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Sample records for sp nk-1 receptor

  1. NK-1 receptor antagonists as anti-cancer drugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The substance P (SP)/neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor system plays an important role in cancer. SP promotes the proliferation of tumour cells, angiogenesis and the migration of tumour cells. We review the involvement of SP, the NK-1 receptor and NK-1 receptor antagonists in cancer. Tumour cells overexpress NK-1 receptors, ...

  2. Biological and Pharmacological Aspects of the NK1-Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Garcia-Recio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R is the main receptor for the tachykinin family of peptides. Substance P (SP is the major mammalian ligand and the one with the highest affinity. SP is associated with multiple processes: hematopoiesis, wound healing, microvasculature permeability, neurogenic inflammation, leukocyte trafficking, and cell survival. It is also considered a mitogen, and it has been associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. Tachykinins and their receptors are widely expressed in various human systems such as the nervous, cardiovascular, genitourinary, and immune system. Particularly, NK-1R is found in the nervous system and in peripheral tissues and are involved in cellular responses such as pain transmission, endocrine and paracrine secretion, vasodilation, and modulation of cell proliferation. It also acts as a neuromodulator contributing to brain homeostasis and to sensory neuronal transmission associated with depression, stress, anxiety, and emesis. NK-1R and SP are present in brain regions involved in the vomiting reflex (the nucleus tractus solitarius and the area postrema. This anatomical localization has led to the successful clinical development of antagonists against NK-1R in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV. The first of these antagonists, aprepitant (oral administration and fosaprepitant (intravenous administration, are prescribed for high and moderate emesis.

  3. The substance P/NK-1 receptor system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-27

    Apr 27, 2015 ... NK-1 receptor may be a promising target in the treatment of cancer; NK-1 ... the contribution of chemotherapy for adult malignancies .... nisms that regulate cellular excitability and function. ..... positive expression of Ki-67 in dysplastic epithelium ..... emotional behaviour (behaviour traits, such as depression),.

  4. Targeting NK-1 Receptors to Prevent and Treat Pancreatic Cancer: A New Therapeutic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, Miguel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC

  5. Targeting NK-1 Receptors to Prevent and Treat Pancreatic Cancer: A New Therapeutic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Miguel, E-mail: mmunoz@cica.es [Research Laboratory on Neuropeptides (IBIS), Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Coveñas, Rafael [Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic System (Lab. 14), Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCYL), University of Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2015-07-06

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC.

  6. The NK-1 Receptor Antagonist L-732,138 Induces Apoptosis and Counteracts Substance P-Related Mitogenesis in Human Melanoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Muñoz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been recently demonstrated that substance P (SP and neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor antagonists induce cell proliferation and cell inhibition in human melanoma cells, respectively. However, the antitumor action of the NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 on such cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to demonstrate an antitumor action of L-732,138 against three human melanoma cell lines (COLO 858, MEL HO, COLO 679. We found that L-732,138 elicits cell growth inhibition in a concentration dependent manner in the melanoma cells studied. Moreover, L-732,138 blocks SP mitogen stimulation. The specific antitumor action of L-732,138 occurred through the NK-1 receptor and melanoma cell death was by apoptosis. These findings indicate that the NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 could be a new antitumor agent in the treatment of human melanoma.

  7. The NK-1 Receptor Antagonist L-732,138 Induces Apoptosis and Counteracts Substance P-Related Mitogenesis in Human Melanoma Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Miguel, E-mail: mmunoz@cica.es; Rosso, Marisa; González-Ortega, Ana [Research Laboratory on Neuropeptides, Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Sevilla (Spain); Coveñas, Rafael [Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCYL), Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Laboratory 14), Salamanca (Spain)

    2010-04-20

    It has been recently demonstrated that substance P (SP) and neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists induce cell proliferation and cell inhibition in human melanoma cells, respectively. However, the antitumor action of the NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 on such cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to demonstrate an antitumor action of L-732,138 against three human melanoma cell lines (COLO 858, MEL HO, COLO 679). We found that L-732,138 elicits cell growth inhibition in a concentration dependent manner in the melanoma cells studied. Moreover, L-732,138 blocks SP mitogen stimulation. The specific antitumor action of L-732,138 occurred through the NK-1 receptor and melanoma cell death was by apoptosis. These findings indicate that the NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 could be a new antitumor agent in the treatment of human melanoma.

  8. Effects of substance P and Sar-Met-SP, a NK1 agonist, in distinct amygdaloid nuclei on anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Gabriel Shimizu; de Carvalho, Milene Cristina; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2014-05-21

    The amygdala, together with the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), medial hypothalamus, and deep layers of the superior and inferior colliculi, constitutes the encephalic aversion system, which has been considered the main neural substrate for the organization of fear and anxiety. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) acts as a filter for aversive stimuli to higher structures while the central (CeA) and the medial (MeA) nuclei constitute the output for the autonomic and somatic components of the emotional reaction through major projections to the limbic and brainstem regions. Although some findings point to the distinct participation of the substance P (SP) and the NK1 receptors system in the different nuclei of the amygdala on the expression of emotional behaviors, it is not clear if this system modulates anxiety-like responses in the distinct nuclei of the amygdala as well as the dPAG. Thus, it was investigated if the injection of SP into the BLA, CeA, or MeA affects the expression of anxiety-like responses of rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test and, if the effects are mediated by NK1 receptors. The results showed that SP and Sar-Met-SP (NK1 receptor selective agonist) injected into the CeA and MeA, but not into the BLA, caused anxiogenic-like effects in the EPM. Altogether, the data indicates that the SP may mimic the effects of anxiogenic stimuli via NK1 receptor activation only in the CeA and MeA (amygdala's nuclei output) and may activate the neural mechanisms involved in the defensive reaction genesis. The SP/NK1 receptors system activation may be phasically involved in very specific aspects of anxiety behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurokinin NK1 and NK3 receptors as targets for drugs to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders and pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sanger, Gareth J

    2004-01-01

    NK1 and NK3 receptors do not appear to play significant roles in normal GI functions, but both may be involved in defensive or pathological processes. NK1 receptor antagonists are antiemetic, operating via vagal sensory and motor systems, so there is a need to study their effects on other gastro-vagal functions thought to play roles in functional bowel disorder's. Interactions between NK1 receptors and enteric nonadrenergic, noncholinergic motorneurones suggest a need to explore the role of t...

  10. Novel method for the study of receptor Ca2+ signalling exemplified by the NK1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heding, A; Elling, C E; Schwartz, T W

    2002-01-01

    We have used a novel technology (NovoStar from BMG Labtechnologies) for the study of the Ca2+ signalling of the human tackykinin NK1 (hNK-I receptor). The NovoStar is a microplate reader based on fluorescence and luminescence. The instrument implements a robotic pipettor arm and two microplate...... carriers, typically one for samples and one for cells. The robotic pipettor arm can transfer sample (agonist or antagonist) from the sample plate or other liquid containers to the cell plate, facilitating the study of Ca2+ signalling to such a degree that the instrument can be used for Medium Throughput...

  11. Development and labeling of EP-00652218 analogues, NK1 receptors antagonist, for PET and SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagot-Gueret, C.

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the synthesis and radiosynthesis of compounds labelled either with a positron emitter (fluorine-18, t 1/2 = 109 minutes) or with a gamma emitter (iodine-123, t 1/2 = 16.2 hours), for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) studies. EP-00652218 is a novel potent antagonist, with a sub-nano-molar affinity towards the NK 1 receptors. In order to develop ligands that could be used either in PET or SPECT, we undertook the synthesis of poly-halogenated analogues of EP-00652218. Compound 17 was synthesized through two different synthetic pathways. A series of original compounds has been obtained from compound 17 by halogen exchanges on the naphthyridone or the benzene ring. These molecules were tested to determine their in vitro affinity towards NK 1 receptors. Compound 21 was labelled with fluorine-18 in 135 minutes and with a 20% radiochemical yield. Compound 26 was radioiodinated following reaction with Na 125 I (t 1/2 = 60.14 days) in a 18% radiochemical yield. Despite expectation, these analogues of EP-00652218 exhibited an insufficient affinity for NK 1 receptors (IC 50 = 10 -7 M) and thus unlikely usable for in vivo studies with PET and SPECT. (author)

  12. Neurokinin NK1 and NK3 receptors as targets for drugs to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Gareth J

    2004-04-01

    NK1 and NK3 receptors do not appear to play significant roles in normal GI functions, but both may be involved in defensive or pathological processes. NK1 receptor antagonists are antiemetic, operating via vagal sensory and motor systems, so there is a need to study their effects on other gastro-vagal functions thought to play roles in functional bowel disorders. Interactions between NK1 receptors and enteric nonadrenergic, noncholinergic motorneurones suggest a need to explore the role of this receptor in disrupted colonic motility. NK1 receptor antagonism does not exert consistent analgesic activity in humans, but similar studies have not been carried out against pain of GI origin, where NK1 receptors may have additional influences on mucosal inflammatory or "irritant" processes. NK3 receptors mediate certain disruptions of intestinal motility. The activity may be driven by tachykinins released from intrinsic primary afferent neurones (IPANs), which induce slow EPSP activity in connecting IPANs and hence, a degree of hypersensitivity within the enteric nervous system. The same process is also proposed to increase C-fibre sensitivity, either indirectly or directly. Thus, NK3 receptor antagonists inhibit intestinal nociception via a "peripheral" mechanism that may be intestine-specific. Studies with talnetant and other selective NK3 receptor antagonists are, therefore, revealing an exciting and novel pathway by which pathological changes in intestinal motility and nociception can be induced, suggesting a role for NK3 receptor antagonism in irritable bowel syndrome.

  13. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea: the role of neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošnjak, Snežana M; Gralla, Richard J; Schwartzberg, Lee

    2017-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN) has a significant negative impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. The use of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT 3 ) receptor antagonists (RAs) has reduced the risk of vomiting, but (except for palonosetron) their effect on nausea, especially delayed nausea, is limited. This article reviews the role of NK 1 RAs when combined with 5-HT 3 RA-dexamethasone in CIN prophylaxis. Aprepitant has not shown consistent superiority over a two-drug (ondansetron-dexamethasone) combination in nausea control after cisplatin- or anthracycline-cyclophosphamide (AC)-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Recently, dexamethasone and dexamethasone-metoclopramide were demonstrated to be non-inferior to aprepitant and aprepitant-dexamethasone, respectively, for the control of delayed nausea after HEC (AC/cisplatin), and are now recognized in the guidelines. The potential impact of the new NK 1 RAs rolapitant and netupitant (oral fixed combination with palonosetron, as NEPA) in CIN prophylaxis is discussed. While the clinical significance of the effect on nausea of the rolapitant-granisetron-dexamethasone combination after cisplatin is not conclusive, rolapitant addition showed no improvement in nausea prophylaxis after AC or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). NEPA was superior to palonosetron in the control of nausea after HEC (AC/cisplatin). Moreover, the efficacy of NEPA in nausea control was maintained over multiple cycles of HEC/MEC. Recently, NK 1 RAs have been challenged by olanzapine, with olanzapine showing superior efficacy in nausea prevention after HEC. Fixed antiemetic combinations (such as NEPA) or new antiemetics with a long half-life that may be given once per chemotherapy cycle (rolapitant or NEPA) may improve patient compliance with antiemetic treatment.

  14. NK1 receptor fused to beta-arrestin displays a single-component, high-affinity molecular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Lene; Hastrup, Hanne; Holst, Birgitte; Fraile-Ramos, Alberto; Marsh, Mark; Schwartz, Thue W

    2002-07-01

    Arrestins are cytosolic proteins that, upon stimulation of seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors, terminate signaling by binding to the receptor, displacing the G protein and targeting the receptor to clathrin-coated pits. Fusion of beta-arrestin1 to the C-terminal end of the neurokinin NK1 receptor resulted in a chimeric protein that was expressed to some extent on the cell surface but also accumulated in transferrin-labeled recycling endosomes independently of agonist stimulation. As expected, the fusion protein was almost totally silenced with respect to agonist-induced signaling through the normal Gq/G11 and Gs pathways. The NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion construct bound nonpeptide antagonists with increased affinity but surprisingly also bound two types of agonists, substance P and neurokinin A, with high, normal affinity. In the wild-type NK1 receptor, neurokinin A (NKA) competes for binding against substance P and especially against antagonists with up to 1000-fold lower apparent affinity than determined in functional assays and in homologous binding assays. When the NK1 receptor was closely fused to G proteins, this phenomenon was eliminated among agonists, but the agonists still competed with low affinity against antagonists. In contrast, in the NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion protein, all ligands bound with similar affinity independent of the choice of radioligand and with Hill coefficients near unity. We conclude that the NK1 receptor in complex with arrestin is in a high-affinity, stable, agonist-binding form probably best suited to structural analysis and that the receptor can display binding properties that are nearly theoretically ideal when it is forced to complex with only a single intracellular protein partner.

  15. Two active molecular phenotypes of the tachykinin NK1 receptor revealed by G-protein fusions and mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Hastrup, H; Raffetseder, U

    2001-01-01

    The NK1 neurokinin receptor presents two non-ideal binding phenomena, two-component binding curves for all agonists and significant differences between agonist affinity determined by homologous versus heterologous competition binding. Whole cell binding with fusion proteins constructed between ei...

  16. Examining SLV-323, a novel NK1 receptor antagonist, in a chronic psychosocial stress model for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czeh, B; Pudovkina, O; van der Hart, MGC; Simon, M; Heilbronner, U; Michaelis, T; Watanabe, T; Frahm, J; Fuchs, E

    Rationale: Substance P antagonists have been proposed as candidates for a new class of antidepressant compounds. Objectives: We examined the effects of SLV-323, a novel neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonist, in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm of adult male tree shrews. Methods: Animals

  17. Chronic psychosocial stress in tree shrews : effect of the substance P (NK1 receptor) antagonist L-760735 and clomipramine on endocrine and behavioral parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hart, MGC; de Biurrun, G; Czeh, B; Rupniak, NMJ; den Boer, JA; Fuchs, E

    Rationale: Substance P and its preferred receptor, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), have been proposed as possible targets for new antidepressant therapies, although results of a recently completed phase III trial failed to demonstrate that the NK1R antagonist MK-869 is more effective than placebo

  18. Two active molecular phenotypes of the tachykinin NK1 receptor revealed by G-protein fusions and mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, B; Hastrup, H; Raffetseder, U; Martini, L; Schwartz, T W

    2001-06-08

    The NK1 neurokinin receptor presents two non-ideal binding phenomena, two-component binding curves for all agonists and significant differences between agonist affinity determined by homologous versus heterologous competition binding. Whole cell binding with fusion proteins constructed between either Galpha(s) or Galpha(q) and the NK1 receptor with a truncated tail, which secured non-promiscuous G-protein interaction, demonstrated monocomponent agonist binding closely corresponding to either of the two affinity states found in the wild-type receptor. High affinity binding of both substance P and neurokinin A was observed in the tail-truncated Galpha(s) fusion construct, whereas the lower affinity component was displayed by the tail-truncated Galpha(q) fusion. The elusive difference between the affinity determined in heterologous versus homologous binding assays for substance P and especially for neurokinin A was eliminated in the G-protein fusions. An NK1 receptor mutant with a single substitution at the extracellular end of TM-III-(F111S), which totally uncoupled the receptor from Galpha(s) signaling, showed binding properties that were monocomponent and otherwise very similar to those observed in the tail-truncated Galpha(q) fusion construct. Thus, the heterogenous pharmacological phenotype displayed by the NK1 receptor is a reflection of the occurrence of two active conformations or molecular phenotypes representing complexes with the Galpha(s) and Galpha(q) species, respectively. We propose that these molecular forms do not interchange readily, conceivably because of the occurrence of microdomains or "signal-transductosomes" within the cell membrane.

  19. Casopitant: a novel NK1-receptor antagonist in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Ruhlmann

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Christina Ruhlmann, Jørn HerrstedtOdense University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Odense, DenmarkAbstract: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV are among the most feared and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. The knowledge of the pathogenesis and neuropharmacology of CINV has expanded enormously over the last decades, the most significant discoveries being the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3- and neurokinin (NK1 receptors in the emetic reflex arch. This has led to the development of two new classes of antiemetics acting as highly selective antagonists at one of these receptors. These drugs have had a huge impact in the protection from chemotherapy-induced vomiting, whereas the effect on nausea seems to be limited. The first NK1 receptor antagonist, aprepitant, became clinically available in 2003, and casopitant, the second in this class of antiemetics, has now completed phase III trials. This review delineates the properties and clinical use of casopitant in the prevention of CINV.Keywords: casopitant, GW679769, NK1 receptor antagonist, chemotherapy, emesis

  20. Casopitant: a novel NK(1)-receptor antagonist in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are among the most feared and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. The knowledge of the pathogenesis and neuropharmacology of CINV has expanded enormously over the last decades, the most significant discoveries being the role of 5......-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3)- and neurokinin (NK)(1) receptors in the emetic reflex arch. This has led to the development of two new classes of antiemetics acting as highly selective antagonists at one of these receptors. These drugs have had a huge impact in the protection from chemotherapy-induced vomiting...

  1. NETUPITANT, A POTENT AND HIGHLY SELECTIVE NK1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST, ALLEVIATES ACETIC ACID-INDUCED BLADDER OVERACTIVITY IN ANESTHETIZED GUINEA-PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tachykinins potently contract the isolated urinary bladder from a number of animal species and play an important role in the regulation of the micturition reflex. On the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder we examined the effects of a new potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist (netupitant on the contractions induced by a selective NK1 receptor agonist, SP-methylester (SP-OMe. Moreover, the effects of netupitant and another selective NK1 antagonist (L-733,060 were studied in anesthetized guinea-pigs using two experimental models, the isovolumetric bladder contractions and a model of bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of acetic acid (AA. Methods and Results. Detrusor muscle strips were mounted in 5 mL organ baths and isometric contractions to cumulative concentrations of SP-OME were recorded before and after incubation with increasing concentrations of netupitant. In anesthetized female guinea-pigs, reflex bladder activity was examined under isovolumetric conditions with the bladder distended with saline or during cystometry using intravesical infusion of acetic acid (AA. After a 30 min stabilization period, netupitant (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.v. or L-733,060 (3-10 mg/kg, i.v. were administered. In the detrusor muscle, netupitant produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (mean pKB = 9.24 of the responses to SP-OMe. Under isovolumetric conditions, netupitant or L-733,060 reduced bladder contraction frequency in a dose-dependent manner, but neither drug changed bladder contraction amplitude. In the AA model, netupitant dose-dependently increased intercontraction interval (ICI but had no effect on the amplitude of micturition (AM. L-733,060 dose-dependently increased ICI also but this effect was paralleled by a significant reduction of AM. Conclusion. Netupitant decreases the frequency of reflex bladder contractions without altering their amplitude, suggesting that this drug targets the afferent limb of the

  2. Tachykinins activate guinea-pig alveolar macrophages: involvement of NK2 and NK1 receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelleschi, S.; Vanni, L.; Ledda, F.; Giotti, A.; Maggi, C. A.; Fantozzi, R.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB) were evaluated on superoxide anion (O2-.) production by guinea-pig alveolar macrophages (AM). 2. SP dose-dependently (ED50 = 0.7 nM) evoked O2-. production from guinea-pig AM; the N-terminal heptapeptide, SP(1-7), was ineffective. In the presence of thiorphan (10(-5) M), an enkephalinase inhibitor, the stimulating effects of SP were not significantly modified. NKA and NKB were both able to induce O2-. production fro...

  3. Septide and neurokinin A are high-affinity ligands on the NK-1 receptor: evidence from homologous versus heterologous binding analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, H; Schwartz, T W

    1996-12-16

    The three main tachykinins, substance P, neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B, are believed to be selective ligands for respectively the NK-1, NK-2 and NK-3 receptors. However, NKA also has actions which cannot be mediated through its normal NK-2 receptor and the synthetic peptide [pGlu6,Pro9]-Substance P9-11--called septide--is known to have tachykinin-like actions despite its apparent lack of binding to any known tachykinin receptor. In the cloned NK-1 receptor expressed in COS-7 cells NKA and septide as expected were poor competitors for radiolabeled substance P. However, by using radiolabeled NKA and septide directly, it was found that both peptides in homologous binding assays as well as in competition against each other in fact bound to the NK-1 receptor with high affinity: Kd values of 0.51 +/- 0.15 nM (NKA) and 0.55 +/- 0.03 nM (septide). It is concluded that NKA and septide are high-affinity ligands for the NK-1 receptor but that they are poor competitors for substance P, which in contrast competes very well for binding with both NKA and septide.

  4. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene expression is differentially modulated in the rat spinal dorsal horn and hippocampus during inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarson Kenneth E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persistent pain produces complex alterations in sensory pathways of the central nervous system (CNS through activation of various nociceptive mechanisms. However, the effects of pain on higher brain centers, particularly the influence of the stressful component of pain on the limbic system, are poorly understood. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known neuromediators of hyperalgesia and spinal central sensitization, have also been implicated in the plasticity and neurodegeneration occurring in the hippocampal formation during exposures to various stressors. Results of this study showed that injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA into the hind paw increased NK-1 receptor and BDNF mRNA levels in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, supporting an important role for these nociceptive mediators in the amplification of ascending pain signaling. An opposite effect was observed in the hippocampus, where CFA down-regulated NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression, phenomena previously observed in immobilization models of stress and depression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in the spinal cord, CFA also increased levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, while in the hippocampus the activation of this transcription factor was significantly reduced, further suggesting that tissue specific transcription of either NK-1 or BDNF genes may be partially regulated by common intracellular transduction mechanisms mediated through activation of CREB. These findings suggest that persistent nociception induces differential regional regulation of NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression and CREB activation in the CNS, potentially reflecting varied roles of these neuromodulators in the spinal cord during persistent sensory activation vs. modulation of the higher brain structures such as the hippocampus.

  5. Partial agonism through a zinc-Ion switch constructed between transmembrane domains III and VII in the tachykinin NK(1) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Elling, C E; Schwartz, T W

    2000-01-01

    switch located exactly one helical turn below the two previously identified interaction points for Substance P in, respectively, TM-III and -VII. The metal-ion chelator, phenantroline, which in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor increased both the potency and the agonistic efficacy of Zn(2+) or Cu(2......Partly due to lack of detailed knowledge of the molecular recognition of ligands the structural basis for partial versus full agonism is not known. In the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor the agonist binding site has previously been structurally and functionally exchanged with an activating metal....... In contrast to the similarly mutated beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, signal transduction-i.e., inositol phosphate turnover-could be stimulated by both Zn(2+) and by the natural agonist, Substance P in the mutated NK(1) receptor. The metal-ion acted as a 25% partial agonist through binding to the bidentate zinc...

  6. Intrathymic selection of NK1.1+α/β T cell antigen receptor (TCR)+ cells in transgenic mice bearing TCR specific for chicken ovalbumin and restricted to I-Ad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Chikako; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Nakagawa, Ken-ichi; Takayanagi, Toshiaki; Nishihori, Hiroki; Tone, Saori; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Good, Robert A.; Onoé, Kazunori

    1998-01-01

    Generation and negative selection of NK1.1+α/β T cell receptor (TCR)+ thymocytes were analyzed using TCR-transgenic (B10.D2 × DO10)F1 and (C57BL/6 × DO10)F1 mice and Rag-1−/−/DO10 mice, which had been established by breeding and backcrossing between Rag-1−/− and DO10 mice. Almost all T cells from these mice were shown to bear Vα13/Vβ8.2 that is specific for chicken ovalbumin (cOVA) and restricted to I-Ad. A normal proportion of the NK1.1+ Vα13/Vβ8.2+ thymocytes was generated in these mice. However, the actual cell number of both NK1.1+ and NK1.1− thymocytes in I-Ad/d mice (positive selecting background) was larger than that in I-Ab/d mice (negative selecting background). Markedly low but significant proportions of NK1.1+ Vα13/Vβ8.2+ cells were detected in the spleens from I-Ad/d and I-Ab/d mice. It was shown that the splenic NK1.1+ T cells of the I-Ab/d mice were anergized against stimulation through TCR. When (B10.D2 × DO10)F1 and (C57BL/6 × DO10)F1 mice were given cOVA, extensive or intermediate elimination of NK1.1+α/βTCR+ thymocytes was induced in I-Ad/d or I-Ab/d mice, respectively. However, the clonal elimination was not as complete as that seen in the major NK1.1− thymocyte population. The present findings indicate that normal generation of NK1.1+α/βTCR+ thymocytes occurs in the absence of Vα14-Jα281 and that substantial negative selection operates on the NK1.1+α/βTCR+ cells. PMID:9653164

  7. Synthesis of two potential NK1-receptor ligands using [1-11C]ethyl iodide and [1-11C]propyl iodide and initial PET-imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genchel Tove

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The previously validated NK1-receptor ligand [O-methyl-11C]GR205171 binds with a high affinity to the NK1-receptor and displays a slow dissociation from the receptor. Hence, it cannot be used in vivo for detecting concentration changes in substance P, the endogenous ligand for the NK1-receptor. A radioligand used for monitoring these changes has to enable displacement by the endogenous ligand and thus bind reversibly to the receptor. Small changes in the structure of a receptor ligand can lead to changes in binding characteristics and also in the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to use carbon-11 labelled ethyl and propyl iodide with high specific radioactivity in the synthesis of two new and potentially reversible NK1-receptor ligands with chemical structures based on [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. Methods [1-11C]Ethyl and [1-11C]propyl iodide with specific radioactivities of 90 GBq/μmol and 270 GBq/μmol, respectively, were used in the synthesis of [O-methyl-11C]GR205171 analogues by alkylation of O-desmethyl GR205171. The brain uptake of the obtained (2S,3S-N-(1-(2- [1-11C]ethoxy-5-(3-(trifluoromethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylphenylethyl-2-phenylpiperidin-3-amine (I and (2S,3S-2-phenyl-N-(1-(2- [1-11C]propoxy-5-(3-(trifluoromethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylphenylethylpiperidin-3-amine (II was studied with PET in guinea pigs and rhesus monkeys and compared to the uptake of [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. Results All ligands had similar uptake distribution in the guinea pig brain. The PET-studies in rhesus monkeys showed that (II had no specific binding in striatum. Ligand (I had moderate specific binding compared to the [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. The ethyl analogue (I displayed reversible binding characteristics contrary to the slow dissociation rate shown by [O-methyl-11C]GR205171. Conclusion The propyl-analogue (II cannot be used for detecting changes in NK1-ligand levels, while further studies should be

  8. Intrathymic selection of NK1.1+α/β T cell antigen receptor (TCR)+ cells in transgenic mice bearing TCR specific for chicken ovalbumin and restricted to I-Ad

    OpenAIRE

    Iwabuchi, Chikako; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Nakagawa, Ken-ichi; Takayanagi, Toshiaki; Nishihori, Hiroki; Tone, Saori; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Good, Robert A.; Onoé, Kazunori

    1998-01-01

    Generation and negative selection of NK1.1+α/β T cell receptor (TCR)+ thymocytes were analyzed using TCR-transgenic (B10.D2 × DO10)F1 and (C57BL/6 × DO10)F1 mice and Rag-1−/−/DO10 mice, which had been established by breeding and backcrossing between Rag-1−/− and DO10 mice. Almost all T cells from these mice were shown to bear Vα13/Vβ8.2 that is specific for chicken ovalbumin (cOVA) and restricted to I-Ad. A normal proportion of the NK1.1+ Vα13/Vβ8.2+ thymocytes was generated in these mice. Ho...

  9. Elaboración de un modelo 3D del receptor Humano de NK1 a partir del receptor delta Opiode

    OpenAIRE

    Vílchez Cruz, Ángela

    2015-01-01

    La publicación de la primera estructura cristalográfica de resolución atómica de un miembro de la familia de los receptores acoplados a proteínas G (GPCR) como es la Rodopsina Bovina (Rho) (1)marcó el comienzo de los estudios sobre la relación entre la actividad biológica y la estructura de estas proteínas (1,2). Si bien se han llevado a cabo numerosos estudios de difracción de rayos X de las estructuras de GPCRs desde ese momento, dada la dificultad de cristalización de es...

  10. Biased Gs Versus Gq Proteins and β-Arrestin Signaling in the NK1 Receptor Determined by Interactions in the Water Hydrogen Bond Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Louise; Frimurer, Thomas M; Mokrosinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    X-ray structures, molecular dynamics simulations, and mutational analysis have previously indicated that an extended water hydrogen bond network between trans-membranes I-III, VI, and VII constitutes an allosteric interface essential for stabilizing different active and inactive helical...... of the highly conserved AspII:10 (2.50). Here, we find that this GluII:10 occupies the space of a putative allosteric modulating Na(+) ion and makes direct inter-helical interactions in particular with SerIII:15 (3.39) and AsnVII:16 (7.49) of the NPXXY motif. Mutational changes in the interface between GluII:10....... It is concluded that the interface between position II:10 (2.50), III:15 (3.39), and VII:16 (7.49) in the center of the water hydrogen bond network constitutes a focal point for fine-tuning seven trans-membrane receptor conformations activating different signal transduction pathways....

  11. Treatment with the NK1 antagonist emend reduces blood brain barrier dysfunction and edema formation in an experimental model of brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Harford-Wright

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide substance P (SP has been implicated in the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB and development of cerebral edema in acute brain injury. Cerebral edema accumulates rapidly around brain tumors and has been linked to several tumor-associated deficits. Currently, the standard treatment for peritumoral edema is the corticosteroid dexamethasone, prolonged use of which is associated with a number of deleterious side effects. As SP is reported to increase in many cancer types, this study examined whether SP plays a role in the genesis of brain peritumoral edema. A-375 human melanoma cells were injected into the right striatum of male Balb/c nude mice to induce brain tumor growth, with culture medium injected in animals serving as controls. At 2, 3 or 4 weeks following tumor cell inoculation, non-treated animals were perfusion fixed for immunohistochemical detection of Albumin, SP and NK1 receptor. A further subgroup of animals was treated with a daily injection of the NK1 antagonist Emend (3 mg/kg, dexamethasone (8 mg/kg or saline vehicle at 3 weeks post-inoculation. Animals were sacrificed a week later to determine BBB permeability using Evan's Blue and brain water content. Non-treated animals demonstrated a significant increase in albumin, SP and NK1 receptor immunoreactivity in the peritumoral area as well as increased perivascular staining in the surrounding brain tissue. Brain water content and BBB permeability was significantly increased in tumor-inoculated animals when compared to controls (p<0.05. Treatment with Emend and dexamethasone reduced BBB permeability and brain water content when compared to vehicle-treated tumor-inoculated mice. The increase in peritumoral staining for both SP and the NK1 receptor, coupled with the reduction in brain water content and BBB permeability seen following treatment with the NK1 antagonist Emend, suggests that SP plays a role in the genesis of peritumoral edema, and thus warrants

  12. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Catana, Ciprian; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats; Borsook, David; Peterson, Magnus

    Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis) were selected out of a larger (n = 120) randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis). These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA), was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP) / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  13. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clas Linnman

    Full Text Available Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis were selected out of a larger (n = 120 randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis. These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA, was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  14. [Increased expressions of substance P and neurokinin/tachykinin receptor 1 in eosinophils of patients with psoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhe; Wang, Junling; Zhang, Huiyun; Zheng, Wenjiao; Zhang, Zenan; He, Shaoheng

    2017-07-01

    Objective To investigate the expressions of substance P (SP) and its receptor neurokinin/tachykinin receptor 1 (NK1R) in peripheral blood eosinophils of patients with psoriasis. Methods The levels of SP and NK1R in the peripheral blood of both patients with psoriasis and healthy people were detected by flow cytometry. This method was again used to detect the levels of SP and NK1R in the peripheral blood eosinophils of patients with psoriasis after stimulated with the crude extracts of Artemisia pollen, dust mite and Platanus pollen (all at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 μg/mL). Results Compared with the healthy controls, the percentages of SP + and NK1R + eosinophils in psoriasis patients increased up to 2.7 and 0.5 folds, respectively. Moreover, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of SP + and NK1R + eosinophils of psoriasis patients were elevated by 1.5 and 0.2 folds, respectively. The percentage of SP + eosinophils in psoriasis were down-regulated by 60% after the stimulation with Platanus pollen extract (1 μg/mL), while 0.1 μg/mL Platanus pollen extract induced a 0.6-fold increase in the percentage of NK1R + eosinophis. Conclusion The expressions of SP and NK1R are up-regulated in peripheral blood eosinophils of patients with psoriasis.

  15. Prenatal nicotinic exposure upregulates pulmonary C-fiber NK1R expression to prolong pulmonary C-fiber-mediated apneic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhuang, Jianguo; Zang, Na; Lin, Yong [Pathophysiology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Lu-Yuan [Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Xu, Fadi, E-mail: fxu@lrri.org [Pathophysiology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal nicotinic exposure (PNE) prolongs bronchopulmonary C-fiber (PCF)-mediated apneic response to intra-atrial bolus injection of capsaicin in rat pups. The relevant mechanisms remain unclear. Pulmonary substance P and adenosine and their receptors (neurokinin-A receptor, NK1R and ADA{sub 1} receptor, ADA{sub 1}R) and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) expressed on PCFs are critical for PCF sensitization and/or activation. Here, we compared substance P and adenosine in BALF and NK1R, ADA{sub 1}R, and TRPV1 expression in the nodose/jugular (N/J) ganglia (vagal pulmonary C-neurons retrogradely labeled) between Ctrl and PNE pups. We found that PNE failed to change BALF substance P and adenosine content, but significantly upregulated both mRNA and protein TRPV1 and NK1R in the N/J ganglia and only NK1R mRNA in pulmonary C-neurons. To define the role of NK1R in the PNE-induced PCF sensitization, the apneic response to capsaicin (i.v.) without or with pretreatment of SR140333 (a peripheral and selective NK1R antagonist) was compared and the prolonged apnea by PNE significantly shortened by SR140333. To clarify if the PNE-evoked responses depended on action of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly α7nAChR, mecamylamine or methyllycaconitine (a general nAChR or a selective α7nAChR antagonist) was administrated via another mini-pump over the PNE period. Mecamylamine or methyllycaconitine eliminated the PNE-evoked mRNA and protein responses. Our data suggest that PNE is able to elevate PCF NK1R expression via activation of nAChRs, especially α7nAChR, which likely contributes to sensitize PCFs and prolong the PCF-mediated apneic response to capsaicin. - Highlights: • PNE upregulated NK1R and TRPV1 gene and protein expression in the N/J ganglia. • PNE only elevated NK1R mRNA in vagal pulmonary C-neurons. • Blockage of peripheral NK1R reduced the PNE-induced PCF sensitization. • PNE induced gene and protein

  16. Prenatal nicotinic exposure upregulates pulmonary C-fiber NK1R expression to prolong pulmonary C-fiber-mediated apneic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhuang, Jianguo; Zang, Na; Lin, Yong; Lee, Lu-Yuan; Xu, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal nicotinic exposure (PNE) prolongs bronchopulmonary C-fiber (PCF)-mediated apneic response to intra-atrial bolus injection of capsaicin in rat pups. The relevant mechanisms remain unclear. Pulmonary substance P and adenosine and their receptors (neurokinin-A receptor, NK1R and ADA 1 receptor, ADA 1 R) and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) expressed on PCFs are critical for PCF sensitization and/or activation. Here, we compared substance P and adenosine in BALF and NK1R, ADA 1 R, and TRPV1 expression in the nodose/jugular (N/J) ganglia (vagal pulmonary C-neurons retrogradely labeled) between Ctrl and PNE pups. We found that PNE failed to change BALF substance P and adenosine content, but significantly upregulated both mRNA and protein TRPV1 and NK1R in the N/J ganglia and only NK1R mRNA in pulmonary C-neurons. To define the role of NK1R in the PNE-induced PCF sensitization, the apneic response to capsaicin (i.v.) without or with pretreatment of SR140333 (a peripheral and selective NK1R antagonist) was compared and the prolonged apnea by PNE significantly shortened by SR140333. To clarify if the PNE-evoked responses depended on action of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly α7nAChR, mecamylamine or methyllycaconitine (a general nAChR or a selective α7nAChR antagonist) was administrated via another mini-pump over the PNE period. Mecamylamine or methyllycaconitine eliminated the PNE-evoked mRNA and protein responses. Our data suggest that PNE is able to elevate PCF NK1R expression via activation of nAChRs, especially α7nAChR, which likely contributes to sensitize PCFs and prolong the PCF-mediated apneic response to capsaicin. - Highlights: • PNE upregulated NK1R and TRPV1 gene and protein expression in the N/J ganglia. • PNE only elevated NK1R mRNA in vagal pulmonary C-neurons. • Blockage of peripheral NK1R reduced the PNE-induced PCF sensitization. • PNE induced gene and protein changes in

  17. Mapping Substance P Binding Sites on the Neurokinin-1 Receptor Using Genetic Incorporation of a Photoreactive Amino Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Louise; Park, Minyoung; Huber, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    that the binding site for SP includes multiple domains in the N-terminal (Nt) segment and the second extracellular loop (ECLII) of NK1. To map precisely the NK1 residues that interact with SP, we applied a novel receptor-based targeted photocross-linking approach. We used amber codon suppression to introduce...... the photoreactive unnatural amino acid p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine (BzF) at 11 selected individual positions in the Nt tail (residues 11-21) and 23 positions in the ECLII (residues 170(C-10)-193(C+13)) of NK1. The 34 NK1 variants were expressed in mammalian HEK293 cells and retained the ability to interact...

  18. Neurokinin 1 Receptor Mediates Membrane Blebbing and Sheer Stress-Induced Microparticle Formation in HEK293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Panpan; Douglas, Steven D.; Meshki, John; Tuluc, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles participate in intercellular communication similar to the classical messenger systems of small and macro-molecules that bind to specialized membrane receptors. Microparticles have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of complex physiopathologic processes, such as thrombosis, the control of innate and adaptive immunity, and cancer. The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) is a Gq-coupled receptor present on the membrane of a variety of tissues, including neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, immune cells, endocrine and exocrine glands, and smooth muscle. The endogenous agonist of NK1R is the undecapeptide substance P (SP). We have previously described intracellular signaling mechanisms that regulate NK1R-mediated rapid cell shape changes in HEK293 cells and U373MG cells. In the present study, we show that the activation of NK1R in HEK293 cells, but not in U373MG cells, leads to formation of sheer-stress induced microparticles that stain positive with the membrane-selective fluorescent dye FM 2–10. SP-induced microparticle formation is independent of elevated intracellular calcium concentrations and activation of NK1R present on HEK293-derived microparticles triggers detectable calcium increase in SP-induced microparticles. The ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the dynamin inhibitor dynasore inhibited membrane blebbing and microparticle formation in HEK293 cells, strongly suggesting that microparticle formation in this cell type is dependent on membrane blebbing. PMID:23024816

  19. Neurokinin 1 receptor mediates membrane blebbing and sheer stress-induced microparticle formation in HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Chen

    Full Text Available Cell-derived microparticles participate in intercellular communication similar to the classical messenger systems of small and macro-molecules that bind to specialized membrane receptors. Microparticles have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of complex physiopathologic processes, such as thrombosis, the control of innate and adaptive immunity, and cancer. The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R is a Gq-coupled receptor present on the membrane of a variety of tissues, including neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, immune cells, endocrine and exocrine glands, and smooth muscle. The endogenous agonist of NK1R is the undecapeptide substance P (SP. We have previously described intracellular signaling mechanisms that regulate NK1R-mediated rapid cell shape changes in HEK293 cells and U373MG cells. In the present study, we show that the activation of NK1R in HEK293 cells, but not in U373MG cells, leads to formation of sheer-stress induced microparticles that stain positive with the membrane-selective fluorescent dye FM 2-10. SP-induced microparticle formation is independent of elevated intracellular calcium concentrations and activation of NK1R present on HEK293-derived microparticles triggers detectable calcium increase in SP-induced microparticles. The ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the dynamin inhibitor dynasore inhibited membrane blebbing and microparticle formation in HEK293 cells, strongly suggesting that microparticle formation in this cell type is dependent on membrane blebbing.

  20. Targeted deletion of neurokinin-1 receptor expressing nucleus tractus solitarii neurons precludes somatosensory depression of arterial baroreceptor-heart rate reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, J T; Fong, A Y; Anguelov, P I; Lee, S; McGovern, D; Grias, I

    2007-03-30

    Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1-R) expressing neurons are densely distributed throughout the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). However, their fundamental role in arterial baroreflex function remains debated. Previously, our group has shown that activation of contraction-sensitive somatic afferents evoke substance P (SP) release in the NTS and resets the arterial baroreflex via activation of a GABAergic NTS circuit. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that modulation of arterial baroreflex function by somatic afferents is mediated by NK1-R dependent inhibition of barosensitive NTS circuits. In the present study, SP-conjugated saporin toxin (SP-SAP) was used to ablate NK1-R expressing NTS neurons. Contraction-sensitive somatic afferents were activated by electrically-evoked muscle contraction and the arterial baroreceptor-heart rate reflex was assessed by constructing reflex curves using a decerebrate, arterially-perfused preparation. Baseline baroreflex sensitivity was significantly attenuated in SP-SAP-treated rats compared with control rats receiving either unconjugated SAP or vehicle. Muscle contraction significantly attenuated baroslope in SAP and vehicle-treated animals and shifted the baroreflex curves to higher systemic pressure. In contrast, somatic afferent stimulation failed to alter baroslope or shift the baroreflex curves in SP-SAP-treated animals. Moreover, when reflex sensitivity was partially restored in SP-SAP animals, somatic stimulation failed to attenuate baroreflex bradycardia. In contrast, SP-SAP and somatic stimulation failed to blunt the reflex bradycardia evoked by the peripheral chemoreflex. Immunohistochemistry revealed that pretreatment with SP-SAP significantly reduced the number of NK1-R expressing neurons in the caudal NTS, while sparing NK1-R expressing neurons rostral to the injection site. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in the number of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) expressing neurons at equivalent levels of the

  1. Surfactant protein A (SP-A)-mediated clearance of Staphylococcus aureus involves binding of SP-A to the staphylococcal adhesin eap and the macrophage receptors SP-A receptor 210 and scavenger receptor class A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Krupa, Agnieszka; Davis, Jeremy; Hasan, Misbah; Yang, Ching-Hui; Szeliga, Jacek; Herrmann, Mathias; Hussain, Muzafar; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Kobzik, Lester; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2011-02-11

    Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening pneumonia in hospitals and deadly superinfection during viral influenza. The current study investigated the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in opsonization and clearance of S. aureus. Previous studies showed that SP-A mediates phagocytosis via the SP-A receptor 210 (SP-R210). Here, we show that SP-R210 mediates binding and control of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus by macrophages. We determined that SP-A binds S. aureus through the extracellular adhesin Eap. Consequently, SP-A enhanced macrophage uptake of Eap-expressing (Eap(+)) but not Eap-deficient (Eap(-)) S. aureus. In a reciprocal fashion, SP-A failed to enhance uptake of Eap(+) S. aureus in peritoneal Raw264.7 macrophages with a dominant negative mutation (SP-R210(DN)) blocking surface expression of SP-R210. Accordingly, WT mice cleared infection with Eap(+) but succumbed to sublethal infection with Eap- S. aureus. However, SP-R210(DN) cells compensated by increasing non-opsonic phagocytosis of Eap(+) S. aureus via the scavenger receptor scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), while non-opsonic uptake of Eap(-) S. aureus was impaired. Macrophages express two isoforms: SP-R210(L) and SP-R210(S). The results show that WT alveolar macrophages are distinguished by expression of SP-R210(L), whereas SR-A(-/-) alveolar macrophages are deficient in SP-R210(L) expressing only SP-R210(S). Accordingly, SR-A(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to both Eap(+) and Eap(-) S. aureus. The lungs of susceptible mice generated abnormal inflammatory responses that were associated with impaired killing and persistence of S. aureus infection in the lung. In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210(L) mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A.

  2. The human luteinizing hormone receptor gene promoter: activation by Sp1 and Sp3 and inhibitory regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Y; Tsai-Morris, C H; Zhang, Y; Dufau, M L

    1999-09-24

    To understand the transcriptional mechanism(s) of human LH receptor (LHR) gene expression, we have identified the dominant functional cis-elements that regulate the activity of the promoter domain (-1 to -176 bp from ATG). Mutagenesis demonstrated that the promoter activity was dependent on two Sp1 domains (-79 bp, -120 bp) in a transformed normal placental cell (PLC) and the choriocarcinoma JAR cell. Both elements interacted with endogenous Sp1 and Sp3 factors but not with Sp2 or Sp4. In Drosophila SL2 cells, the promoter was activated by either Sp1 or Sp3. An ERE half-site (EREhs) at -174 bp was inhibitory (by 100%), but was unresponsive to estradiol and did not bind the estrogen receptor or orphan receptors ERR1 and SF-1. The 5' upstream sequence (-177 to -2056 bp) inhibited promoter activity in PLC by 60%, but only minimally in JAR cells. Activation of the human LHR promoter through Sp1/3 factors is negatively regulated through EREhs and upstream sequences to exert control of gene expression. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. DX5+NKT cells display phenotypical and functional differences between spleen and liver as well as NK1.1-Balb/c and NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jens M; Busl, Elisabeth; Farkas, Stefan A; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Hornung, Matthias

    2011-04-29

    Natural killer T cells represent a linkage between innate and adaptive immunity. They are a heterogeneous population of specialized T lymphocytes composed of different subsets. DX5+NKT cells are characterized by expression of the NK cell marker DX5 in the context of CD3. However, little is known about the phenotype and functional capacity of this unique cell population. Therefore, we investigated the expression of several T cell and NK cell markers, as well as functional parameters in spleen and liver subsets of DX5+NKT cells in NK1.1- Balb/c mice and compared our findings to NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice. In the spleen 34% of DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L and they up-regulated the functional receptors CD154 as well as CD178 upon activation. In contrast, only a few liver DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L, and they did not up-regulate CD154 upon activation. A further difference between spleen and liver subsets was observed in cytokine production. Spleen DX5+NKT cells produced more Th1 cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α, while liver DX5+NKT cells secreted more Th2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4) and even the Th17 cytokine, IL-17a. Furthermore, we found inter-strain differences. In NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice DX5+NKT cells represented a distinct T cell population expressing less CD4 and more CD8. Accordingly, these cells showed a CD178 and Th2-type functional capacity upon activation. These results show that DX5+NKT cells are a heterogeneous population, depending on the dedicated organ and mouse strain, that has diverse functional capacity.

  4. NK1.1+ cells promote sustained tissue injury and inflammation after trauma with hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuhua; Hoffman, Rosemary A; Scott, Melanie; Manson, Joanna; Loughran, Patricia; Ramadan, Mostafa; Demetris, Anthony J; Billiar, Timothy R

    2017-07-01

    Various cell populations expressing NK1.1 contribute to innate host defense and systemic inflammatory responses, but their role in hemorrhagic shock and trauma remains uncertain. NK1.1 + cells were depleted by i.p. administration of anti-NK1.1 (or isotype control) on two consecutive days, followed by hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation and peripheral tissue trauma (HS/T). The plasma levels of IL-6, MCP-1, alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured at 6 and 24 h. Histology in liver and gut were examined at 6 and 24 h. The number of NK cells, NKT cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in liver, as well as intracellular staining for TNF-α, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 in liver cell populations were determined by flow cytometry. Control mice subjected to HS/T exhibited end organ damage manifested by marked increases in circulating ALT, AST, and MCP-1 levels, as well as histologic evidence of hepatic necrosis and gut injury. Although NK1.1 + cell-depleted mice exhibited a similar degree of organ damage as nondepleted animals at 6 h, NK1.1 + cell depletion resulted in marked suppression of both liver and gut injury by 24 h after HS/T. These findings indicate that NK1.1 + cells contribute to the persistence of inflammation leading to end organ damage in the liver and gut. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  5. Requirement for Innate Immunity and CD90+ NK1.1− Lymphocytes to Treat Established Melanoma with Chemo-Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Marina; Pan, Michael; Fu, Yichun; de Moll, Ellen H.; Hashimoto, Daigo; Mortha, Arthur; Leboeuf, Marylene; Jayaraman, Padmini; Bernardo, Sebastian; Sikora, Andrew G.; Wolchok, Jedd; Bhardwaj, Nina; Merad, Miriam; Saenger, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    We sought to define cellular immune mechanisms of synergy between tumor-antigen–targeted monoclonal antibodies and chemotherapy. Established B16 melanoma in mice was treated with cytotoxic doses of cyclophosphamide in combination with an antibody targeting tyrosinase-related protein 1 (αTRP1), a native melanoma differentiation antigen. We find that Fcγ receptors are required for efficacy, showing that antitumor activity of combination therapy is immune mediated. Rag1−/− mice deficient in adaptive immunity are able to clear tumors, and thus innate immunity is sufficient for efficacy. Furthermore, previously treated wild-type mice are not significantly protected against tumor reinduction, as compared with mice inoculated with irradiated B16 alone, consistent with a primarily innate immune mechanism of action of chemo-immunotherapy. In contrast, mice deficient in both classical natural killer (NK) lymphocytes and nonclassical innate lymphocytes (ILC) due to deletion of the IL2 receptor common gamma chain IL2γc−/−) are refractory to chemo-immunotherapy. Classical NK lymphocytes are not critical for treatment, as depletion of NK1.1+ cells does not impair antitumor effect. Depletion of CD90+NK1.1− lymphocytes, however, both diminishes therapeutic benefit and decreases accumulation of macrophages within the tumor. Tumor clearance during combination chemo-immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies against native antigen is mediated by the innate immune system. We highlight a novel potential role for CD90+NK1.1− ILCs in chemo-immunotherapy. PMID:25600438

  6. HMB-45, S-100, NK1/C3, and MART-1 in metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubovits, Judit; Buzney, Elizabeth; Yu, Lawrence; Duncan, Lyn M

    2004-02-01

    The diagnosis of melanoma metastatic to lymph node remains a difficult problem given its histological diversity. We examined the staining patterns of S-100, NK1/C3, HMB-45, and MART-1 (DC10) in melanoma metastases to lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on tissue sections of 126 formalin-fixed lymph nodes from 126 patients with an established diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. A total of 98% of cases (123 of 126) stained positive for S-100, 93% (117 of 125) stained positive for NK1/C3, 82% (103 of 126) stained positive for MART-1, and 76% (95 of 125) stained positive for HMB-45. The distribution and intensity of staining varied among these markers. A diffuse staining pattern, defined as >50% of tumor cells stained, was observed in 83% of MART-1-positive cases but in only 56% of S-100-positive cases, 48% of NK1/C3-positive cases, and 34% of HMB-45-positive cases. A maximally intense signal was almost always observed for MART-1 (83% of positive cases) but was rarely observed for NK1/C3 (20%). S-100 and HMB-45 showed maximally intense staining in 50% and 54% of cases, respectively. S-100 and NK1/C3 stained both histiocytes and melanocytes, whereas MART-1 and HMB-45 stained only melanocytes. Seventy-eight cases (63%) stained positive for all 4 markers, 17 cases (14%) stained for all markers except HMB-45, 13 cases (10%) stained for all markers except MART-1, 6 cases (5%) stained only with S-100 and NK1/C3, 4 cases (3%) stained only with S-100 and HMB-45, and 2 cases stained for all markers except S-100. One case each stained for the following: only S-100, only S-100 and HMB-45, and all markers except NK1/C3. One case exhibited absence of staining for any of these markers. We demonstrate that lymph node metastases of melanoma are heterogeneous with regard to tumor marker expression. S-100 and NK1/C3 were the most sensitive stains for detecting metastatic melanoma; however, they both also stain other nontumor cells in lymph nodes. MART-1 did not stain

  7. Photoaffinity labeling the substance P receptor using a derivative of substance P containing para-benzoylphenylalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, N.D.; White, C.F.; Leeman, S.E.; Cerpa, R.; Kaiser, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    A novel photoreactive substance P (SP) analogue has been synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis methodology to incorporate the amino acid p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine [L-Phe(pBz)] in place of the Phe 8 residue of SP. [Phe 8 (OpBz)]SP was equipotent with SP in competing for SP binding sites on rat submaxillary gland membranes and had potent sialagogic activity in vivo. In the absence of light, the 125 I-labeled Bolton-Hunter conjugate of [Phe 8 (pBz)]SP bound in a saturable and reversible manner to an apparently homogeneous class of binding sites with an affinity K D = 0.4 nM. The binding of 125 I-[Phe 8 (pBz)]SP was inhibited competitively by various tachykinin peptides and analogues with the appropriate specificity for SP/NK-1 receptors. Upon photolysis, up to 70% of the specifically bound 125 I-[Phe 8 (pBz)]SP underwent covalent linkage to two polypeptides of M r = 53 000 and 46 000, identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of the inhibitory effects of SP and related peptides on 125 I-[Phe 8 (pBz)]SP photoincorporation indicated that the binding sites of the two photolabeled polypeptides have the same peptide specificity, namely, that typical of NK-1-type SP receptors. Further information on the relationship between the two labeled SP binding sites was provided by enzymatic digestion studies. The highly specific and remarkably efficient photolabeling achieved with 125 I-[Phe 8 (pBz)]SP suggests that this photoaffinity probe will be of considerable value for the characterization of the molecular structure of the SP receptor

  8. Characterization of G-protein coupled receptor kinase interaction with the neurokinin-1 receptor using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Rasmus; Holliday, Nicholas D; Hansen, Jakob L

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase-inactive muta......To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase...

  9. Fine tuning a well-oiled machine: Influence of NK1.1 and NKG2D on NKT cell development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sunil K; Lang, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT) represent a group of CD1d-restricted T-lineage cells that provide a functional interface between innate and adaptive immune responses in infectious disease, cancer, allergy and autoimmunity. There have been remarkable advances in understanding the molecular events that underpin NKT development in the thymus and in the complex array of functions in the periphery. Most functional studies have focused on activation of T cell antigen receptors expressed by NKT cells and their responses to CD1d presentation of glycolipid and related antigens. Receiving less attention has been several molecules that are hallmarks of Natural Killer (NK) cells, but nonetheless expressed by NKT cells. These include several activating and inhibitory receptors that may fine-tune NKT development and survival, as well as activation via antigen receptors. Herein, we review the possible roles of the NK1.1 and NKG2D receptors in regulating development and function of NKT cells in health and disease. We suggest that pharmacological alteration of NKT activity should consider the potential complexities commensurate with NK1.1 and NKG2D expression. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Functional effects of polymorphisms on glucocorticoid receptor modulation of human anxiogenic substance-P gene promoter activity in primary amygdala neurones

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Colin W.; Shanley, Lynne; Davidson, Scott; Cowie, Philip; Lear, Marissa; McGuffin, Peter; Riedel, Gernot; McEwan, Iain J.; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2014-01-01

    Summary Expression or introduction of the neuropeptide substance-P (SP; encoded by the TAC1 gene in humans and Tac1 in rodents) in the amygdala induces anxiety related behaviour in rodents. In addition, pharmacological antagonism of the main receptor of SP in humans; NK1, is anxiolytic. In the current study, we show that the Tac1 locus is up-regulated in primary rat amygdala neurones in response to activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR); a classic component of the stress response. Usi...

  11. Peripheral substance P and neurokinin-1 receptors have a role in inflammatory and neuropathic orofacial pain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Fernanda C; Tronco Júnior, Marcos F; Zampronio, Aleksander R; Martini, Alessandra C; Rae, Giles A; Chichorro, Juliana G

    2013-06-01

    There is accumulating evidence that substance P released from peripheral sensory neurons participates in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In this study it was investigated the ability of substance P to induce orofacial nociception and thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, as well as the role of NK1 receptors on models of orofacial inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Substance P injected into the upper lip at 1, 10 and 100 μg/50 μL failed to induce nociceptive behavior. Also, substance P (0.1-10 μg/50 μL) injected into the upper lip did not evoke orofacial cold hyperalgesia and when injected at 1 μg/50 μL did not induce mechanical hyperalgesia. However, substance P at this latter dose induced orofacial heat hyperalgesia, which was reduced by the pre-treatment of rats with a non-peptide NK1 receptor antagonist (SR140333B, 3mg/kg). Systemic treatment with SR140333B (3 mg/kg) also reduced carrageenan-induced heat hyperalgesia, but did not exert any influence on carrageenan-induced cold hyperalgesia. Blockade of NK1 receptors with SR140333B also reduced by about 50% both phases of the formalin response evaluated in the orofacial region. Moreover, heat, but not cold or mechanical, hyperalgesia induced by constriction of the infraorbital nerve, a model of trigeminal neuropathic pain, was abolished by pretreatment with SR140333B. Considering that substance P was peripherally injected (i.e. upper lip) and the NK1 antagonist used lacks the ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier, our results demonstrate that the peripheral SP/NK1 system participates in the heat hyperalgesia associated with inflammation or nerve injury and in the persistent pain evoked by formalin in the orofacial region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SP600125 Induces Src and Type I IGF Receptor Phosphorylation Independent of JNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbin Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family that have important roles in signal transduction. The small molecule SP600125 is widely used in biochemical studies as a JNK inhibitor. However, recent studies indicate that SP600125 may also act independent of JNK. Here, we report that SP600125 can induce Src, type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR, Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Notably, these effects are independent of its inhibition of JNK. Inhibition of Src abrogates the stimulation of IGF-IR, Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. IGF-IR knockdown blunts the induction of both Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation by SP600125. Moreover, combination of SP600125 and the Src inhibitor saracatinib synergistically inhibits cell proliferation. We conclude that SP600125 can activate Src-IGF-IR-Akt/Erk1/2 signaling pathways independent of JNK.

  13. Postsynaptic dorsal column neurons express NK1 receptors following colon inflammation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Jiří; Palečková, V.; Willis, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 2 (2003), s. 565-572 ISSN 0306-4522 Grant - others:NIH(US) NS09743; NIH(US) NS11255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : visceral pain * substance P * postsynaptic dorsal column Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.601, year: 2003

  14. Bladder inflammatory transcriptome in response to tachykinins: Neurokinin 1 receptor-dependent genes and transcription regulatory elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dozmorov Igor

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tachykinins (TK, such as substance P, and their neurokinin receptors which are ubiquitously expressed in the human urinary tract, represent an endogenous system regulating bladder inflammatory, immune responses, and visceral hypersensitivity. Increasing evidence correlates alterations in the TK system with urinary tract diseases such as neurogenic bladders, outflow obstruction, idiopathic detrusor instability, and interstitial cystitis. However, despite promising effects in animal models, there seems to be no published clinical study showing that NK-receptor antagonists are an effective treatment of pain in general or urinary tract disorders, such as detrusor overactivity. In order to search for therapeutic targets that could block the tachykinin system, we set forth to determine the regulatory network downstream of NK1 receptor activation. First, NK1R-dependent transcripts were determined and used to query known databases for their respective transcription regulatory elements (TREs. Methods An expression analysis was performed using urinary bladders isolated from sensitized wild type (WT and NK1R-/- mice that were stimulated with saline, LPS, or antigen to provoke inflammation. Based on cDNA array results, NK1R-dependent genes were selected. PAINT software was used to query TRANSFAC database and to retrieve upstream TREs that were confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Results The regulatory network of TREs driving NK1R-dependent genes presented cRel in a central position driving 22% of all genes, followed by AP-1, NF-kappaB, v-Myb, CRE-BP1/c-Jun, USF, Pax-6, Efr-1, Egr-3, and AREB6. A comparison between NK1R-dependent and NK1R-independent genes revealed Nkx-2.5 as a unique discriminator. In the presence of NK1R, Nkx2-5 _01 was significantly correlated with 36 transcripts which included several candidates for mediating bladder development (FGF and inflammation (PAR-3, IL-1R, IL-6, α-NGF, TSP2. In the absence of

  15. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słoniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Byström, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides

  16. Differential regulation of the human progesterone receptor gene through an estrogen response element half site and Sp1 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petz, Larry N; Ziegler, Yvonne S; Schultz, Jennifer R; Kim, Hwajin; Kemper, J Kim; Nardulli, Ann M

    2004-02-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR) gene is regulated by estrogen in normal reproductive tissues and in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Although it is generally thought that estrogen responsiveness is mediated by interaction of the ligand-occupied estrogen receptor (ER) with estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, the human progesterone receptor (PR) gene lacks a palindromic ERE. Promoter A of the PR gene does, however, contain an ERE half site upstream of two adjacent Sp1 sites from +571 to +595, the +571 ERE/Sp1 site. We have examined the individual contributions of the ERE half site and the two Sp1 sites in regulating estrogen responsiveness. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that both Sp1 sites were critical for estrogen-mediated activation of the PR gene. Interestingly, rather than decreasing transcription, mutations in the ERE half site increased transcription substantially suggesting that this site plays a role in limiting transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Sp1 was associated with the +571 ERE/Sp1 site in the endogenous PR gene in the absence and in the presence of estrogen, but that ERalpha was only associated with this region of the PR gene after MCF-7 cells had been treated with estrogen. Our studies provide evidence that effective regulation of transcription through the +571 ERE/Sp1 site requires the binding of ERalpha and Sp1 to their respective cis elements and the appropriate interaction of ERalpha and Sp1 with other coregulatory proteins and transcription factors.

  17. CD5−NK1.1+ γδ T Cells that Develop in a Bcl11b-Independent Manner Participate in Early Protection against Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hatano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We recently found that a unique subset of innate-like γδ T cells develops from the DN2a stage of the fetal thymus independently of the zinc-finger transcription factor B cell leukemia/lymphoma 11b (Bcl11b. Herein, we characterize these Bcl11b-independent γδ T cells in the periphery as CD5−NK1.1+ and Granzyme B+, and we show that they are capable of producing interferon (IFN-γ upon T cell receptor stimulation without Ca2+ influx. In wild-type mice, these cells were sparse in lymphoid tissues but abundant in non-lymphoid tissues, such as the liver. Bcl11b-independent CD5−NK1.1+ γδ T cells appeared and contributed to early protection before Bcl11b-dependent CD5+NK1.1− γδ T cells following Listeria monocytogenes infection, resembling their sequential appearance during development in the thymus. : Bcl11b is essential for transition from the DN2a to the DN2b stage in the thymus. Hatano et al. find that CD5−NK1.1+ γδ T cells develop from the DN2a stage in a Bcl11b-independent manner and participate in host defense at an early stage after bacterial infection in periphery. Keywords: innate immunity, γδ T cell, Bcl11b, DN2a, IFN-γ, Granzyme, IL-17A, host defense, bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes

  18. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 replication by an α-hydroxy-nitrile derivative NK-1.9k.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Cao, Lin; Zhai, Yangyang; Ma, Jiaming; Nie, Quandeng; Li, Ting; Yin, Zheng; Sun, Yuna; Shang, Luqing

    2017-05-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major etiological agents of human hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. EV71 infection in young children and people with immunodeficiency causes severe symptoms with a high fatality rates. However, there is still no approved drugs to treat such infections. Based on our previous report of a peptide-aldehyde anti-EV71 protease, we present here a highly specific α-hydroxy-nitrile derivative NK-1.9k, which inhibited the proliferation of multiple EV71 strains and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) in various cells with EC 50 of 37.0 nM with low cytotoxicity (CC 50  > 200 μM). The hydroxy-nitrile covalent warhead conferred NK-1.9k high potency and selectivity to interact with the cysteine residue of the active site of the viral protease. We also documented the resistance to NK-1.9k with a N69S mutation in EV71 3C pro . The combination of NK-1.9k and EV71 polymerase or entry inhibitors produced strong synergistic antiviral effects. Collectively, our findings suggest our compounds can potentially be developed as drugs for the treatment of HFMD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Ethylene Regulates the Physiology of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 via an Ethylene Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Randy F; Binder, Brad M

    2016-08-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the growth and development of plants. The ethylene receptors in plants are well studied, and it is generally assumed that they are found only in plants. In a search of sequenced genomes, we found that many bacterial species contain putative ethylene receptors. Plants acquired many proteins from cyanobacteria as a result of the endosymbiotic event that led to chloroplasts. We provide data that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803) has a functional receptor for ethylene, Synechocystis Ethylene Response1 (SynEtr1). We first show that SynEtr1 directly binds ethylene. Second, we demonstrate that application of ethylene to Synechocystis cells or disruption of the SynEtr1 gene affects several processes, including phototaxis, type IV pilus biosynthesis, photosystem II levels, biofilm formation, and spontaneous cell sedimentation. Our data suggest a model where SynEtr1 inhibits downstream signaling and ethylene inhibits SynEtr1. This is similar to the inverse-agonist model of ethylene receptor signaling proposed for plants and suggests a conservation of structure and function that possibly originated over 1 billion years ago. Prior research showed that SynEtr1 also contains a light-responsive phytochrome-like domain. Thus, SynEtr1 is a bifunctional receptor that mediates responses to both light and ethylene. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a functional ethylene receptor in a nonplant species and suggests that that the perception of ethylene is more widespread than previously thought. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Identification of a Novel Substance P–Neurokinin-1 Receptor MicroRNA-221-5p Inflammatory Network in Human Colonic Epithelial CellsSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Fang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Substance P (SP, a neuropeptide member of the tachykinin family, plays a critical role in colitis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. We examined whether SP modulates expression of microRNAs in human colonic epithelial cells. Methods: We performed microRNA profiling analysis of SP-stimulated human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells overexpressing neurokinin-1 receptor (NCM460-NK-1R. Targets of SP-regulated microRNAs were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Functions of miRNAs were tested in NCM460-NK-1R cells and the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS models of colitis. Results: SP stimulated differential expression of 29 microRNAs, including miR-221-5p, the highest up-regulated miR (by 12.6-fold upon SP stimulation. Bioinformatic and luciferase reporter analyses identified interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R mRNA as a direct target of miR-221-5p in NCM460 cells. Accordingly, SP exposure of NCM460-NK-1R cells increased IL-6R mRNA expression, and overexpression of miR-221-5p reduced IL-6R expression. Nuclear factor κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition decreased SP-induced miR-221-5p expression. MiR-221-5p expression was increased in both TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis and in colonic biopsy samples from ulcerative colitis but not Crohn’s disease patients compared with controls. In mice, intracolonic administration of a miR-221-5p chemical inhibitor exacerbated TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis and increased colonic tumor necrosis factor-α, C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (Cxcl10, and collagen, type II, α 1 (Col2α1 mRNA expression. In situ hybridization in TNBS- and DSS-exposed colons revealed increased miR-221-5p expression primarily in colonocytes. Conclusions: Our results reveal a novel NK-1R-miR-221-5p-IL-6R network that protects from colitis. The use of miR-221-5p mimics may be a promising approach for colitis

  1. Monosodium Urate Crystals Induce Upregulation of NK1.1-Dependent Killing by Macrophages and Support Tumor-Resident NK1.1+ Monocyte/Macrophage Populations in Antitumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Stefanie; Kuhn, Sabine; Ronchese, Franca; Harper, Jacquie L

    2015-12-01

    Macrophages display phenotypic and functional heterogeneity dependent on the changing inflammatory microenvironment. Under some conditions, macrophages can acquire effector functions commonly associated with NK cells. In the current study, we investigated how the endogenous danger signal monosodium urate (MSU) crystals can alter macrophage functions. We report that naive, primary peritoneal macrophages rapidly upregulate the expression of the NK cell-surface marker NK1.1 in response to MSU crystals but not in response to LPS or other urate crystals. NK1.1 upregulation by macrophages was associated with mechanisms including phagocytosis of crystals, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and autocrine proinflammatory cytokine signaling. Further analysis demonstrated that MSU crystal-activated macrophages exhibited NK cell-like cytotoxic activity against target cells in a perforin/granzyme B-dependent manner. Furthermore, analysis of tumor hemopoietic cell populations showed that effective, MSU-mediated antitumor activity required coadministration with Mycobacterium smegmatis to induce IL-1β production and significant accumulation of monocytes and macrophages (but not granulocytes or dendritic cells) expressing elevated levels of NK1.1. Our findings provide evidence that MSU crystal-activated macrophages have the potential to develop tumoricidal NK cell-like functions that may be exploited to boost antitumor activity in vivo. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. The role of NK1.1+ cells in the protection against MHC class I+ HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Bieblová, Jana; Jandlová, Táňa

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2004), s. 200-202 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5052203; GA AV ČR KSK5011112; GA MZd NC7148; GA MZd NR7807 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV16 * MHC class I expression * NK1.1+ cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2004

  3. Peptidyl aldehyde NK-1.8k suppresses enterovirus 71 and enterovirus 68 infection by targeting protease 3C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Yang, Ben; Zhai, Yangyang; Yin, Zheng; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2015-05-01

    Enterovirus (EV) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Pacific-Asia region. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections, and the fatality rates from EV71 infection are high. Moreover, an outbreak of respiratory illnesses caused by an emerging EV, EV68, recently occurred among over 1,000 young children in the United States and was also associated with neurological infections. Although enterovirus has emerged as a considerable global public health threat, no antiviral drug for clinical use is available. In the present work, we screened our compound library for agents targeting viral protease and identified a peptidyl aldehyde, NK-1.8k, that inhibits the proliferation of different EV71 strains and one EV68 strain and that had a 50% effective concentration of 90 nM. Low cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration, >200 μM) indicated a high selective index of over 2,000. We further characterized a single amino acid substitution inside protease 3C (3C(pro)), N69S, which conferred EV71 resistance to NK-1.8k, possibly by increasing the flexibility of the substrate binding pocket of 3C(pro). The combination of NK-1.8k and an EV71 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor or entry inhibitor exhibited a strong synergistic anti-EV71 effect. Our findings suggest that NK-1.8k could potentially be developed for anti-EV therapy. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. PKCɛ mediates substance P inhibition of GABAA receptors-mediated current in rat dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Ma, Ke-tao; Shi, Wen-yan; Wang, Ying-zi; Si, Jun-qiang

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism underlying the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated response in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was investigated. In freshly dissociated rat DRG neurons, whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record GABA-activated current and sharp electrode intracellular recording technique was used to record GABA-induced membrane depolarization. Application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) induced an inward current in a concentration-dependent manner in 114 out of 127 DRG neurons (89.8 %) examined with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Bath application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) evoked a depolarizing response in 236 out of 257 (91.8%) DRG neurons examined with intracellular recordings. Application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) suppressed the GABA-activated inward current and membrane depolarization. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent and could be blocked by the selective neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors antagonist spantide but not by L659187 and SR142801 (1 μmol/L, n=7), selective antagonists of NK2 and NK3. The inhibitory effect of SP was significantly reduced by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, and PKC inhibitor chelerythrine, respectively. The PKA inhibitor H-89 did not affect the SP effect. Remarkably, the inhibitory effect of SP on GABA-activated current was nearly completely removed by a selective PKCε inhibitor epilon-V1-2 but not by safingol and LY333531, selective inhibitors of PKCα and PKCβ. Our results suggest that NK1 receptor mediates SP-induced inhibition of GABA-activated current and membrane depolarization by activating intracellular PLC-Ca²⁺-PKCε cascade. SP might regulate the excitability of peripheral nociceptors through inhibition of the "pre-synaptic inhibition" evoked by GABA, which may explain its role in pain and neurogenic inflammation.

  5. Transcription of human resistin gene involves an interaction of Sp1 with peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor gamma (PPARgamma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistin is a cysteine rich protein, mainly expressed and secreted by circulating human mononuclear cells. While several factors responsible for transcription of mouse resistin gene have been identified, not much is known about the factors responsible for the differential expression of human resistin.We show that the minimal promoter of human resistin lies within approximately 80 bp sequence upstream of the transcriptional start site (-240 whereas binding sites for cRel, CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP-alpha, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2 and activator protein 1 (AP-1 transcription factors, important for induced expression, are present within sequences up to -619. Specificity Protein 1(Sp1 binding site (-276 to -295 is also present and an interaction of Sp1 with peroxisome proliferator activating receptor gamma (PPARgamma is necessary for constitutive expression in U937 cells. Indeed co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated a direct physical interaction of Sp1 with PPARgamma in whole cell extracts of U937 cells. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA upregulated the expression of resistin mRNA in U937 cells by increasing the recruitment of Sp1, ATF-2 and PPARgamma on the resistin gene promoter. Furthermore, PMA stimulation of U937 cells resulted in the disruption of Sp1 and PPARgamma interaction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay confirmed the recruitment of transcription factors phospho ATF-2, Sp1, Sp3, PPARgamma, chromatin modifier histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 and the acetylated form of histone H3 but not cRel, C/EBP-alpha and phospho c-Jun during resistin gene transcription.Our findings suggest a complex interplay of Sp1 and PPARgamma along with other transcription factors that drives the expression of resistin in human monocytic U937 cells.

  6. Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Mu-Opioid Receptor Recycling by Substance P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanna L. Bowman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available How neurons coordinate and reprogram multiple neurotransmitter signals is an area of broad interest. Here, we show that substance P (SP, a neuropeptide associated with inflammatory pain, reprograms opioid receptor recycling and signaling. SP, through activation of the neurokinin 1 (NK1R receptor, increases the post-endocytic recycling of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR in trigeminal ganglion (TG neurons in an agonist-selective manner. SP-mediated protein kinase C (PKC activation is both required and sufficient for increasing recycling of exogenous and endogenous MOR in TG neurons. The target of this cross-regulation is MOR itself, given that mutation of either of two PKC phosphorylation sites on MOR abolishes the SP-induced increase in recycling and resensitization. Furthermore, SP enhances the resensitization of fentanyl-induced, but not morphine-induced, antinociception in mice. Our results define a physiological pathway that cross-regulates opioid receptor recycling via direct modification of MOR and suggest a mode of homeostatic interaction between the pain and analgesic systems.

  7. Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Mu-Opioid Receptor Recycling by Substance P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanna L.; Soohoo, Amanda L.; Shiwarski, Daniel J.; Schulz, Stefan; Pradhan, Amynah A.; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY How neurons coordinate and reprogram multiple neurotransmitter signals is an area of broad interest. Here, we show that substance P (SP), a neuropep-tide associated with inflammatory pain, reprograms opioid receptor recycling and signaling. SP, through activation of the neurokinin 1 (NK1R) receptor, increases the post-endocytic recycling of the muopioid receptor (MOR) in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons in an agonist-selective manner. SP-mediated protein kinase C (PKC) activation is both required and sufficient for increasing recycling of exogenous and endogenous MOR in TG neurons. The target of this cross-regulation is MOR itself, given that mutation of either of two PKC phosphorylation sites on MOR abolishes the SP-induced increase in recycling and resensitization. Furthermore, SP enhances the resensitization of fentanyl-induced, but not morphine-induced, antinociception in mice. Our results define a physiological pathway that cross-regulates opioid receptor recycling via direct modification of MOR and suggest a mode of homeo-static interaction between the pain and analgesic systems. PMID:25801029

  8. MOLECULAR DOCKING OF COMPOUNDS FROM Chaetomium Sp. AGAINST HUMAN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA IN SEARCHING ANTI BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maywan Hariono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on molecular docking-based virtual screening has been conducted to select virtual hit of compounds, reported its existence in fungal endophytes of Chaetomium sp. as cytotoxic agent of breast cancer. The ligands were docked into Human Estrogen Receptor alpha (HERa as the protein which regulates the breast cancer growth via estradiol-estrogen receptor binding intervention. The results showed that two compounds bearing xanthone and two compounds bearing benzonaphtyridinedione scaffolds were selected as virtual hit ligands for HERa leading to the conclusion that these compounds were good to be developed as anti breast cancer.

  9. Kaempferol stimulates gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor through activation of Sp1 in cultured hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ayasa; Miyata, Shingo; Iwase, Masamori; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    A high level of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is considered a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Because the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) is essential for clearing plasma LDL cholesterol, activation of LDLR is a promising therapeutic target for patients with atherosclerotic disease. Here we demonstrated how the flavonoid kaempferol stimulated the gene expression and activity of LDLR in HepG2 cells. The kaempferol-mediated stimulation of LDLR gene expression was completely inhibited by knockdown of Sp1 gene expression. Treatment of HepG2 cells with kaempferol stimulated the recruitment of Sp1 to the promoter region of the LDLR gene, as well as the phosphorylation of Sp1 on Thr-453 and Thr-739. Moreover, these kaempferol-mediated processes were inhibited in the presence of U0126, an ERK pathway inhibitor. These results suggest that kaempferol may increase the activity of Sp1 through stimulation of Sp1 phosphorylation by ERK1/2 and subsequent induction of LDLR expression and activity. PMID:27109240

  10. Nucleotide sequences of two cellulase genes from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain N-4 and their strong homology.

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumori, F; Sashihara, N; Kudo, T; Horikoshi, K

    1986-01-01

    Two genes for cellulases of alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain N-4 (ATCC 21833) have been sequenced. From the DNA sequences the cellulases encoded in the plasmids pNK1 and pNK2 consist of 488 and 409 amino acids, respectively. The DNA and protein sequences of the pNK1-encoded cellulase are related to those of the pNK2-encoded cellulase. The pNK2-encoded cellulase lacks the direct repeat sequence of a stretch of 60 amino acids near the C-terminal end of the pNK1-encoded cellulase. The duplicatio...

  11. Effect of casopitant, a novel NK-1 antagonist, on the pharmacokinetics of dolasetron and granisetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Laurel M; Johnson, Brendan; Zhang, Ke; Yue, Lin; Kirby, Lyndon C; Lebowitz, Peter; Stoltz, Randall

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the impact of casopitant, a novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist under investigation for the prevention of postoperative and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, on the pharmacokinetics of the commonly prescribed 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3 receptor antagonists, dolasetron or granisetron. In a phase I, open-label, two-part, two-period, single-sequence study, two cohorts of healthy subjects received either oral dolasetron (100 mg once daily for 3 days) or oral granisetron (2 mg once daily for 3 days) alone (period 1) and combined with oral casopitant, 150 mg day 1, 50 mg days 2 and 3 (period 2). Pharmacokinetics of hydrodolasetron and granisetron were assessed on days 1 and 3 of each period. Log-transformed area under the curve (AUC) and Cmax were statistically analyzed by performing an analysis of variance. Eighteen subjects were enrolled in the dolasetron cohort; nine subjects were CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EMs) and nine subjects were CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Nineteen subjects were enrolled in the granisetron cohort. The largest changes in hydrodolasetron exposure after coadministration with casopitant were seen in CYP2D6 EMs, with a 24% increase in hydrodolasetron AUC on day 1 and 30% increase in Cmax on days 1 and 3. All other changes in hydrodolasetron exposure were granisetron exposure was not altered to any relevant extent (granisetron was well tolerated.

  12. CCR6 and NK1.1 distinguish between IL-17A and IFN-gamma-producing gammadelta effector T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jan D; González, Frano H Malinarich; Schmitz, Susanne; Chennupati, Vijaykumar; Föhse, Lisa; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Förster, Reinhold; Prinz, Immo

    2009-12-01

    Gammadelta T cells are a potent source of innate IL-17A and IFN-gamma, and they acquire the capacity to produce these cytokines within the thymus. However, the precise stages and required signals that guide this differentiation are unclear. Here we show that the CD24(low) CD44(high) effector gammadelta T cells of the adult thymus are segregated into two lineages by the mutually exclusive expression of CCR6 and NK1.1. Only CCR6+ gammadelta T cells produced IL-17A, while NK1.1+ gammadelta T cells were efficient producers of IFN-gamma but not of IL-17A. Their effector phenotype correlated with loss of CCR9 expression, particularly among the NK1.1+ gammadelta T cells. Accordingly, both gammadelta T-cell subsets were rare in gut-associated lymphoid tissues, but abundant in peripheral lymphoid tissues. There, they provided IL-17A and IFN-gamma in response to TCR-specific and TCR-independent stimuli. IL-12 and IL-18 induced IFN-gamma and IL-23 induced IL-17A production by NK1.1+ or CCR6+ gammadelta T cells, respectively. Importantly, we show that CCR6+ gammadelta T cells are more responsive to TCR stimulation than their NK1.1+ counterparts. In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that CCR6+ IL-17A-producing gammadelta T cells derive from less TCR-dependent selection events than IFN-gamma-producing NK1.1+ gammadelta T cells.

  13. Ethylene Regulates the Physiology of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 via an Ethylene Receptor1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the growth and development of plants. The ethylene receptors in plants are well studied, and it is generally assumed that they are found only in plants. In a search of sequenced genomes, we found that many bacterial species contain putative ethylene receptors. Plants acquired many proteins from cyanobacteria as a result of the endosymbiotic event that led to chloroplasts. We provide data that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803) has a functional receptor for ethylene, Synechocystis Ethylene Response1 (SynEtr1). We first show that SynEtr1 directly binds ethylene. Second, we demonstrate that application of ethylene to Synechocystis cells or disruption of the SynEtr1 gene affects several processes, including phototaxis, type IV pilus biosynthesis, photosystem II levels, biofilm formation, and spontaneous cell sedimentation. Our data suggest a model where SynEtr1 inhibits downstream signaling and ethylene inhibits SynEtr1. This is similar to the inverse-agonist model of ethylene receptor signaling proposed for plants and suggests a conservation of structure and function that possibly originated over 1 billion years ago. Prior research showed that SynEtr1 also contains a light-responsive phytochrome-like domain. Thus, SynEtr1 is a bifunctional receptor that mediates responses to both light and ethylene. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a functional ethylene receptor in a nonplant species and suggests that that the perception of ethylene is more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27246094

  14. The emergence of non-cytolytic NK1.1+ T cells in the long-term culture of murine tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: a possible role of transforming growth factor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, K; Harada, M; Ito, O; Takenoyama, M; Mori, T; Matsuzaki, G; Nomoto, K

    1996-12-01

    The mechanism by which murine tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) decreased their anti-tumour activity during an in vitro culture with interleukin-2 (IL-2) was investigated. A phenotype analysis revealed that the TIL cultured for 7 days (TIL-d7) were exclusively NKI.1- CD4- CD8+ CD3+ cells and that this population was replaced by natural killer (NK)1.1+ CD4- CD8 CD3+ cells by day 27 (TIL-d27) during the culture of TIL. The TIL-d7 cells showed a cytolytic activity against B16 melanoma, whereas the TIL-d27 cells had lost this activity, suggesting that the decrease in the anti tumour effect of TIL during the culture with IL-2 was due to their populational change. Analysis on the characteristics of the TIL-d27 cells revealed that they expressed skewed T-cell receptor (TCR) V beta 5 and increased mRNA expression of V alpha 14. In addition, they expressed transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) mRNA. Interestingly, TGF-beta augmented the proliferation of TIL-d27 cells under the presence of IL-2, but suppressed that of TIL-d7 cells. Moreover, the proliferation of TIL-d27 cells was suppressed by anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these results suggest that, in contrast to its suppressive effect on anti-tumour effector T cells. TGF-beta could be an autocrine growth factor for NKL1.1+ T cells and thereby induce non-cytolytic NK1.1+ T cells in the long-term culture of TIL.

  15. NK1.1+ cells are important for the development of protective immunity against MHC I-deficient, HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Indrová, Marie; Šímová, Jana; Bieblová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2011), s. 281-288 ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520807 Grant - others:EU-FP6-NOE(XE) Project 018933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : MHC class I-deficient tumours * CD8+, CD4+, NK1.1+cell subpopulations * interferon gamma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.835, year: 2011

  16. Structure of the Enterovirus 71 3C Protease in Complex with NK-1.8k and Indications for the Development of Antienterovirus Protease Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Cao, Lin; Zhai, Yangyang; Yin, Zheng; Sun, Yuna; Shang, Luqing

    2017-07-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), caused by enterovirus, is a threat to public health worldwide. To date, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been one of the major causative agents of HFMD in the Pacific-Asia region, and outbreaks with EV71 cause millions of infections. However, no drug is currently available for clinical therapeutics. In our previous works, we developed a set of protease inhibitors (PIs) targeting the EV71 3C protease (3C pro ). Among these are NK-1.8k and NK-1.9k, which have various active groups and high potencies and selectivities. In the study described here, we determined the structures of the PI NK-1.8k in complex with wild-type (WT) and drug-resistant EV71 3C pro Comparison of these structures with the structure of unliganded EV71 3C pro and its complex with AG7088 indicated that the mutation of N69 to a serine residue destabilized the S2 pocket. Thus, the mutation influenced the cleavage activity of EV71 3C pro and the inhibitory activity of NK-1.8k in an in vitro protease assay and highlighted that site 69 is an additional key site for PI design. More information for the optimization of the P1' to P4 groups of PIs was also obtained from these structures. Together with the results of our previous works, these in-depth results elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of PIs and shed light to develop PIs for the clinical treatment of infections caused by EV71 and other enteroviruses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of a positron emission tomographic ligand, 18F-SP203, to image metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yasuyuki; Simeon, Fabrice G.; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Fujita, Masahiro; Hatazawa, Jun; Mozley, P.D.

    2010-01-01

    A new PET ligand, 3-fluoro-5-(2-(2- 18 F-(fluoromethyl)-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)benzonitrile ( 18 F-SP203), is a positron emission tomographic radioligand selective for metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors. The purposes of this study were to estimate the radiation-absorbed doses of 18 F-SP203 in humans and to determine from the distribution of radioactivity in bone structures with various proportions of bone and red marrow whether 18 F-SP203 undergoes defluorination. Whole-body images were acquired for 5 h after injecting 18 F-SP203 in seven healthy humans. Urine was collected at various time points. Radiation-absorbed doses were estimated by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme. After injecting 18 F-SP203, the two organs with highest radiation exposure were urinary bladder wall and gallbladder wall, consistent with both urinary and fecal excretion. In the skeleton, most of the radioactivity was in bone structures that contain red marrow and not in those without red marrow. Although the dose to red marrow (30.9 μSv/MBq) was unusually high, the effective dose (17.8 μSv/MBq) of 18 F-SP203 was typical of that of other 18 F radiotracers. 18 F-SP203 causes an effective dose in humans typical of several other 18 F radioligands and undergoes little defluorination. (orig.)

  18. S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus sp. inhibit bacterial infection by blockage of DC-SIGN cell receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Acosta, Mariano; Ruzal, Sandra M; Cordo, Sandra M

    2016-11-01

    Many species of Lactobacillus sp. possess Surface(s) layer proteins in their envelope. Among other important characteristics S-layer from Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to the cellular receptor DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin; CD209), which is involved in adhesion and infection of several families of bacteria. In this report we investigate the activity of new S-layer proteins from the Lactobacillus family (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus kefiri) over the infection of representative microorganisms important to human health. After the treatment of DC-SIGN expressing cells with these proteins, we were able to diminish bacterial infection by up to 79% in both gram negative and mycobacterial models. We discovered that pre-treatment of the bacteria with S-layers from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus brevis reduced bacteria viability but also prevent infection by the pathogenic bacteria. We also proved the importance of the glycosylation of the S-layer from Lactobacillus kefiri in the binding to the receptor and thus inhibition of infection. This novel characteristic of the S-layers proteins may contribute to the already reported pathogen exclusion activity for these Lactobacillus probiotic strains; and might be also considered as a novel enzymatic antimicrobial agents to inhibit bacterial infection and entry to host cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of blue-light receptor Slr1694 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, P; Penzkofer, A; Lehmpfuhl, C; Mathes, T; Hegemann, P

    2007-01-03

    The BLUF protein Slr1694 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Slr1694 expressed from E. coli which non-covalently binds FAD, FMN, and riboflavin (called Slr1694(I)), and reconstituted Slr1694 which dominantly contains FAD (called Slr1694(II)) are investigated. The receptor conformation of Slr1694 (dark adapted form Slr1694(r)) is transformed to the putative signalling state (light adapted form Slr1694(s)) with red-shifted absorption and decreased fluorescence efficiency by blue-light excitation. In the dark at 22 degrees C, the signalling state recovers back to the initial receptor state with a time constants of about 14.2s for Slr1694(I) and 17s for Slr1694(II). Quantum yields of signalling state formation of approximately 0.63+/-0.07 for both Slr1694(I) and Slr1694(II) were determined by transient transmission measurements and intensity dependent steady-state transmission measurements. Extended blue-light excitation causes some bound flavin conversion to the hydroquinone form and some photo-degradation, both with low quantum efficiency. The flavin-hydroquinone re-oxidizes slowly back (time constant 5-9 min) to the initial flavoquinone form in the dark. A photo-cycle dynamics scheme is presented.

  20. The NK1R-/- mouse phenotype suggests that small body size, with a sex- and diet-dependent excess in body mass and fat, are physical biomarkers for a human endophenotype with vulnerability to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillidge, Katharine; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2016-09-01

    The abnormal behaviour of NK1R-/- mice (locomotor hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsivity in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Test) is arguably analogous to that of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence suggests that small body size and increased body weight are risk factors for ADHD. Here, we compared the body size, body mass and body composition of male and female NK1R-/- mice and their wildtypes that had been fed either standard laboratory chow or a high-fat (45%: 'Western') diet. Male NK1R-/- mice from both cohorts were approximately 7% shorter than wildtypes. A similar trend was evident in females. Male NK1R-/- mice fed the normal diet weighed less than wildtypes but the 'body mass index' ('mBMI': weight (mg)/length (cm)(2)) of female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. When given the high-fat diet, the mBMI of both male and female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. There were no consistent genotype or sex differences in protein, ash or water content of mice from the two cohorts. However, the fat content of male NK1R-/- mice on the Western diet was considerably (35%) higher than wildtypes and resembled that of females from both genotypes. We conclude that a lack of functional NK1R is associated with small body size but increases vulnerability to an increase in mBMI and fat content, especially in males. This phenotype could also be evident in ADHD patients with polymorphism(s) of the TACR1 gene (the human equivalent of Nk1r). © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Biaryls as potent, tunable dual neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists and serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Andrew P; Tora, George O; Han, Ying; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Bertekap, Robert; Krause, Rudolph; Davis, Carl D; Hu, Joanna; Morgan, Daniel; Taylor, Sarah J; Krause, Kelly; Li, Yu-Wen; Mattson, Gail; Cunningham, Melissa A; Taber, Matthew T; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Gillman, Kevin W; Macor, John E

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a serious illness that affects millions of patients. Current treatments are associated with a number of undesirable side effects. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have recently been shown to potentiate the antidepressant effects of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in a number of animal models. Herein we describe the optimization of a biaryl chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1R antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors. Through the choice of appropriate substituents, the SERT/NK1R ratio could be tuned to afford a range of target selectivity profiles. This effort culminated in the identification of an analog that demonstrated oral bioavailability, favorable brain uptake, and efficacy in the gerbil foot tap model. Ex vivo occupancy studies with compound 58 demonstrated the ability to maintain NK1 receptor saturation (>88% occupancy) while titrating the desired level of SERT occupancy (11-84%) via dose selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Substance P Receptor Antagonism: A Potential Novel Treatment Option for Viral-Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral-myocarditis is an important cause of heart failure for which no specific treatment is available. We previously showed the neuropeptide substance P (SP is associated with the pathogenesis of murine myocarditis caused by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV. The current studies determined if pharmacological inhibition of SP-signaling via its high affinity receptor, NK1R and downstream G-protein, Ras homolog gene family, member-A (RhoA, will be beneficial in viral-myocarditis. Aprepitant (1.2 mg/kg, a SP-receptor antagonist, or fasudil (10 mg/kg, a RhoA inhibitor, or saline control was administered daily to mice orally for 3 days, prior to, or 5 days following, intraperitoneal infection with and without 50 PFU of EMCV, following which disease assessment studies, including echocardiogram and cardiac Doppler were performed in day 14 after infection. Pretreatment and posttreatment with aprepitant significantly reduced mortality, heart and cardiomyocyte size, and cardiac viral RNA levels (P<0.05 all, ANOVA. Only aprepitant pretreatment improved heart functions; it significantly decreased end systolic diameter, improved fractional shortening, and increased peak aortic flow velocity (P<0.05 all, ANOVA. Pre- or posttreatment with fasudil did not significantly impact disease manifestations. These findings indicate that SP contributes to cardiac-remodeling and dysfunction following ECMV infection via its high affinity receptor, but not through the Rho-A pathway. These studies suggest that SP-receptor antagonism may be a novel therapeutic-option for patients with viral-myocarditis.

  3. PET-scan shows peripherally increased neurokinin 1 receptor availability in chronic tennis elbow: visualizing neurogenic inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Peterson

    Full Text Available In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1 specific radioligand [(11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/

  4. N-terminal truncation of the dopamine transporter abolishes phorbol ester- and substance P receptor-stimulated phosphorylation without impairing transporter internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Charlotta; Ferrer, Jasmine; Loland, Claus Juul

    2003-01-01

    (q)-coupled human substance P receptor (hNK-1) co-expressed with hDAT in HEK293 cells and in N2A neuroblastoma cells. In both cell lines, activation of the hNK-1 receptor by substance P reduced the V(max) for [(3)H]dopamine uptake to the same degree as did PMA ( approximately 50 and approximately 20% in HEK293...

  5. Characterization of the human Activin-A receptor type II-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1 promoter and its regulation by Sp1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botella Luisa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1 is a Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β receptor type I, mainly expressed in endothelial cells that plays a pivotal role in vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. Mutations in the ALK1 gene (ACVRL1 give rise to Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a dominant autosomal vascular dysplasia caused by a haploinsufficiency mechanism. In spite of its patho-physiological relevance, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of ACVRL1. Here, we have studied the different origins of ACVRL1 transcription, we have analyzed in silico its 5'-proximal promoter sequence and we have characterized the role of Sp1 in the transcriptional regulation of ACVRL1. Results We have performed a 5'Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5'RACE of ACVRL1 transcripts, finding two new transcriptional origins, upstream of the one previously described, that give rise to a new exon undiscovered to date. The 5'-proximal promoter region of ACVRL1 (-1,035/+210 was analyzed in silico, finding that it lacks TATA/CAAT boxes, but contains a remarkably high number of GC-rich Sp1 consensus sites. In cells lacking Sp1, ACVRL1 promoter reporters did not present any significant transcriptional activity, whereas increasing concentrations of Sp1 triggered a dose-dependent stimulation of its transcription. Moreover, silencing Sp1 in HEK293T cells resulted in a marked decrease of ACVRL1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated multiple Sp1 binding sites along the proximal promoter region of ACVRL1 in endothelial cells. Furthermore, demethylation of CpG islands, led to an increase in ACVRL1 transcription, whereas in vitro hypermethylation resulted in the abolishment of Sp1-dependent transcriptional activation of ACVRL1. Conclusions Our results describe two new transcriptional start sites in ACVRL1 gene, and indicate that Sp1 is a key regulator of ACVRL1 transcription, providing new insights into

  6. Cellular and behavioural profile of the novel, selective neurokinin1 receptor antagonist, vestipitant: a comparison to other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocco, Mauricette; Dekeyne, Anne; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Touzard, Manuelle; Girardon, Sylvie; Veiga, Sylvie; de Nanteuil, Guillaume; deJong, Trynke R; Olivier, Berend; Millan, Mark J

    2008-10-01

    This study characterized the novel neurokinin (NK)(1) antagonist, vestipitant, under clinical evaluation for treatment of anxiety and depression. Vestipitant possessed high affinity for human NK(1) receptors (pK(i), 9.4), and potently blocked Substance P-mediated phosphorylation of Extracellular-Regulated-Kinase. In vivo, it occupied central NK(1) receptors in gerbils (Inhibitory Dose(50), 0.11 mg/kg). At similar doses, it abrogated nociception elicited by formalin in gerbils, and blocked foot-tapping and locomotion elicited by the NK(1) agonist, GR73632, in gerbils and guinea pigs, respectively. Further, vestipitant attenuated fear-induced foot-tapping in gerbils, separation-induced distress-vocalizations in guinea pigs, marble-burying behaviour in mice, and displayed anxiolytic actions in Vogel conflict and fear-induced ultrasonic vocalization procedures in rats. These actions were mimicked by CP99,994, L733,060 and GR205,171 which acted stereoselectively vs its less active isomer, GR226,206. In conclusion, vestipitant is a potent NK(1) receptor antagonist: its actions support the utility of NK(1) receptor blockade in the alleviation of anxiety and, possibly, depression.

  7. The 10 sea urchin receptor for egg jelly proteins (SpREJ are members of the polycystic kidney disease-1 (PKD1 family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyata Shinji

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the human polycystic kidney disease-1 (hPKD1 gene result in ~85% of cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, the most frequent human monogenic disease. PKD1 proteins are large multidomain proteins involved in a variety of signal transduction mechanisms. Obtaining more information about members of the PKD1 family will help to clarify their functions. Humans have five hPKD1 proteins, whereas sea urchins have 10. The PKD1 proteins of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, are referred to as the Receptor for Egg Jelly, or SpREJ proteins. The SpREJ proteins form a subfamily within the PKD1 family. They frequently contain C-type lectin domains, PKD repeats, a REJ domain, a GPS domain, a PLAT/LH2 domain, 1–11 transmembrane segments and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Results The 10 full-length SpREJ cDNA sequences were determined. The secondary structures of their deduced proteins were predicted and compared to the five human hPKD1 proteins. The genomic structures of the 10 SpREJs show low similarity to each other. All 10 SpREJs are transcribed in either embryos or adult tissues. SpREJs show distinct patterns of expression during embryogenesis. Adult tissues show tissue-specific patterns of SpREJ expression. Conclusion Possession of a REJ domain of about 600 residues defines this family. Except for SpREJ1 and 3, that are thought to be associated with the sperm acrosome reaction, the functions of the other SpREJ proteins remain unknown. The sea urchin genome is one-fourth the size of the human genome, but sea urchins have 10 SpREJ proteins, whereas humans have five. Determination of the tissue specific function of each of these proteins will be of interest to those studying echinoderm development. Sea urchins are basal deuterostomes, the line of evolution leading to the vertebrates. The study of individual PKD1 proteins will increase our knowledge of the importance of this gene family.

  8. Current position of 5HT3 antagonists and the additional value of NK1 antagonists; a new class of antiemetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Wit (Ronald)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of the 5HT3 receptor antagonists (5HT3 antagonists) in the 1990s and the combination with dexamethasone has resulted in acute emesis protection in 70% of patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Despite complete protection in the acute phase, however, 40% of patients

  9. Synthesis and characterization in monkey of [{sup 11}C]SP203 as a radioligand for imaging brain metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeon, Fabrice G.; Liow, Jeih-San; Zhang, Yi; Hong, Jinsoo; Gladding, Robert L.; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Innis, Robert B.; Pike, Victor W. [National Institutes of Health, Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-12-15

    [{sup 18}F]SP203 (3-fluoro-5-(2-(2-([{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl)-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)benzonitrile) is an effective high-affinity and selective radioligand for imaging metabotropic 5 receptors (mGluR5) in human brain with PET. To provide a radioligand that may be used for more than one scanning session in the same subject in a single day, we set out to label SP203 with shorter-lived {sup 11}C (t{sub 1/2} = 20.4 min) and to characterize its behavior as a radioligand with PET in the monkey. Iodo and bromo precursors were obtained by cross-coupling 2-fluoromethyl-4-((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)-1,3-thiazole with 3,5-diiodofluorobenzene and 3,5-dibromofluorobenzene, respectively. Treatment of either precursor with [{sup 11}C]cyanide ion rapidly gave [{sup 11}C]SP203, which was purified with high-performance liquid chromatography. PET was used to measure the uptake of radioactivity in brain regions after injecting [{sup 11}C]SP203 intravenously into rhesus monkeys at baseline and under conditions in which mGluR5 were blocked with 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP). The emergence of radiometabolites in monkey blood in vitro and in vivo was assessed with radio-HPLC. The stability of [{sup 11}C]SP203 in human blood in vitro was also measured. The iodo precursor gave [{sup 11}C]SP203 in higher radiochemical yield (>98 %) than the bromo precursor (20-52 %). After intravenous administration of [{sup 11}C]SP203 into three rhesus monkeys, radioactivity peaked early in brain (average 12.5 min) with a regional distribution in rank order of expected mGluR5 density. Peak uptake was followed by a steady decline. No radioactivity accumulated in the skull. In monkeys pretreated with MTEP before [{sup 11}C]SP203 administration, radioactivity uptake in brain was again high but then declined more rapidly than in the baseline scan to a common low level. [{sup 11}C]SP203 was unstable in monkey blood in vitro and in vivo, and gave predominantly less lipophilic radiometabolites

  10. Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 α/β TCR-double positive cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hirofumi; Itonori, Saki; Sugita, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Akemi; Kushi, Yasunori

    2008-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 regulate many types of immune responses. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii induced secretion of IFN- γ and IL-4 from T cells in a CD11c-positive cell-dependent manner similar to that of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) and isoglobotriaosylceramide (iGb3), although activated T cells by AGLs showed less secretion of cytokine than those activated by α-GalCer. In addition, stimulation of these mushroom AGLs induced proliferation of NK1.1 α/β TCR-double positive cells in splenocytes. Administration of a mixture of α-GalCer and AGLs affected the stimulation of α-GalCer and generally induced a subtle Th1 bias for splenocytes but induced an extreme Th2 bias for thymocytes. These results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs contribute to immunomodulation

  11. Three nuclear and two membrane estrogen receptors in basal teleosts, Anguilla sp.: Identification, evolutionary history and differential expression regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafont, Anne Gaëlle; Rousseau, Karine; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens interact with classical intracellular nuclear receptors (ESR), and with G-coupled membrane receptors (GPER). In the eel, we identified three nuclear (ESR1, ESR2a, ESR2b) and two membrane (GPERa, GPERb) estrogen receptors. Duplicated ESR2 and GPER were also retrieved in most extant teleo...

  12. Simultaneous detection of decidual Th1/Th2 and NK1/NK2 immunophenotyping in unknown recurrent miscarriage using 8-color flow cytometry with FSC/Vt extended strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Peng; Wen, Xi; Liu, Jia; Yan, Cui-Yan; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Lan-Rong; Hu, Qiao-Fei; Li, Jian

    2017-06-30

    Th1/Th2 imbalance is considered as a mechanism for recurrent miscarriage. The NK1/NK2 paradigm is hypothesised to play an important role in pregnancy. However, few results showed simultaneous changes of these subsets in vivo in decidual tissues. The present study aimed to detect the decidual mononuclear cells (dMo), and the Th1/Th2, and NK1/NK2 paradigm simultaneously using multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) in unexplained recurrent miscarriages (URM). Mononuclear cells were isolated from the decidual tissues of URM cases and early pregnant women. The mononuclear cell percent was demonstrated by detecting the expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, and CD16 extracellular markers, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-4 intracellular markers in live cells using 8-color flow cytometry with forward scatter (FSC)/side scatter (SSC) and FSC/viability (Vt) initial gating strategies, and the ratios of Th1/Th2 and decidual NK1 (dNK1)/decidual NK2 (dNK2) cells were compared between the subject groups. Two initial gating strategies of the FSC/SSC or FSC/Vt, with central or extended gating scales, were adapted, and there was no main effect or interaction for the cell proportions, except for the type 1 and type 2 subsets in the FSC/Vt extended gating strategy. There was no significant difference of the proportions of the decidual T, dNK, NKT-like, Th, and Tc cells between the two groups. However, the Th1/Th2 and dNK1/dNK2 ratios in the URM patients were higher compared with the normal group when using the FSC/Vt extended gating strategy. The present study provides means to detect Th1/Th2 and dNK1/dNK2 simultaneously in URM patients for large sample investigations in the future. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Inhaled corticosteroids inhibit substance P receptor expression in asthmatic rat airway smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Miao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurokinins (NKs participate in asthmatic airway inflammation, but the effects of NKs on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs and those of corticosteroids on NKs are unknown. Methods To investigate the effect of budesonide on substance P (NK-1 receptor (NK-1R expression in the lung and ASMCs, 45 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, asthmatic, and budesonide treatment. Aerosolized ovalbumin was used to generate the asthmatic rat model, and budesonide was administered after ovalbumin inhalation. On day 21, bronchial responsiveness tests, bronchoalveolar lavage, and cell counting were conducted. NK-1R protein expression in the lung was investigated by immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Primary rat ASMC cultures were established, and purified ASMCs of the fourth passage were collected for mRNA and protein studies via real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and image analysis. Results NK-1R mRNA and protein expression in the budesonide treatment group rat’s lung and ASMCs were less than that in the asthmatic group but greater than that in the control group. Conclusions NK-1R is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and that budesonide may downregulate the expression of NK-1R in the ASMCs and airways of asthmatic rats, which may alleviate neurogenic airway inflammation.

  14. Selective estrogen receptor modulators and betulinic acid act synergistically to target ERα and SP1 transcription factor dependent Pygopus expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzenov, Youlian R; Andrews, Phillip; Voisey, Kim; Gai, Luis; Carter, Beverley; Whelan, Kathryn; Popadiuk, Catherine; Kao, Kenneth R

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen and progesterone hormone receptor (ER and PR) expression in invasive breast cancer predicts response to hormone disruptive therapy. Pygopus2 (hPYGO2) encodes a chromatin remodelling protein important for breast cancer growth and cell cycle progression. The aims of this study were to determine the mechanism of expression of hPYGO2 in breast cancer and to examine how this expression is affected therapeutically. hPYGO2 and ER protein expression was examined in a breast tumour microarray by immunohistochemistry. hPYGO2 RNA and protein expression was examined in ER+ and ER- breast cancer cell lines in the presence of selective estrogen hormone receptor modulator drugs and the specificity protein-1 (SP1) inhibitor, betulinic acid (BA). The effects of these drugs on the ability for ER and SP1 to bind the hPYGO2 promoter and affect cell cycle progression were studied using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. hPYGO2 was expressed in seven of eight lines and in nuclei of 98% of 65 breast tumours, including 3 Ductal carcinoma in situ and 62 invasive specimens representing ER-negative (22%) and ER-positive (78%) cases. Treatment with either 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) or fulvestrant reduced hPYGO2 mRNA 10-fold and protein 5-10-fold within 4 h. Promoter analysis indicated an ER/SP1 binding site at nt -225 to -531 of hPYGO2. SP1 RNA interference and BA reduced hPYGO2 protein and RNA expression by fivefold in both ER- and ER+ cells. Further attenuation was achieved by combining BA and 4-OHT resulting in eightfold reduction in cell growth. Our findings reveal a mechanistic link between hormone signalling and the growth transcriptional programme. The activation of its expression by ERα and/or SP1 suggests hPYGO2 as a theranostic target for hormone therapy responsive and refractory breast cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. The Role of Hydrophobicity and Surface Receptors at Hyphae of Lyophyllum sp. Strain Karsten in the Interaction with Burkholderia terrae BS001 – Implications for Interactions in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Taissa; Nazir, Rashid; Rozental, Sonia; dos Santos, Giulia M. P.; Calixto, Renata O. R.; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Wick, Lukas Y.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The soil bacterium Burkholderia terrae strain BS001 can interact with varying soil fungi, using mechanisms that range from the utilization of carbon/energy sources such as glycerol to the ability to reach novel territories in soil via co-migration with growing fungal mycelia. Here, we investigate the intrinsic properties of the B. terrae BS001 interaction with the basidiomycetous soil fungus Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. In some experiments, the ascomycetous Trichoderma asperellum 302 was also used. The hyphae of Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten were largely hydrophilic on water-containing media versus hydrophobic when aerial, as evidenced by contact angle analyses (CA). Co-migration of B. terrae strain BS001 cells with the hyphae of the two fungi occurred preferentially along the - presumably hydrophilic - soil-dwelling hyphae, whereas aerial hyphae did not allow efficient migration, due to reduced thickness of their surrounding mucous films. Moreover, the cell numbers over the length of the hyphae in soil showed an uneven distribution, i.e., the CFU numbers increased from minima at the inoculation point to maximal numbers in the middle of the extended hyphae, then decreasing toward the terminal side. Microscopic analyses of the strain BS001 associations with the Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten hyphae in the microcosms confirmed the presence of B. terrae BS001 cells on the mucous matter that was present at the hyphal surfaces of the fungi used. Cell agglomerates were found to accumulate at defined sites on the hyphal surfaces, which were coined ‘fungal-interactive’ hot spots. Evidence was further obtained for the contention that receptors for a physical bacterium-fungus interaction occur at the Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten hyphal surface, in which the specific glycosphingolipid ceramide monohexoside (CMH) plays an important role. Thus, bacterial adherence may be mediated by heterogeneously distributed fungal-specific receptors, implying the CMH moieties. This

  16. β-Arrestin 1 has an essential role in neurokinin-1 receptor-mediated glioblastoma cell proliferation and G2/M phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Xin; Li, Xiao-Fang; Yuan, Guo-Qiang; Hu, Hui; Song, Xiao-Yun; Li, Jing-Yi; Miao, Xiao-Kang; Zhou, Tian-Xiong; Yang, Wen-Le; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Mou, Ling-Yun; Wang, Rui

    2017-05-26

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor and has a poor prognosis. Tachykinin receptor neurokinin-1 (NK1R) is a promising target in glioblastoma therapy because of its overexpression in human glioblastoma. NK1R agonists promote glioblastoma cell growth, whereas NK1R antagonists efficiently inhibit cell growth both in vitro and in vivo However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects are incompletely understood. β-Arrestins (ARRBs) serve as scaffold proteins and adapters to mediate intracellular signal transduction. Here we show that the ARRB1-mediated signaling pathway is essential for NK1-mediated glioblastoma cell proliferation. ARRB1 knockdown significantly inhibited NK1-mediated glioblastoma cell proliferation and induced G 2 /M phase cell cycle arrest. ARRB1 knockdown cells showed remarkable down-regulation of CDC25C/CDK1/cyclin B1 activity. We also demonstrated that ARRB1 mediated prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt in glioblastoma cells induced by NK1R activation. ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation are involved in regulating CDC25C/CDK1/cyclin B1 activity. The lack of long-term ERK1/2 and Akt activation in ARRB1 knockdown cells was at least partly responsible for the delayed cell cycle progression and proliferation. Moreover, we found that ARRB1-mediated ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation regulated the transcriptional activity of both NF-κB and AP-1, which were involved in cyclin B1 expression. ARRB1 deficiency increased the sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to the treatment of NK1R antagonists. Taken together, our results suggest that ARRB1 plays an essential role in NK1R-mediated cell proliferation and G 2 /M transition in glioblastoma cells. Interference with ARRB1-mediated signaling via NK1R may have potential significance for therapeutic strategies targeting glioblastoma. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, prevents the hyperactivity and impulsivity of neurokinin-1 receptor gene 'knockout' mice: sex differences and implications for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ashley J; Pillidge, Katharine; Grabowska, Ewelina M; Stanford, S Clare

    2015-04-01

    Mice lacking functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/-) display behavioural abnormalities resembling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): locomotor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness. The preferred ligand for NK1R, substance P, is metabolised by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which forms part of the brain renin angiotensin system (BRAS). In view of evidence that the BRAS modulates locomotor activity and cognitive performance, we tested the effects of drugs that target the BRAS on these behaviours in NK1R-/- and wildtype mice. We first tested the effects of the ACE inhibitor, captopril, on locomotor activity. Because there are well-established sex differences in both ADHD and ACE activity, we compared the effects of captopril in both male and female mice. Locomotor hyperactivity was evident in male NK1R-/- mice, only, and this was abolished by treatment with captopril. By contrast, male wildtypes and females of both genotypes were unaffected by ACE inhibition. We then investigated the effects of angiotensin AT1 (losartan) and AT2 (PD 123319) receptor antagonists on the locomotor activity of male NK1R-/- and wildtype mice. Both antagonists increased the locomotor activity of NK1R-/- mice, but neither affected the wildtypes. Finally, we tested the effects of captopril on the performance of male NK1R-/- and wildtype mice in the 5-choice serial reaction-time task (5-CSRTT) and found that ACE inhibition prevented the impulsivity of NK1R-/- mice. These results indicate that certain behaviours, disrupted in ADHD, are influenced by an interaction between the BRAS and NK1R, and suggest that ACE inhibitors could provide a novel treatment for this disorder. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind trial of the NK1 receptor antagonist aprepitant on gastrointestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, S.; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2008-01-01

    emptying, small intestinal transit and colonic transit of a radiolabelled, 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal ingested on day 2. RESULTS: Aprepitant did not change gastric retention at 15 min, gastric half emptying time, gastric mean transit time, time to small intestinal transit of 10%, small intestinal...... in healthy humans. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a crossover, double-blind study. In random order, each volunteer had a 125-mg capsule of aprepitant or placebo on day 1 followed by an 80-mg capsule of aprepitant or placebo on days 2-5. Gamma camera imaging was used to measure gastric...

  19. Nitric oxide synthase, calcitonin gene-related peptide and NK-1 receptor mechanisms are involved in GTN-induced neuronal activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Roshni; Bhatt, Deepak Kumar; Ploug, Kenneth Beri

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Infusion of glyceryltrinitrate (GTN), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, in awake, freely moving rats closely mimics a universally accepted human model of migraine and responds to sumatriptan treatment. Here we analyse the effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and calcitonin gene-rela...

  20. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Svendgaard, Niels-Aage; Edvinsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    OBJECT: Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and to cerebral ischemia, in some cases even producing infarction and long-term disability. The goal of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that inhibition of neurokinin-1...... receptors (NK1Rs) by administration of L-822429 blunts the decrease in CBF as well as cerebrovascular receptor upregulation in an animal model of SAH. METHODS: Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in rats by injection of 250 microl of blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. The NK1R inhibitor L-822429...

  1. Adrenocortical and behavioural response to chronic restraint stress in neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Morales, Raúl; del Río, Eva; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Bisagno, Verónica; Nadal, Roser; de Felipe, Carmen; Armario, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Brain substance P and its receptor (neurokinin-1, NK1) have a widespread brain distribution and are involved in an important number of behavioural and physiological responses to emotional stimuli. However, the role of NK1 receptors in the consequences of exposure to chronic stress has not been explored. The present study focused on the role of these receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to daily repeated restraint stress (evaluated by plasma corticosterone levels), as well as on the effect of this procedure on anxiety-like behaviour, spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM), a hippocampus-dependent task. Adult null mutant NK1-/- mice, with a C57BL/6J background, and the corresponding wild-type mice showed similar resting corticosterone levels and, also, did not differ in corticosterone response to a first restraint. Nevertheless, adaptation to the repeated stressor was faster in NK1-/- mice. Chronic restraint modestly increased anxiety-like behaviour in the light-dark test, irrespective of genotype. Throughout the days of the MWM trials, NK1-/- mice showed a similar learning rate to that of wild-type mice, but had lower levels of thigmotaxis and showed a better retention in the probe trial. Chronic restraint stress did not affect these variables in either genotype. These results indicate that deletion of the NK1 receptor does not alter behavioural susceptibility to chronic repeated stress in mice, but accelerates adaptation of the HPA axis. In addition, deletion may result in lower levels of thigmotaxis and improved short-term spatial memory, perhaps reflecting a better learning strategy in the MWM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of neurokinin-1 receptors during ozone inhalation contributes to epithelial injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslund, Karen L; Hyde, Dallas M; Putney, Leialoha F; Alfaro, Mario F; Walby, William F; Tyler, Nancy K; Schelegle, Edward S

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the importance of neurokinin (NK)-1 receptors in epithelial injury and repair and neutrophil function. Conscious Wistar rats were exposed to 1 ppm ozone or filtered air for 8 hours, followed by an 8-hour postexposure period. Before exposure, we administered either the NK-1 receptor antagonist, SR140333, or saline as a control. Ethidium homodimer was instilled into lungs as a marker of necrotic airway epithelial cells. After fixation, whole mounts of airway dissected lung lobes were immunostained for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, a marker of epithelial proliferation. Both ethidium homodimer and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive epithelial cells were quantified in specific airway generations. Rats treated with the NK-1 receptor antagonist had significantly reduced epithelial injury and epithelial proliferation compared with control rats. Sections of terminal bronchioles showed no significant difference in the number of neutrophils in airways between groups. In addition, staining ozone-exposed lung sections for active caspase 3 showed no apoptotic cells, but ethidium-positive cells colocalized with the orphan nuclear receptor, Nur77, a marker of nonapoptotic, programmed cell death mediated by the NK-1 receptor. An immortalized human airway epithelial cell line, human bronchial epithelial-1, showed no significant difference in the number of oxidant stress-positive cells during exposure to hydrogen peroxide and a range of SR140333 doses, demonstrating no antioxidant effect of the receptor antagonist. We conclude that activation of the NK-1 receptor during acute ozone inhalation contributes to epithelial injury and subsequent epithelial proliferation, a critical component of repair, but does not influence neutrophil emigration into airways.

  3. Immunocytochemical localization of the neurokinin 1 receptor in rat dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Mizuho A; Ibuki, Teiichi; Danjo, Atsushi; Kondo, Teruyoshi; Zhang, Jing-Qi; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Yamashita, Yoshio; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Teruo

    2005-12-01

    The dentin-pulp complex is a peripheral end-organ supplied by dense sensory nerve fibers. Substance P, a representative neuropeptide widely distributed in the dental pulp, has been reported to play roles in pain transmission and the amplification of inflammation. We analyzed here the expression of the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor, preferentially activated by substance P, using immunocytochemistry in rat dental pulp at both the light and electron microscopic levels. Conspicuous NK1 receptor immunoreactivity was found in the odontoblasts; immunolabelings were present at their plasma membrane and endosomal structures, especially in their cytoplasmic processes. Immunoreactions for NK1 receptor were also detectable in a part of the nerve terminals associated with the cytoplasmic processes of the odontoblasts. Furthermore, the endothelial cells of capillaries and post-capillary venules and the fibroblasts were labeled with the NK1 receptor in the subodontoblast layer. These findings suggest that pulpal cells and nerve fibers are targets for substance P that mediate multiple functions, including a vasoactive function and the regulation of vascular permeability as well as the modulation of pain transmission.

  4. Atomoxetine reduces hyperactive/impulsive behaviours in neurokinin-1 receptor ‘knockout’ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillidge, Katharine; Porter, Ashley J.; Vasili, Temis; Heal, David J.; Stanford, S. Clare

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice with functional ablation of the neurokinin-1 receptor gene (NK1R−/−) display behavioural abnormalities which resemble the hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity seen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here, we investigated whether the established ADHD treatment, atomoxetine, alleviates these abnormalities when tested in the light/dark exploration box (LDEB) and 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT). Methods Separate cohorts of mice were tested in the 5-CSRTT and LDEB after treatment with no injection, vehicle or atomoxetine (5-CSRTT: 0.3, 3 or 10 mg/kg; LDEB: 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg). Results Atomoxetine reduced the hyperactivity displayed by NK1R−/− mice in the LDEB at a dose (3 mg/kg) which did not affect the locomotor activity of wildtypes. Atomoxetine (10 mg/kg) also reduced impulsivity in NK1R−/− mice, but not wildtypes, in the 5-CSRTT. No dose of drug affected attention in either genotype. Conclusions This evidence that atomoxetine reduces hyperactive/impulsive behaviours in NK1R−/− mice consolidates the validity of using NK1R−/− mice in research of the aetiology and treatment of ADHD. PMID:25450119

  5. Atomoxetine reduces hyperactive/impulsive behaviours in neurokinin-1 receptor 'knockout' mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillidge, Katharine; Porter, Ashley J; Vasili, Temis; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2014-12-01

    Mice with functional ablation of the neurokinin-1 receptor gene (NK1R(-/-)) display behavioural abnormalities which resemble the hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity seen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here, we investigated whether the established ADHD treatment, atomoxetine, alleviates these abnormalities when tested in the light/dark exploration box (LDEB) and 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT). Separate cohorts of mice were tested in the 5-CSRTT and LDEB after treatment with no injection, vehicle or atomoxetine (5-CSRTT: 0.3, 3 or 10mg/kg; LDEB: 1, 3 or 10mg/kg). Atomoxetine reduced the hyperactivity displayed by NK1R(-/-) mice in the LDEB at a dose (3mg/kg) which did not affect the locomotor activity of wildtypes. Atomoxetine (10mg/kg) also reduced impulsivity in NK1R(-/-) mice, but not wildtypes, in the 5-CSRTT. No dose of drug affected attention in either genotype. This evidence that atomoxetine reduces hyperactive/impulsive behaviours in NK1R(-/-) mice consolidates the validity of using NK1R(-/-) mice in research of the aetiology and treatment of ADHD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Construction of covalently coupled, concatameric dimers of 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terpager, Marie; Scholl, D Jason; Kubale, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    -Ala repeats flanked by flexible spacers and positively charged residues to ensure correct inside-out orientation plus an extracellular HA-tag to construct covalently coupled dimers of 7TM receptors. Such 15 TM concatameric homo- and heterodimers of the beta(2)-adrenergic and the NK(1) receptors, which...... for either of the protomers, which was not observed upon simple coexpression of the two receptors. It is concluded that covalently joined 7TM receptor dimers with surprisingly normal receptor properties can be constructed with use of an artificial transmembrane connector, which perhaps can be used to fuse...

  7. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Immunoreactive Neuronal Elements in the Superficial Dorsal Horn of the Chicken Spinal Cord: With Special Reference to Their Relationship with the Tachykinin-containing Central Axon Terminals in Synaptic Glomeruli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Kawate, Toyoko; Li, Yongnan; Atsumi, Saoko

    2009-01-01

    Synaptic glomeruli that involve tachykinin-containing primary afferent central terminals are numerous in lamina II of the chicken spinal cord. Therefore, a certain amount of noxious information is likely to be modulated in these structures in chickens. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry with confocal and electron microscopy to investigate whether neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R)-expressing neuronal elements are in contact with the central primary afferent terminals in synaptic glomeruli of the chicken spinal cord. We also investigated which neuronal elements (axon terminals, dendrites, cell bodies) and which neurons in the spinal cord possess NK-1R, and are possibly influenced by tachykinin in the glomeruli. By confocal microscopy, NK-1R immunoreactivities were seen in a variety of neuronal cell bodies, their dendrites and smaller fibers of unknown origin. Some of the NK-1R immunoreactive profiles also expressed GABA immunoreactivities. A close association was observed between the NK-1R-immunoreactive neurons and tachykinin-immunoreactive axonal varicosities. By electron microscopy, NK-1R immunoreactivity was seen in cell bodies, conventional dendrites and vesicle-containing dendrites in laminae I and II. Among these elements, dendrites and vesicle-containing dendrites made contact with tachykinin-containing central terminals in the synaptic glomeruli. These results indicate that tachykinin-containing central terminals in the chicken spinal cord can modulate second-order neuronal elements in the synaptic glomeruli

  8. Qualidade de um sistema latossolo-argissolo como receptor de efluentes no município de Lins(SP Quality of a latosol-argisol system in the county of Lins/SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Ibrahim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar um sistema de solos, evidenciando a propriedades que possam esclarecer sua dinâmica e contribuir para a definição de critérios que condicionem a aptidão destes solos como receptores de efluentes. Trata-se de uma área experimental de estudos, contígua à Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto do município de Lins (SP, onde o efluente é gerado a partir do tratamento de esgoto por sistema de lagoas de estabilização. Os solos, situados ao longo de uma vertente com ligeira inclinação, foram caracterizados por meio de análises, morfológica, granulométrica, química, mineralógica e micromorfológica, realizadas em amostras coletadas em cinco trincheiras em toposseqüência. Os solos são desenvolvidos a partir dos sedimentos arenosos da Formação Adamantina (Grupo Bauru e constituem um sistema Latossolo - Argissolo onde a transição Bw - Bt ocorre lateralmente do topo para a base da vertente. Foram identificadas três fases pedogenéticas nesta associação de solos. A primeira, argiluviação e adensamento de partículas, responsável pela formação dos horizontes texturais, foi superposta pelos processos de latossolização e hidromorfismo, atuantes na dinâmica atual destes solos. Análises micromorfológicas mostraram tratar-se de solos com intensa porosidade, caracterizada pelo empilhamento dos grãos do esqueleto quartzoso amplamente predominante e pelo arranjo entre os microagregados granulares. A permeabilidade é ainda favorecida pela intensa ação da mesofauna. Os solos são distróficos e compostos por caulinita e óxidos de Fe na fração argilosa. Por constituírem um sistema frágil, a disposição de quaisquer tipos de resíduos nestes solos requer o monitoramento constante de suas propriedades, tanto para a manutenção, quanto para a recuperação da qualidade desta cobertura pedológica.The purpose of this study was the characterization of a soil system, focused on proprieties that

  9. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  10. Mas-related G protein coupled receptor-X2: A potential new target for modulating mast cell-mediated allergic and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hydar

    2016-12-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident immune cells that are best known for their roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases. In addition to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), MCs express numerous G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are the most common targets of drug therapy. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) is expressed on MCs and contributes to IgE and non-IgE-mediated responses in mice. Although NK-1R antagonists are highly effective in modulating experimental allergic and inflammatory responses in mice they lack efficacy in humans. This article reviews recent findings that demonstrate that while neuropeptides (NPs) activate murine MCs via NK-1R and Mas related G protein coupled receptor B2 (MrgprB2), they activate human MCs via Mas-related G protein coupled receptor X2 (MRGPRX2). Interestingly, conventional NK-1R antagonists have off-target activity against mouse MrgprB2 but not human MRGPRX2. These findings suggest that the failure to translate studies with NK-1R antagonists from in vivo mouse studies to the clinic likely reflects their lack of effect on human MRGPRX2. A unique feature of MRGPRX2 that distinguishes it from other GPCRs is that it is activated by a diverse group of ligands that include; neuropeptides, cysteine proteases, antimicrobial peptides and cationic proteins released from activated eosinophils. Thus, the development of small molecule MRGPRX2-specific antagonists or neutralizing antibodies may provide new targets for the treatment of MC-mediated allergic and inflammatory diseases.

  11. A gut-homing, oligoclonal CD4+ T cell population in severe-combined immunodeficient mice expressing a rearranged, transgenic class I-restricted alpha beta T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, J; Rudolphi, A; Spiess, S

    1995-01-01

    We studied the peripheral T cell compartment of H-2b severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice that express a transgenic (tg) alpha beta T cell receptor (TcR) specific for the H-Y (male) epitope presented by the H-2 class I Db molecule. Large populations of CD3+ NK1.1-TCR beta T+ T cells were...

  12. Functional effects of polymorphisms on glucocorticoid receptor modulation of human anxiogenic substance-P gene promoter activity in primary amygdala neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Colin W; Shanley, Lynne; Davidson, Scott; Cowie, Philip; Lear, Marissa; McGuffin, Peter; Riedel, Gernot; McEwan, Iain J; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2014-09-01

    Expression or introduction of the neuropeptide substance-P (SP; encoded by the TAC1 gene in humans and Tac1 in rodents) in the amygdala induces anxiety related behaviour in rodents. In addition, pharmacological antagonism of the main receptor of SP in humans; NK1, is anxiolytic. In the current study, we show that the Tac1 locus is up-regulated in primary rat amygdala neurones in response to activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR); a classic component of the stress response. Using a combination of bioinformatics, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and reporter plasmid magnetofection into rat primary amygdala neurones we identified a highly conserved GR response sequence (2GR) in the human TAC1 promoter that binds GR in response to dexamethasone (Dex) or forskolin. We also identified a second GR binding site in the human promoter that was polymorphic and whose T-allele is only found in Japanese and Chinese populations. We present evidence that the T-allele of SNPGR increases the activity of the TAC1 promoter through de-sequestration or de-repression of 2GR. The identification of Dex/forskolin response elements in the TAC1 promoter in amygdala neurones suggests a possible link in the chain of molecular events connecting GR activation and anxiety. In addition, the discovery of a SNP which can alter this response may have implications for our understanding of the role of regulatory variation in susceptibility to stress in specific populations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of transcription factor Sp1 and RNA binding protein HuR in the downregulation of Dr+ Escherichia coli receptor protein decay accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banadakoppa, Manu; Liebenthal, Daniel; Nowak, David E; Urvil, Petri; Yallampalli, Uma; Wilson, Gerald M; Kishor, Aparna; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2013-02-01

    We previously reported that nitric oxide (NO) reduces the rate of bacteremia and maternal mortality in pregnant rats with uterine infection by Escherichia coli expressing the Dr Fimbria (Dr(+) ). The epithelial invasion of Dr(+) E. coli is dependent on the expression level of its cellular receptor decay accelerating factor (DAF). NO reduces the rate of bacteremia by downregulating the expression of DAF. In this study, we elucidated the role of transcription factor Sp1 and RNA binding protein HuR in the downregulation of human DAF by NO. We generated a series of deletion mutant constructs of DAF gene 5'-untranslated region and mapped the NO-response region upstream to the core promoter region of the DAF gene. One of the several Sp1 binding sites in the DAF 5'-untranslated region was located within the NO-response region. The binding of Sp1 to this site was inhibited by NO. Furthermore, NO also promoted the degradation of DAF mRNA. The 3'-untranslated region of DAF harbors an AU-rich element and this element destabilized the mRNA transcript. NO promoted the rapid degradation of DAF mRNA by inhibiting the binding of mRNA stabilizing protein HuR to this AU-rich region. The inhibition of binding of HuR to the AU-rich region was due to the S-nitrosylation of one or more cysteine residues by NO. Thus, these data reveal the molecular mediators of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of DAF by NO with implications in pathophysiology related to DAF. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  14. SP-A binding sites on bovine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, S; Plattner, H; Schlepper-Schaefer, J

    1998-11-25

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) binding to bovine alveolar macrophages was examined in order to characterize SP-A binding proteins on the cell surface and to isolate putative receptors from these cells that could be obtained in large amounts. Human SP-A, unlabeled or labeled with gold particles, was bound to freshly isolated macrophages and analyzed with ELISA or the transmission electron microscope. Binding of SP-A was inhibited by Ca2+ chelation, by an excess of unlabeled SP-A, or by the presence of 20 mg/ml mannan. We conclude that bovine alveolar macrophages expose binding sites for SP-A that are specific and that depend on Ca2+ and on mannose residues. For isolation of SP-A receptors with homologous SP-A as ligand we isolated SP-A from bovine lung lavage. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified SP-A showed a protein of 32-36 kDa. Functional integrity of the protein was demonstrated. Bovine SP-A bound to Dynabeads was used to isolate SP-A binding proteins. From the fractionated and blotted proteins of the receptor preparation two proteins bound SP-A in a Ca2+-dependent manner, a 40-kDa protein showing mannose dependency and a 210-kDa protein, showing no mannose sensitivity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  15. Efficacy and safety of casopitant mesylate, a neurokinin 1 (NK1)-receptor antagonist, in prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving cisplatin-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunberg, Steven M; Rolski, Janusz; Strausz, Janos

    2009-01-01

    in the control group. The most common serious adverse events were neutropenia (n=5 [3%] in the control group, n=3 [1%] in the single-dose oral casopitant mesylate group, and n=11 [4%] in the 3-day intravenous plus oral casopitant mesylate group), febrile neutropenia (n=1 [

  16. Phosphorylation of ERK in neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal dorsal horn following noxious stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiko

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a population of large neurons with cell bodies in laminae III and IV of the spinal dorsal horn which express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r and have dendrites that enter the superficial laminae. Although it has been shown that these are all projection neurons and that they are innervated by substance P-containing (nociceptive primary afferents, we know little about their responses to noxious stimuli. In this study we have looked for phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs in these neurons in response to different types of noxious stimulus applied to one hindlimb of anaesthetised rats. The stimuli were mechanical (repeated pinching, thermal (immersion in water at 52°C or chemical (injection of 2% formaldehyde. Results Five minutes after each type of stimulus we observed numerous cells with phosphorylated ERK (pERK in laminae I and IIo, together with scattered positive cells in deeper laminae. We found that virtually all of the lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons contained pERK after each of these stimuli and that in the great majority of cases there was internalisation of the NK1r on the dorsal dendrites of these cells. In addition, we also saw neurons in lamina III that were pERK-positive but lacked the NK1r, and these were particularly evident in animals that had had the pinch stimulus. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons show receptor internalisation and ERK phosphorylation after mechanical, thermal or chemical noxious stimuli.

  17. Therapeutic Innovations for Targeting Childhood Neuroblastoma: Implications of the Neurokinin-1 Receptor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; VON Schweinitz, Dietrich

    2017-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid extracranial malignant tumor in children. Despite recent advances in the treatment of this heterogenous tumor with surgery and chemotherapy, the prognosis in advanced stages remains poor. Interestingly, neuroblastoma is one of the few solid tumors, to date, in which an effect for targeted immunotherapy has been proven in controlled clinical trials, giving hope for further advances in the treatment of this and other tumors by targeted therapy. A large array of novel therapeutic options for targeted therapy of neuroblastoma is on the horizon. To this repεrtoirε, the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) system was recently added. The present article explores the most recent developments in targeting neuroblastoma cells via the NK1R and how this new knowledge could be helpful to create new anticancer therapies agains neuroblastoma and other cancers. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. From the Cover: Prenatal Nicotinic Exposure Attenuates Respiratory Chemoreflexes Associated With Downregulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Neurokinin 1 Receptor in Rat Pup Carotid Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhuang, Jianguo; Gao, Xiuping; Ye, Chunyan; Lee, Lu-Yuan; Xu, Fadi

    2016-09-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke is the major risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A depressed ventilatory response to hypoxia (HVR) and hypercapnia (HCVR) is thought to be responsible for the pathogenesis of SIDS and the carotid body is critically involved in these responses. We have recently reported that prenatal nicotinic exposure (PNE) over the full gestation induces depressed HVR in rat pups. Here, we asked whether PNE (1) depressed not only HVR but also HCVR that were dependent on the carotid body, (2) affected some important receptors and neurochemicals expressed in the carotid body, such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), and (3) blunted the ventilatory responses to activation of these receptors. To this end, HVR and HCVR in Ctrl and PNE pups were measured with plethysmography before and after carotid body ablation (Series I), mRNA expression and/or immunoreactivity (IR) of TH, NK1R, and α7nAChR in the carotid body were examined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (Series II), and the ventilatory responses were tested before and after intracarotid injection of substance P (NK1R agonist) and AR-R17779 (α7nAChR agonist) (Series III). Our results showed that PNE (1) significantly depressed both HVR and HCVR and these depressions were abolished by carotid body ablation, (2) reduced the relative population of glomus cells, mRNA NK1R, and α7nAChR and IR of NK1R and TH in the carotid body, and (3) decreased ventilatory responses to intracarotid injection of substance P or AR-R17779. These results suggest that PNE acting via the carotid body could strikingly blunt HVR and HCVR, likely through downregulating TH and NK1R. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Discovery of Indazoles as Potent, Orally Active Dual Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonists and Serotonin Transporter Inhibitors for the Treatment of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Andrew P; Tora, George O; Huang, Hong; Conlon, David A; Davis, Carl D; Hanumegowda, Umesh M; Hou, Xiaoping; Hsiao, Yi; Hu, Joanna; Krause, Rudolph; Li, Yu-Wen; Newton, Amy E; Pieschl, Rick L; Raybon, Joseph; Rosner, Thorsten; Sun, Jung-Hui; Taber, Matthew T; Taylor, Sarah J; Wong, Michael K; Zhang, Huiping; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E; Gillman, Kevin W

    2016-12-21

    Combination studies of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonists and serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have shown promise in preclinical models of depression. Such a combination may offer important advantages over the current standard of care. Herein we describe the discovery and optimization of an indazole-based chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1 receptor antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors to overcome issues of ion channel blockade. This effort culminated in the identification of compound 9, an analogue that demonstrated favorable oral bioavailability, excellent brain uptake, and robust in vivo efficacy in a validated depression model. Over the course of this work, a novel heterocycle-directed asymmetric hydrogenation was developed to facilitate installation of the key stereogenic center.

  20. SP. Pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gendre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'occhiello di un articolo dal titolo Il Peru dei de[Jini rosa e de/la grande pioggia si legge: "da una partenza  in aereo al «pescado»  che ti  sfamera."1 Questa parola spagnola, giustamente chiusa tra caporali, a noi pare molto interes­ sante, perche, nonostante l'apparenza, non ha nulla da spartire sotto i1 profilo se­ mantico con l'it. pescato. lnfatti, tutti i piu importanti dizionari della lingua italiana, di ieri e di oggi, etimologici e non 2, registrano  accanto a pescata,  ii lemma pescato, 3 ma lo spiegano come "quantita di pesce catturato nel corso di una battuta o di una stagione di pesca",4 mentre lo sp. pescado  indica i1 "pesce (solo nel senso di: pesGe pescato da mangiare [...]".s

  1. Semi-synthesis of a HGF/SF kringle one (K1) domain scaffold generates a potent in vivo MET receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneau, Claire; Bérénice Leclercq; Mougel, Alexandra; Adriaenssens, Eric; Paquet, Charlotte; Raibaut, Laurent; Ollivier, Nathalie; Drobecq, Hervé; Marcoux, Julien; Cianférani, Sarah; Tulasne, David; de Jonge, Hugo; Melnyk, Oleg; Vicogne, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The development of MET receptor agonists is an important goal in regenerative medicine, but is limited by the complexity and incomplete understanding of its interaction with HGF/SF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor). NK1 is a natural occurring agonist comprising the N-terminal (N) and the first kringle (K1) domains of HGF/SF. In the presence of heparin, NK1 can self-associate into a "head to tail" dimer which is considered as the minimal structural module able to trigger MET dimerization and activation whereas isolated K1 and N domains showed a weak or a complete lack of agonistic activity respectively. Starting from these structural and biological observations, we investigated whether it was possible to recapitulate the biological properties of NK1 using a new molecular architecture of isolated N or K1 domains. Therefore, we engineered multivalent N or K1 scaffolds by combining synthetic and homogeneous site-specifically biotinylated N and K1 domains (NB and K1B) and streptavidin (S). NB alone or in complex failed to activate MET signaling and to trigger cellular phenotypes. Importantly and to the contrary of K1B alone, the semi-synthetic K1B/S complex mimicked NK1 MET agonist activity in cell scattering, morphogenesis and survival phenotypic assays. Impressively, K1B/S complex stimulated in vivo angiogenesis and, when injected in mice, protected the liver against fulminant hepatitis in a MET dependent manner whereas NK1 and HGF were substantially less potent. These data reveal that without N domain, proper multimerization of K1 domain is a promising strategy for the rational design of powerful MET agonists.

  2. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Substance P induces rapid and transient membrane blebbing in U373MG cells in a p21-activated kinase-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Meshki

    Full Text Available U373MG astrocytoma cells endogenously express the full-length neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R. Substance P (SP, the natural ligand for NK1R, triggers rapid and transient membrane blebbing and we report that these morphological changes have different dynamics and intracellular signaling as compared to the changes that we have previously described in HEK293-NK1R cells. In both cell lines, the SP-induced morphological changes are Gq-independent, and they require the Rho, Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK signaling pathway. Using confocal microscopy we have demonstrated that tubulin is phosphorylated subsequent to cell stimulation with SP and that tubulin accumulates inside the blebs. Colchicine, a tubulin polymerization inhibitor, blocked SP-induced blebbing in U373MG but not in HEK293-NK1R cells. Although p21-activated kinase (PAK is expressed in both cell lines, SP induced rapid phosphorylation of PAK in U373MG, but failed to phosphorylate PAK in HEK293-NK1R cells. The cell-permeable Rho inhibitor C3 transferase inhibited SP-induced PAK phosphorylation, but the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 had no effect on PAK phosphorylation, suggesting that Rho activates PAK in a ROCK-independent manner. Our study demonstrates that SP triggers rapid changes in cell morphology mediated by distinct intracellular signaling mechanisms in U373MG versus HEK293-NK1R cells.

  4. Draft genome sequences of six neonatal meningitis-causing escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65) were recovered from infants in the Netherlands from 1989 to 1997. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these six E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing te...

  5. Metalloelastase in lungs and alveolar macrophages is modulated by extracellular substance P in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Xu, F; Barrett, E

    2008-07-01

    Metalloelastase (MMP-12), mainly produced by macrophages, has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of emphysema in animal models. Chronic cigarette smoke increases pulmonary MMP-12, which is closely correlated with an elevation of pulmonary substance P (SP). Because alveolar macrophages (AMs) contain the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), we tested whether SP was able to trigger the upregulation of MMP-12 synthesis in AMs by acting on the NK1R. AMs isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage cells in C3H/HeN mice were cultured with control medium or SP that was coupled without or with NK1R antagonists (CP-99,994 or aprepitant) for 24 h. We found that SP significantly increased the mRNA of MMP-12 and NK1R by 11-fold and 82%, respectively, in AMs (PNCAP) to degenerate PCFs, respectively. Our results show that NCAP treatment significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of SP associated with a reduction NK1R and MMP-12 in the lungs and AMs. These findings suggest that SP has a modulatory effect on pulmonary MMP-12 by acting on NK1R to trigger MMP-12 syntheses in the AMs.

  6. The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Contributes to the Early Phase of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Fever via Stimulation of Peripheral Cyclooxygenase-2 Protein Expression in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Pakai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurokinin (NK signaling is involved in various inflammatory processes. A common manifestation of systemic inflammation is fever, which is usually induced in animal models with the administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. A role for the NK1 receptor was shown in LPS-induced fever, but the underlying mechanisms of how the NK1 receptor contributes to febrile response, especially in the early phase, have remained unknown. We administered LPS (120 µg/kg, intraperitoneally to mice with the Tacr1 gene, i.e., the gene encoding the NK1 receptor, either present (Tacr1+/+ or absent (Tacr1−/− and measured their thermoregulatory responses, serum cytokine levels, tissue cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, and prostaglandin (PG E2 concentration. We found that the LPS-induced febrile response was attenuated in Tacr1−/− compared to their Tacr1+/+ littermates starting from 40 min postinfusion. The febrigenic effect of intracerebroventricularly administered PGE2 was not suppressed in the Tacr1−/− mice. Serum concentration of pyrogenic cytokines did not differ between Tacr1−/− and Tacr1+/+ at 40 min post-LPS infusion. Administration of LPS resulted in amplification of COX-2 mRNA expression in the lungs, liver, and brain of the mice, which was statistically indistinguishable between the genotypes. In contrast, the LPS-induced augmentation of COX-2 protein expression was attenuated in the lungs and tended to be suppressed in the liver of Tacr1−/− mice compared with Tacr1+/+ mice. The Tacr1+/+ mice responded to LPS with a significant surge of PGE2 production in the lungs, whereas Tacr1−/− mice did not. In conclusion, the NK1 receptor is necessary for normal fever genesis. Our results suggest that the NK1 receptor contributes to the early phase of LPS-induced fever by enhancing COX-2 protein expression in the periphery. These findings advance the understanding of the crosstalk between NK signaling and the “cytokine-COX-2

  7. A library of 7TM receptor C-terminal tails - Interactions with the proposed post-endocytic sorting proteins ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein (GASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, A.; Sondergaard, B.P.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2004-01-01

    Adaptor and scaffolding proteins determine the cellular targeting, the spatial, and thereby the functional association of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors with co-receptors, transducers, and downstream effectors and the adaptors determine post-signaling events such as receptor...... only a single receptor tail, i.e. the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, whereas N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor bound 11 of the tail-fusion proteins. Of the two proteins proposed to target receptors for lysosomal degradation, sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) bound 10 and the C-terminal domain of G protein...... the expected nanomolar affinities for interaction with SNX1. Truncations of the NK1 receptor revealed that an extended binding epitope is responsible for the interaction with both SNX1 and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein as well as with N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. It is concluded...

  8. A library of 7TM receptor C-terminal tails. Interactions with the proposed post-endocytic sorting proteins ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein (GASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Arne; Søndergaard, Birgitte P; Ersbøll, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    Adaptor and scaffolding proteins determine the cellular targeting, the spatial, and thereby the functional association of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors with co-receptors, transducers, and downstream effectors and the adaptors determine post-signaling events such as receptor...... only a single receptor tail, i.e. the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, whereas N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor bound 11 of the tail-fusion proteins. Of the two proteins proposed to target receptors for lysosomal degradation, sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) bound 10 and the C-terminal domain of G protein...... the expected nanomolar affinities for interaction with SNX1. Truncations of the NK(1) receptor revealed that an extended binding epitope is responsible for the interaction with both SNX1 and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein as well as with N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. It is concluded...

  9. Acute inflammation induces segmental, bilateral, supraspinally mediated opioid release in the rat spinal cord, as measured by μ-opioid receptor internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenling; Marvizón, Juan Carlos G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure opioid release in the spinal cord during acute and long-term inflammation using μ-opioid receptor (MOR) internalization. In particular, we determined whether opioid release occurs in the segments receiving the noxious signals or in the entire spinal cord, and whether it involves supraspinal signals. Internalization of neurokinin 1 receptors (NK1Rs) was measured to track the intensity of the noxious stimulus. Rats received peptidase inhibitors intrathecally to protect opioids from degradation. Acute inflammation of the hindpaw with formalin induced moderate MOR internalization in the L5 segment bilaterally, whereas NK1R internalization occurred only ipsilaterally. MOR internalization was restricted to the lumbar spinal cord, regardless of whether the peptidase inhibitors were injected in a lumbar or thoracic site. Formalin-induced MOR internalization was substantially reduced by isoflurane anesthesia. It was also markedly reduced by a lidocaine block of the cervical-thoracic spinal cord (which did not affect the evoked NK1R internalization) indicating that spinal opioid release is mediated supraspinally. In the absence of peptidase inhibitors, formalin and hindpaw clamp induced a small amount of MOR internalization, which was significantly higher than in controls. To study spinal opioid release during chronic inflammation, we injected Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in the hindpaw and peptidase inhibitors intrathecally. Two days later, no MOR or NK1R internalization was detected. Furthermore, CFA inflammation decreased MOR internalization induced by clamping the inflamed hindpaw. These results show that acute inflammation, but not chronic inflammation, induce segmental opioid release in the spinal cord that involves supraspinal signals. PMID:19298846

  10. Acute inflammation induces segmental, bilateral, supraspinally mediated opioid release in the rat spinal cord, as measured by mu-opioid receptor internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Marvizón, J C G

    2009-06-16

    The objective of this study was to measure opioid release in the spinal cord during acute and long-term inflammation using mu-opioid receptor (MOR) internalization. In particular, we determined whether opioid release occurs in the segments receiving the noxious signals or in the entire spinal cord, and whether it involves supraspinal signals. Internalization of neurokinin 1 receptors (NK1Rs) was measured to track the intensity of the noxious stimulus. Rats received peptidase inhibitors intrathecally to protect opioids from degradation. Acute inflammation of the hind paw with formalin induced moderate MOR internalization in the L5 segment bilaterally, whereas NK1R internalization occurred only ipsilaterally. MOR internalization was restricted to the lumbar spinal cord, regardless of whether the peptidase inhibitors were injected in a lumbar or thoracic site. Formalin-induced MOR internalization was substantially reduced by isoflurane anesthesia. It was also markedly reduced by a lidocaine block of the cervical-thoracic spinal cord (which did not affect the evoked NK1R internalization) indicating that spinal opioid release is mediated supraspinally. In the absence of peptidase inhibitors, formalin and hind paw clamp induced a small amount of MOR internalization, which was significantly higher than in controls. To study spinal opioid release during chronic inflammation, we injected complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the hind paw and peptidase inhibitors intrathecally. Two days later, no MOR or NK1R internalization was detected. Furthermore, CFA inflammation decreased MOR internalization induced by clamping the inflamed hind paw. These results show that acute inflammation, but not chronic inflammation, induces segmental opioid release in the spinal cord that involves supraspinal signals.

  11. Neuropeptide substance P stimulates the formation of osteoclasts via synovial fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matayoshi, Takaaki; Goto, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Eiji; Takano, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of neuropeptide substance P (Sp) on the formation of osteoclasts via synovial fibroblastic cells. Synovial fibroblastic cells derived from rat knee joint expressed the Sp receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK 1 -R). The addition of Sp stimulated the proliferation of synovial fibroblastic cells and this effect was inhibited by Sp or NK 1 -R antagonists. Increased expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (Rankle) in synovial fibroblastic cells after the addition of Sp was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. Osteoprotegerin expression in synovial fibroblastic cells was decreased after incubation with SP. In co-cultures of synovial fibroblastic cells and rat peripheral blood monocytes, SP stimulated osteoclastogenesis. These results suggest that SP in the joint cavity may cause both hypertrophy of the synovium and induction of increased osteoclast formation through the increased expression of RANKL in the synovium

  12. Tachykinin receptors in the equine pelvic flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonea, I.M.; Wilson, D.V.; Bowker, R.M.; Robinson, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Tachykinins, of which substance P (SP) is the prototype, are neuropeptides which are widely distributed in the nervous systems. In the equine gut, SP is present in enteric nerves and is a powerful constrictor of enteric muscle; in other species, SP is also known to have potent vasodilatory and pro-inflammatory effects. The specific effects of SP are determined by the subtype of receptor present in the target tissue. There are 3 known subtypes of tachykinin receptors, distinguished by their relative affinities for SP and other tachykinins. The distribution of SP binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure was determined using 125I-Bolton Hunter SP (I-BHSP) autoradiography. Most I-BHSP binding sites were determined to be saturable and specific, therefore presumably representing tachykinin receptors. The greatest degree of I-BHSP binding occurred over very small vessels, and over the muscularis mucosae; I-BHSP binding was also intense over the circular muscle of the muscularis externa and mucosa, and present, although less intense, over the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa. Competition of I-BHSP with specific receptor agonists for binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure were used to determine the subtypes of tachykinin receptors present. The neurokinin-1 receptor subtype predominated in the equine pelvic flexure, followed by the neurokinin-3 receptor subtype

  13. Analysis of fluorescently labeled substance P analogs: binding, imaging and receptor activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Mark A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance P (SP is a peptide neurotransmitter found in central and peripheral nerves. SP is involved in the control of smooth muscle, inflammation and nociception. The amino acid sequence of SP is Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2. Five different forms of fluorescently labeled SP have recently been synthesized, in which Alexa 488, BODIPY Fl, fluorescein, Oregon Green 488 or tetramethylrhodamine has been covalently linked to SP at Lys3. Here, these novel analogs are characterized as to their ligand binding, receptor activation and fluorescence labeling properties. Results Competition binding studies, using radiolabeled [125I] SP, revealed that all of the labeled forms of SP, except for Alexa 488-SP, effectively competed with radiolabeled SP for binding at the rat SP receptor. With the exception of Alexa 488-SP, all of the SP analogs produced Ca++ elevations and fluorescence labeling of the SP receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In SP-responsive neurons, BODIPY Fl-SP and Oregon Green 488-SP were as effective as unlabeled SP in producing a reduction of the M-type K+ current. Fluorescein-SP produced variable results, while tetramethylrhodamine-SP was less potent and Alexa 488-SP was less effective on intact neurons. Conclusions The above results show that fluorescent labeling of SP altered the biological activity and the binding properties of the parent peptide. Oregon Green 488 and BODIPY FL-SP are the most useful fluorophores for labeling SP without affecting its biological activity. Given these results, these probes can now be utilized in further investigations of the mechanisms of SPR function, including receptor localization, internalization and recycling.

  14. Changes in glutamate receptor subunits within the medulla in goats after section of the carotid sinus nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Justin Robert; Neumueller, Suzanne; Muere, Clarissa; Olesiak, Samantha; Pan, Lawrence; Bukowy, John D.; Daghistany, Asem O.; Hodges, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms which contribute to the time-dependent recovery of resting ventilation and the ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex after carotid body denervation (CBD) are poorly understood. Herein we tested the hypothesis that there are time-dependent changes in the expression of specific AMPA, NMDA, and/or neurokinin-1 (NK1R) receptors within respiratory-related brain stem nuclei acutely or chronically after CBD in adult goats. Brain stem tissues were collected acutely (5 days) or chronically (30 days) after sham or bilateral CBD, immunostained with antibodies targeting AMPA (GluA1 or GluA2), NMDA (GluN1), or NK-1 receptors, and optical density (OD) compared. Physiological measurement confirmed categorization of each group and showed ventilatory effects consistent with bilateral CBD (Miller et al. J Appl Physiol 115: 1088–1098, 2013). Acutely after CBD, GluA1 OD was unchanged or slightly increased, but GluA2 and GluN1 OD were reduced 15–30% within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and in other medullary respiratory nuclei. Chronically after CBD, GluA1 was reduced (P < 0.05) within the caudal NTS and in other nuclei, but there was significant recovery of GluA2 and GluN1 OD. NK1 OD was not significantly different from control after CBD. We conclude that the initial decrease in GluA2 and GluN1 after CBD likely contributes to hypoventilation and the reduced CO2 chemoreflex. The partial recovery of ventilation and the CO2 chemoreflex after CBD parallel a time-dependent return of these receptors to near control levels but likely depend upon additional initiating and maintenance factors for neuroplasticity. PMID:24790015

  15. Characterization of species-related differences in the pharmacology of tachykinin NK receptors 1, 2 and 3

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Tachykinin NK receptors (NKR) differ to a large degree among species with respect to their affinities for small molecule antagonists. The aims of the present study were to clone NKRs from gerbil (NK2R and NK3R) and dog (NK1R, NK2R, NK3R) in which the sequence was previously unknown and to investigate the potency of several NKR antagonists at all known human, dog, gerbil and rat NKRs. The NKR protein coding sequences were cloned and expressed in CHO cells. The in...

  16. ExaSP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-08

    ExaSP2 is a reference implementation of typical linear algebra algorithms and workloads for a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) electronic structure code. The algorithm is based on a recursive second-order Fermi-Operator expansion method (SP2) and is tailored for density functional based tight-binding calculations of material systems.

  17. Neurokinin-1 receptor activation in globus pallidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The undecapeptide substance P has been demonstrated to modulate neuronal activity in a number of brain regions by acting on neurokinin-1 receptors. Anatomical studies revealed a moderate level of neurokinin-1 receptor in rat globus pallidus. To determine the electrophysiological effects of neurokinin-1 receptor activation in globus pallidus, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in the present study. Under current-clamp recordings, neurokinin-1 receptor agonist, [Sar9, Met(O211] substance P (SM-SP at 1 μM, depolarized globus pallidus neurons and increased their firing rate. Consistently, SM-SP induced an inward current under voltage-clamp recording. The depolarization evoked by SM-SP persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin, glutamate and GABA receptor antagonists, indicating its direct postsynaptic effects. The neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, SR140333B, could block SM-SP-induced depolarization. Further experiments showed that suppression of potassium conductance was the predominant ionic mechanism of SM-SP-induced depolarization. To determine if neurokinin-1 receptor activation exerts any effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, the action of SM-SP on synaptic currents was studied. SM-SP significantly increased the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents, but only induced a transient increase in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. No change was observed in both spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. Based on the direct excitatory effects of SM-SP on pallidal neurons, we hypothesize that neurokinin-1 receptor activation in globus pallidus may be involved in the beneficial effect of substance P in Parkinson’s disease.

  18. High-level expression of soluble form of mouse natural killer cell receptor NKR-P1C(B6) in Escherichia coli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozbeský, Daniel; Kavan, Daniel; Chmelík, Josef; Novák, Petr; Vaněk, Ondřej; Bezouška, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2011), s. 178-184 ISSN 1046-5928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0477; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA ČR GAP207/10/1040; GA AV ČR IAA500200620; GA MŠk LC07017; GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Natural killer cell * NKR-P1C receptor * NK1.1 antigen Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2011

  19. Insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, C.R.; Harrison, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on insulin receptors. Part A: Methods for the study of structure and function. Topics covered include: Method for purification and labeling of insulin receptors, the insulin receptor kinase, and insulin receptors on special tissues

  20. SP-100 Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    The SP-100 Program is expected to go through three phases: technology assessment and advancement, ground testing, and flight qualification. Currently the program is in the two- to three-year technology assessment and advancement stage. Goals are to identify the space nuclear power system concept that best meets anticipated requirements of future space missions, assess the technical feasibility of that concept, and establish a cost and schedule for developing the concept. The SP-100 Project Office has begun the implementation activities needed to meet these goals. With regard to refractory alloys, a better data base will be required before we move ahead in the program from technology assessment to ground demonstration

  1. Substance p regulates puberty onset and fertility in the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simavli, Serap; Thompson, Iain R; Maguire, Caroline A; Gill, John C; Carroll, Rona S; Wolfe, Andrew; Kaiser, Ursula B; Navarro, Víctor M

    2015-06-01

    Puberty is a tightly regulated process that leads to reproductive capacity. Kiss1 neurons are crucial in this process by stimulating GnRH, yet how Kiss1 neurons are regulated remains unknown. Substance P (SP), an important neuropeptide in pain perception, induces gonadotropin release in adult mice in a kisspeptin-dependent manner. Here, we assessed whether SP, through binding to its receptor NK1R (neurokinin 1 receptor), participates in the timing of puberty onset and fertility in the mouse. We observed that 1) selective NK1R agonists induce gonadotropin release in prepubertal females; 2) the expression of Tac1 (encoding SP) and Tacr1 (NK1R) in the arcuate nucleus is maximal before puberty, suggesting increased SP tone; 3) repeated exposure to NK1R agonists prepubertally advances puberty onset; and 4) female Tac1(-/-) mice display delayed puberty; moreover, 5) SP deficiency leads to subfertility in females, showing fewer corpora lutea and antral follicles and leading to decreased litter size. Thus, our findings support a role for SP in the stimulation of gonadotropins before puberty, acting via Kiss1 neurons to stimulate GnRH release, and its involvement in the attainment of full reproductive capabilities in female mice.

  2. Absence of torsion for NK_1(R) over associative rings

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Rabeya

    2010-01-01

    When R is a commutative ring with identity, and if k is a natural number with kR = R, then C. Weibel proved that SK_1(R[X]) has no k-torsion. We reprove his result for any associative ring R with identity in which kR = R.

  3. Substance P increases liver fibrosis by differential changes in senescence of cholangiocytes and hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ying; Meng, Fanyin; Wu, Nan; Zhou, Tianhao; Venter, Julie; Francis, Heather; Kennedy, Lindsey; Glaser, Trenton; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Invernizzi, Pietro; Glaser, Shannon; Huang, Qiaobing; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2017-08-01

    Substance P (SP) is involved in the proliferation of cholangiocytes in bile duct-ligated (BDL) mice and human cholangiocarcinoma growth by interacting with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). To identify whether SP regulates liver fibrosis during cholestasis, wild-type or NK-1R knockout (NK-1R -/- ) mice that received BDL or sham surgery and multidrug resistance protein 2 knockout (Mdr2 -/- ) mice treated with either an NK-1R antagonist (L-733,060) or saline were used. Additionally, wild-type mice were treated with SP or saline intraperitoneally. In vivo, there was increased expression of tachykinin precursor 1 (coding SP) and NK-1R in both BDL and Mdr2 -/- mice compared to wild-type mice. Expression of tachykinin precursor 1 and NK-1R was significantly higher in liver samples from primary sclerosing cholangitis patients compared to healthy controls. Knockout of NK-1R decreased BDL-induced liver fibrosis, and treatment with L-733,060 resulted in decreased liver fibrosis in Mdr2 -/- mice, which was shown by decreased sirius red staining, fibrosis gene and protein expression, and reduced transforming growth factor-β1 levels in serum and cholangiocyte supernatants. Furthermore, we observed that reduced liver fibrosis in NK-1R -/- mice with BDL surgery or Mdr2 -/- mice treated with L-733,060 was associated with enhanced cellular senescence of hepatic stellate cells and decreased senescence of cholangiocytes. In vitro, L-733,060 inhibited SP-induced expression of fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells and cholangiocytes; treatment with L-733,060 partially reversed the SP-induced decrease of senescence gene expression in cultured hepatic stellate cells and the SP-induced increase of senescence-related gene expression in cultured cholangiocytes. Collectively, our results demonstrate the regulatory effects of the SP/NK-1R axis on liver fibrosis through changes in cellular senescence during cholestatic liver injury. (Hepatology 2017;66:528-541). © 2017 by the American

  4. Cryptosporidium sp. in lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, D.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (1998), s. 8 ISSN 1066-5234. [Cryptosporidium sp. in lazards. 01.01.1998-02.01.1998, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA508/95/0273; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines

  5. Neurokinin-1 receptor blocker CP-99 994 improved emesis induced by cisplatin via regulating the activity of gastric distention responsive neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and enhancing gastric motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Xu, L; Guo, F; Luo, W; Gao, S; Luan, X

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is still common in patients with cancer. It was reported that substance P mediated CINV via neurokinin-1 (NK 1 ) receptor and antagonists of NK 1 receptor has been proved useful for treating CINV but the mechanism are not fully understood. This study aimed to examine the role of NK 1 receptor blocker, CP-99 994, when administrated into dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMNV), on the cisplatin-induced emesis in rats and the possible mechanism. Rats' kaolin intake, food intake, and bodyweight were recorded every day; gastric contraction activity was recorded in conscious rats through a force transducer implanted into the stomach; gastric emptying was monitored using the phenol red method; single unit extracellular firing in the DMNV were recorded. DMNV microinjection of CP-99 994 reduced the changes of increased kaolin consumption and suppressed food intake in cisplatin-treated rats; enhanced the gastric contraction activity dose-dependently in control and cisplatin-treated rats but enhanced gastric emptying only in cisplatin-treated rats; reduced the firing rate of gastric distention inhibited (GD-I) neurons but increased the firing rate of GD excited (GD-E) neurons in the DMNV. The effects of CP-99 994 on gastric motility and neuronal activity were stronger in cisplatin-treated rats than those of control rats. Our results suggested that CP-99 994 could improve emesis induced by cisplatin by regulating gastric motility and gastric related neuronal activity in the DMNV. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Transcriptional Regulation of Frizzled-1 in Human Osteoblasts by Sp1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibing Yu

    Full Text Available The wingless pathway has a powerful influence on bone metabolism and is a therapeutic target in skeletal disorders. Wingless signaling is mediated in part through the Frizzled (FZD receptor family. FZD transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Herein we tested the hypothesis that Sp1 plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of FZD1 expression in osteoblasts and osteoblast mineralization. To test this hypothesis, we conducted FZD1 promoter assays in Saos2 cells with and without Sp1 overexpression. We found that Sp1 significantly up-regulates FZD1 promoter activity in Saos2 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA assays identified a novel and functional Sp1 binding site at -44 to -40 from the translation start site in the FZD1 promoter. The Sp1-dependent activation of the FZD1 promoter was abolished by mithramycin A (MMA, an antibiotic affecting both Sp1 binding and Sp1 protein levels in Saos2 cells. Similarly, down-regulation of Sp1 in hFOB cells resulted in less FZD1 expression and lower alkaline phosphatase activity. Moreover, over-expression of Sp1 increased FZD1 expression and Saos2 cell mineralization while MMA decreased Sp1 and FZD1 expression and Saos2 cell mineralization. Knockdown of FZD1 prior to Sp1 overexpression partially abolished Sp1 stimulation of osteoblast differentiation markers. Taken together, our results suggest that Sp1 plays a role in human osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, which is at least partially mediated by Sp1-dependent transactivation of FZD1.

  7. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Méndez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

  8. Somatostatin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lars Neisig; Stidsen, Carsten Enggaard; Hartmann, Bolette

    2003-01-01

    functional units, receptors co-operate. The total receptor apparatus of individual cell types is composed of different-ligand receptors (e.g. SRIF and non-SRIF receptors) and co-expressed receptor subtypes (e.g. sst(2) and sst(5) receptors) in characteristic proportions. In other words, levels of individual......-peptides, receptor agonists and antagonists. Relatively long half lives, as compared to those of the endogenous ligands, have been paramount from the outset. Motivated by theoretical puzzles or the shortcomings of present-day diagnostics and therapy, investigators have also aimed to produce subtype...

  9. SP mountain data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  10. Curcumin and synthetic analogs induce reactive oxygen species and decreases specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors by targeting microRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhy, Shruti U; Kim, KyoungHyun; Larsen, Lesley; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Safe, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin inhibits growth of several cancer cell lines, and studies in this laboratory in bladder and pancreatic cancer cells show that curcumin downregulates specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of curcumin and several synthetic cyclohexanone and piperidine analogs in colon cancer cells. The effects of curcumin and synthetic analogs on colon cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using standardized assays. The changes in Sp proteins and Sp-regulated gene products were analysed by western blots, and real time PCR was used to determine microRNA-27a (miR-27a), miR-20a, miR-17-5p and ZBTB10 and ZBTB4 mRNA expression. The IC 50 (half-maximal) values for growth inhibition (24 hr) of colon cancer cells by curcumin and synthetic cyclohexanone and piperidine analogs of curcumin varied from 10 μM for curcumin to 0.7 μM for the most active synthetic piperidine analog RL197, which was used along with curcumin as model agents in this study. Curcumin and RL197 inhibited RKO and SW480 colon cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis, and this was accompanied by downregulation of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET), survivin, bcl-2, cyclin D1 and NFκB (p65 and p50). Curcumin and RL197 also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cotreatment with the antioxidant glutathione significantly attenuated curcumin- and RL197-induced growth inhibition and downregulation of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes. The mechanism of curcumin-/RL197-induced repression of Sp transcription factors was ROS-dependent and due to induction of the Sp repressors ZBTB10 and ZBTB4 and downregulation of microRNAs (miR)-27a, miR-20a and miR-17-5p that regulate these repressors. These results identify a new and highly potent

  11. Curcumin and synthetic analogs induce reactive oxygen species and decreases specificity protein (Sp transcription factors by targeting microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhy Shruti U

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin inhibits growth of several cancer cell lines, and studies in this laboratory in bladder and pancreatic cancer cells show that curcumin downregulates specificity protein (Sp transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of curcumin and several synthetic cyclohexanone and piperidine analogs in colon cancer cells. Methods The effects of curcumin and synthetic analogs on colon cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using standardized assays. The changes in Sp proteins and Sp-regulated gene products were analysed by western blots, and real time PCR was used to determine microRNA-27a (miR-27a, miR-20a, miR-17-5p and ZBTB10 and ZBTB4 mRNA expression. Results The IC50 (half-maximal values for growth inhibition (24 hr of colon cancer cells by curcumin and synthetic cyclohexanone and piperidine analogs of curcumin varied from 10 μM for curcumin to 0.7 μM for the most active synthetic piperidine analog RL197, which was used along with curcumin as model agents in this study. Curcumin and RL197 inhibited RKO and SW480 colon cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis, and this was accompanied by downregulation of specificity protein (Sp transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET, survivin, bcl-2, cyclin D1 and NFκB (p65 and p50. Curcumin and RL197 also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS, and cotreatment with the antioxidant glutathione significantly attenuated curcumin- and RL197-induced growth inhibition and downregulation of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes. The mechanism of curcumin-/RL197-induced repression of Sp transcription factors was ROS-dependent and due to induction of the Sp repressors ZBTB10 and ZBTB4 and downregulation of microRNAs (miR-27a, miR-20a and miR-17-5p that regulate these repressors

  12. SP-100 Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    Preparatory activities are well under way at Hanford to convert the 309 Containment Building and its associated service wing to a 2.5 MWt nuclear test facility for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Preliminary design is complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system to enclose the high temperature reactor, a test assembly cell and handling system, control and data processing systems, and safety and auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 75% complete. The facility has been cleared of obstructing equipment from its earlier reactor test. Current activities are focusing on definitive design and preparation of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) aimed at procurement and construction approvals and schedules to achieve reactor criticality by January 1992. 6 refs

  13. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  14. Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murros-Kontiainen, Anna; Johansson, Per; Niskanen, Taina; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    The taxonomic position of three strains from water, soil and lettuce samples was studied by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strains were reported to lack the virulence-encoding genes inv and virF in a previous study. Controversially, API 20 E and some other phenotypic tests suggested that the strains belong to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which prompted this polyphasic taxonomic study. In both the phylogenetic analyses of four housekeeping genes (glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60) and numerical analyses of HindIII and EcoRI ribopatterns, the strains formed a separate group within the genus Yersinia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains were related to Yersinia aldovae and Yersinia mollaretii, but DNA-DNA hybridization analysis differentiated them from these species. Based on the results of the phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, a novel species, Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is ÅYV7.1KOH2(T) ( = DSM 22769(T)  = LMG 25369(T)).

  15. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Key words: Antimicrobial peptides, Capsicum sp, Capsicum chinense, chili pepper, agronomical options, ..... of this human activity is resumed by the simple phrase: produce .... It will be interesting to scale the AMPs extraction.

  16. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) participates in anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) gene expression in mud crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Xu; Wan, Wei-Song; Wang, Shu-Qi; Wen, Xiao-Bo; Zheng, Huai-Ping; Zhang, Yue-Ling; Li, Sheng-Kang

    2017-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key cytoplasm signal adaptor that mediates signals activated by tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily and the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. The full-length 2492 bp TRAF6 (Sp-TRAF6) from Scylla paramamosain contains 1800 bp of open reading frame (ORF) encoding 598 amino acids, including an N-terminal RING-type zinc finger, two TRAF-type zinc fingers and a conserved C-terminal meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain. Multiple alignment analysis shows that the putative amino acid sequence of Sp-TRAf6 has highest identity of 88% with Pt-TRAF6 from Portunus trituberculatus, while the similarity of Sp-TRAF6 with other crustacean sequences was 54-55%. RT-PCR analysis indicated that Sp-TRAF6 transcripts were predominantly expressed in the hepatopancreas and stomach, whereas it was barely detected in the heart and hemocytes in our study. Moreover, Sp-TRAF6 transcripts were significantly up-regulated after Vibrio parahemolyticus and LPS challenges. RNA interference assay was carried out used by siRNA to investigate the genes expression patterns regulated by Sp-TRAF6. The qRT-PCR results showed that silencing Sp-TRAF6 gene could inhibit SpALF1, SpALF2, SpALF5 and SpALF6 expression in hemocytes, while inhibit SpALF1, SpALF3, SpALF4, SpALF5 and SpALF6 expression in hepatopancreas. Taken together, the acute-phase response to immune challenges and the inhibition of SpALFs gene expression indicate that Sp-TRAF6 plays an important role in host defense against pathogen invasions via regulation of ALF gene expression in S. paramamosain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Receptor assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K; Ibayashi, H [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-05-01

    This paper summarized present status and problems of analysis of hormone receptor and a few considerations on clinical significance of receptor abnormalities. It was pointed that in future clinical field quantitative and qualitative analysis of receptor did not remain only in the etiological discussion, but that it was an epoch-making field of investigation which contained the possiblity of artificial change of sensitivity of living body on drugs and the development connected directly with treatment of various diseases.

  18. The role of substance P in the maintenance of colonic hypermotility induced by repeated stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Luo, Hesheng; Quan, Xiaojing; Fan, Han; Tang, Qincai; Yu, Guang; Chen, Wei; Xia, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism underlying chronic stress-induced gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility has not been fully elucidated and GI hormones have been indicated playing a role in mediating stress-induced changes in GI motor function. Our objective was to study the possible role of substance P (SP) in the colonic hypermotility induced by repeated water avoidance stress (WAS) which mimics irritable bowel syndrome. Male Wistar rats were submitted to WAS or sham WAS (SWAS) (1h/day) for up to 10 consecutive days. Enzyme Immunoassay Kit was used to detect the serum level of SP. The expression of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) was investigated by Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The spontaneous contraction of muscle strip was studied in an organ bath system. L-type calcium channel currents (ICa,L) of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Fecal pellet expulsion and spontaneous contraction of proximal colon in rats were increased after repeated WAS. The serum level of SP was elevated following WAS. Immunohistochemistry proved the expression of NK1R in mucosa, muscularis and myenteric plexus. Western blotting demonstrated stress-induced up-regulation of NK1R in colon devoid of mucosa and submucosa. Repeated WAS increased the contractile activities of longitudinal muscle and circular muscle strips induced by SP and this effect was reversed by a selective NK1R antagonist. The ICa,L of SMCs in the WAS rats were drastically increased compared to controls after addition of SP. Increased serum SP level and up-regulated NK1R in colon may contribute to stress-induced colonic hypermotility. And L-type calcium channels play a potentially important role in the process of WAS-induced dysmotility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Addition of the Neurokinin-1-Receptor Antagonist (RA) Aprepitant to a 5-Hydroxytryptamine-RA and Dexamethasone in the Prophylaxis of Nausea and Vomiting Due to Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Cisplatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Franziska, E-mail: franziska.jahn@uk-halle.de [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Riesner, Anica [Department of Gastroenterology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Jahn, Patrick [Nursing Research Unit, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Sieker, Frank; Vordermark, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Jordan, Karin [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a prospective, observational study, the safety and efficacy of the addition of the neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist (NK1-RA) aprepitant to concomitant radiochemotherapy, for the prophylaxis of radiation therapy–induced nausea and vomiting. Patients and Methods: This prospective observational study compared the antiemetic efficacy of an NK1-RA (aprepitant), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA, and dexamethasone (aprepitant regimen) versus a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA and dexamethasone (control regimen) in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Germany. The primary endpoint was complete response in the overall phase, defined as no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy in this period. Results: Fifty-nine patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin were included in this study. Thirty-one patients received the aprepitant regimen and 29 the control regimen. The overall complete response rates for cycles 1 and 2 were 75.9% and 64.5% for the aprepitant group and 60.7% and 54.2% for the control group, respectively. Although a 15.2% absolute difference was reached in cycle 1, a statistical significance was not detected (P=.22). Furthermore maximum nausea was 1.58 ± 1.91 in the control group and 0.73 ± 1.79 in the aprepitant group (P=.084); for the head-and-neck subset, 2.23 ± 2.13 in the control group and 0.64 ± 1.77 in the aprepitant group, respectively (P=.03). Conclusion: This is the first study of an NK1-RA–containing antiemetic prophylaxis regimen in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy. Although the primary endpoint was not obtained, the absolute difference of 10% in efficacy was reached, which is defined as clinically meaningful for patients by international guidelines groups. Randomized phase 3 studies are necessary to further define the potential role of an NK1-RA in this setting.

  20. Steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 mediate fetal-to-maternal signaling that initiates parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Lu; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H.; Condon, Jennifer C.; Renthal, Nora E.; Johnston, John M.; Mitsche, Matthew A.; Chambon, Pierre; Xu, Jianming; O’Malley, Bert W.; Mendelson, Carole R.

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms that lead to parturition are incompletely defined. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A), which is secreted by fetal lungs into amniotic fluid (AF) near term, likely provides a signal for parturition; however, SP-A–deficient mice have only a relatively modest delay (~12 hours) in parturition, suggesting additional factors. Here, we evaluated the contribution of steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 (SRC-1 and SRC-2), which upregulate SP-A transcription, to the parturition process...

  1. Seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. Ehrlichia sp. en trabajadores rurales del departamento de Sucre, Colombia Seroprevalence of Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. in rural workers of Sucre, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ríos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determinar la seroprevalencia de Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. en trabajadores de áreas rurales del departamento de Sucre. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio escriptivo, prospectivo, de corte transversal, que pretendió determinar la seroprevalencia e Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. en 90 trabajadores de áreas rurales del departamento de Sucre. Se estableció la presencia de anticuerpos séricos anti-IgM específicos anti-Leptospira por la técnica de ELISA indirecta. Para la determinación de Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp. se uso la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. La población evaluada estaba compuesta por 27 (30% ordeñadores, 21 (23% jornaleros, 18 (20% profesionales del campo y 24 (27% que realizaban otras actividades. Ventidós (24% muestras resultaron positivas en alguna de las pruebas. De éstas, 12 (13,3% fueron positivas para Leptospira sp., 7 (7,8% para Rickettsia sp. y 3 (3,3% ara Ehrlichia sp. Conclusión. Este fue el primer estudio que se llevó a cabo en el departamento de Sucre y permitió demostrar que existe una prevalencia importante de Leptospira p.,Rickettsia sp. y Ehrlichia sp.. Los factores de riesgo ocupacional fueron factores determinantes en la seropositividad.Objective. To determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira sp., Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. in agricultural workers of Sucre. Methods. A descriptive prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in ninety rural workers of Sucre. Presence of serum antibodies anti-IgM specific anti-Leptospira by indirect ELISA was established. For the determination of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia indirect inmunoflorescence was used. Results.The population was composed by 27 (30% milkers, 21 (23% day workers, 18 farm professionals (20% and 24 (26% workers in others activities. A total of 22 (24% samples were positive to some test. Twelve (13.3% were positive to Leptospira sp., seven (7.8% to Rickettsia sp

  2. SP-100 reactor cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, A.D.

    1991-09-01

    There are plans to test the SP-100 space reactor for 2 yr in the test facility shown in Figure 1. The vacuum vessel will be in the reactor experiment (RX) cell surrounded by an inert gas atmosphere. It is proposed that the reactor test cell could contain removable-water- shielding tanks to reduce the residual activation dose rates in the test cell after the tests are completed. This reduction will allow the facility to be considered for other uses after the SP-100 tests are completed. The radiation dose rates in the test cell were calculated for several configurations of water-shielding tanks to help evaluate this concept

  3. Prolonged Ketamine Effects in Sp4 Hypomorphic Mice: Mimicking Phenotypes of Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohu Ji

    Full Text Available It has been well established that schizophrenia patients display impaired NMDA receptor (NMDAR functions as well as exacerbation of symptoms in response to NMDAR antagonists. Abnormal NMDAR signaling presumably contributes to cognitive deficits which substantially contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. Establishing a mouse genetic model will help investigate molecular mechanisms of hypoglutmatergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Here, we examined the responses of Sp4 hypomorphic mice to NMDAR antagonists in electroencephalography and various behavioral paradigms. Sp4 hypomorphic mice, previously reported to have reduced NMDAR1 expression and LTP deficit in hippocampal CA1, displayed increased sensitivity and prolonged responses to NMDAR antagonists. Molecular studies demonstrated reduced expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67 in both cortex and hippocampus, consistent with abnormal gamma oscillations in Sp4 hypomorphic mice. On the other hand, human SP4 gene was reported to be deleted in schizophrenia. Several human genetic studies suggested the association of SP4 gene with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, elucidation of the Sp4 molecular pathway in Sp4 hypomorphic mice may provide novel insights to our understanding of abnormal NMDAR signaling in schizophrenia.

  4. Characterization of the substance P receptor on the rat submaxillary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahouth, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide widely distributed in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Its actions include vasodilation, intestinal contraction, salivation and probably nocioception, effects which are thought to be mediated by receptors. To characterize SP receptors, the binding of [ 3 H]SP and [ 3 H]physalaemin to rat submaxillary gland membranes and the effects of monovalent cations under conditions in which the peptides are protected from degradation and nonspecific adsorption to the filter were studied. In low ionic strength media (0.3 M sucrose) [ 3 H]SP binds to two sites, a high affinity one with an affinity (K/sub D/) = 0.14 nM and a receptor density (B/sub max/) = 370 fmole/mg, and a low affinity-high capacity site with a K/sub D/ = 1400 nM and B/sub max/ = 24,000 fmole/mg. Under these conditions physalaemin, which is about twice as potent as SP as a sialogogue, had one hundredth the potency of SP in competing with [ 3 H]SP, with an IC 50 = 150 nM. The increase in the ionic strength of the binding medium had a profound effect on the binding of [ 3 H]SP. The addition of monovalent cations reduced the non specific binding by 90%, abolished the low affinity-high capacity site and decreased the K/sub D/ of [ 3 H]SP

  5. Peptide-evoked release of amylase from isolated acini of the rat parotid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goll, R; Poulsen, J H; Schmidt, P

    1994-01-01

    on isolated acini of the rat parotid gland. Furthermore, the occurrence and location of the peptides in the gland was studied. Finally, binding of 125I-BH-SP to isolated acini were studied in order to characterize their tachykinin receptor(s) and their binding kinetics. Only SP, NKA, NPK and VIP stimulated...... of NK1-receptors. Thus, the results of the present study support previous suggestions that the tachykinins and VIP are likely to be involved in amylase secretion in the rat parotid gland....

  6. C-type lectin B (SpCTL-B) regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides and promotes phagocytosis in mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Limin; Sun, Wanwei; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Hongyu; Zhang, Yueling; Zhang, Xinxu; Li, Shengkang

    2018-07-01

    As pattern recognition receptors, C-type lectins (CTLs) play important roles in immune system of crustaceans through identifying and binding to the conservative pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on pathogen surfaces. In this study, a new CTL, SpCTL-B, was identified from the hemocytes of mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length of SpCTL-B cDNA was 1278 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp. The predicted SpCTL-B protein contains a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). SpCTL-B transcripts were distributed in all examined tissues with the highest levels in hepatopancreas. After challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, LPS, polyI:C and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the mRNA levels of SpCTL-B in hemocytes and hepatopancreas were up-regulated. The recombinant SpCTL-B (rSpCTL-B) purified by Ni-affinity chromatography showed stronger binding activities with Staphylococcus aureus, β-hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio alginolyticus than those with V. parahaemolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. rSpCTL-B exhibited a broad spectrum of microorganism-agglutination activities against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, β-hemolytic Streptococcus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus, A. hydrophila, V. alginolyticus) in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. The agglutination activities of rSpCTL-B could be inhibited by D-mannose and LPS, but not by d-fructose and galactose. The antimicrobial assay showed that rSpCTL-B exhibited the growth inhibition against all examined gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. When SpCTL-B was silenced by RNAi, the bacterial clearance ability in mud crab was decreased and the transcript levels of five antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) (SpCrustin, SpHistin, SpALF4 (anti-lipopolysaccharide factor), SpALF5 and SpALF6) were significantly decreased in hemocytes. In our study, knockdown of SpCTL-B could down-regulate the expression of SpSTAT at m

  7. Substance P accelerates hypercellularity and angiogenesis in tendon tissue and enhances paratendinitis in response to Achilles tendon overuse in a tendinopathy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Gustav; Backman, Ludvig J; Scott, Alexander; Lorentzon, Ronny; Forsgren, Sture; Danielson, Patrik

    2011-10-01

    Tenocytes produce substance P (SP), and its receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R)) is expressed throughout the tendon tissue, especially in patients with tendinopathy and tissue changes (tendinosis) including hypercellularity and vascular proliferation. Considering the known effects of SP, one might ask whether SP contributes to these changes. To test whether development of tendinosis-like changes (hypercellularity and angiogenesis) is accelerated during a 1-week course of exercise with local administration of SP in an established Achilles tendinopathy model. Rabbits were subjected to a protocol of Achilles tendon overuse for 1 week, in conjunction with SP injections in the paratenon. Exercised control animals received NaCl injections or no injections, and unexercised, uninjected controls were also used. Tenocyte number and vascular density, as well as paratendinous inflammation, were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation to detect NK-1R were conducted. Results There was a significant increase in tenocyte number in the SP-injected and NaCl-injected groups compared with both unexercised and exercised, uninjected controls. Tendon blood vessels increased in number in the SP-injected group compared with unexercised controls, a finding not seen in NaCl-injected controls or in uninjected, exercised animals. Paratendinous inflammation was more pronounced in the SP-injected group than in the NaCl controls. NK-1R was detected in blood vessel walls, nerves, inflammatory cells and tenocytes. SP accelerated the development of tendinosis-like changes in the rabbit Achilles tendon, which supports theories of a potential role of SP in tendinosis development; a fact of clinical interest since SP effects can be effectively blocked. The angiogenic response to SP injections seems related to paratendinitis.

  8. Correlation between the Appearance of Neuropeptides in the Rat Trigeminal Ganglion and Reinnervation of the Healing Root Socket after Tooth Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunjigake, Kaori K.; Goto, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kayoko; Konoo, Tetsuro; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2006-01-01

    The neuropeptide substance P (SP) modulates bone metabolism. This study examined the temporal appearance of the neuropeptides SP and brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) and their receptors (neurokinin-1 receptor (NK 1 -R) and Trk B, respectively) in the rat trigeminal ganglion to investigate the role of neuropeptides in healing after tooth extraction. Rats were anesthetized and their upper right first molars were extracted; the rats were sacrificed 3 hours and 1–21 days after extraction. Their trigeminal ganglion and maxilla were removed, and cryosections were prepared and immunostained using specific antibodies against SP, BDNF, NK 1 -R, and Trk B. In the tooth sockets after extraction, new bone and a few SP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were first seen at day 7, and bone completely filled the sockets at day 21. In the trigeminal ganglion, the proportions of NK 1 -R-, BDNF-, and Trk B-immunoreactive neurons changed similarly, i.e., they initially decreased, increased rapidly to maximum levels by day 3, and then decreased gradually to control levels until 21 days. These findings suggest that the appearance of neuropeptides in the trigeminal ganglion, the reinnervation of SP-immunoreactive nerve fibers, and bone repair in the tooth socket during healing after extraction were correlated

  9. Zac1, an Sp1-like protein, regulates human p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei-Yao [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Shu-Ting; Chang, Yung-Lung [Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Shiang [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Wei-Ming, E-mail: ades0431@ms38.hinet.net [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Dermatology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shih-Ming, E-mail: shihming@ndmctsgh.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-12-10

    Zac1 functions as both a transcription factor and a transcriptional cofactor for p53, nuclear receptors (NRs) and NR coactivators. Zac1 might also act as a transcriptional repressor via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). The ability of Zac1 to interact directly with GC-specific elements indicates that Zac1 possibly binds to Sp1-responsive elements. In the present study, our data show that Zac1 is able to interact directly with the Sp1-responsive element in the p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene promoter and enhance the transactivation activity of Sp1 through direct physical interaction. Our data further demonstrate that Zac1 might enhance Sp1-specific promoter activity by interacting with the Sp1-responsive element, affecting the transactivation activity of Sp1 via a protein-protein interaction, or competing the HDAC1 protein away from the pre-existing Sp1/HDAC1 complex. Finally, the synergistic regulation of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression by Zac1 and Sp1 is mediated by endogenous p53 protein and p53-responsive elements in HeLa cells. Our work suggests that Zac1 might serve as an Sp1-like protein that directly interacts with the Sp1-responsive element to oligomerize with and/or to coactivate Sp1.

  10. Zac1, an Sp1-like protein, regulates human p21WAF1/Cip1 gene expression in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Pei-Yao; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Ting; Chang, Yung-Lung; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Wang, Wei-Ming; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Zac1 functions as both a transcription factor and a transcriptional cofactor for p53, nuclear receptors (NRs) and NR coactivators. Zac1 might also act as a transcriptional repressor via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). The ability of Zac1 to interact directly with GC-specific elements indicates that Zac1 possibly binds to Sp1-responsive elements. In the present study, our data show that Zac1 is able to interact directly with the Sp1-responsive element in the p21 WAF1/Cip1 gene promoter and enhance the transactivation activity of Sp1 through direct physical interaction. Our data further demonstrate that Zac1 might enhance Sp1-specific promoter activity by interacting with the Sp1-responsive element, affecting the transactivation activity of Sp1 via a protein–protein interaction, or competing the HDAC1 protein away from the pre-existing Sp1/HDAC1 complex. Finally, the synergistic regulation of p21 WAF1/Cip1 gene expression by Zac1 and Sp1 is mediated by endogenous p53 protein and p53-responsive elements in HeLa cells. Our work suggests that Zac1 might serve as an Sp1-like protein that directly interacts with the Sp1-responsive element to oligomerize with and/or to coactivate Sp1.

  11. Further brominated bis- and tris-indole alkaloids from the deep-water New Caledonian marine sponge Orina Sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, G; Bruno, I; Riccio, R; Lavayre, J; Bourdy, G

    1995-08-01

    Two tris-indole alkaloids, (+/-) gelliusines A and B [1], have been isolated for the first time from a marine source, the New Caledonian sponge, Orina sp. (or Gellius sp.), along with five further indole constituents [2-6]. Compound 6 has been identified as 2,2-bis-(6'-bromo-3'-indolyl(-ethylamine, previously isolated from the tunicate Didemnum candidum, but the remaining four indoles [2-5] are novel compounds. These showed anti-serotonin activity and a strong affinity for somatostatin and neuropeptide Y receptors in receptor-binding assays.

  12. Extracellular Expression in Aspergillus niger of an Antibody Fused to Leishmania sp. Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2018-01-01

    Nucleoside hydrolase and sterol 24-c-methyltransferase, two antigenic proteins of Leishmania sp., were expressed in Aspergillus niger. Genetic transformation of conidia was achieved using underwater shock waves. scFv antibody addressed to DEC205, a receptor of dendritic cells, was fused to two proteins of Leishmania sp. Receptor 205 has a relevant role in the immune system in mammals; it can modulate T cell response to different antigens. Extracellular expression strategy of recombinant antibody was achieved using a fragment of native glucoamylase A (514 aa) as a carrier. Fermentations in shake flasks showed that the recombinant protein (104 kDa) was expressed and secreted only when maltose was used as carbon source; on the contrary, the expression was highly repressed in presence of xylose. Noteworthy, recombinant protein was secreted without glucoamylase-carrier and accumulation at intracellular level was not observed. The results presented here demonstrate the high value of Aspergillus niger as biotechnological platform for recombinant antibodies against Leishmania sp. at low cost. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the recombinant expression of antigenic proteins of Leishmania sp. in filamentous fungi. The protein obtained can be used to explore novel strategies to induce immunity against Leishmania sp. or it can be employed in diagnostic kits to detect this neglected disease.

  13. Tachykinins stimulate a subset of mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Grant

    Full Text Available The tachykinins substance P (SP and neurokinin A (NKA are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1. These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca(2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca(2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca(2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca(2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca(2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca(2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods.

  14. Cloning and characterisation of the SpToll gene from green mud crab, Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongyang; Qiao, Jie; Zhang, Yueling; Guo, Lingling; Huang, He; Yan, Fang; Li, Yuanyou; Wang, Xiuying

    2012-05-01

    Toll/Toll-like receptors (TLRs), one of the most important pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), play a crucial role in innate immune responses in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In this study, we cloned and characterised a Toll gene from Scylla paramamosain (SpToll). Bioinformatic analysis predicted that SpToll contained one open reading frame of 3018bp and encoded a single-pass transmembrane domain protein of 1005 amino acids. Further, SpToll could be clustered into one branch along with other arthropod Tolls in a phylogenetic tree. SpToll transcripts could be detected by RT-PCR from all tissues examined including the heart, gill, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestine, muscle, eyestalk and hemocytes. Infection by Vibrio parahemolyticus up-regulated SpToll mRNA expression in hemocytes after 48h. The profile of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) domain of SpToll in three healthy crabs was then evaluated. Two hundred and twenty SNPs with a frequency of about 1.0-4.0% were identified in hemocyte DNA/cDNA. Surprisingly, the adenine to guanine transition at position 1372 (c.1372A>G) had a frequency of about 50%. Finally, the results showed that challenge with V. parahemolyticus stimulated the appearance of two sets of SNPs in crabs. More importantly, the c.1372A>G mutation could contribute to a low mortality after V. parahemolyticus infection and introduce variation of charge and secondary structure into the SpToll polypeptide. In summary, these studies suggested a novel Toll homologue in crab and identified a SNP with potential pathogen-resistant activities. The result will be important for the investigation of crab immune defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Substance P Promotes the Proliferation, but Inhibits Differentiation and Mineralization of Osteoblasts from Rats with Spinal Cord Injury via RANKL/OPG System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Juan Liu

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI causes a significant amount of bone loss, which results in osteoporosis (OP. The neuropeptide substance P (SP and SP receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. To identify the roles of SP in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived osteoblasts (BMSC-OB in SCI rats, we investigated the expression of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R in BMSC-OB and the effects of SP on bone formation by development of BMSC-OB cultures. Sixty young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: SHAM and SCI. The expression of NK1R protein in BMSC-OB was observed using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The dose- and time-dependent effects of SP on the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of BMSC-OB and the expression of osteoblastic markers by in vitro experiments. The expression of NK1R in BMSC-OB was observed on plasma membranes and in cytoplasm. One week after osteogenic differentiation, the expression of NK1R was significantly increased after SCI at mRNA and protein levels. However, this difference was gradually attenuated at 2 or 3 weeks later. SP have the function to enhance cell proliferation, inhibite cell differentiation and mineralization at a proper concentration and incubation time, and this effect would be inhibited by adding SP or NK1R antagonist. The expression of RANKL/OPG was significantly increased in tibiae after SCI. Similarly, the RANKL/OPG expression in SCI rats was significantly increased when treating with 10-8 M SP. SP plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. The direct effect of SP may lead to increased bone resorption through the RANKL/OPG axis after SCI. In addition, high expression of SP also results in the suppression of osteogenesis in SCI rats. Then, the balance between bone resorption and bone formation was broken and finally osteoporosis occurred.

  16. Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov., Penicillium elleniae sp. nov., Penicillium penarojense sp. nov., Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. and Penicillium wotroi sp. nov., isolated from leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; López-Quintero, Carlos A; Frisvad, Jens C; Boekhout, Teun; Theelen, Bart; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza; Samson, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    Several species of the genus Penicillium were isolated during a survey of the mycobiota of leaf litter and soil in Colombian Amazon forest. Five species, Penicillium penarojense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113178(T) = IBT 23262(T)), Penicillium wotroi sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118171(T) = IBT 23253(T)), Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113149(T) = IBT 23247(T)), Penicillium elleniae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118135(T) = IBT 23229(T)) and Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 126216(T) = IBT 23203(T)) are described here as novel species. Their taxonomic novelty was determined using a polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular (ITS and partial β-tubulin sequences) and extrolite data. Phylogenetic analyses showed that each novel species formed a unique clade for both loci analysed and that they were most closely related to Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium daleae and Penicillium brasilianum. An overview of the phylogeny of this taxonomically difficult group is presented, and 33 species are accepted. Each of the five novel species had a unique extrolite profile of known and uncharacterized metabolites and various compounds, such as penicillic acid, andrastin A, pulvilloric acid, paxillin, paspaline and janthitrem, were commonly produced by these phylogenetically related species. The novel species had a high growth rate on agar media, but could be distinguished from each other by several macro- and microscopical characteristics.

  17. Substance P and substance K receptor binding sites in the human gastrointestinal tract: localization by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, T.S.; Zimmerman, R.P.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to localize and quantify the distribution of binding sites for 125 I-radiolabeled substance P (SP), substance K (SK) and neuromedin K (NK) in the human GI tract using histologically normal tissue obtained from uninvolved margins of resections for carcinoma. The distribution of SP and SK binding sites is different for each gastrointestinal (GI) segment examined. Specific SP binding sites are expressed by arterioles and venules, myenteric plexus, external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, muscularis mucosa, epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the germinal centers of lymph nodules. SK binding sites are distributed in a pattern distinct from SP binding sites and are localized to the external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, and the muscularis mucosa. Binding sites for NK were not detected in any part of the human GI tract. These results demonstrate that: (1) surgical specimens from the human GI tract can be effectively processed for quantitative receptor autoradiography; (2) of the three mammalian tachykinins tested, SP and SK, but not NK binding sites are expressed in detectable levels in the human GI tract; (3) whereas SK receptor binding sites are expressed almost exclusively by smooth muscle, SP binding sites are expressed by smooth muscle cells, arterioles, venules, epithelial cells of the mucosa and cells associated with lymph nodules; and (4) both SP and SK binding sites expressed by smooth muscle are more stable than SP binding sites expressed by blood vessels, lymph nodules, and mucosal cells

  18. Neues vom Heringsparasiten Ichthyophonus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Seit dem Massensterben von Heringen entlang der schwedischen Südküste im Sommer 1991, aufgrund einer Infektion mit dem parasitischen Pilz Ichthyophonus sp., wird der Gesundheitszustand der Heringsbestände in den europäischen Seegebieten intensiv überwacht. Diese Untersuchungen, an denen sich auch die Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei beteiligt, werden koordiniert von der "Arbeitsgruppe über Pathologie und Krankheiten mariner Organismen" des Internationalen Rates für Meeresforschung (IC...

  19. Dual host specificity of phage SP6 is facilitated by tailspike rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Jiagang [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Taehyun [Center for Infectious Disease, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Morado, Dustin R. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Hughes, Kelly T. [Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Molineux, Ian J., E-mail: molineux@austin.utexas.edu [Center for Infectious Disease, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Liu, Jun, E-mail: Jun.Liu.1@uth.tmc.edu [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Bacteriophage SP6 exhibits dual-host adsorption specificity. The SP6 tailspikes are recognized as important in host range determination but the mechanisms underlying dual host specificity are unknown. Cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram classification were used to analyze the SP6 virion with a particular focus on the interaction of tailspikes with host membranes. The SP6 tail is surrounded by six V-shaped structures that interconnect in forming a hand-over-hand hexameric garland. Each V-shaped structure consists of two trimeric tailspike proteins: gp46 and gp47, connected through the adaptor protein gp37. SP6 infection of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport results in distinguishable changes in tailspike orientation, providing the first direct demonstration how tailspikes can confer dual host adsorption specificity. SP6 also infects S. Typhimurium strains lacking O antigen; in these infections tailspikes have no apparent specific role and the phage tail must therefore interact with a distinct host receptor to allow infection. - Highlights: •Cryo-electron tomography reveals the structural basis for dual host specificity. •Sub-tomogram classification reveals distinct orientations of the tailspikes during infection of different hosts. •Tailspike-adaptor modules rotate as they bind different O antigens. •In the absence of any O antigen, tailspikes bind weakly and without specificity to LPS. •Interaction of the phage tail with LPS is essential for infection.

  20. Pharmacological characterization and autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in guinea pig brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, T.V.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    [ 3 H]Substance P ([ 3 H]SP) was used to characterize substance P (SP) receptor binding sites in guinea pig brain using membrane preparations and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Curvilinear Scatchard analysis shows that [ 3 H]SP binds to a high affinity site (Kd = 0.5 nM) with a Bmax of 16.4 fmol/mg protein and a low affinity site (Kd = 29.6 nM) with a Bmax of 189.1 fmol/mg protein. Monovalent cations generally inhibit [ 3 H]SP binding while divalent cations substantially increased it. The ligand selectivity pattern is generally similar to the one observed in rat brain membrane preparation with SP being more potent than SP fragments and other tachykinins. However, the potency of various nucleotides is different with GMP-PNP greater than GDP greater than GTP. The autoradiographic distribution of [ 3 H]SP binding sites shows that high amounts of sites are present in the hippocampus, striatum, olfactory bulb, central nucleus of the amygdala, certain thalamic nuclei and superior colliculus. The cortex is moderately enriched in [ 3 H]SP binding sites while the substantia nigra contains only very low amounts of sites. Thus, the autoradiographic distribution of SP binding sites is fairly similar in both rat and guinea pig brain

  1. Betulinic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces proteasome-dependent and -independent downregulation of specificity proteins (Sp transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathi Satya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betulinic acid (BA inhibits growth of several cancer cell lines and tumors and the effects of BA have been attributed to its mitochondriotoxicity and inhibition of multiple pro-oncogenic factors. Previous studies show that BA induces proteasome-dependent degradation of specificity protein (Sp transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in prostate cancer cells and this study focused on the mechanism of action of BA in colon cancer cells. Methods The effects of BA on colon cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and tumor growth in vivo were determined using standardized assays. The effects of BA on Sp proteins and Sp-regulated gene products were analyzed by western blots, and real time PCR was used to determine microRNA-27a (miR-27a and ZBTB10 mRNA expression. Results BA inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in RKO and SW480 colon cancer cells and inhibited tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing RKO cells as xenograft. BA also decreased expression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors which are overexpressed in colon cancer cells and decreased levels of several Sp-regulated genes including survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor, p65 sub-unit of NFκB, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1, and pituitary tumor transforming gene-1. The mechanism of action of BA was dependent on cell context, since BA induced proteasome-dependent and proteasome-independent downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in SW480 and RKO cells, respectively. In RKO cells, the mechanism of BA-induced repression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 was due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS, ROS-mediated repression of microRNA-27a, and induction of the Sp repressor gene ZBTB10. Conclusions These results suggest that the anticancer activity of BA in colon cancer cells is due, in part, to downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors; however, the mechanism of this response is cell context-dependent.

  2. Betulinic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces proteasome-dependent and -independent downregulation of specificity proteins (Sp) transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Papineni, Sabitha; Lei, Ping; Pathi, Satya; Safe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA) inhibits growth of several cancer cell lines and tumors and the effects of BA have been attributed to its mitochondriotoxicity and inhibition of multiple pro-oncogenic factors. Previous studies show that BA induces proteasome-dependent degradation of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in prostate cancer cells and this study focused on the mechanism of action of BA in colon cancer cells. The effects of BA on colon cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and tumor growth in vivo were determined using standardized assays. The effects of BA on Sp proteins and Sp-regulated gene products were analyzed by western blots, and real time PCR was used to determine microRNA-27a (miR-27a) and ZBTB10 mRNA expression. BA inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in RKO and SW480 colon cancer cells and inhibited tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing RKO cells as xenograft. BA also decreased expression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors which are overexpressed in colon cancer cells and decreased levels of several Sp-regulated genes including survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor, p65 sub-unit of NFκB, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1, and pituitary tumor transforming gene-1. The mechanism of action of BA was dependent on cell context, since BA induced proteasome-dependent and proteasome-independent downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in SW480 and RKO cells, respectively. In RKO cells, the mechanism of BA-induced repression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 was due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS-mediated repression of microRNA-27a, and induction of the Sp repressor gene ZBTB10. These results suggest that the anticancer activity of BA in colon cancer cells is due, in part, to downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors; however, the mechanism of this response is cell context-dependent

  3. Monocyte CD64 or CD89 targeting by surfactant protein D/anti-Fc receptor mediates bacterial uptake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacken, P.J.; Batenburg, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    We recently showed that a chimeric protein, consisting of a recombinant fragment of human surfactant protein D (rfSP-D) coupled to a Fab' fragment directed against the human Fcalpha receptor (CD89), effectively targets pathogens recognized by SP-D to human neutrophils. The present study evaluates

  4. Functional neurokinin and NMDA receptor activity in an animal naturally lacking substance P: the naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Brand

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats are extremely unusual among mammals in that their cutaneous C-fibers lack the neuropeptide Substance P (SP. In other mammals, SP plays an important role in nociception: it is released from C-fibers onto spinal neurons where it facilitates NMDA receptor activity and causes sensitization that can last for minutes, hours or days. In the present study, we tested the effects of intrathecal application of: 1 SP, 2 an SP antagonist (GR-82334, and 3 an NMDA antagonist (APV on heat-evoked foot withdrawal. In the naked mole-rat, at a high enough concentration, application of SP caused a large, immediate, and long-lasting sensitization of foot withdrawal latency that was transiently reversed by application of either antagonist. However, neither SP nor NMDA antagonists had an effect when administered alone to naïve animals. In contrast, both antagonists induced an increase in basal withdrawal latency in mice. These results indicate that spinal neurons in naked mole-rats have functional SP and NMDA receptors, but that these receptors do not participate in heat-evoked foot withdrawal unless SP is experimentally introduced. We propose that the natural lack of SP in naked mole-rat C-fibers may have resulted during adaptation to living in a chronically high carbon dioxide, high ammonia environment that, in other mammals, would stimulate C-fibers and evoke nocifensive behavior.

  5. Functional neurokinin and NMDA receptor activity in an animal naturally lacking substance P: the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Antje; Smith, Ewan St J; Lewin, Gary R; Park, Thomas J

    2010-12-21

    Naked mole-rats are extremely unusual among mammals in that their cutaneous C-fibers lack the neuropeptide Substance P (SP). In other mammals, SP plays an important role in nociception: it is released from C-fibers onto spinal neurons where it facilitates NMDA receptor activity and causes sensitization that can last for minutes, hours or days. In the present study, we tested the effects of intrathecal application of: 1) SP, 2) an SP antagonist (GR-82334), and 3) an NMDA antagonist (APV) on heat-evoked foot withdrawal. In the naked mole-rat, at a high enough concentration, application of SP caused a large, immediate, and long-lasting sensitization of foot withdrawal latency that was transiently reversed by application of either antagonist. However, neither SP nor NMDA antagonists had an effect when administered alone to naïve animals. In contrast, both antagonists induced an increase in basal withdrawal latency in mice. These results indicate that spinal neurons in naked mole-rats have functional SP and NMDA receptors, but that these receptors do not participate in heat-evoked foot withdrawal unless SP is experimentally introduced. We propose that the natural lack of SP in naked mole-rat C-fibers may have resulted during adaptation to living in a chronically high carbon dioxide, high ammonia environment that, in other mammals, would stimulate C-fibers and evoke nocifensive behavior.

  6. DISTRIBUSI Solen sp DI PERAIRAN KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ari Wahyuni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DISTRIBUTION OF Solen sp IN BANGKALAN WATERSSolen sp potential needs to be developed on the island of Madura, particularly in Bangkalan. Solen sp utilization has increased which has the potential to overfishing. Therefore, this study aims to determine the density of Solen sp and their ecology in the waters Modung village, Modung District, Bangkalan. The experiment was conducted in April 2015 using the descriptive method. The materials used include Solen sp and physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, salinity, pH, and substrate. The analyzes were conducted at the Laboratory of Marine Science, Department of Marine Sciences, Trunojoyo University of Madura by using the tool grabsampler, sieveshaker, and pipetting with gravimetric method. The analysis shows the range of values of temperature between 29-300C, salinity between 31-32 ppt, pH were 7.9-8.0 and the type of substrate in the form of sandy mud, as well as the density of Solen sp from 8-10 individuals/m2. All measurement results indicate normal conditions and in accordance with the sea water quality standard for marine life, which can be a suitable habitat for the growth and development of Solen sp. This condition is thought to affect the density of Solen sp.Keywords: Bangkalan, density, distribution, Solen sp, substrate.ABSTRAKPotensi Solen sp perlu dikembangkan di pulau Madura, khususnya di Kabupaten Bangkalan. Pemanfaatan Solen sp mengalami peningkatan sehingga berpotensi overfishing. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kepadatan Solen sp dan ekologinya di perairan desa Modung, Kecamatan Modung, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2015 dengan metode deskriptif. Materi dan bahan yang digunakan diantaranya Solen sp dan parameter fisika-kimia lingkungan (suhu, salinitas, pH, dan substrat. Analisa dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Kelautan, Program studi/Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Trunojoyo Madura dengan menggunakan alat

  7. Keratinocyte expression of inflammatory mediators plays a crucial role in substance P-induced acute and chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tzuping

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tibia fracture in rats followed by cast immobilization leads to nociceptive, trophic, vascular and bone-related changes similar to those seen in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. Substance P (SP mediated neurogenic inflammation may be responsible for some of the signs of CRPS in humans. We therefore hypothesized that SP acting through the SP receptor (NK1 leads to the CRPS-like changes found in the rat model. In the present study, we intradermally injected rats with SP and monitored hindpaw mechanical allodynia, temperature, and thickness as well as tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and nerve growth factor-β (NGF for 72 h. Anti-NGF antibody was utilized to block the effects of SP-induced NGF up-regulation. Fracture rats treated with the selective NK1 receptor antagonist LY303870 prior to cast removal were assessed for BrdU, a DNA synthesis marker, incorporation in skin cells to examine cellular proliferation. Bone microarchitecture was measured using micro computed tomography (μCT. We observed that: (1 SP intraplantar injection induced mechanical allodynia, warmth and edema as well as the expression of nociceptive mediators in the hindpaw skin of normal rats, (2 LY303870 administered intraperitoneally after fracture attenuated allodynia, hindpaw unweighting, warmth, and edema, as well as cytokine and NGF expression, (3 LY303870 blocked fracture-induced epidermal thickening and BrdU incorporation after fracture, (4 anti-NGF antibody blocked SP-induced allodynia but not warmth or edema, and (5 LY303870 had no effect on bone microarchitecture. Collectively our data indicate that SP acting through NK1 receptors supports the nociceptive and vascular components of CRPS, but not the bone-related changes.

  8. Introduction to the SP theory of intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to the "Theory of Intelligence" and its realisation in the "SP Computer Model". The overall goal of the SP programme of research, in accordance with long-established principles in science, has been the simplification and integration of observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human learning, perception, and cognition. In broad terms, the SP system is a brain-like system that takes in "New" infor...

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Cynobacteria, Limnothrix sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. from Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Vinothkumar, S.; Gupta, S.; Jasmin, C.; Joseph, V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Nair, S.

    The hexane fractions of the marine cyanobacteria: Leptolyngbya sp. and Limnothrix sp., collected from Arabian Sea were found to display promising antioxidant properties than their ethyl acetate fraction during radical scavenging ABTS/DPPH assays (IC...

  10. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Jalal, T.

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, alfa-L-arabinofuranosidase (alfa-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp and Lactobacillus sp was investigated using different carbon sources Induction...

  11. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense) dengan Trichoderma SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second...

  12. Selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond cleavage: the nitrogenation of alkynes to amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chong; Feng, Peng; Ou, Yang; Shen, Tao; Wang, Teng; Jiao, Ning

    2013-07-22

    Breakthrough: A novel catalyzed direct highly selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond functionalization of alkynes to amides has been developed. Nitrogenation is achieved by the highly selective C(sp2)-C(sp) bond cleavage of aryl-substituted alkynes. The oxidant-free and mild conditions and wide substrate scope make this method very practical. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. First report of Anisakis sp. in Epinephelus sp. in East Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Annytha Ina Rohi Detha; Diana Agustiani Wuri; Julianty Almet; Yuni Riwu; Christin Melky

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The present research was conducted to identify the prevalence of Anisakis sp. as fish-borne zoonoses in Epinephelus sp. in territorial waters of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Materials and methods: A total of 50 fish (Epinephelus sp.) were collected from Kupang Fish Market in East Nusa Tenggara. Identification of Anisakis sp. was performed based on morphological observations considering shape of ventriculus, boring tooth, and mucron using binocular microscope. Results: Prev...

  14. Structure of a tetrameric galectin from Cinachyrella sp. (ball sponge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freymann, Douglas M., E-mail: freymann@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Nakamura, Yuka [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate 041-8611 (Japan); Focia, Pamela J. [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Sakai, Ryuichi [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate 041-8611 (Japan); Swanson, Geoffrey T. [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The structure of a tetrameric sponge galectin suggests a basis for glutamate receptor potentiation. The galectins are a family of proteins that bind with highest affinity to N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides, which are common constituents of asparagine-linked complex glycans. They play important and diverse physiological roles, particularly in the immune system, and are thought to be critical metastatic agents for many types of cancer cells, including gliomas. A recent bioactivity-based screen of marine sponge (Cinachyrella sp.) extract identified an ancestral member of the galectin family based on its unexpected ability to positively modulate mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor function. To gain insight into the mechanistic basis of this activity, the 2.1 Å resolution X-ray structure of one member of the family, galectin CchG-1, is reported. While the protomer exhibited structural similarity to mammalian prototype galectin, CchG-1 adopts a novel tetrameric arrangement in which a rigid toroidal-shaped ‘donut’ is stabilized in part by the packing of pairs of vicinal disulfide bonds. Twofold symmetry between binding-site pairs provides a basis for a model for interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  15. Structure of a tetrameric galectin from Cinachyrella sp. (ball sponge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymann, Douglas M.; Nakamura, Yuka; Focia, Pamela J.; Sakai, Ryuichi; Swanson, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of a tetrameric sponge galectin suggests a basis for glutamate receptor potentiation. The galectins are a family of proteins that bind with highest affinity to N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides, which are common constituents of asparagine-linked complex glycans. They play important and diverse physiological roles, particularly in the immune system, and are thought to be critical metastatic agents for many types of cancer cells, including gliomas. A recent bioactivity-based screen of marine sponge (Cinachyrella sp.) extract identified an ancestral member of the galectin family based on its unexpected ability to positively modulate mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor function. To gain insight into the mechanistic basis of this activity, the 2.1 Å resolution X-ray structure of one member of the family, galectin CchG-1, is reported. While the protomer exhibited structural similarity to mammalian prototype galectin, CchG-1 adopts a novel tetrameric arrangement in which a rigid toroidal-shaped ‘donut’ is stabilized in part by the packing of pairs of vicinal disulfide bonds. Twofold symmetry between binding-site pairs provides a basis for a model for interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors

  16. Do Substance P and Neurokinin A Play Important Roles in the Control of LH Secretion in Ewes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergani, Chrysanthi; Mazzella, Leanne; Coolen, Lique M.; McCosh, Richard B.; Hardy, Steven L.; Newcomb, Nora; Grachev, Pasha; Lehman, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    There is now general agreement that neurokinin B (NKB) acts via neurokinin-3-receptor (NK3R) to stimulate secretion of GnRH and LH in several species, including rats, mice, sheep, and humans. However, the roles of two other tachykinins, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A, which act primarily via NK1R and NK2R, respectively, are less clear. In rodents, these signaling pathways can stimulate LH release and substitute for NKB signaling; in humans, SP is colocalized with kisspeptin and NKB in the mediobasal hypothalamus. In this study, we examined the possible role of these tachykinins in control of the reproductive axis in sheep. Immunohistochemistry was used to describe the expression of SP and NK1R in the ovine diencephalon and determine whether these proteins are colocalized in kisspeptin or GnRH neurons. SP-containing cell bodies were largely confined to the arcuate nucleus, but NK1R-immunoreactivity was more widespread. However, there was very low coexpression of SP or NK1R in kisspeptin cells and none in GnRH neurons. We next determined the minimal effective dose of these three tachykinins that would stimulate LH secretion when administered into the third ventricle of ovary-intact anestrous sheep. A much lower dose of NKB (0.2 nmol) than of neurokinin A (2 nmol) or SP (10 nmol) consistently stimulated LH secretion. Moreover, the relative potency of these three neuropeptides parallels the relative selectivity of NK3R. Based on these anatomical and pharmacological data, we conclude that NKB-NK3R signaling is the primary pathway for the control of GnRH secretion by tachykinins in ewes. PMID:27704950

  17. Scopranones with Two Atypical Scooplike Moieties Produced by Streptomyces sp. BYK-11038.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Ryuji; Lee, Daiki; Suwa, Ibuki; Ohtawa, Masaki; Watanabe, Nozomu; Demachi, Ayumu; Ohte, Satoshi; Katagiri, Takenobu; Nagamitsu, Tohru; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2017-11-03

    Three new compounds, designated scopranones A-C, were isolated from the culture broth of a soil isolate, Streptomyces sp. BYK-11038, and shown to be inhibitors of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induced alkaline phosphatase activity in a BMP receptor mutant cell line. The structures were elucidated using NMR and other spectral data. The scopranones have an unusual structure with two atypical scooplike moieties linked at the tails to form part of a unique 3-furanone ring.

  18. Pseudoxanthomonas koreensis sp. nov. and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deok-Chun; Im, Wan-Taek; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2005-03-01

    Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria, T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T), were isolated from soil from a ginseng field in South Korea and characterized to determine their taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two isolates shared 99.5 % sequence similarity. Strains T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T) were shown to belong to the Proteobacteria and showed the highest levels of sequence similarity to Pseudoxanthomonas broegbernensis DSM 12573(T) (98.1 %), Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana AMX 26B(T) (97.4-97.5 %), Pseudoxanthomonas japonensis 12-3(T) (96.5-96.6 %), Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis ATCC BAA-404(T) (95.7 %) and Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 33913(T) (96.3-96.5 %). The sequence similarity values with respect to any species with validly published names in related genera were less than 96.5 %. The detection of a quinone system with Q-8 as the predominant compound and a fatty acid profile with C(15 : 0) iso as the predominant acid supported the assignment of the novel isolates to the order 'Xanthomonadales'. The two isolates could be distinguished from the established species of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas by the presence of quantitative unsaturated fatty acid C(17 : 1) iso omega9c and by their unique biochemical profiles. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization clearly demonstrated that T7-09(T) and TR6-08(T) represent separate species. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that T7-09(T) (=KCTC 12208(T)=IAM 15116(T)) and TR6-08(T) (=KCTC 12207(T)=IAM 15115(T)) be classified as the type strains of two novel Pseudoxanthomonas species, for which the names Pseudoxanthomonas koreensis sp. nov. and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis sp. nov., respectively, are proposed.

  19. Specialised predation by Palpimanus sp. (Araneae: Palpimanidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first detailed report on the natural prey and the prey-capture tactics of a Palpimanus sp. from Entebbe (Uganda). Although this species fed occasionally on insects, its dominant prey in the field was other spiders, especially jumping spiders (Salticidae) and their eggs. Encounters between Palpimanus sp. and ...

  20. Kultivasi Scenedesmus SP. Pada Medium Air Limbah

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaroe, Mujizat

    2011-01-01

    Proses fotosintesis pada mikroalga membutuhkan CO2 dan cahaya matahari serta nutrien untuk pertumbuhannya. Kultivasi Scenedesmus sp. pada medium air limbah bertujuan guna mencukupi kebutuhan mikroalga akan nutrien dan mengurangi masukan dari bahan kimia yang terkandung dalam air limbah tersebut ke lingkungan. Kultivasi Scenedesmus sp. dilakukan selama tujuh hari pada medium air limbah industri tanpa penambahan nutri...

  1. Radio-peptides targeting g-protein coupled receptors in cancer: from bench to bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maecke, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. In the development of targeted imaging and therapy agents the most important challenge and prerequisite is to identify and validate the molecular targets of any disease. The targets should be specific, relevant, easily accessible and highly expressed. In addition they should have no or at least very low expression in normal tissue. Among the many drug targets is the large family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). It is the most important family of marketed drugs and the basic accomplishments in the field were recognised by the award of the recent Nobel price in chemistry. GPCRs also play a role in cancer. Several of these receptors are massively over-expressed in different human tumors such as neuroendocrine tumors (over-expression of the somatostatin receptor family), prostate and breast tumors (bombesin receptor family), brain tumors (NK1 receptor) etc.. This allows to develop (nuclear, MRI, optical) probes for imaging and potentially targeted therapy (theragnostics). Natural ligands targeting GPCRs are often peptides. They need to be modified for metabolic stability, modified for labeling with radio-metals (conjugation of bifunctional chelators) or radio-halogens (prosthetic groups). Preserved biological integrity after modification and labeling needs to be assured, long retention times in the tumor is important, conferred by internalisation. Radio-metal labeling in particular needs to be reasonably fast and the radio metal complexes have to show high stability with regard to radio-metal release. These prerequisites will be discussed for somatostatin receptor based radio-peptides in particular. For a successful clinical application preclinical imaging and biodistribution in adequate animal models are mandatory. New tracers for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) will be presented for neuroendocrine tumors and prostate cancer. In particular radiolabeled antagonists will

  2. Guide til gode spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henning

    Spørgeskemaundersøgelser bliver ofte brugt til at dokumentere forskellige forhold og begrunde politiske beslutninger. Men resultaterne kan være forbundet med stor usikkerhed. Det kræver omhu og stor sproglig formåen at udarbejde spørgeskemaer. Seniorforsker Henning Olsen har i flere år arbejdet med...... viden om, hvordan folk forstår sproglige meddelelser og genkalder sig informationer. I guiden behandles emner som fx styrende problemstillinger og spørgsmåls fokus og neutralitet, formulering af åbne eller lukkede spørgsmål og svarkategorier, tematiske spørgeforløb, aflastning af svarpersoners...

  3. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3- 14 C] glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO 2 . Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with [3- 14 C]glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with [3- 14 C]glyphosate revealed that [3- 14 C]sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates

  4. The carboxyl terminus of human cytomegalovirus-encoded 7 transmembrane receptor US28 camouflages agonism by mediating constitutive endocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldhoer, Maria; Casarosa, Paola; Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2003-01-01

    are separable entities in this viral chemokine receptor. We generated chimeric and mutant US28 proteins that were altered in either their constitutive endocytic (US28 Delta 300, US28 Delta 317, US28-NK1-ctail, and US28-ORF74-ctail) or signaling properties (US28R129A). By using this series of mutants, we show...... further show that the constitutive endocytic property of US28 affects the action of its chemokine ligand fractalkine/CX3CL1 and show that in the absence of the US28 C terminus, fractalkine/CX3CL1 acts as an agonist on US28. This demonstrates for the first time that the endocytic properties of a 7TM......US28 is one of four 7 transmembrane (7TM) chemokine receptors encoded by human cytomegalovirus and has been shown to both signal and endocytose in a ligand-independent, constitutively active manner. Here we show that the constitutive activity and constitutive endocytosis properties of US28...

  5. Endogenous substance P production in the Achilles tendon increases with loading in an in vivo model of tendinopathy-peptidergic elevation preceding tendinosis-like tissue changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, L J; Andersson, G; Wennstig, G; Forsgren, S; Danielson, P

    2011-06-01

    To quantify the intratendinous levels of substance P (SP) at different stages of overload in an established model for Achilles tendinopathy (rabbit). Also, to study the distribution of the SP-receptor, the NK-1R, and the source of SP, in the tendon. Animals were subjected to the overuse protocol for 1, 3 or 6 weeks. One additional group served as unexercised controls. Immunoassay (EIA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridisation (ISH) were performed. EIA revealed increased SP-levels in the Achilles tendon of the exercised limb in all the experimental groups as compared to in the controls (statistically significant; p=0.01). A similar trend in the unexercised Achilles tendon was observed but was not statistically significant (p=0.14). IHC and in ISH illustrated reactions of both SP and NK-1R mainly in blood vessel walls, but the receptor was also found on tenocytes. Achilles tendon SP-levels are elevated already after 1 week of loading. This shows that increased SP-production precedes tendinosis, as tendinosis-like changes occur only after a minimum of 3 weeks of exercise, as shown in a recent study using this model. We propose that central neuronal mechanism may be involved as similar trends were observed in the contralateral Achilles tendon.

  6. Trichoderma sp. dalam Pengendalian Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat

    OpenAIRE

    Novita, Trias

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran Trichoderma sp dalam pengendalianpenyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca FakultasPertanian Universitas Jambi, perlakuannya terdiri dari : t0 = tanpa Trichoderma sp; t1 = 25 gTrichoderma sp/8 kg media; t2 = 50 g Trichoderma sp/8 kg media; t3 = 75 g Trichoderma sp/8 kgmedia; dan t4 = 100 g Trichoderma sp /8 kg media. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichodermasp berperan dalam mengendalikan penyakit layu...

  7. INTERAKSI ANTARA Trichoderma Harzianum, Penicillium SP. DAN Pseudomonas SP. SERTA KAPASITAS ANTAGONISMENYA TERHADAP Phytophthora CapsicilN VITRO*[Interaction Among Trichoderma Harzianum, Penicillium SP., Pseudomonas SP. and Antagonism Capacities Against Phy

    OpenAIRE

    Suharna, Nandang

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study has been done to know antagonism capacities of three isolates of Trichoderma harzianum, two isolates of Penicillium sp.and one isolate of Pseudomonas sp.against Phytophthora capsici in vitro and interaction among those six antagonists.The highest antagonism capacity possessed by Penicillium sp. KN1, respectively followed by Penicillium sp.KN2,Pseudomonas sp. GH1 and the three T. harzianum isolates. Except for those three T. harzianum isolates, the two Penicillium sp.isolat...

  8. mGluR1 receptors contribute to non-purinergic slow excitatory transmission to submucosal VIP neurons of guinea-pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pei Pei Foong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive secretomotor neurons in the submucous plexus are involved in mediating bacterial toxin-induced hypersecretion leading to diarrhoea. VIP neurons become hyperexcitable after the mucosa is exposed to cholera toxin, which suggests that the manipulation of the excitability of these neurons may be therapeutic. This study used standard intracellular recording methods to systematically characterize slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs evoked in submucosal VIP neurons by different stimulus regimes (1, 3 and 15 pulse 30 Hz stimulation, together with their associated input resistances and pharmacology. All slow EPSPs were associated with a significant increase in input resistance compared to baseline values. Slow EPSPs evoked by a single stimulus were confirmed to be purinergic, however, slow EPSPs evoked by 15 pulse trains were non-purinergic and those evoked by 3 pulse trains were mixed. NK1 or NK3 receptor antagonists did not affect slow EPSPs. The group I mGluR receptor antagonist, PHCCC reduced the amplitude of purinergic and non-purinergic slow EPSPs. Blocking mGluR1 receptors depressed the overall response to 3 and 15 pulse trains, but this effect was inconsistent, while blockade of mGluR5 receptors had no effect on the non-purinergic slow EPSPs. Thus, although other receptors are almost certainly involved, our data indicate that there are at least two pharmacologically distinct types of slow EPSPs in the VIP secretomotor neurons: one mediated by P2Y receptors and the other in part by mGluR1 receptors.

  9. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Saare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients.

  10. Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation of a New 99mTc Labeled Substance P Analogue as a Potential Tumor Imaging Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Saeed; Erfani, Mostafa; Beiki, Davood; Johari Daha, Fariba; Kobarfard, Farzad; Balalaie, Saeed; Fallahi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Neurokinin 1 receptors (NK1R) are overexpressed on several types of important human cancer cells. Substance P (SP) is the most specific endogenous ligand known for NK1Rs. Accordingly,a new SP analogue was synthesized and evaluated for detection of NK1R positive tumors.[6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-Tyr8-Met(O)11-SP] was synthesized and radiolabeled with 99mTc using ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA)and Tricine as coligands. Common physicochemical properties of radioconjugate were studied and in-vitro cell line biological tests were accomplished to determine the receptor mediated characteristics. In-vivo biodistribution in normal and tumor bearingnude mice was also assessed. The cold peptide was prepared in high purity (>99%) and radiolabeled with 99mTc at high specific activities (84-112GBq/µmol) with an acceptable labeling yield (>95%). The radioconjugate was stable in-vitro in the presence of human serum and showed 44% protein binding to human serumalbumin. In-vitro cell line studies on U373MG cells showed an acceptable uptake up to 4.91 ± 0.22% with the ratio of 60.21 ± 1.19% for its specific fraction and increasing specific internalization during 4 h. Receptor binding assays on U373MG cells indicated a mean Kd of 2.46 ± 0.43 nM and Bmax of 128925 ± 8145 sites/cell. In-vivo investigations determined the specific tumor uptake in 3.36 percent of injected dose per gram (%ID/g) for U373MG cells and noticeable accumulations of activity in the intestines and lung. Predominant renal excretion pathway was demonstrated. Therefore, this new radiolabeled peptide could be a promising radiotracer for detection of NK1R positive primary or secondary tumors. PMID:25561916

  11. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for ant...

  12. Synthesis, radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of quinoline carboxamide analogues of Talnetant (SB 223412) to study by PET or SPECT imaging the NK-3 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennacef, Idriss

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of visualizing NK-3 receptors in vivo by medical imaging techniques (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography), the synthesis of novel 2-phenylquinoline-4-carboxamides, derived from SB 223412 or SB 222 200, two non peptide potent (hNK-3-CHO: K i = 1.0 nM; K i = 4.4 nM respectively) and selective (NK-3/NK-1 ≥10 5 ) human NK-3 receptor antagonists, has been studied. The compounds obtained are characterized by the presence, on the quinoline moiety, of an atom of carbon, fluorine or iodine that can be substituted by their β + emitter (carbon-11, t(1/2) = 20 min; fluorine-18, t(1/2) = 110 min) or γ emitter (iodine-123, t(1/2) = 13 h) radio-isotopes. Monohalogenated (fluorinated or iodinated) quinolines were prepared using an efficient synthesis based on the Pfitzinger reaction. Di-halogenated analogues, bearing both an iodine and a fluorine atom, were obtained via a regioselective ortho-metalation reaction. Biological evaluation of these compounds led to the determination of potent and selective structures towards the NK-3 receptor, for which labeling will be envisaged. Functionalization in position 3 of quinoline-4-carboxamides, using a directed metalation reaction, allowed the introduction of various (hetero)elements (chlorine, bromine, iodine, trialkystannyle or silyle moiety). This research allowed to perform the radiosynthesis of [ 11 C]SB 222200 using a Stille coupling with [ 11 C]iodomethane. (author) [fr

  13. Regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by neuron-specific transcription factor Sp4: implication in the tight coupling of energy production, neuronal activity and energy consumption in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2014-02-01

    A major source of energy demand in neurons is the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump that restores the ionic gradient across the plasma membrane subsequent to depolarizing neuronal activity. The energy comes primarily from mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, of which cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a key enzyme. Recently, we found that all 13 subunits of COX are regulated by specificity (Sp) factors, and that the neuron-specific Sp4, but not Sp1 or Sp3, regulates the expression of key glutamatergic receptor subunits as well. The present study sought to test our hypothesis that Sp4 also regulates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit genes in neurons. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, over-expression, and RNA interference studies, we found that Sp4, with minor contributions from Sp1 and Sp3, functionally regulate the Atp1a1, Atp1a3, and Atp1b1 subunit genes of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in neurons. Transcripts of all three genes were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl stimulation and down-regulated by the impulse blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), indicating that their expression was activity-dependent. Silencing of Sp4 blocked the up-regulation of these genes induced by KCl, whereas over-expression of Sp4 rescued them from TTX-induced suppression. The effect of silencing or over-expressing Sp4 on primary neurons was much greater than those of Sp1 or Sp3. The binding sites of Sp factors on these genes are conserved among mice, rats and humans. Thus, Sp4 plays an important role in the transcriptional coupling of energy generation and energy consumption in neurons. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  15. The LDL receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life.

  16. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in the rat and bovine spinal cord and the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis and the effects of neonatal capsaicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P. (Medical Research Council Centre, Cambridge (UK). Medical School, MRC Neurochemical Pharmacology Unit)

    1985-04-22

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the present report the authors have used autoradiographic receptor binding techniques to investigate the distribution of SP receptor binding sites in the rat and bovine spinal cord and in the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. Although some quantitative differences were evident, all species appeared to have a similar distribution of SP receptor binding sites in both the spinal cord and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. In the spinal cord the heaviest concentration of SP receptors is located in lamina X, while moderate to heavy concentrations were found in laminae I, II and V-IX. Very low concentrations of SP receptors were present in laminae III and IV. Examination of the cat and rat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis revealed a moderate density of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II, very low concentrations in laminae III and IV, and low to moderate concentrations in lamina V. Rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a small (11%) but significant (P < 0.02) increase in the levels of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord while in all other laminae the levels remained unchanged.

  17. TurboSP and the Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    TurboSP was originally proposed as an alternative to Full stream in LHCb data flow. TurboSP is a data flow strategy which not only selects events that should be preserved, like in Full stream, but also provides selective persistence. This is achieved by saving candidates and subset of the reconstruction. During this summer project we investigated the physics viability of using TurboSP with the topological lines and found out a possibility to reduce the number of kept tracks per event by two times while keeping a ratio of fully picked up interesting decay modes on $\\sim 97 \\%$ level.

  18. Bacteriophage SP6 encodes a second tailspike protein that recognizes Salmonella enterica serogroups C2 and C3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhart, Dana; Williams, Steven R.; Scholl, Dean

    2017-01-01

    SP6 is a salmonella phage closely related to coliphage K1-5. K1-5 is notable in that it encodes two polysaccharide-degrading tailspike proteins, an endosialidase that allows it to infect E. coli K1, and a lyase that enables it to infect K5 strains. SP6 is similar to K1-5 except that it encodes a P22-like endorhamnosidase tailspike, gp46, allowing it to infect group B Salmonella. We show here that SP6 can also infect Salmonella serogroups C 2 and C 3 and that a mutation in a putative second tailspike, gp47, eliminates this specificity. Gene 47 was fused to the coding region of the N-terminal portion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R2 pyocin tail fiber and expressed in trans such that the fusion protein becomes incorporated into pyocin particles. These pyocins, termed AvR2-SP47, killed serogroups C 2 and C 3 Salmonella. We conclude that SP6 encodes two tail proteins providing it a broad host range among Salmonella enterica. - Highlights: • SP6 is a “dual specificity” bacteriophage that encodes two different receptor binding proteins giving it a broad host range. • These receptor binding proteins can be used to re-target the spectrum of R-type bacteriocins to Salmonella enterica. • Both SP6 and the engineered R-type bacteriocins can kill the Salmonella serovars most associated with human disease making them attractive for development as antimicrobial agents.

  19. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense dengan Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Sudirman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag, second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation. Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4. The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag. Faktor kedua

  20. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was < 5 x 105 colony/g sample.

  1. Superhard sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Four sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772. The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp2–sp3 hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  2. EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  3. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  4. SP (4,R) symmetry in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A classification of nuclear states according to the noncompact sympletic Lie algebras sp(2n,R), n = 1, 2, 3, is investigated. Such a classification has recently been shown to be physically meaningful. This classification scheme is the appropriate generalization fo Elliott's SU 3 model of rotational states in deformed light nuclei to include core excitations. A restricted classification according to the Lie algebra, sp(4,R), is motivated. Truncation of the model space to a single sp(4,R) irreducible representation allows the inclusion of states possessing very high excitation energy. An sp(4,R) model study is performed on S = T = 0 positive-parity rotational bands in the deformed light nuclei 16 O and 24 Mg. States are included in the model space that possess up to 10h ω in excitation energy. Results for the B(E2) transition rates compare favorable with experiment, without resort to effective charges

  5. Progress in SP-100 tribological coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, P.J.; Roy, P.; Schuster, G.B.; Busboom, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor will operate at temperatures up to 1500K in high vacuum. To address the SP-100 needs, a tribology development program has been established at GE to investigate candidate coating materials. Materials were selected based on their high thermodynamic stability, high melting point, compatibility with the substrate, and coefficients of thermal expansion similar to niobium-1% zirconium-the candidate structural material for SP-100. An additional requirement was that the deposition processes should be commercially available to coat large components. This paper presents the details regarding the SP-100 Tribology Development Program including background information, specific bearing requirements, basis for coating material selection, testing methods and the initial results covering the early years of this program

  6. Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid—Mediated Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway.

  7. Cellulose powder from Cladophora sp. algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, R; Gustafsson, C; Nutt, A; Iversen, T; Nyström, C

    1998-01-01

    The surface are and crystallinity was measured on a cellulose powder made from Cladophora sp. algae. The algae cellulose powder was found to have a very high surface area (63.4 m2/g, N2 gas adsorption) and build up of cellulose with a high crystallinity (approximately 100%, solid state NMR). The high surface area was confirmed by calculations from atomic force microscope imaging of microfibrils from Cladophora sp. algae.

  8. Upregulation of neurokinin-1 receptor expression in the lungs of patients with sarcoidosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Terence M

    2012-02-03

    Substance P (SP) is a proinflammatory neuropeptide that is secreted by sensory nerves and inflammatory cells. Increased levels of SP are found in sarcoid bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. SP acts by binding to the neurokinin-1 receptor and increases secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in many cell types. We sought to determine neurokinin-1 receptor expression in patients with sarcoidosis compared with normal controls. Neurokinin-1 receptor messenger RNA and protein expression were below the limits of detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers (n = 9) or patients with stage 1 or 2 pulmonary sarcoidosis (n = 10), but were detected in 1\\/9 bronchoalveolar lavage cells of controls compared with 8\\/10 patients with sarcoidosis (p = 0.012) and 2\\/9 biopsies of controls compared with 9\\/10 patients with sarcoidosis (p = 0.013). Immunohistochemistry localized upregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression to bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and sarcoid granulomas. The patient in whom neurokinin-1 receptor was not detected was taking corticosteroids. Incubation of the type II alveolar and bronchial epithelial cell lines A549 and SK-LU 1 with dexamethasone downregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression. Upregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression in patients with sarcoidosis may potentiate substance P-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in patients with sarcoidosis.

  9. SP-D impedes transfer of HIV-1 from multi-layered vaginal epithelium with a distinct gene signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishikesh Pandit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant Protein (SP D is a member of the collectin family of soluble pattern recognition receptors. We have previously shown that a recombinant fragment of SP-D (rhSP-D inhibits gp120-CD4 interaction and HIV-1 entry in target cells. To potentiate its prophylactic use as a vaginal microbicide, we determined ex vivo efficacy using organotypic human vaginal-ectocervical epithelia (VEC-100 that closely resemble the native tissues of origin. VEC-100, stratified human vaginal-ectocervical tissues grown on membrane inserts were treated with rhSP-D followed by a challenge with HIV-1 to assess the transfer of HIV-1 through the VEC-100 tissues to PBMCs in the basal submucosal compartment. Treated VEC tissues were subjected to mRNA Illumina microarray analysis. Levels of transcripts encoding for immune mediators, adhesion and tight junction proteins were also evaluated. Effect of rhSP-D on viability, NFκB activation, cytokine secretion and bacterial colonization of cervical vaginal epithelial cells was determined. rhSP-D significantly inhibited HIV-1 transfer from the multi-layered epithelial tissues to the basal PBMCs as compared to HIV-1 alone. Global gene expression profile of HIV-1 challenged VEC-100 tissues revealed differential regulation of genes and pathways majorly involved in inflammation, cell survival and transcription factors. Levels of Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs and interferon-inducible proteins were significantly upregulated suggesting an interferon host defense response. rhSP-D showed an inhibition in the levels of GBPs and rescued the cell adhesion molecules such as Claudin 2, 3, 4, 5 and Occludin, known to be down regulated by HIV-1 in primary vaginal cells. Importantly, rhSP-D conditioned VEC tissue supernatants did not enhance susceptibility of target cells to HIV-1. rhSP-D treated vaginal epithelial cells did not show any significant alteration in viability, NFκB activation and levels of immune mediators like IL-1RA, Elafin

  10. Quorum sensing circuit and reactive oxygen species resistance in Deinococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bunster, G; Gonzalez, C; Barros, J; Martinez, M

    2012-12-01

    Genus Deinococcus is characterized by an increased resistance toward reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chromosome of five strains belonging to this genus has been sequenced and the presence of a luxS-like gene was deduced from their genome sequences. The aim of this study was to assess if a complete QS circuit is present in Deinococcus sp. and if this QS is associated with ROS. Primers for searching luxS-like gene and the putative receptor gene, namely ai2R, were designed. AI-2 signal production was evaluated by luminescence analysis using Vibrio harveyi BB170 as reporter strain. AI-2 signal was also evaluated by competitive assays using cinnamaldehyde, ascorbic acid, and 3-mercaptopropionic acid as interfering molecules. Potassium tellurite and metronidazole were used as oxidative stressors. A luxS-like gene as well as an ai2R gene was detected in strain UDEC-P1 by PCR. Cell-free supernatant of strain UDEC-P1 culture induced luminescence in V. harveyi BB170, and this property was inhibited with the three interfering molecules. The oxidative stressors metronidazole and potassium tellurite decreased Deinococcus sp. viability, but increased luminescence of the reporter strain. The results demonstrate that both a functional luxS-like gene and a putative receptor for AI-2 signal are present in Deinococcus sp. strain UDEC-P1. This finding also suggests that a complete QS circuit is present in this genus, which could be related to oxidative stress.

  11. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma SP. Dan Gliocladium SP. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Ramadhina, Arie Ramadhina; Lisnawita, Lisnawita; Lubis, Lahmuddin

    2013-01-01

    The use of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. for controlling wilt(Fusarium oxysporum) in red onion plants. The aim of the research was to know the effectiviness ofantagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants.The research used non-factorial RAK (random group design) with eight treatments: control, 10grams of F. oxysporum, 12 grams of Trichoderma sp., 18 grams of Trichoderma sp., 24 grams ofTrichoderma sp., and 12 grams ...

  12. Assembly of Oligomeric Death Domain Complexes during Toll Receptor Signaling*

    OpenAIRE

    Moncrieffe, Martin C.; Grossmann, J. Günter; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila Toll receptor is activated by the endogenous protein ligand Spätzle in response to microbial stimuli in immunity and spatial cues during embryonic development. Downstream signaling is mediated by the adaptor proteins Tube, the kinase Pelle, and the Drosophila homologue of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (dMyD88). Here we have characterized heterodimeric (dMyD88-Tube) and heterotrimeric (dMyD88-Tube-Pelle) death domain complexes. We show ...

  13. NK-1 Removable Cryogenic Shroud (A Study of the Bimba Pneumatic Cylinder)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.; Stefanescu, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Mark 1 Cryostat requires a cryogenic shroud that must be retracted immediately before firing the NIF laser. This paper evaluates a pneumatic cylinder that has been chosen to open and close the shroud. After a variety of motion control and vacuum compatibility experiments, we concluded that the Bimba feedback control cylinder may be used to retract the shroud with certain modifications to its control system and additional rod seals. The Mark I Cryostat is a system that allows fielding of a wide range of targets on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The purpose is to have a system with the capability of controlling the target temperature between ∼10 and 300 K. While in the Target Chamber, a shroud must cover the cooled targets. This shroud allows the cold target to be shielded from condensable residual gasses in the target chamber. The removable shroud may be cooled to 80 K to provide a radiant shield for the target from the room temperature target chamber. The shroud must remain over the target until approximately one second before shot time, and then retract on command, without inducing vibration into the target. An actuation system design, which removes the shroud, is constrained by the size limitations of the MK-1, the need to build from low-activation materials, the need to operate in a vacuum, and the need for high reliability. The scheme for retracting the shroud that they investigated was a pressurized air cylinder. The pneumatic cylinder tested in our experiments was built by the Bimba Manufacturing Company. We thought it would be suitable for shroud retraction because its manufacturer claimed that its motion was smooth, highly accurate, controllable and the appropriate size for our needs. The pneumatic cylinder moves a piston by changing the gas pressure in the two sections of the cylinder on either side of the piston. The cylinder also uses the piston as a voltage potentiometer to determine the current position of the piston. This voltage is then output to a controller card, which processes the voltage and compares it to the desired position input by the user. If the piston is not at the input location, the controller card dynamically controls the piston by opening and closing valves to the cylinder, varying pressure on the piston. The piston is connected to a shaft, which through a linkage system, attaches to the removable shroud. This report summarizes our studies of the controllability and vacuum characteristics of the Bimba Pneumatic Cylinder.

  14. Marilones A–C, phthalides from the sponge-derived fungus Stachylidium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Almeida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine-derived fungus Stachylidium sp. was isolated from the sponge Callyspongia sp. cf. C. flammea. Culture on a biomalt medium supplemented with sea salt led to the isolation of three new phthalide derivatives, i.e., marilones A–C (1–3, and the known compound silvaticol (4. The skeleton of marilones A and B is most unusual, and its biosynthesis is suggested to require unique biochemical reactions considering fungal secondary metabolism. Marilone A (1 was found to have antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei liver stages with an IC50 of 12.1 µM. Marilone B (2 showed selective antagonistic activity towards the serotonin receptor 5-HT2B with a Ki value of 7.7 µM.

  15. Interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozaki, Naofumi; Ozaki, Takuro; Samadfam, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    Uptake of uranium by higher fungi, such as mushroom is little elucidated. We have studied the interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp. (a mushroom) in pure culture over a wide range of U concentration (50-3000 mg/L). The Pleurotus sp. was cultured in two different media. One was rice bran medium, and the other was agar (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) medium. The uptake of uranium in Pleurotus sp. was examined by alpha ray autoradiography (A,A), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning microcopy (SEM) equipped with EDS. In the agar medium, the higher uranium concentration gave lower growth of mycelia, and no fruiting body was observed. In the rice bran medium, the fruiting body was grown at U concentrations up to 1000 mg/L. The AA and XRF analysis showed that uranium taken up in the fruiting body was below the detection limit. The SEM-EDS analysis indicated that U was distributed in the limited region and was not transported to the mycelia far from U containing medium. It is concluded that uranium affects the growth of Pleurotus sp., and little uranium is taken up by Pleurotus sp. during the growth of both mycelia and fruiting body. (author)

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_L.png Synecho...cystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis

  17. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM

  18. In vitro maturation of Drosophila melanogaster Spätzle protein with refolded Easter reveals a novel cleavage site within the prodomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursel, Christian; Fandrich, Uwe; Hoffmann, Anita; Sieg, Torsten; Ihling, Christian; Stubbs, Milton T

    2013-08-01

    Dorsoventral patterning during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis is mediated by a well-defined gradient of the mature NGF-like ligand Spätzle. Easter, the ultimate protease of a ventrally-restricted serine protease cascade, plays a key role in the regulation of the morphogenic gradient, catalyzing the activation cleavage of proSpätzle. As a result of alternative splicing, proSpätzle exists in multiple isoforms, almost all of which differ only in their prodomain. Although this domain is unstructured in isolation, it has a stabilizing influence on the mature cystine knot domain and is involved in the binding to the Toll receptor. Here, we report the expression and refolding of Easter, and show that the renatured enzyme performs the activation cleavage of two Spätzle isoforms. We determine the affinity of the prodomain for the cystine knot domain, and show that Easter performs a previously unknown secondary cleavage in each prodomain.

  19. Receptor-receptor interactions within receptor mosaics. Impact on neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxe, K; Marcellino, D; Rivera, A; Diaz-Cabiale, Z; Filip, M; Gago, B; Roberts, D C S; Langel, U; Genedani, S; Ferraro, L; de la Calle, A; Narvaez, J; Tanganelli, S; Woods, A; Agnati, L F

    2008-08-01

    Future therapies for diseases associated with altered dopaminergic signaling, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction or drug dependence may substantially build on the existence of intramembrane receptor-receptor interactions within dopamine receptor containing receptor mosaics (RM; dimeric or high-order receptor oligomers) where it is believed that the dopamine D(2) receptor may operate as the 'hub receptor' within these complexes. The constitutive adenosine A(2A)/dopamine D(2) RM, located in the dorsal striato-pallidal GABA neurons, are of particular interest in view of the demonstrated antagonistic A(2A)/D(2) interaction within these heteromers; an interaction that led to the suggestion and later demonstration that A(2A) antagonists could be used as novel anti-Parkinsonian drugs. Based on the likely existence of A(2A)/D(2)/mGluR5 RM located both extrasynaptically on striato-pallidal GABA neurons and on cortico-striatal glutamate terminals, multiple receptor-receptor interactions within this RM involving synergism between A(2A)/mGluR5 to counteract D(2) signaling, has led to the proposal of using combined mGluR5 and A(2A) antagonists as a future anti-Parkinsonian treatment. Based on the same RM in the ventral striato-pallidal GABA pathways, novel strategies for the treatment of schizophrenia, building on the idea that A(2A) agonists and/or mGluR5 agonists will help reduce the increased dopaminergic signaling associated with this disease, have been suggested. Such treatment may ensure the proper glutamatergic drive from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus to the prefrontal cortex, one which is believed to be reduced in schizophrenia due to a dominance of D(2)-like signaling in the ventral striatum. Recently, A(2A) receptors also have been shown to counteract the locomotor and sensitizing actions of cocaine and increases in A(2A) receptors have also been observed in the nucleus accumbens after extended cocaine self-administration, probably

  20. SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hornung, Thomas; Meier, Michael; Pinkel, Christoph; Lausen, Georg

    A meaningful analysis and comparison of both existing storage schemes for RDF data and evaluation approaches for SPARQL queries necessitates a comprehensive and universal benchmark platform. We present SP2Bench, a publicly available, language-specific performance benchmark for the SPARQL query language. SP2Bench is settled in the DBLP scenario and comprises a data generator for creating arbitrarily large DBLP-like documents and a set of carefully designed benchmark queries. The generated documents mirror vital key characteristics and social-world distributions encountered in the original DBLP data set, while the queries implement meaningful requests on top of this data, covering a variety of SPARQL operator constellations and RDF access patterns. In this chapter, we discuss requirements and desiderata for SPARQL benchmarks and present the SP2Bench framework, including its data generator, benchmark queries and performance metrics.

  1. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzacco, D [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    1992-08-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4{pi} detector array for advanced {gamma}-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4{pi} calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs.

  2. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzacco, D.

    1992-01-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4π detector array for advanced γ-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4π calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs

  3. SP-100/Brayton power system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Use of closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion technology has been investigated for use with SP-100 reactors for space power systems. The CBC power conversion technology is being developed by Rockwell International under the Dynamic Isotype Power System (DIPS) and Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power system programs to provide highly efficient power conversion with radioisotype and solar collector heat sources. Characteristics including mass, radiator area, thermal power, and operating temperatures for systems utilizing SP-100 reactor and CBC power conversion technology were determined for systems in the 10-to 100-kWe power range. Possible SP-100 reactor/CBC power system configurations are presented. Advantages of CBC power conversion technology with regard to reactor thermal power, operating temperature, and development status are discussed

  4. Descending serotonergic facilitation mediated by spinal 5-HT3 receptors engages spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Curtis O.; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently reported the importance of spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways in maintaining persistent pain-like states. A descending facilitatory drive mediated through spinal 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) originating from superficial dorsal horn NK1-expressing neurons and that relays through the parabrachial nucleus and the rostroventral medial medulla to act on deep dorsal horn neurons is known be important in maintaining these pain-like states. To determine if spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways are activated by a descending serotonergic drive, we investigated the effects of spinally administered rapamycin on responses of deep dorsal horn neurons that had been pre-treated with the selective 5-HT3R antagonist ondansetron. We also investigated the effects of spinally administered cell cycle inhibitor (CCI)-779 (a rapamycin ester analogue) on deep dorsal horn neurons from rats with carrageenan-induced inflammation of the hind paw. Unlike some other models of persistent pain, this model does not involve an altered 5-HT3R-mediated descending serotonergic drive. We found that the inhibitory effects of rapamycin were significantly reduced for neuronal responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli when the spinal cord was pre-treated with ondansetron. Furthermore, CCI-779 was found to be ineffective in attenuating spinal neuronal responses to peripheral stimuli in carrageenan-treated rats. Therefore, we conclude that 5-HT3R-mediated descending facilitation is one requirement for activation of rapamycin-sensitive pathways that contribute to persistent pain-like states. PMID:20709148

  5. Modifications of Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Moshin, P.Yu

    2003-12-04

    We propose a modification of the Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization to realize a superalgebra of generating operators isomorphic to the massless limit of the corresponding superalgebra of the osp(1,2) covariant formalism. The modified scheme ensures the compatibility of the superalgebra of generating operators with extended BRST symmetry without imposing restrictions eliminating superfield components from the quantum action. The formalism coincides with the Sp(2) covariant superfield scheme and with the massless limit of the osp(1,2) covariant quantization in particular cases of gauge-fixing and solutions of the quantum master equations.

  6. SP-100 converter multicouple thermoelectric cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, R.A.; Terrill, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The General Electric Company is under contract to DOE to design, fabricate, and test an SP-100 Ground Engineering System. This paper provides a description of the SP-100 space reactor power system configuration, and a more detailed description of the power conversion subsystem (PCSS) and the key building block of the power converter, the thermoelectric cell. The functions of the various elements of the PCSS and the cells are also presented. These cells convert the thermal energy from the reactor into electrical power at the desired voltage while being conductively coupled to the hot and cold side heat exchangers to maximize the power output and system specific power

  7. Fatty acid composition of Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp. and Chaetoceros sp. microalgae and introduction as potential new sources to extinct omega 3 and omega 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Gorjzdadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out to determine the oil fatty acids from two special species of microalgae; Spirulina sp.,Chlorella sp. and also Chaetoceros sp. collected from Bahmanshir River. Materials and Methods: Sampling of microalgae Chaetoceros sp. from Bahmanshir River was under taken using bottle samplers during spring season of 2013. Microalgae Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. were supplied from Shrimp Research Institute of Iran in Bushehr Province. Samples then were cultured under controlled laboratory conditions and mass culture for 100 liters was undertaken. Isolation of microalgae species from water of cultured media was carried out using filtration and centrifugation methods. The fatty acid compositions were determined by Gas – FID chromatography. Results: Results showed that regarding Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA obtained from purified culture of Chaetoceros sp., Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. the maximum amount of total fatty acids were belonged to palmitic acids (C16:0 with 15.21%, 30.1% and 25.17% of total fatty acids  respectively. Analysis of Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA showed that in the Oleic acid was maximum amount of 34% in Spirulina sp. In addition the amount of MUFA in Chlorella sp. was 16.37% of total fatty acids. On the other hand the amount of palmeotic acid in purified culture of Chaetoceros sp. was 30.33% from total content of fatty acids. Analysis of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA, Linoleic acid (C18:2 (Omega 6, revealed maximum percentage in Spirulina sp. with 18.8%. Results of Alpha linoleic acid (C18:3 (Omega3 analysis showed maximum amount of 9.66% in Chlorella sp. compared to other microalgae with lower omega 3 contents. Spirulina sp. contained maximum amount of Linoleic acid (C18:2 with 18.8% of total fatty acids. Therefore, Spirulina sp. can be considered as a rich source of omega 6 for the purpose of fatty acid extractions. The presence of PUFA in Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. was

  8. Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolkar, A V; Durai, D; Desai, A J

    2010-07-01

    Application of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) for the acceleration of fish sauce fermentation. Traditional fish sauce fermentation was mimicked using Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as starter culture. Protease activity, peptide release and α-amino content (parameters used to monitor the progress of the fermentation) were high at day 10 in tests and day 20 in un-inoculated controls. The total protein and nitrogen contents were also high in tests compared with controls. The amino acid profile observed at the end of fermentation in experimental samples, when compared with the commercial sauce preparation, was found to be better with respect to flavour and aroma contributing amino acids as well as essential amino acid lysine. Microflora analysis of the final fish sauce revealed the absence of any nonhalophilic or halotolerant micro-organisms. The protease-producing halophilic isolates obtained from the fish sauce of eviscerated and uneviscerated controls were identified as Halobacterium sp. F1 and F2, respectively, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Exogenous augmentation of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) accelerated the fish sauce fermentation process with an additive effect on the existing natural microflora present in the fish during fermentation. Halobacterium sp SP1(1), therefore, can be used as an important starter culture for accelerating the fish fermentation process, which is attributed to its extracellular protease. The present study is the first report on use of Halobacterium species as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation. Use of halobacterial starter cultures may revolutionize the process in fish sauce industries by reducing the fermentation time and making the process more economical with improved nutritive value of product. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Indian Government works.

  9. 76 FR 56876 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... and 9789(SP), Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS). DATES: Written comments should be received on or before November 14, 2011 to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS). OMB...

  10. Pretrichodermamides D-F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Anton N; Smetanina, Olga F; Ivanets, Elena V; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Khudyakova, Yuliya V; Kirichuk, Natalya N; Popov, Roman S; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Chingizova, Ekaterina A; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A

    2016-06-27

    Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D-F (1-3), together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4) and pretrichodermamide С (5), were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1-5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1) was established by a combination of modified Mosher's method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5) showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies.

  11. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood of ...

  12. Profiling neurotransmitter receptor expression in the Ambystoma mexicanum brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Limon, Agenor; Korn, Matthew J; Nakamura, Paul A; Shirkey, Nicole J; Wong, Jamie K; Miledi, Ricardo

    2013-03-22

    Ability to regenerate limbs and central nervous system (CNS) is unique to few vertebrates, most notably the axolotl (Ambystoma sp.). However, despite the fact the neurotransmitter receptors are involved in axonal regeneration, little is known regarding its expression profile. In this project, RT-PCR and qPCR were performed to gain insight into the neurotransmitter receptors present in Ambystoma. Its functional ability was studied by expressing axolotl receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes by either injection of mRNA or by direct microtransplantation of brain membranes. Oocytes injected with axolotl mRNA expressed ionotropic receptors activated by GABA, aspartate+glycine and kainate, as well as metabotropic receptors activated by acetylcholine and glutamate. Interestingly, we did not see responses following the application of serotonin. Membranes from the axolotl brain were efficiently microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes and two types of native GABA receptors that differed in the temporal course of their responses and affinities to GABA were observed. Results of this study are necessary for further characterization of axolotl neurotransmitter receptors and may be useful for guiding experiments aimed at understanding activity-dependant limb and CNS regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  14. Cooperative ethylene receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived by a family of five ethylene receptor members in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis. Genetic and biochemical studies suggest that the ethylene response is suppressed by ethylene receptor complexes, but the biochemical nature of the receptor signal is unknown. Without appropriate biochemical measures to trace the ethylene receptor signal and quantify the signal strength, the biological significance of the modulation of ethylene responses ...

  15. Gilliamella intestini sp. nov., Gilliamella bombicola sp. nov., Gilliamella bombi sp. nov. and Gilliamella mensalis sp. nov.: Four novel Gilliamella species isolated from the bumblebee gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praet, Jessy; Cnockaert, Margo; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Vandamme, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Spectra of five isolates (LMG 28358 T , LMG 29879 T , LMG 29880 T , LMG 28359 T and R-53705) obtained from gut samples of wild bumblebees of Bombus pascuorum, Bombus lapidarius and Bombus terrestris were grouped into four MALDI-TOF MS clusters. RAPD analysis revealed an identical DNA fingerprint for LMG 28359 T and R-53705 which also grouped in the same MALDI-TOF MS cluster, while different DNA fingerprints were obtained for the other isolates. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the four different strains identified Gilliamella apicola NCIMB 14804 T as nearest neighbour species. Average nucleotide identity values of draft genome sequences of the four isolates and of G. apicola NCIMB 14804 T were below the 96% threshold value for species delineation and all four strains and G. apicola NCIMB 14804 T were phenotypically distinct. Together, the draft genome sequences and phylogenetic and phenotypic data indicate that the four strains represent four novel Gilliamella species for which we propose the names Gilliamella intestini sp. nov., with LMG 28358 T as the type strain, Gilliamella bombicola sp. nov., with LMG 28359 T as the type strain, Gilliamella bombi sp. nov., with LMG 29879 T as the type strain and Gilliamella mensalis sp. nov., with LMG 29880 T as the type strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  17. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T.; Ferreira, Rafael V. de P.; Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  18. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. ...

  19. Rhodotorula bloemfonteinensis sp. nov., Rhodotorula eucalyptica sp. nov., Rhodotorula orientis sp. nov. and Rhodotorula pini sp. nov., yeasts isolated from monoterpene-rich environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Carolina H; Smit, Martha S; Albertyn, Jacobus

    2011-09-01

    Recent rDNA sequencing of 25 isolates from a previous study, during which limonene-utilizing yeasts were isolated from monoterpene-rich environments by using 1,4-disubstituted cyclohexanes as sole carbon sources, led to the identification of four hitherto unknown Rhodotorula species. Analyses of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 region as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain indicated that two isolates (CBS 8499(T) and CBS 10736) were identical and were closely related to Rhodotorula cycloclastica, a previously described limonene-utilizing yeast. These novel isolates differed from known yeast species and could be distinguished from R. cycloclastica by standard physiological tests. The other three isolates represent three novel Rhodotorula species, closely related to Sporobolomyces magnisporus. These three species could also be distinguished from other Rhodotorula species by standard physiological tests. Based on these results, we suggest that the new isolates represent novel species, for which the names Rhodotorula eucalyptica sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8499(T)  = NRRL Y-48408(T)), Rhodotorula pini sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10735(T)  = NRRL Y-48410(T)), Rhodotorula bloemfonteinensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8598(T)  = NRRL Y-48407(T)) and Rhodotorula orientis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8594(T)  = NRRL Y-48719(T)) are proposed. R. eucalyptica and R. pini can also utilize limonene.

  20. Test af spørgeskema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i •design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, •formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, •metoder til at analysere resultaterne....

  1. Lipid contents of the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Several fatty acids, sterols, batyl alcohol and its analogs and an N-acylated sphingosine (ceramide) have been isolated from the lipid fraction of the extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. The major sterol is found to be cholesterol (54%), followed...

  2. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    / 1000 felter= 0.370 (95% CI: 0.160-0.729), (p= 0.020)). Der var ingen statistisk forskel mellem optisk scanning (fejl/ 1000 felter= 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258)) og manuel dobbelt indtastning (p=1.000). Konklusioner: Optisk scanning er et godt alternativ til manuel dobbelt indtastning for spørgeskema med......Formål og baggrund: Patient rapporterede outcomes i form af spørgeskemaer bruges i øgende grad i sundhedssektoren både i klinisk praksis og forskning. Ofte bruges spørgeskemaer i papirformat. Manuel dobbelt indtastning er defineret som guld standard for overføring af data til et elektronisk format......, men processen er tidkrævende. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer med automatisk registrering af svar kan være et alternativ, men videre validering af metoden er nødvendig. Design: 200 patienter blev tilfældigt udvalgt fra en kohorte på 5777 patienter der tidligere havde svaret på to forskellige...

  3. Aerococcus sp. with an antimycobacterial effect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... In this study, we reported data on a strain that was isolated from different areas of Fez. (Morocco), which ... sp. The antibacterial activity of the genus Aerococcus have .... able to amplify the 16S rRNA gene from eubacteria.

  4. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  5. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol

    2014-01-01

    A major carotenoid in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, originally isolated from a river in Daejon City, South Korea, was identified as astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside. Gene clusters encoding the astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthetic enzymes were identified by screening Sphingomonas sp. PB304 fosmid...

  6. SP-100 initial startup and restart control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, Frank J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Switick, Dennis M.; Shukla, Jaikaran N.

    Startup control strategies for SP-100 are described. Revised control and operating strategies are discussed which have been developed and tested using the SP-100 dynamic simulation model Aries-GFS (Generic Flight System).

  7. Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov., aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Nina V; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Tourova, Tatjana P; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2002-05-01

    Two aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains F20T and RXM(T), are described taxonomically. On the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic properties, the isolates are proposed as novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. (type strain F20T = VKM B-2238T = NCIMB 13778T) and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov. (type strain RXMT = VKM B-2239T = NCIMB 13779T).

  8. Analisis Fosfor pada Cacing Tanah (Megascolex sp. dan Fridericia sp.) Secara Spektrofotometri Sinar Tampak

    OpenAIRE

    Safira, Cut Shafa

    2015-01-01

    Earthworm is natural resource which can be used for medication due to its highly amount of minerals. One of these minerals is phosphorus. The aim of this research are to identify, determine and know the difference content of phosphorus in Megascolex sp. and Fridericia sp. Qualitative analysis shows positive results with addition of ammonium molybdate 4% and BaCl2 5%. Quantitative analysis was done using visible spectrophotometer with ascorbic acid method, measuring blu-colored molybdenum ...

  9. Nanocrystalline sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M. L. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy); Rossi, M. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Sapienza,” via A. Scarpa, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria and Centro di Ricerca per le Nanotecnologie Applicate all’Ingegneria (CNIS) (Italy); Tamburri, E., E-mail: emanuela.tamburri@uniroma2.it [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp{sup 2}- and sp{sup 3}-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  10. Differences in nutrient uptake capacity of the benthic filamentous algae Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. under varying N/P conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vyverman, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The N/P ratio of wastewater can vary greatly and directly affect algal growth and nutrient removal process. Three benthic filamentous algae species Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were isolated from a periphyton bioreactor and cultured under laboratory conditions on varying N/P ratios to determine their ability to remove nitrate and phosphorus. The N/P ratio significantly influenced the algal growth and phosphorus uptake process. Appropriate N/P ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal were 5-15, 7-10 and 7-20 for Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp., respectively. Within these respective ranges, Cladophora sp. had the highest biomass production, while Pseudanabaena sp. had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This study indicated that Cladophora sp. had a high capacity of removing phosphorus from wastewaters of low N/P ratio, and Pseudanabaena sp. was highly suitable for removing nitrogen from wastewaters with high N/P ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anomalous self potential (sp) log signatures observed in a water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical logging was done after drilling had been completed in a water well at Okwudor, South Eastern Nigeria. Three electric logs were run viz: Self Potential (SP), Resistivity N16″ and N64″ logs. An anomaly was observed in the SP log. The SP results from this well show some deviation from the standard norm.

  12. Biosorption of chromium by mangrove-derived Aplanochytrium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial dried biomass of Thraustochytrids is used as bioadsorbent for the removal of the chromium in aqueous solution. In this investigation, three species of Thraustochydrids namely Aplanochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp. and Schizochytrium sp. were tested for the efficiency of chromium accumulation by culturing ...

  13. Babesia peircei sp. nov. from the jackass penguin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-01-09

    Jan 9, 1992 ... An avian piroplasm, Babesia peircei sp. nov. is described from the jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus. Morphological differences between Babesia peircei sp. nov. and the other valid Babesia spp. are discussed together with the possible vectors. 'n Voal-piroplasma, Babesia peircei sp. nov. afkomstig ...

  14. Environmental conditions affecting exopolysaccharide production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönül

    2008-06-15

    Three different chromium-resistant microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.) were tested with regard to their EPS production at different pH levels, temperatures, Cr(VI) concentrations, and incubation periods. The optimum pH level was 7 for P. aeruginosa and Micrococcus sp., while it was 8 for Ochrobactrum sp. according to the highest EPS amount at 100 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration. The highest production of EPSs by the three bacteria was obtained under different environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa produced the highest EPS (863.3 mg/L) after incubation for 96 h on media with 50 mg/L Cr(VI) at 20 degrees C, Micrococcus sp. gave the highest yield (444.6 mg/L) after incubation for 72 h on media with 100 mg/L Cr(VI) at the same temperature, and Ochrobactrum sp. had the highest production (430.5 mg/L) on media with 150 mg/L Cr(VI) at 30 degrees C at the end of 48 h of incubation.

  15. Remote sensing data of SP Mountain and SP Lava flow in North-Central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain [Official name of feature (U.S. Geological Survey, 1970)] and SP flow (and vicinity) in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization, then compared with surface and aerial photography, LANDSAT multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is significantly brighter on direct-polarization K-band (0.9-cm wavelength) images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. Conversely, for the longer wavelength (25 cm) L-band radar images, the cross-polarization image returns from SP flow are brighter than the direct-polarized image. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are found to be clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data. The inability of the K- and X- (3-cm wavelength) band radars to portray the differences in roughness between the two SP flow surface units is attributed to the radar frequency dependence of the surface-relief scale, which, described as the Rayleigh criterion, represents the transition between quasispecular and primarily diffuse backscatter. ?? 1980.

  16. Two new species of suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov. epizoic on ostracods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Two, species of protozoic suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov., are described. These were found attached on the body of the marine ostracod, Cypridina dentata (Muller), collected from the shelf and slope...

  17. Small constrained SP1-7 analogs bind to a unique site and promote anti-allodynic effects following systemic injection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, A; Fransson, R; Haramaki, Y; Skogh, A; Brolin, E; Watanabe, H; Nordvall, G; Hallberg, M; Sandström, A; Nyberg, F

    2015-07-09

    Previous results have shown that the substance P (SP) N-terminal fragment SP1-7 may attenuate hyperalgesia and produce anti-allodynia in animals using various experimental models for neuropathic pain. The heptapeptide was found to induce its effects through binding to and activating specific sites apart from any known neurokinin or opioid receptor. Furthermore, we have applied a medicinal chemistry program to develop lead compounds mimicking the effect of SP1-7. The present study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effect of these compounds using the mouse spared nerve injury (SNI) model of chronic neuropathic pain. Also, as no comprehensive screen with the aim to identify the SP1-7 target has yet been performed we screened our lead compound H-Phe-Phe-NH2 toward a panel of drug targets. The extensive target screen, including 111 targets, did not reveal any hit for the binding site among a number of known receptors or enzymes involved in pain modulation. Our animal studies confirmed that SP1-7, but also synthetic analogs thereof, possesses anti-allodynic effects in the mouse SNI model of neuropathic pain. One of the lead compounds, a constrained H-Phe-Phe-NH2 analog, was shown to exhibit a significant anti-allodynic effect. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra, E-mail: esungur@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Unsal-Istek, Tuba [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cansever, Nurhan [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemistry-Metallurgy, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel.

  19. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of nano-carbon particles with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.S.; Wu, B.J.; Deng, Q.Y. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Guo, Y.B. [The Third People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Leng, Y.X., E-mail: yxleng@263.net [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Huang, N. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Graphitization occurs during the long-term service of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) modified artificial joint. Then, DLC wear debris, which are carbon particles with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios and sizes ranging from the nano- to micro-meter scale produced. In this paper, to promote the application of DLC coating for artificial joint modification, the cytotoxicity of DLC debris (nano-carbon particles, NCs) with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios was studied. The microstructure and physical characteristics of NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Meanwhile, osteoblasts and macrophages were applied to characterize the cytotoxicity of the NCs. In vitro cytotoxicity assay results indicated that cells incubated with NCs of different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios had greater osteogenic capacity, and these particles caused a weaker immune response in comparison with CoCrMo particles. Taken together, the results indicated that NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios presented a good cytocompatibility than CoCrMo particles. But no significant differences were observed among NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios. The better cytocompatibility of NCs is mainly attributable to their surface charge. - Highlights: • NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios have been successfully prepared by annealing treatment. • NCs with different sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratios show good osteogenic capacity and lower immune response. • The good cytocompatibility of NCs is mainly dependent on its surface charge.

  20. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Unsal-Istek, Tuba; Cansever, Nurhan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel

  1. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin α. → Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. → Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin α in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin α including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin α. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  2. A superhard sp3 microporous carbon with direct bandgap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yilong; Xie, Chenlong; Xiong, Mei; Ma, Mengdong; Liu, Lingyu; Li, Zihe; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Gao, Guoying; Zhao, Zhisheng; Tian, Yongjun; Xu, Bo; He, Julong

    2017-12-01

    Carbon allotropes with distinct sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridization possess various different properties. Here, a novel all-sp3 hybridized tetragonal carbon, namely the P carbon, was predicted by the evolutionary particle swarm structural search. It demonstrated a low density among all-sp3 carbons, due to the corresponding distinctive microporous structure. P carbon is thermodynamically stable than the known C60 and could be formed through the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) compression. P carbon is a direct bandgap semiconductor displaying a strong and superhard nature. The unique combination of electrical and mechanical properties constitutes P carbon a potential superhard material for semiconductor industrial fields.

  3. GABA receptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    GABA is primary an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is localized in inhibitory interneurons. GABA is released from presynaptic terminals and functions by binding to GABA receptors. There are two types of GABA receptors, GABA{sub A}-receptor that allows chloride to pass through a ligand gated ion channel and GABA{sub B}-receptor that uses G-proteins for signaling. The GABA{sub A}-receptor has a GABA binding site as well as a benzodiazepine binding sites, which modulate GABA{sub A}-receptor function. Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor imaging can be accomplished by radiolabeling derivates that activates benzodiazepine binding sites. There has been much research on flumazenil (FMZ) labeled with {sup 11}C-FMZ, a benzodiazepine derivate that is a selective, reversible antagonist to GABAA receptors. Recently, {sup 18}F-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) has been developed to overcome {sup 11}C's short half-life. {sup 18}F-FFMZ shows high selective affinity and good pharmacodynamics, and is a promising PET agent with better central benzodiazepine receptor imaging capabilities. In an epileptic focus, because the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor amount is decreased, using '1{sup 1}C-FMZ PET instead of {sup 18}F-FDG, PET, restrict the foci better and may also help find lesions better than high resolution MR. GABA{sub A} receptors are widely distributed in the cerebral cortex, and can be used as an viable neuronal marker. Therefore it can be used as a neuronal cell viability marker in cerebral ischemia. Also, GABA-receptors decrease in areas where neuronal plasticity develops, therefore, GABA imaging can be used to evaluate plasticity. Besides these usages, GABA receptors are related with psychological diseases, especially depression and schizophrenia as well as cerebral palsy, a motor-related disorder, so further in-depth studies are needed for these areas.

  4. GABA receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Doo

    2007-01-01

    GABA is primary an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is localized in inhibitory interneurons. GABA is released from presynaptic terminals and functions by binding to GABA receptors. There are two types of GABA receptors, GABA A -receptor that allows chloride to pass through a ligand gated ion channel and GABA B -receptor that uses G-proteins for signaling. The GABA A -receptor has a GABA binding site as well as a benzodiazepine binding sites, which modulate GABA A -receptor function. Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor imaging can be accomplished by radiolabeling derivates that activates benzodiazepine binding sites. There has been much research on flumazenil (FMZ) labeled with 11 C-FMZ, a benzodiazepine derivate that is a selective, reversible antagonist to GABAA receptors. Recently, 18 F-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) has been developed to overcome 11 C's short half-life. 18 F-FFMZ shows high selective affinity and good pharmacodynamics, and is a promising PET agent with better central benzodiazepine receptor imaging capabilities. In an epileptic focus, because the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor amount is decreased, using '1 1 C-FMZ PET instead of 18 F-FDG, PET, restrict the foci better and may also help find lesions better than high resolution MR. GABA A receptors are widely distributed in the cerebral cortex, and can be used as an viable neuronal marker. Therefore it can be used as a neuronal cell viability marker in cerebral ischemia. Also, GABA-receptors decrease in areas where neuronal plasticity develops, therefore, GABA imaging can be used to evaluate plasticity. Besides these usages, GABA receptors are related with psychological diseases, especially depression and schizophrenia as well as cerebral palsy, a motor-related disorder, so further in-depth studies are needed for these areas

  5. Bacteriophage SP6 encodes a second tailspike protein that recognizes Salmonella enterica serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhart, Dana; Williams, Steven R.; Scholl, Dean, E-mail: dean@avidbiotics.com

    2017-07-15

    SP6 is a salmonella phage closely related to coliphage K1-5. K1-5 is notable in that it encodes two polysaccharide-degrading tailspike proteins, an endosialidase that allows it to infect E. coli K1, and a lyase that enables it to infect K5 strains. SP6 is similar to K1-5 except that it encodes a P22-like endorhamnosidase tailspike, gp46, allowing it to infect group B Salmonella. We show here that SP6 can also infect Salmonella serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} and that a mutation in a putative second tailspike, gp47, eliminates this specificity. Gene 47 was fused to the coding region of the N-terminal portion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R2 pyocin tail fiber and expressed in trans such that the fusion protein becomes incorporated into pyocin particles. These pyocins, termed AvR2-SP47, killed serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3}Salmonella. We conclude that SP6 encodes two tail proteins providing it a broad host range among Salmonella enterica. - Highlights: • SP6 is a “dual specificity” bacteriophage that encodes two different receptor binding proteins giving it a broad host range. • These receptor binding proteins can be used to re-target the spectrum of R-type bacteriocins to Salmonella enterica. • Both SP6 and the engineered R-type bacteriocins can kill the Salmonella serovars most associated with human disease making them attractive for development as antimicrobial agents.

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 up-regulates CCR7 expression via AKT-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Sp1 in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Wei; Pan, Mei-Ren; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2013-02-01

    Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently found in human cancers and is significantly associated with tumor metastasis. Our previous results demonstrate that COX-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulate the expression of CCR7 chemokine receptor via EP2/EP4 receptors to promote lymphatic invasion in breast cancer cells. In this study, we address the underlying mechanism of COX-2/PGE2-induced CCR7 expression. We find that COX-2/PGE2 increase CCR7 expression via the AKT signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. Promoter deletion and mutation assays identify the Sp1 site located at the -60/-57 region of CCR7 gene promoter is critical for stimulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirms that in vivo binding of Sp1 to human CCR7 promoter is increased by COX-2 and PGE2. Knockdown of Sp1 by shRNA reduces the induction of CCR7 by PGE2. We demonstrate for the first time that AKT may directly phosphorylate Sp1 at S42, T679, and S698. Phosphorylation-mimic Sp1 protein harboring S42D, T679D, and S698D mutation strongly activates CCR7 expression. In contrast, change of these three residues to alanine completely blocks the induction of CCR7 by PGE2. Pathological investigation demonstrates that CCR7 expression is strongly associated with phospho-AKT and Sp1 in 120 breast cancer tissues. Collectively, our results demonstrate that COX-2 up-regulates CCR7 expression via AKT-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Sp1 and this pathway is highly activated in metastatic breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  8. Analysis list: SP2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SP2 Blood,Liver,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/hg19/target/SP2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.5.tsv http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Liver.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc

  9. Biodegradation of resorcinol byPseudomonas sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nader Hajizadeh; Najibeh Shirzad; Ali Farzi; Mojtaba Salouti; Azra Momeni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the ability ofPseudomonas sp. isolated from East Azarbaijan, Iran in bioremediation of resorcinol. Methods: Resorcinol biodegradation was evaluated using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results:This isolate was able to remove up to 37.12% of resorcinol from contaminated water. Reusability experiments had confirmed the biodegradation process which produced seven intermediate compounds. These intermediates were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The products of resorcinol biodegradation were apparently 1, 4-cyclohexadiene, nonadecene, 2-heptadecanone, 1-isopropyl-2-methoxy-4-methylbenzene, hexadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, phenol and 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl). Conclusions: The findings revealed thatPseudomonas sp. is able to degrade resorcinol. Because of being an indigenous organism, this isolate is more compatible with the climate of the northwest region of Iran and possibly will be used for degradation of other similar aromatic compounds.

  10. SP-100 space reactor power system readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Matteo, D.N.; Bailey, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System which is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar/Mars surface power for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The technology and design is now at a state of readiness to support the definition of early flight demonstration missions. Of particular importance is that SP-100 meets the demanding U.S. safety performance, reliability and life requirements. The system is scalable and flexible and can be configured to provide 10's to 100's of kWe without repeating development work and can meet DoD goals for an early, low-power demonstration flight in the 1996-1997 time frame

  11. Superfield quantization in Sp(2) covariant formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    2001-01-01

    The rules of the superfield Sp(2) covariant quantization of the arbitrary gauge theories for the case of the introduction of the gauging with the derivative equations for the gauge functional are generalized. The possibilities of realization of the expanded anti-brackets are considered and it is shown, that only one of the realizations is compatible with the transformations of the expanded BRST-symmetry in the form of super translations along the Grassmann superspace coordinates

  12. Spøgelsets egne ord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemzøe, Anker

    2012-01-01

    refleksioner over den gengangerscene, der åbner Shakespeares Hamlet. Ifølge Derridas ’hantologie’ opererer spøgelser i en eksistentiel tidslighed, der har at gøre med sorg, sprog og forvandling. Genremæssigt, tilføjer Gemzøe, har gengangeren det med at husere i tragedien. Med Derridas ’hantologie’ som en af de...

  13. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelli, Ivano E; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment. (paper)

  14. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  15. Commercial technologies from the SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.; Fujita, T.; Mondt, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    For more than a decade, Jet Propulsion Labortory and Los Alamos have managed a multi-agency funded effort to develop a space reactor power system. This SP-100 Program has developed technologies required for space power systems that can be implemented in the industrial and commercial sectors to improve competitiveness in the global economy. Initial steps taken to transfer this technology from the laboratories to industrial and commercial entities within United States include: (1) identifying specific technologies having commercial potential; (2) distributing information describing the identified technologies and interacting with interested commercial and industrial entities to develop application-specific details and requirements; and (3) providing a technological data base that leads to transfer of technology or the forming of teaming arrangements to accomplish the transfer by tailoring the technology to meet application-specific requirements. SP-100 technologies having commercial potential encompass fabrication processes, devices, and components. Examples: a process for bonding refractory metals to graphite, a device to sense the position of an actuator and a component to enable rotating machines to operate without supplying lubrication (self-lubricating ball bearing). Shortly after the NASA Regional Technology Transfer Centers widely disseminated information covering SP-100 technologies, over one hundred expressions of interest were received, which indicate that there is a large potential benefit in transferring SP-100 technology. Interactions with industrial and commercial entities have identified a substantial need for creating teaming arrangements involving the interested entity and personnel from laboratories and their contractors, who have the knowledge and ability to tailor the technology to meet application-specific requirements. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  16. Thermomucor abortosporangium sp. nov. (Fungi: Mucorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Swathi Sri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermomucor abortosporangium A. Swathi Sri & A. Subrahm., sp. nov. is described as the second species of Thermomucor. It differs from the type species of T. indicae-seudaticae in the branching pattern of sporangiophores, size and shape of sporangiospores and production of abortosporangia. Zygospores are reddish brown, globose, psilate, isogamic and formed at low (37°C temperature whilst the higher temperatures are prohibitive. The fungus grows well at 50°C on PDA, SMA and MEA.

  17. Glucocorticoid receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Onno C; Koorneef, Lisa L; Kroon, Jan

    2018-06-01

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol acts throughout the body to support circadian processes and adaptation to stress. The glucocorticoid receptor is the target of cortisol and of synthetic glucocorticoids, which are used widely in the clinic. Both agonism and antagonism of the glucocorticoid receptor may be beneficial in disease, but given the wide expression of the receptor and involvement in various processes, beneficial effects are often accompanied by unwanted side effects. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators are ligands that induce a receptor conformation that allows activation of only a subset of downstream signaling pathways. Such molecules thereby combine agonistic and antagonistic properties. Here we discuss the mechanisms underlying selective receptor modulation and their promise in treating diseases in several organ systems where cortisol signaling plays a role. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, H N; Ramanjaneyulu, G; Rajasekhar Reddy, B

    2016-12-01

    The production of cellulolytic enzymes (β-exoglucanase, β-endoglucanase and β-glucosidase) by Penicillium sp. on three different media in liquid shake culture conditions was compared. The organism exhibited relatively highest activity of endoglucanase among three enzymes measured at 7-day interval during the course of its growth on Czapek-Dox medium supplemented with 0.5 % (w/v) cellulose. Cellulose at 0.5 %, lactose at 0.5 %, sawdust at 0.5 %, yeast extract at 0.2 % as a nitrogen source, pH 5.0 and 30 °C temperature were found to be optimal for growth and cellulase production by Penicillium sp. Yields of Fpase, CMCase and β-glucosidase, attained on optimized medium with Penicillium sp. were 8.7, 25 and 9.52 U/ml, respectively with increment of 9.2, 5.9 and 43.8-folds over titers of the respective enzyme on unoptimised medium. Cellulase of the fungal culture with the ratio of β-glucosidase to Fpase greater than one will hold potential for biotechnological applications.

  19. Biosorption of 241Am by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Hua Xinfeng

    2003-01-01

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241 Am from solutions by Candida sp., and the influences of experimental conditions on the adsorption were studied. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 4h and the optimum pH=2. No significant differences on 241 Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 degree C, or challenged with Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times over 241 Am, respectively. The adsorption rate could reach 97.8% by dry Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L in 241 Am solutions (pH=2) of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.04-873.0 μg/L) (C 0 ), with maximum adsorption capacity (W) of 63.5 MBq/g (501.8 μg/g), implying that the removal of 241 Am by Candida sp. from solutions was feasible. The relationship between activities (C 0 ) and adsorption capacities (W) of 241 Am indicated that the biosorption process could be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  20. Biosorption of americium-241 by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali

    2003-01-01

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, americium-241 is one of the most serious contamination concerns duo to its high toxicity and long half-life. In this experiment, the biosorption of 241 Am from solution by Candida sp., and the effects of various experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the adsorption of 241 Am by Candida sp. was efficient. 241 Am could be removed by Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L (dry weight) from 241 Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.3-877.2 μg/L)(C 0 ), with maximum adsorption rate (R) of 98% and maximum adsorption capacities (W) of 63.5 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (501.8 μg/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 4 hour and the optimum pH was pH = 2. No significant differences on 241 Am adsorption were observed at 10 C-45 C, or in solutions containing Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times above the 241 Am concentration, respectively. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241 Am indicated the biosorption process should be described by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. (orig.)

  1. Dengue virus receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Hidari, Kazuya I.P.J.; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans and non-human primates. Direct interaction of the virus introduced by a mosquito bite with host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor(s) in both humans and mosquitoes is essent...

  2. Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov. prevail in diverse enzootic transmission cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margos, Gabriele; Lane, Robert S; Fedorova, Natalia; Koloczek, Johannes; Piesman, Joseph; Hojgaard, Andrias; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Two species of the genus Borrelia , Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov., were first described by Postic and co-workers on the basis of genetic analyses of several loci. Multilocus sequence analysis of eight housekeeping loci confirmed that these two Borrelia genomospecies are distinct members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. B. bissettiae sp. nov. was initially described in transmission cycles involving Neotoma fuscipes wood rats and Ixodes pacificus ticks in California, and Neotoma mexicana and Ixodes spinipalpis in Colorado. The preferred host of B. californiensis sp. nov. appears to be the California kangaroo rat, Dipodomys californicus ; Ixodes jellisoni , I. spinipalipis and I. pacificus ticks are naturally infected with it. Thus, the ecological associations of the two genomospecies and their genetic distance from all other known Borrelia genomospecies species justify their description as separate genomospecies: B. bissettiae sp. nov. (type strain DN127 T  = DSM 17990 T  =  CIP 109136 T ) and B. californiensis (type strain CA446 T  = DSM 17989 T  = ATCC BAA-2689 T ).

  3. Cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist ameliorates colitis in IL-10−/− mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Singh, Balwan; Price, Robert L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation caused by hyperactivated effector immune cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have shown that the cannabinoid system may play a critical role in mediating protection against intestinal inflammation. However, the effect of cannabinoid receptor induction after chronic colitis progression has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the effect of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133, after chronic colitis in IL-10 −/− mice. JWH-133 effectively attenuated the overall clinical score, and reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis and decrease in body weight in IL-10 −/− mice. After JWH-133 treatment, the percentage of CD4 + T cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK1.1) cells, and activated T cells declined in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of mice with chronic colitis. JWH-133 was also effective in ameliorating dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. In this model, JWH-133 reduced the number and percentage of macrophages and IFN-γ expressing cells that were induced during colitis progression. Treatment with aminoalkylindole 6-iodo-pravadoline (AM630), a CB2 receptor antagonist, reversed the colitis protection provided by JWH-133 treatment. Also, activated T cells were found to undergo apoptosis following JWH-133 treatment both in-vivo and in-vitro. These findings suggest that JWH-133 mediates its effect through CB2 receptors, and ameliorates chronic colitis by inducing apoptosis in activated T cells, reducing the numbers of activated T cells, and suppressing induction of mast cells, NK cells, and neutrophils at sites of inflammation in the LP. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor agonists may serve as a therapeutic modality against IBD. -- Highlights: ► JWH-133, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 agonist ameliorates experimental colitis. ► JWH-133 suppressed inflammation and toxicity to colon

  4. Cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist ameliorates colitis in IL-10{sup −/−} mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P. [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Singh, Balwan [National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta GA 30329 (United States); Price, Robert L. [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Nagarkatti, Mitzi [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Nagarkatti, Prakash S., E-mail: Prakash.Nagarkatti@uscmed.sc.edu [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation caused by hyperactivated effector immune cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have shown that the cannabinoid system may play a critical role in mediating protection against intestinal inflammation. However, the effect of cannabinoid receptor induction after chronic colitis progression has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the effect of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133, after chronic colitis in IL-10{sup −/−} mice. JWH-133 effectively attenuated the overall clinical score, and reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis and decrease in body weight in IL-10{sup −/−} mice. After JWH-133 treatment, the percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK1.1) cells, and activated T cells declined in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of mice with chronic colitis. JWH-133 was also effective in ameliorating dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. In this model, JWH-133 reduced the number and percentage of macrophages and IFN-γ expressing cells that were induced during colitis progression. Treatment with aminoalkylindole 6-iodo-pravadoline (AM630), a CB2 receptor antagonist, reversed the colitis protection provided by JWH-133 treatment. Also, activated T cells were found to undergo apoptosis following JWH-133 treatment both in-vivo and in-vitro. These findings suggest that JWH-133 mediates its effect through CB2 receptors, and ameliorates chronic colitis by inducing apoptosis in activated T cells, reducing the numbers of activated T cells, and suppressing induction of mast cells, NK cells, and neutrophils at sites of inflammation in the LP. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor agonists may serve as a therapeutic modality against IBD. -- Highlights: ► JWH-133, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 agonist ameliorates experimental colitis. ► JWH-133 suppressed inflammation and

  5. EFEKTIFITAS DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptomyces sp TERHADAP Erwinia sp PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK REBAH PADA TANAMAN LIDAH BUAYA (Aloe barbadensis Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARMILA TASNIM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

  6. MIPs are ancestral ligands for the sex peptide receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joon; Bartalska, Katarina; Audsley, Neil; Yamanaka, Naoki; Yapici, Nilay; Lee, Ju-Youn; Kim, Yong-Chul; Markovic, Milica; Isaac, Elwyn; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Dickson, Barry J

    2010-04-06

    Upon mating, females of many animal species undergo dramatic changes in their behavior. In Drosophila melanogaster, postmating behaviors are triggered by sex peptide (SP), which is produced in the male seminal fluid and transferred to female during copulation. SP modulates female behaviors via sex peptide receptor (SPR) located in a small subset of internal sensory neurons that innervate the female uterus and project to the CNS. Although required for postmating responses only in these female sensory neurons, SPR is expressed broadly in the CNS of both sexes. Moreover, SPR is also encoded in the genomes of insects that lack obvious SP orthologs. These observations suggest that SPR may have additional ligands and functions. Here, we identify myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs) as a second family of SPR ligands that is conserved across a wide range of invertebrate species. MIPs are potent agonists for Drosophila, Aedes, and Aplysia SPRs in vitro, yet are unable to trigger postmating responses in vivo. In contrast to SP, MIPs are not produced in male reproductive organs, and are not required for postmating behaviors in Drosophila females. We conclude that MIPs are evolutionarily conserved ligands for SPR, which are likely to mediate functions other than the regulation of female reproductive behaviors.

  7. Hepatites pós-transfusionais na cidade de Campinas, SP, Brasil: II. Presença dos anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV em candidatos a doadores de sangue e ocorrência de hepatites pós-transfusionais pelo vírus C nos receptores de sangue ou derivados Post-transfusional hepatitis in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil: II- Presence of anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies in blood donors and occurrence of post-transfusional hepatitis C virus in recipients of blood or derivates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lopes Gonçales Júnior

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisamos os anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV em amostras de soros provenientes de 799 candidatos a doadores, que tiveram suas unidades de sangue ou derivados transfundidas a 111 receptores. O anti-HBc e o anti-HCV foram reagentes, em respectivamente 9 e 2,1% dos doadores testados. Observamos que entre os 111 receptores, 44 haviam recebido pelo menos uma unidade anti-HBc positiva e 67 haviam sido transfundidos somente com unidades anti-HBc negativas. Houve um risco 4,5 vezes maior de aquisição de hepatite por vírus C pelos receptores que receberam pelo menos uma unidade anti-HBc positiva Se a pesquisa do anti-HBc fosse realizada na triagem sorológica dos doadores de sangue, cerca de 56% dos casos de HVC nos receptores saiam evitados. A população de receptores que recebeu pelo menos uma unidade anti-HCV reagente, apresentou um risco 29 vezes maior de adquirir esta hepatite, quando comparada aos receptores transfundidos com todas as unidades anti-HCV negativas. A realização do teste para a pesquisa do anti-HCV na triagem dos doadores de sangue, preveniria 79% dos casos de HVC pós-transfusionais. Os candidatos a doadores brasileiros parecem ser acometidos simultânea ou sequencialmente, pelos vírus B e C das hepatites, pois, 44,4% dos doadores anti-HCV positivos, também foram anti-HBc positivos. A realização dos testes para as pesquisas dos anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV, nas triagens hemoterápicas, está indicada para prevenir a transmissão de hepatites pós-transfusionais, em nosso meio.We have analysed anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies in serum samples from 799 donors which had their blood or derivates transfused to 111 recipients. Anti-HBc and anti-HCV were reactive in respectively 9 and 2.1% of the donors tested. We have observed that among the 111 recipients, 44 had received at least one positive anti-HBc unit and 67 had been transfused only with negative anti-HBc, units. The risk of developing hepatitis C virus was 4.5 times

  8. Evaluation of Toll-like, chemokine, and integrin receptors on monocytes and neutrophils from peripheral blood of septic patients and their correlation with clinical outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.C.; Baggio-Zappia, G.L.; Brunialti, M.K.C. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Assunçao, M.S.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, L.C.P. [Hospital Sírio Libanês, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Sírio Libanês, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Machado, F.R. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Departamento de Cirurgia, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salomao, R. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-11

    Recognition of pathogens is performed by specific receptors in cells of the innate immune system, which may undergo modulation during the continuum of clinical manifestations of sepsis. Monocytes and neutrophils play a key role in host defense by sensing and destroying microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD14 receptors on monocytes; CD66b and CXCR2 receptors on neutrophils; and TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD11b receptors on both cell types of septic patients. Seventy-seven septic patients (SP) and 40 healthy volunteers (HV) were included in the study, and blood samples were collected on day zero (D0) and after 7 days of therapy (D7). Evaluation of the cellular receptors was carried out by flow cytometry. Expression of CD14 on monocytes and of CD11b and CXCR2 on neutrophils from SP was lower than that from HV. Conversely, expression of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils was higher in SP compared with HV. Expression of TLR2 on the surface of neutrophils and that of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils of SP was lower at D7 than at D0. In addition, SP who survived showed reduced expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on the surface of neutrophils at D7 compared to D0. Expression of CXCR2 for surviving patients was higher at follow-up compared to baseline. We conclude that expression of recognition and cell signaling receptors is differentially regulated between SP and HV depending on the receptor being evaluated.

  9. Evaluation of Toll-like, chemokine, and integrin receptors on monocytes and neutrophils from peripheral blood of septic patients and their correlation with clinical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.C.; Baggio-Zappia, G.L.; Brunialti, M.K.C.; Assunçao, M.S.C.; Azevedo, L.C.P.; Machado, F.R.; Salomao, R.

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of pathogens is performed by specific receptors in cells of the innate immune system, which may undergo modulation during the continuum of clinical manifestations of sepsis. Monocytes and neutrophils play a key role in host defense by sensing and destroying microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD14 receptors on monocytes; CD66b and CXCR2 receptors on neutrophils; and TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD11b receptors on both cell types of septic patients. Seventy-seven septic patients (SP) and 40 healthy volunteers (HV) were included in the study, and blood samples were collected on day zero (D0) and after 7 days of therapy (D7). Evaluation of the cellular receptors was carried out by flow cytometry. Expression of CD14 on monocytes and of CD11b and CXCR2 on neutrophils from SP was lower than that from HV. Conversely, expression of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils was higher in SP compared with HV. Expression of TLR2 on the surface of neutrophils and that of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils of SP was lower at D7 than at D0. In addition, SP who survived showed reduced expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on the surface of neutrophils at D7 compared to D0. Expression of CXCR2 for surviving patients was higher at follow-up compared to baseline. We conclude that expression of recognition and cell signaling receptors is differentially regulated between SP and HV depending on the receptor being evaluated

  10. Nanoscale transformation of sp2 to sp3 of graphite by slow highly charged ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, T.; Hida, A.; Koguchi, Y.; Miyamoto, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Takai, H.; Maeda, K.; Aoyagi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale transformation of electronic states by highly charged ion (HCI) impact on graphite surfaces is described. The high potential energy of slow HCI, which induces multiple emission of electrons from the surface, provides a strong modification of the electronic states of the local area upon graphite surfaces. The HCI impact and the subsequent surface treatment either by electron injection from a scanning tunneling microscopy tip or by He-Cd laser irradiation induce a localized transition from sp 2 to sp 3 hybridization in graphite, resulting in the formation of nanoscale diamond-like structures (nanodiamond) at the impact region. From Raman spectroscopic measurements on sp 2 related peaks, it is found that the HCI irradiation creates vacancy complexes in contrast to ions having a lower charge state, which generate single vacancies. It is of interest that a single impact of HCI creates one nanodiamond structure, suggesting potential applications of HCI in nanoscale material processing

  11. Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov., Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil and rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-09-01

    Strains Y-12(T) and Y-47(T) were isolated from mountain forest soil and strain WR43(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil, at Daejeon, Korea. The three strains grew at 10-55 °C (optimal growth at 28-30 °C), at pH 3.0-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 6.0) and in the presence of 0-4.0% (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally in the absence of added NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three strains were found to belong to the genus Burkholderia, showing the closest phylogenetic similarity to Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.2-97.7%); the similarity between the three sequences ranged from 98.3 to 98.7%. Additionally, the three strains formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees based on the housekeeping genes recA and gyrB. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8, the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C17  : 0 cyclo and the DNA G+C content of the novel isolates was 61.6-64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the three strains and the type strains of the closest species of the genus Burkholderia was less than 50%. On the basis of 16S rRNA, recA and gyrB gene sequence similarities, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the three strains represent three novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-12(T)= KACC 17601(T) = NBRC 109933(T) = NCAIM B 02543(T)), Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-47(T) = KACC 17602(T)= NBRC 109934(T) = NCAIM B 02539(T)) and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain WR43(T) = KACC 17603(T) = NBRC 109935(T) = NCAIM B 02541(T)) are proposed.

  12. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Fermentation of Azolla sp. leaves and the utilization as a feed ingredient of tilapia Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to study the effect of incubation period on the nutritional content of Azolla sp. meal fermented by Trichoderma harzianum, and its optimum supplementation level in the feed of tilapia Oreochromis sp. In incubation period treatments, fermentation of Azolla meal was performed in two, six, eight, and ten days (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10 using Trichoderma harzianum as the fermentor. The fish used in this study was tilapia Oreochromis sp. with an average weight of 10.59±1.29 g. The design of the feeding treatments was repeletting commercial feed with Azolla leaves by with different supplementation levels, i.e. 0% (A/control, 30% (B, 60% (C, and 90% (D. Faecal collection for digestibility measurement was conducted for 15 days and fish growth rate was observed for 40 days. Azolla meal fermented for two days (AF2 showed the best results among the other treatments with a crude fiber decrease of 37.19% and protein increase of 38.65%. The results of this study indicate that fermentation can increase the nutritional quality of Azolla meal and its most optimal supplementation level in the diet of tilapia is 30%.Keywords: crude fiber, Azolla sp., tilapiaABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama waktu fermentasi daun mata lele Azolla sp. menggunakan kapang Trichoderma harzianum serta dosis optimal dalam pakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. Proses fermentasi tepung daun mata lele dilakukan selama dua, enam, delapan, dan sepuluh hari (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10. Ikan uji pada penelitian ini menggunakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. dengan bobot rata-rata 10,59±1,29 g yang ditebar sebanyak 6 ekor/akuarium berukuran 50×45×30 cm3. Sebagai pakan perlakuan yakni repeletting daun mata lele dengan pakan komersil pada tingkat suplementasi 0% (A/kontrol, 30% (B, 60% (C, dan 90% (D. Pemeliharaan ikan uji dan pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan feses ikan untuk uji ketercernaan selama 15 hari dan mengamati pertumbuhan

  14. Isolation of C11 Cyclopentenones from Two Didemnid Species, Lissoclinum sp. and Diplosoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Ueda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new C11 cyclopentenones 1-7 was isolated, together with four known metabolites 9/10, 12 and 13, from the extract of the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum sp. The other didemnid ascidian Diplosoma sp. contained didemnenones 1, 2 and 5, and five known metabolites 8-12. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (HCT116, A431 and A549.

  15. Acute versus chronic phase mechanisms in a rat model of CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tzuping; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Li, Wen-Wu; Kingery, Wade S; Clark, John David

    2016-01-19

    Tibia fracture followed by cast immobilization in rats evokes nociceptive, vascular, epidermal, and bone changes resembling complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In most cases, CRPS has three stages. Over time, this acute picture, allodynia, warmth, and edema observed at 4 weeks, gives way to a cold, dystrophic but still painful limb. In the acute phase (at 4 weeks post fracture), cutaneous immunological and NK1-receptor signaling mechanisms underlying CRPS have been discovered; however, the mechanisms responsible for the chronic phase are still unknown. The purpose of this study is to understand the mechanisms responsible for the chronic phases of CRPS (at 16 weeks post fracture) at both the peripheral and central levels. We used rat tibial fracture/cast immobilization model of CRPS to study molecular, vascular, and nociceptive changes at 4 and 16 weeks post fracture. Immunoassays and Western blotting were carried out to monitor changes in inflammatory response and NK1-receptor signaling in the skin and spinal cord. Skin temperature and thickness were measured to elucidate vascular changes, whereas von Frey testing and unweighting were carried out to study nociceptive changes. All data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Neuman-Keuls multiple comparison test to compare among all cohorts. In the acute phase (at 4 weeks post fracture), hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and/or epidermal thickening were observed among 90 % fracture rats, though by 16 weeks (chronic phase), only the nociceptive changes persisted. The expression of the neuropeptide signaling molecule substance P (SP), NK1 receptor, inflammatory mediators TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 and nerve growth factor (NGF) were elevated at 4 weeks in sciatic nerve and/or skin, returning to normal levels by 16 weeks post fracture. The systemic administration of a peripherally restricted IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) or of anti-NGF inhibited nociceptive behaviors at 4

  16. Angiotensin type 2 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumners, Colin; de Kloet, Annette D; Krause, Eric G

    2015-01-01

    In most situations, the angiotensin AT2-receptor (AT2R) mediates physiological actions opposing those mediated by the AT1-receptor (AT1R), including a vasorelaxant effect. Nevertheless, experimental evidence vastly supports that systemic application of AT2R-agonists is blood pressure neutral...

  17. Sex peptides and MIPs can activate the same G protein-coupled receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Nachman, Ronald J; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2013-07-01

    In many animal species, copulation elicits a number of physiological and behavioral changes in the female partner. In Drosophila melanogaster, the main molecular effector of these physiological responses has been identified as sex peptide (SP). The sex peptide receptor (SPR) has been characterized and recently, its activation by Drosophila myoinhibiting peptides (MIPs)-in addition to SP-has been demonstrated. The myoinhibiting peptides are members of a conserved peptide family, also known as B-type allatostatins, which generally feature the C-terminal motif -WX6Wamide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Substance P Activates Ca2+-Permeable Nonselective Cation Channels through a Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C Signaling Pathway in nNOS-Expressing GABAergic Neurons in Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshiaki; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Komatsu, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    To understand the functions of the neocortex, it is essential to characterize the properties of neurons constituting cortical circuits. Here, we focused on a distinct group of GABAergic neurons that are defined by a specific colocalization of intense labeling for both neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and substance P (SP) receptor [neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors]. We investigated the mechanisms of the SP actions on these neurons in visual cortical slices obtained from young glutamate decarboxylase 67-green fluorescent protein knock-in mice. Bath application of SP induced a nonselective cation current leading to depolarization that was inhibited by the NK1 antagonists in nNOS-immunopositive neurons. Ruthenium red and La(3+), transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blockers, suppressed the SP-induced current. The SP-induced current was mediated by G proteins and suppressed by D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), but not by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC, adenylate cyclase or Src tyrosine kinases. Ca(2+) imaging experiments under voltage clamp showed that SP induced a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) that was abolished by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) but not by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. These results suggest that SP regulates nNOS neurons by activating TRP-like Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channels through a PC-PLC-dependent signaling pathway. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Glutamate receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Bunch, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    The neurotransmitter (S)-glutamate [(S)-Glu] is responsible for most of the excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The effect of (S)-Glu is mediated by both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate receptor agonists are generally a-amino acids with one or more...... stereogenic centers due to strict requirements in the agonist binding pocket of the activated state of the receptor. By contrast, there are many examples of achiral competitive antagonists. The present review addresses how stereochemistry affects the activity of glutamate receptor ligands. The review focuses...... mainly on agonists and discusses stereochemical and conformational considerations as well as biostructural knowledge of the agonist binding pockets, which is useful in the design of glutamate receptor agonists. Examples are chosen to demonstrate how stereochemistry not only determines how the agonist...

  20. AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Mellor, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR), subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (IGRs), mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS), and are involved in many neurological disorders, as well as being a key player in the f......Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR), subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (IGRs), mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS), and are involved in many neurological disorders, as well as being a key player...... in the formation of memory. Hence, ligands affecting AMPARs are highly important for the study of the structure and function of this receptor, and in this regard polyamine-based ligands, particularly polyamine toxins, are unique as they selectively block Ca2+ -permeable AMPARs. Indeed, endogenous intracellular...

  1. Role of surfactant protein A (SP-A)/lipid interactions for SP-A functions in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, C

    2001-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), an oligomeric glycoprotein, is a member of a group of proteins named collectins that contain collagen-like and Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate recognition domains. SP-A interacts with a broad range of amphipathic lipids (glycerophospholipids, sphingophospholipids, glycosphingolipids, lipid A, and lipoglycans) that are present in surfactant or microbial membranes. This review summarizes SP-A/lipid interaction studies regarding the lipid system used (i.e., phospholipid vesicles, phospholipid monolayers, and lipids immobilized on silica or adsorbed on a solid support). The effect of calcium, ionic strength, and pH on the binding of SP-A to lipids and the subsequent lipid aggregation process is discussed. Current evidence suggests that hydrophobic-binding forces are involved in the peripherical association of SP-A to membranes. It is also proposed that fluid and liquid-ordered phase coexistence in surfactant membranes might favor partition of SP-A into those membranes. The binding of SP-A to surfactant membranes containing hydrophobic surfactant peptides makes possible the formation of a membrane reservoir in the alveolar fluid that is protected by SP-A against inactivation and improves the rate of surfactant film formation. In addition, the interaction of SP-A with membranes might enhance the affinity of SP-A for terminal carbohydrates of glycolipids or glycoproteins on the surface of invading microorganisms.

  2. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Srivastava

    Full Text Available An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732 were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29 and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498 cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress.

  3. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress.

  4. Dominancy of Trichodesmium sp. in the Biawak Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihadi, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    The Biawak Island is one of the small islands in West Java Province with an abundance of marine biological resources. This research was conducted to collect the primary producer zooplankton and water quality parameters. Direct observation is done by field surveys and measurement in situ for plankton and environmental parameters such as temperature, water transparency, water current, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Trichodesmium sp. was found dominance in where some other types of zooplankton were found in the area, like Scenedesmus sp., Sagitta sp., Acartia sp. also occurred. Further, the most abundance of Trichodesmium sp. was found in southern of Biawak Island where mangroves, coral and seagrass ecosystem provide nutrients which indirectly support the abundance of planktons. Trichodesmium sp. is plankton that can survive in water with minimum nutrient.

  5. Green Decision Making: Sustainable Transport and Systemic Planning (SP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    and infrastructure assessment and on the methodology and process of systemic planning (SP). SP theory development has interchanged with practical application and testing of the SP approach in a large number of cases. The word systemic in SP indicates that complex planning problems and provision of decision support...... in today’s strategic planning needs a focus on what may be addressed as systemic insights in balance with more conventional, systematically-based findings where causal linkages can be modelled and made use of. In practice this means that SP is based on a study-specific combination of hard (quantitative......) and soft (qualitative) operations research (OR) methods; especially the latter have a function as regards knowledge generation that relates to obtaining systemic insights. Furthermore, SP applies a process that drives group-based learning forward. The group should be formed with the different stakeholder...

  6. The SP Theory of Intelligence: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gerard Wolff

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of the SP theory of intelligence, which aims to simplify and integrate concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. It is conceived of as a brain-like system that receives "New" information and stores some or all of it in compressed form as "Old" information; and it is realised in the form of a computer model, a first version of the SP machine. The matching and unification of patterns and the concept of multiple alignment are central ideas. Using heuristic techniques, the system builds multiple alignments that are "good" in terms of information compression. For each multiple alignment, probabilities may be calculated for associated inferences. Unsupervised learning is done by deriving new structures from partial matches between patterns and via heuristic search for sets of structures that are "good" in terms of information compression. These are normally ones that people judge to be "natural", in accordance with the "DONSVIC" principle—the discovery of natural structures via information compression. The SP theory provides an interpretation for concepts and phenomena in several other areas, including "computing", aspects of mathematics and logic, the representation of knowledge, natural language processing, pattern recognition, several kinds of reasoning, information storage and retrieval, planning and problem solving, information compression, neuroscience and human perception and cognition. Examples include the parsing and production of language with discontinuous dependencies in syntax, pattern recognition at multiple levels of abstraction and its integration with part-whole relations, nonmonotonic reasoning and reasoning with default values, reasoning in Bayesian networks, including "explaining away", causal diagnosis, and the solving of a geometric analogy problem.

  7. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Director of ... function of the Lp is to deliver lipids throughout the insect body for metabolism ... Lipid is used as a major energy source for development as well as other metabolic .... LpR4 receptor variant was expressed exclusively in the brain and.

  8. Methyl (Sp-2-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene-1-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Štěpnička

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Fe(C5H5(C19H16O2P], obtained serendipitously during recrystallization of 1-hydroxybenzotriazolyl (Sp-2-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene-1-carboxylate from methanol, crystallizes in the chiral space group P212121. Its crystal structure not only confirms the anticipated absolute configuration but also establishes a rather regular geometry for the ferrocene unit, devoid of any significant deformation due to the attached substituents. In the crystal, symmetry-related molecules are linked via weak C—H...O interactions.

  9. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  10. SP-100 radiator design trade study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewell, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a design trade study of the SP-100 heat rejection subsystem (HRSS) which was made. A system code was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the HRSS mass and performance to changes. Variations in heat pipe diameter and cross-section, fin length and thickness, armor thickness, and overall configuration and materials were evaluated. The analysis indicates that the minimum system mass occurs for the case with many small diameter heat pipes, with ducting that maximizes the fraction of the heat pipe evaporator perimeter in contract with it

  11. Prepare for an SpR interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J P; Heppell, P S J

    2003-03-01

    By the time you attend an interview for a military SpR number you should have no real problems but it pays to be prepared. Begin preparations early, reading widely and talk to as many people as possible. Your consultants will have a useful viewpoint on the proceedings and may be able to help you refine your answers to the common questions. Arrive at your interview in a smart and timely fashion and answer questions with confidence and common sense. Avoid confrontation and bluff and be courteous at all times, whatever you may be feeling inside and thank the interview panel as you leave.

  12. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  13. Pharmacological manipulation of GABA activity in nucleus subpretectalis/interstitio-pretecto-subpretectalis (SP/IPS) impairs figure-ground discrimination in pigeons: Running head: SP/IPS in figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbo, Martin J; Lazareva, Olga F

    2018-05-15

    Figure-ground segregation is a fundamental visual ability that allows an organism to separate an object from its background. Our earlier research has shown that nucleus rotundus (Rt), a thalamic nucleus processing visual information in pigeons, together with its inhibitory complex, nucleus subpretectalis/interstitio-pretecto-subpretectalis (SP/IPS), are critically involved in figure-ground discrimination (Acerbo et al., 2012; Scully et al., 2014). Here, we further investigated the role of SP/IPS by conducting bilateral microinjections of GABAergic receptor antagonist and agonists (bicuculline and muscimol, respectively) and non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (CNQX) after the pigeons mastered figure-ground discrimination task. We used two doses of each drug (bicuculline: 0.1 mM and 0.05 mM; muscimol: 4.4 mM and 8.8 mM; CNQX: 2.15 mM and 4.6 mM) in a within-subject design, and alternated drug injections with baseline (ACSF). The order of injections was randomized across birds to reduce potential carryover effects. We found that a low dose of bicuculline produced a decrement on figure trials but not on background trials, whereas a high dose impaired performance on background trials but not on figure trials. Muscimol produced an equivalent, dose-dependent impairment on both types of trials. Finally, CNQX had no consistent effect at either dose. Together, these results further confirm our earlier hypothesis that inhibitory projections from SP to Rt modulate figure-ground discrimination, and suggest that the Rt and the SP/IPS provide a plausible substrate that could perform figure-ground segregation in avian brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dosimetric Studies in Normal Mice of 177Lu-DOTA-SP and 177Lu-DOTA-His2-MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta Yepes, N.; Rojo, A.M.; Lopez Bularte, A.C.; Nevares, N.; Zapata, M.; Perez, J.H.; Crudo, J.

    2010-01-01

    DOTA-Substance-P (SP) and DOTA-minigastrin (His2-MG) labeled with 177 Lu could be used in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for treatment of various tumour species. Biodistribution studies of both radiopharmaceuticals in normal mice were performed at different times. Absorbed doses in mouse organs were estimated and extrapolated to humans. Dosimetric calculations showed that kidneys received the highest dose, for both radiopharmaceuticals. The Maximum Tolerated Activity (MTA) of 177 Lu-DOTA-SP that can be administered without kidney toxicity are 414 and 422 MBq/kg for the standard adult man and woman, respectively. In the same way, the MTA of 177 Lu-DOTA-His2-MG are 488 and 518 MBq/kg for the standard adult man and woman, respectively. (authors)

  15. PRODUCTION OF FIBRINOLYTIC ENZYME (NATTOKINASE) FROM BACILLUS SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Padma Singh, Rekha Negi*, Vani Sharma, Alka Rani, Pallavi and Richa Prasad

    2018-01-01

    During present study Nattokinase which is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme was produced by Bacillus sp. To screen and extract nattokinase enzyme from Bacillus sp. were isolated from soil of different agricultural field by serial dilution method. Out of 10 isolate, one strain i.e. B3 produced nattokinase on screening medium. B3 was identified by biochemical characterization. The caseinolytic activity of Nattokinase was 0.526 U/ml and the selected isolate Bacillus sp. could produce active nattokinas...

  16. Indirect Manganese Removal by Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Brazilian Mine Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Rocha Barboza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is a contaminant in the wastewaters produced by Brazilian mining operations, and the removal of the metal is notoriously difficult because of the high stability of the Mn(II ion in aqueous solutions. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II, we investigated the potential of Mn(II oxidation by both consortium and bacterial isolates from a Brazilian manganese mine. A bacterial consortium was able to remove 99.7% of the Mn(II. A phylogenetic analysis of isolates demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Lysinibacillus genera. Mn(II removal rates between 58.5% and 70.9% were observed for Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. while the Lysinibacillus isolate 13P removes 82.7%. The catalytic oxidation of Mn(II mediated by multicopper oxidase was not properly detected; however, in all of the experiments, a significant increase in the pH of the culture medium was detected. No aggregates inside the cells grown for a week were found by electronic microscopy. Nevertheless, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the isolates revealed the presence of manganese in Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. grown in K medium. These results suggest that members of Stenotrophomonas and Lysinibacillus genera were able to remove Mn(II by a nonenzymatic pathway.

  17. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  18. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time. Also, the degree of substrate conversion was studied by the varying the dilution rate as an independent parameter. The dilution rate (ratio of feed flow rate to the culture volume) was varied by varying the feed volumetric rate from 110-170 mL/h for inlet hexavalent chromium concentrations of 70 mg/dm3. The results show that a chemostat with recycle gives a better performance in terms of substrate conversion than a chemostat without a recycle. Moreover, the degree of substrate conversion decreases as the dilution rate is increased. Also, Bacillus sp. was found to give higher conversions compared to pseudomonas sp.

  19. Genetic diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and F. redolens f.sp. dianthi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baayen, R.P.; Dreven, van F.; Krijger, M.C.; Waalwijk, C.

    1997-01-01

    Pathogenic isolates were selected representing all known vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and races of Fusarium oxysporum sensu lato from Dianthus spp. On basis of differences in the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, six VCGs were classified as F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

  20. SHEAR STRENGTH IN THE GLUE LINE OF Eucalyptus sp. AND Pinus sp.WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate the adhesive efficiency on the union of glued joints in a particular temperature and humidity conditions for a specified time the adhesive must be submitted to specific load tests, such as shear in the glue line. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shear strength in the glue line of Eucalyptus sp and Pinus sp.woods. Five adhesives (castor oil, sodium silicate, modified silicate, , PVA and resorcinol-formaldehyde, three weights (150 g/m2, 200 g/m2, and 250 g/m2 and two species (Eucalyptus sp. and Pinus sp. of wood were used. Twelve specimens were obtained from each repetition per treatment, corresponding to 108 specimens that were conditioned at a temperature of 23 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 50 ± 2%. The interaction between the weight and type of adhesive was significant for the shear strength in the glue line of eucalyptus wood. However, no interaction between the weight and the adhesive was found for pinus, only the isolated from the adhesive effect. Chemical bonds originated in the polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives and castor bi-component conferred upon these adhesives the greatest resistance in the glue line. Castor and resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives showed the highest shear strength values in the line of glue and wood failure. Castor adhesive presented satisfactory performance for bonding of eucalyptus and pine woods.

  1. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  2. SP@CE - An SP-based programming model for consumer electronics streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varbanescu, Ana Lucia; Nijhuis, Maik; Escribano, Arturo González; Sips, Henk; Bos, Herbert; Bal, Henri

    2007-01-01

    Efficient programming of multimedia streaming applications for Consumer Electronics (CE) devices is not trivial. As a solution for this problem, we present SP@CE, a novel programming model designed to balance the specific requirements of CE streaming applications with the simplicity and efficiency

  3. Eficiencia de pseudomonas sp, rhodopseudomonas sp, micrococcus sp y bacillus sp empleados como cultivos individuales y en consorcio, en la degradación de petróleo diesel ii

    OpenAIRE

    Otiniano García, Nélida Milly Esther

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Pseudomonas sp, Rhodopseudomonas sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus sp, and the consortium formed by these four microorganisms in the diesel II petroleum degradation, it was worked in 5 bioreactors of aerated and shaken tank of 1.5 litters of capacity, with speed agitation of 120 rpm, and air flow of 0.5 vvm; in which were placed; 940 mL of Minimum Broth of Davies pH 7.0; 50 mL of diesel II petroleum as source of carbon and 10 mL of a suspension of approx...

  4. Sp(2) covariant quantisation of general gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Bello, J L

    1994-11-01

    The Sp(2) covariant quantization of gauge theories is studied. The geometrical interpretation of gauge theories in terms of quasi principal fibre bundles Q(M{sub s}, G{sub s}) is reviewed. It is then described the Sp(2) algebra of ordinary Yang-Mills theory. A consistent formulation of covariant Lagrangian quantisation for general gauge theories based on Sp(2) BRST symmetry is established. The original N = 1, ten dimensional superparticle is considered as an example of infinitely reducible gauge algebras, and given explicitly its Sp(2) BRST invariant action. (author). 18 refs.

  5. Sp(2) covariant quantisation of general gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Bello, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    The Sp(2) covariant quantization of gauge theories is studied. The geometrical interpretation of gauge theories in terms of quasi principal fibre bundles Q(M s , G s ) is reviewed. It is then described the Sp(2) algebra of ordinary Yang-Mills theory. A consistent formulation of covariant Lagrangian quantisation for general gauge theories based on Sp(2) BRST symmetry is established. The original N = 1, ten dimensional superparticle is considered as an example of infinitely reducible gauge algebras, and given explicitly its Sp(2) BRST invariant action. (author). 18 refs

  6. Enkapsulasi B. bassiana menggunakan maizena dan daya infeksinya terhadap larva Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp., Culex sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Widawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Encapsulation formulae of mycoinsecticide have to be able to maintain fungus viability and pathogenicity. This mycoinsecticide was developed as an alternative way to control mosquito borne disease. The aim of this study was to encapsulate Beauveria bassiana as viable storage and have the capability to kill larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp. and Culex sp. Mosquito larvae obtained from laboratory reared at health research laboratory; Loka Litbang P2B2 Ciamis. The treatments made in this study were the formu-lation of cornstarch and controls for comparison. This study showed potential formulation of cornstarch encapsulation as a biolarvacidal. Cornstarch formulations proven to be succeed in maintaining fungus viability, however, the pathogenicity of the microcapsule still not effective to kill Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Keywords: encapsulation, Beauveria bassiana, Ae.aegypti, Anopheles sp., Culex sp. Abstrak. Pembuatan formula bioinsektisida yang optimal sebagai salah satu alternatif untuk pengen-dalian nyamuk vektor perlu di kembangkan. Sediaan mikoinsektisida yang dibuat harus dapat memper-tahankan viabilitas jamur B. bassiana sehingga masih efektif pada saat penggunaannya. Salah satu cara yang digunakan untuk menjaga kestabilan sediaan mikoinsektisida yang berdampak langsung pada via-bilitas jamur adalah dengan menerapkan metode enkapsulasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meng-hasilkan sediaan mikokapsul dari Beauvaria bassiana melalui proses enkapsulasi menggunakan maizena yang memiliki kapabilitas tinggi sebagai penyimpan B. bassiana dan efektif dalam membunuh larva dan telur Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp. dan Culex sp. Semua larva uji berasal dari insektarium laboratorium penelitian kesehatan Loka litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Pembuatan enkapsulasi dimulai dengan kultur dan pema-nenan B. bassiana, uji viabilitas, proses enkapsulasi serta uji larvasida di laboratorium. Uji dilakukan dengan satu perlakuan dan satu kontrol untuk

  7. Quality improvement on half-fin anchovy (Setipinna taty) fish sauce by Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yu; He, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Chen, Meiling; Jiang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    A method of improving fish sauce quality during fermentation was investigated. Psychrobacter sp. SP-1, a halophilic protease-producing bacterium, was isolated from fish sauce with flavor-enhancing properties and non-biogenic amine-producing activity. The performance of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 in Setipinna taty fish sauce fermentation was investigated further. The inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 did not significantly affect pH or NaCl concentration changes (P > 0.05), although it significantly increased total moderately halophilic microbial count, protease activity, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acid nitrogen content, and also promoted the umami taste and meaty aroma (P sauce quality by fermentation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Sp1/3 and NF-1 mediate basal transcription of the human P2X1 gene in megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennion Steven J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P2X1 receptors play an important role in platelet function as they can induce shape change, granule centralization and are also involved in thrombus formation. As platelets have no nuclei, the level of P2X1 expression depends on transcriptional regulation in megakaryocytes, the platelet precursor cell. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating megakaryocytic P2X1 expression, this study aimed to identify and functionally characterize the P2X1 core promoter utilized in the human megakaryoblastic cell line MEG-01. Results In order to identify cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation of P2X1 expression, the ability of 4.7 kb P2X1 upstream sequence to drive luciferase reporter gene expression was tested. Low promoter activity was detected in proliferating MEG-01 cells. This activity increased 20-fold after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA induced differentiation. A transcription start site was detected 365 bp upstream of the start codon by primer extension. Deletion analysis of reporter constructs indicated a core promoter located within the region -68 to +149 bp that contained two Sp1 sites (named Sp1a and Sp1b and an NF-1 site. Individual mutations of Sp1b or NF-1 binding sites severely reduced promoter activity whereas triple mutation of Sp1a, Sp1b and NF-1 sites completely abolished promoter activity in both untreated and PMA treated cells. Sp1/3 and NF-1 proteins were shown to bind their respective sites by EMSA and interaction of Sp1/3, NF-1 and TFIIB with the endogenous P2X1 core promoter in MEG-01 cells was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Alignment of P2X1 genes from human, chimp, rat, mouse and dog revealed consensus Sp1a, Sp1b and NF-1 binding sites in equivalent positions thereby demonstrating evolutionary conservation of these functionally important sites. Conclusion This study has identified and characterized the P2X1 promoter utilized in MEG-01 cells and

  9. 25-hydroxycholesterol promotes RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through coordinating NFATc1 and Sp1 complex in the transcription of miR-139-5p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lishan; Lv, Yinping; Xian, Guozhe; Lin, Yanliang

    2017-01-01

    25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is implicated in many processes, including lipid metabolism and the immune response. However, the role of 25-HC in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis remains largely unknown. Our results showed that 25-HC inhibited miR-139-5p expression in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) cultured in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and monocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Further investigation suggested that 25-HC promoted the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and Sp1, especially in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF. Meanwhile, 25-HC induced nuclear translocation of NFATc1, resulting in the interaction between NFATc1 and Sp1 that was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that Sp1 could bind to miR-139-5p promoter, but NFATc1 had no binding capacity. Although forming NFATc1/Sp1 complex increased its binding to miR-139-5p promoter, the complex inhibited the transcriptional activity of Sp1. Inhibition of NFATc1 increase the expression of miR-139-5p, which might be due to the release of free Sp1 that could bind to the promoter of miR-139-5p. Enforced expression of miR-139-5p impaired osteoclastogenesis induced by co-treatment with 25-HC and RANKL. These results suggested that 25-HC induced the interaction between NFATc1 and Sp1, reducing the level of free Sp1 to inhibit miR-139-5p expression and promote osteoclastogenesis. - Highlights: • 25-hydroxycholesterol inhibited miR-139-5p expression in bone marrow macrophages. • 25-hydroxycholesterol promoted the expression of NFATc1 and Sp1. • 25-hydroxycholesterol induced the interaction between NFATc1 and Sp1. • NFATc1/Sp1 complex inhibited the transcription of miR-139-5p. • MiR-139-5p impaired osteoclastogenesis induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol and RANKL.

  10. Penggunaan Streptomyces sp. Sebagai Biokontrol Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Cabai Merah (Capsicum annuum L. yang Disebabkan Oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANINDA OKTAVIA RAHARINI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted to find out Streptomyces bacteria at Bukit Jimbaran, to inhibitionpotency of Streptomyces sp. to pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici, and to find outantifungal activity of Streptomyces filtrate to F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici in chili (Capsicum annuumL. plants. Streptomyces sp. isolation was done by platting method with selective media YMA (ISP4.Identification of Streptomyces sp. used Bergey’s book entitled Manual Determinative Bacteriology.Test inhibition against F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici and in vivo test used by dying the roots of the chili(C.annuum L. plant with F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici and after 30 seconds the roots were dying withStreptomyces sp. culture, furthermore sterile soil on polybag watered by F.oxysporum f.sp. capsicispore and Streptomyces sp. culture at the same time. The result found five isolates Streptomyces sp.with different morphological. The antagonis test showed Streptomyces sp. 4 had ability (82% againstFusarium, Streptomyces sp.1 (72%, Streptomyces sp.2 (64%, Streptomyces sp.3 (76%, andStreptomyces sp. 5 (32%. All Streptomyces suppressed the growth of Fusarium on chili plants inglass house (p<0,05. Streptomyces sp.4 suppressed Fusarium wilt disease in chili from 80% in controlto 8%.

  11. UTILIZAÇÃO DE ADESIVO PVA EM COMPENSADOS DE Pinus sp. E Eucalyptus sp. / UTILIZATION OF PVA ADHESIVES IN Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. PLYWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. De Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre novos adesivos ou resinas para colagem de madeira e derivados estão sendo realizados com a intenção de diminuir o impacto ambiental sem alterar suas propriedades. Por este motivo, novas formulações de adesivos PVA (Acetato de Polivinila vêm sendo desenvolvidas. Este trabalho testou a utilização deste adesivo na produção de compensado de Eucalyptus sp. e Pinus sp., com tempo e temperatura de prensagem, respectivamente, de 10 minutos e90°C. Foram realizados os ensaios físicos de densidade, teor de umidade e absorção, e os ensaios mecânicos de flexão estática e de resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, todos de acordo com as normas ABNT. Obtiveram-se bons resultados com relação à resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, a qual foi superior para os adesivos PVA, se comparados com compensados produzidos com ureia-formaldeído e o fenol-formaldeído, enquanto que os resultados de MOE e MOR apresentaram-se inferiores em ambos os casos. 

  12. Microbial transformation of citral by Penicillium sp..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Tavassoli, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Thymol is present in the essential oils from herbs and spices, such as thyme. It is produced by these plant species as a chemical defense against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this compound has attracted great attention in food industry, i.e., it has been used as a natural preservative in foods such as cheese to prevent fungal growth. Previous studies concerning the biotransformation of nerol by Penicillium sp. and microbial transformation of citral by sporulated surface cultures method (SSCM) of Penicillium digitatum have been reported. The objective of this research was to study the pathway involved during biotransformation of citral by Penicillium sp. using two methods. The culture preparation was done using different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain Penicillium for citral biotransformation. The biotransformation products were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). A comparison of the two methods showed that SSCM was more effective, its major products were thymol (21.5 %), geranial (18.6 %) and nerol (13.7 %). LM produced only one compound — thymol — with a low efficiency.

  13. Burkholderia cordobensis sp. nov., from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghi, Walter O; Peeters, Charlotte; Cnockaert, Margo; Snauwaert, Cindy; Wall, Luis G; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from agricultural soils in Córdoba province in central Argentina. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that they belong to the genus Burkholderia, with Burkholderia zhejiangensis as most closely related formally named species; this relationship was confirmed through comparative gyrB sequence analysis. Whole-cell fatty acid analysis supported their assignment to the genus Burkholderia. Burkholderia sp. strain YI23, for which a whole-genome sequence is available, represents the same taxon, as demonstrated by its highly similar 16S rRNA (100% similarity) and gyrB (99.1-99.7%) gene sequences. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and physiological and biochemical characterization further substantiated the genotypic and phenotypic distinctiveness of the Argentinian soil isolates, for which the name Burkholderia cordobensis sp. nov. is proposed, with strain MMP81(T) ( = LMG 27620(T) = CCUG 64368(T)) as the type strain. © 2014 IUMS.

  14. (+/-)-Gelliusines A and B, two diastereomeric brominated tris-indole alkaloids from a deep water new caledonian marine sponge (Gellius or Orina sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, G; Bruno, I; Minale, L; Riccio, R; Calignano, A; Debitus, C

    1994-09-01

    Two new diastereomeric brominated tris-indole alkaloids occurring as enantiomeric pairs, (+/-)-gelliusines A [1] and B [2], have been isolated from a deep water New Caledonian sponge (Gellius or Orina sp.), whose crude extract exhibited cytotoxicity against KB cells. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one- and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy. The major compound, (+/-) gelliusine A [1], which showed very weak cytotoxicity, proved to be active at the serotonin receptor.

  15. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of “Deqi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation. Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min–10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant–5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant–5 min interval and 10 min–20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min–10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations.

  16. Serotonin Receptors in Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Laura Cristina; Rodríguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. PMID:22629209

  17. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Sioud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002, as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch.

  18. Evidence of substance P autocrine circuitry that involves TNF-α, IL-6, and PGE2 in endogenous pyrogen-induced fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Haissa Oliveira; Barbosa, Felipe L; Reis, Renata Cristiane Dos; Fraga, Daniel; Borges, Beatriz S; Franco, Celia R C; Zampronio, Aleksander Roberto

    2016-04-15

    Substance P (SP) is involved in fever that is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by interleukin-1β or macrophage inflammatory protein-1α. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist SR140333B in rats reduced fever that was induced by an i.c.v. injection of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and morphine (MOR). Furthermore, an i.c.v. injection of SP induced a febrile response that was inhibited by indomethacin concomitant with an increase in PGE2 levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Lipopolysaccharide and PGE2 caused higher expression and internalization of NK1 receptors in the hypothalamus which were prevented by SR140333B. These data suggest that SP is an important mediator of fever, in which it induces a prostaglandin-dependent response and is released after TNF-α, IL-6, PGE2, CRF, endogenous opioids, and ET-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of garlic solution to Bacillus sp. removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, N.; Rahim, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Biofilm is a microbial derived sessile community characterized by cells that are irreversibly attached to a substratum or interface to each other, embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. Bacillus sp. was used as biofilm model in this study. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Garlic solution in term of ratio of water and Garlic solution (W/G) and ratio of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. (GS/B) on Bacillus sp removal. Garlic solution was used to remove Bacillus sp. In this study, Garlic solution was prepared by crushing the garlic and mixed it with water. the Garlic solution was added into Bacillus sp. mixture and mixed well. The mixture then was spread on nutrient agar. The Bacillus sp. weight on agar plate was measured by using dry weight measurement method. In this study, initially Garlic solution volume and Garlic solution concentration were studied using one factor at time (OFAT). Later two-level-factorial analysis was done to determine the most contributing factor in Bacillus sp. removal. Design Expert software (Version 7) was used to construct experimental table where all the factors were randomized. Bacilus sp removal was ranging between 42.13% to 99.6%. The analysis of the results showed that at W/G of 1:1, Bacillus sp. removal increased when more Garlic solution was added to Bacillus sp. Effect of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. will be understood which in turn may be beneficial for the industrial purpose.

  20. Rhodotorula rosulata sp. nov., Rhodotorula silvestris sp. nov. and Rhodotorula straminea sp. nov., novel myo-inositol-assimilating yeast species in the Microbotryomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, Wladyslav I; Scorzetti, Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Three novel species are described as Rhodotorula rosulata sp. nov. (type strain VKM Y-2962(T) =CBS 10977(T)), Rhodotorula silvestris sp. nov. (type strain VKM Y-2971(T) =CBS 11420(T)) and Rhodotorula straminea sp. nov. (type strain VKM Y-2964(T) =CBS 10976(T)) based on the study of eight isolates from needle litter. The new species, phylogenetically located within the Microbotryomycetes, are related to glucuronate-assimilating species of the genus Rhodotorula. Sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rDNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, as well as physiological characterization, revealed their distinct taxonomic positions.

  1. Potential topical natural repellent against Ae. aegypti, Culex sp. and Anopheles sp. mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Hodijah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Minyak atsiri daun sirih diketahui mempunyai daya proteksi. Dibuatkan losion berdasarkan pengantar sediaan farmasi yang ditambahkan minyak atsiri daun nilam. Sediaan losion dipilih agar dapat menempel lebih lama di permukaan kulit. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk membandingkan daya proteksi antara losion dengan penambahan minyak nilam dan losion tanpa penambahan minyak nilam dibandingkan daya proteksi dengan DEET. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratorium. Semua nyamuk uji berasal dari insektarium laboratorium penelitian kesehatan Loka litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Konsentrasi minyak atsiri daun sirih dalam losion adalah 4%; konsentrasi minyak nilam sebagai zat pengikat adalah 0,4%. Formula yang digunakan yaitu formula dasar yang ada pada pengantar sediaan farmasi. Uji repelensi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metoda yang direkomendasikan oleh Komisi pestisida.Hasil: Dihasilkan formulasi losion yang stabil dan masih memenuhi standar formulasi sediaan. Berdasarkan hasil, diperoleh data bahwa DEET dan losion hasil modifikasi memiliki rata-rata daya proteksi di atas 90% selama 6 jam terhadap nyamuk Ae.aegypti dan Culex sp. Kesimpulan: Penambahan minyak nilam pada losion sirih dapat meningkatkan daya proteksi terhadap hinggapan nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan Culex sp. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:44-8Kata kunci:repelen alamiah, minyak atsiri, daun sirih, daun nilam, Ae. aegypti, Culex sp.AbstractBackground: Betel leaf essential oil lotion has been known to have insect repellent properties. A lotion was made based on a pharmaceutical formula from a monograph where patchouli leaf essential oil was added. A lotion preparation was intended to enhance adherence of the formula on the surface of the skin. The purpose of this study was to compare protection percentage of lotion with patchouli oil and without patchouli oil lotion compared to DEET.Methods: This study is an experimental laboratory-based research. All mosquitoes

  2. Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida), a parasitic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida) is described from both sexes collected from the gills of spinner sharks, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle, 1839), captured in the Indian Ocean off the coast of South Africa. Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. can easily be distinguished from all of its congeners because the ...

  3. Enhancement of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces sp MU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance clavulanic acid production using UV-mutagenesis on Streptomyces sp. NRC77. Methods: UV-mutagenesis was used to study the effect of Streptomyces sp. NRC77 on CA production. Phenotypic and genotypic identification methods of the promising mutant strain were characterized. Optimization of the ...

  4. HANSENULA WICKERHAMII SP. N., A NEW YEAST FROM FINNISH SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (l'Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n., a new yeast from Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:259–360. 1961.—Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n. is described; it was isolated from a Finnish soil, and is named in honor of Lynferd J. Wickerham. Images PMID:13690638

  5. Truncated recombinant human SP-D attenuates emphysema and type II cell changes in SP-D deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlfeld Christian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein D (SP-D deficient mice develop emphysema-like pathology associated with focal accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, an excess of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space and both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells. These findings are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with a truncated recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D has been shown to decrease the lipidosis and alveolar macrophage accumulation as well as production of proinflammatory chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate if rfhSP-D treatment reduces the structural abnormalities in parenchymal architecture and type II cells characteristic of SP-D deficiency. Methods SP-D knock-out mice, aged 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks were treated with rfhSP-D for 9, 6 and 3 weeks, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at age 12 weeks and compared to both PBS treated SP-D deficient and wild-type groups. Lung structure was quantified by design-based stereology at the light and electron microscopic level. Emphasis was put on quantification of emphysema, type II cell changes and intracellular surfactant. Data were analysed with two sided non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Main Results After 3 weeks of treatment, alveolar number was higher and mean alveolar size was smaller compared to saline-treated SP-D knock-out controls. There was no significant difference concerning these indices of pulmonary emphysema within rfhSP-D treated groups. Type II cell number and size were smaller as a consequence of treatment. The total volume of lamellar bodies per type II cell and per lung was smaller after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with rfhSP-D leads to a reduction in the degree of emphysema and a correction of type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. This supports the concept that rfhSP-D might become a therapeutic option in diseases that are

  6. Solid-State Examination of Conformationally Diverse Sulfonamide Receptors Based on Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine, -Bipyridine, and -Thiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B; Johnson, Charles A; Vonnegut, Chris L; Fajardo, Kevin A; Zakharov, Lev N; Johnson, Darren W; Haley, Michael M

    2015-03-04

    Utilizing an induced-fit model and taking advantage of rotatable acetylenic C(sp)-C(sp 2 ) bonds, we disclose the synthesis and solid-state structures of a series of conformationally diverse bis-sulfonamide arylethynyl receptors using either pyridine, 2,2'-bipyridine, or thiophene as the core aryl group. Whereas the bipyridine and thiophene structures do not appear to bind guests in the solid state, the pyridine receptors form 2 + 2 dimers with water molecules, two halides, or one of each, depending on the protonation state of the pyridine nitrogen atom. Isolation of a related bis-sulfonimide derivative demonstrates the importance of the sulfonamide N-H hydrogen bonds in dimer formation. The pyridine receptors form monomeric structures with larger guests such as BF 4 - or HSO 4 - , where the sulfonamide arms rotate to the side opposite the pyridine N atom.

  7. Solid-State Examination of Conformationally Diverse Sulfonamide Receptors Based on Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine, -Bipyridine, and -Thiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B.; Johnson, Charles A.; Vonnegut, Chris L.; Fajardo, Kevin A.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Johnson, Darren W.; Haley, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing an induced-fit model and taking advantage of rotatable acetylenic C(sp)–C(sp2) bonds, we disclose the synthesis and solid-state structures of a series of conformationally diverse bis-sulfonamide arylethynyl receptors using either pyridine, 2,2′-bipyridine, or thiophene as the core aryl group. Whereas the bipyridine and thiophene structures do not appear to bind guests in the solid state, the pyridine receptors form 2 + 2 dimers with water molecules, two halides, or one of each, depending on the protonation state of the pyridine nitrogen atom. Isolation of a related bis-sulfonimide derivative demonstrates the importance of the sulfonamide N–H hydrogen bonds in dimer formation. The pyridine receptors form monomeric structures with larger guests such as BF4− or HSO4−, where the sulfonamide arms rotate to the side opposite the pyridine N atom. PMID:26405435

  8. Solar drying of rose (Rosa sp.) petals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

    1999-10-01

    The rose (Rosa sp.) petals can be dried after 2 days at about 30degC reaching an equilibrium moisture content after 16 h using the solar wire basket dryer. The initial moisture content (wet wt basis) and final moisture content (dry wt basis), determined by the Dean-Stark toluene were 65.7 and 25.2% respectively. The intensity of the rose red coloured pigment (pelargonidin) decreased by a factor of 2.5 after drying. The pelargonidin ethanoic extract as an acid-base indicator, has a K{sub 4} value of 1 x 10{sup -4} mol 1{sup -1} and pH of end point 4 and imbibed on filter paper and allowed to air dry for 5 min showed excellent properties as acid-based test tapes. (Author)

  9. Electron microscope study of Sarcocystis sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeve, V.H.; Price, D.L.; Herman, C.M.

    1966-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. obtained from wild populations of grackles, Quiscalus quiscula (Linn.), were examined to clarify the effect of the parasite on the host. Electron micrographs are presented to show areas of muscle destruction adjacent to the parasite which appear to be mechanically produced by the parasite. The microtubules within the villus-like projections of the cyst suggest that their possible function is absorptive and/or conductive with regard to the production of a toxin or the conveyance of nutritive material to the developing cells. The proposed function of submembranous filaments and their relation to the conoid is discussed. Similarities in the ultrastructure to Toxoplasma and other protozoa tend to negate the relegation of Sarcocystis to the fungi and further emphasize its protozoan nature.

  10. Polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation by a Serratia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, Harriet; Sammons, Rachel L; Marquis, Peter M; Hewitt, Christopher J; Yong, Ping; Paterson-Beedle, Marion; Redwood, Mark D; Stamboulis, Artemis; Kashani, Mitra; Jenkins, Mike; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2008-03-01

    A strain of Serratia sp. showed intracellular electron-transparent inclusion bodies when incubated in the presence of citrate and glycerol 2-phosphate without nitrogen source following pre-growth under carbon-limitation in continuous culture. About 1.3 mmol citrate were consumed per 450 mg biomass, giving a calculated yield of maximally 55% of stored material per g of biomass dry wt. The inclusion bodies were stained with Sudan Black and Nile Red (NR), suggesting a lipid material, which was confirmed as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by analysis of molecular fragments by GC and by FTIR spectroscopy of isolated bio-PHB in comparison with reference material. Multi-parameter flow cytometry in conjunction with NR fluorescence, and electron microscopy, showed that not all cells contained heavy PHB bodies, suggesting the potential for increasing the overall yield. The economic attractiveness is enhanced by the co-production of nanoscale hydroxyapatite (HA), a possible high-value precursor for bone replacement materials.

  11. In vitro rootting of Dioscoreas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Quintero

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The Universidad de Córdoba s Vegetal Tissue Culture Laboratory evaluated the effect of naphthalenacetic acid (NAA on in vitro rooting of three yam cultivars (Dioscorea sp. in 2000. The effect of four hormone levels (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mg/1 was studied on three yam cultivars (Diamantes-22,003 and 005. A random experimental design was used employing 4x3 factorial arrangement and 20 repetitions; each experimental unit consisted of a glass receptacle containing the culture medium and the explant (one segment nodal. The variables considered were the number of roots and their thickness, culture medium oxidation and callus production. Findings showed that both the hormone and genotype had an effect on all those variables considered in the study and interaction was significant (P

  12. Predicting fuel performance for SP-100 conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baars, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports on methods for analyzing fuel designs proposed for the thermionic and thermoelectric concepts for SP-100 application. The proposed fuel design for the thermionic concept consisted of fully-enriched oxide fuel clad in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tungsten, which also served as the emitter for the thermionic fuel element (TFE). The fuel density was 95% of theoretical with the linear heat rate flattened radially by removing fuel from the center of the fuel pellet. The fuel inner diameter varied from approx.0.45 in. at the core center to zero at the edge of the core. The as-fabricated gap between fuel and emitter was 10 mils radial. The emitter thickness was 80 mils, and the outer diameter was 1.099 in. The LIFE-4 code was used for evaluation of this concept after extensive review of the code and development of a procedure that corrects certain deficiencies noted in analysis of several tests

  13. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Peterson, Stephen W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266T=Thom 4138.HS2T=IBT 31900T......). Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov. was isolated from water with high boracic acid anions content in Dukovany nuclear power station (Czech Republic). The sexual stage of this species is unknown, but the MAT1-1 locus was successfully amplified suggesting that the species is probably heterothallic and teleomorphic...... but is represented by only the ex-type isolate CCM 8003T (=CCF 4037T=NRRL 62486T=IBT 31279T=IFM 60873T). Both species can be distinguished from all previously described species in section Fumigati based on morphology, maximum growth temperature, sequence data from five unlinked loci and unique secondary metabolites...

  14. Six New Polyacetylenic Alcohols from the Marine Sponges Petrosia sp. and Halichondria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Adeyemi Francis; Li, Zhen; Kusuda, Ryouhei; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi

    2015-01-01

    Six new polyacetylenic alcohols, termed strongylotriols A and B; pellynols J, K, and L; and isopellynol A, together with three known polyacetylenic alcohols, pellynols A, B, and C were isolated from the marine sponges Petrosia sp., and Halichondria sp. collected in Okinawa, Japan. Their planer structures were determined based on 2D-NMR and mass spectrometric analysis of the degraded products by RuCl3 oxidation. The absolute stereochemistry of isolates was examined by their Mosher's esters. The strongylotriols were found to be optically pure compounds, whereas the pellynols are diastereomeric mixtures at the C-6 position. Proliferation experiments using the HeLa and K562 cell lines suggested that the essential structural units for activity are the "hexa-2,4-diyn-1,6-diol" and "pent-1-en-4-yn-3-ol" on the termini.

  15. Kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sukenda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to assess performance of Bacillus sp. probiotic on catfish juvenile Clarias sp. infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The probiotic content in the diets were 0% (K+ and K-, 1%, and 2% in duplicates. This experiment used randomized design with four treatments and two replications. Juveniles with average body weight of 3.22±0.15 g/fish were reared in the 1.5×2.8×0.5 m3 pond with density of 800 fish/pond. Fish were reared for 30 days and fed three times a day at rate 8% of  total body weight. At day 31, catfish were challenged by A. hydrophila 0.1 mL (106 cfu/mL. Post infection observation was carried out ten days with density 10 fish/aquaria. The result showed that fish fed diet containing 2% probiotic gave the best probiotic performance with survival rate of catfish 83.33% after challenged, spesific growth rate 5.40%, and 0,75 of feed conversion ratio. The results of the blood profile showed significantly better results in the treatment of probiotics compared to the positive control after challenge test A. hydrophila. Probiotic Bacillus sp. has given as much as 2% on feed provides better performance on catfish juvenile. Keywords: probiotic, Bacillus sp., A. hydrophila, catfish juvenille, growth  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. dalam pakan pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yaitu kandungan probiotik dalam pakan perlakuan yaitu 0% (K+ dan K-, 1%,  dan 2%, masing-masing dengan dua ulangan. Ikan lele yang digunakan memiliki bobot rata-rata 3,22±0,15 g/ekor, dipelihara dalam kolam terpal berukuran 1,5×2,8×0,5 m3 dengan kepadatan 800 ekor/kolam. Ikan dipelihara selama 30 hari dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan tiga kali sehari sebanyak 8% dari bobot tubuh ikan. Hari ke-31 benih lele diinjeksi bakteri A. hydrophila dosis 0,1 m

  16. (/sup 3/H)Spiperone binding sites in brain: autoradiographic localization of multiple receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, J M; Niehoff, D L; Kuhar, M J [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Medicine

    1981-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)Spiperone ((/sup 3/H)SP) binding sites were localized by light microscopic autoradiography, after in vitro labelling. The kinetic and pharmacological characteristics of these binding sites were studied in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain, and optimal labeling conditions were defined. Autoradiograms were obtained by apposing emulsion-coated coverslips to labeled sections. Differential drug sensitivity allowed the selective displacement of (/sup 3/H)SP from dopamine receptors by ADTN, from serotonin receptors by cinanserin, from both by haloperidol and from unique spiperone sites by unlabeled spiperone. The various sites presented a differential anatomical localization. For example, only dopaminergic sites were found in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb; only serotonergic sites were found in lamina IV of the neocortex, and a high concentration of unique spiperone sites were found in parts of the hippocampus.

  17. Regulatory mechanism of endothelin receptor B in the cerebral arteries after focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Thigarajah, Rushani; Edvinsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increased expression of endothelin receptor type B (ETBR), a vasoactive receptor, has recently been implied in the reduced cerebral blood flow and exacerbated neuronal damage after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The study explores the regulatory mechanisms of ETBR to identify...... drug targets to restore normal cerebral artery contractile function as part of successful neuroprotective therapy. METHODS: We have employed in vitro methods on human and rat cerebral arteries to study the regulatory mechanisms and the efficacy of target selective inhibitor, Mithramycin A (Mit...... the ETBR mRNA and protein levels. It also significantly reduced the ETBR mediated cerebrovascular contractility. Detailed analysis indicated that ERK1/2 mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 might be essential for ETBR transcription. CONCLUSION: Transcription factor Sp1 regulates the ETBR mediated...

  18. Two cyclic hexapeptides from Penicillium sp. FN070315 with antiangiogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun-Pil; Jung, Hye Jin; Han, Jang Mi; Jung, Narae; Kim, Yonghyo; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ko, Sung-Kyun; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2017-01-01

    In the course of searching for angiogenesis inhibitors from microorganisms, two cyclic peptides, PF1171A (1) and PF1171C (2) were isolated from the soil fungus Penicillium sp. FN070315. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic efficacy and associated mechanisms of 1 and 2 in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs at concentrations not exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, 1 and 2 significantly suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced migration, invasion, proliferation and tube formation of HUVECs as well as neovascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane in developing chick embryos. We also identified an association between the antiangiogenic activity of 1 and 2 and the downregulation of both the phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 and the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α at the protein level. Taken together, these results further suggest that compounds 1 and 2 will be promising angiogenesis inhibitors.

  19. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, V V S; Somvanshi, Vishal S; Bajaj, Harish K

    2015-03-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b' = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c' = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b' = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c' = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism.

  20. Neorickettsia risticii, Rickettsia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Tadarida brasiliensis bats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; La Rosa, Isabel; Dohmen, Federico E Gury

    2017-06-01

    Bats are potential reservoirs of many vector-borne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to detect species of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia, Borrelia and Bartonella in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis, Molossidae) from Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Between 2012 and 2013, 61 T. brasiliensis from urban areas of Buenos Aires city were studied. The samples were molecularly screened by PCR and sequencing. Five bats (8.2%) were positive to Neorickettsia risticii, one (1.6%) was positive to Rickettsia sp. and three bats (4.9%) to Bartonella sp. For molecular characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification and sequencing of a fragment of p51 gene for N. risticii, a fragment of citrate synthase gene (gltA) for Rickettsia genus and a fragment of gltA for Bartonella genus. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the maximum-likelihood method. Phylogenetic analysis of N. risticii detect in our study revealed that it relates to findings in the USA West Coast; Rickettsia sp. detected is phylogenetically within R. bellii group, which also includes many other Rickettsia endosymbionts of insects; and Bartonella sp. found is related to various Bartonella spp. described in Vespertilionidae bats, which are phylogenetically related to Molossidae. Our results are in accordance to previous findings, which demonstrate that insectivorous bats could be infected with vector-borne bacteria representing a potential risk to public health. Future research is necessary to clarify the circulation of these pathogens in bats from Buenos Aires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential effects of interleukin-17 receptor signaling on innate and adaptive immunity during central nervous system bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidlak Debbie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although IL-17A (commonly referred to as IL-17 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS autoimmune disease, its role during CNS bacterial infections remains unclear. To evaluate the broader impact of IL-17 family members in the context of CNS infection, we utilized IL-17 receptor (IL-17R knockout (KO mice that lack the ability to respond to IL-17, IL-17F and IL-17E (IL-25. In this article, we demonstrate that IL-17R signaling regulates bacterial clearance as well as natural killer T (NKT cell and gamma-delta (γδ T cell infiltrates during Staphylococcus aureus-induced brain abscess formation. Specifically, when compared with wild-type (WT animals, IL-17R KO mice exhibited elevated bacterial burdens at days 7 and 14 following S. aureus infection. Additionally, IL-17R KO animals displayed elevated neutrophil chemokine production, revealing the ability to compensate for the lack of IL-17R activity. Despite these differences, innate immune cell recruitment into brain abscesses was similar in IL-17R KO and WT mice, whereas IL-17R signaling exerted a greater influence on adaptive immune cell recruitment. In particular, γδ T cell influx was increased in IL-17R KO mice at day 7 post-infection. In addition, NK1.1high infiltrates were absent in brain abscesses of IL-17R KO animals and, surprisingly, were rarely detected in the livers of uninfected IL-17R KO mice. Although IL-17 is a key regulator of neutrophils in other infection models, our data implicate an important role for IL-17R signaling in regulating adaptive immunity during CNS bacterial infection.

  2. Endosulfan induced alteration in bacterial protein profile and RNA yield of Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6, and Rhodococcus sp. M2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu; Singh, Dileep Kumar

    2014-01-30

    Three bacterial strains identified as Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2 were isolated by soil enrichment with endosulfan followed by shake flask enrichment technique. They were efficiently degrading endosulfan in the NSM (non sulfur medium) broth. Degradation of endosulfan was faster with the cell free extract of bacterial cells grown in the sulfur deficient medium (NSM) supplemented with endosulfan than that of nutrient rich medium (Luria Bertani). In the cell free extract of NSM supplemented with endosulfan as sole sulfur source, a unique band was visualized on SDS-PAGE but not with magnesium sulfate as the sole sulfur source in NSM and LB with endosulfan. Expression of a unique polypeptide band was speculated to be induced by endosulfan under sulfur starved condition. These unique polypeptide bands were identified as OmpK35 protein, sulfate binding protein and outer membrane porin protein, respectively, in Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2. Endosulfan showed dose dependent negative effect on total RNA yield of bacterial strains in nutrient rich medium. Absence of plasmid DNA indicated the presence of endosulfan metabolizing gene on genomic DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. From spent graphite to amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated sp2 graphite for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhuang, Yuchan; Deng, Yaoming; Song, Xiaona; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Xiao, Xin; Nan, Junmin

    2018-02-01

    Today, with the massive application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the portable devices and electric vehicles, to supply the active materials with high-performances and then to recycle their wastes are two core issues for the development of LIBs. In this paper, the spent graphite (SG) in LIBs is used as raw materials to fabricate two comparative high-capacity graphite anode materials. Based on a microsurgery-like physical reconstruction, the reconstructed graphite (RG) with a sp2+sp3 carbon surface is prepared through a microwave exfoliation and subsequent spray drying process. In contrast, the neural-network-like amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated graphite (AC@G) is synthesized using a self-reconfigurable chemical reaction strategy. Compared with SG and commercial graphite (CG), both RG and AC@G have enhanced specific capacities, from 311.2 mAh g-1 and 360.7 mAh g-1 to 409.7 mAh g-1 and 420.0 mAh g-1, at 0.1C after 100 cycles. In addition, they exhibit comparable cycling stability, rate capability, and voltage plateau with CG. Because the synthesis of RG and AC@G represents two typical physical and chemical methods for the recycling of SG, these results on the sp2+sp3 carbon layer coating bulk graphite also reveal an approach for the preparation of high-performance graphite anode materials derived from SG.

  4. Wnt-mediated down-regulation of Sp1 target genes by a transcriptional repressor Sp5

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fujimura, Naoko; Vacík, Tomáš; Machoň, Ondřej; Vlček, Čestmír; Scalabrin, S.; Speth, M.; Diep, D.; Krauss, S.; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 2 (2007), s. 1225-1237 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Wnt -mediated signaling * Sp5 transcription factor * Sp1 target genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.581, year: 2007

  5. Structural Analysis of Planar sp3 and sp2 Films: Diamond-Like Carbon and Graphene Overlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    pure sp2 as in graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, to pure sp3 as in diamond. Amorphous and diamond-like carbon consists of a mixture of both hybridizations. This variation in hybridization in carbon materials enables a wide spectrum

  6. Formulation of a minimal nutritional medium for enhanced lipid productivity in Chlorella sp. and Botryococcus sp. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Rashi; Dhar, Dolly Wattal; Pabbi, Sunil

    2018-03-01

    Chlorella sp. MCC 7 and Botryococcus sp. MCC 31 were investigated to enable large-scale biodiesel production from minimal constituents in the growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to maximise the biomass productivity and lipid yield using only nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) as urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash. The optimum values were 0.42 g/L nitrogen; 0.14 g/L phosphorus and 0.22 g/L potassium for Chlorella sp.; and 0.46 g/L; 0.14 g/L and 0.25 g/L for Botryococcus sp. Lipid yield of 42% for Chlorella sp. and 52% in Botryococcus sp. was observed. An enhancement in lipid yield by approximately 55% for Chlorella sp. and 73% for Botryococcus sp. was registered as compared to original nutrient medium. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of extracted lipids revealed characteristic bands for triglycerides. This study provided utilisation of a practicable nutrient recipe in the form of N, P, K input for enhanced lipid yield from the selected microalgal strains.

  7. Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongxin; Guo Yingqiu; Ge Xijin; Itoh, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Akira; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21 WAF1 ). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers

  8. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK BIOTA LAUTAGLAOPHENIA SP. UNTUK MENGENDALIKANFUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP.VANILLAE PENYEBAB BUSUK BATANG VANILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KETUT SUADA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Aglaophenia sp. Marine Biota Extract to Control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vanillae, a Pathogen of Vanilla Stem Rot The use of marine biota for organic fungicide material has enormous potential to be developed. The organic fungicide was directed to substitute synthetic fungicide for vanilla cultivation. Application of synthetic fungicide degraded environmental quality, therefore its applications does not support sustainable agriculture. The objective of this research was to know the potence of Aglaopheniain suppressing the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp.vanillae, the pathogen of vanilla stem rot. The research was done in green house in order to find the best substance for formulation of the extract. The substances screened were water, tween-80, and detergents with two different concentrations. Subsequently, two best formulas were chosen to apply in endemic area in Tabanan. The green house and field trial research used Randomized Completely Design with three and five replications respectively. Results showed that tween was the best substance used for formulation and concentration of 0.2% was better than other concentrations. The extract diluted in tween-80 on the concentration of 0.2% showed the lowest rot on stem, longest shoot, and the most leaves on vanilla shoot. Because of its significant performance, the 0.1% extract ofAglaopheniain 0.1% tween-80 was proposed to be the best formula to suppress the vanilla stem rot disease.

  9. Phospholipids and protein adaptation of Pseudomonas sp. to the xenoestrogen tributyltin chloride (TBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Przemysław; Siewiera, Paulina; Soboń, Adrian; Długoński, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    A tributyltin (TBT)-resistant strain of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from an overworked car filter was tested for its adaptation to TBT. The isolate was checked for organotin degradation ability, as well as membrane lipid and cellular protein composition in the presence of TBT. The phospholipid profiles of bacteria, grown with and without increased amounts of TBT, were characterized using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The strain reacted to the biocide by changing the composition of its phospholipids. TBT induced a twofold decline in the amounts of many molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol and an increase in the levels of phosphatidic acid (by 58%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (by 70%). An increase in the degree of saturation of phospholipid fatty acids of TBT exposed Pseudomonas sp. was observed. These changes in the phospholipid composition and concentration reflect the mechanisms which support optimal lipid ordering in the presence of toxic xenobiotic. In the presence of TBT the abundances of 16 proteins, including TonB-dependent receptors, porins and peroxidases were modified, which could indicate a contribution of some enzymes to TBT resistance.

  10. Brain kinin B1 receptor is upregulated by the oxidative stress and its activation leads to stereotypic nociceptive behavior in insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jenny Pena; Gariépy, Helaine De Brito; Ongali, Brice; Couture, Réjean

    2015-07-01

    Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is virtually absent under physiological condition, yet it is highly expressed in models of diabetes mellitus. This study aims at determining: (1) whether B1R is induced in the brain of insulin-resistant rat through the oxidative stress; (2) the consequence of B1R activation on stereotypic nocifensive behavior; (3) the role of downstream putative mediators in B1R-induced behavioral activity. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 10% D-glucose in their drinking water or tap water (controls) for 4 or 12 weeks, combined either with a standard chow diet or a diet enriched with α-lipoic acid (1 g/kg feed) for 4 weeks. The distribution and density of brain B1R binding sites were assessed by autoradiography. Behavioral activity evoked by i.c.v. injection of the B1R agonist Sar-[D-Phe(8)]-des-Arg(9)-BK (10 μg) was measured before and after i.c.v. treatments with selective antagonists (10 μg) for kinin B1 (R-715, SSR240612), tachykinin NK1 (RP-67580) and glutamate NMDA (DL-AP5) receptors or with the inhibitor of NOS (L-NNA). Results showed significant increases of B1R binding sites in various brain areas of glucose-fed rats that could be prevented by the diet containing α-lipoic acid. The B1R agonist elicited head scratching, grooming, sniffing, rearing, digging, licking, face washing, wet dog shake, teeth chattering and biting in glucose-fed rats, which were absent after treatment with α-lipoic acid or antagonists/inhibitors. Data suggest that kinin B1R is upregulated by the oxidative stress in the brain of insulin-resistant rats and its activation causes stereotypic nocifensive behavior through the release of substance P, glutamate and NO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Colonic motor dysfunctions in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity: an involvement of A2B adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, Luca; Pellegrini, Carolina; Fornai, Matteo; Tirotta, Erika; Gentile, Daniela; Benvenuti, Laura; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Caputi, Valentina; Marsilio, Ilaria; Orso, Genny; Bernardini, Nunzia; Segnani, Cristina; Ippolito, Chiara; Csóka, Balázs; Németh, Zoltán H; Haskó, György; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Blandizzi, Corrado; Colucci, Rocchina

    2017-12-01

    Adenosine A 2B receptors (A 2B R) regulate several enteric functions. However, their implication in the pathophysiology of intestinal dysmotility associated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has not been elucidated. We investigated the expression of A 2B R in mouse colon and their role in the mechanisms underlying the development of enteric dysmotility associated with obesity. Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD (60% kcal from fat) or normocaloric diet (NCD; 18% kcal from fat) for 8 weeks. Colonic A 2B R localization was examined by immunofluorescence. The role of A 2B R in the control of colonic motility was examined in functional experiments on longitudinal muscle preparations (LMPs). In NCD mice, A 2B R were predominantly located in myenteric neurons; in HFD animals, their expression increased throughout the neuromuscular layer. Functionally, the A 2B R antagonist MRS1754 enhanced electrically induced NK 1 -mediated tachykininergic contractions in LMPs from HFD mice, while it was less effective in tissues from NCD mice. The A 2B receptor agonist BAY 60-6583 decreased colonic tachykininergic contractions in LMPs, with higher efficacy in preparations from obese mice. Both A 2B R ligands did not affect contractions elicited by exogenous substance P. Obesity is related with a condition of colonic inflammation, leading to an increase of A 2B R expression. A 2B R, modulating the activity of excitatory tachykininergic nerves, participate to the enteric dysmotility associated with obesity.

  12. A sp2+sp3 hybridized carbon allotrope transformed from AB stacking graphyne and THD-graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New carbon allotropes can be designed by combining sp, sp2 and sp3 three hybridization states. And the hybridization states or coordination numbers of carbon atoms can be changed by applying high pressure on carbon materials. In this study, a common high pressure phase (named as TBBC transformed from AB-stacking graphyne or THD-graphene is predicted. Its kinetic stability is examined using finite displacement method. We find that the sp2 and sp3 hybridized carbon atoms behave different vibration features at high frequency region. Both graphene-like and diamond-like vibration peaks occurs. Phase transition energy barriers from both graphyne and THD-graphene to TBBC are estimated. Electronic structure calculations show that the TBBC is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 0.66 eV. The ideal tensile strength of TBBC is high in [0001] and [11¯00] directions, but is weak along [12¯10] direction.

  13. Kinetics of petroleum oil biodegradation by a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kachieng’a

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum oil is a complex mixture of substances, the majority of which are hydrocarbons; the latter represent an extremely important and heterogeneous group of compounds that find their way into water resources by anthropogenic or natural ways. The majority of toxic hydrocarbon components of petroleum are biodegradable, where bioremediation using microbial species has become an integral process for the restoration of oil-polluted areas. In this study, three bioremediation processes, namely natural attenuation, nutrient supplementation by adding glucose and biostimulation by adding Tween® 80, were carried out in various petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in polluted water media using a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.. A first-order kinetics model was fitted to the biodegradation data to evaluate the biodegradation rate and to determine the corresponding half-life time. First-order kinetics satisfactorily described the biodegradation of the petroleum-based contaminants under abiotic conditions. The results showed an increase in the percentage removal of petroleum oil at the lower petroleum concentrations and a gradual percentage decrease in removing petroleum oil residues occurred when there was an increase in the initial concentrations of the petroleum oil: 39%, 27%, 22%, 12%, 10% for various petroleum oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/L, respectively. A similar trend was also observed in the glucose-supplemented culture media where the reduction was 45% and 78% for petroleum concentrations of 250 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Biodegradation of between 33 and 90% was achieved at a Tween® 80 concentration of between 50 mg/L and 250 mg/L. The degradation rate constants for the natural attenuation process ranged between ≥0 to ≤0.50, ≥0 to ≤0.35, ≥0 to ≤0.25, ≥0 to ≤ 0.14 and ≥ 0 to ≤0.11 for petroleum oil concentrations varying from 50, 100, 150

  14. Cr(VI) reduction from contaminated soils by Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 isolated from chromium deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tsubasa; Ishino, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Akane; Tsutsumi, Kadzuyo; Morita, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 are chromate-resistant filamentous fungi that were isolated from Cr(VI) contaminated soil based on their ability to decrease hexavalent chromium levels in the growth medium. After 120 h of growth in a medium containing 50 ppm Cr(VI) at near neutral pH, Aspergillus sp. N2 reduced the Cr(VI) concentration by about 75%. Penicillium sp. N3 was able to reduce the Cr(VI) concentration by only 35%. However, Penicillium sp. N3 reduced the Cr(VI) concentration in the medium by 93% under acidic conditions. Interestingly, the presence of Cu(II) enhanced the Cr(VI) reducing ability of Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 at near neutral pH. Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 reduced the Cr(VI) concentration in the growth medium to a virtually undetectable level within 120 h. For both Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3, mycelial seed cultures were more efficient at Cr(VI) reduction than conidium seed cultures. The mechanisms of Cr(VI) reduction in Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 were enzymatic reduction and sorption to mycelia. Enzymatic activity contributed significantly to Cr(VI) reduction. Aspergillus sp. N2 and Penicillium sp. N3 reduced the levels of Cr(VI) in polluted soil samples, suggesting that these strains might be useful for cleaning up chromium-contaminated sites.

  15. DAN IDENTIFIKASI PATOGEN POTENSIAL YANG MENGINFEKSI IKAN RAINBOW (Melanotaenia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sholichah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemeliharaan ikan rainbow (Melanotaenia sp. di Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Ikan Hias selalu terjadi kematian secara bertahap mulai calon induk hingga proses pemijahan. Hal ini terjadi berulang kali sehingga ketersediaan induk Melanotaenia sp. sangat terancam. Ikan ini berasal dari Papua yang diperoleh mengandalkan penangkapan di alam. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menginventarisir dan mengidentifikasi berbagai patogen (parasit, jamur, bakteri potensial yang menginfeksi ikan rainbow yang dipelihara di dalam akuarium berukuran 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm dengan sistem aliran air stagnan. Tiga jenis rainbow yang dipelihara yaitu: rainbow Sungai Salawati, asal Sungai Sawiat, dan asal Danau Kurumoi. Setiap ikan masing-masing berjumlah 100 ekor dipelihara di akuarium dengan penambahan batu karang dan tanpa penambahan karang (kontrol ke dalam akuarium. Ikan diberi pakan sekenyangnya berupa jentik nyamuk dan cacing rambut beku setiap pagi dan sore hari. Sampling dilakukan secara random sebulan sekali dan secara unrandom setiap ada kejadian ikan sakit. Gejala klinis ikan yang sakit sebagai berikut: ikan berenang di permukaan dan menggosok-gosokkan badan di dinding akuarium, nafsu makan berkurang, gerakan berputar-putar, warna memudar menjadi putih, penekanan warna hitam pada sirip punggung dan perut meningkat, pendarahan pada perut, lendir berlebihan dan sangat berbau, serta sisik berdiri/terbuka. Diagnosa dan deteksi penyakit awal berupa pengamatan parasit baik ektoparasit maupun endoparasit, pengamatan dan isolasi jamur pada media selektif jamur, dan isolasi bakteri dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis patogen yang menginfeksi ketiga jenis ikan rainbow. Selanjutnya dilakukan uji histologi dan analisa DNA beberapa patogen. Hasil pengamatan diperoleh patogen berupa parasit (Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., dan Trichodina sp. dan bakteri (Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinetobacter sp

  16. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo 3H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased 3 H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous 3 H-spiperone ( 3 H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound 3 H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. 3 H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by 3 H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of 3 H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. 3 H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of 3 H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo

  17. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  18. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  19. Genetic polymorphism of horse serum protein 3 (SP3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, R K; Sandberg, K; Kuryl, J; Gahne, B

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional agarose gel (pH 8.6)-horizontal polyacrylamide gel (pH 9.0) electrophoresis of horse serum samples, followed by general protein staining, revealed genetic polymorphism of an unidentified protein tentatively designated serum protein 3 (SP3). The SP3 fractions appeared distinctly when a 14% concentration of acrylamide was used in the separation gels. The 2-D mobilities of SP3 fractions were quite similar to that of albumin. Family data were consistent with the hypothesis that the observed SP3 phenotypes were controlled by four co-dominant, autosomal alleles (D, F, I, S). Evidence was provided that the F allele can be further divided into two alleles (F1 and F2); the mobilities of F1 and F2 variants were very similar. Each of the SP3 alleles gave rise to one fraction and each of the heterozygous types showed two fractions. More than 600 horses representing five different breeds (Swedish Trotter, North-Swedish Trotter, Thoroughbred, Arab and Polish Tarpan) were typed for SP3, and allele frequency estimates were calculated. SP3 was highly polymorphic in all breeds studied.

  20. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  1. HER2 evaluation using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibody SP3 and CISH in tissue microarrays of invasive breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Sara Alexandra Vinhas; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carvalho, Sílvia Teresa; Leitão, Dina Raquel Aguilera; Schmitt, Fernando Carlos Lander

    2007-09-01

    Laboratory methods for HER2 assessment currently include immunohistochemical (IHC) methods (measuring protein overexpression) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) (measuring gene amplification). The measure of HER2 protein by IHC is usually assessed by the mouse monoclonal antibody CB11, and polyclonal antibodies (Herceptest) directed against the internal portion of the receptor. Recently, chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH), in which HER2 is detected by a peroxidase reaction and the gene amplification can be determined by regular bright-field microscopy, has emerged as an alternative to FISH. To evaluate the status of HER2 in tissue microarrays (TMAs) of invasive breast cancer using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibody SP3 directed against the external portion of HER2, and correlate the results with CB11 and CISH. IHC was performed with two antibodies (CB11 and SP3) and CISH for HER2 in 10 TMA blocks with 190 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cases of invasive breast carcinomas. The correlation between SP3 and CB11 was significant (pCISH (pCISH, shows that this novel antibody is a reliable candidate to evaluate the expression of HER2 in breast cancer.

  2. Reductive dehalogenation of 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoate by an aerobic strain of Delftia sp. EOB-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Jian, Shanshan; Huang, Linglong; Ruan, Zhepu; Li, Shunpeng; Jiang, Jiandong

    2015-12-01

    To confirm the reductive dehalogenation ability of the aerobic strain of Delftia sp. EOB-17, finding more evidences to support the hypothesis that reductive dehalogenation may occur extensively in aerobic bacteria. Delftia sp. EOB-17, isolated from terrestrial soil contaminated with halogenated aromatic compounds, completely degraded 0.2 mM DBHB in 28 h and released two equivalents of bromides under aerobic conditions in the presence of sodium succinate. LC-MS analysis revealed that DBHB was transformed to 4-hydroxybenzoate via 3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzoate by successive reductive dehalogenation. Highly conserved DBHB-degrading genes, including reductive dehalogenase gene (bhbA3) and the extra-cytoplasmic binding receptor gene (bhbB3), were also found in strain EOB-17 by genome sequencing. The optimal temperature and pH for DBHB reductive dehalogenation activity are 30 °C and 8, respectively, and 0.1 mM Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Zn(2+) strongly inhibited dehalogenation activity. The aerobic strain of Delftia sp. EOB-17 was confirmed to reductively dehalogenate DBHB under aerobic conditions, providing another evidence to support the hypothesis that reductive dehalogenation occurs extensively in aerobic bacteria.

  3. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Dong-Oh; Kang, Chang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Hyuck; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, Weon-Young; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Maeng, Young-Hee; Kim, Young-Ree; Kim, Gi-Young

    2012-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ► Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ► Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ► Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  4. Reparation and Immunomodulating Properties of Bacillus sp. Metabolites from Permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenova, L F; Melnikov, V P; Besedin, I M; Bazhin, A S; Gabdulin, M A; Kolyvanova, S S

    2017-09-01

    An ointment containing metabolites of Bacillus sp. microorganisms isolated from permafrost samples was applied onto the skin wound of BALB/c mice. Metabolites isolated during culturing of Bacillus sp. at 37°C produced a potent therapeutic effect and promoted wound epithelialization by 30% in comparison with the control (ointment base) and by 20% in comparison with Solcoseryl. Treatment with Bacillus sp. metabolites stimulated predominantly humoral immunity, reduced the time of wound contraction and the volume of scar tissue, and promoted complete hair recovery. These metabolites can be considered as modulators of the wound process with predominance of regeneration mechanisms.

  5. Post-neonatal drop in alveolar SP-A expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stray-Pedersen, Arne; Vege, Ashild; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjorg

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is synthesized in the lung and is a part of the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of SP-A in lung tissue from fetuses, infants, children and adults with special regard to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS......: A total of 160 cases were studied; 19 fetuses and neonates, 59 SIDS and 49 explained infant deaths below 1 year of age, 19 toddlers and 14 adults. Immunohistochemical detection of SP-A using monoclonal antibodies was performed by microscopy of lung tissue specimens collected at autopsy. A scoring system...

  6. Efektivitas Ovitrap Bambu terhadap Jumlah Jentik Aedes sp yang Terperangkap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Aditama

    2015-05-01

    places of 10 subdistricts. Data of trapped Aedes sp larvae numbers was collected four times repeatedly within one week time-lapse. Analysis was conducted using the mean number of larvae in ovitraps and ovitrap index. The number of Aedes sp larvae trapped was 1,265. The most effective ovitrap is piece of bamboo, mean = 123, p value = 0.006, HI = 10.01% (16.66 26.67%, CI = 36.8% (336.06 - 39.74%, BI = 29.97% (73.33 - 103.3%. Health authorities should promote bamboo ovitrap, especially to public as an effort to control Aedes sp.

  7. Späte Mutterschaft – (keine biografische Entscheidung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Beham

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Übergang in die Mutterschaft findet zunehmend später statt. Über die Gründe liegen zahlreiche Vermutungen und einige theoretische Diskussionen, aber kaum empirische Befunde vor. Die Autorinnen möchten mit ihrer Studie einen Beitrag zum Abbau dieses Forschungsdefizits leisten. In ihrer empirisch-biografischen Untersuchung gehen Ingrid Herlyn und Dorothea Krüger der Frage nach, ob späte Erstmutterschaft ein neues biografisches Muster der Familiengründung darstellt oder ob Mutterschaft nach wie vor eine selbstverständlich anerkannte Norm ist, deren Realisierung im Lebenslauf lediglich zeitlich später stattfindet.

  8. Cytotoxic effects of the anthraquinone derivatives 1'-deoxyrhodoptilometrin and (S)-(-)-rhodoptilometrin isolated from the marine echinoderm Comanthus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wätjen, Wim; Ebada, Sherif S; Bergermann, Anja; Chovolou, Yvonni; Totzke, Frank; Kubbutat, Michael H G; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We investigated cytotoxic effects of the anthraquinone derivatives 1'-deoxyrhodoptilometrin (SE11) and (S)-(-)-rhodoptilometrin (SE16) isolated from the marine echinoderm Comanthus sp. in two tumor cell lines (C6 glioma, Hct116 colon carcinoma). Both compounds showed cytotoxic effects, with SE11 [IC 50 -value (MTT assay): 13.1 µM in Hct116 cells] showing a higher potency to induce apoptotic and necrotic cell death. No generation of oxidative stress was detectable (DCF assay), and also no modulation of Nrf2/ARE and NFκB signaling could be shown. Investigation of 23 protein kinases associated with cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis showed that both compounds were potent inhibitors of distinct kinases, e.g., IGF1-receptor kinase, focal adhesion kinase, and EGF receptor kinase with SE11 being a more potent compound (IC 50 values: 5, 18.4 and 4 µM, respectively). SE11 caused a decrease in ERK phosphorylation which may be a consequence of the inhibition of EGF receptor kinase by this compound. Since an inhibition of the EGF receptor/MAPK pathway is an important target for diverse cytostatic drugs, we suggest that the anthraquinone derivative 1'-deoxyrhodoptilometrin (SE11) may be an interesting lead structure for the development of new anticancer drugs.

  9. Pengaruh Perbedaan Konsentrasi Ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan Lama Penyimpanan terhadap Oksidasi Lemak pada Fillet Ikan Patin (Pangasius sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Hidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Ikan patin merupakan ikan air tawar yang mengandung lemak dan protein tinggi sehingga apabila dilakukan penyimpanan rentan terjadi oksidasi yang mengakibatkan ketengikan. Sargassum sp. dengan kandungan fenol dan flavonoid mampu menghambat terjadinya oksidasi pada fillet ikan patin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan lama penyimpanan dalam menghambat terjadinya oksidasi pada fillet ikan patin. Materi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan fillet ikan patin. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah experimental laboratories dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL faktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum sp. (0%, 1%, 1,5% dan 2% dan lama penyimpanan (hari ke-0, hari ke-2, hari ke-4, dan hari ke-6. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan penambahan konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan lama penyimpanan memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap nilai PV, nilai TBA, kadar lemak, kadar protein, kadar air serta organoleptik (P < 0,05. Hasil penelitian tahap I didapatkan rendemen Sargassum sp. dengan pelarut etanol 96% sebesar 1,39%, kandungan fenol 1,813%, flavonoid 0,278% dan aktivitas antioksidan 99,1659 ppm (kuat. Hasil penelitian tahap II didapatkan nilai PV berkisar antara 2,03 - 19,82 meq/kg, nilai TBA 0,63 - 6,72 mg.mal/kg. Konsentrasi 1,5% merupakan konsentrasi terbaik ekstrak Sargassum sp. dalam menghambat oksidasi lemak pada fillet ikan patin selama penyimpanan. Kata kunci: Antioksidan, Ekstrak Sargassum sp., Lama Penyimpanan, Oksidasi lemak, Fillet Ikan patin ABSTRACT Catfish is a freshwater fish that contain high fat and protein so that if its stored it will susceptible to oxidation process which leads to rancidity. Sargassum sp. with its phenolic and flavonoid content are able to inhibit the oxidation process in catfish fillet. This research was aimed to know the effects of different concentrations of Sargassum sp. extracts and

  10. Preferential effects of leptin on CD4 T cells in central and peripheral immune system are critically linked to the expression of leptin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Yong; Lim, Ju Hyun [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung Won [Department of Molecular Biology, School of Arts and Sciences (S.W.C), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 18450 (United States); Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Seong-Tae [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Seon; Cho, You Sook [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-600 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Eunyoung, E-mail: chun.eunyoung@gmail.com [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Young, E-mail: thylee@med.skku.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-09

    Leptin can enhance thymopoiesis and modulate the T-cell immune response. However, it remains controversial whether these effects correlate with the expression of leptin receptor, ObR. We herein addressed this issue by using in vivo animal models and in vitro culture systems. Leptin treatment in both ob/ob mice and normal young mice induced increases of CD4 SP thymocytes in thymus and CD4 T cells in the periphery. Interestingly, expression of the long form ObR was significantly restricted to DN, DP and CD4 SP, but not CD8 SP thymocytes. Moreover, in the reaggregated DP thymocyte cultures with leptin plus TSCs, leptin profoundly induced differentiation of CD4 SP but not CD8 SP thymocytes, suggesting that the effects of leptin on thymocyte differentiation might be closely related to the expression of leptin receptor in developing thymocytes. Surprisingly, ObR expression was markedly higher in peripheral CD4 T cells than that in CD8 T cells. Furthermore, leptin treatment with or without IL-2 and PHA had preferential effects on cell proliferation of CD4 T cells compared to that of CD8 T cells. Collectively, these data provide evidence that the effects of leptin on differentiation and proliferation of CD4 T cells might be closely related to the expression of leptin receptor.

  11. Preferential effects of leptin on CD4 T cells in central and peripheral immune system are critically linked to the expression of leptin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Yong; Lim, Ju Hyun; Choi, Sung Won; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Seong-Tae; Kim, Min-Seon; Cho, You Sook; Chun, Eunyoung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2010-01-01

    Leptin can enhance thymopoiesis and modulate the T-cell immune response. However, it remains controversial whether these effects correlate with the expression of leptin receptor, ObR. We herein addressed this issue by using in vivo animal models and in vitro culture systems. Leptin treatment in both ob/ob mice and normal young mice induced increases of CD4 SP thymocytes in thymus and CD4 T cells in the periphery. Interestingly, expression of the long form ObR was significantly restricted to DN, DP and CD4 SP, but not CD8 SP thymocytes. Moreover, in the reaggregated DP thymocyte cultures with leptin plus TSCs, leptin profoundly induced differentiation of CD4 SP but not CD8 SP thymocytes, suggesting that the effects of leptin on thymocyte differentiation might be closely related to the expression of leptin receptor in developing thymocytes. Surprisingly, ObR expression was markedly higher in peripheral CD4 T cells than that in CD8 T cells. Furthermore, leptin treatment with or without IL-2 and PHA had preferential effects on cell proliferation of CD4 T cells compared to that of CD8 T cells. Collectively, these data provide evidence that the effects of leptin on differentiation and proliferation of CD4 T cells might be closely related to the expression of leptin receptor.

  12. Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and receptor Mas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villela, Daniel; Leonhardt, Julia; Patel, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas are components of the protective arms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. they both mediate tissue protective and regenerative actions. The spectrum of actions of these two receptors and their signalling mechanisms display striki...

  13. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (Ocotea sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra-Escobar, Jorge A; Castro Restrepo, Dagoberto; Osorio Vega, Walter

    2009-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine the mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (>Ocotea sp.). In order to do this, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments in a factorial array of 3 x 2 and five repetitions. The treatments involved a combination of three Phosphorus (P) levels in soil solution (0.002, 0.02 and 0.2 mg L-1) and two levels of mycorrhizal inoculation, either inoculated or non-inoculated with Glomus aggregatum Schenck and Smith. The leaf P content as a function of time was used as an output variable. Shoot dry matter, shoot P content, mycorrhizal colonization of roots, and mycorrhizal dependence were measured at harvest. The results indicated that the leaf P content increased significantly when using the mycorrhizal inoculation in laurel at P level 0.2 mg L -1, but not in the other P levels, on some of the sampling days. Shoot dry weight and total plant P content did not increase at all levels of soil available P. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel reached 28%, which allows this species to be classified as moderately dependent on mycorrhiza.

  14. Production of biodiesel from Coelastrella sp. microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Dieni; Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Susilaningsih, Dwi; Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae have a wide area of usage and one of them it can be used for biodiesel production. In biodiesel production, lipids containing triglyceride or free fatty acid are converted into methyl ester through trans/esterification reactions. Lipids from microalgae can be extracted by acetone and dimethyl carbonate using homogenizer. Esterification of the lipids was investigated using various catalysts and source of methyl group. Activity of homogeneous catalyst such as HCl and H2SO4 and heterogeneous catalysts such as montmorillonit K-10 and ledgestone was investigated. Moreover, methanol and dimethyl carbonate as source of methyl group were also studied. Among of catalysts with methanol as source of methyl group, it was found that yield of crude biodiesel derived from Choelestrella Sp. microalgae was high over H2SO4 catalyst. On the other hand, over H2SO4 catalyst using dimethyl carbonate as source of methyl group, yield of crude biodiesel significant increase. However, FAME composition of crude biodiesel was high over HCl catalyst.

  15. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  16. Parapedobacter koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Na, Ju-Ryun; Cho, Dong Ha; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2007-06-01

    Strain Jip14(T), a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, was isolated from dried rice straw and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Jip14(T) belongs to the family Sphingobacteriaceae, and the highest degree of sequence similarity was determined to be to Pedobacter saltans DSM 12145(T) (88.5 %), Pedobacter africanus DSM 12126(T) (87.6 %), Pedobacter heparinus DSM 2366(T) (87.1 %) and Pedobacter caeni LMG 22862(T) (86.9 %). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain Jip14(T) possesses menaquinone MK-7 and the predominant fatty acids C(15 : 0) iso, C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) 10-methyl, C(17 : 0) iso 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH/C(16 : 1)omega7c). The results of physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that strain Jip14(T) represents a distinct species. Based on these data, Jip14(T) should be classified within a novel genus and species, for which the name Parapedobacter koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Parapedobacter koreensis is Jip14(T) (=KCTC 12643(T)=LMG 23493(T)).

  17. Pedobacter insulae sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Oh, Hyun Woo; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2007-09-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, DS-139(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Dokdo, Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Strain DS-139(T) grew optimally at 25 degrees C and pH 6.5-7.5 in the presence of 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 39.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain DS-39(T) belongs to the genus Pedobacter in the family Sphingobacteriaceae. The similarity values between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain DS-139(T) and those of the type strains of recognized Pedobacter species, except Pedobacter saltans, were in the range 93.9-96.7 %. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness, were sufficient to assign strain DS-139(T) to a species that is separate from recognized Pedobacter species. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, therefore, strain DS-139(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the name Pedobacter insulae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DS-139(T) (=KCTC 12820(T) =DSM 18684(T)).

  18. Lactobacillus paralimentarius sp. nov., isolated from sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y; Okada, H; Mori, H; Benno, Y; Nakase, T

    1999-10-01

    Six strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sourdough were characterized taxonomically. They were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. Morphological and physiological data indicated that the strains belong to the genus Lactobacillus and they were similar to Lactobacillus alimentarius in phenotypic characteristics. These strains shared the same phenotypic characteristics and exhibited intragroup DNA homology values of over 89.8%, indicating that they comprised a single species. The G + C content of the DNA for the strains was 37.2-38.0 mol%. The 16S rRNA sequence of representative strain TB 1T was determined and aligned with that of other Lactobacillus species. This strain was placed in the genus Lactobacillus on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. L. alimentarius was the most closely related species in the phylogenetic tree and this species also showed the highest sequence homology value (96%) with strain TB 1T. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strain TB 1T did not belong to L. alimentarius. It is proposed that these strains are placed in the genus Lactobacillus as a new species, Lactobacillus paralimentarius sp. nov. The type strain of L. paralimentarius is TB 1T, which has been deposited in the Japan Collection of Microorganisms (JCM) as strain JCM 10415T.

  19. sp magnetism in clusters of gold thiolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayuela, A; Hernando, A; Echenique, P M; Crespo, P; García, M A

    2012-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we consider the bond between thiolate and small Au clusters, with particular emphasis on the resulting magnetic moment. The moment of pure gold clusters is 1 μ B for clusters with an odd number of Au atoms and zero for those with an even number. The addition of the thiolate, having an odd number of electrons itself, shifts the phase of the odd-even oscillations so that particles with an even number of Au atoms now have unit moment. Surprisingly, gold thiolate exhibits a dramatic and non-intuitive distribution of charge and spin moment. Our results show that the S-Au bond is such that sulfur does not get charge and an electron is transferred to the Au cluster. This extra electron is mainly sp in character and resides in an electronic shell below the Au surface. The calculations suggest that any thiolate-induced magnetism occurs in the gold nanoparticle and not the thiolate, and can be controlled by modifying the thiolate coverage. (paper)

  20. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1994-01-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems

  1. The Growth of Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. Cells in the Presence of Thorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina de Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of thorium by Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Microalgal cultures were inoculated in ASM-1 medium in presence and absence of thorium. Its effect was monitored by direct counting on Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and with software. The toxicity of thorium over the species was observed for concentrations over 50.0 mg/L. After 30 days, Monoraphidium cells decreased their concentration from 4.23×106 to 4.27×105 and 8.57×105 cells/mL, in the presence of 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L of thorium, respectively. Scenedesmus sp. cells were more resistant to thorium: for an initial cell concentration of 7.65×104 cells/mL it was observed a change to 5.25×105 and 5.12×105 cells/mL, in the presence of thorium at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. This is an indication that low concentrations of the radionuclide favored the growth, and that Scenedesmus cells are more resistant to thorium than Monoraphidium cells. The software used for comparison with direct count method proved to be useful for the improvement of accuracy of the results obtained, a decrease in the uncertainty and allowed recording of the data. The presence of thorium suggests that low concentrations have a positive effect on the growth, due to the presence of the nitrate, indicating its potential for ecotoxicological studies.

  2. The Growth of Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. Cells in the Presence of Thorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Juliana Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Melo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of thorium by Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Microalgal cultures were inoculated in ASM-1 medium in presence and absence of thorium. Its effect was monitored by direct counting on Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and with software. The toxicity of thorium over the species was observed for concentrations over 50.0 mg/L. After 30 days, Monoraphidium cells decreased their concentration from 4.23 × 106 to 4.27 × 105 and 8.57 × 105 cells/mL, in the presence of 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L of thorium, respectively. Scenedesmus sp. cells were more resistant to thorium: for an initial cell concentration of 7.65 × 104 cells/mL it was observed a change to 5.25 × 105 and 5.12 × 105 cells/mL, in the presence of thorium at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. This is an indication that low concentrations of the radionuclide favored the growth, and that Scenedesmus cells are more resistant to thorium than Monoraphidium cells. The software used for comparison with direct count method proved to be useful for the improvement of accuracy of the results obtained, a decrease in the uncertainty and allowed recording of the data. The presence of thorium suggests that low concentrations have a positive effect on the growth, due to the presence of the nitrate, indicating its potential for ecotoxicological studies. PMID:22649297

  3. TLX: An elusive receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benod, Cindy; Villagomez, Rosa; Webb, Paul

    2016-03-01

    TLX (tailless receptor) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and belongs to a class of nuclear receptors for which no endogenous or synthetic ligands have yet been identified. TLX is a promising therapeutic target in neurological disorders and brain tumors. Thus, regulatory ligands for TLX need to be identified to complete the validation of TLX as a useful target and would serve as chemical probes to pursue the study of this receptor in disease models. It has recently been proved that TLX is druggable. However, to identify potent and specific TLX ligands with desirable biological activity, a deeper understanding of where ligands bind, how they alter TLX conformation and of the mechanism by which TLX mediates the transcription of its target genes is needed. While TLX is in the process of escaping from orphanhood, future ligand design needs to progress in parallel with improved understanding of (i) the binding cavity or surfaces to target with small molecules on the TLX ligand binding domain and (ii) the nature of the TLX coregulators in particular cell and disease contexts. Both of these topics are discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Glutamate receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandt, Mette; Johansen, Tommy N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Homologation and substitution on the carbon backbone of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu, 1], as well as absolute stereochemistry, are structural parameters of key importance for the pharmacological profile of (S)-Glu receptor ligands. We describe a series of methyl-substituted 2-aminoadipic acid (AA...

  5. Ginkgolides and glycine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaracz, Stanislav; Nakanishi, Koji; Jensen, Anders A.

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgolides from the Ginkgo biloba tree are diterpenes with a cage structure consisting of six five-membered rings and a unique tBu group. They exert a variety of biological properties. In addition to being antagonists of the platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR), it has recently been shown ...

  6. adrenergic receptor with preeclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... due to a post- receptor defect (Karadas et al., 2007). Several polymorphisms have ... the detection of the Arg16Gly polymorphism, overnight digestion at. 37°C with 10 U ..... DW, Wood AJ, Stein CM (2004). Beta2-adrenoceptor ...

  7. Metformin and insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneri, R.; Gullo, D.; Pezzino, V.

    1984-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of metformin (N,N-dimethylbiguanide), a biguanide known to be less toxic than phenformin, on insulin binding to its receptors, both in vitro and in vivo. Specific 125 I-insulin binding to cultured IM-9 human lymphocytes and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was determined after preincubation with metformin. Specific 125 I-insulin binding to circulating monocytes was also evaluated in six controls, eight obese subjects, and six obese type II diabetic patients before and after a short-term treatment with metformin. Plasma insulin levels and blood glucose were also measured on both occasions. Metformin significantly increased insulin binding in vitro to both IM-9 lymphocytes and MCF-7 cells; the maximum increment was 47.1% and 38.0%, respectively. Metformin treatment significantly increased insulin binding in vivo to monocytes of obese subjects and diabetic patients. Scatchard analysis indicated that the increased binding was mainly due to an increase in receptor capacity. Insulin binding to monocytes of normal controls was unchanged after metformin as were insulin levels in all groups; blood glucose was significantly reduced after metformin only in diabetic patients. These data indicate that metformin increases insulin binding to its receptors in vitro and in vivo. The effect in vivo is observed in obese subjects and in obese type II diabetic patients, paralleling the clinical effectiveness of this antidiabetic agent, and is not due to receptor regulation by circulating insulin, since no variation in insulin levels was recorded

  8. Down-regulation of human topoisomerase IIα expression correlates with relative amounts of specificity factors Sp1 and Sp3 bound at proximal and distal promoter regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacs Richard J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topoisomerase IIα has been shown to be down-regulated in doxorubicin-resistant cell lines. The specificity proteins Sp1 and Sp3 have been implicated in regulation of topoisomerase IIα transcription, although the mechanism by which they regulate expression is not fully understood. Sp1 has been shown to bind specifically to both proximal and distal GC elements of the human topoisomerase IIα promoter in vitro, while Sp3 binds only to the distal GC element unless additional flanking sequences are included. While Sp1 is thought to be an activator of human topoisomerase IIα, the functional significance of Sp3 binding is not known. Therefore, we sought to determine the functional relationship between Sp1 and Sp3 binding to the topoisomerase IIα promoter in vivo. We investigated endogenous levels of Sp1, Sp3 and topoisomerase IIα as well as binding of both Sp1 and Sp3 to the GC boxes of the topoisomerase IIα promoter in breast cancer cell lines in vivo after short term doxorubicin exposure. Results Functional effects of Sp1 and Sp3 were studied using transient cotransfection assays using a topoisomerase IIα promoter reporter construct. The in vivo interactions of Sp1 and Sp3 with the GC elements of the topoisomerase IIα promoter were studied in doxorubicin-treated breast cancer cell lines using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Relative amounts of endogenous proteins were measured using immunoblotting. In vivo DNA looping mediated by proteins bound at the GC1 and GC2 elements was studied using the chromatin conformation capture assay. Both Sp1 and Sp3 bound to the GC1 and GC2 regions. Sp1 and Sp3 were transcriptional activators and repressors respectively, with Sp3 repression being dominant over Sp1-mediated activation. The GC1 and GC2 elements are linked in vivo to form a loop, thus bringing distal regulatory elements and their cognate transcription factors into close proximity with the transcription start site

  9. Cloning and expression of an amylase gene from Bacillus sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... Bacillus sp. isolated from an agricultural field in West. Bengal, India ... plants, even though, the competition is incipient (Sen,. 2007), and therefore ..... proteins: Engineering mesophilic–like activity and stability in a cold adapted ...

  10. Itinerant ferromagnetism in fermionic systems with SP (2 N) symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wang; Wu, Congjun

    The Ginzburg-Landau free energy of systems with SP (2 N) symmetry describes a second order phase transition on the mean field level, since the Casimir invariants of the SP (2 N) group can be only of even order combinations of the generators of the SP (2 N) group. This is in contrast with systems having the SU (N) symmetry, where the allowance of cubic term generally makes the phase transition into first order. In this work, we consider the Hertz-Millis type itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting fermionic system with SP (2 N) symmetry, where the ferromagnetic orders are enriched by the multi-component nature of the system. The quantum criticality is discussed near the second order phase transition point.

  11. Phenotyping and molecular characterization of Lysinibacillus sp. P ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) branched with Lysinibacillus boronitolerans with 89% bootstrap support. Lysinibacillus sp. P-011 (~105 cfu/ml) played an important role on larval development of D. melanogaster under controlled environmental condition. Wild larvae when ...

  12. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  13. Benefit Analysis of SPC Panel SP-2 Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Rodney A

    1993-01-01

    This Task has investigated the benefits derived from the projects sponsored by SNAME Ship Production Committee Panel SP-2 on Outfitting and Production Aids during the 15 year period when this Panel...

  14. Economic analysis of variables affecting the plantain ( Musa sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... The study examined variables affecting plantain (Musa sp) mono cropping system of production by ... land fragmentation, wrong application of fertilizer, high cost of fertilizers, lack of ...

  15. Linking surfactant protein SP-D and IL-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qaseem, Asif S; Sonar, Sanchaita; Mahajan, Lakshna

    2012-01-01

    of allergen-IgE interaction, histamine release by sensitised mast cells, downregulation of specific IgE production, suppression of pulmonary and peripheral eosinophilia, inhibition of mechanisms that cause airway remodelling, and induction of apoptosis in sensitised eosinophils. SP-D can also shift helper T......Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune molecule that plays a protective role against lung infection, allergy, asthma and inflammation. In vivo experiments with murine models have shown that SP-D can protect against allergic challenge via a range of mechanisms including inhibition...... cell polarisation following in vivo allergenic challenge, from pathogenic Th2 to a protective Th1 cytokine response. Interestingly, SP-D gene deficient (-/-) mice show an IL-13 over-expressing phenotype. IL-13 has been shown to be involved in the development of asthma. Transgenic mice over...

  16. Massarina armatispora sp. nov., a new intertidal ascomycete from mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hyde, K.D.; Vrijmoed, L.L.P.; Chinnaraj, S.; Jones, E.B.G.

    Massarina armatispora sp. nov. is described from dead intertidal mangrove wood collected in India and Hong Kong. The new taxon is compared with other M. species, and its placement in the genus Massarina is discussed...

  17. Biomineralization of a calcifying ureolytic bacterium Microbacterium sp. GM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojing Xu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of this research provide evidence that Microbacterium sp. GM-1 can biologically induce calcification and suggest that strain GM-1 may play a potential role in the synthesis of new biominerals and in bioremediation or biorecovery.

  18. Feather wastes digestion by new isolated strains Bacillus sp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feather wastes digestion by new isolated strains Bacillus sp. in Morocco. ... The most efficient isolated strain selected was compared with Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results showed ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 67-70 ...

  19. Volvatellin, caulerpenyne-related product fromt he sacoglossan Volvatella sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fontana, A; Ciavatta, M.L; Mollo, E.; Naik, C.G.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L; Cimino, G.

    Volvatellin (4) is a highly unstable terpene isolated from the extracts of the Indian opisthobranch mollusk Volvatella sp. The structure and the relative stereochemistry of 4 were determined by NMR methods. The paper also describes a hypothetical...

  20. SP-100 multimegawatt scaleup to meet electric propulsion mission requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, D.W.; Salamah, S.A.; Stewart, S.L.; Pluta, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    The SP-100 space power nuclear reactor nuclear heat source technology, utilizing uranium nitride fuel clad in PWC-11 in a fast reactor with lithium coolant circulated by an electromagnetic pump, is shown in this paper to be directly extrapolatable to thermal power levels that meet NASA nuclear electric propulsion requirements using different power conversion techniques. The SP-100 nuclear technology can be applied for missions with NEP requirements as low as 10's of kWe to 10's of MWe

  1. Pigment Production from Immobilized Monascus sp. Utilizing Polymeric Resin Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Patrick J.; Wang, Henry Y.

    1984-01-01

    Pigment production by the fungus Monascus sp. was studied to determine why Monascus sp. provides more pigment in solid culture than in submerged culture. Adding a sterilized nonionic polymeric adsorbent resin directly to the growing submerged culture did not enhance the pigment production, thus indicating that pigment extraction is probably not a factor. Monascus cells immobilized in hydrogel were studied and exhibited decreased pigment production as a result of immobilization. This result is...

  2. Pengaruh PH dan Suhu terhadap Aktivitas Protease Penicillium SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Yusriah, Yusriah; Kuswytasari, Nengah Dwianita

    2013-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pH dan suhu terhadap aktivitas protease pada Penicillium sp.3 T3f2. Selanjutnya, isolat Penicillium sp. di kultur dalam media produksi protease untuk menghasilkan protease. Suhu yang digunakan adalah 300 – 500C sedangkan pH-nya 4 – 8. Aktivitas protease ditentukan dan diukur dengan spektrofotometer pada panjang gelombang 275 nm, dengan kasein sebagai substrat. Berdasarkan uji ANOVA yang dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan dengan taraf kepercaya...

  3. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified

  4. Genome sequencing and annotation of Serratia sp. strain TEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lephoto, Tiisetso E; Gray, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    We present the annotation of the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KP711410). This organism was isolated from entomopathogenic nematode Oscheius sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KM492926) collected from grassland soil and has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp and 542 subsystems. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number LDEG00000000.

  5. Genome sequencing and annotation of Serratia sp. strain TEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiisetso E. Lephoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the annotation of the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KP711410. This organism was isolated from entomopathogenic nematode Oscheius sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KM492926 collected from grassland soil and has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp and 542 subsystems. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number LDEG00000000.

  6. Genome sequencing and annotation of Serratia sp. strain TEL

    OpenAIRE

    Lephoto, Tiisetso E.; Gray, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the annotation of the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KP711410). This organism was isolated from entomopathogenic nematode Oscheius sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KM492926) collected from grassland soil and has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp and 542 subsystems. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number LDEG00000000.

  7. Uranium and thorium uptake by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Prasath, C.S.; Manikandan, N.; Prakash, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents uptake of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. Increasing concentration of U and Tb showed decrease in absorption by Pseudomonas Sp. Dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. exhibited same or more uptake of U and Th than living cells. Increasing temperature promotes uptake of U and Th by Pseudomonas Sp. (author)

  8. Olfactory Receptor Database: a sensory chemoreceptor resource

    OpenAIRE

    Skoufos, Emmanouil; Marenco, Luis; Nadkarni, Prakash M.; Miller, Perry L.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2000-01-01

    The Olfactory Receptor Database (ORDB) is a WWW-accessible database that has been expanded from an olfactory receptor resource to a chemoreceptor resource. It stores data on six classes of G-protein-coupled sensory chemoreceptors: (i) olfactory receptor-like proteins, (ii) vomeronasal receptors, (iii) insect olfactory receptors, (iv) worm chemoreceptors, (v) taste papilla receptors and (vi) fungal pheromone receptors. A complementary database of the ligands of these receptors (OdorDB) has bee...

  9. Evidence for cooperative mineralization of diuron by Arthrobacter sp. BS2 and Achromobacter sp. SP1 isolated from a mixed culture enriched from diuron exposed environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Pesce, Stéphane; Rouard, Nadine; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2014-12-01

    Diuron was found to be mineralized in buffer strip soil (BS) and in the sediments (SED) of the Morcille river in the Beaujolais vineyard repeatedly treated with this herbicide. Enrichment cultures from BS and SED samples led to the isolation of three bacterial strains transforming diuron to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) its aniline derivative. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that they belonged to the genus Arthrobacter (99% of similarity to Arthrobacter globiformis strain K01-01) and were designated as Arthrobacter sp. BS1, BS2 and SED1. Diuron-degrading potential characterized by sequencing of the puhA gene, characterizing the diuron-degradaing potential, revealed 99% similarity to A. globiformis strain D47 puhA gene isolated a decade ago in the UK. These isolates were also able to use chlorotoluron for their growth. Although able to degrade linuron and monolinuron to related aniline derivatives they were not growing on them. Enrichment cultures led to the isolation of a strain from the sediments entirely degrading 3,4-DCA. 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that it was affiliated to the genus Achromobacter (99% of similarity to Achromobacter sp. CH1) and was designated as Achromobacter sp. SP1. The dcaQ gene encoding enzyme responsible for the transformation of 3,4-DCA to chlorocatechol was found in SP1 with 99% similarity to that of Comamonas testosteroni WDL7. This isolate also used for its growth a range of anilines (3-chloro-4-methyl-aniline, 4-isopropylaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 3-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline). The mixed culture composed of BS2 and SP1 strains entirely mineralizes (14)C-diuron to (14)CO2. Diuron-mineralization observed in the enrichment culture could result from the metabolic cooperation between these two populations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Streptomyces sp. Sebagai Biofungisida Patogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht. f.sp. lycopersici (Sacc. Snyd. et Hans. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURI MANDAN SARI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to isolate Streptomyces sp. of soil Udayana University campus in theBukit-Jimbaran, to obtain the most effective Streptomyces sp. which is effective in inhibit the growth ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and to test response of tomato plants with Streptomyces sp.culture against Fusarium wilt desease. Implementation phases of the research consisted of isolation andidentification of Streptomyces sp, test the inhibition against F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and in vivotest used by dyeing the roots of the tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum with Fusarium spores andafter 30 seconds the roots were dyeing Streptomyces culture. Furthermore, sterile soil in polybagwatered by Fusarium spores and Streptomyces culture at the same time. Based on morphologicalcharacteristic it found five isolates of Streptomyces sp.. The antagonist test showed Streptomyces sp.1 had ability (75% against Fusarium, Streptomyces sp 2 (68,3%, Streptomyces sp. 3 (71,6%,Streptomyces sp. 4 (63,3%, and Streptomyces sp. 5 (21,6%. All Streptomyces suppressed thegrowth of Fusarium on tomato plants in glass house (p<0,05. Streptomyces sp.3 suppressed Fusariumwilt disease in tomato from 88% in control to 20%.

  11. Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by a consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-10-16

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2-10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment.

  12. Identification and production of bioflocculants by Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. and their characterization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, L; Nellaiah, H; Kathiresan, T; Rajini, N; Christopher, Fenila

    2017-05-28

    In this work, two bioflocculants, namely, EB-EPS and B1-EPS, were derived from Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively, and analyzed with regard to their production and characterization. About 0.9 and 0.16 g of purified EB and B1 were obtained from I L of fermentation broth. Chemical analysis showed the contents of purified EB and B1 mainly as 88.7 and 92.8% (w/w) of carbohydrate, and 11.3 and 21.8% (w/w) protein, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, amide, and carboxyl groups in the identified bioflocculant. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results exhibited enhanced thermal stability with a minimum mass loss of 50% while 25% were found to have occurred at higher temperatures (>400°C) for microbe-derived compounds EB and B1 leading to the possibility of using these compounds as fillers or for fabricating composite films for high-temperature applications. Further, the compounds from both the bacteria exhibited good antibacterial characteristics against pathogenic Escherichia coli. Degradability study of bioflocculant-embedded composite films shows the possibility of attaining eco-friendly bioremediation. Accordingly, experimental results revealed the suitability of developed composite films as a suitable alternative for food packaging and biomedical applications.

  13. Potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o isolados de Fusarium sp., in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anthony Hoffmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo – O uso discriminado de agrotóxicos acarreta em uma grande prejuízo a saúdes das pessoas e do meio ambiente. O uso de novos métodos de combate a pragas se faz necessário para o equilíbrio da cadeia produtiva. A utilização de microrganismos no combate a pragas se faz como uma boa alternativa. O trabalho objetivou-se em avaliar o potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o patógeno Fusarium sp. in vitro. Para isso foi utilizado os métodos de confronto direto, pareamento de culturas e de metabólitos voláteis. Os experimentos foram realizados na incubadora de empresas da Universidade Federal do Tocantins – UFT Campus de Gurupi, seguiram com três repetições. Foram testados 15 isolados do antagonista em confronto direto com o patógeno e os mesmos isolados e patógeno foram testados em metabólitos voláteis ambos utilizando o meio de cultura BDA. Todos os isolados apresentaram antagonismo in vitro contra o patógeno.

  14. Listeria booriae sp. nov. and Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov., from food processing environments in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Andrus, Alexis; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of seafood and dairy processing facilities in the north-eastern USA produced 18 isolates of Listeria spp. that could not be identified at the species-level using traditional phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. Results of phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggested that the isolates represent two novel species with an average nucleotide blast identity of less than 92% with previously described species of the genus Listeria. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole genome sequences, 16S rRNA gene and sigB gene sequences confirmed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) and FSL A5-0209 cluster phylogenetically with Listeria cornellensis. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) cluster phylogenetically with Listeria riparia. The name Listeria booriae sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) ( =DSM 28860(T) =LMG 28311(T)), and the name Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) ( =DSM 28861(T) =LMG 28310(T)). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggest that neither species is pathogenic. © 2015 IUMS.

  15. Glycomyces scopariae sp. nov. and Glycomyces mayteni sp. nov., isolated from medicinal plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sheng; Chen, Hua-Hong; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated YIM 56256(T) and YIM 61331(T), were isolated from the roots of Scoparia dulcis and Maytenus austroyunnanensis, two Chinese medicinal plants, and their taxonomic status was established based on a polyphasic investigation. The organisms were found to have chemical and morphological markers typical of members of the genus Glycomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that they were closely related to each other and to Glycomyces sambucus E71(T). A battery of physiological characteristics and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness indicated that strains YIM 56256(T) and YIM 61331(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from the related known Glycomyces species. On the basis of the data presented, it is evident that each of these strains represents a novel species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces scopariae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 56256(T) =KCTC 19158(T) =DSM 44968(T)) and Glycomyces mayteni sp. nov. (type strain YIM 61331(T) =KCTC 19527(T) =CCTCC AA 208004(T)) are proposed.

  16. Methylobacterium pseudosasicola sp. nov. and Methylobacterium phyllostachyos sp. nov., isolated from bamboo leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj

    2014-07-01

    Two strains of Gram-negative, methylotrophic bacteria, isolated because of their abilities to promote plant growth, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The isolates were strictly aerobic, motile, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic, non-spore-forming rods. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolates included the presence of C18 : 1ω7c as the major cellular fatty acid. The DNA G+C contents of strains BL36(T) and BL47(T) were 69.4 and 69.8 mol%, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strains BL36(T) and BL47(T) placed them under the genus Methylobacterium, with the pairwise sequence similarity between them and the type strains of closely related species ranging from 97.2 to 99.0%. On the basis of their phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, the isolates represent two novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium pseudosasicola sp. nov. (type strain BL36(T) = NBRC 105203(T) = ICMP 17621(T)) and Methylobacterium phyllostachyos sp. nov. (type strain BL47(T) = NBRC 105206(T) = ICMP 17619(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  17. Watery rot of pseudo-stem (Dickeya sp. management in banana (Musa sp. under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This crop has serious constraints with diseases, including those caused by bacteria, such as Dickeya sp. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of 4 resistance inductors and 3 doses in Chlorine Dioxide in handling watery rot of pseudo-stem (Dickeya sp. in banana. Resistance inducers and their doses were Potassium Phosphite: 1.5 cm 3 .l -1 ; 3-Aminobutanoic Acid: 1.0 g.l -1 ; Methyl Jasmonate: 0.2 g.l -1 ; S-Methyl-Acibenzolar: 0.3 ml.l -1 , all by foliar application, while Chlorine Dioxide was injected into the pseudo-stem, in doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg.l -1 . The evaluated variables were: development of the disease, total biomass and quantification of the bacterium in the inoculated pseudo-stems. Applications of Chlorine Dioxide achieved a reduction of disease by 65.4, 91.99 and 61.5%, in addition to an inhibition of 100% of the pathogen, using 30 and 50 mg.l -1 doses. Meanwhile, the use of resistance inductors reduced up to 60.6% of the disease, but this effect failed to improve plant growth.

  18. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  19. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  20. Growth kinetics and biodeterioration of polypropylene microplastics by Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp. isolated from mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, H S; Emenike, C U; Jayanthi, B; Fauziah, S H

    2018-02-01

    Interest in the biodegradation of microplastics is due to their ubiquitous distribution, availability, high persistence in the environment and deleterious impact on marine biota. The present study evaluates the growth response and mechanism of polypropylene (PP) degradation by Bacillus sp. strain 27 and Rhodococcus sp. strain 36 isolated from mangrove sediments upon exposure to PP microplastics. Both bacteria strains were able to utilise PP microplastic for growth as confirmed by the reduction of the polymer mass. The weight loss was 6.4% by Rhodococcus sp. strain 36 and 4.0% by Bacillus sp. strain 27 after 40days of incubation. PP biodegradation was further confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses, which revealed structural and morphological changes in the PP microplastics with microbial treatment. These analyses showed that the isolates can colonise, modify and utilise PP microplastics as carbon source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic activity induced by sp 3 to sp 2 transition of carbon dopants in BiOCl crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jianguo

    2017-09-19

    The insufficient light absorption and low quantum efficiency limit the photocatalytic performance of wide bandgap semiconductors. Here, we report a facile strategy to engineer the surface disordered defects of BiOCl nanosheets via carbon doping. The surface defects boost the light absorption and also the quantum yields, as the doped carbon atoms exhibit a transition from sp3 to sp2 hybridization at elevated temperature, corresponding to a change of assembly state from 3D cluster to 2D graphite-like structure. This transition results in an effective charge separation and thus one order of enhancement in photocatalytic activity toward phenol degradation under visible light. The current study opens an avenue to introduce sp3 to sp2 transition of carbon dopants for simultaneous increment of light absorption and quantum efficiency for application in photocatalysis and energy conversion.

  2. Rhopalophthalmus constrictus sp. nov. and Australomysis reubeni sp. nov. (Crustacea-Mysidacea) from south-west Australian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    Two new species of mysids are described, Rhopalophthalmus constrictus sp. nov. is in having a well-produced triangular rostral plate, pleural plates on the anterior five abdominal somites and prominent constriction at the distal end of the telson...

  3. Gordonia humi sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, P; Young, Chiu-Chung; Chu, Jiunn-Nan; Frischmann, A; Busse, H-J; Arun, A B; Shen, Fo-Ting; Rekha, P D

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium (CC-12301(T)) was isolated from soil attached to a spawn used in the laboratory to grow the edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain CC-12301(T) was shown to belong to the genus Gordonia and was most closely related to the type strains of Gordonia hydrophobica (97.6 % similarity), Gordonia terrae (97.5 %), Gordonia amarae (97.5 %) and Gordonia malaquae (97.4 %). The quinone system was determined to consist predominantly of menaquinone MK-9(H(2)), minor amounts of MK-8(H(2)) and MK-7(H(2)). The polar lipid profile consisted of the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, moderate amounts of two phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylinositol and minor amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified glycolipids, two phosphoglycolipids and a phospholipid. Mycolic acids were present. These chemotaxonomic traits and the major fatty acids, which were C(16 : 1) cis9, C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1) and tuberculostearic acid (10-methyl C(18 : 0)), supported the affiliation of strain CC-12301(T) to the genus Gordonia. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed clear phenotypic differentiation of strain CC-12301(T) from the most closely related Gordonia species. Strain CC-12301(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Gordonia humi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain CC-12301(T) (=DSM 45298(T) =CCM 7727(T)).

  4. Xenophilus aerolatus sp. nov., isolated from air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yi-Seul; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Anandham, Rangasamy; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2010-02-01

    A novel aerobic, Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated 5516S-2(T) was isolated from an air sample taken in Suwon, Republic of Korea. Colonies were yellow-pigmented and circular with entire margins. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 5516S-2(T) was closely related to Xylophilus ampelinus DSM 7250(T) (97.6 % sequence similarity), Variovorax soli KACC 11579(T) (97.5 %) and Xenophilus azovorans DSM 13620(T) (97.1 %). However, the phylogenetic tree indicated that strain 5516S-2(T) formed a separate clade from Xenophilus azovorans. Strain 5516S-2(T) displayed 42, 31 and 30 % DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of Xenophilus azovorans, Xylophilus ampelinus and V. soli, respectively. The major fatty acids (>10 % of total fatty acids) were C(16 : 0) (33.3 %), C(17 : 0) cyclo (18.8 %), C(18 : 1)omega7c (17.5 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH; 13.0 %). The DNA G+C content was 69 mol%. The major quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and two unknown aminophospholipids. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics clearly distinguished strain 5516S-2(T) from closely related species and indicated that it represents a novel species within the genus Xenophilus, for which the name Xenophilus aerolatus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 5516S-2(T) (=KACC 12602(T)=DSM 19424(T)).

  5. Streptomyces xylanilyticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonmangmee, Duangtip; Kanchanasin, Pawina; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Moonmangmee, Somporn

    2017-10-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain SR2-123 T , belonging to the genus Streptomyces, was isolated from a soil sample collected from the Sakaerat Environmental Research Station, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of the strain was characterized using a polyphasic study. Strain SR2-123 T contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose and ribose in whole-cell hydrolysates. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. Menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown phospholipid, unknown glycolipids, an unknown aminophospholipid, unknown lipids and an unknown aminolipid. The DNA G+C content was 74.8 mol%. The strain was closely related to Streptomyces coeruleorubidus JCM 4359 T (98.5 %), Streptomyces flavofungini JCM 4753 T (98.5 %), Streptomyces coerulescens NBRC 12758 T (98. 5 %) and Streptomyces alboflavus JCM 4615 T (98.4 %), based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The novel strain exhibited low DNA-DNA relatedness values with the type strains (11.4-25.0 %) of closely related species. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain SR2-123 T could be distinguished from closely related species of the genus Streptomyces and represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces xylanilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR2-123 T (=TISTR 2493 T =KCTC 39909 T ).

  6. Streptomyces krungchingensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tamura, Tomohiko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2017-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain KC-035T, was isolated from soil collected from Krung Ching Waterfall National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. Its taxonomic position was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strain had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Streptomyces: flexuous spore chain; ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan; MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4) as menaquinones; diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside as phospholipids; anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids; and DNA G+C content of 72 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KC-035T showed high similarity to Streptomyces albiflavescens n20T (99.16 %) and Streptomyces siamensis KC-038T (98.43 %) as well as formed a monophyletic clade with them in the phylogenetic tree. On the basis of comparison of phenotypic properties and the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness, strain KC-035T could be distinguished from its closely related Streptomyces species and is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces krungchingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC-035T (=NBRC 110087T=KCTC 29503T=TISTR 2402T).

  7. Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ning; Li, Hui-Rong; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m(-2)) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10(T) (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82(T) (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1a(T) (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539(T) (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20(T) was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20(T) ( = DSM 27864(T) = CCTCC AB 2013263(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  8. Pedobacterpsychrotolerans sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Pooja; Zhang, Gengxin; Lama, Arun; Hu, Yilun; Gao, Feng

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, light-pink-pigmented, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated V5RDT, was isolated from soil of Damxung county in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Strain V5RDT grew luxuriously at 10 °C, at pH 9.0 and in the presence of 1 % NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain V5RDT in the genus Pedobacter and found that it was most closely related to Pedobacter alluvionis DSM 19624T (97.3 %), Pedobacter ginsenosidimutans JCM 16721T (96.84 %), Pedobacter agri DSM 19486T (96.28 %), Pedobacter roseus JCM 13399T (96.22 %), Pedobacter sandarakinus KCTC 12559T (95.92 %) and Pedobacter borealis DSM 19626T (95.85 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of the type strain V5RDT was 37.40 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness for the type strain V5RDT with respect to its closest phylogenetic relative, P. alluvionis DSM 19624T, was 62.5±1.7 %. The polar lipid profile of the strain consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified polar lipids. Menaquinone MK-7 was the predominant respiratory quinone, and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH were the major fatty acids. With respect to phenotypic characteristics, biochemical properties and phylogenetic inference, strain V5RDT represents a novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the name Pedobacter psychrotolerans sp. nov is proposed. The type strain is V5RDT (=CGMCC 1.15644T=DSM 103236T).

  9. Impact of serum SP-A and SP-D levels on comparison and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ju, Qing; Cao, Jing; Tang, Wenze; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis in general; however, it is heterogeneous to detect relative biomarkers for predicting the disease progression. Serum biomarkers can be conveniently collected to detect and help to differentially diagnose IPF and predict IPF prognosis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the use of serum surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) for differential diagnosis and prognosis of IPF. Methods: Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases and reviewed by 2 independent readers. Standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the difference in serum levels of SP-A/D among patients with IPF, when compared to patients with non-IPF interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary infection, and healthy control. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI were used to compare the relative risk of mortality. Results: Twenty-one articles (totalling 1289 IPF patients) were included in final meta-analysis. Serum SP-A levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with non-IPF ILD (SMD: 1.108 [0.584, 1.632], P infection (SMD: 1.320 [0.999, 1.640], P SMD: 2.802 [1.901, 3.702], P SMD: 0.459 [−0.000, 0.919], P = .050). Serum SP-D levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with pulmonary infection (SMD: 1.308 [0.813, 1.803], P SMD: 2.235 [1.739, 2.731], P < .001). Risk of death in patients with IPF and elevated serum SP-A was increased 39% compared to patients with low SP-A groups. Elevated SP-D increased risk by 111% when compared to low SP-D. In acute exacerbation of IPF, serum SP-A/D were higher than those in stable stage. The comparisons and prognosis might be different in Asian and Caucasian patients. Conclusions: Serum SP-A/D detection might be useful for differential diagnosis and prediction of survival in patients with IPF. PMID:28591049

  10. Flow chemistry as a discovery tool to access sp2-sp3 cross-coupling reactions via diazo compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duc N; Battilocchio, Claudio; Lou, Shing-Bong; Hawkins, Joel M; Ley, Steven V

    2015-02-01

    The work takes advantage of an important feature of flow chemistry, whereby the generation of a transient species (or reactive intermediate) can be followed by a transfer step into another chemical environment, before the intermediate is reacted with a coupling partner. This concept is successfully applied to achieve a room temperature sp 2 -sp 3 cross coupling of boronic acids with diazo compounds, these latter species being generated from hydrazones under flow conditions using MnO 2 as the oxidant.

  11. Modular Stereoselective Synthesis of (1 -> 2)-C-Glycosides based on the sp(2)-sp(3) Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oroszová, B.; Choutka, J.; Pohl, Radek; Parkan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 19 (2015), s. 7043-7047 ISSN 0947-6539 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP207/12/P713; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17572S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : C-disaccharides * C-glycosides * diastereoselectivity * Mitsunobu reaction * sp(2)-sp(3) coupling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Deep-Sea Alteromonas sp. Strain V450 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Leiodermatium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guojun; Barrett, Nolan H; McCarthy, Peter J

    2017-02-02

    The proteobacterium Alteromonas sp. strain V450 was isolated from the Atlantic deep-sea sponge Leiodermatium sp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, with a genome size of approx. 4.39 Mb and a G+C content of 44.01%. The results will aid deep-sea microbial ecology, evolution, and sponge-microbe association studies. Copyright © 2017 Wang et al.

  13. Impact of serum SP-A and SP-D levels on comparison and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kai; Ju, Qing; Cao, Jing; Tang, Wenze; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis in general; however, it is heterogeneous to detect relative biomarkers for predicting the disease progression. Serum biomarkers can be conveniently collected to detect and help to differentially diagnose IPF and predict IPF prognosis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the use of serum surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) for differential diagnosis and prognosis of IPF. Methods: Relevant artic...

  14. Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mayana Jantan (Coleus Atropurpureus Benth) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Streptococcus SP. Dan Pseudomonas SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Muljono, Patrick; Fatimawali; Manampiring, Aaltje E

    2016-01-01

    : The painted nettle (Coleus atropurpureus benth) is a plant that is known to have medicinal properties, especially the leaf. The active compounds that are contained in the leafs are thought to work as an antibacterial. This study aims to measure the inhibitory strength of painted nettle leaf (Coleus atropurpureus benth) extract against the growth of Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. This was an experimental laboratory study. The polar extract of painted nettle leaf (Coleus atropurpureus ...

  15. Airborne fine particulate matter induces an upregulation of endothelin receptors on rat bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rong; Xiao, Xue; Cao, Lei; Shen, Zhen-xing; Lei, Ying; Cao, Yong-xiao

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a risk factor for respiratory diseases. However, little is known about the effects of PM2.5 on bronchi. The present study investigated the effect of airborne PM2.5 on rat bronchi and the underlying mechanisms. Isolated rat bronchial segments were cultured for 24 h. Endothelin (ET) receptor-mediated contractile responses were recorded using a wire myograph. The mRNA and protein expression levels of ET receptors were studied using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that ET A and ET B receptor agonists induced remarkable contractile responses on fresh and cultured bronchial segments. PM2.5 (1.0 or 3.0 μg/ml) significantly enhanced ET A and ET B receptor-mediated contractile responses in bronchi with a markedly increased maximal contraction compared to the DMSO or fresh groups. PM2.5 increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of ET A and ET B receptors. U0126 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) significantly suppressed PM2.5-induced increases in ET B receptor-mediated contractile responses, mRNA and protein levels. SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 significantly abrogated the PM2.5-induced enhancement of ET A receptor-mediated contraction and receptor expression. In conclusion, PM2.5 upregulates ET receptors in bronchi. ET B receptor upregulation is associated with MEK1/2 and p38 pathways, and the upregulation of ET A receptor is involved in JNK and p38 pathways. - Highlights: • Airborne PM2.5 induces bronchial hyperreactivity mediated with endothelin ET B and ET A receptors in rats. • PM2.5 increases mRNA and protein expressions of endothelin ET B and ET A receptors in bronchi. • The upregulation of ET B receptor is associated with MEK1/2 and p38 pathways. • The upregulation of ET A receptor is involved in JNK and p38 pathways. • The research provides novel understanding for PM2.5-associated respiratory diseases.

  16. Superhard sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Meng; Ma, Mengdong; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; He, Julong, E-mail: hjl@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Four sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772). The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  17. Botanical pesticides effect from shells of bean’s cashew nut on biological agents of trichoderma sp. and gliocladium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, L. O. S.; Mariadi; Gusnawaty, HS; Nuriadi; Trisulpa, L.; Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    A shell of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentanle) has contained Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) that is used as botanical pesticides. CNSL oil consists of active substance such as anacardat acid, cardol and cardanol. Utilization of the pesticides from shells of cashew nut to control pests and diseases of plants would be affected on biological agents. The objective of this research was to investigate pesticides inhibition on the increase of mycelium Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. by in vitro method. The tested concentration sample consisted of 0.0% (control), 2.5%, 7.5% and 10.0% in PDA media. The results of this research showed that 2.5% botanical pesticides concentration could minimize mycelium of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. 22.73% and 21.04% respectively and also the increase shells of cashew extract could be affected the increase of mycelium inhibition. The extract with 2.5% concentration was the recommended concentration to control of fruit rot diseases and if concentration was 10.0% then its inhibition become 54.98% and 49.35%, respectively. The results proved that uncontrolled utilization of the pesticides could be affected on decrease of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. growth.

  18. Characterization of Ethanolic Extract of Streptomyces sp. as a Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitors Produced by Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenni Fitri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 isolated from Zingiber cassumunar (Bangle is known to produce pancreatic lipase inhibitory compound. However, the characteristics of this active compound has not been reported yet. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of pancreatics inhibitory compound produced by Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 and to assess the role of endophytic actinobacteria in producing pancreatic lipase inhibitor using endophytic-free bangle tissue culture, wild bangle and compared with the activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 endophytes. Supernatant of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was extracted using ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane solvents. Toxicity test was performed using larvae of shrimp Artemia salina. The results showed that the best solvent to obtain pancreatic lipase inhibitor compounds was ethanol. Phytochemical analysis showed that ethanolic extract of endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 contained flavonoids. IC50 value of ethanol extract was 180.83 µg/ml. The result of TLC showed that ethanolic extract of Streptomyces AEBg12 had a blue luminescence band indicated that there were either flavone, flavanones, flavonols or isoflavones. Inhibitory activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was higher than wild bangle and bangle tissue culture. The information from this study can be be used as a basic data for further characterization of the active compound, which might be developed as an antiobesity agent through its pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.

  19. UJI POTENSI Gliocladium sp TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN TOMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Herlina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMikroorganisme tanah seperti Gliocladium sp dapat bertindak sebagai dekomposer dan juga sebagai agen pengendali hayati patogen tanaman hal ini memberikan harapan untuk mengurangi penggunaan pupuk dan fungisida sintetik. Tujuan penelitian untuk menguji potensi biofertililzer Gliocladium sp terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. Variabel bebas yaitu bioferlizer Gliocladium sp  dengan dosis (g/tanaman 0,50, 100, 150, dan 200 .Variabel tergantung adalah pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman tomat. Parameter pertumbuhan yang diukur adalah  tinggi tanaman, kandungan klorofil a dan b. Parameter hasil tanaman yang diukur adalah berat buah setelah panen. Hasil uji Anava satu jalan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian Gliocladium sp perpengaruh terhadap tinggi tanaman, kandungan klorofil a dan klorofil b, berat tomat  . Hasil uji lanjut Duncan menunjukkan bahwa dosis 100, g 150 g dan 200 g tidak berbeda signifikan terhadap tinggi tanaman, dosis 150g dan 200 g tidak berbedan nyata dalam pembentukan klorofil a dan klorofil b. Pemberian Gliocladium dosis 150g paling tinggi terhadap berat buah. Simpulan dalam penelitian ini bahwa pemberian Gliokompos sp berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. AbstractSoil microorganisms such as Gliocladium sp. can play role in the decomposition and can also become the biological control of pathogenic plants. The animal is potentially reduce the use of fertilizers and synthetic fungidid. The aim of the study was to test the potential effect of biofertililzer Gliocladium sp. on the growth and production of tomatoes. The independent variables was biofertilizer Gliocladium sp. at various dosages (g/plant of 0, 50, 100, 150, dan 200. The dependent variables were the growth and the production of tomatoes. The growth parameter measured were plant height, as well as a and b chlorophyl contents.  The crop parameter was the fruit weight post-harvest.  A one-way anova showed that Gliocladium sp. affected the

  20. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B; Govitrapong, P

    2005-01-01

    hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers......-fixed rat brain sections showed substance P and neurokinin A to be present in nerve fibers located both in the perivascular spaces as well as intraparenchymally between the pinealocytes. After extracting total RNA, followed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers...

  1. Prostaglandin Receptor Signaling in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Matsuoka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostanoids, consisting of the prostaglandins (PGs and the thromboxanes (TXs, are a group of lipid mediators formed in response to various stimuli. They include PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2, and TXA2. They are released outside of the cells immediately after synthesis, and exert their actions by binding to a G-protein coupled rhodopsin-type receptor on the surface of target cells. There are eight types of the prostanoid receptors conserved in mammals from mouse to human. They are the PGD receptor (DP, four subtypes of the PGE receptor (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, the PGF receptor (FP, PGI receptor (IP, and TXA receptor (TP. Recently, mice deficient in each of these prostanoid receptors were generated and subjected to various experimental models of disease. These studies have revealed the roles of PG receptor signaling in various pathological conditions, and suggest that selective manipulation of the prostanoid receptors may be beneficial in treatment of the pathological conditions. Here we review these recent findings of roles of prostanoid receptor signaling and their therapeutic implications.

  2. The interleukin-4 receptor: signal transduction by a hematopoietin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, A D; Pierce, J H

    1994-02-01

    Over the last several years, the receptors for numerous cytokines have been molecularly characterized. Analysis of their amino acid sequences shows that some of these receptors bear certain motifs in their extracellular domains that define a family of receptors called the Hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Significant advances in characterizing the structure, function, and mechanisms of signal transduction have been made for several members of this family. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances made for one of the family members, the interleukin (IL) 4 receptor. Other receptor systems have recently been reviewed elsewhere. The IL-4 receptor consists of, at the minimum, the cloned 140 kDa IL-4-binding chain with the potential for associating with other chains. The IL-4 receptor transduces its signal by activating a tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates cellular substrates, including the receptor itself, and the 170 kDa substrate called 4PS. Phosphorylated 4PS interacts with the SH2 domain of the enzyme PI-3'-kinase and increases its enzymatic activity. These early events in the IL-4 receptor initiated signaling pathway may trigger a series of signals that will ultimately lead to an IL-4 specific biologic outcome.

  3. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma sp. dan Gliocladium sp. untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu (Fusarium oxysporum) pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhina, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Arie Ramadhina, 2012. The Use of Antagonism Fungus of Trichoderma sp and Gliocladium sp. for Controlling Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) in Red Onion Plants (Allium ascolanicum). Supervised by Lisnawita and Lahmuddin Lubis. The aim of the research was to know the effectiveness of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants. The research was performed in the green-house at the faculty of Agriculture, USU, from February until May, 2012. The researc...

  4. In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2013-07-01

    The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  5. Meeting report: nuclear receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuckermann, Jan; Bourguet, William; Mandrup, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The biannual European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) conference on nuclear receptors was organized by Beatrice Desvergne and Laszlo Nagy and took place in Cavtat near Dubrovnik on the Adriatic coast of Croatia September 25-29, 2009. The meeting brought together researchers from all over...... the world covering a wide spectrum from fundamental mechanistic studies to metabolism, clinical studies, and drug development. In this report, we summarize the recent and exciting findings presented by the speakers at the meeting....

  6. Neurotransmitter receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, M.; Hierholzer, J.; Nikolai-Beyer, K.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of neuroreceptor imaging in vivo using single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) has increased enormously. The principal neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, GABA/benzodiazepine, acetylcholine, and serotonin, are presented with reference to anatomical, biochemical, and physiological features. The main radioligands for SPECT and PET are introduced, and methodological characteristics of both PET and SPECT presented. Finally, the results of neurotransmitter receptor imaging obtained so far will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  8. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp) from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Seinen; Kajigaya, Yoshikazu; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Niwa, Kentaro; Shibuno, Takuro; Nanami, Atsushi; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2014-01-01

    Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu) to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands) to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE). Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century.

  9. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp from Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE. Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century.

  10. Development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as an emerging chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-derived natural products are important in both the pharmaceutical industry and academic research. As the metabolic potential of original producer especially Streptomyces is often limited by slow growth rate, complicated cultivation profile, and unfeasible genetic manipulation, so exploring a Streptomyces as a super industrial chassis is valuable and urgent. Streptomyces sp. FR-008 is a fast-growing microorganism and can also produce a considerable amount of macrolide candicidin via modular polyketide synthase. In this study, we evaluated Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as a potential industrial-production chassis. First, PacBio sequencing and transcriptome analyses indicated that the Streptomyces sp. FR-008 genome size is 7.26 Mb, which represents one of the smallest of currently sequenced Streptomyces genomes. In addition, we simplified the conjugation procedure without heat-shock and pre-germination treatments but with high conjugation efficiency, suggesting it is inherently capable of accepting heterologous DNA. In addition, a series of promoters selected from literatures was assessed based on GusA activity in Streptomyces sp. FR-008. Compared with the common used promoter ermE*-p, the strength of these promoters comprise a library with a constitutive range of 60–860%, thus providing the useful regulatory elements for future genetic engineering purpose. In order to minimum the genome, we also target deleted three endogenous polyketide synthase (PKS gene clusters to generate a mutant LQ3. LQ3 is thus an “updated” version of Streptomyces sp. FR-008, producing fewer secondary metabolites profiles than Streptomyces sp. FR-008. We believe this work could facilitate further development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 for use in biotechnological applications.

  11. Allophycocyanin forms isolated from Nostoc sp. phycobilisomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilinskas, B.A.; Zimmerman, B.K.; Gantt, E.

    1978-01-01

    Allophycocyanin from dissociated phycobilisomes of Nostoc sp. occurs in three spectrally identifiable forms that fractionate on calcium phosphate adsorption chromatography as: allophycocyanin (APC) I (15 to 20%), APC II (40 to 50%), and APC III (30 to 40%). APC I has a single absorption maximum at 654 nm, and a fluorescence emission peak at 678 nm. The absorption peaks of APC II and III are both at 650 nm, but the relative absorbance at 620/650 nm of APC III is less than that of APC II. The emission of both is maximum at 660 nm. On zone sedimentation in sucrose, their S/sub 20 w/ values of 6.0 +- 0.1 (APC I), 5.0 +- 0.1 (APC II), and 5.3 +-0.2 (APC III) were comparable to the order of their elution from Sephadex G-200. On SDS acrylamide gel electrophoresis two subunits were resolved with apparent molecular weights of 16,900 and 18,400 daltons. When stained by Coomassie blue, they were present in a ratio of 1..cap alpha..:1..beta.. in APC II and III, and a probable ratio of 2..cap alpha..:3..beta.. in APC I. The larger size of APC I may be accounted for by additional ..beta.. subunits, by the presence of an additional polypeptide of 35,000 daltons, or both. Over several days, bleaching as noted by a decrease in absorbance at 650 nm, occurred in all three forms; in addition, the more pronounced bleaching at 650 nm, relative to 620 nm, results in APC III becoming spectrally identical to APC II. A trace of a fourth pigment, probably comparable to allophycocyanin-B, was occasionally detected. The results suggest that several in vitro APC forms (sharing similar subunits) arise upon phycobilisome dissociation, and that APC I is the form most closely related to the final fluorescence emitter of intact phycobilisomes. In this form it probably serves as the bridging pigment in energy transfer from the phycobilisomes to chlorophyll.

  12. Assembly of Oligomeric Death Domain Complexes during Toll Receptor Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieffe, Martin C.; Grossmann, J. Günter; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila Toll receptor is activated by the endogenous protein ligand Spätzle in response to microbial stimuli in immunity and spatial cues during embryonic development. Downstream signaling is mediated by the adaptor proteins Tube, the kinase Pelle, and the Drosophila homologue of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (dMyD88). Here we have characterized heterodimeric (dMyD88-Tube) and heterotrimeric (dMyD88-Tube-Pelle) death domain complexes. We show that both the heterodimeric and heterotrimeric complexes form kidney-shaped structures and that Tube is bivalent and has separate high affinity binding sites for dMyD88 and Pelle. Additionally we found no interaction between the isolated death domains of Pelle and dMyD88. These results indicate that the mode of assembly of the heterotrimeric dMyD88-Tube-Pelle complex downstream of the activated Toll receptor is unique. The measured dissociation constants for the interaction between the death domains of dMyD88 and Tube and of Pelle and a preformed dMyD88-Tube complex are used to propose a model of the early postreceptor events in Drosophila Toll receptor signaling. PMID:18829464

  13. Assembly of oligomeric death domain complexes during Toll receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieffe, Martin C; Grossmann, J Günter; Gay, Nicholas J

    2008-11-28

    The Drosophila Toll receptor is activated by the endogenous protein ligand Spätzle in response to microbial stimuli in immunity and spatial cues during embryonic development. Downstream signaling is mediated by the adaptor proteins Tube, the kinase Pelle, and the Drosophila homologue of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (dMyD88). Here we have characterized heterodimeric (dMyD88-Tube) and heterotrimeric (dMyD88-Tube-Pelle) death domain complexes. We show that both the heterodimeric and heterotrimeric complexes form kidney-shaped structures and that Tube is bivalent and has separate high affinity binding sites for dMyD88 and Pelle. Additionally we found no interaction between the isolated death domains of Pelle and dMyD88. These results indicate that the mode of assembly of the heterotrimeric dMyD88-Tube-Pelle complex downstream of the activated Toll receptor is unique. The measured dissociation constants for the interaction between the death domains of dMyD88 and Tube and of Pelle and a preformed dMyD88-Tube complex are used to propose a model of the early postreceptor events in Drosophila Toll receptor signaling.

  14. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  15. Azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and inhibits retinoic acid-mediated biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K

    2011-02-11

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies.

  16. Azadirachtin Interacts with Retinoic Acid Receptors and Inhibits Retinoic Acid-mediated Biological Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B.; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicida