptosporidium sp. has been frequently detected in faeces from children with persistent diarrhoea. This work achieved to investigate an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis, in a day care center, attending children of high socio-economic level, between 0 and six years old. The outbreak was detected through the network of public health, when stool samples, not diarrhoeic, were examined at the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute. Among the 64 examined children, 13 (20.3% showed oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. in the faeces examined by Kinyoun technique: seven children one year old, three, two years old and three, three years old. Among the 23 examined adults, only a 22 years old woman, possibly having an immunocomprometiment, was positive. Clinical and epidemiological aspects were investigated by questionnaires, highlighting the occurrence of the outbreak in a very dry period.O protozoário Cryptosporidium sp. tem sido detectado com freqüência em fezes de crianças com diarréia persistente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar um surto de criptosporidiose, em uma escola de educação infantil, que atende crianças de classe média alta, de 0 a seis anos de idade. O surto foi detectado a partir de amostras fecais não diarréicas encaminhadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz através da rede de saúde pública. Das 64 crianças 13 (20,3% apresentaram oocistos de Cryptosporidium nas fezes, examinadas pelo método de Kinyoun, sendo sete crianças com um ano de idade, três com dois anos de idade e três, com três anos de idade. Dos 23 adultos examinados, apenas uma mulher de 22 anos, com possível imunocomprometimento, foi positiva. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos foram investigados por meio de questionários, ressaltando-se que o surto ocorreu em período muito seco.

  17. Microfungi on the Pandanaceae: Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov., L. siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. are described with a key to Linocarpon species from the Pandanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkantha, S; Lumyong, S; Lumyong, P; Whitton, S R; McKenzie, E H C; Hyde, K D

    2003-01-01

    Linocarpon species are reported from Pandanaceae in Australia, Brunei, Hong Kong, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Seychelles, Thailand and Vanuatu. Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov. were collected on decaying leaves of Pandanus tectorius in Hong Kong. Linocarpon siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. were collected from decaying leaves of P. penetrans in Thailand. These taxa are described, illustrated and compared with Linocarpon species with similar ascospore morphology and dimensions. Included are a synoptic table, which compares the new species to similar known species, and a dichotomous key to species of Linocarpon known from members of the Pandanaceae.

  18. 75 FR 42411 - Orders Finding That the SP-15 Financial Day-Ahead LMP Peak Daily Contract; SP-15 Financial Day...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Orders Finding That the SP-15 Financial Day-Ahead LMP Peak Daily Contract; SP-15 Financial Day-Ahead LMP Off-Peak Daily Contract; SP-15 Financial Swap Real Time...-Peak Daily (``SQP'') contract; SP-15 Financial Swap Real Time LMP-Peak Daily (``SRP'') contract; NP-15...

  19. Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida), a parasitic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida) is described from both sexes collected from the gills of spinner sharks, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle, 1839), captured in the Indian Ocean off the coast of South Africa. Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. can easily be distinguished from all of its congeners because the ...

  20. Evaluation of Cr (VI) remediation potential of Eichornia sp in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Evaluation of Cr (VI) removal by indigenous chromium resistant bacterial strains alone and in combination with Eichornia sp. Methods: Three chromium resistant bacterial strains S-4 Ochrobactrum grignonense, SF-5 Bacillus sp. and S-6 Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonenses were isolated from industrial effluent.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella sp and Escherichia coli Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Salmonella sp and E. coli isolated were significantly resistant to gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, cefixine and ampicillin. Resistance to gentamicin was the least with 33-71% in Salmonella sp and 25-80% in E. coli. The level of drug resistance in these organisms is ascribed to ...

  2. Biochemical characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f . sp. cubense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxyspoum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a major biotic constraint for banana production. The characteristics of F. oxyspoum f. sp. cubense isolates were investigated using electrophoretic studies of isozyme and whole-cell protein. The morphological characteristics of the isolates were very ...

  3. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  4. Biochemical characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Department of Studies in Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore – 570 006, India. Accepted 24 November, 2009. The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxyspoum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a major biotic constraint for banana production. The characteristics of F. oxyspoum f. sp. cubense ...

  5. Effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and Rhizobium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms ( Glomus intraradices, Pseudomonas putida, P. alcaligenes, P. aeruginosa (Pa28), A. awamori) and Rhizobium sp. was observed on the growth, nodulation yield and root-rot disease complex of chickpea under field condition. Inoculation of Rhizobium sp. caused a greater ...

  6. HANSENULA WICKERHAMII SP. N., A NEW YEAST FROM FINNISH SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (l'Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n., a new yeast from Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:259–360. 1961.—Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n. is described; it was isolated from a Finnish soil, and is named in honor of Lynferd J. Wickerham. Images PMID:13690638

  7. Linking surfactant protein SP-D and IL-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qaseem, Asif S; Sonar, Sanchaita; Mahajan, Lakshna

    2012-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune molecule that plays a protective role against lung infection, allergy, asthma and inflammation. In vivo experiments with murine models have shown that SP-D can protect against allergic challenge via a range of mechanisms including inhibition...

  8. Biofixation of carbon dioxide by Chlorococcum sp. in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Chlorococcum sp. was cultured in a photobioreactor with a polytetrafluoroethene membrane sparger (PTFE) to study CO2 biofixation and microalgae growth. Daily variations of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and dissolved CO2 were analyzed during batch culture of Chlorococcum sp. in the photobioreactor.

  9. Production of mycelium and blastospores of sp. in submerged culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hirsutella sp. was grown in four liquid media containing either casamino acids, corn steep liquor, collagen peptone or casein peptone. These media were inoculated with a 7 day-old culture of mycelia and blastospores of Hirsutella sp. and the cultures incubated with shaking at 250 rpm at 26°C. The media containing corn ...

  10. Brachystelma nallamalayana sp. Nov. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae: Ceropegieae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prasad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brachystelma nallamalayana sp. nov., collected from Nallamalais, the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India is described and illustrated. The new species is compared to its closest species, Brachystelma maculatum Hook. f. Brachystelma nallamalayana, sp. nov. is distinct from other species of Brachystelma in having ca 80cm high glabrous stems, peduncled cymes, basally united calyx lobes and biseriate corona.

  11. Effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and Rhizobium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Effects of Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (Glomus intraradices, Pseudomonas putida, P. alcaligenes, P. aeruginosa (Pa28), A. awamori) and Rhizobium sp. was observed on the growth, nodulation yield and root-rot disease complex of chickpea under field condition. Inoculation of. Rhizobium sp.

  12. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of a Tolypocladium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolypocladium sp. Ts-1 was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild Cordyceps sinensis, one of the best known traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. The antioxidant activities of hot-water extracts from cultured mycelia of Tolypocladium sp. were assessed in different in vitro systems. The extracts showed ...

  13. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of a Tolypocladium sp. fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Tolypocladium sp. Ts-1 was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild Cordyceps sinensis, one of the best known traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. The antioxidant activities of hot-water extracts from cultured mycelia of Tolypocladium sp. were assessed in different in vitro systems. The extracts ...

  14. Oncholaim~ jessicae n.sp. (Nematoda: Oncholaimidae) from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncholaim~ jessicae n.sp. (Nematoda: Oncholaimidae) from fresh water in the Transvaal. A. Coomans. Instituut voor Dierkunde, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, Gent, Belgium. J. Heyns. Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg. Oncholaimus jessicae n.sp. is described from several sites in the Blyde River ...

  15. Truncated recombinant human SP-D attenuates emphysema and type II cell changes in SP-D deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlfeld Christian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein D (SP-D deficient mice develop emphysema-like pathology associated with focal accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, an excess of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space and both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells. These findings are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with a truncated recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D has been shown to decrease the lipidosis and alveolar macrophage accumulation as well as production of proinflammatory chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate if rfhSP-D treatment reduces the structural abnormalities in parenchymal architecture and type II cells characteristic of SP-D deficiency. Methods SP-D knock-out mice, aged 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks were treated with rfhSP-D for 9, 6 and 3 weeks, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at age 12 weeks and compared to both PBS treated SP-D deficient and wild-type groups. Lung structure was quantified by design-based stereology at the light and electron microscopic level. Emphasis was put on quantification of emphysema, type II cell changes and intracellular surfactant. Data were analysed with two sided non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Main Results After 3 weeks of treatment, alveolar number was higher and mean alveolar size was smaller compared to saline-treated SP-D knock-out controls. There was no significant difference concerning these indices of pulmonary emphysema within rfhSP-D treated groups. Type II cell number and size were smaller as a consequence of treatment. The total volume of lamellar bodies per type II cell and per lung was smaller after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with rfhSP-D leads to a reduction in the degree of emphysema and a correction of type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. This supports the concept that rfhSP-D might become a therapeutic option in diseases that are

  16. Truncated recombinant human SP-D attenuates emphysema and type II cell changes in SP-D deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lars; Ochs, Matthias; Mackay, Rosemarie; Townsend, Paul; Deb, Roona; Mühlfeld, Christian; Richter, Joachim; Gilbert, Fabian; Hawgood, Samuel; Reid, Kenneth; Clark, Howard

    2007-10-03

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) deficient mice develop emphysema-like pathology associated with focal accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, an excess of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space and both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells. These findings are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with a truncated recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D) has been shown to decrease the lipidosis and alveolar macrophage accumulation as well as production of proinflammatory chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate if rfhSP-D treatment reduces the structural abnormalities in parenchymal architecture and type II cells characteristic of SP-D deficiency. SP-D knock-out mice, aged 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks were treated with rfhSP-D for 9, 6 and 3 weeks, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at age 12 weeks and compared to both PBS treated SP-D deficient and wild-type groups. Lung structure was quantified by design-based stereology at the light and electron microscopic level. Emphasis was put on quantification of emphysema, type II cell changes and intracellular surfactant. Data were analysed with two sided non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. After 3 weeks of treatment, alveolar number was higher and mean alveolar size was smaller compared to saline-treated SP-D knock-out controls. There was no significant difference concerning these indices of pulmonary emphysema within rfhSP-D treated groups. Type II cell number and size were smaller as a consequence of treatment. The total volume of lamellar bodies per type II cell and per lung was smaller after 6 weeks of treatment. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with rfhSP-D leads to a reduction in the degree of emphysema and a correction of type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. This supports the concept that rfhSP-D might become a therapeutic option in diseases that are characterized by decreased SP-D levels in the lung.

  17. Post-neonatal drop in alveolar SP-A expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stray-Pedersen, Arne; Vege, Ashild; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjorg

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is synthesized in the lung and is a part of the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of SP-A in lung tissue from fetuses, infants, children and adults with special regard to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS......: A total of 160 cases were studied; 19 fetuses and neonates, 59 SIDS and 49 explained infant deaths below 1 year of age, 19 toddlers and 14 adults. Immunohistochemical detection of SP-A using monoclonal antibodies was performed by microscopy of lung tissue specimens collected at autopsy. A scoring system...... was developed enabling semi-quantitative estimation of staining intensity and distribution. RESULTS: SP-A was detected in the terminal bronchioles and alveolar spaces of fetuses >35 weeks gestation. The intra-alveolar SP-A expression increased in the perinatal period followed by a marked drop in infants aged...

  18. SP-100 space reactor power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirpich, A.; Kruger, G.; Matteo, D.; Stephen, J.

    1990-01-01

    A generic flight system (GFS) design for a 100-kWe space reactor power (SP-100) system is presented. The design has evolved around issues such as the selection of a lithium liquid-metal-cooled reactor built of refractory metals and permitting operation in the range of 1300-1400 K; heat transport by lithium circulation using thermoelectrically driven liquid-metal pumps; thermoelectric power conversion; and waste heat rejection at approximately 800 K through lithium circulation to potassium heat pipe radiators. Various thermal-hydraulic analytical procedures have been utilized in the design of the reactor, ducting, hot-side and cold-side heat exchangers, circulating pumps, and heat pipe radiators. The physical and performance characteristics of the GFS and its power margins are estimated as a function of mission time

  19. Thermoelectric electromagnetic pump design for SP-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collett, J.; Kugler, W.; Sinha, U.; Surjadi, T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the Thermoelectric Electromagnetic (TEM) pump used in the SP-100 space power system. The TEM pump is designed to pump liquid (molten) lithium (Li) coolant in the Primary Heat Transport Subsystem (PHTS) and Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRSS). The pump utilizes advanced Thermoelectric (TE) cells to generate electric current that induces magnetic flux in a Z-shaped magnetic structure. The electric current and magnetic flux pass through the liquid Li perpendicular to each other to create the pumping force. The TE cells are semiconductors located between rectangular ducts connected to the reactor hot PHTS piping and the cooler HRSS piping. The temperature difference (ΔT) across the TE cells generates the voltage to power the pump. The design provides a minimum mass, self-regulated pump, with no moving parts and self-powered by an internal temperature gradient

  20. SP-100 status and technology accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    There are many space missions that require electric power in the 10-kW(electric) to 1-MW(electric) range. The SP-100 program will provide technology that demonstrates that a nuclear reactor heat source and passive thermoelectric conversion can reliably provide electrical power over this full range for 10 yr. Based on the generic flight system (GFS) design at 100 kW(electric), tests will be conducted to demonstrate that technologies required for the GFS have been validated. In addition, system-level tests will show that the GFS design and predictive capability to design at other power levels are well understood and meet an enveloping set of requirements. Technology and component testing has begun at General Electric (GE), its subcontractors, and several national laboratories. This paper reviews the significant progress made to date and major planned future tests with respect to the reference flight system, technology and component achievements, and nuclear assembly and integrated assembly tests

  1. Epitheliotropic lymphoma in a squirrel (Sciurus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnold, Shelley P; Arun, Iyampillai; Saturday, Greg; McLeod, Charles

    2007-09-01

    A 12-yr-old, intact male squirrel (Sciurus sp.) presented with a 15 mm-by-20 mm area of alopecia and plaque-like dermal thickening over the left caudolateral thorax. Routine diagnostic tests ruled out more common conditions that result in alopecia, such as dermatophytosis and acariasis. A punch biopsy was obtained under anesthesia and submitted for histopathologic evaluation. The diagnosis of epitheliotropic lymphoma was made, and follow-up surgical excision was performed. Histopathologic features were consistent with epitheliotropic lymphoma, and immunohistochemistry confirmed a T-cell origin. There was no local recurrence, new lesions, or evidence of metastasis 10 mo after surgical excision. To our knowledge, to date, epitheliotropic lymphoma has not been described in a squirrel.

  2. Chitinase Production by Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolla J.P. Narayana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitinase production by a terrestrial Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277 was studied under sub-merged fermentation. Chitinase production started after 24 h of incubation and reached maximum levels after 60 h of cultivation. A high level of chitinase activity was observed in the culture medium with pH 6 at 35ºC. Culture medium amended with 1% chitin was found to be suitable for maximum production of chitinase. An optimum concentration of colloidal chitin for chitinase production was determined. Studies on the influence of additional carbon and nitrogen sources on chitinase production revealed that starch and yeast extract served as good carbon and nitrogen sources to enhance chitinase yield.Chitinase was purified from crude enzyme extract by single step gel filtration by Sephadex G-100. Purified chitinase of the strain exhibited a distinct protein band near 45 kDa by means of SDS-PAGE.

  3. Kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sukenda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to assess performance of Bacillus sp. probiotic on catfish juvenile Clarias sp. infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The probiotic content in the diets were 0% (K+ and K-, 1%, and 2% in duplicates. This experiment used randomized design with four treatments and two replications. Juveniles with average body weight of 3.22±0.15 g/fish were reared in the 1.5×2.8×0.5 m3 pond with density of 800 fish/pond. Fish were reared for 30 days and fed three times a day at rate 8% of  total body weight. At day 31, catfish were challenged by A. hydrophila 0.1 mL (106 cfu/mL. Post infection observation was carried out ten days with density 10 fish/aquaria. The result showed that fish fed diet containing 2% probiotic gave the best probiotic performance with survival rate of catfish 83.33% after challenged, spesific growth rate 5.40%, and 0,75 of feed conversion ratio. The results of the blood profile showed significantly better results in the treatment of probiotics compared to the positive control after challenge test A. hydrophila. Probiotic Bacillus sp. has given as much as 2% on feed provides better performance on catfish juvenile. Keywords: probiotic, Bacillus sp., A. hydrophila, catfish juvenille, growth  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. dalam pakan pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yaitu kandungan probiotik dalam pakan perlakuan yaitu 0% (K+ dan K-, 1%,  dan 2%, masing-masing dengan dua ulangan. Ikan lele yang digunakan memiliki bobot rata-rata 3,22±0,15 g/ekor, dipelihara dalam kolam terpal berukuran 1,5×2,8×0,5 m3 dengan kepadatan 800 ekor/kolam. Ikan dipelihara selama 30 hari dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan tiga kali sehari sebanyak 8% dari bobot tubuh ikan. Hari ke-31 benih lele diinjeksi bakteri A. hydrophila dosis 0,1 m

  4. Neorickettsia risticii, Rickettsia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Tadarida brasiliensis bats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; La Rosa, Isabel; Dohmen, Federico E Gury

    2017-06-01

    Bats are potential reservoirs of many vector-borne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to detect species of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia, Borrelia and Bartonella in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis, Molossidae) from Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Between 2012 and 2013, 61 T. brasiliensis from urban areas of Buenos Aires city were studied. The samples were molecularly screened by PCR and sequencing. Five bats (8.2%) were positive to Neorickettsia risticii, one (1.6%) was positive to Rickettsia sp. and three bats (4.9%) to Bartonella sp. For molecular characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification and sequencing of a fragment of p51 gene for N. risticii, a fragment of citrate synthase gene (gltA) for Rickettsia genus and a fragment of gltA for Bartonella genus. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the maximum-likelihood method. Phylogenetic analysis of N. risticii detect in our study revealed that it relates to findings in the USA West Coast; Rickettsia sp. detected is phylogenetically within R. bellii group, which also includes many other Rickettsia endosymbionts of insects; and Bartonella sp. found is related to various Bartonella spp. described in Vespertilionidae bats, which are phylogenetically related to Molossidae. Our results are in accordance to previous findings, which demonstrate that insectivorous bats could be infected with vector-borne bacteria representing a potential risk to public health. Future research is necessary to clarify the circulation of these pathogens in bats from Buenos Aires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. From spent graphite to amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated sp2 graphite for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhuang, Yuchan; Deng, Yaoming; Song, Xiaona; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Xiao, Xin; Nan, Junmin

    2018-02-01

    Today, with the massive application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the portable devices and electric vehicles, to supply the active materials with high-performances and then to recycle their wastes are two core issues for the development of LIBs. In this paper, the spent graphite (SG) in LIBs is used as raw materials to fabricate two comparative high-capacity graphite anode materials. Based on a microsurgery-like physical reconstruction, the reconstructed graphite (RG) with a sp2+sp3 carbon surface is prepared through a microwave exfoliation and subsequent spray drying process. In contrast, the neural-network-like amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated graphite (AC@G) is synthesized using a self-reconfigurable chemical reaction strategy. Compared with SG and commercial graphite (CG), both RG and AC@G have enhanced specific capacities, from 311.2 mAh g-1 and 360.7 mAh g-1 to 409.7 mAh g-1 and 420.0 mAh g-1, at 0.1C after 100 cycles. In addition, they exhibit comparable cycling stability, rate capability, and voltage plateau with CG. Because the synthesis of RG and AC@G represents two typical physical and chemical methods for the recycling of SG, these results on the sp2+sp3 carbon layer coating bulk graphite also reveal an approach for the preparation of high-performance graphite anode materials derived from SG.

  6. Wnt-mediated down-regulation of Sp1 target genes by a transcriptional repressor Sp5

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fujimura, Naoko; Vacík, Tomáš; Machoň, Ondřej; Vlček, Čestmír; Scalabrin, S.; Speth, M.; Diep, D.; Krauss, S.; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 2 (2007), s. 1225-1237 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Wnt -mediated signaling * Sp5 transcription factor * Sp1 target genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.581, year: 2007

  7. Desulfuromonas svalbardensis sp nov and Desulfuromusa ferrireducens sp nov., psychrophilic, Fe(III)-reducing bacteria isolated from Arctic sediments, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, V.; Mussmann, M.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    succinoxidans Gylac(T) (95.9%) within the Deltaproteobacteria. Strains 112(T) and 102(T) therefore represent novel species, for which the names Desulfuromonas svalbardensis sp. nov. (type strain 112(T) = DSM 16958(T) = JCM 12927(T)) and Desulfuromusa ferrireducens sp. nov. (type strain 102(T) = DSM 16956 (T...

  8. Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongxin; Guo Yingqiu; Ge Xijin; Itoh, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Akira; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21 WAF1 ). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers

  9. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK BIOTA LAUTAGLAOPHENIA SP. UNTUK MENGENDALIKANFUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP.VANILLAE PENYEBAB BUSUK BATANG VANILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KETUT SUADA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Aglaophenia sp. Marine Biota Extract to Control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vanillae, a Pathogen of Vanilla Stem Rot The use of marine biota for organic fungicide material has enormous potential to be developed. The organic fungicide was directed to substitute synthetic fungicide for vanilla cultivation. Application of synthetic fungicide degraded environmental quality, therefore its applications does not support sustainable agriculture. The objective of this research was to know the potence of Aglaopheniain suppressing the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp.vanillae, the pathogen of vanilla stem rot. The research was done in green house in order to find the best substance for formulation of the extract. The substances screened were water, tween-80, and detergents with two different concentrations. Subsequently, two best formulas were chosen to apply in endemic area in Tabanan. The green house and field trial research used Randomized Completely Design with three and five replications respectively. Results showed that tween was the best substance used for formulation and concentration of 0.2% was better than other concentrations. The extract diluted in tween-80 on the concentration of 0.2% showed the lowest rot on stem, longest shoot, and the most leaves on vanilla shoot. Because of its significant performance, the 0.1% extract ofAglaopheniain 0.1% tween-80 was proposed to be the best formula to suppress the vanilla stem rot disease.

  11. Kinetics of petroleum oil biodegradation by a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kachieng’a

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum oil is a complex mixture of substances, the majority of which are hydrocarbons; the latter represent an extremely important and heterogeneous group of compounds that find their way into water resources by anthropogenic or natural ways. The majority of toxic hydrocarbon components of petroleum are biodegradable, where bioremediation using microbial species has become an integral process for the restoration of oil-polluted areas. In this study, three bioremediation processes, namely natural attenuation, nutrient supplementation by adding glucose and biostimulation by adding Tween® 80, were carried out in various petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in polluted water media using a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.. A first-order kinetics model was fitted to the biodegradation data to evaluate the biodegradation rate and to determine the corresponding half-life time. First-order kinetics satisfactorily described the biodegradation of the petroleum-based contaminants under abiotic conditions. The results showed an increase in the percentage removal of petroleum oil at the lower petroleum concentrations and a gradual percentage decrease in removing petroleum oil residues occurred when there was an increase in the initial concentrations of the petroleum oil: 39%, 27%, 22%, 12%, 10% for various petroleum oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/L, respectively. A similar trend was also observed in the glucose-supplemented culture media where the reduction was 45% and 78% for petroleum concentrations of 250 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Biodegradation of between 33 and 90% was achieved at a Tween® 80 concentration of between 50 mg/L and 250 mg/L. The degradation rate constants for the natural attenuation process ranged between ≥0 to ≤0.50, ≥0 to ≤0.35, ≥0 to ≤0.25, ≥0 to ≤ 0.14 and ≥ 0 to ≤0.11 for petroleum oil concentrations varying from 50, 100, 150

  12. A sp2+sp3 hybridized carbon allotrope transformed from AB stacking graphyne and THD-graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New carbon allotropes can be designed by combining sp, sp2 and sp3 three hybridization states. And the hybridization states or coordination numbers of carbon atoms can be changed by applying high pressure on carbon materials. In this study, a common high pressure phase (named as TBBC transformed from AB-stacking graphyne or THD-graphene is predicted. Its kinetic stability is examined using finite displacement method. We find that the sp2 and sp3 hybridized carbon atoms behave different vibration features at high frequency region. Both graphene-like and diamond-like vibration peaks occurs. Phase transition energy barriers from both graphyne and THD-graphene to TBBC are estimated. Electronic structure calculations show that the TBBC is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 0.66 eV. The ideal tensile strength of TBBC is high in [0001] and [11¯00] directions, but is weak along [12¯10] direction.

  13. A sp2+sp3 hybridized carbon allotrope transformed from AB stacking graphyne and THD-graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Shang, Jiacheng; Fu, Weida; Zeng, Li; Tang, Tao; Cai, Yingxiang

    2018-01-01

    New carbon allotropes can be designed by combining sp, sp2 and sp3 three hybridization states. And the hybridization states or coordination numbers of carbon atoms can be changed by applying high pressure on carbon materials. In this study, a common high pressure phase (named as TBBC) transformed from AB-stacking graphyne or THD-graphene is predicted. Its kinetic stability is examined using finite displacement method. We find that the sp2 and sp3 hybridized carbon atoms behave different vibration features at high frequency region. Both graphene-like and diamond-like vibration peaks occurs. Phase transition energy barriers from both graphyne and THD-graphene to TBBC are estimated. Electronic structure calculations show that the TBBC is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 0.66 eV. The ideal tensile strength of TBBC is high in [0001] and [1 1 ¯ 00 ] directions, but is weak along [1 2 ¯ 10 ] direction.

  14. DAN IDENTIFIKASI PATOGEN POTENSIAL YANG MENGINFEKSI IKAN RAINBOW (Melanotaenia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sholichah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemeliharaan ikan rainbow (Melanotaenia sp. di Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Ikan Hias selalu terjadi kematian secara bertahap mulai calon induk hingga proses pemijahan. Hal ini terjadi berulang kali sehingga ketersediaan induk Melanotaenia sp. sangat terancam. Ikan ini berasal dari Papua yang diperoleh mengandalkan penangkapan di alam. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menginventarisir dan mengidentifikasi berbagai patogen (parasit, jamur, bakteri potensial yang menginfeksi ikan rainbow yang dipelihara di dalam akuarium berukuran 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm dengan sistem aliran air stagnan. Tiga jenis rainbow yang dipelihara yaitu: rainbow Sungai Salawati, asal Sungai Sawiat, dan asal Danau Kurumoi. Setiap ikan masing-masing berjumlah 100 ekor dipelihara di akuarium dengan penambahan batu karang dan tanpa penambahan karang (kontrol ke dalam akuarium. Ikan diberi pakan sekenyangnya berupa jentik nyamuk dan cacing rambut beku setiap pagi dan sore hari. Sampling dilakukan secara random sebulan sekali dan secara unrandom setiap ada kejadian ikan sakit. Gejala klinis ikan yang sakit sebagai berikut: ikan berenang di permukaan dan menggosok-gosokkan badan di dinding akuarium, nafsu makan berkurang, gerakan berputar-putar, warna memudar menjadi putih, penekanan warna hitam pada sirip punggung dan perut meningkat, pendarahan pada perut, lendir berlebihan dan sangat berbau, serta sisik berdiri/terbuka. Diagnosa dan deteksi penyakit awal berupa pengamatan parasit baik ektoparasit maupun endoparasit, pengamatan dan isolasi jamur pada media selektif jamur, dan isolasi bakteri dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis patogen yang menginfeksi ketiga jenis ikan rainbow. Selanjutnya dilakukan uji histologi dan analisa DNA beberapa patogen. Hasil pengamatan diperoleh patogen berupa parasit (Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., dan Trichodina sp. dan bakteri (Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinetobacter sp

  15. Genetic polymorphism of horse serum protein 3 (SP3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, R K; Sandberg, K; Kuryl, J; Gahne, B

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional agarose gel (pH 8.6)-horizontal polyacrylamide gel (pH 9.0) electrophoresis of horse serum samples, followed by general protein staining, revealed genetic polymorphism of an unidentified protein tentatively designated serum protein 3 (SP3). The SP3 fractions appeared distinctly when a 14% concentration of acrylamide was used in the separation gels. The 2-D mobilities of SP3 fractions were quite similar to that of albumin. Family data were consistent with the hypothesis that the observed SP3 phenotypes were controlled by four co-dominant, autosomal alleles (D, F, I, S). Evidence was provided that the F allele can be further divided into two alleles (F1 and F2); the mobilities of F1 and F2 variants were very similar. Each of the SP3 alleles gave rise to one fraction and each of the heterozygous types showed two fractions. More than 600 horses representing five different breeds (Swedish Trotter, North-Swedish Trotter, Thoroughbred, Arab and Polish Tarpan) were typed for SP3, and allele frequency estimates were calculated. SP3 was highly polymorphic in all breeds studied.

  16. Efektivitas Ovitrap Bambu terhadap Jumlah Jentik Aedes sp yang Terperangkap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Aditama

    2015-05-01

    places of 10 subdistricts. Data of trapped Aedes sp larvae numbers was collected four times repeatedly within one week time-lapse. Analysis was conducted using the mean number of larvae in ovitraps and ovitrap index. The number of Aedes sp larvae trapped was 1,265. The most effective ovitrap is piece of bamboo, mean = 123, p value = 0.006, HI = 10.01% (16.66 26.67%, CI = 36.8% (336.06 - 39.74%, BI = 29.97% (73.33 - 103.3%. Health authorities should promote bamboo ovitrap, especially to public as an effort to control Aedes sp.

  17. Pengaruh Perbedaan Konsentrasi Ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan Lama Penyimpanan terhadap Oksidasi Lemak pada Fillet Ikan Patin (Pangasius sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Hidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Ikan patin merupakan ikan air tawar yang mengandung lemak dan protein tinggi sehingga apabila dilakukan penyimpanan rentan terjadi oksidasi yang mengakibatkan ketengikan. Sargassum sp. dengan kandungan fenol dan flavonoid mampu menghambat terjadinya oksidasi pada fillet ikan patin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan lama penyimpanan dalam menghambat terjadinya oksidasi pada fillet ikan patin. Materi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan fillet ikan patin. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah experimental laboratories dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL faktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum sp. (0%, 1%, 1,5% dan 2% dan lama penyimpanan (hari ke-0, hari ke-2, hari ke-4, dan hari ke-6. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan penambahan konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan lama penyimpanan memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap nilai PV, nilai TBA, kadar lemak, kadar protein, kadar air serta organoleptik (P < 0,05. Hasil penelitian tahap I didapatkan rendemen Sargassum sp. dengan pelarut etanol 96% sebesar 1,39%, kandungan fenol 1,813%, flavonoid 0,278% dan aktivitas antioksidan 99,1659 ppm (kuat. Hasil penelitian tahap II didapatkan nilai PV berkisar antara 2,03 - 19,82 meq/kg, nilai TBA 0,63 - 6,72 mg.mal/kg. Konsentrasi 1,5% merupakan konsentrasi terbaik ekstrak Sargassum sp. dalam menghambat oksidasi lemak pada fillet ikan patin selama penyimpanan. Kata kunci: Antioksidan, Ekstrak Sargassum sp., Lama Penyimpanan, Oksidasi lemak, Fillet Ikan patin ABSTRACT Catfish is a freshwater fish that contain high fat and protein so that if its stored it will susceptible to oxidation process which leads to rancidity. Sargassum sp. with its phenolic and flavonoid content are able to inhibit the oxidation process in catfish fillet. This research was aimed to know the effects of different concentrations of Sargassum sp. extracts and

  18. Description of Pristina armata n. sp. (Clitellata: Naididae: Pristininae) from a carnivorous plant (Nepenthes sp.) in Borneo, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenková, Jana; Čermák, Václav

    2013-01-01

    A new clitellate species of Pristininae (Naididae), Pristina armata n. sp., found in the pitcher of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes sp., is reported from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. P. armata n. sp. is a very small clitellate, less than 1 mm long in fixed state, and without proboscis on the prostomium. Signs of reproduction by paratomy were observed, but the generic placement remains preliminary because sexually mature individuals were not found. P. armata n. sp. is characterized by giant hook-like dorsal chaetae at IV. The description of P. armata n. sp. was based on six fixed specimens of different size and stage of development. Noteworthy is the habitat of P. armata n. sp. in Nepenthes pitchers, this being the first clitellate species described from such a habitat. P. armata n. sp. may be a member of the nepenthebionts' community, realizing its life cycle inside the digestive fluid of the Nepenthes pitcher, or it belongs to nepenthephiles, species that commonly occur in this habitat but do not specialize on it.

  19. Enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos do município de Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brasil, 2000 Enteroparasitosis in food handlers in the city of Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brazil, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divani Maria Capuano

    2008-12-01

    carriers of enteroparasites and contaminate food, causing food borne diseases OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of enteroparasites in food handlers in Ribeirão Preto, SP, proposing measures to ensure the sanitary quality of food. METHODS: From July to December 2000, 429 food handlers (248 women and 181 men, aged between 16 and 77 years, underwent coproparasitological analysis as a mandatory professional requirement. Fecal samples were analyzed by the Kato's and spontaneous sedimentation methods. Cryptosporidium spp oocysts were investigated in 7.0% of diarrheic fecal samples using the formalin-ether concentration technique. RESULTS: The results showed enteroparasitosis in 33.1% of food handlers, including 20.0% cases of multiple parasitic infections. A higher prevalence of infections (68.0% was detected among the individuals involved in direct food handling activities. CONCLUSIONS: Considering these results, it is necessary to provide sanitary education and training to food handlers, and to implement the method of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in all stages of the food chain so as to ensure food safety for consumers.

  20. Plant growth promoting properties of Halobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. in presence of salinity and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desale, Prithviraj; Patel, Bhargav; Singh, Sukrit; Malhotra, Aakshi; Nawani, Neelu

    2014-08-01

    Salinity and heavy metal stress are challenging problems in agriculture. Here we report the plant growth promoting ability of three moderate halophiles, Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6, in presence of both salinity and heavy metal stress. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 can tolerate 25, 21, and 29% NaCl, respectively and grow in presence of 1 mM cobalt, cadmium, and nickel and 0.04 mM mercury and 0.03 mM silver. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 produced 152.5, 95.3, and 167.3 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) and could solubilize 61, 53, and 75 parts per million (ppm) phosphate, respectively in the presence of 15% NaCl. The production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate was well retained in the presence of salinity and heavy metals like 1 mM cadmium, 0.7 mM nickel, 0.04 mM mercury, and 0.03 mM silver. Besides, the strains showed amylase and protease activities and could produce hydrogen cyanide and ammonia in presence of salinity and heavy metals. A mixture of three strains enhanced the root growth of Sesuvium portulacastrum under saline and heavy metal stress, where the root length increased nearly 4.5 ± 0.6 times and root dry weight increased 5.4 ± 0.5 times as compared to control. These strains can thus be useful in microbial assisted phytoremediation of polluted saline soils. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Lactobacillus oeni sp. nov., from wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañes-Lázaro, Rosario; Ferrer, Sergi; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Pardo, Isabel

    2009-08-01

    Ten Lactobacillus strains, previously isolated from different Bobal grape wines from the Utiel-Requena Origin Denomination of Spain, were characterized phylogenetically, genotypically and phenotypically. The 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis showed that they form a tight phylogenetic clade that is closely related to reference strains Lactobacillus satsumensis NRIC 0604T, 'Lactobacillus uvarum' 8 and Lactobacillus mali DSM 20444T. DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed the separation of the strains from other Lactobacillus species. Genotypically, the strains could be differentiated from their closest neighbours by 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. The strains were Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not exhibit catalase activity. Phenotypically, they could be distinguished from their closest relatives by several traits such as their inabilities to grow at pH 3.3, to ferment sucrose, amygdalin and arbutin or to hydrolyse aesculin. The characteristics of the ten wine isolates suggest that they represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus oeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 59bT (=CECT 7334T=DSM 19972T).

  2. Cellulomonas bogoriensis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic cellulomonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian E; Grant, William D; Duckworth, A W; Schumann, Peter; Weiss, Norbert; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2005-07-01

    An alkaliphilic, slightly halotolerant, chemo-organotrophic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain 69B4(T), was isolated from the sediment of the littoral zone of Lake Bogoria, Kenya. Phylogenetically, it is a member of the genus Cellulomonas, showing less than 97.5 % sequence similarity to the type strains of other Cellulomonas species. The highest level of similarity, albeit moderate, was found with respect to Cellulomonas cellasea DSM 20118(T). Chemotaxonomic properties confirm the 16S rRNA gene-based generic affiliation, i.e. a DNA G+C content of 71.5 mol%, anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0) as the major fatty acids, MK-9(H(4)) as the major isoprenoid quinone, a peptidoglycan containing L-ornithine as the diamino acid and D-aspartic acid in the interpeptide bridge and phosphatidylglycerol as the only identified main polar lipid. The strain is aerobic to facultatively anaerobic, being capable of growth under strictly anaerobic conditions. Optimal growth occurs between pH values 9.0 and 10.0. On the basis of its distinct phylogenetic position and metabolic properties, strain 69B4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas bogoriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 69B4(T) (=DSM 16987(T)=CIP 108683(T)).

  3. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1994-01-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems

  4. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Dawson, R.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1993-12-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems

  5. Accomplishments and plans of SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The SP-100 program is proceeding toward concept definitions for a space nuclear reactor which is safe and suitable for civilian and military applications. The selection of a specific design and demonstration of the base technologies was scheduled for the end of 1985, to be followed by engineering development and ground testing in 1986. The main current uses/users thus far anticipated are communications satellites, both military and civilian, radar (and possibly laser) surveillance and remote sensing systems, and manufacturing and other extensions of a space station growth scenario. The reactor will weigh no more than 3000 kg and must fit into the Orbiter bay with a payload and OTV. Three concepts are still under evaluation: a lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics; an in-core thermionic system with pumped sodium-potassium coolant; and a configuration with a Stirling engine to convert reactor heat into electricity. If the engineering analyses and base tests are successful, it is expected that the flight application phase can be reached by 1991 at the latest

  6. Phenotypic diversity of Xanthomonas sp. mangiferaeindicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, O; Couteau, A; Perrier, X; Luisetti, J

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrate utilization profiles by means of the API (Appareils et Procédés d'Identification) system and sensitivity to antibiotics and heavy metal salts of 68 Xanthomonas sp. mangiferaeindicae strains isolated in nine countries from mango (Mangifera indica L.) and other genera of the Anacardiaceae were examined to assess the variability of the taxon. The strains could be separated into 10 groups according to Ward clustering. Apigmented strains isolated from the pepper tree [syn. Brazilian pepper] (Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi) could not be clearly differentiated from most apigmented strains isolated from mango. Yellow-pigmented strains isolated from mango in Brazil and Reunion Island, apigmented strains isolated from mango in Brazil and from ambarella in the French West Indies, clustered in distinct groups. The results are consistent with those of other studies, based on isozyme analysis of esterase, phosphoglucomutase and superoxide dismutase, and hrp-RFLP analysis; they indicate the need for a comprehensive taxonomic evaluation of xanthomonads associated with Anacardiaceae.

  7. Kribbella sindirgiensis sp. nov. isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir-Kocak, Fadime; Isik, Kamil; Saricaoglu, Salih; Saygin, Hayrettin; Inan-Bektas, Kadriye; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Sahin, Nevzat

    2017-12-01

    A Kribbella strain FSN23 T was isolated from soil sample which was collected from Caygoren Dam lakeside located in Sındırgı, Turkey. The isolate was investigated using a polyphasic approach consisting of numeric, chemotaxonomic and molecular analysis. The isolate indicated chemotaxonomic, morphological and phylogenetic properties associated with members of the genus Kribbella. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence of the strain demonstrated that the strain forms a subclade with K. aluminosa HKI 0478 T and K. jejuensis HD9 T . The organism formed an extensively branched substrate and aerial hyphae which generated spiral chains of spores with smooth surfaces. The cell wall contained LL-diaminopimelic acid, and the whole cell sugars were glucose and ribose along with trace amounts of mannose. The polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified lipids and five unidentified polar lipids. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H 4 ). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C 15:0 and iso-C 16:0 . Polyphasic taxonomy properties confirm that strain FSN23 T represents a novel Kribbella taxon distinguished from closely related type strains. Hence, strain FSN23 T (=KCTC 29220 T  = DSM 27082 T ) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species with the name Kribbella sindirgiensis sp. nov.

  8. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  9. Taxonomic study of bacteria isolated from plants: proposal of Sphingomonas rosa sp. nov., Sphingomonas pruni sp. nov., Sphingomonas asaccharolytica sp. nov., and Sphingomonas mali sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, M; Sakane, T; Yanagi, M; Yamasato, K; Hamana, K; Yokota, A

    1995-04-01

    The taxonomic positions of 10 strains of 3-ketolactose-forming bacteria which were isolated from the roots of plants (Rosa sp., Psychotria nairobiensis, Ardisia crispa, Prunus persica, and apple trees) were investigated. The DNA base compositions of these strains ranged from 64.0 to 65.7 mol%, the isoprenoid quinone of each strain was ubiquinone 10, 3-hydroxy fatty acids were lacking in the cellular fatty acids of these organisms, and all of the strains contained a sphingolipid with the long-chain base dihydrosphingosin. These are characteristics of the genus Sphingomonas. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison data, we propose the following four new species of the genus Sphingomonas: Sphingomonas rosa (type strain, IFO 15208) for the strains isolated from rose plants and formerly named [Agrobacterium rhizogenes]; Sphingomonas pruni (type strain, IFO 15498) for the strains isolated from Prunus persica; and Sphingomonas asaccharolytica (type strain, IFO 15499) and Sphingomonas mali (type strain, IFO 15500) for the strains isolated from apple trees. Two strains which were isolated from Psychotria nairobiensis and formerly named [Chromobacterium lividum] were identified as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strains.

  10. Chryseobacterium solincola sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmalek, Yam; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Bouanane, Nabila A; Hacene, Hocine; Fauque, Guy; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2010-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain 1YB-R12T, was isolated from a soil sample in western Algeria. The novel isolate was heterotrophic, chemoorganotrophic, halotolerant and psychrotolerant. The temperature and pH optima for growth were 28-30 degrees C and pH 7.3-8. The bacterium tolerated up to 6% (w/v) NaCl. Cells were non-motile, non-gliding and non-spore-forming, and were characterized by a variable morphological cycle. Flexirubin-type pigments were not detected. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 1YB-R12T occupied a distinct lineage within the genus Chryseobacterium and shared highest sequence similarity with Chryseobacterium haifense LMG 24029T (96.5%). The DNA G+C content of strain 1YB-R12T was 40.9 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (41.4%) and iso-C15:0 (14.4%). On the basis of phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain 1YB-R12T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium solincola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1YB-R12T (=DSM 22468T=CCUG 55604T).

  11. Production of biodiesel from Coelastrella sp. microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Dieni; Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Susilaningsih, Dwi; Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae have a wide area of usage and one of them it can be used for biodiesel production. In biodiesel production, lipids containing triglyceride or free fatty acid are converted into methyl ester through trans/esterification reactions. Lipids from microalgae can be extracted by acetone and dimethyl carbonate using homogenizer. Esterification of the lipids was investigated using various catalysts and source of methyl group. Activity of homogeneous catalyst such as HCl and H2SO4 and heterogeneous catalysts such as montmorillonit K-10 and ledgestone was investigated. Moreover, methanol and dimethyl carbonate as source of methyl group were also studied. Among of catalysts with methanol as source of methyl group, it was found that yield of crude biodiesel derived from Choelestrella Sp. microalgae was high over H2SO4 catalyst. On the other hand, over H2SO4 catalyst using dimethyl carbonate as source of methyl group, yield of crude biodiesel significant increase. However, FAME composition of crude biodiesel was high over HCl catalyst.

  12. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (Ocotea sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra-Escobar, Jorge A; Castro Restrepo, Dagoberto; Osorio Vega, Walter

    2009-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine the mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (>Ocotea sp.). In order to do this, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments in a factorial array of 3 x 2 and five repetitions. The treatments involved a combination of three Phosphorus (P) levels in soil solution (0.002, 0.02 and 0.2 mg L-1) and two levels of mycorrhizal inoculation, either inoculated or non-inoculated with Glomus aggregatum Schenck and Smith. The leaf P content as a function of time was used as an output variable. Shoot dry matter, shoot P content, mycorrhizal colonization of roots, and mycorrhizal dependence were measured at harvest. The results indicated that the leaf P content increased significantly when using the mycorrhizal inoculation in laurel at P level 0.2 mg L -1, but not in the other P levels, on some of the sampling days. Shoot dry weight and total plant P content did not increase at all levels of soil available P. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel reached 28%, which allows this species to be classified as moderately dependent on mycorrhiza.

  13. Molecular Genotyping of Viable Cryptosporidium Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium is a chlorination-resistant protozoan parasite that causes a self-limiting diarrheal disease in the immunocompetent or severe chronic diarrhea in the immunocompromised. Two species, C. parvum and C. hominis, cause most cases of cryptosporidiosis in humans, while C...

  14. The Growth of Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. Cells in the Presence of Thorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina de Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of thorium by Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Microalgal cultures were inoculated in ASM-1 medium in presence and absence of thorium. Its effect was monitored by direct counting on Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and with software. The toxicity of thorium over the species was observed for concentrations over 50.0 mg/L. After 30 days, Monoraphidium cells decreased their concentration from 4.23×106 to 4.27×105 and 8.57×105 cells/mL, in the presence of 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L of thorium, respectively. Scenedesmus sp. cells were more resistant to thorium: for an initial cell concentration of 7.65×104 cells/mL it was observed a change to 5.25×105 and 5.12×105 cells/mL, in the presence of thorium at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. This is an indication that low concentrations of the radionuclide favored the growth, and that Scenedesmus cells are more resistant to thorium than Monoraphidium cells. The software used for comparison with direct count method proved to be useful for the improvement of accuracy of the results obtained, a decrease in the uncertainty and allowed recording of the data. The presence of thorium suggests that low concentrations have a positive effect on the growth, due to the presence of the nitrate, indicating its potential for ecotoxicological studies.

  15. Aborto eqüino por Leptospira sp. Leptospira sp. as a cause of equine abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Argenta Pescador

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de aborto eqüino por Leptospira sp. em um feto de 6 meses proveniente de um estabelecimento localizado próximo a Porto Alegre/RS. As lesões macroscópicas se caracterizaram por icterícia e hemorragias distribuídas difusamente sobre a pele, mucosa oral, tecido subcutâneo, pulmão, coração e sistema gastrintestinal. O fígado estava aumentado de tamanho, friável e de coloração amarelada. Os rins apresentavam hemorragias petequiais na superfície capsular e na superfície de corte observaram-se palidez da região cortical e medular. Cortes de rim e sistema nervoso central, corados por Warthin-Starry, revelaram a presença de espiroquetas nos túbulos, glomérulos e substância branca do encéfalo. Cultivo aeróbio de amostras de fígado e pulmão não revelaram crescimento bacteriano significativo. O teste de imunofluorescência direta para Leptospira sp. foi positivo e a sorologia fetal resultou numa titulação de 80 para o sorovar copenhageni e 40 para os sorovares icterohaemorragiae e pomona.This report describes an abortion on 6-month-old equine aborted fetus that has been caused by Leptospira sp. Main lesions included jaundice and hemorrhages diffusely scattered throughout the skin, oral mucosa, subcutaneous tissues, lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system. The liver was enlarged, pliable and yellow colored. The cortical and medullar of the kidneys were pale and petechial hemorrhages were present on the capsular surface. Warthin-Starry stained slices of the kidneys and central nervous system revealed the presence of spirochaetes within the tubules, glomeruli and white matter of the encephalo. Aerobic cultivation from samples of the liver and lungs were negative. The direct immunofluorescence test for Leptospira sp. was positive and the fetus’s serological test resulted titers of 80 against sorotype copenhageni and 40 against the sorotypes icterohaemorragiae and pomona.

  16. Microfibril-associated Protein 4 Binds to Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) and Colocalizes with SP-A in the Extracellular Matrix of the Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlosser, Anders; Thomsen, Theresa H.; Shipley, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an oligomeric collectin that recognizes lipid and carbohydrate moieties present on broad range of micro-organisms, and mediates microbial lysis and clearance. SP-A also modulates multiple immune-related functions including cytokine production and chemotaxis......-A composed of the neck region and carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-A indicating that the interaction between MFAP4 and SP-A is mediated via the collagen domain of SP-A. Monoclonal antibodies directed against MFAP4 and SP-A were used for immunohistochemical analysis, which demonstrates that the two...

  17. In vitro micropropagation of orchid, Oncidium sp. (Dancing Dolls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncidium sp.). In vitro regeneration multiplication and rooting of plantlets were achieved from the immature seeds on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l). Rooted plantlets were then transferred to perforated ...

  18. 4-Dehydroecdysterone, a new ecdysteroid from the zoanthid Parazoanthus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, P A; Molinski, T F

    1995-02-01

    A novel ecdysteroid, 4-dehydroecdysterone [3], has been isolated from the zoanthid Parazoanthus sp. collected from Port Phillip Bay, Australia. The known ecdysteroids ecdysterone [1] and ajugasterone C [2] were also isolated, together with the known alkaloid paragracine [4].

  19. Biomineralization of a calcifying ureolytic bacterium Microbacterium sp. GM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojing Xu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of this research provide evidence that Microbacterium sp. GM-1 can biologically induce calcification and suggest that strain GM-1 may play a potential role in the synthesis of new biominerals and in bioremediation or biorecovery.

  20. Biotransformation of 6-deoxypseudoanisatin by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Thus, the study appears to demonstrate that Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 can transform 6-deoxypseudoanisatin. The polarity of the converted product is less than that of 6-deoxypseudoanisatin.

  1. Volvatellin, caulerpenyne-related product fromt he sacoglossan Volvatella sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fontana, A; Ciavatta, M.L.; Mollo, E; Naik, C.G.; Wahidullah, S.; De; Cimino, G.

    Volvatellin (4) is a highly unstable terpene isolated from the extracts of the Indian opisthobranch mollusk Volvatella sp. The structure and the relative stereochemistry of 4 were determined by NMR methods. The paper also describes a hypothetical...

  2. Massarina armatispora sp. nov., a new intertidal ascomycete from mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hyde, K.D.; Vrijmoed, L.L.P.; Chinnaraj, S.; Jones, E.B.G.

    Massarina armatispora sp. nov. is described from dead intertidal mangrove wood collected in India and Hong Kong. The new taxon is compared with other M. species, and its placement in the genus Massarina is discussed...

  3. Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp e Giardia sp em eqüinos estabulados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria - RS, Brasil Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. infection in horses stabled in the Jockey Club of Santa Maria - RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Diefenbach Gomes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Cryptosporidium spp. e a Giardia sp. são atualmente reconhecidos como os principais patógenos entéricos com potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo visou estabelecer a prevalência desses protozoários em eqüinos hospedados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, no período de 19 de maio a 30 de junho de 2007. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, diretamente da ampola retal, de 64 animais. As amostras de fezes foram processadas por meio do método de centrifugação-flutuação de Faust modificado. Posteriormente essas amostras foram visualizadas ao microscópio óptico para a pesquisa de cistos e oocistos. Os resultados encontrados revelaram a presença de Cryptosporidium spp. em 75% (48/64 das amostras. Cistos de Giardia sp. não foram encontrados nas amostras de fezes analisadas. A freqüência de Cryptosporidium spp. nas diferentes faixas etárias foi de 83,3% (15/18 nos potros até dois anos de idade, 71% (22/31 nos jovens entre dois e cinco anos e 80% (12/15 nos adultos. Os resultados demonstram que o Cryptosporidium spp. está amplamente disseminado na população de eqüinos do Jockey Club de Santa Maria e pode representar uma fonte de infecção significativa para a população da região.Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. are currently recognised as the main enteric pathogens with potential zoonotic transmission risk. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of these parasites in horses stabled in the Santa Maria Jockey Club between May 19 and June 30, 2007. Fecal samples from 64 horses were collected directly from the animals’ rectal ampoule. The 64 fecal samples were processed using modified Faust’s method through the centrifugation-floatation technique, and were then later visualized under optical microscope for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts. The results showed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in 75% (48/64 of the samples. Giardia sp. cysts were not found in the

  4. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified

  5. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with corynebacterium sp. Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, Creed Michael; Lee, Yun Sun; Balfour, John

    2011-05-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory condition of the breast. The etiology and treatments options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that Corynebacterium sp., a gram-positive bacillus endogenous to the skin, may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM with a positive culture for Corynebacterium sp. reported in the United States.

  6. Pigment Production from Immobilized Monascus sp. Utilizing Polymeric Resin Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Patrick J.; Wang, Henry Y.

    1984-01-01

    Pigment production by the fungus Monascus sp. was studied to determine why Monascus sp. provides more pigment in solid culture than in submerged culture. Adding a sterilized nonionic polymeric adsorbent resin directly to the growing submerged culture did not enhance the pigment production, thus indicating that pigment extraction is probably not a factor. Monascus cells immobilized in hydrogel were studied and exhibited decreased pigment production as a result of immobilization. This result is...

  7. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov., Candida taylorii sp. nov. and Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov., novel yeasts from mangrove and coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W

    2010-08-01

    Three species of yeasts are taxonomically described for strains isolated from marine environments. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10894T =NRRL Y-48663T) and Candida taylorii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8508T =NRRL Y-27213T) are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts in a phylogenetic cluster of marine yeasts in the Debaryomyces/Lodderomyces clade of the Saccharomycetales. The two species were isolated from multiple locations among coral reefs and mangrove habitats. Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8380T =NRRL Y-17380T) is an anamorphic basidiomycete that is related to the smut fungi of the genus Ustilago in the Ustilaginales. P. abaconensis was collected from waters adjacent to a coral reef.

  8. Uranium and thorium uptake by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Prasath, C.S.; Manikandan, N.; Prakash, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents uptake of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. Increasing concentration of U and Tb showed decrease in absorption by Pseudomonas Sp. Dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. exhibited same or more uptake of U and Th than living cells. Increasing temperature promotes uptake of U and Th by Pseudomonas Sp. (author)

  9. Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supong, Khomsan; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Thawai, Chitti

    2013-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, SP03-05(T), was isolated from a marine sponge sample (Xestospongia sp.) collected from Phuket Province of Thailand. The strain was aerobic, Gram-stain-positive and produced single spores at the tips of the substrate mycelium. Strain SP03-05(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan; whole-cell sugars were arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose. The polar lipid profile of strain SP03-05(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and unknown polar lipids. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain identified it as a member of the family Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed similarity of the strain to Verrucosispora lutea YIM 013(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora sediminis MS426(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora gifhornensis DSM 44337(T) (96.80 %), Verrucosispora maris AB-18-032(T) (96.80 %) and Verrucosispora qiuiae RtIII47(T) (95.40 %). The DNA G+C content was 72.4 mol%. The phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization results supported the classification of this strain as a representative of a novel species in the genus Verrucosispora, for which the name Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP03-05(T) ( = BCC 45620(T) = NBRC 109075(T)).

  10. Myxobolus sp., Another Opportunistic Parasite in Immunosuppressed Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Ligia I.; López, Myriam C.; Murcia, Martha I.; Nicholls, Santiago; León, Frecia; Guío, Olga Lucia; Corredor, Augusto

    2001-01-01

    During a study of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, a parasite belonging to the phylum Myxozoa, recently described from human samples, was identified in one sample. When this parasite was stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method, the features of the spores were identified: they were pyriform in shape, had thick walls, and had one suture and two polar capsules, with each one having four or five coils. The suture and two polar capsules were observed with the chromotrope-modified stain. The number of stools passed was more than 30 per day, but oocysts of Isospora belli were also found. Upon reexamination of some formalin- or merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde-preserved samples an identical parasite was found in another sample from a patient presenting with diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and eggs of Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides were also found in this sample. Given that both patients were also infected with other pathogens that cause diarrhea, the possible pathogenic role of this parasite could not be established. The probable route of infection also could not be established. PMID:11326017

  11. Cellulomonas soli sp. nov. and Cellulomonas oligotrophica sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Kouta; Esaki, Kouji; Ide, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Two novel bacterial strains, designated Kc1(T) and Kc5(T), were isolated from soil in Japan. Cells of the novel strains were Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile rods. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains belonged to the genus Cellulomonas. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains Kc1(T) and Kc5(T) showed closest similarity to that of Cellulomonas terrae DB5(T) (98.1 % and 98.4 % similarity, respectively), and the 16S rRNA gene similarity between the two novel strains was 97.8 %. In both strains, the major menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)), the predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides, and the peptidoglycan contained ornithine and glutamic acid. Cell-wall sugars were identified as rhamnose, galactose and mannose in strain Kc1(T) and rhamnose and glucose in strain Kc5(T). The DNA G+C contents of strains Kc1(T) and Kc5(T) were 73.6 mol% and 75.8 mol%, respectively. Based on the chemotaxonomic and physiological data and the results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, the two strains represent two novel species within the genus Cellulomonas, for which the names Cellulomonas soli sp. nov. (type strain Kc1(T) =DSM 24484(T) =JCM 17535(T)) and Cellulomonas oligotrophica sp. nov. (type strain Kc5(T) =DSM 24482(T) =JCM 17534(T)) are proposed.

  12. Halotolerant laccases from Chaetomium sp., Xylogone sphaerospora, and Coprinopsis sp. isolated from a Mediterranean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasemian, Leila; Billette, Christophe; Guiral, Daniel; Alazard, Emilie; Moinard, Magalie; Farnet, Anne-Marie

    2012-10-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are phenoloxidases involved in the transformation of the recalcitrant fraction of organic matter in soil. These enzymes are also able to transform certain aromatic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are known to be inhibited by chloride ions. This study aims to test the potential of some fungal strains newly isolated from natural environments subjected to high osmotic pressure such as coastal ecosystems, to produce chloride tolerant laccases. Three strains were identified as Chaetomium sp., Xylogone sphaerospora (two Ascomycota), and Coprinopsis sp. (a Basidiomycota) and the laccases produced by these fungi were weakly inhibited by chloride ions compared with previous data from literature. Moreover, we tested their reactivity towards various PAHs which are widespread anthropic pollutants. They were able to transform anthracene to 9,10-anthraquinone and we determine 7.5 eV as the threshold of ionization potential for PAH oxidation by these laccases. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Description and phylogenetic relationships of Spumochlamys perforata n. sp. and Spumochlamys bryora n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Arcellinida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Pawlowski, Jan; Hausmann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Spumochlamys perforata n. sp. and Spumochlamys bryora n. sp. were isolated and described from dry epiphytic moss. The morphology and ultrastructure of both species clearly demonstrate that they belong to the genus Spumochlamys (family Microchlamyiidae). They differ from its only described member, Spumochlamys iliensis (as well as from species of Microchlamys), in the relief of the dorsal surface of the test, revealed by scanning electron microscopy, which can represent a good characteristic for species identification. They also differ in the structure of the dorsal part of the test wall (especially S. perforata). Small subunit ribosomal DNA-based molecular phylogenetic analyses show that Spumochlamys is a deeply branching lineage of the Arcellinida, without any close affinities. Actin gene sequence analysis places this genus within the Tubulinea, close to two other arcellinid lineages but without forming a monophyletic group with them. These data together strongly suggest that the lack of resolution in the arcellinid molecular phylogenies is due to serious undersampling of taxa, a limited number of sequence data, and high divergence rates in most of the species.

  14. Potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o isolados de Fusarium sp., in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anthony Hoffmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo – O uso discriminado de agrotóxicos acarreta em uma grande prejuízo a saúdes das pessoas e do meio ambiente. O uso de novos métodos de combate a pragas se faz necessário para o equilíbrio da cadeia produtiva. A utilização de microrganismos no combate a pragas se faz como uma boa alternativa. O trabalho objetivou-se em avaliar o potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o patógeno Fusarium sp. in vitro. Para isso foi utilizado os métodos de confronto direto, pareamento de culturas e de metabólitos voláteis. Os experimentos foram realizados na incubadora de empresas da Universidade Federal do Tocantins – UFT Campus de Gurupi, seguiram com três repetições. Foram testados 15 isolados do antagonista em confronto direto com o patógeno e os mesmos isolados e patógeno foram testados em metabólitos voláteis ambos utilizando o meio de cultura BDA. Todos os isolados apresentaram antagonismo in vitro contra o patógeno.

  15. Identification and production of bioflocculants by Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. and their characterization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, L; Nellaiah, H; Kathiresan, T; Rajini, N; Christopher, Fenila

    2017-05-28

    In this work, two bioflocculants, namely, EB-EPS and B1-EPS, were derived from Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively, and analyzed with regard to their production and characterization. About 0.9 and 0.16 g of purified EB and B1 were obtained from I L of fermentation broth. Chemical analysis showed the contents of purified EB and B1 mainly as 88.7 and 92.8% (w/w) of carbohydrate, and 11.3 and 21.8% (w/w) protein, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, amide, and carboxyl groups in the identified bioflocculant. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results exhibited enhanced thermal stability with a minimum mass loss of 50% while 25% were found to have occurred at higher temperatures (>400°C) for microbe-derived compounds EB and B1 leading to the possibility of using these compounds as fillers or for fabricating composite films for high-temperature applications. Further, the compounds from both the bacteria exhibited good antibacterial characteristics against pathogenic Escherichia coli. Degradability study of bioflocculant-embedded composite films shows the possibility of attaining eco-friendly bioremediation. Accordingly, experimental results revealed the suitability of developed composite films as a suitable alternative for food packaging and biomedical applications.

  16. Listeria booriae sp. nov. and Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov., from food processing environments in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Andrus, Alexis; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of seafood and dairy processing facilities in the north-eastern USA produced 18 isolates of Listeria spp. that could not be identified at the species-level using traditional phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. Results of phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggested that the isolates represent two novel species with an average nucleotide blast identity of less than 92% with previously described species of the genus Listeria. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole genome sequences, 16S rRNA gene and sigB gene sequences confirmed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) and FSL A5-0209 cluster phylogenetically with Listeria cornellensis. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) cluster phylogenetically with Listeria riparia. The name Listeria booriae sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) ( =DSM 28860(T) =LMG 28311(T)), and the name Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) ( =DSM 28861(T) =LMG 28310(T)). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggest that neither species is pathogenic. © 2015 IUMS.

  17. Watery rot of pseudo-stem (Dickeya sp. management in banana (Musa sp. under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This crop has serious constraints with diseases, including those caused by bacteria, such as Dickeya sp. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of 4 resistance inductors and 3 doses in Chlorine Dioxide in handling watery rot of pseudo-stem (Dickeya sp. in banana. Resistance inducers and their doses were Potassium Phosphite: 1.5 cm 3 .l -1 ; 3-Aminobutanoic Acid: 1.0 g.l -1 ; Methyl Jasmonate: 0.2 g.l -1 ; S-Methyl-Acibenzolar: 0.3 ml.l -1 , all by foliar application, while Chlorine Dioxide was injected into the pseudo-stem, in doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg.l -1 . The evaluated variables were: development of the disease, total biomass and quantification of the bacterium in the inoculated pseudo-stems. Applications of Chlorine Dioxide achieved a reduction of disease by 65.4, 91.99 and 61.5%, in addition to an inhibition of 100% of the pathogen, using 30 and 50 mg.l -1 doses. Meanwhile, the use of resistance inductors reduced up to 60.6% of the disease, but this effect failed to improve plant growth.

  18. Lactobacillus saniviri sp. nov. and Lactobacillus senioris sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Kaihei; Kudo, Yuko; Watanabe, Koichi

    2012-03-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive strains, YIT 12363(T) and YIT 12364(T), were isolated from human faeces. They were rod-shaped, non-motile, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic and did not exhibit catalase activity. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the type strains of Lactobacillus casei (95.3% similarity), Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (95.6%), Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans (95.3%) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (95.4%) were the closest neighbours to strain YIT 12363(T). For strain YIT 12364(T), the highest similarity values were observed with the type strains of Lactobacillus diolivorans, Lactobacillus parafarraginis and Lactobacillus rapi (95.8, 96.0 and 96.0%, respectively). Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these strains each represent a separate novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, and the names Lactobacillus saniviri sp. nov. (type strain YIT 12363(T)=JCM 17471(T)=DSM 24301(T)) and Lactobacillus senioris sp. nov. (type strain YIT 12364(T)=JCM 17472(T)=DSM 24302(T)), respectively, are proposed.

  19. Prevotella copri sp. nov. and Prevotella stercorea sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hidenori; Shibata, Kensaku; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Tomita, Shinichi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2007-05-01

    Six strains (CB7(T), CB18, CB23, CB26, CB28 and CB35(T)) were isolated from human faeces. Based on phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic characteristics, cellular fatty acid profiles and menaquinone profiles, these strains could be included within the genus Prevotella and made up two clusters. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that five strains were most closely related to Prevotella veroralis, sharing about 92 % sequence similarity; the remaining strain was most closely related to Prevotella shahii, sharing about 90 % sequence similarity. All six strains were obligately anaerobic, non-pigmented, non-spore-forming, non-motile, Gram-negative rods. The cellular fatty acid compositions of the six strains differed significantly from those of other Prevotella species. Five strains (CB7(T), CB18, CB23, CB26 and CB28) contained dimethyl acetals and the major menaquinones of these strains were MK-11, MK-12 and MK-13. The major menaquinones of CB35(T) were MK-12 and MK-13. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, two novel species, Prevotella copri sp. nov. and Prevotella stercorea sp. nov., are proposed, representing the two different strain clusters. The DNA G+C contents of strains CB7(T) and CB35(T) were 45.3 and 48.2 mol%, respectively. The type strains of P. copri and P. stercorea are CB7(T) (=JCM 13464(T)=DSM 18205(T)) and CB35(T) (=JCM 13469(T)=DSM 18206(T)), respectively.

  20. Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov., isolated from traditional fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Mika; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Chaipitakchonlatarn, Winai; Malimas, Taweesak; Sugimoto, Masako; Yoshino, Mayumi; Kamakura, Yuki; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Tanaka, Naoto; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Three Lactobacillus-like strains, NB53T, NB446T and NB702, were isolated from traditional fermented food in Thailand. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that these strains belong to the Lactobacillus plantarum group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the dnaK, rpoA, pheS and recA gene sequences indicated that these three strains were distantly related to known species present in the L. plantarum group. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related strains demonstrated that these strains represented two novel species; the novel strains could be differentiated based on chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, two novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. (NB53T) and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov. (NB446T and NB702), are proposed with the type strains NB53T ( = NBRC 107333T = BCC 38054T) and NB446T ( = NBRC 107235T = BCC 38191T), respectively.

  1. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  2. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  3. Optimization of Chlorella SP. Flour Fortification in the Processing of Nata

    OpenAIRE

    Zulistiara, Juanidia; ', Syahrul; ', Sumarto

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to study the effect of Chlorella sp.different weight and to find out the optimum weigth of Chlorella sp. flour fortified into the nata. The method used was experimental, that was fortification of Chlorella sp. flour in the processing of nata. The design used was a non-factorial completely randomized design, consisted of 4 weigth levels, namely: no Chlorella sp. flour added (N1), added with 2 gs Chlorella sp. Flour (N2), 4 gs Chlorella sp. flour (N3) and 6 gs Chlorella sp. ...

  4. Benefit Analysis of SPC Panel SP-7 Projects and Evaluation of SPC Panel SP-7 Management and Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Rodney A

    1993-01-01

    .... Projects that have provided important reference information have also been beneficial. This Task has also assessed the opinion of the shipyard using community on the administration and management of Panel SP-7 itself...

  5. Benefit Analysis of SPC Panel SP-4 Projects and Evaluation of SPC Panel SP-4 Management and Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Rodney A

    1993-01-01

    This Task has investigated the benefits derived from the projects sponsored during the past 12 years by SNAME Ship Production Committee Panel SP-4 on Design/Production Integration under the National...

  6. Benefit Analysis of SPC Panel SP-3 Projects and Evaluation of SPC Panel SP-3 Management and Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Rodney A

    1993-01-01

    This Task has investigated the benefits derived from the projects sponsored during the past 4 years by SNAME Ship Production Committee Panel SP-3 on Surface Preparation and Coatings under the National...

  7. Rhopalophthalmus constrictus sp. nov. and Australomysis reubeni sp. nov. (Crustacea-Mysidacea) from south-west Australian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    Two new species of mysids are described, Rhopalophthalmus constrictus sp. nov. is in having a well-produced triangular rostral plate, pleural plates on the anterior five abdominal somites and prominent constriction at the distal end of the telson...

  8. Enhanced photocatalytic activity induced by sp 3 to sp 2 transition of carbon dopants in BiOCl crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jianguo

    2017-09-19

    The insufficient light absorption and low quantum efficiency limit the photocatalytic performance of wide bandgap semiconductors. Here, we report a facile strategy to engineer the surface disordered defects of BiOCl nanosheets via carbon doping. The surface defects boost the light absorption and also the quantum yields, as the doped carbon atoms exhibit a transition from sp3 to sp2 hybridization at elevated temperature, corresponding to a change of assembly state from 3D cluster to 2D graphite-like structure. This transition results in an effective charge separation and thus one order of enhancement in photocatalytic activity toward phenol degradation under visible light. The current study opens an avenue to introduce sp3 to sp2 transition of carbon dopants for simultaneous increment of light absorption and quantum efficiency for application in photocatalysis and energy conversion.

  9. Growth kinetics and biodeterioration of polypropylene microplastics by Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp. isolated from mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, H S; Emenike, C U; Jayanthi, B; Fauziah, S H

    2018-02-01

    Interest in the biodegradation of microplastics is due to their ubiquitous distribution, availability, high persistence in the environment and deleterious impact on marine biota. The present study evaluates the growth response and mechanism of polypropylene (PP) degradation by Bacillus sp. strain 27 and Rhodococcus sp. strain 36 isolated from mangrove sediments upon exposure to PP microplastics. Both bacteria strains were able to utilise PP microplastic for growth as confirmed by the reduction of the polymer mass. The weight loss was 6.4% by Rhodococcus sp. strain 36 and 4.0% by Bacillus sp. strain 27 after 40days of incubation. PP biodegradation was further confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses, which revealed structural and morphological changes in the PP microplastics with microbial treatment. These analyses showed that the isolates can colonise, modify and utilise PP microplastics as carbon source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Planomonospora corallina sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Ngaemthao, Wipaporn; Chunhametha, Suwanee

    2016-08-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, A-T 11038T, was isolated from bamboo rhizospheric soil collected in Thailand. Based on a polyphasic approach, the novel strain was characterized as a member of the genus Planomonospora, which developed cylindrical to clavate sporangia containing a single motile spore on aerial mycelium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain A-T 11038T was closely related to Planomonospora sphaerica JCM 9374T (98.82 %), P.lanomonospora parontospora subsp. parontospora NBRC 13880T and P.parontospora subsp. antibiotica JCM 3094T (98.54 %), Planomonospora alba JCM 9373T (98.41 %) and Planomonospora venezuelensis JCM 3167T (97.51 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values that distinguished strain A-T 11038T from the most closely related species were below 45 %. The novel strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in cell-wall hydrolysates, and rhamnose, ribose, madurose and glucose in whole-cell hydrolysates. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H2). The diagnostic phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylinositol and aminophosphoglycolipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were unsaturated fatty acids C17 : 1 and C16 : 1 and saturated fatty acid C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 73.5 mol%. Following the evidence obtained using a polyphasic approach, the novel strain is proposed as a representative of a novel species to be named Planomonospora corallina sp. nov. The type strain is A-T 11038T (=BCC 67829T=TBRC 4489T=NBRC 110609T).

  11. Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2012-03-01

    An aerobic, Gram-reaction-negative, chemo-organotrophic bacterium, designated strain SSW-35(T), was isolated from seawater in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Cells were motile, short rods; colonies were circular, smooth, convex, translucent and beige in colour. No diffusible pigment formed on any of the media tested. The bacterium grew at 4-30 °C and pH 7.1-10.1. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the organism was related to members of the genus Loktanella, its closest recognized relatives being Loktanella rosea Fg36(T) (98.1% sequence similarity) and Loktanella maricola DSW-18(T) (97.8%). Levels of 16S rRNA gene similarity between strain SSW-35(T) and other recognized species of the genus Loktanella were all <97%. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown lipid as major components, as well as small amounts of two unknown phospholipids. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10. The major cellular fatty acid was C(18:1) (summed feature 7), and the 3-hydroxy fatty acids detected were C(12:1) 3-OH and C(10:0) 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 55.0 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the relatedness values between strain SSW-35(T) and the type strains of the phylogenetically closest recognized species were all <11%. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness, a novel species, Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is SSW-35(T) (=KCTC 12722(T)=JCM 14020(T)).

  12. Morfologia da laringe de cutia (Dasyprocta sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza B.S. Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A cutia (Dasyprocta sp. é um roedor silvestre com distribuição mundial. Atualmente, além de importante papel ecológico que exerce, está sendo utilizada como modelo em experimento animal. Estudos sobre a morfologia destes animais são importantes porque podem ser uma alternativa para o estudo de diversos processos patológicos, além de contribuirem para a preservação da espécie. A laringe é um órgão localizado entre a faringe e a traqueia, no qual está envolvido nas funções de respiração, deglutição e fonação. O presente estudo propôs realizar uma descrição morfológica macroscópica e microscópica da laringe da cutia. Para tanto, foram utilizadas quinze cutias pertencentes ao Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Piauí e provenientes do Núcleo de Estudos e Preservação de Animais Silvestres com licença do IBAMA (Nº 02/08-618, CTF Nº 474064. Todos os animais foram identificados, promovida a sexagem e, posteriormente, a laringe acessada e dissecada sendo os fragmentos cartilagíneos encaminhados para rotina histológica e corados pelo método de hematoxilina-eosina. As lâminas obtidas foram visualizadas em microscopia óptica de luz e foto documentadas. A laringe da cutia apresenta cinco cartilagens, com ausência da cartilagem cuneiforme e presença da incisura caudal na cartilagem tireoide. O tecido epitelial da laringe varia de epitélio estratificado pavimentoso queratinizado à não queratinizado e ciliado com células caliciformes.

  13. Phycicoccus soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hina; Won, KyungHwa; Ngo, Hien T T; Du, Juan; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, coccus-shaped bacterium, strain THG-a14T, was isolated from soil of Gyeyang mountain in Incheon, Republic of Korea. The isolate grew optimally at 28 °C, at pH 6.5-7.5 and with 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-a14T was closely related to Phycicoccus aerophilus 5516T-20T (97.7 %), P. ginsenosidimutans BXN5-13T (97.6 %), 'P. ochangensis' L1b-b9 (97.4 %) and P. bigeumensis MSL-03 (97.2 %). The DNA G+C content of strain THG-a14T was 71.6 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-a14T and its closest phylogenetically neighbours was below 50.0 %. Strain THG-a14T was characterized chemotaxonomically as having meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Strain THG-a14T contained glucose and ribose as whole-cell-wall sugars and menaquinone MK-8(H4) as the major isoprenoid quinone. Polar lipids in strain THG-a14T consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphoaminoglycolipids, unidentified phospholipids and unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0 and C17:1ω8c. On the basis of our polyphasic taxonomy study, strain THG-a14T represents a novel species within the genus Phycicoccus, for which the name Phycicoccussoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-a14T ( = KACC 17892T = JCM 19837T).

  14. Tsukamurella soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Hang-Yeon; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Anandham, Rangasamy; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2010-07-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, white-coloured bacterium, designated strain JS18-1(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Halla mountain, Jeju island, Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain was most closely related to members of the genus Tsukamurella with levels of sequence similarity of 95.4-96.5 %. Strain JS18-1(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Tsukamurella strandjordii DSM 44573(T) (96.5 %), Tsukamurella carboxydivorans Y2(T) (96.4 %) and Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) (96.4 %). The G+C content of the total DNA of strain JS18-1(T) was 70 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A1gamma and mycolic acids were also detected. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major quinone was menaquinone-9 (MK-9) and major cell-wall sugars were arabinose, ribose and glucose. The major fatty acids (>10 % of the total fatty acids) were C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1)omega9c, C(18 : 0) 10-methyl and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and chemotaxonomic, biochemical and physiological characteristics indicate that strain JS18-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Tsukamurella, for which the name Tsukamurella soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JS18-1(T) (=KACC 20764(T)=DSM 45046(T)).

  15. Impact of serum SP-A and SP-D levels on comparison and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ju, Qing; Cao, Jing; Tang, Wenze; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis in general; however, it is heterogeneous to detect relative biomarkers for predicting the disease progression. Serum biomarkers can be conveniently collected to detect and help to differentially diagnose IPF and predict IPF prognosis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the use of serum surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) for differential diagnosis and prognosis of IPF. Methods: Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases and reviewed by 2 independent readers. Standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the difference in serum levels of SP-A/D among patients with IPF, when compared to patients with non-IPF interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary infection, and healthy control. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI were used to compare the relative risk of mortality. Results: Twenty-one articles (totalling 1289 IPF patients) were included in final meta-analysis. Serum SP-A levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with non-IPF ILD (SMD: 1.108 [0.584, 1.632], P infection (SMD: 1.320 [0.999, 1.640], P SMD: 2.802 [1.901, 3.702], P SMD: 0.459 [−0.000, 0.919], P = .050). Serum SP-D levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with pulmonary infection (SMD: 1.308 [0.813, 1.803], P SMD: 2.235 [1.739, 2.731], P < .001). Risk of death in patients with IPF and elevated serum SP-A was increased 39% compared to patients with low SP-A groups. Elevated SP-D increased risk by 111% when compared to low SP-D. In acute exacerbation of IPF, serum SP-A/D were higher than those in stable stage. The comparisons and prognosis might be different in Asian and Caucasian patients. Conclusions: Serum SP-A/D detection might be useful for differential diagnosis and prediction of survival in patients with IPF. PMID:28591049

  16. Modular Stereoselective Synthesis of (1 -> 2)-C-Glycosides based on the sp(2)-sp(3) Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oroszová, B.; Choutka, J.; Pohl, Radek; Parkan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 19 (2015), s. 7043-7047 ISSN 0947-6539 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP207/12/P713; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17572S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : C-disaccharides * C-glycosides * diastereoselectivity * Mitsunobu reaction * sp(2)-sp(3) coupling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  17. Impact of serum SP-A and SP-D levels on comparison and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kai; Ju, Qing; Cao, Jing; Tang, Wenze; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis in general; however, it is heterogeneous to detect relative biomarkers for predicting the disease progression. Serum biomarkers can be conveniently collected to detect and help to differentially diagnose IPF and predict IPF prognosis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the use of serum surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) for differential diagnosis and prognosis of IPF. Methods: Relevant artic...

  18. Ion irradiation-induced, localized sp2 to sp3 hybridized carbon transformation in walls of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Reetu; Singh, Fouran; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Kotnala, Ravinder K.; Peta, Koteswara Rao; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Puri, Nitin K.

    2017-12-01

    In this report, ion irradiation-induced localized sp2 to sp3 hybridized carbon transformation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was observed after irradiating MWCNTs with high-energy Au+8 ions (100 MeV). The used MWCNTs were grown using cobaltocene and benzene as catalyst and carbon source, respectively by the thermal CVD technique and consist of both unfilled and Co-filled tubes. Prior to irradiation, the MWCNT sample was characterized using scanning electron microscope and micro-Raman and photoluminescence spectrometers. The effect of ion fluence on MWCNT walls and transformation of sp2 to sp3 sites was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. We found that as the fluence increased, the localized transformation from sp2 to sp3 sites occurred in the walls of MWCNTs, which was evident by the emergence of peak at approximately 1543 cm-1 associated with the G peak in tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and the vanishing of 2D band (2700 cm-1). Furthermore, we observed broadening in D and G, with slight shift in their positions and consistent decrease in 2D band intensity, as fluence increased.

  19. Botanical pesticides effect from shells of bean’s cashew nut on biological agents of trichoderma sp. and gliocladium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, L. O. S.; Mariadi; Gusnawaty, HS; Nuriadi; Trisulpa, L.; Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    A shell of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentanle) has contained Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) that is used as botanical pesticides. CNSL oil consists of active substance such as anacardat acid, cardol and cardanol. Utilization of the pesticides from shells of cashew nut to control pests and diseases of plants would be affected on biological agents. The objective of this research was to investigate pesticides inhibition on the increase of mycelium Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. by in vitro method. The tested concentration sample consisted of 0.0% (control), 2.5%, 7.5% and 10.0% in PDA media. The results of this research showed that 2.5% botanical pesticides concentration could minimize mycelium of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. 22.73% and 21.04% respectively and also the increase shells of cashew extract could be affected the increase of mycelium inhibition. The extract with 2.5% concentration was the recommended concentration to control of fruit rot diseases and if concentration was 10.0% then its inhibition become 54.98% and 49.35%, respectively. The results proved that uncontrolled utilization of the pesticides could be affected on decrease of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. growth.

  20. Characterization of Ethanolic Extract of Streptomyces sp. as a Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitors Produced by Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenni Fitri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 isolated from Zingiber cassumunar (Bangle is known to produce pancreatic lipase inhibitory compound. However, the characteristics of this active compound has not been reported yet. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of pancreatics inhibitory compound produced by Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 and to assess the role of endophytic actinobacteria in producing pancreatic lipase inhibitor using endophytic-free bangle tissue culture, wild bangle and compared with the activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 endophytes. Supernatant of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was extracted using ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane solvents. Toxicity test was performed using larvae of shrimp Artemia salina. The results showed that the best solvent to obtain pancreatic lipase inhibitor compounds was ethanol. Phytochemical analysis showed that ethanolic extract of endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 contained flavonoids. IC50 value of ethanol extract was 180.83 µg/ml. The result of TLC showed that ethanolic extract of Streptomyces AEBg12 had a blue luminescence band indicated that there were either flavone, flavanones, flavonols or isoflavones. Inhibitory activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was higher than wild bangle and bangle tissue culture. The information from this study can be be used as a basic data for further characterization of the active compound, which might be developed as an antiobesity agent through its pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.

  1. Using SP and SF to Lower Cement Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassen A. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, using different percents of superplasticizer (SP and silica fume (SF to improve the characteristics of concrete is performed. SP and SF are added to two types of  normal concrete, the first is of mixing ratio (1:2:4 and the second is of mixing ratio (1:1.5:3.28The results show that adding SF lead to increase compressive strength for first mix by about 45.3% and 47.7% while adding SP lead to increase the compressive strength by about 43% and 41%  compared to reference mix at 7 and 28 day respectively. The corresponding values for second mix are 46.7% , 49%, 44% and 43% respectively.The maximum compressive strength when SP and SF used together can be attained when the percents of SF and SP are 5% and 3% respectively. The increase in compressive strength is about 49.3% and 48.4%  for first mix, while the corresponding values for second mix are 52.4% and 51.2% as they compared to reference mix at 7 and 28 day respectively.For Tensile strength, adding SP lead to increase it by about 29.2% and 31.6% for first and second mix respectively, while the corresponding values when adding SF are 38.1% and 40.3%. The effect of using SP and SF together on increase tensile strength is more than the effect of using each one separately. The maximum tensile strength can be attained when the percents of SF and SP are 5% and 3% respectively as they increase the tensile strength by about 38.9% and 40.7% for first and second mix.The effect of using admixtures on cement content can be noted clearly as the maximum reduction percents are about 8.7% and 9.35% for first and second mix respectively when the percent of SP is 3%. The corresponding values are 9.4% and 11.26% when the percent of SF is 5%. Using SP and SF together at percents 3% and 5% respectively lead to reduce cement content by about 10.15% and 13.54% for first and second mix respectively.

  2. UJI POTENSI Gliocladium sp TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN TOMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Herlina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMikroorganisme tanah seperti Gliocladium sp dapat bertindak sebagai dekomposer dan juga sebagai agen pengendali hayati patogen tanaman hal ini memberikan harapan untuk mengurangi penggunaan pupuk dan fungisida sintetik. Tujuan penelitian untuk menguji potensi biofertililzer Gliocladium sp terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. Variabel bebas yaitu bioferlizer Gliocladium sp  dengan dosis (g/tanaman 0,50, 100, 150, dan 200 .Variabel tergantung adalah pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman tomat. Parameter pertumbuhan yang diukur adalah  tinggi tanaman, kandungan klorofil a dan b. Parameter hasil tanaman yang diukur adalah berat buah setelah panen. Hasil uji Anava satu jalan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian Gliocladium sp perpengaruh terhadap tinggi tanaman, kandungan klorofil a dan klorofil b, berat tomat  . Hasil uji lanjut Duncan menunjukkan bahwa dosis 100, g 150 g dan 200 g tidak berbeda signifikan terhadap tinggi tanaman, dosis 150g dan 200 g tidak berbedan nyata dalam pembentukan klorofil a dan klorofil b. Pemberian Gliocladium dosis 150g paling tinggi terhadap berat buah. Simpulan dalam penelitian ini bahwa pemberian Gliokompos sp berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. AbstractSoil microorganisms such as Gliocladium sp. can play role in the decomposition and can also become the biological control of pathogenic plants. The animal is potentially reduce the use of fertilizers and synthetic fungidid. The aim of the study was to test the potential effect of biofertililzer Gliocladium sp. on the growth and production of tomatoes. The independent variables was biofertilizer Gliocladium sp. at various dosages (g/plant of 0, 50, 100, 150, dan 200. The dependent variables were the growth and the production of tomatoes. The growth parameter measured were plant height, as well as a and b chlorophyl contents.  The crop parameter was the fruit weight post-harvest.  A one-way anova showed that Gliocladium sp. affected the

  3. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp from Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE. Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century.

  4. Development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as an emerging chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-derived natural products are important in both the pharmaceutical industry and academic research. As the metabolic potential of original producer especially Streptomyces is often limited by slow growth rate, complicated cultivation profile, and unfeasible genetic manipulation, so exploring a Streptomyces as a super industrial chassis is valuable and urgent. Streptomyces sp. FR-008 is a fast-growing microorganism and can also produce a considerable amount of macrolide candicidin via modular polyketide synthase. In this study, we evaluated Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as a potential industrial-production chassis. First, PacBio sequencing and transcriptome analyses indicated that the Streptomyces sp. FR-008 genome size is 7.26 Mb, which represents one of the smallest of currently sequenced Streptomyces genomes. In addition, we simplified the conjugation procedure without heat-shock and pre-germination treatments but with high conjugation efficiency, suggesting it is inherently capable of accepting heterologous DNA. In addition, a series of promoters selected from literatures was assessed based on GusA activity in Streptomyces sp. FR-008. Compared with the common used promoter ermE*-p, the strength of these promoters comprise a library with a constitutive range of 60–860%, thus providing the useful regulatory elements for future genetic engineering purpose. In order to minimum the genome, we also target deleted three endogenous polyketide synthase (PKS gene clusters to generate a mutant LQ3. LQ3 is thus an “updated” version of Streptomyces sp. FR-008, producing fewer secondary metabolites profiles than Streptomyces sp. FR-008. We believe this work could facilitate further development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 for use in biotechnological applications.

  5. Actinophytocola timorensis sp. nov. and Actinophytocola corallina sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoguro, Misa; Yamamura, Hideki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Irzaldi, Rohmatussolihat; Ratnakomala, Shanti; Ridwan, Roni; Kartina, Gina; Triana, Evi; Nurkanto, Arif; Lestari, Yulin; Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Widyastuti, Yantyati; Ando, Katsuhiko

    2011-04-01

    Two actinomycete strains, ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T), were isolated from soils of West Timor and Lombok island, respectively, in Indonesia. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis clearly demonstrated that the isolates belonged to the family Pseudonocardiaceae and were closely related to the genus Actinophytocola. Strains ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T) exhibited 98.1 and 98.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with Actinophytocola oryzae GMKU 367(T). The isolates grew well on ISP media and produced white aerial mycelium. Short spore chains were formed directly on the substrate mycelium. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose as cell-wall components, MK-9(H(4)) as the sole isoprenoid quinone, iso-C(16 : 0) as the major cellular fatty acid and phosphatidylethanolamine as the diagnostic polar lipid. The DNA G+C contents of strains ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T) were 69.7 and 71.2 mol%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, DNA-DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strains ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T) each represent a novel species of the genus Actinophytocola, for which the names Actinophytocola timorensis sp. nov. (type strain ID05-A0653(T)  = BTCC B-673(T)  = NBRC 105524(T)) and Actinophytocola corallina sp. nov. (type strain ID06-A0464(T)  = BTCC B-674(T)  = NBRC 105525(T)) are proposed.

  6. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203 T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900 T and SN 1904 T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900 T (40 T =CECT 8763 T =DSM 43219 T ) and SN 1904 T (2409 T =CECT 8766 T =DSM 43532 T ) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  7. Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., isolated from the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong M; Dahl, John L

    2016-11-01

    Several fast- to intermediate-growing, acid-fast, scotochromogenic bacteria were isolated from Sarracenia purpurea pitcher waters in Minnesota sphagnum peat bogs. Two strains (DL734T and DL739T) were among these isolates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic positions of both strains is in the genus Mycobacterium with no obvious relation to any characterized type strains of mycobacteria. Phenotypic characterization revealed that neither strain was similar to the type strains of known species of the genus Mycobacterium in the collective properties of growth, pigmentation or fatty acid composition. Strain DL734T grew at temperatures between 28 and 32 °C, was positive for 3-day arylsulfatase production, and was negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease and nitrate reduction. Strain DL739T grew at temperatures between 28 and 37 °C, and was positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urea, nitrate reduction and 3-day arylsulfatase production. Both strains were catalase-negative while only DL739T grew with 5 % NaCl. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles were unique for each strain. DL739T showed an ability to survive at 8 °C with little to no cellular replication and is thus considered to be psychrotolerant. Therefore, strains DL734T and DL739T represent two novel species of the genus Mycobacterium with the proposed names Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are DL734T (=JCM 30395T=NCCB 100519T) and DL739T (=JCM 30396T=NCCB 100520T), respectively.

  8. Serratia myotis sp. nov. and Serratia vespertilionis sp. nov., isolated from bats hibernating in caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fraile, P; Chudíčková, M; Benada, O; Pikula, J; Kolařík, M

    2015-01-01

    During the study of bacteria associated with bats affected by white-nose syndrome hibernating in caves in the Czech Republic, we isolated two facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacteria, designated strains 12(T) and 52(T). Strains 12(T) and 52(T) were motile, rod-like bacteria (0.5-0.6 µm in diameter; 1-1.3 µm long), with optimal growth at 20-35 °C and pH 6-8. On the basis of the almost complete sequence of their 16S rRNA genes they should be classified within the genus Serratia; the closest relatives to strains 12(T) and 52(T) were Serratia quinivorans DSM 4597(T) (99.5 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences) and Serratia ficaria DSM 4569(T) (99.5% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences), respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 12(T) and S. quinivorans DSM 4597(T) was only 37.1% and between strain 52(T) and S. ficaria DSM 4569(T) was only 56.2%. Both values are far below the 70% threshold value for species delineation. In view of these data, we propose the inclusion of the two isolates in the genus Serratia as representatives of Serratia myotis sp. nov. (type strain 12(T) =CECT 8594(T) =DSM 28726(T)) and Serratia vespertilionis sp. nov. (type strain 52(T) =CECT 8595(T) =DSM 28727(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  9. Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., from the north-west Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Zhukova, Natalia V; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Sergeev, Alexander F; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bowman, John P

    2005-09-01

    One whitish and four pinkish strains of Gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacteria were isolated from sea-water and sediment samples collected in Chazhma Bay (Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belonged to the 'Alphaproteobacteria', having highest sequence similarity of about 94-97% with species of the genus Loktanella. None of the strains degraded gelatin, casein, chitin, agar, DNA or starch and they had limited ability to utilize carbon sources. The four pinkish strains, Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117, degraded Tween 80. Sea-water strain R10SW5(T) grew at 3-6% NaCl and a temperature range of 8-35 degrees C, whilst strains Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117 grew at NaCl concentrations of 1-12% and a temperature range of 4-35 degrees C. Phosphatidylglycerol (58/79%), diphosphatidylglycerol (11/6%) and phosphatidylcholine (28/22%) were the major phospholipids. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0 (12.2/8.6%) and 18:1omega7 (76.6/68.4%). The DNA G+C content of strain R10SW5(T) was 59.1 mol% and those of the four pinkish strains ranged from 60.5 to 61.8 mol%. Based on the results of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic investigation, two novel species, Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., are proposed. The type strains are R10SW5(T) (=KMM 3788(T)=CIP 107883(T)) and Fg36(T) (=KMM 6003(T)=CIP 107851(T)=LMG 22534(T)), respectively.

  10. Vibrio variabilis sp. nov. and Vibrio maritimus sp. nov., isolated from Palythoa caribaeorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimetto, Luciane A; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Brocchi, Marcelo; Willems, Anne; De Vos, Paul; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2011-12-01

    Two novel vibrio isolates (R-40492(T) and R-40493(T)) originating from the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum in Brazil in 2005 were taxonomically characterized by means of a polyphasic approach comprising multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), ΔT(m) analysis and phenotypic characterization. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) fell within the genus Vibrio and were most closely related to each other with 99% similarity; similarities of these two novel isolates towards Vibrio neptunius LMG 20536(T), Vibrio coralliilyticus LMG 20984(T), Vibrio nigripulchritudo LMG 3896(T), Vibrio sinaloensis LMG 25238(T) and Vibrio brasiliensis LMG 20546(T) varied between 97.1 and 98.5%. DDH experiments showed that the two isolates had less than 15% relatedness to the phylogenetically most closely related Vibrio species. R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) had 55-57% relatedness to each other. The ΔT(m) between R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) was 6.12 °C. In addition, MLSA of concatenated sequences (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gyrB, recA, rpoA, topA, pyrH and mreB; 6035 bp in length) showed that the two novel isolates formed a separate branch with less than 92% concatenated gene sequence similarity towards known species of vibrios. Two novel species are proposed to accommodate these novel isolates, namely Vibrio variabilis sp. nov. (type strain, R-40492(T)=LMG 25438(T)=CAIM 1454(T)) and Vibrio maritimus sp. nov. (type strain, R-40493(T)=LMG 25439(T)=CAIM 1455(T)).

  11. Analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoates granuales in bacillus Sp. MFD11 and enterobacter Sp. SEL2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, N.; Jamil, N.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. MFD11 (JF901809) and Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) were isolated from agriculture waste contaminated sites. When fed with 2% glucose as a carbon source, these bacteria produced 75.26±0.45% and 76.61±0.28% PHA of their wet weight respectively. The accumulated PHA was extracted by direct addition of sodium dodysyl sulphate in the culture medium, which yielded 52.3±0.56 micro g/l and 136.21±0.45 micro g/l PHA respectively when assayed with Crotonic acid. The PHA detection medium (PDM) provided nutrient limitation condition which favored accumulation of PHA granules. A tremendous increase in cell size was observed when strain MFD11 was grown in PDM. The size of the granules as revealed by TEM micrographs spanned from 0.1 to 1.5 micro m which is quite large as compared to the size reported in the literature 0.2 to 0.5 micro m 18). (PHA polymer was analyzed by FTIR, GC/MS and proton Nuclear magnetic resonance. The intense absorption band in the spectrum at 1724-1740 cm -1 and 1215 cm -1 to 1280 corresponding to C=O and C-O stretching group, respectively, indicated that the both strains were PHA producers. GC/MS analysis indicated that the polymer produced were copolymers of PHB-co-PHV. NMR also suggested that the extracted PHA was not a homopolymer but was the blend of copolymers with 3HV in lower abundance. Differential calorimetric thermal analysis showed melting temperature of 163 and 169 degree C for PHA produced by both strains, respectively. However, the observed melting temperature was found to be lower than the standard PHB (Signa-aldrich). (author)

  12. Acidovorax lacteus sp. nov., isolated from a culture of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium (Microcystis sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Seong-Jun; Cui, Yingshun; Ko, So-Ra; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Srivastava, Ankita; Oh, Hee-Mock; Ahn, Chi-Yong

    2017-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterial strain, designated strain M36 T , was isolated from a culture of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis sp., collected from a eutrophic lake in Korea. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The isolate was found to grow aerobically at 15-42 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 7.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and in the presence of 0-1.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0% NaCl) on R2A medium. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain M36 T is closely related to Acidovorax anthurii DSM 16745 T (98.1%), Acidovorax konjaci DSM 7481 T (97.7%) and Acidovorax avenae DSM 7227 T (97.0%) and also formed a clear phylogenetic lineage with other Acidovorax species. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain M36 T and the closely related species of the genus Acidovorax was <30%. The major fatty acid components identified included summed feature 3 (C 16:1 ω7c and/or C 16:1 ω6c), C 16:0 and summed feature 8 (C 18:0 ω7c and/or C 18:0 ω6c). The DNA G+C content of strain M36 T was determined to be 66.8 mol%. Based on above polyphasic evidence, strain M36 T is concluded to represent a new species of genus Acidovorax, for which the name Acidovorax lacteus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M36 T (=KCTC 52220 T  = JCM 31890 T ).

  13. Bacillus swezeyi sp. nov. and Bacillus haynesii sp. nov., isolated from desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Schisler, David A; Perry, Elizabeth B; Connor, Nora; Cohan, Frederick M; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2017-08-01

    Two isolates of Gram-reaction-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacteria were identified during a survey of the diversity of strains belonging to the genus Bacillus deposited in the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil in Evolution Canyon III (Israel) in a survey of ecological diversification. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of strains NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T determined they were closely related to members of the Bacillus licheniformis clade. The genome of each strain was sequenced, and further analysis indicated that the strains represented unique species based on in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. A phylogenomic analysis revealed that NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T were closely related to the group that includes B. licheniformis. In phenotypic characterization, both NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T were found to grow at temperatures of between 15 and 60 °C and tolerated up to 12 % NaCl (w/v). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0, and peptidoglycan from cell walls contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 45.7 and 44.3 mol% for NRRL B-41327T and NRRL B-41294T, respectively. Furthermore, each strain had a unique carbon utilization pattern that distinguished it from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Based upon the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, we conclude that these strains represent two novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus swezeyi sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41294T (=CCUG 70177T), and the name Bacillus haynesii sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41327T (=CCUG 70178T).

  14. Description of Bacillus kexueae sp. nov. and Bacillus manusensis sp. nov., isolated from hydrothermal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Yu, Chao; Luan, Zhen-Dong; Lian, Chao; Hu, Yong-Hua; Sun, Li

    2018-03-01

    Two Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic bacilli, designated as strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T , were isolated from the hydrothermal sediments of Manus Basin in the western Pacific Ocean. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T were most closely related to Bacillus alveayuensis (97.0 and 97.2 % identity, respectively). The 16S rRNA gene sequence identity between strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T was 97.4 %. The identities between strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T and other closely related organisms were below 97.0 %. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T were 43.4 and 47.6 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The predominant isoprenoid quinone detected in both strains was menaquinone-7. Phylogenetic, physiological, biochemical and morphological analyses suggested that strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T represent two novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus kexueae sp. nov. (type strain Ma50-5 T =KCTC 33881 T =CCTCC AB 2017020 T ) and Bacillus manusensis sp. nov. (type strain Ma50-6 T =KCTC 33882 T =CCTCC AB 2017019 T ), respectively, are proposed.

  15. Rhodococcus cerastii sp. nov. and Rhodococcus trifolii sp. nov., two novel species isolated from leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, P; Wellner, S; Lohse, K; Lodders, N; Martin, K

    2013-03-01

    Two Gram-positive, non-endospore-forming rods, strains C5(T) and T8(T), were isolated from the phyllospheres of Cerastium holosteoides and Trifolium repens, respectively, and were studied in detail for their taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis allocated both isolates clearly to the genus Rhodococcus. Isolate C5(T) was most closely related to Rhodococcus fascians and Rhodococcus yunnanensis, showing 99.2 % gene sequence similarity to both species. Strain T8(T) revealed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhodococcus corynebacterioides (98.8 %) and Rhodococcus kroppenstedtii (98.6 %). The quinone system of both strains was composed of dihydrogenated menaquinones with eight (major amount) as well as nine, seven and six isoprenoid units (MK-8H2, MK-9H2 MK-7H2 MK-6H2).The polar lipid profiles of strains C5(T) and T8(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and one unknown phospholipid. Additionally, strain C5(T) contained one unknown glycolipid, and strain T8(T) three unknown aminolipids. The fatty acid profiles contained major amounts of C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and 10-methyl C18 : 0, which supported the grouping of the two isolates in the genus Rhodococcus. Physiological/biochemical characterization and DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of the most closely related species allowed a clear phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of both strains. For this reason, we propose strain C5(T) ( = LMG 26203(T)  = CCM 7906(T)) as the type strain of a novel species with the name Rhodococcus cerastii sp. nov., and strain T8(T) ( = LMG 26204(T)  = CCM 7905(T)) as the type strain of a second novel species with the name Rhodococcus trifolii sp. nov.

  16. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DEL CLADOCERO Moina sp ALIMENTADO CON Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Prieto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cereviseae. Materiales y métodos. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepade cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condicionescontroladas de temperatura (22oC, pH (7.6, intensidad lumínica (2000 lux y aireación. Se emplearondos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyces cereviseaeen concentración de 40 x 105 cel.ml-1 cada uno, para determinar su efecto sobre el desempeño de lapoblación. Diariamente se registró la densidad poblacional y celular. Resultados. Se obtuvieron diferenciassignificativas para el efecto de las dietas sobre el crecimiento poblacional de los cladóceros, los individuosalimentados con Ankistrodesmus sp + Saccharomyces cereviseae alcanzaron una densidad de 12.3a±0.30 org/ml-1 presentando mayor tasa instantánea de crecimiento (K 0.36 ± 0.002, el menor tiempode duplicación (td 1.94 ± 0.012 y el mayor rendimiento (r 1,1 ± 0.07 clad.ml-1.día-1. Conclusión. Loscladóceros por sus características de crecimiento en cultivo, presentan adaptación favorable a lascondiciones de manejo para la producción de biomasas potencialmente útiles como partícula nutritivacon fines acuícolas.

  17. Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. and Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Neubeck, M; Huptas, C; Glück, C; Krewinkel, M; Stoeckel, M; Stressler, T; Fischer, L; Hinrichs, J; Scherer, S; Wenning, M

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of the microbiota of raw cow's milk and semi-finished milk products yielded seven isolates assigned to the genus Pseudomonas that formed two individual groups in a phylogenetic analysis based on partial rpoD and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The two groups could be differentiated from each other and also from their closest relatives as well as from the type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and average nucleotide identity (ANIb) values calculated from draft genome assemblies. ANIb values within the groups were higher than 97.3 %, whereas similarity values to the closest relatives were 85 % or less. The major cellular lipids of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; the major quinone was Q-9 in both strains, with small amounts of Q-8 in strain WS4917T. The DNA G+C contents of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were 58.08 and 57.30 mol%, respectively. Based on these data, strains WS4917T, WS4995 ( = DSM 29141 = LMG 28434), WS4999, WS5001 and WS5002 should be considered as representatives of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas helleri is strain WS4917T ( = DSM 29165T = LMG 28433T). Strains WS4993T and WS4994 ( = DSM 29140 = LMG 28438) should be recognized as representing a second novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis is strain WS4993T ( = DSM 29166T = LMG 28437T).

  18. Pseudomonas lactis sp. nov. and Pseudomonas paralactis sp. nov., isolated from bovine raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Neubeck, Mario; Huptas, Christopher; Glück, Claudia; Krewinkel, Manuel; Stoeckel, Marina; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Hinrichs, Jörg; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-06-01

    Five strains, designated WS 4672T, WS 4998, WS 4992T, WS 4997 and WS 5000, isolated from bovine raw milk formed two individual groups in a phylogenetic analysis. The most similar species on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences were Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603T, Pseudomonas gessardii CIP 105469T and Pseudomonas libanensis CIP 105460T showing 99.7-99.6 % similarity. Using rpoD gene sequences Pseudomonas veronii LMG 17761T (93.3 %) was most closely related to strain WS 4672T and Pseudomonas libanensis CIP 105460T to strain WS 4992T (93.3 %). The five strains could be differentiated from their closest relatives and from each other by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and ANIb values calculated from draft genome assemblies. ANIb values of strains WS 4992T and WS4671T to the closest relatives are lower than 90 %. The major cellular polar lipids of both strains are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, a phospholipid and diphosphatidylglycerol, and their major quinone is Q-9. The DNA G+C content of strains WS 4992T and WS 4672T were 60.0  and 59.7  mol%, respectively. Based on these genotypic and phenotypic traits two novel species of the genus Pseudomonas are proposed: Pseudomonas lactis sp. nov. [with type strain WS 4992T (=DSM 29167T=LMG 28435T) and the additional strains WS 4997 and WS 5000], and Pseudomonasparalactis sp. nov. [with type strain WS 4672T (=DSM 29164T=LMG 28439T) and additional strain WS 4998].

  19. CAPACIDAD ANTAGONISTA DE HONGOS CELULOLÍTICOS FRENTE A Fusarium sp. Y Macrophomina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Leopoldo Tarazona Meza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad antagónica de ocho hongos celulolíticos nativos frente a los hongos fitopatógenos Fusarium sp. y Macrophomina sp. En primera instancia se determinó la cepa promisoria del hongo celulolítico, para lo cual, en caja Petri se colocó un disco de agar de 4 mm de diámetro con micelio de una cepa antagonista y en el extremo opuesto, a una distancia de cinco centímetros aproximadamente, otro disco de 4 mm con micelio de un patógeno. La capacidad antagónica se determinó por el grado de micoparasitismo y la competencia por nutrientes y espacios, registrando el porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento radial. Con la cepa del hongo celulolítico que tuvo el mejor comportamiento antagonista se realizó un cocultivo independiente con cada patógeno, aquí se evalúo las UFC, crecidas en medio PDA. También se inoculó junto a las cepas fitopatógenas en plantas de pimiento para conocer el nivel de antagonismo en macetas. En la evaluación cualitativa, la cepa A.O-5 mostró una invasión y esporulación total en la superficie en ambos patógenos; mientras que en el cocultivo inhibe el crecimiento de los patógenos a las 96 h. Igualmente demostró su acción antagonista frente a Fusarium y Macrophomina en las plántulas de pimiento. Por lo encontrado, se estima que la cepa A.O-5 es un potencial agente antagonista de los fitopatógenos evaluados.

  20. Alistipes inops sp. nov. and Coprobacter secundus sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkoporov, Andrei N; Chaplin, Andrei V; Khokhlova, Ekaterina V; Shcherbakova, Victoria A; Motuzova, Oksana V; Bozhenko, Vladimir K; Kafarskaia, Lyudmila I; Efimov, Boris A

    2015-12-01

    Culture-based study of the faecal microbiome in two adult female subjects revealed the presence of two obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, non-motile, Gram-negative bacterial strains that represent novel species. The first strain, designated 627T, was a fastidious, slow-growing, indole-positive bacterium with a non-fermentative type of metabolism.The strain was characterized by the production of acetic and succinic acids as metabolic end products, the prevalence of iso-C15 : 0 fatty acid and the presence of menaquinones MK-10 and MK-11. The DNA G+C content was found to be 56.6 mol%. The second strain, designated 177T, was capable of fermenting a rich collection of carbohydrate substrates, producing acetic acid as a terminal product. The strain was indole-negative and resistant to bile. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 (in a 1 : 1 ratio) and the predominant menaquinone was MK-11.The DNA G+C content was 37.8 mol%. A phylogenomic analysis of the draft genomes of strains 627T and 177T placed these bacteria in the genera Alistipes(family Rikenellaceae) and Coprobacter (family Porphyromonadaceae), respectively.On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic properties of strains 627T and 177T, we conclude that these strains from human faeces represent two novel bacterial species, for which the names Alistipes inops sp. nov. (type strain 627T5DSM 28863T5VKM B-2859T) and Coprobacter secundus sp. nov. (type strain 177T=DSM 28864T=VKM B-2857T) are proposed.

  1. Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov., isolated from bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Akio; Sahin, Nurettin

    2013-09-01

    Pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T), were isolated from the bryophytes Haplocladium microphyllum and Brachythecium plumosum, respectively. The cells of both strains were Gram-reaction-negative, motile, non-spore-forming rods. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) were found to be related to Methylobacterium organophilum ATCC 27886(T) (97.1% and 97.7%, respectively). Strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene similarity to Methylobacterium gnaphalii 23e(T) (98.3 and 99.0%, respectively). The phylogenetic similarities to all other species of the genus Methylobacterium with validly published names were less than 97%. Major cellular fatty acids of both strains were C(18:1)ω7c and C(18:0). The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene sequences, fatty acid profiles, whole-cell matrix-assisted, laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) from their phylogenetically closest relatives. We propose that strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) represent novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. (type strain 87e(T) =DSM 24195(T) =NBRC 107714(T)) and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov. (type strain 99b(T) =DSM 24105(T) =NBRC 107710(T)) are proposed.

  2. Occurrence of Pyemotes sp. on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick

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    Carlos Romero Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the population reduction of the tomato leafminer moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, by Pyemotes sp. in the laboratory. The mite became greenish when fed on caterpillars, pupae, and adults of T. absoluta. The caterpillars and adults of T. absoluta were quickly paralyzed by the mite venom. A single T. absoluta could host many Pyemotes sp, physogastric females, which were allowed to grow on the moth. Pyemotes sp. can be a new alternative for the biological control of T. absoluta. However, this possibility must be better understood before it could be recommended, because Pyemotes sp. could also cause dermatitis in the humans.O ácaro Pyemotes sp. (Acari: Pyemotidae é um parasita de várias espécies de insetos e exibe o processo de fisogastria na reprodução. É registrada a ocorrência de Pyemotes sp. sobre a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, que sofreu redução considerável de suas populações em condições de laboratório. Este ácaro foi observado parasitando larvas, pupas e adultos de T. absoluta e suas fêmeas fisogástricas apresentaram coloração esverdeada. As larvas e adultos de T. absoluta atacados por Pyemotes sp. exibiram paralisia em poucos minutos, devido à injeção de toxinas por parte do ácaro. Observou-se que um único indivíduo de T. absoluta pode suportar muitas fêmeas fisogástricas de Pyemotes sp., permitindo que outra geração do ácaro continuasse a se reproduzir. O ácaro Pyemotes sp. surge como uma possibilidade para o controle biológico de T. absoluta, mas sua utilização deve ser melhor avaliada já que é uma espécie causadora de dermatites em humanos.

  3. Biodegradation of organophosphate pesticide quinalphos by Ochrobactrum sp. strain HZM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, M P; Mulla, S I; Ninnekar, H Z

    2014-11-01

    Isolation and identification of bacteria capable of degrading organophosphate pesticide quinalphos and elucidation of its biodegradative pathway. A bacterium capable of degrading organophosphate pesticides was isolated from the pesticide-contaminated soil samples by selective enrichment on quinalphos (QP) as a sole source of carbon and energy. The bacterial strain was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. strain HZM on the basis of its morphological and biochemical characteristics and by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The organism utilized various organophosphate pesticides such as quinalphos, profenofos, parathion-methyl and chlorpyrifos as growth substrates. Response surface methodology (RSM) showed optimum conditions for quinalphos degradation at pH 7 and 27°C. 2-Hydroxyquinoxaline and diethyl phosphate were identified as metabolites of quinalphos degradation by HPLC and GC-MS analysis. Cell-free extract of Ochrobactrum sp. strain HZM grown on quinalphos contained the quinalphos hydrolase activity. A bacterial strain capable of degrading quinalphos was isolated and identified as Ochrobactrum sp. strain HZM. The organism utilized organophosphate pesticides quinalphos, profenofos, parathion-methyl and chlorpyrifos as carbon sources. The organism degraded quinalphos by hydrolysis to yield 2-hydroxyquinoxaline and diethyl phosphate which were further utilized as carbon sources. The isolated bacterium Ochrobactrum sp. strain HZM was versatile in degrading various organophosphate pesticides. There was complete mineralization of quinalphos by Ochrobactrum sp. This strain could potentially be useful in the bioremediation of soil and water contaminated with toxic organophosphate pesticides. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. The SP Theory of Intelligence: Benefits and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gerard Wolff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes existing and expected benefits of the SP theory ofintelligence, and some potential applications. The theory aims to simplify and integrate ideasacross artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, and human perception and cognition,with information compression as a unifying theme. It combines conceptual simplicitywith descriptive and explanatory power across several areas of computing and cognition.In the SP machine—an expression of the SP theory which is currently realized in theform of a computer model—there is potential for an overall simplification of computingsystems, including software. The SP theory promises deeper insights and better solutions inseveral areas of application including, most notably, unsupervised learning, natural languageprocessing, autonomous robots, computer vision, intelligent databases, software engineering,information compression, medical diagnosis and big data. There is also potential inareas such as the semantic web, bioinformatics, structuring of documents, the detection ofcomputer viruses, data fusion, new kinds of computer, and the development of scientifictheories. The theory promises seamless integration of structures and functions within andbetween different areas of application. The potential value, worldwide, of these benefits andapplications is at least $190 billion each year. Further development would be facilitatedby the creation of a high-parallel, open-source version of the SP machine, available toresearchers everywhere.

  5. MANFAAT Indigofera Sp. DALAM BIDANG PERTANIAN DAN INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Suharlina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera    sp. is a leguminous plant which has varoius species, wide spread in tropical regions and adapted to a wide range of environmental condition. Indigofera sp. has many benefits in agricultural and industrial sector. It is widely used in agriculture as forage because its  high protein content, easily cultivated, high adaptability, and high biomass production (I. zollingeriana, I. hirsuta, I. pilosa, I. schimperi Syn,    I.    oblongifolia,    I.    spicata,    I. subulata Syn, and I. trita. Over the last 5 years Indigofera sp has been explored as forage feed for the goats. As cover crops, Indigofera is used to prevent erosion and nutrient leaching in the soil surface (I. hirsuta and I. Trita and it is also used as green manure, mulch, erosion control and ornamental plants (I. australis. In industrial sector, Indigofera sp. widely used as dyes and traditional medicine. Indigofera is used as a natural dye (I. tinctoria because it contains an excellent pigment called ‘indigo’ to dye silk material. Indigofera sp is also used as traditional medicine because it contains phytochemical substance which roles as antipyretic, laxative, diuretic, and useful against snakes attack, bees and insect bites. Using Indigofera    spp. as traditional medicine should be considered to avoid causing poisoning.

  6. Surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their precursors in bronchoalveolar lavages from children with acute and chronic inflammatory airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Tobias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surfactant proteins B (SP-B and C (SP-C are important for the stability and function of the alveolar surfactant film. Their involvement and down-regulation in inflammatory processes has recently been proposed, but their level during neutrophilic human airway diseases are not yet known. Methods We used 1D-electrophoresis and Western blotting to determine the concentrations and molecular forms of SP-B and SP-C in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of children with different inflammatory airway diseases. 21 children with cystic fibrosis, 15 with chronic bronchitis and 14 with pneumonia were included and compared to 14 healthy control children. Results SP-B was detected in BAL of all 64 patients, whereas SP-C was found in BAL of all but 3 children; those three BAL fluids had more than 80% neutrophils, and in two patients, who were re-lavaged later, SP-C was then present and the neutrophil count was lower. SP-B was mainly present as a dimer, SP-C as a monomer. For both qualitative and quantitative measures of SP-C and SP-B, no significant differences were observed between the four evaluated patient groups. Conclusion Concentration or molecular form of SP-B and SP-C is not altered in BAL of children with different acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We conclude that there is no down-regulation of SP-B and SP-C at the protein level in inflammatory processes of neutrophilic airway disease.

  7. Surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their precursors in bronchoalveolar lavages from children with acute and chronic inflammatory airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafel, Oliver; Latzin, Philipp; Paul, Karl; Winter, Tobias; Woischnik, Markus; Griese, Matthias

    2008-04-11

    The surfactant proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) are important for the stability and function of the alveolar surfactant film. Their involvement and down-regulation in inflammatory processes has recently been proposed, but their level during neutrophilic human airway diseases are not yet known. We used 1D-electrophoresis and Western blotting to determine the concentrations and molecular forms of SP-B and SP-C in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of children with different inflammatory airway diseases. 21 children with cystic fibrosis, 15 with chronic bronchitis and 14 with pneumonia were included and compared to 14 healthy control children. SP-B was detected in BAL of all 64 patients, whereas SP-C was found in BAL of all but 3 children; those three BAL fluids had more than 80% neutrophils, and in two patients, who were re-lavaged later, SP-C was then present and the neutrophil count was lower. SP-B was mainly present as a dimer, SP-C as a monomer. For both qualitative and quantitative measures of SP-C and SP-B, no significant differences were observed between the four evaluated patient groups. Concentration or molecular form of SP-B and SP-C is not altered in BAL of children with different acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We conclude that there is no down-regulation of SP-B and SP-C at the protein level in inflammatory processes of neutrophilic airway disease.

  8. Molecular prevalence of Bartonella, Babesia, and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in dogs with splenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanat, M; Maggi, R G; Linder, K E; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2011-01-01

    Among diseases that cause splenomegaly in dogs, lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH), splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA), and fibrohistiocytic nodules (FHN) are common diagnoses. The spleen plays an important role in the immunologic control or elimination of vector-transmitted, blood-borne pathogens, including Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. To compare the prevalence of Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. DNA in spleens from dogs with LNH, HSA, and FHN. Paraffin-embedded, surgically obtained biopsy tissues from LNH (N = 50), HSA (N = 50), and FHN (N = 37) were collected from the anatomic pathology archives. Spleens from specific pathogen-free (SPF) dogs (N = 8) were used as controls. Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and Mycoplasma sp. DNA was amplified by PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. Bartonella sp. DNA was more prevalent in FHN (29.7%) and HSA (26%) as compared to LNH (10%) (P = .019, .0373, respectively) or control spleens (0.0%). The prevalence of Babesia sp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. DNA was significantly lower than Bartonella sp. DNA in HSA (P = .0005, .006, respectively) and FHN (P = .003, .0004, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in DNA prevalence among the 3 genera in the LNH group. The higher prevalence of Bartonella sp. in FHN and HSA warrants future investigations to determine if this bacterium plays a role in the development of these splenic diseases. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Description of Pythonella scleruri n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from a Brazilian Bird Rufous-Breasted-Leaftosser Sclerurus scansor, 1835 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawazoe Urara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidian oocysts containing 16 sporocysts with 4 sporozoites in each were observed in a faecal sample from Sclerurus scansor collected in the Itatiaia National Park, southeastern region of Brazil. The oocysts are characterized by ellipsoidal shape measuring 42.5 x 32.8 mm, with smooth, thick double-layered wall of a greenish-orange colour. An oocyst residuum of numerous scattered granules among the sporocysts in sporulated ones; 16 round sporocysts, averaging 10.5 x 10 mm each containing four elongated sporozoites; presence of residuum; absence of Stieda body. The presently described coccidian, recorded for the first time in birds, is a new species named P. scleruri.

  10. SP-R210 (Myo18A Isoforms as Intrinsic Modulators of Macrophage Priming and Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Yang

    Full Text Available The surfactant protein (SP-A receptor SP-R210 has been shown to increase phagocytosis of SP-A-bound pathogens and to modulate cytokine secretion by immune cells. SP-A plays an important role in pulmonary immunity by enhancing opsonization and clearance of pathogens and by modulating macrophage inflammatory responses. Alternative splicing of the Myo18A gene results in two isoforms: SP-R210S and SP-R210L, with the latter predominantly expressed in alveolar macrophages. In this study we show that SP-A is required for optimal expression of SP-R210L on alveolar macrophages. Interestingly, pre-treatment with SP-A prepared by different methods either enhances or suppresses responsiveness to LPS, possibly due to differential co-isolation of SP-B or other proteins. We also report that dominant negative disruption of SP-R210L augments expression of receptors including SR-A, CD14, and CD36, and enhances macrophages' inflammatory response to TLR stimulation. Finally, because SP-A is known to modulate CD14, we used a variety of techniques to investigate how SP-R210 mediates the effect of SP-A on CD14. These studies revealed a novel physical association between SP-R210S, CD14, and SR-A leading to an enhanced response to LPS, and found that SP-R210L and SP-R210S regulate internalization of CD14 via distinct macropinocytosis-like mechanisms. Together, our findings support a model in which SP-R210 isoforms differentially regulate trafficking, expression, and activation of innate immune receptors on macrophages.

  11. Streptomyces sp. 173, an insecticidal micro-organism from marine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L; Li, J; Kong, F

    2004-01-01

    To find new insecticidal antibiotics from marine micro-organisms. Strains isolated from seawater and sea sediments from Beidiahe and Dagang of the east coast of China were screened for their insecticidal qualities. The screening was carried out using bioassay of brine shrimp and the insect pest Helicoverpa armigera. The fermentation, preliminary extraction and isolation of Streptomyces sp.173 were carried out. In total 331 isolates were examined through bioassay of brine shrimp and 40 isolates (12.08%) showed potential insecticidal activities. Of the 40 isolates, one isolate, designated Streptomyces sp.173, was found to have strong insecticidal activity against both brine shrimp and H. armigera, similar to that of avermectin B1. The isolated Streptomyces sp.173 has great insecticidal potency. This work indicated that marine micro-organisms could be an important source of insecticidal antibiotics and the improved anti-brine shrimp bioassay is suitable for primary screening.

  12. Micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, reporte de dos casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Somocurcio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta los dos primeros casos de micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, en el Perú, tratados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue. Se practicó resección pulmonar debido a micetoma pulmonar de donde se tomó muestras que fueron enviadas a microbiología y anatomía patológica para cultivo y estudio histopatológico. Se identificó el moho Scedosporium sp en dos pacientes con secuelas cavitarias por tuberculosis, quienes presentaron tos y hemoptisis de dos meses y tres años de evolución, respectivamente. Radiológicamente las cavidades estaban ocupadas por una "bola fúngica". La histopatología indicó presencia de abundantes hifas, indistinguibles de las de Aspergillus sp, mientras que la inmunodifusión para Aspergillus fue negativa.

  13. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin promotes Salecan production by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-mei; Xu, Hai-yang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-fa; Wang, Shi-ming

    2014-11-01

    Salecan is a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, and it is composed of only glucose monomers. The unique chemical composition and excellent physicochemical properties make Salecan a promising material for applications in coagulation, lubrication, protection against acute liver injury, and alleviating constipation. In this study, we cloned the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene into a broad-host-range plasmid pCM158. Without antibiotic selection, there was negligible loss of the plasmid in the host Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 after one passage of cultivation. The expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was demonstrated by carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. The engineered strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 increased Salecan yield by 30%. The other physiological changes included its elevated respiration rate and cellular invertase activity.

  14. Symbiotic properties of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus assayed on serradella plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysława Deryło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and symbiotic properties of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus nodule isolates were compared to the standard slow-growing Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus strain USDA 3045. Lupine nodules isolates showed typical characteristics for bradyrhizobial strains and nodulated small seed legume, serradella (Ornithopus sativus, in tube test. We observed a permanent physiological segregation of the effective (Fix' and ineffective (Fix- symbiotic phenotype for all tested bradyrhizobial strains during the growth of serradella in plant tube test. The ultrastructural differences between Fix* and Fix serradella nodules were observed. Rapid and visible nodulation as well as easy assay of the reduction of acetylene make serradella a convenient system for studies of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus strains in laboratory conditions.

  15. Ballastfritt spår : Förslag till dimensioneringsmetoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, Olle; Berhane, Henok

    2015-01-01

    Ballastfria spår har på senare tid börjat byggas i allt större utsträckning. En anledning till detta är höjda krav på järnvägstransporter. Ett ballastfritt spår är ofta utformat som en långsträckt betongplatta på mark som för ned lasten från rälerna till underbyggnaden. I nuläget saknar Sverige dimensioneringsprinciper för ballastfria spår. Principerna är redan etablerade i andra länder men behöver inordnas för svenska förhållanden. År 2012 gjorde regeringen bedömningen att en ny stambana för...

  16. Microbial succession during thermophilic digestion: the potential of Methanosarcina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Illmer

    Full Text Available A distinct succession from a hydrolytic to a hydrogeno- and acetotrophic community was well documented by DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and dHPLC (denaturing high performance liquid chromatography, and confirmed by qPCR (quantitative PCR measurements and DNA sequence analyses. We could prove that Methanosarcina thermophila has been the most important key player during the investigated anaerobic digestion process. This organism was able to terminate a stagnation phase, most probable caused by a decreased pH and accumulated acetic acid following an initial hydrolytic stage. The lack in Methanosarcina sp. could not be compensated by high numbers of Methanothermobacter sp. or Methanoculleus sp., which were predominant during the initial or during the stagnation phase of the fermentation, respectively.

  17. Green Decision Making: Sustainable Transport and Systemic Planning (SP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    interests as regards the outcome represented by different group members. The process is guided by a facilitator and is assisted by an analyst, with the analyst providing ongoing, interactive modelling. This collective (man/machine) learning aims to lead to a final decision (or decision recommendation) about......) and soft (qualitative) operations research (OR) methods; especially the latter have a function as regards knowledge generation that relates to obtaining systemic insights. Furthermore, SP applies a process that drives group-based learning forward. The group should be formed with the different stakeholder...... the best alternative or course of action for the actual strategic planning problem. The flexibility of SP makes it adaptable to different problem types. The paper is disposed as follows: After the Introduction about green decision making, Section 2 presents five SP-perspectives, where each perspective...

  18. Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matter decomposition which has been conducted in Soil Biological and Healthy Laboratory and Green House of Soil Research Institute Bogor, during 2006 Budget Year. The three kind of earthworms i.e Pheretima hupiensis, Lumbricus sp. and Eudrellus sp. combined with three kind of organic matter sources i.e rice straw, trash and palm oil plant waste (compost heap. The result shows that the Lumbricus sp. are the most effective decomposer compared to Pheretima hupiensis and Eudrellus sp. and the organic matter decomposed by Lumbricus sp. as followed: market waste was decomposed of 100%, palm oil empty fruit bunch (compost heap 95.8 % and rice straw 84.9%, respectively. Earthworm effectively decreased Fe, Al, Mn, Cu dan Zn.

  19. A comprehensive survey of Aeromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. in seabirds from southeastern Brazil: outcomes for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, M D; Lemos, L S; Roges, E M; de Moura, J F; Tavares, D C; Matias, C A R; Rodrigues, D P; Siciliano, S

    2018-05-01

    To perform a microbiological survey regarding the presence, prevalence and characterization of Aeromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. in debilitated wrecked marine birds recovered from the centre-north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Swabs obtained from 116 alive and debilitated wrecked marine birds, comprising 19 species, from the study area were evaluated by biochemical methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and pathogenicity gene screening were performed for bacterial strains of public health importance. Vibrio sp. and Aeromonas sp. were identified, as well as certain pathogenic genes and resistance to selected antimicrobials. This study demonstrates that the identified bacteria, mainly Vibrio sp., are fairly prevalent and widespread among several species of seabirds and highlights the importance of migratory birds in bacterial dispersion. In addition, it demonstrates the importance of the bacterial strains regarding their pathogenic potential. Therefore, seabirds can act as bacterial reservoirs, and their monitoring is of the utmost importance in a public health context. The study comprehensively evaluates the importance of seabirds as bacteria of public health importance reservoirs, since birds comprising several pathogenic bacterial species were evaluated. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. sp sup 2 and sp sup 3 bonding configurations in low nitrogen content a-CN sub x thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzasalma, A M; Neri, F; Trusso, S

    2003-01-01

    The results of an electron spectroscopy study carried out on a set of pulsed laser deposited CN sub x films are reported. A progressive degree of graphitization, deduced from the continuous increase in the sp sup 2 bond fraction, has been found for x values up to 25%. The mass density values, deduced by a proper treating of both the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy data, are consistent with a material made up by two phases, namely a sp sup 2 threefold (graphite-like) and a sp sup 3 fourfold (diamond-like) coordinated one. The behaviour of the density of the samples as a function of the N content does not show any abrupt change in going from lower to higher nitrogen concentrations as found by other authors, this certainly being due to differences in the starting sp sup 3 /sp sup 2 ratio of the films at zero N concentration and to their different preparation parameters.

  1. Ozone Technology for Pathogenic Bacteria of Shrimp (Vibrio sp.) Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansarie, Ria; Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Rustamadji

    2018-03-01

    One of important marine commodities in Indonesia, shrimps are susceptible with Vibrio sp bacteria infection. That infection must be cleared. One of the technologies for disinfecting Vibrio sp. is ozone technology. In this research, Vibrio sp. is a pathogenic bacterium which infects Penaeus vannamei. Ozone technology is applied for threatening Vibrio sp. In this research, ozonation was performed in different pH. Those are neutral, acid (pH=4), and base (pH=9). The sample was water from shrimp embankment from Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) located in Jepara. That water was the habitat of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. The brand of ozonator used in this research was “AQUATIC”. The used ozonator in this research had 0,0325 g/hour concentration. The flow rate of sample used in this research was 2 L/minute. The ozonation process was performed in continuous system. A tank, pipe, pump, which was connected with microfilter, flowmeter and ozone generator were the main tools in this research. It used flowmeter and valve to set the flow rate scalable as desired. The first step was the insert of 5 L sample into the receptacle. Then, by using a pump, a sample supplied to the microfilter to be filtered and passed into the flow meter. The flow rate was set to 2 LPM. Furthermore, gas from ozonator passed to the flow for the disinfection of bacteria and then was recycled to the tank and the process run continuously. Samples of the results of ozonation were taken periodically from time 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24 to 30 minutes. The samples of the research were analyzed using Total Plate Count (TPC) test in BBPBAP Jepara to determine the number of Vibrio sp. bacteria. The result of this research was the optimal condition for pathogenic bacteria of shrimp (Vibrio sp.) ozonation was in neutral condition.

  2. Multimeric and trimeric subunit SP-D are interconvertible structures with distinct ligand interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Hoegh, Silje V; Leth-Larsen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    -D compared to Met11 SP-D. Multimerization has proven important for enhancement of microbial phagocytosis. In the present study defined multimeric forms of Met11Thr SP-D were isolated from human amniotic fluid. Implementation of ManNAc-affinity chromatography allowed high recovery of natural trimeric SP......-D multimers. Trimeric SP-D subunits also showed greater binding to endogenous lipoproteins: LDL, oxLDL, and HDL, than multimeric SP-D. In conclusion, purified trimeric and multimeric SP-D represent separate and only partly interconvertible molecular populations with distinct biochemical properties....

  3. Azospirillum sp. strain B510 enhances rice growth and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Michiko; Awazaki, Hirotoshi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Shinozaki, Satoshi; Nakashita, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Inoculation experiments with the endophytic bacterium Azospirillum sp. strain B510, an isolate from surface-sterilized stems of field-grown rice, were conducted in pots in a greenhouse, and in paddy fields in Hokkaido, Japan. B510 significantly enhanced the growth of newly generated leaves and shoot biomass under greenhouse conditions. When rice seedlings were treated with 1×10(8) CFU ml(-1), then transplanted to paddy fields, tiller numbers and seed yield significantly increased. Azospirillum sp. strain B510 is a promising bacterial inoculant for plant growth promotion and agricultural practices.

  4. Profil des examens radiographiques spéciaux conventionnels dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But : Montrer l'apport des examens spéciaux dans la démarche diagnostique Méthodologie : Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective qui a porté sur les résultats de 249 examens spéciaux colligés dans le service de radiologie du CHU- Tokoin de Lomé du 1er mars 2003 au 1er mars 2004. Résultats : L'âge de nos patients varie ...

  5. Induced adaptation of Bacillus sp. to antimicrobial nanosilver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Cindy; Teoh, Wey Yang; Marquis, Christopher P; Amal, Rose

    2013-11-11

    The natural ability of Bacillus sp. to adapt to nanosilver cytotoxicity upon prolonged exposure is reported for the first time. The combined adaptive effects of nanosilver resistance and enhanced growth are induced under various intensities of nanosilver-stimulated cellular oxidative stress, ranging from only minimal cellular redox imbalance to the lethal levels of cellular ROS stimulation. An important implication of the present work is that such adaptive effects lead to the ultimate domination of nanosilver-resistant Bacillus sp. in the microbiota, to which nanosilver cytotoxicity is continuously applied. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. PRODUCCIÓN DE BIOFERTILIZANTES UTILIZANDO Pseudomonas sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Santillana-Villanueva, Nery; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2006-01-01

    Con el objetivo de producir biofertilizantes utilizando 3 cepas de Pseudomonas sp., se realizaron tres experimentos: el primero, para encontrar un medio de cultivo apropiado para la multiplicación de las bacterias; el segundo, para determinar la sobrevivencia de las cepas de Pseudomonas sp en los biofertilizantes y el tercero para determinar la dosis eficiente de aplicación del biofertilizante en frijol, maíz, papa y tomate, en condiciones de invernadero. Al evaluar los resultados, se determi...

  7. Sistema de gerencia de pavimentos do DER/SP

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antonio da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho versa sobre métodos de levantamento de defeitos e avaliação das condições estruturais, funcionais e de segurança dos pavimentos asfálticos nas estradas estaduais sob a jurisdição do Departamento de Estradas de Rodagem do Estado de São Paulo - DER/SP. Aborda também alguns aspectos administrativos da Autarquia Estadual, aonde atuo como engenheiro de carreira na área de planejamento e de projeto. O DER/SP tem como missão administrar o sistema rodoviário estadual, sua integr...

  8. SP-100 advanced radiator designs for thermoelectric and Stirling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, M.P.; Determan, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors advanced radiator designs employing carbon-carbon liquid metal heat pipe technology which can significantly reduce the mass of the heat rejection subsystem for high temperature space technology systems such as the SP-100. This technology is being developed to address the need for lightweight heat transfer components and structures for space applications. Heat pipe and subsystem designs were optimized for thermoelectric and Stirling engine bases SP-100 system designs. A multiple, deployed petal radiator concept was selected for the heat rejection subsystem design based upon minimum mass. Radiator stowage in the Space Transportation System cargo bay and deployment schemes were investigated for each of these optimized designs

  9. Mycelium characterization of the Amauroderma sp collected from Royal Belum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mat Rasol Awang; Fauzi Daud; Rosnani Rashid; Meswan Maskom; Arfah Sumeri

    2010-01-01

    Etnobotanical study carried on the native community in the Royal Belum Forest areas had identified many potentially valuable spices that could be further explored for its medicinal and health purposes. The mushrooms, Amauroderma sp. was one of the resources that had been screened and collected for further investigation. In this works, the mycelium characterization of the mushroom was carried out in order to develop suitable seed or spawn for cultivation. The Amauroderma sp. mycelium, cultured from the fruit body tissue was found to grow well on the PDA plate. While on the potato extract liquid medium the mushroom could grow and produce stalk like fruit body. (author)

  10. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  11. A comparative study on phyllosphere nitrogen fixation by newly isolated Corynebacterium sp. & Flavobacterium sp. and their potentialities as biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, S; Pati, B R

    2004-01-01

    A number of nitrogen fixing bacteria has been isolated from forest phyllosphere on the basis of nitrogenase activity. Among them two best isolates are selected and identified as Corynebacterium sp. AN1 & Flavobacterium sp. TK2 able to reduce 88 and 132 n mol of acetylene (10(8)cells(-1)h(-1)) respectively. They were grown in large amount and sprayed on the phyllosphere of maize plants as a substitute for nitrogenous fertilizer. Marked improvements in growth and total nitrogen content of the plant have been observed by the application of these nitrogen-fixing bacteria. An average 30-37% increase in yield was obtained, which is nearer to chemical fertilizer treatment. Comparatively better effect was obtained by application of Flavobacterium sp.

  12. Halobacillus dabanensis sp. nov. and Halobacillus aidingensis sp. nov., isolated from salt lakes in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W Y; Zeng, J; Wang, L; Dou, Y T; Yang, S S

    2005-09-01

    Two moderately halophilic spore-forming bacteria were isolated from salt lakes in the Xinjiang region of China. The two strains, designated AD-6(T) and D-8(T), were aerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Strains AD-6(T) and D-8(T) grew in the presence of 0.5-20% and 0.5-25% (w/v) NaCl in complex medium, respectively. Their cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the L-Orn-D-Asp type. The major menaquinone found in both strains was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The fatty acid profile contained a large amount of branched fatty acids; the main fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(16:0). The DNA G+C content of strains D-8(T) and AD-6(T) was 41.4 and 42.2 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains D-8(T) and AD-6(T) were located in the genus Halobacillus. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the isolated strains and the type strains of Halobacillus species were in the range 96.2-99.5%. DNA-DNA relatedness values of 17.0-52.2% were found between the two strains and other Halobacillus species. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between D-8(T) and AD-6(T) was 50.6%. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, phylogenetic analysis and genomic distinctiveness, strains D-8(T) and AD-6(T) should be placed in the genus Halobacillus as two novel species, for which the names Halobacillus dabanensis sp. nov. (type strain=JCM 12772(T)=CGMCC 1.3704(T)) and Halobacillus aidingensis sp. nov. (type strain=JCM 12771(T)=CGMCC 1.3703(T)) are proposed, respectively.

  13. Lysobacter fragariae sp. nov. and Lysobacter rhizosphaerae sp. nov. isolated from rhizosphere of strawberry plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Ngo, Hien T T; Won, KyungHwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ki-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-06-01

    Two bacterial strains, designated THG-DN8.7(T) and THG-DN8.3(T), were isolated from the rhizosphere of a strawberry plant in Gyeryong Mountain, South Korea. Cells of both isolates were observed to be Gram-negative, yellow-coloured and rod-shaped. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain THG-DN8.7(T) had highest sequence similarities to Lysobacter yangpyeongensis KACC 11407(T) (97.2 %), Lysobacter niabensis KACC 11587(T) (97.0 %) and Lysobacter oryzae KCTC 22249(T) (96.9 %), while strain THG-DN8.3(T) had closely similarity with L. niabensis KACC 11587(T) (98.1 %), L. oryzae KCTC 22249(T) (97.1 %) and L. yangpyeongensis KACC 11407(T) (96.1 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values between strains THG-DN8.7(T) and THG-DN8.3(T) and their closest phylogenetically neighbours were below 30.0 %, which indicates that strains THG-DN8.7(T) and THG-DN8.3(T) represent distinct species within the genus Lysobacter. Both strains were found to contain iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and iso-C17:1 ω9c as predominant fatty acids and ubiquinone-8 as major isoprenoid quinone. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strains THG-DN8.7(T) and THG-DN8.3(T) were determined to be 66.9 and 67.8 mol%, respectively. These data are consistent with the affiliation of the two new species represented by THG-DN8.7(T) and THG-DN8.3(T) to the genus Lysobacter. The names Lysobacter fragariae sp. nov. and Lysobacter rhizosphaerae sp. nov. are proposed for these species with the type strains THG-DN8.7(T) (=KCTC 42236(T) = JCM 30322(T)) and THG-DN8.3(T) (=KCTC 42237(T) = JCM 30321(T)), respectively.

  14. Lactobacillus silagincola sp. nov. and Lactobacillus pentosiphilus sp. nov., isolated from silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohno, Masanori; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Arita, Masanori; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kobayashi, Hisami

    2017-09-01

    Three Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strains (IWT5T, IWT25T and IWT140), isolated from silage, were investigated by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strains IWT5T and IWT25T grew at 10-37 °C and 30-37 °C, and at pH 4.0-7.5 and 4.0-7.0, respectively. The G+C contents of genomic DNA of strains IWT5T and IWT25T were 43.2 and 44.4 mol%, respectively. Strains IWT5T and IWT25T contained C16 : 0, C18 : 1 ω9c and summed feature 7 (unknown 18.846/C19 : 1 ω6c/C19 : 0cyclo ω10c) as the major fatty acids. Strain IWT5T was most closely related to the type strains of Lactobacillus mixtipabuli (99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Lactobacillus silagei (99.5 %). For IWT25T, the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with the closely related neighbour type strains L. mixtipabuli and L. silagei were 99.5 and 99.5 %, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities among the three novel isolates were 99.5-99.9 %. The average nucleotide identities of strains IWT5T and IWT25T to other neighbours of the genus Lactobacillus were less than 82 % and the genomes of IWT25T and IWT140 shared 97.3 % average nucleotide identity, demonstrating that the three strains were allocated to two different novel species of the genus Lactobacillus. Together with multilocus sequence analysis, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strains IWT5T (=JCM 31144T=DSM 102973T) and IWT25T (=JCM 31145T=DSM 102974T) are proposed as the type strains of novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, with the names Lactobacillus silagincola sp. nov. and Lactobacillus pentosiphilus sp. nov., respectively.

  15. Growth performance and proximate composition of mixed cultures of marine microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp. & Tetraselmis sp. with monocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasana Arkronrat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and proximate composition of two marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., in monoculture and mixed culture of both species under laboratory conditions were compared. Microalgae were cultured in enriched seawater (28 ppt in 8 L plastic bottles using Conway medium. Microalgae were grown in a temperature-controlled room (25°C under continuous illumination at a light intensity of about 3,000 Lux for 240 hours (10 days. Results showed that maximum cell density and growth rate of both species (45.06±2.67×105 cells ml-1 and 0.43±0.02 day-1, reps. in mixed culture had a significantly higher than Tetraselmis sp. (5.09±0.99×105 cells ml-1 and 0.16±0.03 day-1, reps., but not significantly different with Nannochloropsis sp. (29.25±22.70×105 cells ml-1 and 0.37±0.14 day-1, reps. in monoculture. For proximate composition, protein content of both species in mixed culture and Nannochloropsis sp. in monoculture was significantly higher than for Tetraselmis sp. in monoculture after 120 and 240 hours of cultivation. Carbohydrate and lipid contents of each treatment were found to be significantly different after 120 hours of cultivation but not significantly different after 240 hours of cultivation. Therefore, this study indicates that an alternative option for commercial microalgal production is to use a mixed culture to obtain higher production.

  16. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  17. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy.

  18. Low SP1 expression differentially affects intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Seok Lee

    Full Text Available Specificity protein 1 (SP1 is an essential transcription factor that regulates multiple cancer-related genes. Because aberrant expression of SP1 is related to cancer development and progression, we focused on SP1 expression in gastric carcinoma and its correlation with disease outcomes. Although patient survival decreased as SP1 expression increased (P<0.05 in diffuse-type gastric cancer, the lack of SP1 expression in intestinal-type gastric cancer was significantly correlated with poor survival (P<0.05. The knockdown of SP1 in a high SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, MKN28, increased migration and invasion but decreased proliferation. Microarray data in SP1 siRNA-transfected MKN28 revealed that the genes inhibiting migration were downregulated, whereas the genes negatively facilitating proliferation were increased. However, both migration and invasion were decreased by forced SP1 expression in a low SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, AGS. Unlike the intestinal-type, in a high SP1-expressing diffuse-type gastric cell line, SNU484, migration and invasion were decreased by SP1 siRNA. In contrast to previous studies that did not identify differences between the 2 histological types, our results reveal that low expression of SP1 is involved in cancer progression and metastasis and differentially affects intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma.

  19. Re-examination of the genus Acetobacter, with descriptions of Acetobacter cerevisiae sp. nov. and Acetobacter malorum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleenwerck, I; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Janssens, D; Swings, J

    2002-09-01

    Thirty-four Acetobacter strains, representing Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter pomorum, Acetobacter peroxydans, Acetobacter lovaniensis, Acetobacter estunensis, Acetobacter orleanensis, Acetobacter indonesiensis and Acetobacter tropicalis, were subjected to a polyphasic study that included DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base ratio determinations, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic characterization. Two novel species are proposed, Acetobacter cerevisiae sp. nov. and Acetobacter malorum sp. nov. The type strains of these species are respectively LMG 1625T (= DSM 14362T = NCIB 8894T = ATCC 23765T) and LMG 1746T (= DSM 14337T).

  20. Helicotylenchus oleae n. sp. and H. neopaxilli n. sp. (Hoplolaimidae), Two New Spiral Nematodes Parasitic on Olive Trees in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, R N; Vovlas, N; Golden, A M

    1979-01-01

    Helicotylenchus oleae n. sp. and H. neopaxilli n. sp., from olive roots and soil in Italy, are described and illustrated. Helicotylenchus oleae can be distinguished from the related species H. canadensis and H. tunisiensis especially by the smaller styler, its distinctive tail shape, and a tail longer than one anal body width. Helicotylenchus neopaxilli differs from the close species H. paxilli by having a conical, anteriorly truncated labial region, shorter stylet, and phasmids always anterior to level of anus. Also illustrated and discussed are histopathological changes within feeder roots of olive caused by the feeding activity of the semi-endoparasitic H. oleae.