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Sample records for soybean roots causing

  1. Pathogenicity and genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum causing soybean root rot in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is an important edible legume cultivated around the world. However, soybean production is seriously impacted by the widespread occurrence of root rot disease. In this study, genetic diversity and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot of soybean in Heilongjiang province...

  2. Root interactions in a maize/soybean intercropping system control soybean soil-borne disease, red crown rot.

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    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum. The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices.

  3. Effect of root contact on N uptake distribution in intercropped soybean and hedgerow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhonglu; Cai Chongfa; Zhong Cheng; Wang Zhongmin

    2012-01-01

    Below-ground for nutrients and water can be clue to the cause of the reduction of crops yields. Root interaction plays on important role in estimating the effect of below-ground competition. However, little information had been known about these hedgerows-crops interaction in contour hedgerow agroforestry. Pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of root contact on N absorption and transfer in purple soil of two hedges-soybean intercropping systems with two different methods of 15 N foliar-feeding and 15 N soil labeling methods, along with root partition, i. e., a sheet barrier treatment, a mesh barrier, and no barrier treatment. Results showed that the growth of Amorpha. fruticosa was suppressed without root barrier, leading to lower biomass and N acquisition than those with mesh and sheet barrier; the biomass and N acquisition of Vertiveria zizanioide and soybean without root barrier were the highest in Vertiver intercropping system. The 15 N abundance is higher in soybean and A. fruticosa with mesh barrier, but 15 N abundance is higher in Vertiver without root barrier, which suggested that the Vertiver is a stronger competitor in Vertiver/soybean intercropping system. N transfer from soybean to hedge species was obvious using 15 N direct labeling methods, which suggested that competition between of A. fruticosa or Vertiver for nitrogen fertilizer was stronger. Interspecific inhibition did exist in A. fruticosa-soybean intercropping, and the growth of A. fruticosa and soybean were suppressed; the complementary nitrogen use did exist in Vertiver-soybean intercropping, and both competition and facilitation occurred in Vertiver-soybean intercropping which enhanced the growth of Vertiver and soybean. (authors)

  4. Drought stress responses in soybean roots and nodules

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    Karl Kunert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  5. Drought Stress Responses in Soybean Roots and Nodules.

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    Kunert, Karl J; Vorster, Barend J; Fenta, Berhanu A; Kibido, Tsholofelo; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  6. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

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    Rogério Barbosa Lima

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1 cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2 cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S content; 3 when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H, cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4 when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxycinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL, p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  7. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

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    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  8. Ectopic expression of AtPAD4 broadens resistance of soybean to soybean cyst and root-knot nematodes.

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    Youssef, Reham M; MacDonald, Margaret H; Brewer, Eric P; Bauchan, Gary R; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2013-04-25

    The gene encoding PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) is required in Arabidopsis for expression of several genes involved in the defense response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. AtPAD4 (Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4) encodes a lipase-like protein that plays a regulatory role mediating salicylic acid signaling. We expressed the gene encoding AtPAD4 in soybean roots of composite plants to test the ability of AtPAD4 to deter plant parasitic nematode development. The transformed roots were challenged with two different plant parasitic nematode genera represented by soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) and root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne incognita). Expression of AtPAD4 in soybean roots decreased the number of mature SCN females 35 days after inoculation by 68 percent. Similarly, soybean roots expressing AtPAD4 exhibited 77 percent fewer galls when challenged with RKN. Our experiments show that AtPAD4 can be used in an economically important crop, soybean, to provide a measure of resistance to two different genera of nematodes.

  9. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings 1

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    Creelman, Robert A.; Mason, Hugh S.; Bensen, Robert J.; Boyer, John S.; Mullet, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16667248

  10. Root growth in corn and soybeans: effects of cadmium and lead on lateral root initiation

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    Malone, C P; Miller, R J; Koeppe, D E

    1978-02-01

    This study examines the previously reported inhibitory effects of Cd on root growth. In hydroponic experiments, 100 ..mu..g Cd/l effected a 33% inhibition of lateral root initiation of corn. The growth of corn and soybean primary roots was not reduced at Cd concentrations of 1 mg/l, and the number of lateral root initials in soybeans was not reduced at 2 mg Cd/l. The toxic effects of Cd were ameliorated by additions of Zn or by additions of Fe citrate to nutrient growth solutions. While both Zn and Fe additions did result in increased lateral root initiation, the number of initials was significantly lower than the controls. Lead had no effect on the initiation of soybean lateral roots at a concentration of 100 ..mu..g Pb/l. However, 5 mg Pb/l did effect a 21% decrease in corn lateral root initials, but this decrease could not be demonstrated with higher Pb concentrations.

  11. Field Phenotyping of Soybean Roots for Drought Stress Tolerance

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    Berhanu A. Fenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Root architecture was determined together with shoot parameters under well watered and drought conditions in the field in three soybean cultivars (A5409RG, Jackson and Prima 2000. Morphology parameters were used to classify the cultivars into different root phenotypes that could be important in conferring drought tolerance traits. A5409RG is a drought-sensitive cultivar with a shallow root phenotype and a root angle of <40°. In contrast, Jackson is a drought-escaping cultivar. It has a deep rooting phenotype with a root angle of >60°. Prima 2000 is an intermediate drought-tolerant cultivar with a root angle of 40°–60°. It has an intermediate root phenotype. Prima 2000 was the best performing cultivar under drought stress, having the greatest shoot biomass and grain yield under limited water availability. It had abundant root nodules even under drought conditions. A positive correlation was observed between nodule size, above-ground biomass and seed yield under well-watered and drought conditions. These findings demonstrate that root system phenotyping using markers that are easy-to-apply under field conditions can be used to determine genotypic differences in drought tolerance in soybean. The strong association between root and nodule parameters and whole plant productivity demonstrates the potential application of simple root phenotypic markers in screening for drought tolerance in soybean.

  12. Analysis of gene expression profiles for cell wall modifying proteins and ACC synthases in soybean cyst nematode colonized roots, adventitious rooting hypocotyls, root tips, flooded roots, and IBA and ACC treatment roots

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    We hypothesized that soybean cyst nematode (SCN) co-opts a part or all of one or more innate developmental process in soybean to establish its feeding structure, syncytium, in soybean roots. The syncytium in soybean roots is formed in a predominantly lateral direction within the vascular bundle by ...

  13. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses of soybean root tips under flooding stress.

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    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nakamura, Takuji; Sugimoto, Yurie; Sakamoto, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is one of the serious problems for soybean plants because it inhibits growth. Proteomic and metabolomic techniques were used to determine whether proteins and metabolites are altered in the root tips of soybeans under flooding stress. Two-day-old soybean plants were flooded for 2 days, and proteins and metabolites were extracted from root tips. Flooding-responsive proteins were identified using two-dimensional- or SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis- based proteomics techniques. Using both techniques, 172 proteins increased and 105 proteins decreased in abundance in the root tips of flood-stressed soybean. The abundance of methionine synthase, heat shock cognate protein, urease, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase was significantly increased by flooding stress. Furthermore, 73 flooding-responsive metabolites were identified using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. The levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine, NADH2, and phosphoenol pyruvate were increased by flooding stress. Taken together, these results suggest that synthesis of phosphoenol pyruvate by way of oxaloacetate produced in the tricarboxylic acid cycle is activated in soybean root tips in response to flooding stress, and that flooding stress also leads to modulation of the urea cycle in the root tips.

  14. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of soybean primary root under varying water-deficit conditions.

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    Song, Li; Prince, Silvas; Valliyodan, Babu; Joshi, Trupti; Maldonado dos Santos, Joao V; Wang, Jiaojiao; Lin, Li; Wan, Jinrong; Wang, Yongqin; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-01-15

    Soybean is a major crop that provides an important source of protein and oil to humans and animals, but its production can be dramatically decreased by the occurrence of drought stress. Soybeans can survive drought stress if there is a robust and deep root system at the early vegetative growth stage. However, little is known about the genome-wide molecular mechanisms contributing to soybean root system architecture. This study was performed to gain knowledge on transcriptome changes and related molecular mechanisms contributing to soybean root development under water limited conditions. The soybean Williams 82 genotype was subjected to very mild stress (VMS), mild stress (MS) and severe stress (SS) conditions, as well as recovery from the severe stress after re-watering (SR). In total, 6,609 genes in the roots showed differential expression patterns in response to different water-deficit stress levels. Genes involved in hormone (Auxin/Ethylene), carbohydrate, and cell wall-related metabolism (XTH/lipid/flavonoids/lignin) pathways were differentially regulated in the soybean root system. Several transcription factors (TFs) regulating root growth and responses under varying water-deficit conditions were identified and the expression patterns of six TFs were found to be common across the stress levels. Further analysis on the whole plant level led to the finding of tissue-specific or water-deficit levels specific regulation of transcription factors. Analysis of the over-represented motif of different gene groups revealed several new cis-elements associated with different levels of water deficit. The expression patterns of 18 genes were confirmed byquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method and demonstrated the accuracy and effectiveness of RNA-Seq. The primary root specific transcriptome in soybean can enable a better understanding of the root response to water deficit conditions. The genes detected in root tissues that were associated with

  15. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots, root tips, and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)-infected roots.

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    Tucker, Mark L; Xue, Ping; Yang, Ronghui

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of plant roots by root knot and cyst nematodes requires a functional ethylene response pathway. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and whether its role in nematode colonization is direct or indirect, for example lateral root initiation or root hair growth, is not known. The temporal requirement for ethylene and localized synthesis of ethylene during the life span of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) on soybean roots was further investigated. Although a significant increase in ethylene evolution was not detected from SCN-colonized roots, the concentration of the immediate precursor to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), was higher in SCN-colonized root pieces and root tips than in other parts of the root. Moreover, expression analysis of 17 ACC synthase (ACS) genes indicated that a select set of ACS genes is expressed in SCN-colonized root pieces that is clearly different from the set of genes expressed in non-colonized roots or root tips. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR indicated that ACS transcript accumulation correlates with the high concentration of ACC in root tips. In addition, an ACS-like sequence was found in the public SCN nucleotide database. Acquisition of a full-length sequence for this mRNA (accession GQ389647) and alignment with transcripts for other well-characterized ACS proteins indicated that the nematode sequence is missing a key element required for ACS activity and therefore probably is not a functional ACS. Moreover, no significant amount of ACC was found in any growth stage of SCN that was tested.

  16. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

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    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean plants contain two urease isozymes which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (HAP1 and HAP2) differ in: (1) native gel electrophoretic mobility, (2) pH optima, and (3) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the embryo-specific urease. By these parameters HAP1 is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme while HAP2 resembles the ubiquitous urease, found in all soybean tissues previously examined (embryo, seed coat, cultured cells). Roots of mutant soybean plants lacking the seed urease contain no HAP1 urease activity, whereas roots of mutants lacking the ubiquitous urease contain no HAP2 urease activity. However, adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack HAP1 urease activity. Furthermore, [ 35 S] methionine labelling shows no de novo synthesis of the HAP1 urease in the root, and total root HAP1 urease activity decreases sharply following germination. We conclude: (1) HAP1 is a remnant of the seed urease accumulated in the embryonic root axis during seed development, and (2) HAP2 is ubiquitous urease synthesized de novo in the root

  17. Investigation of the Fusarium virguliforme Transcriptomes Induced during Infection of Soybean Roots Suggests that Enzymes with Hydrolytic Activities Could Play a Major Role in Root Necrosis.

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    Sahu, Binod B; Baumbach, Jordan L; Singh, Prashant; Srivastava, Subodh K; Yi, Xiaoping; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2017-01-01

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is caused by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, and is a major threat to soybean production in North America. There are two major components of this disease: (i) root necrosis and (ii) foliar SDS. Root symptoms consist of root necrosis with vascular discoloration. Foliar SDS is characterized by interveinal chlorosis and leaf necrosis, and in severe cases by flower and pod abscission. A major toxin involved in initiating foliar SDS has been identified. Nothing is known about how root necrosis develops. In order to unravel the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause root necrosis, the transcriptome of the pathogen in infected soybean root tissues of a susceptible cultivar, 'Essex', was investigated. The transcriptomes of the germinating conidia and mycelia were also examined. Of the 14,845 predicted F. virguliforme genes, we observed that 12,017 (81%) were expressed in germinating conidia and 12,208 (82%) in mycelia and 10,626 (72%) in infected soybean roots. Of the 10,626 genes induced in infected roots, 224 were transcribed only following infection. Expression of several infection-induced genes encoding enzymes with oxidation-reduction properties suggests that degradation of antimicrobial compounds such as the phytoalexin, glyceollin, could be important in early stages of the root tissue infection. Enzymes with hydrolytic and catalytic activities could play an important role in establishing the necrotrophic phase. The expression of a large number of genes encoding enzymes with catalytic and hydrolytic activities during the late infection stages suggests that cell wall degradation could be involved in root necrosis and the establishment of the necrotrophic phase in this pathogen.

  18. Phosphoproteomics reveals the effect of ethylene in soybean root under flooding stress.

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    Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Flooding has severe negative effects on soybean growth. To explore the flooding-responsive mechanisms in early-stage soybean, a phosphoproteomic approach was used. Two-day-old soybean plants were treated without or with flooding for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, and root tip proteins were then extracted and analyzed at each time point. After 3 h of flooding exposure, the fresh weight of soybeans increased, whereas the ATP content of soybean root tips decreased. Using a gel-free proteomic technique, a total of 114 phosphoproteins were identified in the root tip samples, and 34 of the phosphoproteins were significantly changed with respect to phosphorylation status after 3 h of flooding stress. Among these phosphoproteins, eukaryotic translation initiation factors were dephosphorylated, whereas several protein synthesis-related proteins were phosphorylated. The mRNA expression levels of sucrose phosphate synthase 1F and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G were down-regulated, whereas UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase mRNA expression was up-regulated during growth but down-regulated under flooding stress. Furthermore, bioinformatic protein interaction analysis of flooding-responsive proteins based on temporal phosphorylation patterns indicated that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G was located in the center of the network during flooding. Soybean eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G has homology to programmed cell death 4 protein and is implicated in ethylene signaling. The weight of soybeans was increased with treatment by an ethylene-releasing agent under flooding condition, but it was decreased when plants were exposed to an ethylene receptor antagonist. These results suggest that the ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role, via the protein phosphorylation, in mechanisms of plant tolerance to the initial stages of flooding stress in soybean root tips.

  19. Incidence of root rot diseases of soybean in Multan Pakistan and its management by the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.I.; Tahir, M.I.; Mahmood, S.

    2012-01-01

    Eight villages in Multan district were surveyed to record incidence of disease and losses of soybean (Glycine max L.) caused by root rot fungi. The root incidence ranged 10-17% and losses ranged 6.75-15.5%. The evaluation of four PGPR isolates was used in combination with organic amendment for the management of root-rot disease incidence and to reduce the population of root pathogenic fungi and to increase the yield in field. This study demonstrated effective biological control by the PGPR isolates tested, thereby indicating the possibility of application of rhizobacteria for control of soil bor ne diseases of soybean in Pakistan and other countries. (author)

  20. Influence of fertilizer placements on the root and shoot growth of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments have been carried out to obtain data of soybean growth in relation to fertilizer placements in the soil. Treatments in these two experiments were: fertilizer (N, P, and K) placements at the soil surface, 5, 10, and 15 cm beneath the soil surface and the plants were harvested at the age of 51, 58, and 65 days after seed planting, in the first experiment, and in the second experiment plants were harvested at the age of 37, 44, and 51 days after seed planting. The parameter for root growth was the percentage of roots in soil depths at: 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm, respectively, while for shoot growth the parameters were the dry weight of the shoot, plant height, and number of flowers and pods. Data obtained from these two experiments showed that fertilizer placements at several soil depths have no influence on the growth of root and shoot. The highest shoot growth was at 0-5 cm soil depth, but this does not cause highest shoot growth. Different harvest time do not effect root growth, but it has a highly siginificant on shoot growth. The soybean plants were planted in PVC pots with a 6 kg soil capacity, and the pots were placed outside the green house. (author)

  1. Genetic analyses of nonfluorescent root mutants induced by mutagenesis in soybean

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    Sawada, S.; Palmer, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Nonfluorescent root mutants in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are useful as markers in genetic studies and in tissue culture research. Our objective was to obtain mutagen-induced nonfluorescent root mutants and to conduct genetic studies with them. Thirteen nonfluorescent mutants were detected among 154016 seedlings derived from soybean lines treated with six mutagens. One of these mutants, derived from Williams treated with 20 kR gamma rays, did not correspond to any of the known (standard) nonfluorescent spontaneous mutants. This is the first mutagen-induced nonfluorescent root mutant in soybean. It was assigned Genetic Type Collection no. T285 and the gene symbol fr5 fr5. The fr5 allele was not located on trisomics A, B, or C and was not linked to five chlorophyll-deficient mutants (y9, y11, y12, y13, and y20-k2) or flower color mutant w1. The remaining nonfluorescent root mutants were at the same loci as known spontaneous mutants; i.e., four had the fr1 allele, five had the fr2 allele, and three had the fr4 allele

  2. Overexpression of four Arabidopsis thaliana NHLgenes in soybean (Glycine max) roots and their effect over resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

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    In the US, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean. Currently grown soybean varieties are not resistant to all field populations of SCN. We genetically engineered soybean roots so they expressed genes from the model plant, Arabidopsis. When the Arabidopsis genes, ...

  3. Heterologous Expression of Panax ginseng PgTIP1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance of Soybean Cotyledon Hairy Roots, Composite, and Whole Plants

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    Jing An

    2017-07-01

    shoots was simultaneously promoted. PgTIP1 transformation into soybean plants enhanced the expression of some stress-related genes (GmPOD, GmAPX1, GmSOS1, and GmCLC1 in the roots and leaves under salt treatment. This indicates that the causes of enhanced salt tolerance of heterologous PgTIP1-transformed soybean are associated with the positive regulation on water relations, ion homeostasis, and ROS scavenging under salt stress both at root-specific and whole plant levels.

  4. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings : Analysis of Growth, Sugar Accumulation, and Gene Expression.

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    Creelman, R A; Mason, H S; Bensen, R J; Boyer, J S; Mullet, J E

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite.

  5. Endophytic fungal communities associated with field-grown soybean roots and seeds in the Huang-Huai region of China

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    Hongjun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants depend on beneficial interactions between roots and fungal endophytes for growth, disease suppression, and stress tolerance. In this study, we characterized the endophytic fungal communities associated with the roots and corresponding seeds of soybeans grown in the Huang-Huai region of China. For the roots, we identified 105 and 50 genera by culture-independent and culture-dependent (CD methods, respectively, and isolated 136 fungal strains (20 genera from the CD samples. Compared with the 52 soybean endophytic fungal genera reported in other countries, 28 of the genera we found were reported, and 90 were newly discovered. Even though Fusarium was the most abundant genus of fungal endophyte in every sample, soybean root samples from three cities exhibited diverse endophytic fungal communities, and the results between samples of roots and seeds were also significantly different. Together, we identified the major endophytic fungal genera in soybean roots and seeds, and revealed that the diversity of soybean endophytic fungal communities was influenced by geographical effects and tissues. The results will facilitate a better understanding of soybean–endophytic fungi interaction systems and will assist in the screening and utilization of beneficial microorganisms to promote healthy of plants such as soybean.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification of Chalcone Reductase Gene Family in Soybean: Insight into Root-Specific GmCHRs and Phytophthora sojae Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J. Sepiol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr is one of the main grain legumes worldwide. Soybean farmers lose billions of dollars’ worth of yield annually due to root and stem rot disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. Many strategies have been developed to combat the disease, however, these methods have proven ineffective in the long term. A more cost effective and durable approach is to select a trait naturally found in soybean that can increase resistance. One such trait is the increased production of phytoalexin glyceollins in soybean. Glyceollins are isoflavonoids, synthesized via the legume-specific branch of general phenylpropanoid pathway. The first key enzyme exclusively involved in glyceollin synthesis is chalcone reductase (CHR which coacts with chalcone synthase for the production of isoliquiritigenin, the precursor for glyceollin biosynthesis. Here we report the identification of 14 putative CHR genes in soybean where 11 of them are predicted to be functional. Our results show that GmCHRs display tissue-specific gene expression, and that only root-specific GmCHRs are induced upon P. sojae infection. Among 4 root-specific GmCHRs, GmCHR2A is located near a QTL that is linked to P. sojae resistance suggesting GmCHR2A as a novel locus for partial resistance that can be utilized for resistance breeding.

  7. Trichoderma harzianum containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and chitinase improved growth and diminished adverse effect caused by Fusarium oxysporum in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Lidong; Liu, Jidong; Chen, Long; Fan, Xiaoning; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Ke; He, Yuting; Chen, Chen; Ji, Xiue

    2017-03-01

    An isolate, named Trichoderma harzianum T-soybean, showed growth-promoting for soybean seedlings and induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum under greenhouse. Compared to control soybean seedlings, fresh weight, dry weight, lateral root number, chlorophyll content, root activity and soluble protein of plants pretreated with T-soybean increased, but initial pod height reduced. Furthermore, we found that T-soybean inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum by parasitic function. In addition, plate test results showed that culture filtrates of T-soybean also inhibited significantly F. oxysporum growth. Meanwhile, T-soybean treatment obviously reduced disease severity and induced quickly the H 2 O 2 and O 2 - burst as well as pathogenesis related protein gene (PR3) expression after F. oxysporum inoculation, and subsequently diminished the cell damage in soybean caused by the pathogen challenge. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes activity analysis showed that the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly in T-soybean pretreated plants. These results suggested that T-soybean treatment induced resistance in soybean seedlings to F. oxysporum by companying the production of ROS and the increasing of ROS scavenging enzymes activity as well as PR3 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of Effector Six6 with Vascular Wilt Symptoms Caused by Fusarium oxysporum on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanubile, Alessandra; Ellis, Margaret L; Marocco, Adriano; Munkvold, Gary P

    2016-11-01

    The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a widely distributed group of fungi that includes both pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates. In a previous study, isolates within the FOSC collected primarily from soybean were assessed for the presence of 12 fungal effector genes. Although none of the assayed genes was significantly associated with wilt symptoms on soybean, the secreted in xylem 6 (Six6) gene was present only in three isolates, which all produced high levels of vascular wilt on soybean. In the current study, a collection of F. oxysporum isolates from soybean roots and F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli isolates from common bean was screened for the presence of the Six6 gene. Interestingly, all isolates for which the Six6 amplicon was generated caused wilt symptoms on soybean, and two-thirds of the isolates showed high levels of aggressiveness, indicating a positive association between the presence of the effector gene Six6 and induction of wilt symptoms. The expression profile of the Six6 gene analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed an enhanced expression for the isolates that caused more severe wilt symptoms on soybean, as established by the greenhouse assay. These findings suggest the suitability of the Six6 gene as a possible locus for pathogenicity-based molecular diagnostics across the various formae speciales.

  9. Proteome analysis of soybean roots under waterlogging stress at an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    To gain better insight into how soybean roots respond to waterlogging stress, ... death- and signal transduction-related proteins suggest that they have a role to play during stress. ...... work cooperatively to establish a new homeostasis under.

  10. A comparison study of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods for root-specific promoter analysis in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caifeng; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Xiurong; Liao, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo hairy root transformation systems could not replace whole plant transformation for promoter analysis of root-specific and low-P induced genes in soybean. An efficient genetic transformation system is crucial for promoter analysis in plants. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most popular method to produce transgenic hairy roots or plants. In the present study, first, we compared the two different Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation methods using either constitutive CaMV35S or the promoters of root-preferential genes, GmEXPB2 and GmPAP21, in soybean, and found the efficiency of in vitro hairy root transformation was significantly higher than that of in vivo transformation. We compared Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated whole plant transformation systems. The results showed that low-phosphorous (P) inducible GmEXPB2 and GmPAP21 promoters could not induce the increased expression of the GUS reporter gene under low P stress in both in vivo and in vitro transgenic hairy roots. Conversely, GUS activity of GmPAP21 promoter was significantly higher at low P than high P in whole plant transformation. Therefore, both in vitro and in vivo hairy root transformation systems could not replace whole plant transformation for promoter analysis of root-specific and low-P induced genes in soybean.

  11. Effect of localized nitrogen availability to soybean half-root systems on photosynthate partitioning to roots and nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, P.W.; van Kessel, C.

    1987-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Davis) was grown in a split-root growth system designed to maintain control of the root atmosphere. Two experiments were conducted to examine how 80% Ar:20%, O 2 (Ar:O 2 ) and air (Air) atmospheres affected N assimilation (NH 4 NO 3 and N 2 fixation) and the partitioning of photosynthate to roots and nodules. Application of NH 4 NO 3 to nonnodulated half-root systems enhanced root growth and root respiration at the site of application. A second experiment applied Ar:O 2 or air to the two sides of nodulated soybean half-root systems for 11 days in the following combinations: (a) Air to both sides (Air/Air); (b) Air to one side, Ar:O 2 to the other (Air/Ar:O 2 ), and (c) Ar:O 2 to both sides (Ar:O 2 /Ar:O 2 ). Results indicated that dry matter and current photosynthate ( 14 C) were selectively partitioned to nodules and roots where N 2 was available. Both root and nodule growth on the Air side of Air/Ar:O 2 plants was significantly greater than the Ar:O 2 side. The relative partitioning of carbon and current photosynthate between roots and nodules on a half-root system was also affected by N 2 availability. The Ar:O 2 sides partitioned relatively more current photosynthate to roots (57%) than nodules (43%), while N 2 -fixing root systems partitioned 36 and 64% of the carbon to roots and nodules, respectively. The Ar:O 2 atmosphere decreased root and nodule respiration by 80% and nitrogenase activity by 85% compared to half-root systems in Air while specific nitrogenase activity in Ar:O 2 was 50% of nodules supplied Air. Results indicated that nitrogen assimilation, whether from N 2 fixation or inorganic sources, had a localized effect on root development

  12. Gel-free/label-free proteomic analysis of root tip of soybean over time under flooding and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Oh, MyeongWon; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Growth in the early stage of soybean is markedly inhibited under flooding and drought stresses. To explore the responsive mechanisms of soybean, temporal protein profiles of root tip under flooding and drought stresses were analyzed using gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Root tip was analyzed because it was the most sensitive organ against flooding, and it was beneficial to root penetration under drought. UDP glucose: glycoprotein glucosyltransferase was decreased and increased in soybean root under flooding and drought, respectively. Temporal protein profiles indicated that fermentation and protein synthesis/degradation were essential in root tip under flooding and drought, respectively. In silico protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that the inductive and suppressive interactions between S-adenosylmethionine synthetase family protein and B-S glucosidase 44 under flooding and drought, respectively, which are related to carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, biotin/lipoyl attachment domain containing protein and Class II aminoacyl tRNA/biotin synthetases superfamily protein were repressed in the root tip during time-course stresses. These results suggest that biotin and biotinylation might be involved in energy management to cope with flooding and drought in early stage of soybean-root tip. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti...

  14. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti....... The primary transcript was processed in the same way as in soybean nodules and the resulting mRNA was translated into Lbc(3) protein. Quantitative determination of the Lbc(3) protein in nodules of transgenic plants indicated that the steady-state level of the soybean protein is comparable...

  15. Analysis of soybean root proteins affected by gibberellic acid treatment under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myeong Won; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a serious abiotic stress for soybean because it restricts growth and reduces grain yields. To investigate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on soybean under flooding stress, root proteins were analyzed using a gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-days-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress in the presence and absence of exogenous GA3 for 2 days. A total of 307, 324, and 250 proteins were identified from untreated, and flooding-treated soybean seedlings without or with GA3, respectively. Secondary metabolism- and cell-related proteins, and proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, the levels of these proteins were restored by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Fermentation- and cell wall-related proteins were not affected by GA3 supplementation. Furthermore, putative GA-responsive proteins, which were identified by the presence of a GA-responsive element in the promoter region, were less abundant by flooding stress; however, these proteins were more abundant by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Taken together, these results suggest that GA3 affects the abundance of proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cell cycle, and protein degradation/synthesis in soybeans under flooding stress.

  16. Development and application of qPCR and RPA genus and species-specific detection of Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora sansomeana root rot pathogens of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important diseases in the Midwest US, causing losses of up to 44 million bushels per year. Disease may also be caused by P. sansomeana, however the prevalence and damage caused by this species is not well known, partl...

  17. Root-to-seed transport and metabolism of fixed nitrogen in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The great energetic demand of nitrogen fixation to support growth of the exceptionally high-N seeds is certainly a major yield barrier for soybeans. Transport of carbohydrate energy supplies to the root and of fixed nitrogen (N) from the root appear to contribute to the yield barrier, also. N is loaded into the soybean xylem stream principally as allantoin (ALL), and allantonic acid (ALLA), but xylem carries only dilute N and cannot reach the seeds at sufficient rate to support their N needs. Explants consisting of stem and a few leaves and pods were allowed to take up 14 C- and/or 15 N-ALL/ALLA in synthetic xylem sap. The 14 C label was found to become fairly quantitatively immobilized in leaves. The N (and 15 N label) almost certainly is separated from the C( 14 C label) at this time

  18. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants (up to 25 days old) contain two distinct urease isozymes, which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (URE1 and URE2) differ in: (a) electrophoretic mobility in native gels, (b) pH dependence, and (c) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the seed (embryo-specific) urease. By these parameters root URE1 urease is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme, while root URE2 resembles the ubiquitous urease which has previously been found in all soybean tissues examined (leaf, embryo, seed coat, and cultured cells). The embryo-specific and ubiquitous urease isozymes are products of the Eu1 and Eu4 structural genes, respectively. Roots of the eu1-sun/eu1-sun genotype, which lacks the embryo-specific urease (i.e. seed urease-null), contain no URE1 urease activity. Roots of eu4/eu4, which lacks ubiquitous urease, lack the URE2 (leaflike) urease activity. From these genetic and biochemical criteria, then, we conclude that URE1 and URE2 are the embryo-specific and ubiquitous ureases, respectively. Adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack URE1 activity. In seedling roots the seedlike (URE1) activity declines during development. Roots of 3-week-old plants contain 5% of the total URE1 activity of the radicle of 4-day-old seedlings, which, in turn, has approximately the same urease activity level as the dormant embryonic axis. The embryo-specific urease incorporates label from [ 35 S]methionine during embryo development but not during germination, indicating that there is no de novo synthesis of the embryo-specific (URE1) urease in the germinating root

  19. Characterization of proteins in soybean roots under flooding and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, MyeongWon; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-30

    Flooding and drought affect soybean growth because soybean is a stress-sensitive crop. In 2-day-old plants exposed to 2-day flooding or drought, the fresh weight of roots was markedly suppressed, although the root morphology clearly differed between two conditions. To understand the response mechanisms of soybean to flooding and drought stresses, a gel-free proteomic technique was used. A total of 97 and 48 proteins were significantly changed in response to flooding and drought stresses, respectively. Proteins involved in protein synthesis were decreased by flooding stress and increased by drought. Glycolysis-related proteins were increased in roots by both flooding and drought stresses. Fermentation, stress, and cell wall-related proteins were increased in response to flooding stress, whereas cell organization and redox-related proteins were increased under drought stress. Among the identified proteins, three S-adenosylmethionine synthetases were commonly decreased and increased in response to flooding and drought stresses, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes displayed a similar tendency to the changes in protein abundance. These results suggest that S-adenosylmethionine synthetase is involved in the regulation of stress response because it was changed in response to flooding and drought stresses. This study reported on the response mechanisms of soybean to flooding and drought stresses using the gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein synthesis were decreased by flooding stress and increased by drought. Glycolysis-related proteins were increased in roots by both flooding and drought stresses. Fermentation, stress, and cell wall-related proteins were increased in response to flooding stress, whereas cell organization and redox-related proteins were increased under drought stress. Among the identified proteins, three S-adenosylmethionine synthetases were commonly decreased and increased in response to

  20. Increased root production in soybeans grown under space flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.

    The GENEX ({Gen}e {Ex}pression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87) was developed to investigate whether direct and/or indirect effects of microgravity are perceived as an external stimulus for soybean seedling response. Protocols were designed to optimize root and shoot formation, gas exchange and moisture uniformity. Six surface sterilized soybean seeds (Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to each pouch (thereby initiating the process of seed germination on-orbit), and subsequently transferred them to four passive, light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight material, (2) the corresponding ground control population, plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions. No significant growth differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is open to speculation. Funded under NASA Contract NAS10-12180.

  1. Water accumulation in the vicinity of a soybean root imbedded in soil revealed by neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuni, Yoko; Furukawa, Jun; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Matsubayashi, Masahito

    2002-01-01

    We present nondestructive water movement near the root of a soybean plant imbedded in soil by neutron beam analysis. A soybean plant was grown in an aluminum container (35mm φ x 200mm) and was periodically irradiated with thermal neutrons. While irradiation the sample was rotated to get 180 projection images, through a cooled CCD camera, to construct CT images. Then a spatial image was prepared for the analysis by piling up CT images. The whiteness in the image was calibrated well to the water amount. Water holding capacity near the root was shifted downward with the root development, suggesting the movement of the active site in the root. Though there was a minimum in the water gradient near the root, about 1.0mm far from the root surface. Then from this point, the water amount was sharply increased toward the surface. The root surface was highly wet, more than 0.5mg/mm 3 of water. When Al (10 mM) was applied to soil, root development as well as water holding activity of a root was decreased. This is the first study to perform the direct measurement of water within 1.0mm from the root surface. (author)

  2. Water movement near the soybean root by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino-Nakanishi, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Tsuruno, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NR) was applied to investigate the water movement in soil during the growth of the soybean plant, non-destructively. The plant was grown in a thin aluminum container and was set to the cassete where an X-ray film and a gadrinium converter were sealed in vacuum. Periodically, the sample was taken to the nuclear reactor, JRR-3, installed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Total neutron flux irradiated was 1.9 x 10 7 n/cm 2 . After irradiation the X-ray film was developed and the sample image was scanned to get the water image. The darkness of the image was corresponded well with the water amount and the resolution was found to be about 15 μm. Scanning of the image along with the horizontal line showed that much amount of water in the soil was decreased at the part adjacent to the root, compared to that of 1-2 mm far from the root. It was also shown that there is the unsymmetrical water uptake of the root at the same depth position. To know the water movement, especially around the secondary root, three dimensional water image was depicted. When the secondary root began to develop, the large water movement around the primary root was observed especially at the opposite side of the secondary root. (author)

  3. Salicylic Acid Alleviates Aluminum Toxicity in Soybean Roots through Modulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L. exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM and SA (10 μM/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene. Al stress increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H, and the contents of SA, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA in the root apex. The application of exogenous SA increased PAL and BA2H, and reduced O2- and MDA contents in soybean roots under Al stress. PAC inhibited the SA induced increase in BA2H activity. In addition, the SA application resulted in a rapid increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentration under Al stress, followed by a sharp decrease. Compared with the plants exposed to Al alone, Al+SA plants possessed higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and lower catalase activity, indicating that SA alleviated Al-induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that PAL and BA2H were involved in Al-induced SA production and showed that SA alleviated the adverse effects of Al toxicity by modulating the cellular H2O2 level and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the soybean root apex.

  4. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean roots through modulation of reactive oxygen species metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Song, Fengbin; Zhu, Xiancan; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Li, Xiangnan

    2017-11-01

    As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA) improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al) stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L.) exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM) and SA (10 μM)/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene. Al stress increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H), and the contents of SA, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the root apex. The application of exogenous SA increased PAL and BA2H, and reduced O2- and MDA contents in soybean roots under Al stress. PAC inhibited the SA induced increase in BA2H activity. In addition, the SA application resulted in a rapid increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration under Al stress, followed by a sharp decrease. Compared with the plants exposed to Al alone, Al+SA plants possessed higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase, and lower catalase activity, indicating that SA alleviated Al-induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that PAL and BA2H were involved in Al-induced SA production and showed that SA alleviated the adverse effects of Al toxicity by modulating the cellular H2O2 level and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the soybean root apex.

  5. Soybean root growth and crop yield in reponse to liming at the beginning of a no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Campanhola Bortoluzzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the soil near crop roots may reveal limitations to growth and yield even in a no-tillage system. The purpose of the present study was to relate the chemical and physical properties of soil under a no-tillage system to soybean root growth and plant yield after five years of use of different types of limestone and forms of application. A clayey Oxisol received application of dolomitic and calcitic limestones and their 1:1 combination in two forms: surface application, maintained on the soil surface; and incorporated, applied on the surface and incorporated mechanically. Soil physical properties (resistance to mechanical penetration, soil bulk density and soil aggregation, soil chemical properties (pH, exchangeable cations, H+Al, and cation exchange capacity and plant parameters (root growth system, soybean grain yield, and oat dry matter production were evaluated five years after setting up the experiment. Incorporation of lime neutralized exchangeable Al up to a depth of 20 cm without affecting the soil physical properties. The soybean root system reached depths of 40 cm or more with incorporated limestone, increasing grain yield an average of 31 % in relation to surface application, which limited the effect of lime up to a depth of 5 cm and root growth up to 20 cm. It was concluded that incorporation of limestone at the beginning of a no-tillage system ensures a favorable environment for root growth and soybean yield, while this intervention does not show long-term effects on soil physical properties under no-tillage. This suggests that there is resilience in the physical properties evaluated.

  6. Pattern of zinc-65 incorporation into soybean seeds by root absorption, stem injection, and foliar application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Weaver, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The pattern of 65 Zn incorporation into soybean seeds of plants grown hydroponically and intrinsically labeled with 65 Zn by root absorption, stem injection, and foliar application was studied. Stem injection resulted in the greatest (64.5% of dose) accumulation of 65 Zn while incorporation of 65 Zn through root absorption was the least (23.4%) and through foliar application was intermediate (37.5%). Regardless of the labeling techniques, approximately 40-45% of the seed 65 Zn was associated with the subcellular organelles. The pattern of zinc incorporation did not change appreciably as a result of the labeling technique. The major portion of the soluble zinc was not associated with the major proteins (11S and 7S) of soybeans but either was free or was associated with very low molecular weight amino acids, peptides, or their complexes with phytic acid. Zinc in soybean seems to be ionically bound, and this association is affected by the pH of the extracting buffer

  7. Genotypic Variation in Yield, Yield Components, Root Morphology and Architecture, in Soybean in Relation to Water and Phosphorus Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Jin, Yi; Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Tao; Turner, Neil C.; Yang, Ru-Ping; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Li, Feng-Min

    2017-01-01

    Water shortage and low phosphorus (P) availability limit yields in soybean. Roots play important roles in water-limited and P-deficient environment, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we determined the responses of four soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes [Huandsedadou (HD), Bailudou (BLD), Jindou 21 (J21), and Zhonghuang 30 (ZH)] to three P levels [applied 0 (P0), 60 (P60), and 120 (P120) mg P kg-1 dry soil to the upper 0.4 m of the soil profile] and two water treatment [well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS)] with special reference to root morphology and architecture, we compared yield and its components, root morphology and root architecture to find out which variety and/or what kind of root architecture had high grain yield under P and drought stress. The results showed that water stress and low P, respectively, significantly reduced grain yield by 60 and 40%, daily water use by 66 and 31%, P accumulation by 40 and 80%, and N accumulation by 39 and 65%. The cultivar ZH with the lowest daily water use had the highest grain yield at P60 and P120 under drought. Increased root length was positively associated with N and P accumulation in both the WW and WS treatments, but not with grain yield under water and P deficits. However, in the WS treatment, high adventitious and lateral root densities were associated with high N and P uptake per unit root length which in turn was significantly and positively associated with grain yield. Our results suggest that (1) genetic variation of grain yield, daily water use, P and N accumulation, and root morphology and architecture were observed among the soybean cultivars and ZH had the best yield performance under P and water limited conditions; (2) water has a major influence on nutrient uptake and grain yield, while additional P supply can modestly increase yields under drought in some soybean genotypes; (3) while conserved water use plays an important role in grain yield under drought

  8. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Results Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Conclusions Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes. PMID:24739302

  9. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Benjamin F; Beard, Hunter; Brewer, Eric; Kabir, Sara; MacDonald, Margaret H; Youssef, Reham M

    2014-04-16

    Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes.

  10. Improved Soybean Root Association of N-Starved Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    López-García, Silvina L.; Vázquez, Tirso E. E.; Favelukes, Gabriel; Lodeiro, Aníbal R.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we addressed the effects of N limitation in Bradyrhizobium japonicum for its association with soybean roots. The wild-type strain LP 3001 grew for six generations with a growth rate of 1.2 day−1 in a minimal medium with 28 mM mannitol as the carbon source and with the N source [(NH4)2SO4] limited to only 20 μM. Under these conditions, the glutamine synthetase (GS) activity was five to six times higher than in similar cultures grown with 1 or 0.1 mM (NH4)2SO4. The NtrBC-inducibl...

  11. Expression of root-related transcription factors associated with flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2014-09-29

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  12. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Valliyodan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of

  13. Analysis of initial changes in the proteins of soybean root tip under flooding stress using gel-free and gel-based proteomic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-06-25

    Flooding has a severe negative effect on soybean cultivation in the early stages of growth. To obtain a better understanding of the response mechanisms of soybean to flooding stress, initial changes in root tip proteins under flooding were analyzed using two proteomic techniques. Two-day-old soybeans were treated with flooding for 3, 6, 12, and 24h. The weight of soybeans increased during the first 3h of flooding, but root elongation was not observed. Using gel-based and gel-free proteomic techniques, 115 proteins were identified in root tips, of which 9 proteins were commonly detected by both methods. The 71 proteins identified by the gel-free proteomics were analyzed by a hierarchical clustering method based on induction levels during the flooding, and the proteins were divided into 5 clusters. Additional interaction analysis of the proteins revealed that ten proteins belonging to cluster I formed the center of a protein interaction network. mRNA expression analysis of these ten proteins showed that citrate lyase and heat shock protein 70 were down-regulated, whereas calreticulin was up-regulated in initial phase of flooding. These results suggest that flooding stress to soybean induces calcium-related signal transduction, which might play important roles in the early responses to flooding. Flooding has a severe negative effect on soybean cultivation, particularly in the early stages of growth. To better understand the response mechanisms of soybean to the early stages of flooding stress, two proteomic techniques were used. Two-day-old soybeans were treated without or with flooding for 3, 6, 12, and 24h. The fresh weight of soybeans increased during the first 3h of flooding stress, but the growth then slowed and no root elongation was observed. Using gel-based and gel-free proteomic techniques, 115 proteins were identified in root tips, of which 9 proteins were commonly detected by both methods. The 71 proteins identified by the gel-free proteomics were analyzed

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of soybean leaves and roots by iTRAQ provides insights into response mechanisms to short-term salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eJi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity severely threatens land use capability and crop yields worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms that protect soybean from salt stress will help in the development of salt-stress tolerant leguminous plants. Here we firstly analyzed the changes in malondialdehyde levels, the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidases, cholorophyll contents, and Na+/K+ ratios in leaves and roots from soybean seedlings treated with 200 mM NaCl for different time points, and suggested that 200 mM NaCl treated for 12 h was enough for exploring proteomic analysis to soybean seedlings. iTRAQ-based proteomic approach was used to investigate the proteomes of soybean leaves and roots under salt treatment. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002851. In total, 278 and 440 proteins with significantly altered abundance were identified in leaves and roots of soybean, respectively, with only 50 mutual unique proteins in the both tissues. These identified differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were mainly involved in 13 biological processes. Moreover, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that the proteins involved in metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein synthesis and redox homeostasis constructed four types of response networks to high salt stress. Besides, semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that some of the proteins, such as 14-3-3, MMK2, PP1, TRX-h, were also regulated by salt stress at the level of transcription. These results indicated that effective regulatory protein expression related to signalling, membrane and transport, stress defense and metabolism played important roles in the short-term salt response of soybean seedlings.

  15. Obligatory reduction of ferric chelates in iron uptake by soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, R L; Brown, J C; Tiffin, L O

    1972-08-01

    The contrasting Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) chelating properties of the synthetic chelators ethylenediaminedi (o-hydroxyphenylacetate) (EDDHA) and 4,7-di(4-phenylsulfonate)-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate) (BPDS) were used to determine the valence form of Fe absorbed by soybean roots supplied with Fe(3+)-chelates. EDDHA binds Fe(3+) strongly, but Fe(2+) weakly; BPDS binds Fe(2+) strongly but Fe(3+) weakly. Addition of an excess of BPDS to nutrient solutions containing Fe(3+)-chelates inhibited soybean Fe uptake-translocation by 99+%; [Fe(II) (BPDS)(3)](4-) accumulated in the nutrient solution. The addition of EDDHA caused little or no inhibition. These results were observed with topped and intact soybeans. Thus, separation and absorption of Fe from Fe(3+)-chelates appear to require reduction of Fe(3+)-chelate to Fe(2+)-chelate at the root, with Fe(2+) being the principal form of Fe absorbed by soybean.

  16. Utilization of 15NO3− by nodulated soybean plants under conditions of root hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes Menolli Lanza, Luciana; Ferreira Lanza, Daniel Carlos; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2014-01-01

    Waterlogging of soils is common in nature. The low availability of oxygen under these conditions leads to hypoxia of the root system impairing the development and productivity of the plant. The presence of nitrate under flooding conditions is regarded as being beneficial towards tolerance to this stress. However, it is not known how nodulated soybean plants, cultivated in the absence of nitrate and therefore not metabolically adapted to this compound, would respond to nitrate under root hypox...

  17. Characterization of phospholipid composition and its control in the plasma membrane of developing soybean root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The phospholipid composition of plasma membrane enriched fractions from developing soybean root and several mechanisms which may regulate it have been examined. Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from meristematic and mature sections of four-day-old dark grown soybean roots (Glycine max [L.] Merr. Cult. Wells II). Analysis of lipid extracts revealed two major phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Minor phospholipid classes were phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylgylcerol and diphosphatidylgylcerol. Phospholipid composition was similar at each developmental stage. Fatty acids of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were 16:0, 18:0, 18:2, and 18:3. Fatty acid composition varied with both phospholipid class and the developmental stage of the root. The degradation of phosphatidylcholine by endogenous phospholipase D during membrane isolation indicated that this enzyme might be involved in phospholipid turnover within the membrane. Phospholipase D activity was heat labile and increasing the pH of the enzyme assay from 5.3 to 7.8 resulted in 90% inhibition of activity. The turnover of fatty acids within the phospholipids of the plasma membrane was studied. Mature root sections were incubated with [1- 14 C] acetate, 1 mM Na acetate and 50 μg/ml chloramphenicol. Membrane lipid extracts analyzed for phospholipid class and acyl chain composition revealed that the long incubation times did not alter the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane enriched fraction

  18. Mycorrhizal association in soybean and weeds in competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Maria Teixeira Fialho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mycorrhizal association on the interference of Bidens pilosa, Urochloa decumbens and Eleusine indica on soybean culture in two conditions: a plants competing without contact with roots of another species; b with contact between roots. At 60 days after planting, growth, nutrient accumulation and mycorrhizal colonization of soybean and weeds were evaluated. The contact between roots of soybean plant and weed species increased the negative interference effects for both species, with less growth and nutrient accumulation. With the individualization of roots, higher competition occurred for soil resources up to 60 days of coexistence between species. In competition with soybean, Bidens pilosa and Urochloa decumbens stood out in accumulation of most nutrients without differing from when cultivated in monocultivation. The increase of the soybean mycorrhizal colonization was 53, 40 and 33% when in competition with Urochloa decumbens, Eleusine indica and Bidens pilosa species, respectively. A positive interaction occurred for soybean mycorrhizal colonization and competing plants irrespective of weed species or root contact.

  19. Recovery Plan for Red Leaf Blotch of Soybean Caused by Phoma glycinicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red leaf blotch (RLB) of soybean is caused by the fungal pathogen Phoma glycinicola, formerly known in the plant pathology literature as Pyrenochaeta glycines, Dactuliophora glycines, and Dactuliochaeata glycines. The disease presently occurs in only a few African countries on soybean and a wild leg...

  20. Changes in Amino Acid Profile in Roots of Glyphosate Resistant and Susceptible Soybean (Glycine max) Induced by Foliar Glyphosate Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Carlos Alberto; Cantarelli, Miguel Angel; Camiña, José Manuel; Tsai, Siu Mui; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2017-10-11

    Amino acid profiles are useful to analyze the responses to glyphosate in susceptible and resistant soybean lines. Comparisons of profiles for 10 amino acids (Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Ser, His, Gly, Thr, Tyr, Leu) by HPLC in soybean roots were performed in two near isogenic pairs (four varieties). Foliar application of glyphosate was made to soybean plants after 5 weeks of seeding. Roots of four varieties were collected at 0 and 72 h after glyphosate application (AGA) for amino acid analysis by HPLC. Univariate analysis showed a significant increase of several amino acids in susceptible as well as resistant soybean lines; however, amino acids from the major pathways of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism, such as Asp, Asn, Glu and Gln, and Ser, increased significantly in susceptible varieties at 72 h AGA. Multivariate analysis using principal component analysis (2D PCA and 3D PCA) allowed different groups to be identified and discriminated based on the soybean genetic origin, showing the amino acid responses on susceptible and resistant varieties. Based on the results, it is possible to infer that the increase of Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, and Ser in susceptible varieties would be related to the deregulation of C and N metabolism, as well as changes in the growth mechanisms regulated by Ser.

  1. Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed soybean roots differ in their nodulation and nitrogen fixation response to genistein and salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadian, Aria; Modarres Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Ghanati, Faezeh; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated response differences of normal and transformed (so-called 'hairy') roots of soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.), cv L17) to the Nod-factor inducing isoflavone genistein and salinity by quantifying growth, nodulation, nitrogen fixation and biochemical changes. Composite soybean plants were generated using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of non-nodulating mutant nod139 (GmNFR5α minus) with complementing A. rhizogenes K599 carrying the wild-type GmNFR5α gene under control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. We used genetic complementation for nodulation ability as only nodulated roots were scored. After hairy root emergence, primary roots were removed and composite plants were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum (strain CB1809) pre-induced with 10 μM genistein and watered with NaCl (0, 25, 50 and 100 mM). There were significant differences between hairy roots and natural roots in their responses to salt stress and genistein application. In addition, there were noticeable nodulation and nitrogen fixation differences. Composite plants had better growth, more root volume and chlorophyll as well as more nodules and higher nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) compared with natural roots. Decreased lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and catalase/peroxidase activities were found in 'hairy' roots under salinity stress. Genistein significantly increased nodulation and nitrogen fixation and improved roots and shoot growth. Although genistein alleviated lipid peroxidation under salinity stress, it had no significant effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In general, composite plants were more competitive in growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation than normal non-transgenic even under salinity stress conditions.

  2. Mechanics of integrating root causes into PRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruske, S.Z.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Stepina, P.L.; Vesely, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of root cause importance, root cause data for selected components of a pressurized water reactor auxiliary feedwater system, an Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) auxiliary feedwater system model, and the results of root cause importance calculations. The methodology shown herein is straightforward and is easily applied to existing probabilistic risk assessments. Root cause importance can greatly benefit the areas of design, maintenance, and inspection. Root cause importance for various components and circumstances can be evaluated

  3. Quantitative proteomics reveals that peroxidases play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Hiraga, Susumu; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Soybean is an important legume crop that exhibits markedly reduced growth and yields under flooding conditions. To unravel the mechanisms involved in recovery after flooding in soybean root, gel-free proteomic analysis was performed. Morphological analysis revealed that growth suppression was more severe with increased flooding duration. Out of a total of 1645 and 1707 identified proteins, 73 and 21 proteins were changed significantly during the recovery stage following 2 and 4 days flooding, respectively. Based on the proteomic, clustering, and in silico protein-protein interaction analyses, six key enzymes were analyzed at the mRNA level. Lipoxygenase 1, which was increased at the protein level during the recovery period, was steadily down-regulated at the mRNA level. The peroxidase superfamily protein continuously increased in abundance during the course of recovery and was up-regulated at the mRNA level. HAD acid phosphatase was decreased at the protein level and down-regulated at the transcript level, while isoflavone reductase and an unknown protein were increased at both the protein and mRNA levels. Consistent with these findings, the enzymatic activity of peroxidase was decreased under flooding stress but increased significantly during the recovery sage. These results suggest that peroxidases might play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots through the scavenging of toxic radicals.

  4. Timecourse microarray analyses reveal global changes in gene expression of susceptible Glycine max (soybean) roots during infection by Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharouf, Nadim W; Klink, Vincent P; Chouikha, Imed B; Beard, Hunter S; MacDonald, Margaret H; Meyer, Susan; Knap, Halina T; Khan, Rana; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2006-09-01

    Changes in gene expression within roots of Glycine max (soybean), cv. Kent, susceptible to infection by Heterodera glycines (the soybean cyst nematode [SCN]), at 6, 12, and 24 h, and 2, 4, 6, and 8 days post-inoculation were monitored using microarrays containing more than 6,000 cDNA inserts. Replicate, independent biological samples were examined at each time point. Gene expression was analyzed statistically using T-tests, ANOVA, clustering algorithms, and online analytical processing (OLAP). These analyses allow the user to query the data in several ways without importing the data into third-party software. RT-PCR confirmed that WRKY6 transcription factor, trehalose phosphate synthase, EIF4a, Skp1, and CLB1 were differentially induced across most time-points. Other genes induced across most timepoints included lipoxygenase, calmodulin, phospholipase C, metallothionein-like protein, and chalcone reductase. RT-PCR demonstrated enhanced expression during the first 12 h of infection for Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and sucrose synthase. The stress-related gene, SAM-22, phospholipase D and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase were also induced at the early time-points. At 6 and 8 dpi there was an abundance of transcripts expressed that encoded genes involved in transcription and protein synthesis. Some of those genes included ribosomal proteins, and initiation and elongation factors. Several genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport were also more abundant. Those genes included glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and sucrose synthase. These results identified specific changes in gene transcript levels triggered by infection of susceptible soybean roots by SCN.

  5. A novel, multiplexed, probe-based quantitative PCR assay for the soybean root- and stem-rot pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, utilizes its transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudenshield, James S; Song, Jeong Y; Hartman, Glen L

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae (Kaufm. & Gerd.). P. sojae has a narrow host range, consisting primarily of soybean, and it is a serious pathogen worldwide. It exists in root and stem tissues as mycelium, wherein it can form oospores which subsequently germinate to release motile, infectious zoospores. Molecular assays detecting DNA of P. sojae are useful in disease diagnostics, and for determining the presence of the organism in host tissues, soils, and runoff or ponded water from potentially infested fields. Such assays as published have utilized ITS sequences from the nuclear ribosomal RNA genes in conventional PCR or dye-binding quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) but are not amenable to multiplexing, and some of these assays did not utilize control strategies for type I or type II errors. In this study, we describe primers and a bifunctional probe with specificity to a gypsy-like retroelement in the P. sojae genome to create a fluorogenic 5'-exonuclease linear hydrolysis assay, with a multiplexed internal control reaction detecting an exogenous target to validate negative calls, and with uracil-deglycosylase-mediated protection against carryover contamination. The assay specifically detected 13 different P. sojae isolates, and excluded 17 other Phytophthora species along with 20 non-Phytophthora fungal and oomycete species pathogenic on soybean. A diagnostic limit of detection of 34 fg total P. sojae DNA was observed in serial dilutions, equivalent to 0.3 genome, and a practical detection sensitivity of four zoospores per sample was achieved, despite losses during DNA extraction.

  6. Root cause and how to find it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gano, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth discussion of the definition of root cause, the use of the cause-and-effect process to find the root cause, and the use of proper cause categorization as a means to better understand the nuances of root cause. It also provides a detailed statistical breakdown of reactor trips at boiling water reactors for 1986 as compiled from Boiling Water Reactor Owners' Group Scram Frequency Reduction Commitee (BWROGSFRC) data

  7. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanToai, T.; Hwang, Shihying

    1989-01-01

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with 3 H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia

  8. Microbial community analysis of field-grown soybeans with different nodulation phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-09-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)), and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod(+) soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod(+) and Nod(++)) roots and less abundant in Nod(-) soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod(-), Nod(+), or Nod(++)). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod(-) soybeans was more similar to that in Nod(++) soybeans than to that in Nod(+) soybeans.

  9. Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod+ and Nod++) roots and less abundant in Nod− soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod−, Nod+, or Nod++). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod− soybeans was more similar to that in Nod++ soybeans than to that in Nod+ soybeans. PMID:18658280

  10. Host suitability of soybean and corn genotypes to the root lesion caused by nematode under natural infestation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderli Divina Ferreira Rios

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Among the nematode management strategies, genetic resistance is one of the most appropriate and desirable. However, resistant soybean and corn genotypes resistant to Pratylenchus brachyurus are not available up to the moment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the host suitability of 50 soybean and 38 corn genotypes to P. brachyurus under natural infestation. Soybean genotypes BRSGO Chapadões, BRSGO Paraíso, M-Soy 7211 RR, M-Soy 8008 RR, Emgopa 313 RR, M-Soy 8411, BRSGO Juliana RR, Emgopa 316 RR, BRSGO Luziânia RR and TMG 103 RR, and corn genotype Agromem 30A06 reduced the nematode population during the evaluation period.

  11. Identification and Analysis of NaHCO3 Stress Responsive Genes in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Roots by RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil alkalinity is a major abiotic constraint to crop productivity and quality. Wild soybean (Glycine soja is considered to be more stress-tolerant than cultivated soybean (G. max, and has considerable genetic variation for increasing alkalinity tolerance of soybean. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome profile in the roots of an alkalinity tolerant wild soybean variety N24852 at 12 and 24 h after 90 mM NaHCO3 stress by RNA-sequencing. Compared with the controls, a total of 449 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, including 95 and 140 up-regulated genes, and 108 and 135 down-regulated genes at 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 treatment, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 14 DEGs showed a high consistency with their expression profiles by RNA-sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to transcription factors and transporters were significantly enriched in the up-regulated genes at 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 stress, respectively. Nuclear Factor Y subunit A (NF-YA transcription factors were enriched at 12 h after NaHCO3 stress, and high percentages of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH, ethylene-responsive factor (ERF, Trihelix and zinc finger (C2H2, C3H transcription factors were found at both 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 stress. Genes related to ion transporters such as ABC transporter, aluminum activated malate transporter (ALMT, glutamate receptor (GLR, nitrate transporter (NRT / proton dependent oligopeptide (POT family, and S-type anion channel (SLAH were enriched in up-regulated DEGs at 24 h after NaHCO3 treatment, implying their roles in maintaining ion homeostasis in soybean roots under alkalinity. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism pathways might participate in soybean response to alkalinity. This study provides a foundation to further investigate the functions of NaHCO3 stress-responsive genes and the molecular basis of soybean tolerance to alkalinity.

  12. Efficacy of Trichoderma harzianumT22 as a biocontrol agent against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita on some soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.O. Abiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, a two-year field study was conducted at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin, the Southern Guinea Savannah Zone, Nigeria, with the aim to investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianumT22 as a bio-control agent against a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita on some soybean varieties. The experimental field, which naturally has been known for the presence of some nematodes such as Pratylenchus, Helicitylenchus, Radopholus, Meloidogyne, Rotylenchulus, Xyphinema, was divided into two blocks, each block consisting of three plots with alleys between blocks and plots measuring 5 m and 1.5 m respectively. All treatments were replicated five times by means of a Randomized Complete Block Design. The initial soil nematode population was increased by chopping six kilograms of Meloidogyne incognita galled roots of Celosia agentea from a pure culture into all the plots. One block was treated with bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianumT22 while the second block served as a control unit. The results show that in terms of plant height, the number of branches, yield and reduction of the soil nematode population and root galls, the plants on the Trichoderma treated plots performed significantly better (P=0.05 than those in the control unit did. This therefore implies that root-knot nematodes represent a major constraint in the production of soybean while Trichoderma harzianumT22 improves the yield growth and the yield of soybean as well as better controls soil nematode populations with respect to the control trials.

  13. Combined acid rain and lanthanum pollution and its potential ecological risk for nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Mengzhu; Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in various fields, resulting in their accumulation in the environment. This accumulation has affected the survival and distribution of crops in various ways. Acid rain is a serious global environmental problem. The combined effects on crops from these two types of pollution have been reported, but the effects on crop root nitrogen assimilation are rarely known. To explore the impact of combined contamination from these two pollutants on crop nitrogen assimilation, the soybean seedlings were treated with simulated environmental pollution from acid rain and a representative rare earth ion, lanthanum ion (La 3+ ), then the indexes related to plant nitrogen assimilation process in roots were determined. The results showed that combined treatment with pH 4.5 acid rain and 0.08 mM La 3+ promoted nitrogen assimilation synergistically, while the other combined treatments all showed inhibitory effects. Moreover, acid rain aggravated the inhibitory effect of 1.20 or 0.40 mM La 3+ on nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedling roots. Thus, the effects of acid rain and La 3+ on crops depended on the combination levels of acid rain intensity and La 3+ concentration. Acid rain increases the bioavailability of La 3+ , and the combined effects of these two pollutants were more serious than that of either pollutant alone. These results provide new evidence in favor of limiting overuse of REEs in agriculture. This work also provides a new framework for ecological risk assessment of combined acid rain and REEs pollution on soybean crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Root cause - A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the past 3 yr, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) region V has been pursuing an initiative with region V power reactor licensees to provide improved and more consistent performance in event evaluation. The objectives of the initiative have been to encourage licensees to (a) develop improved skills within the plant organization for events evaluation, with particular emphasis on formal root-cause analysis, and (b) to increase the number of events subjected to root-cause analysis. The NRC's continuing effort now focuses on the need for more consistent quality of event evaluation by licensees. As current licensee programs continue to develop, the NRC will be paying additional attention to how well licensees maintain these programs as an effective and useful tool. Now that licensees have taken the initial steps to establish these programs, licensee management will need to provide continuing attention to ensure that the process does not become overly cumbersome. It is important that the final format for the root-cause programs be easy to use and recognized as being a valuable tool by all licensee personnel involved in the event evaluation process. This will become increasingly important as licensees expand the population of events requiring root-cause analysis and place additional responsibility on the line organization for the implementation of these programs

  15. Introduction of the rd29A: AtDREB2A CA gene into soybean (Glycine max L. Merril and its molecular characterization in leaves and roots during dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Engels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of soybean yield to Brazilian producers because of a water deficit in the 2011-2012 season was 12.9%. To reduce such losses, molecular biology techniques, including plant transformation, can be used to insert genes of interest into conventional soybean cultivars to produce lines that are more tolerant to drought. The abscisic acid (ABA-independent Dehydration Responsive Element Binding (DREB gene family has been used to obtain plants with increased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In the present study, the rd29A:AtDREB2A CA gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was inserted into soybean using biolistics. Seventy-eight genetically modified (GM soybean lines containing 2-17 copies of the AtDREB2A CA gene were produced. Two GM soybean lines (P1397 and P2193 were analyzed to assess the differential expression of the AtDREB2A CA transgene in leaves and roots submitted to various dehydration treatments. Both GM lines exhibited high expression of the transgene, with the roots of P2193 showing the highest expression levels during water deficit. Physiological parameters examined during water deficit confirmed the induction of stress. This analysis of AtDREB2A CA expression in GM soybean indicated that line P2193 had the greatest stability and highest expression in roots during water deficit-induced stress.

  16. Characterization of Soybean WRKY Gene Family and Identification of Soybean WRKY Genes that Promote Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2017-12-19

    WRKY proteins are a superfamily of plant transcription factors with important roles in plants. WRKY proteins have been extensively analyzed in plant species including Arabidopsis and rice. Here we report characterization of soybean WRKY gene family and their functional analysis in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the most important soybean pathogen. Through search of the soybean genome, we identified 174 genes encoding WRKY proteins that can be classified into seven groups as established in other plants. WRKY variants including a WRKY-related protein unique to legumes have also been identified. Expression analysis reveals both diverse expression patterns in different soybean tissues and preferential expression of specific WRKY groups in certain tissues. Furthermore, a large number of soybean WRKY genes were responsive to salicylic acid. To identify soybean WRKY genes that promote soybean resistance to SCN, we first screened soybean WRKY genes for enhancing SCN resistance when over-expressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots. To confirm the results, we transformed five WRKY genes into a SCN-susceptible soybean cultivar and generated transgenic soybean lines. Transgenic soybean lines overexpressing three WRKY transgenes displayed increased resistance to SCN. Thus, WRKY genes could be explored to develop new soybean cultivars with enhanced resistance to SCN.

  17. Naringenin inhibits the growth and stimulates the lignification of soybean root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene de Souza Bido

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The flavanone naringenin, an intermediate in flavonoid biosynthesis, was tested for its effect on root growth, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and peroxidase (POD activities, as well as phenolic compounds and lignin contents in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seedlings. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0, with or without 0.1 to 0.4 mM naringenin in a growth chamber (25°C, 12-h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 µmol m-2 s-1 for 24 h. Inhibitory effects on root growth (length, weight, cell viability, PAL and soluble POD activities were detected after naringenin treatments. These effects were associated with stimulatory activity of the cell wall-bound POD followed by an increase in the lignin contents, suggesting that naringenin-induced inhibition in soybean roots could be due to the lignification process.Os efeitos de naringenina, um intermediário da biossíntese de flavonóides, foram avaliados sobre o crescimento das raízes, as atividades da fenilalanina amônia liase (PAL e peroxidases, bem como sobre os teores de compostos fenólicos e de lignina em plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill. Plântulas de três dias foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva de Hoagland, meia-força (pH 6,0, contendo ou não, naringenina 0,1 a 0,4 mM, em uma câmara de germinação (25°C, fotoperíodo de 12 h, 280 µmol m-2 s-1 durante 24 h. Efeitos inibitórios no crescimento das raízes (comprimento, massa e viabilidade celular e nas atividades da PAL e POD solúvel foram constatados após os tratamentos com naringenina. Estes efeitos foram associados com atividade estimulatória da POD ligada à parede celular, seguido por aumento nos teores de lignina, sugerindo que a inibição do crescimento das raízes pode ser devido ao processo de lignificação.

  18. Contributions of Fusarium virguliforme and Heterodera glycines to the Disease Complex of Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Andreas; Li, Chunge; Xing, Lijuan; McKay, Alan; Malvick, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Background Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean caused by Fusarium virguliforme spreads and reduces soybean yields through the North Central region of the U.S. The fungal pathogen and Heterodera glycines are difficult to manage. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective was to determine the contributions of H. glycines and F. virguliforme to SDS severity and effects on soybean yield. To quantify DNA of F. virguliforme in soybean roots and soil, a specific real time qPCR assay was developed. The assay was used on materials from soybean field microplots that contained in a four-factor factorial-design: (i) untreated or methyl bromide-fumigated; (ii) non-infested or infested with F. virguliforme; (iii) non-infested or infested with H. glycines; (iv) natural precipitation or additional weekly watering. In years 2 and 3 of the trial, soil and watering treatments were maintained. Roots of soybean ‘Williams 82’ were collected for necrosis ratings at the full seed growth stage R6. Foliar symptoms of SDS (area under the disease progress curve, AUDPC), root necrosis, and seed yield parameters were related to population densities of H. glycines and the relative DNA concentrations of F. virguliforme in the roots and soil. The specific and sensitive real time qPCR was used. Data from microplots were introduced into models of AUDPC, root necrosis, and seed yield parameters with the frequency of H. glycines and F. virguliforme, and among each other. The models confirmed the close interrelationship of H. glycines with the development of SDS, and allowed for predictions of disease risk based on populations of these two pathogens in soil. Conclusions/Significance The results modeled the synergistic interaction between H. glycines and F. virguliforme quantitatively in previously infested field plots and explained previous findings of their interaction. Under these conditions, F. virguliforme was mildly aggressive and depended on infection of H. glycines to cause highly

  19. The use of 32P to study root growth of soybean as affected by soil compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, Elsje L.; Sisworo, Widjang H.; Syaukat, Sri Harti; Wemay, Johannis; Haryanto

    1996-01-01

    Two greenhouse and two field experiments have been conducted to study the effect of soil compaction on root and plant growth of soybean, by using 32 P in the form of carrier free KH 2 32 PO 4 solution. In the greenhouse experiment it was clearly shown that by increasing soil compaction the growth of roots and shoots was increasingly inhibited. The growth of roots was expressed in √% arcsin converted from 32 P activity (counts per minute, cpm) in the shoots and 32 P activity in the shoots (cpm) without convertion. Plant growth was expressed in plant height, number of leaves, dry weight of pods and shoots. In the field experiment, it was shown distinctively that root growth in the 15 cm soil depth was inhibited whith the increase of soil compaction. Similar with the greenhouse experiments the of plants of roots was expressed in cpm 32 P of roots, shoots, and pods, while, the growth of plants was expressed in plant height, number of pods, and dry weight of pods, seeds, and stover. (author). 19 refs, 4 tabs, 6 figs

  20. Development and implementation of custom root-cause systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.

    1990-01-01

    Almost anyone investigating an operating problem can expect their management and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to ask them if they have really uncovered the root cause of the event. This paper outlines a proven method to develop a custom system to identify and analyze the root causes of events. The method has led to the successful implementation of root-cause analysis systems at the Savannah River Plant and at Philadelphia Electric's Peach Bottom and Limerick nuclear generating stations. The methods are currently being used by System Improvements to develop a root-cause system to be used by the NRC to identify human performance problems at utilities. This paper also outlines the common problems that may be encountered when implementing a root-cause program

  1. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSamT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyzes the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heter...

  2. Identifying organizational deficiencies through root-cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuli, R.W.; Apostolakis, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    All nuclear power plants incorporate root-cause analysis as an instrument to help identify and isolate key factors judged to be of significance following an incident or accident. Identifying the principal deficiencies can become very difficult when the event involves not only human and machine interaction, but possibly the underlying safety and quality culture of the organization. The current state of root-cause analysis is to conclude the investigation after identifying human and/or hardware failures. In this work, root-cause analysis is taken one step further by examining plant work processes and organizational factors. This extension is considered significant to the success of the analysis, especially when management deficiency is believed to contribute to the incident. The results of root-cause analysis can be most effectively implemented if the organization, as a whole, wishes to improve the overall operation of the plant by preventing similar incidents from occurring again. The study adds to the existing root-cause analysis the ability to localize the causes of undesirable events and to focus on those problems hidden deeply within the work processes that are routinely followed in the operation and maintenance of the facility

  3. Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Mitochondrial Proteins in Biophoton Emission in Roots of Soybean Plants under Flooding Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-05-01

    To understand the mechanism of biophoton emission, ROS and mitochondrial proteins were analyzed in soybean plants under flooding stress. Enzyme activity and biophoton emission were increased in the flooding stress samples when assayed in reaction mixes specific for antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species; although the level of the hydroxyl radicals was increased at day 4 (2 days of flooding) compared to nonflooding at day 4, the emission of biophotons did not change. Mitochondria were isolated and purified from the roots of soybean plants grown under flooding stress by using a Percoll gradient, and proteins were analyzed by a gel-free proteomic technique. Out of the 98 mitochondrial proteins that significantly changed abundance under flooding stress, 47 increased and 51 decreased at day 4. The mitochondrial enzymes fumarase, glutathione-S-transferase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase increased at day 4 in protein abundance and enzyme activity. Enzyme activity and biophoton emission decreased at day 4 by the assay of lipoxygenase under stress. Aconitase, acyl CoA oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, and NADH ubiquinone dehydrogenase were up-regulated at the transcription level. These results indicate that oxidation and peroxide scavenging might lead to biophoton emission and oxidative damage in the roots of soybean plants under flooding stress.

  4. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Murphy, Mackensie; Mutava, Raymond N; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Nguyen, Na; Kim, Yoon Ha; Pathan, Safiullah M; Shannon, Grover J; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-05-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germplasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. The Early Entry of Al into Cells of Intact Soybean Roots (A Comparison of Three Developmental Root Regions Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazof, D. B.; Goldsmith, J. G.; Rufty, T. W.; Linton, R. W.

    1996-11-01

    Al localization was compared in three developmental regions of primary root of an Al-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype using secondary ion mass spectrometry. In cryosections obtained after a 4-h exposure to 38 [mu]M [Al3+], Al had penetrated across the root and into the stele in all three regions. Although the greatest localized Al concentration was consistently at the root periphery, the majority of the Al in each region had accumulated in cortical cells. It was apparent that the secondary ion mass spectrometry 27Al+ mass signal was spread throughout the intracellular area and was not particularly intense in the cell wall. Inclusion of some cell wall in determinations of the Al levels across the root radius necessitated that these serve as minimal estimates for intracellular Al. Total accumulation of intracellular Al for each region was 60, 73, and 210 nmol g-1 fresh weight after 4 h, increasing with root development. Early metabolic responses to external Al, including those that have been reported deep inside the root and in mature regions, might result directly from intracellular Al. These responses might include ion transport events at the endodermis of mature roots or events associated with lateral root emergence, as well as events within the root tip.

  6. Interaction of Heterodera glycines and Glomus mosseae on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T C; Winkler, H E; Wilson, G W

    2001-12-01

    The effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on Heterodera glycines-soybean interactions were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal soybean cultivars that were either resistant or susceptible to H. glycines were exposed to initial nematode population densities (Pi) of 0, 100, 1,000, or 10,000 eggs and infective juveniles. Soybean growth, nematode reproduction, and AM fungal colonization were determined after 35 (experiment I) and 83 (experiment II) days. Soybean shoot and root weights were reduced an average 29% across H. glycines Pi but were 36% greater overall in the presence of G. mosseae. Analyses of variance indicated that root colonization and stimulation of soybean growth by G. mosseae were inhibited at high H. glycines Pi, while the combined effects of the nematode and fungus on soybean growth were best described as additive in linear regression models. No evidence for increased nematode tolerance of mycorrhizal soybean plants was observed. Nematode population densities and reproduction were lower on a nematode-resistant soybean cultivar than on a susceptible cultivar, but reproduction was comparable on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. Root colonization by G. mosseae was reduced at high nematode Pi. The results suggest that nematode antagonism to the mycorrhizal symbiosis is a more likely consequence of interactions between H. glycines and AM fungi on soybean than is nematode suppression by the fungus.

  7. Effect of bacterial root symbiosis and urea as source of nitrogen on performance of soybean plants grown hydroponically for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is traditionally grown in soil, where root symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum can supply nitrogen (N), by means of bacterial fixation of atmospheric N2. Nitrogen fertilizers inhibit N-fixing bacteria. However, urea is profitably used in soybean cultivation in soil, where urease enzymes of telluric microbes catalyze the hydrolysis to ammonium, which has a lighter inhibitory effect compared to nitrate. Previous researches demonstrated that soybean can be grown hydroponically with recirculating complete nitrate-based nutrient solutions. In Space, urea derived from crew urine could be used as N source, with positive effects in resource procurement and waste recycling. However, whether the plants are able to use urea as the sole source of N and its effect on root symbiosis with B. japonicum is still unclear in hydroponics. We compared the effect of two N sources, nitrate and urea, on plant growth and physiology, and seed yield and quality of soybean grown in closed-loop Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) in growth chamber, with or without inoculation with B. japonicum. Urea limited plant growth and seed yield compared to nitrate by determining nutrient deficiency, due to its low utilization efficiency in the early developmental stages, and reduced nutrients uptake (K, Ca, and Mg) throughout the whole growing cycle. Root inoculation with B. japonicum did not improve plant performance, regardless of the N source. Specifically, nodulation increased under fertigation with urea compared to nitrate, but this effect did not result in higher leaf N content and better biomass and seed production. Urea was not suitable as sole N source for soybean in closed-loop NFT. However, the ability to use urea increased from young to adult plants, suggesting the possibility to apply it during reproductive phase or in combination with nitrate in earlier developmental stages. Root symbiosis did not contribute significantly to N nutrition and did not enhance the plant ability to use

  8. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a heat exchanger root-cause analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrel, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine a generic methodology for approaching the accurate identification of the root cause of component failure. Root-cause determinations are an everyday challenge to plant personnel, but they are handled with widely differing degrees of success due to the approaches, levels of diagnostic expertise, and documentation. The criterion for success is simple: If the root cause of the failure has truly been determined and corrected, the same causal failure relationship will not be demonstrated again in the future. The approach to root-cause analysis (RCA) element definition was to first selectively choose and constrain a functionally significant component (in this case a component cooling water to service water heat exchanger) that has demonstrated prevalent failures. Then a root cause of failure analysis was performed by a systems engineer on a large number of actual failure scenarios. The analytical process used by the engineer was documented and evaluated to abstract the logic model used to arrive at the root cause. For the case of the heat exchanger, the actual root-cause diagnostic approach is described. A generic methodology for the solution of the root cause of component failure is demonstrable for this general heat exchanger sample

  10. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD. Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  11. Genome sequences of two Phytophthora species responsible for Sudden Oak Death and Soybean Root Rot provide novel insights into their evolutionary origins and mechanisms of pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Brett M.; Tripathi, Sucheta; Aerts, Andrea; Bensasson, Douda; Dehal, Paramvir; Dubchak, Inna; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gijzen, Mark; Huang, Wayne; Ivors, Kelly; Jiang, Rays; Kamoun, Sophien; Krampis, Konstantinos; Lamour, Kurt; McDonald, Hayes; Medina, Monica; Morris, Paul; Putnam, Nik; Rash, Sam; Salamov, Asaf; Smith, Brian; Smith, Joe; Terry, Astrid; Torto, Trudy; Grigoriev, Igor; Rokhsar, Daniel; Boore, Jeffrey

    2005-12-01

    The approximately 60 species of Phytophthora are all destructive pathogens, causing rots of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of a wide range of agriculturally and ornamentally important plants (1). Some species, such as P. cinnamomi, P. parasitica and P. cactorum, each attack hundreds of different plant host species, whereas others are more restricted. Some of the crops where Phytophthora infections cause the greatest financial losses include potato, soybean, tomato, alfalfa, tobacco, peppers, cucurbits, pineapple, strawberry, raspberry and a wide range of perennial tree crops, especially citrus, avocado, almonds, walnuts, apples and cocoa, and they also heavily affect the ornamental, nursery and forestry industries. The economic damage overall to crops in the United States by Phytophthora species is estimated in the tens of billions of dollars, including the costs of control measures, and worldwide it is many times this amount (1). In the northern midwest of the U.S., P. sojae causes $200 million in annual losses to soybean alone, and worldwide causes around $1-2 billion in losses per year. P. infestans infections resulted in the Irish potato famine last century and continues to be a difficult and worsening problem for potato and tomato growers worldwide, with worldwide costs estimated at $5 billion per year.

  12. EPRI root cause advisory workstation 'ERCAWS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Chiu, C.; Hackman, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    EPRI and its contractor FPI International are developing Personal Computer (PC), Microsoft Windows based software to assist power plant engineers and maintenance personnel to diagnose and correct root causes of power plant equipment failures. The EPRI Root Cause Advisory Workstation (ERCAWS) is easy to use and able to handle knowledge bases and diagnostic tools for an unlimited number of equipment types. Knowledge base data is based on power industry experience and root cause analysis from many sources - Utilities, EPRI, US government, FPI, and International sources. The approach used in the knowledge base handling portion of the software is case-study oriented with the engineer selecting the equipment type and symptom identification using a combination of text, photographs, and animation, displaying dynamic physical phenomena involved. Root causes, means for confirmation, and corrective actions are then suggested in a simple, user friendly format. The first knowledge base being released with ERCAWS is the Valve Diagnostic Advisor module; covering six common valve types and some motor operator and air operator items. More modules are under development with Heat Exchanger, Bolt, and Piping modules currently in the beta testing stage. A wide variety of diagnostic tools are easily incorporated into ERCAWS and accessed through the main screen interface. ERCAWS is designed to fulfill the industry need for user-friendly tools to perform power plant equipment failure root cause analysis, and training for engineering, operations and maintenance personnel on how components can fail and how to reduce failure rates or prevent failure from occurring. In addition, ERCAWS serves as a vehicle to capture lessons learned from industry wide experience. (author)

  13. Quantitative 3-dimensional imaging of auxin and cytokinin levels in transgenic soybean and medicago truncatula roots via two-photon induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jon; Gaillard, Paul; Nurmalasari, Ni Putu Dewi; Fellbaum, Carl; Subramaniam, Sen; Smith, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Industrial nitrogen fertilizers account for nearly 50% of the fossil fuel costs in modern agriculture and contribute to soil and water pollution. Therefore, significant interest exists in understanding and characterizing the efficiency of nitrogen fixation, and the biochemical signaling pathways which orchestrate the plant-microbial symbiosis through which plants fix nitrogen. Legume plant species exhibit a particularly efficient nitrogen uptake mechanism, using root nodules which house nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. While nodule development has been widely studied, there remain significant gaps in understanding the regulatory hormones' role in plant development. In this work, we produce 3-dimensional maps of auxin (AX) and cytokinin (CK) hormone concentrations within model plant root tips and nodules with respect to root architecture and cell type. Soybean and Medicago plants were transfected with a two-color fluorescent vector with AXsensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP) and CK-sensitive TdTomato (TdT). 3D images of soybean root nodules were captured using two-photon induced fluorescence microscopy. The resulting images were computationally analyzed using the localization code first developed by Weeks and later adapted by Kilfoil, and analyzed in the context of the root architecture. Statistical analysis of the resulting 3D hormone level maps reproduce-well the known roles of AX and CK in developing plant roots, and are the first quantitative description of these regulatory hormones tied to specific plant architecture. The analytical methods used, and the spatial distribution of these key regulatory hormones in plant roots, nodule primordia and root nodules, and their statistical interpretation are presented.

  14. Root cause analysis with enriched process logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suriadi, S.; Ouyang, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; La Rosa, M.; Soffer, P.

    2013-01-01

    n the field of process mining, the use of event logs for the purpose of root cause analysis is increasingly studied. In such an analysis, the availability of attributes/features that may explain the root cause of some phenomena is crucial. Currently, the process of obtaining these attributes from

  15. Dental root periapical resorption caused by orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinandi Sri Pudyani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental root resorption especially in maxillary incisive region almost always happens simultaneously with orthodontic treatment, and it gained researchers attention, in particular after the use of periapical radiography. However, the fundamental etiology of dental root resorption is still dubious. Multifactoral causes are mentioned, among others are hormonal, nutritition, trauma, dental root form and dental root structure anomalies, genetic, while from treatment side are duration, types, strength scale and dental movement types. Based on these findings, orthodontic treatment was proven to cause dental root resorption in maxillary incisive teeth.

  16. Evaluation of Soybean and Cowpea Genotypes for Phosphorus Use Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaga, F. K.; Ofori, K.; Adiku, S. K.; Kugblenu, Y. O.; Asante, W.; Seidu, H. [College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Initial screening of one hundred and fifty-two (152) and fifty (50) genotypes of soybean and cowpea, respectively, were conducted at the early growth stage to evaluate root traits associated with phosphorus (P) efficiency. Fifty soybean genotypes were subsequently selected and evaluated on a tropical low P soil (Lixisol) for growth and yield under low and adequate P availability. Plants were sampled at twelve and thirty days after sowing and at maturity. Six cowpea genotypes were also selected and evaluated in pots filled with Alfisol under low, moderate and high P availability. Plants were sampled at forty days and assessed for shoot yield and nodulation under low P availability. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Phosphorus Efficiency Index (PEI) was used to determine P efficiency of soybean and cowpea genotypes. A wide variation in root traits for soybean and cowpea at the early growth stage was found, and allometric analysis showed a significant correlation between the root and shoot parameters at this stage. The study provided an opportunity to compare root traits of newly developed cowpea genotypes (early maturing, medium maturing, dual purpose and Striga resistant lines) with older released cultivars. There were significant differences in root length among the groups. In general, dual purpose, Striga resistant and medium/early maturing genotypes showed the longest roots while the older varieties showed the least total root length. Field and pot results also showed differential growth of soybean and cowpea with low P availability. Further, PCA of the results indicated that soybean genotypes could be grouped into three distinct P efficiency categories. Retaining the PC and the relative weight for each genotype in combination with yield potential under high P, four categories of responsiveness to P were obtained. Cowpea genotypes were grouped into three P efficiency categories and two categories of responsiveness to P. The study also found genetic

  17. Gamma radiation effect on the anatomical structure of soybean (Glycine max. Merr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhikuningputra, W.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma radiation effects on soybean plant (Glycine max. Merr) have been studied by using radiation doses of 0, 20, 25, 30, and 35 Krad. Investigation is carried out after each treatment. It proves that each treatment causes different morphological changes on leaves, stems, roots, and fibres of the treated plants. (SMN)

  18. Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyrhizi syd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratma, R.

    1988-01-01

    Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyhizi syd). Eleven soybean mutant lines of orba variety derived from gamma fungus disease in the wet season 1985/86 at the experimental station of Citayam, Bogor. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines No 18/PsJ was moderately resistant to rust fungus disease. The other mutant lines, 14/PsJ, 15/PsJ, 20/PsJ, 102/PsJ, 106/PsJ, 111/PsJ, 118/PsJ, 119/PsJ and 220/PsJ were susceptible. (author). 4 figs.; 8 refs

  19. Probability Models Based on Soil Properties for Predicting Presence-Absence of Pythium in Soybean Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnick-Anderson, Kimberly K; Norland, Jack E; Del Río Mendoza, Luis E; Fortuna, Ann-Marie; Nelson, Berlin D

    2017-10-01

    Associations between soil properties and Pythium groups on soybean roots were investigated in 83 commercial soybean fields in North Dakota. A data set containing 2877 isolates of Pythium which included 26 known spp. and 1 unknown spp. and 13 soil properties from each field were analyzed. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed with all soil properties to observe any significant correlation between properties. Hierarchical clustering, indicator spp., and multi-response permutation procedures were used to identify groups of Pythium. Logistic regression analysis using stepwise selection was employed to calculate probability models for presence of groups based on soil properties. Three major Pythium groups were identified and three soil properties were associated with these groups. Group 1, characterized by P. ultimum, was associated with zinc levels; as zinc increased, the probability of group 1 being present increased (α = 0.05). Pythium group 2, characterized by Pythium kashmirense and an unknown Pythium sp., was associated with cation exchange capacity (CEC) (α < 0.05); as CEC increased, these spp. increased. Group 3, characterized by Pythium heterothallicum and Pythium irregulare, were associated with CEC and calcium carbonate exchange (CCE); as CCE increased and CEC decreased, these spp. increased (α = 0.05). The regression models may have value in predicting pathogenic Pythium spp. in soybean fields in North Dakota and adjacent states.

  20. Applications of root cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satterwhite, D.G.; Meale, B.M.; Krantz, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The underlying causes for the failure of components, the root causes, can be obtained from operational data sources. This information is of value in focusing attention of the industry on the actual causes of component unavailability and, therefore, on the important contributors to plant risk. An application of this methodology to an actual plant system, and the results of this study, are presented in this paper

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals molecular mechanism of seedling roots of different salt tolerant soybean genotypes in responses to salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Ma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit agricultural yield. To understand salt-responsive protein networks in soybean seedling, the extracted proteins from seedling roots of two different genotypes (Lee 68 and Jackson were analyzed under salt stress by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sixty-eight differentially expressed proteins were detected and identified. The identified proteins were involved in 13 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Proteins correlated to brassinosteroid and gilbberellin signalings were significantly increased only in the genotype Lee 68 under salt stress; abscisic acid content was positively correlated with this genotype; proteins that can be correlated to Ca2+ signaling were more strongly enhanced by salt stress in the seedling roots of genotype Lee 68 than in those of genotype Jackson; moreover, genotype Lee 68 had stronger capability of reactive oxygen species scavenging and cell K+/Na+ homeostasis maintaining in seedling roots than genotype Jackson under salt stress. Since the genotype Lee 68 has been described in literature as being tolerant and Jackson as sensitive, we hypothesize that these major differences in the genotype Lee 68 might contribute to salt tolerance. Combined with our previous comparative proteomics analysis on seedling leaves, the similarities and differences between the salt-responsive protein networks found in the seedling leaves and roots of both the genotypes were discussed. Such a result will be helpful in breeding of salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.

  2. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Pfat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; PMilk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (Pfat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (Pfat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  3. GmCLC1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance through Regulating Chloride Accumulation in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The family of chloride channel proteins that mediate Cl- transportation play vital roles in plant nutrient supply, cellular action potential and turgor pressure adjustment, stomatal movement, hormone signal recognition and transduction, Cl- homeostasis, and abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. The anionic toxicity, mainly caused by chloride ions (Cl-, on plants under salt stress remains poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the function of soybean Cl-/H+ antiporter GmCLC1 under salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, soybean, and yeast. We found that GmCLC1 enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic A. thaliana by reducing the Cl- accumulation in shoots and hence released the negative impact of salt stress on plant growth. Overexpression of GmCLC1 in the hairy roots of soybean sequestered more Cl- in their roots and transferred less Cl- to their shoots, leading to lower relative electrolyte leakage values in the roots and leaves. When either the soybean GmCLC1 or the yeast chloride transporter gene, GEF1, was transformed into the yeast gef1 mutant, and then treated with different chloride salts (MnCl2, KCl, NaCl, enhanced survival rate was observed. The result indicates that GmCLC1 and GEF1 exerted similar effects on alleviating the stress of diverse chloride salts on the yeast gef1 mutant. Together, this work suggests a protective function of GmCLC1 under Cl- stress.

  4. Root cause of failure analysis and the system engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppock, M.S.; Hartwig, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    In an industry where ever-increasing emphasis is being placed on root cause of failure determination, it is imperative that a successful nuclear utility have an effective means of identifying failures and performing the necessary analyses. The current Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) good practice, OE-907, root-cause analysis, gives references to methodology that will help determine breakdowns in procedures, programs, or design but gives very little guidance on how or when to perform component root cause of failure analyses. The system engineers of nuclear utilities are considered the focal point for their respective systems and are required by most programs to investigate component failures. The problem that the system engineer faces in determining a component root cause of failures lies in acquisition of the necessary data to identify the need to perform the analysis and in having the techniques and equipment available to perform it. The system engineers at the Palo Verde nuclear generating station routinely perform detailed component root cause of failure analyses. The Palo Verde program provides the system engineers with the information necessary to identify when a component root cause of failure is required. Palo Verde also has the necessary equipment on-site to perform the analyses

  5. Comparison of Salt Tolerance in Soja Based on Metabolomics of Seedling Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important economic crop that is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially salt stress. Wild soybean is an important germplasm resource for the breeding of cultivated soybean. The root system plays a very important role in plant salt tolerance. To explore the salt tolerance-related mechanisms among Soja, we have demonstrated the seedling roots' growth and metabolomics in wild soybean, semi-wild soybean, and cultivated soybean under two types of salt stress by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We characterized 47 kinds of differential metabolites under neutral salt stress, and isoleucine, serine, l-allothreonine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, asparagines, aspartic acid, pentadecanoic acid, lignoceric acid, oleic acid, galactose, tagatose, d-arabitol, dihydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and glucuronic acid increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedlings. However, these metabolites were suppressed in semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Amino acid, fatty acid, sugars, and organic acid synthesis and the secondary metabolism of antioxidants increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedling. Under alkaline salt stress, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, l-allothreonine, isoleucine, serine, alanine, arachidic acid, oleic acid, cis-gondoic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, citric acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, salicylic acid, and fluorene than semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Our study demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and receiver operating characteristics (especially the metabolism of phenolic substances of the seedling roots were important to resisting salt stress and showed a regular decreasing trend from wild soybean to cultivated soybean. The metabolomics's changes were critical factors in the evolution of salt tolerance among Soja. This study

  6. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial flow and 3.0 mm, 15 mm and 3.0 mm for a combine with tangential flow and three cylinder rotations on the quality of soybean seeds harvested at two moisture contents. Soybean seeds of cultivar 'ND 4910' were harvested at 16.6% moisture (mid - morning and 13.7% moisture in the afternoon. The seeds quality was evaluated by germination tests, germination speed index (GSI, germination rate, moisture content, percentage of purity and vigor by tetrazolium test. Despite the combine, the results showed that the mechanical injury has most reduced seeds quality, at 16.6% moisture content, concave opening of 30 mm (axial and 10 mm (tangential and cylinder rotation of 1100 rpm (axial and 1000 (tangential, both with the highest rotations used. The combine with tangential flow had the highest degree of seeds purity. When seeds moisture content at harvest was close to 13.7%, there was the highest seed injury, while, at 16.6%, there was the highest number of crushed soybeans, regardless the combine adjustment.

  7. Organ-specific proteomics of soybean seedlings under flooding and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Khodadadi, Ehsaneh; Fakheri, Baratali; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-06-06

    Organ-specific analyses enrich the understanding of plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. To elucidate the cellular responses in soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought stresses, organ-specific analysis was performed using a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Physiological analysis indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were markedly increased in leaf and root of plants treated with 6days of flooding and drought stresses, respectively. Proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominately affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root in response to flooding and drought. Notably, the tricarboxylic acid cycle was suppressed in leaf and root under both stresses. Moreover, 17 proteins, including beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5, were identified in soybean seedlings under both stresses. The protein abundances of beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5 were increased in leaf and root under both stresses. Additionally, the gene expression of beta-amylase 5 was upregulated in leaf exposed to the flooding and drought, and the expression level was highly correlated with the protein abundance. These results suggest that beta-amylase 5 may be involved in carbohydrate mobilization to provide energy to the leaf of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought. This study examined the effects of flooding and drought on soybean seedlings in different organs using a gel-free/label-free proteomic approach. Physiological responses indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were increased in leaf and root of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought for 6days. Functional analysis of acquired protein profiles exhibited that proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominated affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root

  8. A new perspective into root-cause analysis and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn Seock; Kim, Tae Kwon; Kim, Min Chull

    1998-01-01

    A critical review of diagnostic and root-cause analysis methods, developed in nuclear, chemical process, aviation industries, was made. Based on this review, the insights into both off-line and on-line diagnostics, and also root-cause analysis are preseted from a new perspective. This perspective may be applied for various purposes, including real-time on-line process diagnosis, root-cause analysis of reactor scrams, diagnosis of severe accidents, or situation identification of an on-going emergency at a nuclear site

  9. Root-cause analysis - An essential culture at Davis-Besse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garver, R.G.; Gerren, D.W.; Jain, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    An ingrained cultural attitude toward diligent pursuit of the root causes of plant anomalies and equipment malfunctions, and effective implementation of corrective actions is essential to achieve and maintain desired safety and performance standards at a nuclear power plant. At the Davis-Besse nuclear power station, a demonstrated management commitment to these actions, coupled with an effective root-cause training program has made root-cause analysis an important engineering function. The dedication of engineering and maintenance department resources to problem investigation and troubleshooting, root-cause analysis, and corrective action implementation has eliminated several complex operational problems. Reactor trips, unplanned challenges to safety systems, and unplanned plant transients have been significantly reduced as a result. The benefits of these plant performance improvements far outweigh the expense of these resources

  10. Early transcriptional response of soybean contrasting accessions to root dehydration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribamar Costa Ferreira Neto

    Full Text Available Drought is a significant constraint to yield increase in soybean. The early perception of water deprivation is critical for recruitment of genes that promote plant tolerance. DeepSuperSAGE libraries, including one control and a bulk of six stress times imposed (from 25 to 150 min of root dehydration for drought-tolerant and sensitive soybean accessions, allowed to identify new molecular targets for drought tolerance. The survey uncovered 120,770 unique transcripts expressed by the contrasting accessions. Of these, 57,610 aligned with known cDNA sequences, allowing the annotation of 32,373 unitags. A total of 1,127 unitags were up-regulated only in the tolerant accession, whereas 1,557 were up-regulated in both as compared to their controls. An expression profile concerning the most representative Gene Ontology (GO categories for the tolerant accession revealed the expression "protein binding" as the most represented for "Molecular Function", whereas CDPK and CBL were the most up-regulated protein families in this category. Furthermore, particular genes expressed different isoforms according to the accession, showing the potential to operate in the distinction of physiological behaviors. Besides, heat maps comprising GO categories related to abiotic stress response and the unitags regulation observed in the expression contrasts covering tolerant and sensitive accessions, revealed the unitags potential for plant breeding. Candidate genes related to "hormone response" (LOX, ERF1b, XET, "water response" (PUB, BMY, "salt stress response" (WRKY, MYB and "oxidative stress response" (PER figured among the most promising molecular targets. Additionally, nine transcripts (HMGR, XET, WRKY20, RAP2-4, EREBP, NAC3, PER, GPX5 and BMY validated by RT-qPCR (four different time points confirmed their differential expression and pointed that already after 25 minutes a transcriptional reorganization started in response to the new condition, with important

  11. Engineered resistance and hypersusceptibility through functional metabolic studies of 100 genes in soybean to its major pathogen, the soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Benjamin F; Beard, Hunter; MacDonald, Margaret H; Kabir, Sara; Youssef, Reham M; Hosseini, Parsa; Brewer, Eric

    2013-05-01

    During pathogen attack, the host plant induces genes to ward off the pathogen while the pathogen often produces effector proteins to increase susceptibility of the host. Gene expression studies of syncytia formed in soybean root by soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) identified many genes altered in expression in resistant and susceptible roots. However, it is difficult to assess the role and impact of these genes on resistance using gene expression patterns alone. We selected 100 soybean genes from published microarray studies and individually overexpressed them in soybean roots to determine their impact on cyst nematode development. Nine genes reduced the number of mature females by more than 50 % when overexpressed, including genes encoding ascorbate peroxidase, β-1,4-endoglucanase, short chain dehydrogenase, lipase, DREPP membrane protein, calmodulin, and three proteins of unknown function. One gene encoding a serine hydroxymethyltransferase decreased the number of mature cyst nematode females by 45 % and is located at the Rhg4 locus. Four genes increased the number of mature cyst nematode females by more than 200 %, while thirteen others increased the number of mature cyst nematode females by more than 150 %. Our data support a role for auxin and ethylene in susceptibility of soybean to cyst nematodes. These studies highlight the contrasting gene sets induced by host and nematode during infection and provide new insights into the interactions between host and pathogen at the molecular level. Overexpression of some of these genes result in a greater decrease in the number of cysts formed than recognized soybean cyst nematode resistance loci.

  12. Savannah River experience using a Cause Coding Tree to identify the root cause of an incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.W.; Busch, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Incidents (or near misses) provide important information about plant performance and ways to improve that performance. Any particular incident may have several ''root causes'' that need to be addressed to prevent recurrence of the incident and thereby improve the safety of the plant. Also, by reviewing a large number of these incidents, one can identify trends in the root causes and generic concerns. A method has been developed at Savannah River Plant to systematically evaluate incidents, identify their root causes, record these root causes, and analyze the trends of these causes. By providing a systematic method to identify correctable root causes, the system helps the incident investigator to ask the right questions during the investigation. It also provides the independent safety analysis group and management with statistics that indicate existing and developing trouble sports. This paper describes the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Cause Coding Tree, and the differences between the SRP Tree and other systems used to analyze incidents. 2 refs., 14 figs

  13. Are the cause(s) responsible for urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk rooted in families or individuals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have identified urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk. Hypothetical underlying cause(s) may include toxic exposures, diet, infections, and selective migration. The authors investigated whether the underlying cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences were rooted...... evaluated whether the nearest older sibling's place of birth had an independent effect on schizophrenia risk. If the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences are rooted in individuals only, the nearest older sibling's place of birth should have no independent effect. In this analysis....... Some of the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk are rooted in families, but some might also be rooted in individuals....

  14. Enhanced resistance to soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines in transgenic soybean by silencing putative CLE receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoli; Chronis, Demosthenis; De La Torre, Carola M; Smeda, John; Wang, Xiaohong; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2015-08-01

    CLE peptides are small extracellular proteins important in regulating plant meristematic activity through the CLE-receptor kinase-WOX signalling module. Stem cell pools in the SAM (shoot apical meristem), RAM (root apical meristem) and vascular cambium are controlled by CLE signalling pathways. Interestingly, plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLE-like effector proteins, which act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful parasitism. Recently, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis CLE receptors CLAVATA1 (CLV1), the CLAVATA2 (CLV2)/CORYNE (CRN) heterodimer receptor complex and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2), which transmit the CLV3 signal in the SAM, are required for perception of beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii CLEs. Reduction in nematode infection was observed in clv1, clv2, crn, rpk2 and combined double and triple mutants. In an effort to develop nematode resistance in an agriculturally important crop, orthologues of Arabidopsis receptors including CLV1, CLV2, CRN and RPK2 were identified from soybean, a host for the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. For each of the receptors, there are at least two paralogues in the soybean genome. Localization studies showed that most receptors are expressed in the root, but vary in their level of expression and spatial expression patterns. Expression in nematode-induced feeding cells was also confirmed. In vitro direct binding of the soybean receptors with the HgCLE peptide was analysed. Knock-down of the receptors in soybean hairy roots showed enhanced resistance to SCN. Our findings suggest that targeted disruption of nematode CLE signalling may be a potential means to engineer nematode resistance in crop plants. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The receptor like kinase at Rhg1-a/Rfs2 caused pleiotropic resistance to sudden death syndrome and soybean cyst nematode as a transgene by altering signaling responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, Ali; Afzal, Ahmed J; Blahut-Beatty, Laureen; Hemmati, Naghmeh; Simmonds, Daina H; Li, Wenbin; Liu, Miao; Town, Christopher D; Sharma, Hemlata; Arelli, Prakash; Lightfoot, David A

    2012-08-02

    Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.)) resistance to any population of Heterodera glycines (I.), or Fusarium virguliforme (Akoi, O'Donnell, Homma & Lattanzi) required a functional allele at Rhg1/Rfs2. H. glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) was an ancient, endemic, pest of soybean whereas F. virguliforme causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), was a recent, regional, pest. This study examined the role of a receptor like kinase (RLK) GmRLK18-1 (gene model Glyma_18_02680 at 1,071 kbp on chromosome 18 of the genome sequence) within the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus in causing resistance to SCN and SDS. A BAC (B73p06) encompassing the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus was sequenced from a resistant cultivar and compared to the sequences of two susceptible cultivars from which 800 SNPs were found. Sequence alignments inferred that the resistance allele was an introgressed region of about 59 kbp at the center of which the GmRLK18-1 was the most polymorphic gene and encoded protein. Analyses were made of plants that were either heterozygous at, or transgenic (and so hemizygous at a new location) with, the resistance allele of GmRLK18-1. Those plants infested with either H. glycines or F. virguliforme showed that the allele for resistance was dominant. In the absence of Rhg4 the GmRLK18-1 was sufficient to confer nearly complete resistance to both root and leaf symptoms of SDS caused by F. virguliforme and provided partial resistance to three different populations of nematodes (mature female cysts were reduced by 30-50%). In the presence of Rhg4 the plants with the transgene were nearly classed as fully resistant to SCN (females reduced to 11% of the susceptible control) as well as SDS. A reduction in the rate of early seedling root development was also shown to be caused by the resistance allele of the GmRLK18-1. Field trials of transgenic plants showed an increase in foliar susceptibility to insect herbivory. The inference that soybean has adapted part of an existing pathogen recognition and

  16. The receptor like kinase at Rhg1-a/Rfs2 caused pleiotropic resistance to sudden death syndrome and soybean cyst nematode as a transgene by altering signaling responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srour Ali

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. resistance to any population of Heterodera glycines (I., or Fusarium virguliforme (Akoi, O’Donnell, Homma & Lattanzi required a functional allele at Rhg1/Rfs2. H. glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN was an ancient, endemic, pest of soybean whereas F. virguliforme causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS, was a recent, regional, pest. This study examined the role of a receptor like kinase (RLK GmRLK18-1 (gene model Glyma_18_02680 at 1,071 kbp on chromosome 18 of the genome sequence within the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus in causing resistance to SCN and SDS. Results A BAC (B73p06 encompassing the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus was sequenced from a resistant cultivar and compared to the sequences of two susceptible cultivars from which 800 SNPs were found. Sequence alignments inferred that the resistance allele was an introgressed region of about 59 kbp at the center of which the GmRLK18-1 was the most polymorphic gene and encoded protein. Analyses were made of plants that were either heterozygous at, or transgenic (and so hemizygous at a new location with, the resistance allele of GmRLK18-1. Those plants infested with either H. glycines or F. virguliforme showed that the allele for resistance was dominant. In the absence of Rhg4 the GmRLK18-1 was sufficient to confer nearly complete resistance to both root and leaf symptoms of SDS caused by F. virguliforme and provided partial resistance to three different populations of nematodes (mature female cysts were reduced by 30–50%. In the presence of Rhg4 the plants with the transgene were nearly classed as fully resistant to SCN (females reduced to 11% of the susceptible control as well as SDS. A reduction in the rate of early seedling root development was also shown to be caused by the resistance allele of the GmRLK18-1. Field trials of transgenic plants showed an increase in foliar susceptibility to insect herbivory. Conclusions The inference that soybean has

  17. Combined effects of Lanthanum(III) and elevated Ultraviolet-B radiation on root nitrogen nutrient in soybean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangrong; Wang, Lihong; Sun, Zhaoguo; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth element pollution and elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation occur simultaneously in some regions, but the combined effects of these two factors on plants have not attracted enough attention. Nitrogen nutrient is vital to plant growth. In this study, the combined effects of lanthanum(III) and elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation in soybean (Glycine max L.) roots were investigated. Treatment with 0.08 mmol L(-1) La(III) did not change the effects of elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), nitrate, ammonium, amino acids, or soluble protein in the roots. Treatment with 0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation synergistically decreased the NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities as well as the nitrate, amino acid, and soluble protein levels, except for the GDH activity and ammonium content. Combined treatment with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation produced severely deleterious effects on all test indices, and these effects were stronger than those induced by La(III) or elevated UV-B radiation treatment alone. Following the withdrawal of La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation, all test indices for the combined treatments with 0.08/0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation recovered to a certain extent, but they could not recover for treatments with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation. In summary, combined treatment with La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation seriously affected nitrogen nutrition in soybean roots through the inhibition of nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation.

  18. Investigating differences in the root to shoot transfer and xylem sap solubility of organic compounds between zucchini, squash and soybean using a pressure chamber method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Naho; Doucette, William J; White, Jason C

    2015-07-01

    A pressure chamber method was used to examine differences in the root to shoot transfer and xylem sap solubility of caffeine (log Kow=-0.07), triclocarban (log Kow=3.5-4.2) and endosulfan (log Kow=3.8-4.8) for zucchini (cucurbita pepo ssp pepo), squash (cucurbita pepo ssp ovifera), and soybean (glycine max L.). Transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCF) for caffeine (TSCF=0.8) were statistically equivalent for all plant species. However, for the more hydrophobic endosulfan and triclocarban, the TSCF values for zucchini (TSCF=0.6 and 0.4, respectively) were 3 and 10 times greater than the soybean and squash (TSCF=0.2 and 0.05, respectively). The difference in TSCF values was examined by comparing the measured solubilities of caffeine, endosulfan and triclocarban in deionized water to those in soybean and zucchini xylem saps using a modified shake flask method. The measured solubility of organic contaminants in xylem sap has not previously been reported. Caffeine solubilities in the xylem saps of soybean and zucchini were statistically equal to deionized water (21500mgL(-1)) while endosulfan and triclocarban solubilities in the zucchini xylem sap were significantly greater (0.43 and 0.21mgL(-1), respectively) than that of the soybean xylem sap (0.31 and 0.11mgL(-1), respectively) and deionized water (0.34 and 0.11mgL(-1), respectively). This suggests that the enhanced root to shoot transfer of hydrophobic organics reported for zucchini is partly due to increased solubility in the xylem sap. Further xylem sap characterization is needed to determine the mechanism of solubility enhancement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with ion mobility separation reveals metabolites in the symbiotic interactions of soybean roots and rhizobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopka, Sylwia A.; Agtuca, Beverly J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary; Vertes, Akos; Anderton, Christopher R.

    2017-05-23

    Technologies enabling in situ metabolic profiling of living plant systems are invaluable for understanding physiological processes and could be used for rapid phenotypic screening (e.g., to produce plants with superior biological nitrogen fixing ability). The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria results in a specialized plant organ (i.e., root nodule), where the exchange of nutrients between host and endosymbiont occurs. Laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) is a method that can be performed under ambient conditions requiring minimal sample preparation. Here, we employed LAESI-MS to explore the well-characterized symbiosis between soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and its compatible symbiont, Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The utilization of ion mobility separation (IMS) improved the molecular coverage, selectivity, and identification of the detected biomolecules. Specifically, incorporation of IMS resulted in an increase of 153 detected metabolites in the nodule samples. The data presented demonstrates the advantages of using LAESI-IMS-MS for the rapid analysis of intact root nodules, uninfected root segments, and free-living rhizobia. Untargeted pathway analysis revealed several metabolic processes within the nodule (e.g., zeatin, riboflavin, and purine synthesis). Compounds specific to the uninfected root and bacteria were also detected. Lastly, we performed depth-profiling of intact nodules to reveal the location of metabolites to the cortex and inside the infected region, and lateral profiling of sectioned nodules confirmed these molecular distributions. Our results established the feasibility of LAESI-IMS-MS for the analysis and spatial mapping of plant tissues, with its specific demonstration to improve our understanding of the soybean-rhizobial symbiosis.

  20. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  1. Electrical failure analysis for root-cause determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines a practical failure analysis sequence. Several technical definitions are required. A failure is defined as a component that was operating in a system where the system malfunctioned and the replacement of the device restored system functionality. The failure mode is the malfunctioning behavior of the device. The failure mechanism is the underlying cause or source of the failure mode. The failure mechanism is the root cause of the failure mode. The failure analysis procedure needs to be adequately refined to result in the determination of the cause of failure to the degree that corrective action or design changes will prevent recurrence of the failure mode or mechanism. An example of a root-cause determination analysis performed for a nuclear power industry customer serves to illustrate the analysis methodology

  2. Exploring the preventable causes of unplanned readmissions using root cause analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluitman, K. S.; van Galen, L. S.; Merten, H

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Unplanned readmissions within 30 days are a common phenomenon in everyday practice and lead to increasing costs. Although many studies aiming to analyze the probable causes leading to unplanned readmissions have been performed, an in depth-study analyzing the human (healthcare worker...... and unpreventable readmissions. Results: Most root causes for readmission were disease-related (46%), followed by human (healthcare worker)-(33%) and patient-(15%) related root causes. Half of the readmissions studied were considered to be potentially preventable. Preventable readmissions predominantly had human......-related (coordination) failures. Conclusion and relevance: Our study suggests that improving human-related (coordinating) factors contributing to a readmission can potentially decrease the number of preventable readmissions. (C) 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights...

  3. Trial application of the candidate root cause categorization scheme and preliminary assessment of selected data bases for the root causes of component failures program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruske, S.Z.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Stepina, P.L.

    1985-04-01

    The objective of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Root Causes of Component Failures Program is to develop and apply a categorization scheme for identifying root causes of failures for components that comprise safety and safety support systems of nuclear power plants. Results from this program will provide valuable input in the areas of probabilistic risk assessment, reliability assurance, and application of risk assessments in the inspection program. This report presents the trial application and assessment of the candidate root cause categorization scheme to three failure data bases: the In-Plant Reliability Data System (IPRDS), the Licensee Event Report (LER) data base, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). Results of the trial application/assessment show that significant root cause information can be obtained from these failure data bases

  4. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  5. Utilization of (15)NO3 (-) by nodulated soybean plants under conditions of root hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Menolli Lanza, Luciana; Ferreira Lanza, Daniel Carlos; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2014-07-01

    Waterlogging of soils is common in nature. The low availability of oxygen under these conditions leads to hypoxia of the root system impairing the development and productivity of the plant. The presence of nitrate under flooding conditions is regarded as being beneficial towards tolerance to this stress. However, it is not known how nodulated soybean plants, cultivated in the absence of nitrate and therefore not metabolically adapted to this compound, would respond to nitrate under root hypoxia in comparison with non-nodulated plants grown on nitrate. A study was conducted with (15)N labelled nitrate supplied on waterlogging for a period of 48 h using both nodulated and non-nodulated plants of different physiological ages. Enrichment of N was found in roots and leaves with incorporation of the isotope in amino acids, although to a much smaller degree under hypoxia than normoxia. This demonstrates that nitrate is taken up under hypoxic conditions and assimilated into amino acids, although to a much lesser extent than for normoxia. The similar response obtained with nodulated and non-nodulated plants indicates the rapid metabolic adaptation of nodulated plants to the presence of nitrate under hypoxia. Enrichment of N in nodules was very much weaker with a distinct enrichment pattern of amino acids (especially asparagine) suggesting that labelling arose from a tissue source external to the nodule rather than through assimilation in the nodule itself.

  6. Influence of harvesting and processing methods on organic viability of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Lana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic viability of soybean seed for three soybean varieties - elite (Bosa, ZPS 015 and Nena depending on methods of manipulation with seeds during harvesting and processing phase were determined in this paper. Trial was conducted in Zemun Polje during 1999; manual and mechanized harvesting or processing methods were applied. Seed germination was tested using ISTA methods (Standard method and Cold test. Following parameters were evaluated: germination viability, germination, rate-speed of emergence, length of hypocotile and main root Rate-speed of emergence was based on number of emerged plants per day. Length of hypocotile or root and percent of germination determined vigour index. Based on obtained results it maybe concluded that methods of seed manipulation during harvesting or processing phase were influenced on soybean seed quality parameters evaluated. Ways of seed manipulation - methods evaluated were influenced organic viability of soybean seed by decreasing germination viability, total germination and length of main root.

  7. A root cause analysis project in a medication safety course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Jason J

    2012-08-10

    To develop, implement, and evaluate team-based root cause analysis projects as part of a required medication safety course for second-year pharmacy students. Lectures, in-class activities, and out-of-class reading assignments were used to develop students' medication safety skills and introduce them to the culture of medication safety. Students applied these skills within teams by evaluating cases of medication errors using root cause analyses. Teams also developed error prevention strategies and formally presented their findings. Student performance was assessed using a medication errors evaluation rubric. Of the 211 students who completed the course, the majority performed well on root cause analysis assignments and rated them favorably on course evaluations. Medication error evaluation and prevention was successfully introduced in a medication safety course using team-based root cause analysis projects.

  8. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  9. Analysis of peptide uptake and location of root hair-promoting peptide accumulation in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, Yoshiki; Taniguchi, Rikiya; Kubo, Motoki

    2012-03-01

    Peptide uptake by plant roots from degraded soybean-meal products was analyzed in Brassica rapa and Solanum lycopersicum. B. rapa absorbed about 40% of the initial water volume, whereas peptide concentration was decreased by 75% after 24 h. Analysis by reversed-phase HPLC showed that number of peptides was absorbed by the roots during soaking in degraded soybean-meal products for 24 h. Carboxyfluorescein-labeled root hair-promoting peptide was synthesized, and its localization, movement, and accumulation in roots were investigated. The peptide appeared to be absorbed by root hairs and then moved to trichoblasts. Furthermore, the peptide was moved from trichoblasts to atrichoblasts after 24 h. The peptide was accumulated in epidermal cells, suggesting that the peptide may have a function in both trichoblasts and atrichoblasts. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effect of Soybean Population and Spatial Arrangement on Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was conducted in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, to determine the effect of soybean population and spatial arrangement on the productivity of ginger/soybean intercrop in South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised ...

  11. Comparative efficacy of a red alga solieria robusta, chemical fertilizers and pesticides in managing the root diseases and growth of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, V.; Haque, S.E.; Baloch, G.N.; Ara, J.

    2011-01-01

    Application of seaweed as soil amendment for the control of soil borne plant diseases has increased in recent years due to their environment friendly role. In screen house study, a red seaweed Solieria robusta used as soil amendment showed better suppressive effect on root rotting fungus Fusarium solani than Topsin-M, a fungicide, but was found less effective than Topsin-M against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani on soybean. Solieria robusta showed similar suppressive effect on root knot nematode as did carbofuran, a nematicide. Seaweed showed slightly better effect on plant growth than urea or potash by producing taller plants, better root length and number of flowers per plant. However, mixed application of S.robusta and Topsin-M produced greater number of flowers per plant and tallest plants. (author)

  12. Root Causes of Component Failures Program: Methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satterwhite, D.G.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Vesely, W.E.; Meale, B.M.

    1986-12-01

    This report contains information pertaining to definitions, methodologies, and applications of root cause analysis. Of specific interest, and highlighted throughout the discussion, are applications pertaining to current and future Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) light water reactor safety programs. These applications are discussed in view of addressing specific program issues under NRC consideration and reflect current root cause analysis capabilities

  13. Soybean Root-Derived Hierarchical Porous Carbon as Electrode Material for High-Performance Supercapacitors in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nannan; Li, Min; Wang, Yong; Sun, Xingkai; Wang, Feng; Yang, Ru

    2016-12-14

    Soybeans are extensively cultivated worldwide as human food. However, large quantities of soybean roots (SRs), which possess an abundant three-dimensional (3D) structure, remain unused and produce enormous pressure on the environment. Here, 3D hierarchical porous carbon was prepared by the facile carbonization of SRs followed by chemical activation. The as-prepared material, possessing large specific surface area (2143 m 2 g -1 ), good electrical conductivity, and unique 3D hierarchical porosity, shows outstanding electrochemical performance as an electrode material for supercapacitors, such as a high capacitance (276 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 ), superior cycle stability (98% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles at 5 A g -1 ), and good rate capability in a symmetric two-electrode supercapacitor in 6 M KOH. Furthermore, the maximum energy density of as-assembled symmetric supercapacitor can reach 100.5 Wh kg -1 in neat EMIM BF 4 . Moreover, a value of 40.7 Wh kg -1 is maintained at ultrahigh power density (63000 W kg -1 ). These results show that the as-assembled supercapacitor can simultaneously deliver superior energy and power density.

  14. Organization of the nucleoli of soybean root meristematic cells at different states of their activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepiński, Dariusz

    2010-06-01

    Internal organization of a nucleolus changes along with rRNA transcriptional activity. These changes mainly concern qualitative and quantitative alternations of three main nucleolar components: fibrillar centres (FC), dense fibrillar component (DFC) and granular component (GC). In the present work quantitative measurements of the number and sizes of FCs and DFCs in nucleoli of root meristematic cells of soybean seedlings grown at (1) chilling conditions that reduce transcriptional activity of soybean nucleoli (temp. of 10 degrees C) and at (2) conditions that increase this activity (recovery at optimal temp. of 25 degrees C after previous chilling), even more than (3) the control, have been carried out. Morphometric measurements showed that the highest number of FCs and DFCs was in the most active nucleoli, while the smallest number - in those with the lowest activity. The average size of an individual FC was similar in all nucleoli regardless of their transcriptional activity, that of the individual DFC varied, being bigger in the nucleoli of the chilled plants and smallest in those of the recovered plants. The numbers of FCs and DFCs seem to be indicators of transcriptional activity of plant nucleoli - the higher number of FCs and DFCs the more active nucleoli. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptomic characterization of soybean (Glycine max) roots in response to rhizobium infection by RNA sequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q.; Li, Z.; Wang, S.; Huang, S.; Yang, H.

    2018-01-01

    Legumes interacting with rhizobium to convert N2 into ammonia for plant use has attracted worldwide interest. However, the plant basal nitrogen fixation mechanisms induced in response to Rhizobium, giving differential gene expression of plants, have not yet been fully realized. The differential expressed genes of soybean between inoculated and mock-inoculated were analyzed by a RNA-Seq. The results of the sequencing were aligned against the Williams 82 genome sequence, which contain 55787 transcripts; 280 and 316 transcripts were found to be up- and down-regulated, respectively, for inoculated and mock-inoculated soybean roots at stage V1. Gene ontology (GO) analyses detected 104, 182 and 178 genes associated with the cell component category, molecular function category and biological process category, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed that 98 differentially expressed genes (115 transcripts) were involved in 169 biological pathways. We selected 19 differentially expressed genes and analyzed their expressions in mock-inoculated, inoculated USDA110 and CCBAU45436 using qRT-PCR. The results were in accordance with those obtained from rhizobia infected RNA-Seq data. These showed that the results of RNA-Seq had reliability and universality. Additionally, this study showed some novel genes associated with the nitrogen fixation process in comparison to previously identified QTLs. (author)

  16. Can phosphorus application and cover cropping alter arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and soybean performance after a five-year phosphorus-unfertilized crop rotational system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masao; Sato, Ryohei; Serizawa, Ayu; Takahashi, Yuichi; Gunji, Kento; Tatewaki, Yuya; Isobe, Katsunori

    2018-01-01

    Understanding diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important for optimizing their role for phosphorus (P) nutrition of soybeans ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in P-limited soils. However, it is not clear how soybean growth and P nutrition is related to AMF colonization and diversity of AMF communities in a continuous P-unfertilized cover cropping system. Thus, we investigated the impact of P-application and cover cropping on the interaction among AMF colonization, AMF diversity in soybean roots, soybean growth and P nutrition under a five-year P-unfertilized crop rotation. In this study, we established three cover crop systems (wheat, red clover and oilseed rape) or bare fallow in rotation with soybean. The P-application rates before the seeding of soybeans were 52.5 and 157.5 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. We measured AMF colonization in soybean roots, soybean growth parameters such as aboveground plant biomass, P uptake at the flowering stage and grain yields at the maturity stage in both years. AMF community structure in soybean roots was characterized by specific amplification of small subunit rDNA. The increase in the root colonization at the flowering stage was small as a result of P-application. Cover cropping did not affect the aboveground biomass and P uptake of soybean in both years, but the P-application had positive effects on the soybean performance such as plant P uptake, biomass and grain yield in 2015. AMF communities colonizing soybean roots were also significantly influenced by P-application throughout the two years. Moreover, the diversity of AMF communities in roots was significantly influenced by P-application and cover cropping in both years, and was positively correlated with the soybean biomass, P uptake and grain yield throughout the two years. Our results indicated that P-application rather than cover cropping may be a key factor for improving soybean growth performance with respect to AMF diversity in P-limited cover

  17. Genes related to antioxidant metabolism are involved in Methylobacterium mesophilicum-soybean interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Welington Luiz; Santos, Daiene Souza; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Salgueiro-Londoño, Jennifer Katherine; Camargo-Neves, Aline Aparecida; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega

    2015-10-01

    The genus Methylobacterium is composed of pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacterial species that are widespread in natural environments, such as soils, stream water and plants. When in association with plants, this genus colonizes the host plant epiphytically and/or endophytically. This association is known to promote plant growth, induce plant systemic resistance and inhibit plant infection by phytopathogens. In the present study, we focused on evaluating the colonization of soybean seedling-roots by Methylobacterium mesophilicum strain SR1.6/6. We focused on the identification of the key genes involved in the initial step of soybean colonization by methylotrophic bacteria, which includes the plant exudate recognition and adaptation by planktonic bacteria. Visualization by scanning electron microscopy revealed that M. mesophilicum SR1.6/6 colonizes soybean roots surface effectively at 48 h after inoculation, suggesting a mechanism for root recognition and adaptation before this period. The colonization proceeds by the development of a mature biofilm on roots at 96 h after inoculation. Transcriptomic analysis of the planktonic bacteria (with plant) revealed the expression of several genes involved in membrane transport, thus confirming an initial metabolic activation of bacterial responses when in the presence of plant root exudates. Moreover, antioxidant genes were mostly expressed during the interaction with the plant exudates. Further evaluation of stress- and methylotrophic-related genes expression by qPCR showed that glutathione peroxidase and glutathione synthetase genes were up-regulated during the Methylobacterium-soybean interaction. These findings support that glutathione (GSH) is potentially a key molecule involved in cellular detoxification during plant root colonization. In addition to methylotrophic metabolism, antioxidant genes, mainly glutathione-related genes, play a key role during soybean exudate recognition and adaptation, the first step in

  18. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  20. Toxicity of vanadium in soil on soybean at different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyan; Wang, Mei; Jia, Yanbo; Gou, Min; Zeyer, Josef

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium(V) is present in trace amounts in most plants and widely distributed in soils. However, the environmental toxicity of V compound in soils is controversial. A greenhouse study with soybean from germination to bean production under exposure to pentavalent V [V(V)] was conducted to elucidate the interaction of plants and V fractions in soils and to evaluate the toxicity of V at different plant growth stages. Soybean growth has no effect on non-specific-bond and specific-bond fractions of V in soils, but V fractionation occurred in more extraction-resistant phases at high V concentrations. High concentrations of V(V) postponed the germination and growth of the soybeans. Bean production was less than half of that of the control at 500 mg kg -1 spiked V(V). For the 0 mg kg -1 spiked V(V) treated plants, the root was not the main location where V was retained. Vanadium in the soils at ≤ 250 mg kg -1 did not significantly affect the V concentration in the shoot and leaf of soybeans. With the increase in V concentration in soil, V concentrations in roots increased, whereas those in beans and pods decreased. From vegetative growth to the reproductive growth, the soybeans adsorbed more V and accumulated more V in the roots, with soil. Meanwhile, the ratio of V concentration in cell wall to the total V concentration in the root increased with the increase in V(V) concentration in soils. Our results revealed that high concentrations of V inhibited soybean germination and biomass production. However, plants may produce self-defense systems to endure V toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discovery of a seventh Rpp soybean rust resistance locus in soybean accession PI 605823

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & Syd, is a disease threat to soybean production in regions of the world with mild winters. Host plant resistance to P. pachyrhizi conditioned by Rpp genes has been found in numerous soybean accessions, and at...

  2. Contribution of nitrogen derived from mineral supplementation for soybean seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Massuquini Conceição

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds can absorb N from mineral supplementation, thus stimulating seedling development in soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merrill. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution to soybean seedlings of N derived from mineral supplementation in seeds with different nutritional contents. Seeds of the cultivar BMX Potência RR received mineral supplementation enriched with 2.5% excess 15N. The treatments were performed in seeds in two lots, one with high and one with low nutritional content. At 2, 6 and 10 days after sowing on paper towels, the seedlings were collected and separated into cotyledons, roots and shoots. Dry matter production, root length and root volume were assessed. Total N and 15N values were analyzed in the seedling organ tissues. The seeds from the lot with lower nutritional content absorbed more N from the mineral supplement, which was accumulated in the cotyledons and redistributed to the root systems and cotyledons. At 10 days after sowing, most of the N in the organs of soybean seedlings was derived from the seed reserves, regardless of nutritional content. Thus, application of N through mineral supplementation is of low importance for the development and nutrition of seedlings.

  3. Cultural analysis: The missing factor in root-cause evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a model that can focus attention on appropriate cultural targets of inquiry, provide a completion criterion for root-cause completeness, and illustrate results. The illustration provided is as follows: Discover the root causes(s) related to issues of a nuclear reactor operator sleeping, inattention to duties, failure to adhere to procedures, and management inaction or adequate action

  4. Effectiveness of cow manure and mycorrhiza on the growth of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiyanta, M. N. A.; Samanhudi; Yunus, A.; Pujiasmanto, B.; Minardi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Soybean is one of the major food crop commodities in Indonesia. The needs of soybean each year is always increasing, but the the production rate is low. The research aimed to know the influence of treatment doses of cow manure and mycorrhiza towards growth and yield of soybeans. This research was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two factors. The first factor is the dose of cow manure: S0 (0 g/plot), S1 (781.25 g/plot), S2 (1562.5 g/plot), and S3 (2343.75 g/plot). The second factor is the dose of mycorrhiza: M0 (0 g/plot), M1 (100 g/plot), and M2 (200 g/plot). The observed parameters is plant height, the number of productive branches, weight of 100 seeds, root length, fresh weight of biomass, dry weight of biomass, conversion calculation results of soybeans per hectacre and the percentage of roots infected with mycorrhiza. Data were analyzed with ANOVA at 5% significance level, continued with Duncan test at 5% confidence level. The results showed that no interaction between the two treatments. Doses of cow manure provides significant influence to plant height and the length of the root. Whereas, the doses of mycorrhiza provides significant effect to the number of productive branch, weight of 100 seeds, dry weight of biomass, and the conversion of soybean yield per hectare.

  5. Interactions of Heterodera glycines, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Soybean in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H E; Hetrick, B A; Todd, T C

    1994-12-01

    The impact of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on soybean growth and their interaction with Heterodera glycines were evaluated in nematode-infested and uninfested fields in Kansas. Ten soybean cultivars from Maturity Groups III-V with differential susceptibility to H. glycines were treated with the fungicide benomyl to suppress colonization by naturally occurring mycorrhizal fungi and compared with untreated control plots. In H. glycines-infested soil, susceptible cultivars exhibited 39% lower yields, 28% lower colonization by mycorrhizal fungi, and an eightfold increase in colonization by the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina, compared with resistant cultivars. In the absence of the nematode, susceptible cultivars exhibited 10% lower yields than resistant cultivars, root colonization of resistant vs. susceptible soybean by mycorrhizal fungi varied with sampling date, and there were no differences in colonization by M. phaseolina between resistant and susceptible cultivars. Benomyl application resulted in 19% greater root growth and 9% higher seed yields in H. glycines-infested soil, but did not affect soybean growth and yield in the absence of the nematode. Colonization of soybean roots by mycorrhizal fungi was negatively correlated with H. glycines population densities due to nematode antagonism to the mycorrhizal fungi rather than suppression of nematode populations. Soybean yields were a function of the pathogenic effects of H. glycines and M. phaseolina, and, to a lesser degree, the stimulatory effects of mycorrhizal fungi.

  6. Root systems and soil microbial biomass under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venzke Filho Solismar de Paiva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Some root parameters such as distribution, length, diameter and dry matter are inherent to plant species. Roots can influence microbial population during vegetative cycle through the rhizodeposits and, after senescence, integrating the soil organic matter pool. Since they represent labile substrates, especially regarding nitrogen, they can determine the rate of nutrient availability to the next crop cultivated under no-tillage (NT. The root systems of two crop species: maize (Zea mays L. cultivar Cargill 909 and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivar Embrapa 59, were compared in the field, and their influence on spatial distribution of the microbial C and N in a clayey-textured Typic Hapludox cultivated for 22 years under NT, at Tibagi, State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, was determined. Digital image processing and nail-plate techniques were used to evaluate 40 plots of a 80 ´ 50 ´ 3 cm soil profile. It was observed that 36% and 30% of the maize and soybeans roots, respectively, are concentrated in the 0 to 10 cm soil layer. The percent distribution of root dry matter was similar for both crops. The maize roots presented a total of 1,324 kg C ha-1 and 58 kg N ha-1, with higher root dry matter density and more roots in decomposition in the upper soil layer, decreasing with depth. The soybean roots (392 kg C ha-1 and 21 kg N ha-1 showed higher number of thinner roots and higher density per length unity compared to the maize. The maize roots enhanced microbial-C down to deeper soil layers than did the soybean roots. The microbial N presented a better correlation with the concentration of thin active roots and with roots in decomposition or in indefinite shape, possibly because of higher concentration of C and N easily assimilated by soil microorganisms.

  7. Atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica e Heterodera glycines em raízes excisadas de soja Attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica and Heterodera glycines in excised soybean roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Diniz Campos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Com vista ao estudo de atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood e Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe em soja (Glycine max L., desenvolveu-se uma técnica empregando-se segmento de raiz com 2cm de comprimento. Nos segmentos de raiz de soja infectados, observou-se que a penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. javanica ocorre pela coifa seguida de migração entre os feixes vasculares do cilindro central. Juvenis de H. glycines penetraram, aproximadamente, 15mm da coifa. A região seccionada da raiz de soja atraiu três vezes mais J2 de M. javanica do que a região da coifa, mas esta não foi tão atrativa para J2 de H. glycines. A obstrução conjunta da coifa e do local seccionado reduziu (83% a penetração de J2, tanto de M. javanica quanto de H. glycines. Quando apenas um desses locais foi obstruído, a outra extremidade livre compensou o processo atrativo. Portanto, as substâncias atrativas são liberadas por essas extremidades. A penetração de J2 de M. javanica foi maior no segmento de raiz quando comparada com a plântula intacta de soja. Entretanto, os J2 de H. glycines penetraram menos em segmentos de raiz e em plântulas sem folhas, quando comparados com plântulas intactas e com as seccionadas no colo. Portanto, na cultivar de soja "Embrapa 20", a atração e os locais de penetração de J2 de H. glycines e M. javanica são diferenciados. Esta técnica poderá ser útil nos estudos de atração e penetração de outros nematoides endoparasitas.To study the attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood and Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe in soybean (Glycine max L., a technique using 2-cm long root segments was developed. In infected soybean root segments penetration of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. javanica occured through the root cap following migration between the vascular bundles of the central cylinder. Juveniles of H. glycines penetrated about 15mm from the root cap. The cut

  8. Coregulation of soybean vegetative storage protein gene expression by methyl jasmonate and soluble sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, H S; Dewald, D B; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1992-03-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves.

  9. Soybean production in eastern and southern Africa and threat of yield loss due to soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.M.; Beed, F.; Tukamuhabwa, P.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is a major source of oil and proteins worldwide. The demand for soybean has increased in Africa, driven by the growing feed industry for poultry, aquaculture and home consumption in the form of processed milk, baked beans and for blending with maize and wheat flour. Soybean, in addition

  10. Root cause analysis in support of reliability enhancement of engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sachin; Mishra, Vivek; Joshi, N.S.; Varde, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    Reliability based methods have been widely used for the safety assessment of plant system, structures and components. These methods provide a quantitative estimation of system reliability but do not give insight into the failure mechanism. Understanding the failure mechanism is a must to avoid the recurrence of the events and enhancement of the system reliability. Root cause analysis provides a tool for gaining detailed insights into the causes of failure of component with particular attention to the identification of fault in component design, operation, surveillance, maintenance, training, procedures and policies which must be improved to prevent repetition of incidents. Root cause analysis also helps in developing Probabilistic Safety Analysis models. A probabilistic precursor study provides a complement to the root cause analysis approach in event analysis by focusing on how an event might have developed adversely. This paper discusses the root cause analysis methodologies and their application in the specific case studies for enhancement of system reliability. (author)

  11. The Root Cause of the Overheating Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    2017-01-01

    Previously we identified the receding flow, where two fluid streams recede from each other, as an open numerical problem, because all well-known numerical fluxes give an anomalous temperature rise, thus called the overheating problem. This phenomenon, although presented in several textbooks, and many previous publications, has scarcely been satisfactorily addressed and the root cause of the overheating problem not well understood. We found that this temperature rise was solely connected to entropy rise and proposed to use the method of characteristics to eradicate the problem. However, the root cause of the entropy production was still unclear. In the present study, we identify the cause of this problem: the entropy rise is rooted in the pressure flux in a finite volume formulation and is implanted at the first time step. It is found theoretically inevitable for all existing numerical flux schemes used in the finite volume setting, as confirmed by numerical tests. This difficulty cannot be eliminated by manipulating time step, grid size, spatial accuracy, etc, although the rate of overheating depends on the flux scheme used. Finally, we incorporate the entropy transport equation, in place of the energy equation, to ensure preservation of entropy, thus correcting this temperature anomaly. Its applicability is demonstrated for some relevant 1D and 2D problems. Thus, the present study validates that the entropy generated ab initio is the genesis of the overheating problem.

  12. Proteomic analysis of the flooding tolerance mechanism in mutant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nanjo, Yohei; Nishimura, Minoru

    2013-02-21

    Flooding stress of soybean is a serious problem because it reduces growth; however, flooding-tolerant cultivars have not been identified. To analyze the flooding tolerance mechanism of soybean, the flooding-tolerant mutant was isolated and analyzed using a proteomic technique. Flooding-tolerance tests were repeated five times using gamma-ray irradiated soybeans, whose root growth (M6 stage) was not suppressed even under flooding stress. Two-day-old wild-type and mutant plants were subjected to flooding stress for 2days, and proteins were identified using a gel-based proteomic technique. In wild-type under flooding stress, levels of proteins related to development, protein synthesis/degradation, secondary metabolism, and the cell wall changed; however, these proteins did not markedly differ in the mutant. In contrast, an increased number of fermentation-related proteins were identified in the mutant under flooding stress. The root tips of mutant plants were not affected by flooding stress, even though the wild-type plants had damaged root. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the mutant increased at an early stage of flooding stress compared with that of the wild-type. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the fermentation system in the early stages of flooding may be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in soybean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Induced marker gene mutations in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, S.; Palmer, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Non-fluorescent root mutants in soybean are useful as markers in genetic studies. 13 such mutants were detected among more than 150 000 seedlings derived from soybean lines treated with 6 mutagens. One of them, derived from variety 'Williams' treated with 20 kR gamma rays, did not correspond to the already known spontaneous non-fluorescent mutants. It was assigned the identification no. T285 and the gene symbol fr5. The other mutants corresponded with known loci fr1, fr2 or fr4. (author)

  14. Hypertrophic Synovitis of the Facet Joint Causing Root Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Iwatsuki M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritic changes in the facet joints are common in the presence of degenerative disc disease. Changes in the joint capsule accompany changes in the articular surfaces. Intraspinal synovial cysts that cause radicular pain, cauda equina syndrome, and myelopathy have been reported; however, there have been few reports in orthopedic or neurosurgical literature regarding hypertrophic synovitis of the facet joint presenting as an incidental para-articular mass. Here, we report a case of hypertrophic synovitis causing root pain. We describe the case of a 65-year-old man suffering from right sciatica and right leg pain in the L5 nerve-root dermatome for 1 year; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed an enhanced mass around the L4–5 facet joint. We investigated this mass pathologically. After right medial facetectomy, the symptoms resolved. Pathological investigation revealed this mass was hypertrophic synovitis. Hypertrophic synovitis of the facet joint might cause root pain.

  15. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  16. Roles of small RNAs in soybean defense against Phytophthora sojae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, James; Gao, Lei; Yang, Yang; Zhai, Jixian; Arikit, Siwaret; Yu, Yu; Duan, Shuyi; Chan, Vicky; Xiong, Qin; Yan, Jun; Li, Shengben; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Yuanchao; Tang, Guiliang; Meyers, Blake C; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-09-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of many notorious pathogens of crops and forestry trees. At present, battling Phytophthora diseases is challenging due to a lack of understanding of their pathogenesis. We investigated the role of small RNAs in regulating soybean defense in response to infection by Phytophthora sojae, the second most destructive pathogen of soybean. Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are universal regulators that repress target gene expression in eukaryotes. We identified known and novel small RNAs that differentially accumulated during P. sojae infection in soybean roots. Among them, miR393 and miR166 were induced by heat-inactivated P. sojae hyphae, indicating that they may be involved in soybean basal defense. Indeed, knocking down the level of mature miR393 led to enhanced susceptibility of soybean to P. sojae; furthermore, the expression of isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes was drastically reduced in miR393 knockdown roots. These data suggest that miR393 promotes soybean defense against P. sojae. In addition to miRNAs, P. sojae infection also resulted in increased accumulation of phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) that are predominantly generated from canonical resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat proteins and genes encoding pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins. This work identifies specific miRNAs and phasiRNAs that regulate defense-associated genes in soybean during Phytophthora infection. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fertilizer application and root development analyzed by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the development of the soybean root system under different application of fertilizer applying neutron imaging technique. When neutron beam was irradiated, the root image as well as fertilizer imbedded in a thin aluminum container was clearly projected, since water amount in roots are higher than that in soil. Through image analysis, the development of root system was studied under different application of the fertilizer. The development of a main root with lateral roots was observed without applying fertilizer. When the fertilizer was homogeneously supplied to the soil, the morphological development of the root showed the similar pattern to that grown without fertilizer, in different to the amount of the fertilizer. In the case of local application of the fertilizer, lateral position or downward to the main root, the inhibition of the root growth was observed, suggesting that the localization of the fertilizer is responsible for reduction of the soybean yield. (author)

  18. Effect of fertilization and soil treatment on the soybean nodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel aziz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. ) is one of the most important leguminosae crops all over the world. It is considered one of the most important protein sources for human and animals. During the last 20 years, soybean was introduced to Egypt, however the nodulation of soybean under field conditions remains a problem because the egyptian soils were void of soybean rhizobia. Since soybean is a leguminosae crop, symbiosis with root - nodule R hizobium might play a significant role in the management of its production . Nevertheless, soybean suffers from poor nodulation in egypt, hence nitrogenase fertilization for legume is a logical practice. Soybean can utilize both soil -N or applied N and symbiotically fixed atmospheric nitrogen under normal field condition. The fixation of atmospheric N by the legume/Rhizobium symbiosis is an integrated process in which the host plant ( macrosymbiont) supplies the bacterium (microsymbiont) with energy and the bacterium supplies the plant with reduced N. figs.,172 refs

  19. A spatial ecology study on the effects of field conditions and crop rotation on the incidence of Plectris aliena (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grub damage to sweetpotato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Nancy L; Osborne, Jason; Abney, Mark R

    2013-10-01

    A farmscape study was conducted in commercial sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) fields in Columbus County, NC, in 2010 and 2011 to investigate the effects of the following field conditions: soil drainage class, soil texture, field size, border habitat, land elevation, and the previous year's crop rotation on the incidence of damage caused by Plectris aliena Chapman (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larval feeding. Soil drainage and crop rotation significantly affected the incidence of damage to roots, with well drained soils having a low estimated incidence of damaged roots (0.004) compared with all other drainage classes (0.009-0.011 incidence of damaged roots). Fields with soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] planted the preceding year had the highest incidence of root damage (0.15) compared with all other crops. The effects of border habitats, which were adjacent to grower fields where roots were sampled, showed that as the location of the roots was closer to borders of soybean (planted the year before) or grass fields, the chance of damage to roots decreased. Results indicate that growers can use crop rotation as a management technique and avoid planting sweetpotatoes the year after soybeans to reduce the incidence of P. aliena larval feeding on sweetpotato roots. Environmental conditions such as fields with poor drainage and certain border habitats may be avoided, or selected, by growers to reduce risk of damage to roots by P. aliena.

  20. Analysis of the community compositions of rhizosphere fungi in soybeans continuous cropping fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Cui, Jiaqi; Jie, Weiguang; Cai, Baiyan

    2015-11-01

    We used rhizosphere soil sampled from one field during zero year and two years of continuous cropping of high-protein soybean to analyze the taxonomic community compositions of fungi during periods of high-incidence of root rot. Our objectives were to identify the dominant pathogens in order to provide a theoretical basis for the study of pathogenesis as well as control tactics for soybean root rot induced by continuous cropping. A total of 17,801 modified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained from three different soybean rhizosphere soil samples after zero year and 1 or 2 years of continuous cropping using 454 high-throughput sequencing. The dominant eumycote fungal were identified to be Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in the three soil samples. Continuous cropping of soybean affected the diversity of fungi in rhizosphere soils and increased the abundance of Thelebolus and Mortierellales significantly. Thanatephorus, Fusarium, and Alternaria were identified to be the dominant pathogenic fungal genera in rhizosphere soil from continuously cropped soybean fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Maize Rotations on the Yield of Soybean Grown in Meloidogyne incognita Infested Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kinloch, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A replicated field study was conducted from 1972 to 1980 involving soybeans grown in 2-, 3-, and 4-year rotations with maize in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Monocultured soybeans were maintained as controls. Cropping regimes involved root-knot nematode susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars and soybeans treated and not treated with nematicides. Yields of susceptible cultivars declined with reduced length of rotation. Nematicide treatment significantly increased yields of sus...

  2. Zinc in soybeans. Chemical nature and bioavilability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.

    1987-01-01

    Soybeans were grown hydroponically and intrinsically labeled with 65 Zn through root absorption, stem injection and foliar application. Stem injection resulted in the greatest accumulation of 65 Zn. Regardless of the labeling technique, approximately 40-45% of the seed 65 Zn was associated with the subcellular organelles. The pattern of 65 Zn incorporation into soybeans did not change appreciably as a result of the labelling technique. The major portion of the soluble 65 Zn was either free or associated with very low molecular weight proteins, peptides, or their complexes with phytic acid rather than the major proteins of soybeans. Zinc in soybeans is ionically bound to proteins, peptides and phytic acid. Autoclaving did not affect the chemical association of zinc with soy proteins. Solubility of protein, zinc and phytic acid was studied over the pH range of 3.5-12.0. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from soybeans was lower than from casein and rats adapted to a casein basal diet absorbed more 65 Zn from both casein and soy than rats adapted to a soy basal diet

  3. SOYBEAN PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian soybean production almost never moved, even tended to decrease. Indonesia does not have a specific area of land for planting soybeans. Soybean are generally just a byproduct of plant or land filling vacant after farmers grow rice. In addition soybean price fluctuations that affect tofu and tempe entrepreneurs, it turns soybean farmers are often losers. Policy biased to the consumer sector than soybean production, cause national soybean production declining. The decrease occurred primarily because of the narrowing of soybean plantation land owned by farmers, this happens because soy is less interesting than the business side so that the farmers based on rationality, farmers prefer the other commodities, especially rice. Increasing decline in domestic soybean production resulted in the growing dependence on imports which would deplete foreign exchange. Procurement policies of national soybean stocks through imports is easy to do but its adverse implications for the development of domestic agricultural production, especially soybeans, very bad.

  4. Distance Based Root Cause Analysis and Change Impact Analysis of Performance Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance regression testing is applied to uncover both performance and functional problems of software releases. A performance problem revealed by performance testing can be high response time, low throughput, or even being out of service. Mature performance testing process helps systematically detect software performance problems. However, it is difficult to identify the root cause and evaluate the potential change impact. In this paper, we present an approach leveraging server side logs for identifying root causes of performance problems. Firstly, server side logs are used to recover call tree of each business transaction. We define a novel distance based metric computed from call trees for root cause analysis and apply inverted index from methods to business transactions for change impact analysis. Empirical studies show that our approach can effectively and efficiently help developers diagnose root cause of performance problems.

  5. Low pH, aluminum, and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V; Liao, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function.

  6. Rhizobial Nodulation Factors Stimulate Mycorrhizal Colonization of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z. P.; Staehelin, C.; Vierheilig, H.; Wiemken, A.; Jabbouri, S.; Broughton, W. J.; Vogeli-Lange, R.; Boller, T.

    1995-08-01

    Legumes form tripartite symbiotic associations with noduleinducing rhizobia and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Co-inoculation of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots with Bradyrhizobium japonicum 61-A-101 considerably enhanced colonization by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae. A similar stimulatory effect on mycorrhizal colonization was also observed in nonnodulating soybean mutants when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and in wild-type soybean plants when inoculated with ineffective rhizobial strains, indicating that a functional rhizobial symbiosis is not necessary for enhanced mycorrhiza formation. Inoculation with the mutant Rhizobium sp. NGR[delta]nodABC, unable to produce nodulation (Nod) factors, did not show any effect on mycorrhiza. Highly purified Nod factors also increased the degree of mycorrhizal colonization. Nod factors from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 differed in their potential to promote fungal colonization. The acetylated factor NodNGR-V (MeFuc, Ac), added at concentrations as low as 10-9 M, was active, whereas the sulfated factor, NodNGR-V (MeFuc, S), was inactive. Several soybean flavonoids known to accumulate in response to the acetylated Nod factor showed a similar promoting effect on mycorrhiza. These results suggest that plant flavonoids mediate the Nod factor-induced stimulation of mycorrhizal colonization in soybean roots.

  7. High performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, W D; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, O

    2006-01-01

    This study proposes a simple, quick and reliable method for determining the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) activity in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) roots using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The method includes a single extraction of the tissue and conduction of the enzymatic reaction at 30 degrees C with cinnamaldehydes (coniferyl or sinapyl), substrates of CAD. Disappearance of the substrates in the reaction mixture is monitored at 340 nm (for coniferaldehyde) or 345 nm (for sinapaldehyde) by isocratic elution with methanol/acetic acid through a GLC-ODS (M) column. This HPLC technique furnishes a rapid and reliable measure of cinnamaldehyde substrates, and may be used as an alternative tool to analyze CAD activity in enzyme preparation without previous purification.

  8. Coregulation of Soybean Vegetative Storage Protein Gene Expression by Methyl Jasmonate and Soluble Sugars 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Hugh S.; DeWald, Daryll B.; Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668757

  9. Changes in nutritional composition of soybean seed caused by feeding of pentatomid (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and alydid bugs (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soon Do; Kim, Hyun Ju; Mainali, Bishwo Prasad

    2014-06-01

    Changes in protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content, and the weight loss of soybean seeds caused by the feeding of 6- to 7-d-old unmated male adults of the pentatomids Peizodorous hybneri (Gmelin) and Halymorpha halys (Stål), and an alydid, Riptortus pedestris (F.), were examined in the laboratory. Our goals were to determine which species had the greatest capacity to damage soybean seed and to measure the effect of that damage on the nutritional composition of soybean seed. Individuals of the three species were provided with a preweighed dry soybean seed and allowed to feed for 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 d, after which the remaining seed was analyzed for any change in weight, protein, lipid, and carbohydrate concentration. Lipids, carbohydrates, and seed weights were reduced by bug feeding, and the reduction was directly proportional to feeding duration. H. halys was found to be the most voracious feeder, reducing soybean seed weight by 42% after 24 d of feeding. There was a significant interaction between species and feeding duration for changes in nutritional components. Seeds fed on by H. halys had the highest incremental increase in protein content (13%) after 24 d of feeding, followed by those fed on by R. pedestris and P. hybneri. However, carbohydrates and lipid content of the soybean seeds fed by the tested insect species were found to decrease significantly. Soybean pods at mature stages remain in the field for a long period, and findings of our study suggest that longer exposure of the mature soybean pods to these pest species in the field may lead to low-quality seeds and lower yields, and may even affect the germination potential of the seeds.

  10. Draft genome sequence of Cercospora sojina isolate S9, a fungus causing frogeye leaf spot (FLS disease of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanchang Zeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are the causal agents of many of the world's most serious plant diseases causing disastrous consequences for large-scale agricultural production. Pathogenicity genomic basis is complex in fungi as multicellular eukaryotic pathogens. The fungus Cercospora sojina is a plant pathogen that threatens global soybean supplies. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. sojina strain S9 and detect genome features and predicted genomic elements. The genome sequence of C. sojina is a valuable resource with potential in studying the fungal pathogenicity and soybean host resistance to frogeye leaf spot (FLS, which is caused by C. sojina. The C. sojina genome sequence has been deposited and available at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the project accession number AHPQ00000000.

  11. Characterization of the soybean GmALMT family genes and the function of GmALMT5 in response to phosphate starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenting; Wu, Weiwei; Peng, Junchu; Li, Jiaojiao; Lin, Yan; Wang, Yanan; Tian, Jiang; Sun, Lili; Liang, Cuiyue; Liao, Hong

    2018-03-01

    A potential mechanism to enhance utilization of sparingly soluble forms of phosphorus (P) is the root secretion of malate, which is mainly mediated by the ALMT gene family in plants. In this study, a total of 34 GmALMT genes were identified in the soybean genome. Expression patterns diverged considerably among GmALMTs in response to phosphate (Pi) starvation in leaves, roots and flowers, with expression altered by P availability in 26 of the 34 GmALMTs. One root-specific GmALMT whose expression was significantly enhanced by Pi-starvation, GmALMT5, was studied in more detail to determine its possible role in soybean P nutrition. Analysis of GmALMT5 tissue expression patterns, subcellular localization, and malate exudation from transgenic soybean hairy roots overexpressing GmALMT5, demonstrated that GmALMT5 is a plasma membrane protein that mediates malate efflux from roots. Furthermore, both growth and P content of transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing GmALMT5 were significantly increased when sparingly soluble Ca-P was used as the external P source. Taken together, these results indicate that members of the soybean GmALMT gene family exhibit diverse responses to Pi starvation. One member of this family, GmALMT5, might contribute to soybean P efficiency by enhancing utilization of sparingly soluble P sources under P limited conditions. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. RELATIVE COMPETITIVENESS OF GOOSEGRASS BIOTYPES AND SOYBEAN CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JADER JOB FRANCO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he goosegrass ( Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn is an annual plant that has a low - level resistance to glyphosate (LLRG, resulting in control failure in genetically modified soybean crops for resistance to this herbicide. Alleles related to resistance may cause changes in the plant biotype, such as inferior competitive ability. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluated the competitive ability of soybean crops and susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. Replacement series experiments were conducted with soybean crops and goosegrass biotypes. The ratios of soybean to susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass plants were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, with a total population of 481 plants m - 2 . The leaf area, plant height and shoot dry weight were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the soybean crops and weeds. The soybean crop had superior competitive ability to the susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The soybean crop showed similar competitive ability in both competitions, either with the susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The intraspecific competition was more harmful to the soybean crop, while the interspecific competition caused greater damage to the goosegrass biotypes competing with the soybean crop

  13. User's guide for Reactor Incident Root Cause Coding Tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, D.A.; Paradies, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Reactor Incident (RI) Cause Coding Tree is designed to allow identification of root causes of RI's, thereby leading to trending of useful information and developing of corrective actions to prevent recurrence. This guide explains the terminology of the RI Cause Coding Tree and how to use the tree. Using this guide for cause coding is stressed to allow consistency of coding among all RI investigators. 8 figs

  14. Analysis of the genome sequence of Phomopsis longicolla: a fungal pathogen causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxian; Darwish, Omar; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Musungu, Bryan; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2017-09-05

    Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is a seed-borne fungus causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean. This disease is one of the most devastating diseases reducing soybean seed quality worldwide. To facilitate investigation of the genomic basis of pathogenicity and to understand the mechanism of the disease development, the genome of an isolate, MSPL10-6, from Mississippi, USA was sequenced, de novo assembled, and analyzed. The genome of MSPL 10-6 was estimated to be approximately 62 Mb in size with an overall G + C content of 48.6%. Of 16,597 predicted genes, 9866 genes (59.45%) had significant matches to genes in the NCBI nr database, while 18.01% of them did not link to any gene ontology classification, and 9.64% of genes did not significantly match any known genes. Analysis of the 1221 putative genes that encoded carbohydrate-activated enzymes (CAZys) indicated that 715 genes belong to three classes of CAZy that have a direct role in degrading plant cell walls. A novel fungal ulvan lyase (PL24; EC 4.2.2.-) was identified. Approximately 12.7% of the P. longicolla genome consists of repetitive elements. A total of 510 potentially horizontally transferred genes were identified. They appeared to originate from 22 other fungi, 26 eubacteria and 5 archaebacteria. The genome of the P. longicolla isolate MSPL10-6 represented the first reported genome sequence in the fungal Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex causing soybean diseases. The genome contained a number of Pfams not described previously. Information obtained from this study enhances our knowledge about this seed-borne pathogen and will facilitate further research on the genomic basis and pathogenicity mechanism of P. longicolla and aids in development of improved strategies for efficient management of Phomopsis seed decay in soybean.

  15. Micro-bridge defects: characterization and root cause analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Gaetano; Van den Heuvel, Dieter; Braggin, Jennifer; Rosslee, Craig; Leray, Philippe J.; Cheng, Shaunee; Jehoul, Christiane; Schreutelkamp, Robert; Hillel, Noam

    2010-03-01

    Defect review of advanced lithography processes is becoming more and more challenging as feature sizes decrease. Previous studies using a defect review SEM on immersion lithography generated wafers have resulted in a defect classification scheme which, among others, includes a category for micro-bridges. Micro-bridges are small connections between two adjacent lines in photo-resist and are considered device killing defects. Micro-bridge rates also tend to increase as feature sizes decrease, making them even more important for the next technology nodes. Especially because micro-bridge defects can originate from different root causes, the need to further refine and split up the classification of this type of defect into sub groups may become a necessity. This paper focuses on finding the correlation of the different types of micro-bridge defects to a particular root cause based on a full characterization and root cause analysis of this class of defects, by using advanced SEM review capabilities like high quality imaging in very low FOV, Multi Perspective SEM Imaging (MPSI), tilted column and rotated stage (Tilt&Rotation) imaging and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) cross sectioning. Immersion lithography material has been mainly used to generate the set of data presented in this work even though, in the last part of the results, some EUV lithography data will be presented as part of the continuing effort to extend the micro-bridge defect characterization to the EUV technology on 40 nm technology node and beyond.

  16. Agressiveness of Phomopsis longicolla and other Phomopsis species on soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is a major cause of poor quality of soybean seeds. The disease is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla. In this study, aggressiveness of isolates of P. longicolla from soybean and other Phomopsis spp. from other hosts were compared by inoculat...

  17. Soybean cultivation for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs): The effect of hydroponic system and nitrogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A.; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the plant species selected within the European Space Agency (ESA) Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project for hydroponic cultivation in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSSs), because of the high nutritional value of seeds. Root symbiosis of soybean with Bradirhizobium japonicum contributes to plant nutrition in soil, providing ammonium through the bacterial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two hydroponic systems, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) and cultivation on rockwool, and two nitrogen sources in the nutrient solution, nitrate (as Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2), on root symbiosis, plant growth and seeds production of soybean. Plants of cultivar 'OT8914', inoculated with B. japonicum strain BUS-2, were grown in a growth chamber, under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivation on rockwool positively influenced root nodulation and plant growth and yield, without affecting the proximate composition of seeds, compared to NFT. Urea as the sole source of N drastically reduced the seed production and the harvest index of soybean plants, presumably because of ammonium toxicity, even though it enhanced root nodulation and increased the N content of seeds. In the view of large-scale cultivation for space colony on planetary surfaces, the possibility to use porous media, prepared using in situ resources, should be investigated. Urea can be included in the nutrient formulation for soybean in order to promote bacterial activity, however a proper ammonium/nitrate ratio should be maintained.

  18. Low pH, Aluminum, and Phosphorus Coordinately Regulate Malate Exudation through GmALMT1 to Improve Soybean Adaptation to Acid Soils1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A.; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V.; Liao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function. PMID:23341359

  19. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María L; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Vianna, María F; Scorsetti, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos (Argentina) two areas were selected for sampling corn and four for soybean. Leaf, stem and root samples were surface-sterilized, cut into 1cm(2) pieces using a sterile scalpel and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar plus antibiotics. The species were identified using both morphological and molecular data. Fungal endophyte colonization in soybean plants was influenced by tissue type and varieties whereas in corn plants only by tissue type. A greater number of endophytes were isolated from stem tissues than from leaves and root tissues in both species of plants. The most frequently isolated species in all soybean cultivars was Fusarium graminearum and the least isolated one was Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, the most frequently isolated species in corn plants was Aspergillus terreus whereas the least isolated one was Aspergillus flavus. These results could be relevant in the search for endophytic fungi isolates that could be of interest in the control of agricultural pests. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Kim, J.O.; Yook, H.S.; Byun, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    Some physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans (0-20 kCy) were investigated. Proximate components, fatty acid compositions and minerals of the soybeans irradiated at 2.5 - 20 kGy shrived no difference from the nonirradiated control. Irradiation doses above 10 kGy and long term storage caused decrease in extractable phenols and phytate content, whereas increases in acid value and organic acid content. The total amino acids content of the soybeans irradiated up to 10 kGy was not changed as compared with the nonirradiated control. Sulfur-containing amino acids, however, were changed by 10 and 20 kGy irradiaton. Gamma irradiation and long term storage caused minor changes in the color attributes of soybeans. Hunter's 'L' (lightness) and 'b' (yellowness) values were decreased whereas 'a' (redness) value was increased with increasing dose levels and the elapse of the storage period

  1. Nematicides control rice root-knot, caused by Meloidogyne graminicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeebur Rahman KHAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine damage potential of Meloidogyne graminicola on the commonly grown rice cv. Sugandh-5 and to devise an effective management strategy. The nematicides were applied through root-dip (200 ppm solution and soil application of 2 kg ha-1 phorate 10G (25 mg a.i./pot, carbofuran 3G (83.3 mg a.i./pot and 1 L ha-1, carbosulfan 20EC (5µL/pot and chlorpyriphos 20 EC (6.25 µL/pot in both nematode infested and non-infested soil with five modes of application viz., root-dip, single soil application (15 days after transplanting, root-dip + one soil application, two soil applications, and root-dip + two soil applications (15 and 30 days. Application of nematicides did not cause any toxicity symptoms on rice plants. In nematode infested soil, terminal and spiral galls developed on the rice roots, and plants suffered 20−31% decrease in the plant growth parameters. Carbofuran and phorate through root-dip plus single soil application provided greatest suppression in galling (16−20%, egg mass production (18−22% and soil population (27.5−58.2% of M. graminicola, and subsequently increased all the plant growth variables by 9−19%. Root-dip + two soil applications increased plant growth and suppressed nematodes, but was equal to root dip + one soil application. Root-dip treatment alone with carbosulfan also significantly suppressed root galling (10−12% and improved the dry weight of roots and shoots (7−10%.

  2. Nucleolar chromatin organization at different activities of soybean root meristematic cell nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępiński, Dariusz

    2013-06-01

    Nucleolar chromatin, including nucleolus-associated chromatin as well as active and inactive condensed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) chromatin, derives mostly from secondary constrictions known as nucleolus organizer regions containing rDNA genes on nucleolus-forming chromosomes. This chromatin may occupy different nucleolar positions being in various condensation states which may imply different rDNA transcriptional competence. Sections of nucleoli originating from root meristematic cells of soybean seedlings grown at 25 °C (the control), then subjected to chilling stress (10 °C), and next transferred again to 25 °C (the recovery) were used to measure profile areas occupied by nucleolar condensed chromatin disclosed with sodium hydroxide methylation-acetylation plus uranyl acetate technique. The biggest total area of condensed chromatin was found in the nucleoli of chilled plants, while the smallest was found in those of recovered plants in relation to the amounts of chromatin in the control nucleoli. The condensed nucleolar chromatin, in the form of different-sized and different-shaped clumps, was mainly located in fibrillar centers. One can suppose that changes of condensed rDNA chromatin amounts might be a mechanism controlling the number of transcriptionally active rDNA genes as the nucleoli of plants grown under these experimental conditions show different transcriptional activity and morphology.

  3. Applying the 5 WHYs to Identify Root Causes to Non-completions in On-Site Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren Munch

    2014-01-01

    from mistakes. A central part of the control framework Last Planner System is to identify not completed activities to identify root causes and to learn. One tool to investigate root causes is the 5 WHYs approach. The 5 WHYs approach has been applied in a case study research to analysis the root cause...

  4. Root Cause Assessment for a Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalantri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-cause identification for quality related problems are key issues for manufacturing processes. It has been a very challenging engineering problem particularly in a multistage manufacturing, where maximum number of processes and activities are performed. However, it may also be implemented with ease in each and every individual set up and activities in any manufacturing process. Kaizen is aimed towards reduction in different types of losses i.e. Failure Loss/ Breakdown Loss, Minor stoppage, idling loss, Setup and adjustment loss etc. So as to improve quality and productivity.In this report, root-cause identification methodology has been adopted to eliminate the rejection of product manufactured by the enterprise and improving the life of product. Brainstorming and other Root Cause Assesmenttools have been used to find out the reasons of tube failure and vibration in tubular strander. Solutions of these problems have also given in this report. Kaizen activities have reduced the time consumed in daily activities of cleaning, lubricating, inspection etc. A detailed study has illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  5. Nitrogen credits from cowpea, soybean, groundnut and Mucuna to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    fixing capacity. A field study was conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Ejura in the forest savanna transition ..... plants. Soybean, cowpea, and groundnut could be susceptible to various root knot nematode ..... Maize and legumes production guide.

  6. Foliar application of pyraclostrobin fungicide enhances the growth, rhizobial-nodule formation and nitrogenase activity in soybean (var. JS-335).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Juhie; Sharma, Sonika; Guruprasad, K N

    2014-09-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of the fungicide pyraclostrobin (F500 - Headline®; a.i. 20%) on the activity of nitrogenase in soybean (var. JS-335). Pyraclostrobin (F500) was applied on the leaves of soybean plants at 10 and 20 days after emergence (DAE) of seedlings at concentrations ranging from 0.05% to 1%. Leghemoglobin (Lb) content and nitrogenase activity in root nodules were analyzed at 45(th)day after emergence of seedlings indicated a remarkable increase in Lb content and enhanced activity of nitrogenase in the root nodules of pyraclostrobin treated plants. The fungicide also enhanced the number of nodules along with weight of nodules, root biomass and growth of shoot and leaves. Enhanced nitrogen fixation in the root nodules by pyraclostrobin improves the growth of the plant in soybean before flowering and pod formation which ultimately resulted in yield and yield attributes. These results suggest that pyraclostrobin (F500) can be successfully employed as a foliar spray under field conditions to enhance the growth, nitrogen assimilation and hence yield of soybean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A field study on root cause analysis of defects in space software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Nuno; Cunha, João Carlos; Vieira, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Critical systems, such as space systems, are developed under strict requirements envisaging high integrity in accordance to specific standards. For such software systems, an independent assessment is put into effect (Independent Software Verification and Validation – ISVV) after the regular development lifecycle and V&V activities, aiming at finding residual faults and raising confidence in the software. However, it has been observed that there is still a significant number of defects remaining at this stage, questioning the effectiveness of the previous engineering processes. This paper presents a root cause analysis of 1070 defects found in four space software projects during ISVV, by applying an improved Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC) taxonomy and examining the defect types, triggers and impacts, in order to identify why they reached such a later stage in the development. The paper also puts forward proposals for modifications to both the software development (to prevent defects) and the V&V activities (to better detect defects) and an assessment methodology for future works on root cause analysis. - Highlights: • Root cause analysis of space software defects by using an enhanced ODC taxonomy. • Prioritization of the root causes according to the more important defect impacts. • Identification of improvements to systems engineering and development processes. • Improvements to V&V activities as means to reduce the occurrence of defects. • Generic process to achieve the defects root causes and the corrections suggestions.

  8. Unleashing the potential of the root hair cell as a single plant cell type model in root systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen eQiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant root is an organ composed of multiple cell types with different functions. This multicellular complexity limits our understanding of root biology because –omics studies performed at the level of the entire root reflect the average responses of all cells composing the organ. To overcome this difficulty and allow a more comprehensive understanding of root cell biology, an approach is needed that would focus on one single cell type in the plant root. Because of its biological functions (i.e. uptake of water and various nutrients; primary site of infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes, the root hair cell is an attractive single cell model to study root cell response to various stresses and treatments. To fully study their biology, we have recently optimized procedures in obtaining root hair cell samples. We culture the plants using an ultrasound aeroponic system maximizing root hair cell density on the entire root systems and allowing the homogeneous treatment of the root system. We then isolate the root hair cells in liquid nitrogen. Isolated root hair yields could be up to 800 to 1000 mg of plant cells from 60 root systems. Using soybean as a model, the purity of the root hair was assessed by comparing the expression level of genes previously identified as soybean root hair specific between preparations of isolated root hair cells and stripped roots, roots devoid in root hairs. Enlarging our tests to include other plant species, our results support the isolation of large quantities of highly purified root hair cells which is compatible with a systems biology approach.

  9. Identification of genes associated with nitrogen-use efficiency by genome-wide transcriptional analysis of two soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xin A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean is a valuable crop that provides protein and oil. Soybean requires a large amount of nitrogen (N to accumulate high levels of N in the seed. The yield and protein content of soybean seeds are directly affected by the N-use efficiency (NUE of the plant, and improvements in NUE will improve yields and quality of soybean products. Genetic engineering is one of the approaches to improve NUE, but at present, it is hampered by the lack of information on genes associated with NUE. Solexa sequencing is a new method for estimating gene expression in the transcription level. Here, the expression profiles were analyzed between two soybean varieties in N-limited conditions to identify genes related to NUE. Results Two soybean genotypes were grown under N-limited conditions; a low-N-tolerant variety (No.116 and a low-N-sensitive variety (No.84-70. The shoots and roots of soybeans were used for sequencing. Eight libraries were generated for analysis: 2 genotypes × 2 tissues (roots and shoots × 2 time periods [short-term (0.5 to 12 h and long-term (3 to 12 d responses] and compared the transcriptomes by high-throughput tag-sequencing analysis. 5,739,999, 5,846,807, 5,731,901, 5,970,775, 5,476,878, 5,900,343, 5,930,716, and 5,862,642 clean tags were obtained for the eight libraries: L1, 116-shoot short-term; L2 84-70-shoot short-term; L3 116-shoot long-term; L4 84-70-shoot long-term; L5 116-root short-term; L6 84-70-root short-term; L7 116-root long-term;L8 84-70-root long-term; these corresponded to 224,154, 162,415, 191,994, 181,792, 204,639, 206,998, 233,839 and 257,077 distinct tags, respectively. The clean tags were mapped to the reference sequences for annotation of expressed genes. Many genes showed substantial differences in expression among the libraries. In total, 3,231genes involved in twenty-two metabolic and signal transduction pathways were up- or down-regulated. Twenty-four genes were randomly selected and confirmed

  10. Overexpression of GmERF5, a new member of the soybean EAR motif-containing ERF transcription factor, enhances resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Yingxin; Wu, Junjiang; Cheng, Qun; Li, Wenbin; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Xu, Zhaolong; Kong, Fanjiang; Zhang, Dayong; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-05-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdemann, is a destructive disease throughout the soybean planting regions in the world. Here, we report insights into the function and underlying mechanisms of a novel ethylene response factor (ERF) in soybean, namely GmERF5, in host responses to P. sojae. GmERF5-overexpressing transgenic soybean exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to P. sojae and positively regulated the expression of the PR10, PR1-1, and PR10-1 genes. Sequence analysis suggested that GmERF5 contains an AP2/ERF domain of 58 aa and a conserved ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in its C-terminal region. Following stress treatments, GmERF5 was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA). The activity of the GmERF5 promoter (GmERF5P) was upregulated in tobacco leaves with ET, ABA, Phytophthora nicotianae, salt, and drought treatments, suggesting that GmERF5 could be involved not only in the induced defence response but also in the ABA-mediated pathway of salt and drought tolerance. GmERF5 could bind to the GCC-box element and act as a repressor of gene transcription. It was targeted to the nucleus when transiently expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts. GmERF5 interacted with a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (GmbHLH) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor (GmEIF) both in yeast cells and in planta. To the best of our knowledge, GmERF5 is the first soybean EAR motif-containing ERF transcription factor demonstrated to be involved in the response to pathogen infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Organ-specific proteomics analysis for identification of response mechanism in soybean seedlings under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Amana; Rehman, Shafiq; Hiraga, Susumu; Makino, Takahiro; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-10-22

    Flooding is one of the severe environmental factors which impair growth and yield in soybean plant. To investigate the organ specific response mechanism of soybean under flooding stress, changes in protein species were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Two-day-old soybeans were subjected to flooding for 5 days. Proteins were extracted from root, hypocotyl and leaf, and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In root, hypocotyl and leaf, 51, 66 and 51 protein species were significantly changed, respectively, under flooding stress. In root, metabolism related proteins were increased; however these proteins were decreased in hypocotyl and leaf. In all 3 organs, cytoplasm localized proteins were decreased, and leaf chloroplastic proteins were also decreased. Isoflavone reductase was commonly decreased at protein level in all 3 organs; however, mRNA of isoflavone reductase gene was up-regulated in leaf under flooding stress. Biophoton emission was increased in all 3 organs under flooding stress. The up-regulation of isoflavone reductase gene at transcript level; while decreased abundance at protein level indicated that flooding stress affected the mRNA translation to proteins. These results suggest that concurrence in expression of isoflavone reductase gene at mRNA and protein level along with imbalance in other disease/defense and metabolism related proteins might lead to impaired growth of root, hypocotyl and leaf of soybean seedlings under flooding stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  13. Toxicity of manipueira to Meloidogyne incognita in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wéverson Lima Fonseca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Manipueira, a liquid residue obtained from the cassava industrialization, shows high toxicity to the microbial diversity. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of manipueira applied to the soil to control Meloidogyne incognita in soybean. A completely randomized design, in a 2 x 11 factorial scheme, was used, consisting of two application forms of manipueira (single and two applications, in eleven concentrations (0 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, 70 %, 80 %, 90 % and 100 %, with five replications per treatment. Some agronomic traits and parasitism characteristics were also evaluated. The plants that received a single application of manipueira showed a gain of 100.41 % in root length, while the volume and fresh root mass showed gains of 81.52 % and 28.11 %, respectively, with the two applications. Regarding parasitism, the single application was more effective in reducing the number of juveniles in the soil and roots, where the concentrations of manipueira to kill 50 % of the nematodes were 1.65 % and 4.37 %, respectively. Thus, besides being effective in controlling M. incognita, manipueira has a positive effect on the development of soybean and may be recommended as a nematicide and also as an organic fertilizer.

  14. Synthesis and Secretion of Isoflavones by Field-Grown Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2017-09-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions. Daidzein and genistein secreted by soybean roots induce the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and may modulate rhizosphere interactions with microbes. Yet despite their important roles, little is known about the biosynthesis, secretion and fate of isoflavones in field-grown soybeans. Here, we analyzed isoflavone contents and the expression of isoflavone biosynthesis genes in field-grown soybeans. In roots, isoflavone contents and composition did not change with crop growth, but the expression of UGT4, an isoflavone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase, and of ICHG (isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase) was decreased during the reproductive stages. Isoflavone contents were higher in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during both vegetative and reproductive stages, and were comparable in the rhizosphere soil between these two stages. We analyzed the degradation dynamics of daidzein and its glucosides to develop a model for predicting rhizosphere isoflavone contents from the amount of isoflavones secreted in hydroponic culture. Conjugates of daidzein were degraded much faster than daidzein, with degradation rate constants of 8.51 d-1 for malonyldaidzin and 11.6 d-1 for daidzin, vs. 9.15 × 10-2 d-1 for daidzein. The model suggested that secretion of isoflavones into the rhizosphere is higher during vegetative stages than during reproductive stages in field-grown soybean. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The root cause of ability and inability to assemble and install components using written manual with or without diagrams among non-native English speakers: Root cause analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, S. Ahmad; Millar, R.; Gratton, G.; Garner, M.; Noh, H. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    Documentation errors and human errors are often claimed to be the contributory factors for aircraft maintenance mistakes. This paper highlights the preliminary results of the third phase of a four-phased research on communication media that are utilised in an aircraft maintenance organisation. The second phase has looked into the probability of success and failure in completing a task by 60 subjects while in this third phase, the same subjects have been interviewed immediately after completing the task by using Root Cause Analysis (RCA) method. It is discovered that the root cause of their inability to finish the task while using only written manual is the absence of diagrams. However, haste is identified to be the root cause for the incompletion of the task when both manual and diagram are given to the participants. It is observed that those who are able to complete the task is due to their reference to both manual and diagram, simultaneously.

  16. Analysis of unintended events in hospitals: inter-rater reliability of constructing causal trees and classifying root causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Janssen, J.; Vet, de H.C.W.; Zwaan, L.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Root cause analysis is a method to examine causes of unintended events. PRISMA (Prevention and Recovery Information System for Monitoring and Analysis: is a root cause analysis tool. With PRISMA, events are described in causal trees and root causes are subsequently classified with the

  17. Analysis of unintended events in hospitals : inter-rater reliability of constructing causal trees and classifying root causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Janssen, J.; Vet, R. de; Zwaan, L.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Timmermans, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Root cause analysis is a method to examine causes of unintended events. PRISMA (Prevention and Recovery Information System for Monitoring and Analysis) is a root cause analysis tool. With PRISMA, events are described in causal trees and root causes are subsequently classified with the

  18. Analysis of unintended events in hospitals: inter-rater reliability of constructing causal trees and classifying root causes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Janssen, J.; Vet, R. de; Zwaan, L.; Timmermans, D.; Groenewegen, P.; Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Root cause analysis is a method to examine causes of unintended events. PRISMA (Prevention and Recovery Information System for Monitoring and Analysis) is a root cause analysis tool. With PRISMA, events are described in causal trees and root causes are subsequently classified with the

  19. Effect of formulations on the absorption and translocation of glyphosate in transgenic soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.B.; Ferreira, E.A.; Silva, A.A.; Oliveira, J.A.; Fialho, C.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the absorption and translocation of glyphosate formulations in genetically modified (GM) soybean by applying 14C-glyphosate mixed to three glyphosate formulations (Roundup Ready and R. Transorb - both with +isopropylamine salt, and Zapp Qi, formulated from potassic salt ), using a precision micro syringe. Plant samples were collected after herbicide application (4, 16, 40 and 64 hours) and then divided into leaf (trifolium), aerial part, roots and root nodes for radiation reading. 14C-glyphosate that was not absorbed was recovered and counted by washing the leaf with methanol. Penetration and translocation of 14C-glyphosate to the different parts evaluated was found to vary. However, the highest absorption was verified at intervals after 16 hours of application. The highest herbicide percentage in the aerial part of the soybean plants was found when Zapp (potassic salt) was applied on the aerial part and when isopropylamin salt was applied on the roots; 14C-glyphosate was found in the plant root nodules in all treatments, with the highest percentage being observed with R. Transorb, 40 hours after application (0.13% of the total measured or 0.4%, considering only the plant total). Results highlight the hypothesis that glyphosate could harm symbiosis between rhizobium and soybean, since the former also shows in its metabolism EPSPS, which is susceptible to this herbicide. (author)

  20. Human error as the root cause of severe accidents at nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovács Zoltán; Rýdzi, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    A root cause is a factor inducing an undesirable event. It is feasible for root causes to be eliminated through technological process improvements. Human error was the root cause of all severe accidents at nuclear power plants. The TMI accident was caused by a series of human errors. The Chernobyl disaster occurred after a badly performed test of the turbogenerator at a reactor with design deficiencies, and in addition, the operators ignored the safety principles and disabled the safety systems. At Fukushima the tsunami risk was underestimated and the project failed to consider the specific issues of the site. The paper describes the severe accidents and points out the human errors that caused them. Also, provisions that might have eliminated those severe accidents are suggested. The fact that each severe accident occurred on a different type of reactor is relevant – no severe accident ever occurred twice at the same reactor type. The lessons learnt from the severe accidents and the safety measures implemented on reactor units all over the world seem to be effective. (orig.)

  1. Protein and oil composition predictions of single soybeans by transmission Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmerich, Matthew V; Walsh, Michael J; Gelber, Matthew K; Kong, Rong; Kole, Matthew R; Harrison, Sandra K; McKinney, John; Thompson, Dennis; Kull, Linda S; Bhargava, Rohit

    2012-08-22

    The soybean industry requires rapid, accurate, and precise technologies for the analyses of seed/grain constituents. While the current gold standard for nondestructive quantification of economically and nutritionally important soybean components is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), emerging technology may provide viable alternatives and lead to next generation instrumentation for grain compositional analysis. In principle, Raman spectroscopy provides the necessary chemical information to generate models for predicting the concentration of soybean constituents. In this communication, we explore the use of transmission Raman spectroscopy (TRS) for nondestructive soybean measurements. We show that TRS uses the light scattering properties of soybeans to effectively homogenize the heterogeneous bulk of a soybean for representative sampling. Working with over 1000 individual intact soybean seeds, we developed a simple partial least-squares model for predicting oil and protein content nondestructively. We find TRS to have a root-mean-standard error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.89% for oil measurements and 0.92% for protein measurements. In both calibration and validation sets, the predicative capabilities of the model were similar to the error in the reference methods.

  2. Control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus sown offseason, after soybean crop (Glycine max, is affected by the competition imposed by volunteer plants. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crops. The sulfentrazone herbicide (75 g ha-1, 100 g ha-1 and 250 g ha-1 causes phytotoxicity to sunflower immediately after application, however, plants recover, with no yield losses. These doses do not cause the total death of volunteer soybean plants, but temporarily paralyzes their growth, avoiding the competition with the sunflower crop. The glufosinate ammonium and ametryn herbicides are effective in controlling volunteer soybean plants, however, symptoms of phytotoxicity in the sunflower crop are high, reflecting in losses of dry weight biomass and crop yield. The other treatments do not provide satisfactory control of volunteer soybean plants and even reduce the sunflower dry weight biomass and yield.

  3. Evaluation of the root cause for MSR high level trip in Maanshan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, L.-Y.; Ferng, Y.-M.; Jange, S.J.; Ko, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Reactor trip due to Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) high water level has been a long time issue for Maanshan nuclear power plant. The operating experience shows that there are five reactor trips due to MSR high water level. Four out of the five reactor trips are generated when Combined Intermediate valve (CIV) no. 1 is closed during CIV closure test. The fifth reactor trip occurs when the reactor power is increasing from 99% to 100%. An extensive root cause analysis has been performed by Taipower Company. It is concluded that the water accumulated in the cross under leg between the exhaust of high pressure turbine and the inlet of MSR was the water source contributing to the MSR high level trip. Although, Maanshan does not have similar trip after the root cause analysis, it is interested to evaluate the proposed root cause from thermal hydraulic point of view. It is also hoped that some useful guidelines can be established. This paper includes a description of the scenario of reactor trips, a summary of the root cause analysis done by Taipower Company, an examination of possible mechanisms, an identification of key parameters and a presentation of major findings. In addition, the applicability of RELAP5/MOD3 under this condition is discussed. (author)

  4. Differential regulation of defense-related proteins in soybean during compatible and incompatible interactions between Phytophthora sojae and soybean by comparative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Maofeng; Ma, Hongyu; Li, Haiyang; Guo, Baodian; Zhang, Xin; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Haonan; Wang, Qiuxia; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-07-01

    Few proteomic studies have focused on the plant- Phytophthora interactions, our study provides important information regarding the use of proteomic methods for investigation of the basic mechanisms of plant-Phytophthora interactions. Phytophthora sojae is a fast-spreading and devastating pathogen that is responsible for root and stem rot in soybean crops worldwide. To better understand the response of soybean seedlings to the stress of infection by virulent and avirulent pathogens at the proteomic level, proteins extracted from the hypocotyls of soybean reference cultivar Williams 82 infected by P. sojae P6497 (race 2) and P7076 (race 19), respectively, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. 95 protein spots were differently expressed, with 83 being successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and subjected to further analysis. Based on the majority of the 83 defense-responsive proteins, and defense-related pathway genes supplemented by a quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay, a defense-related network for soybean infected by virulent and avirulent pathogens was proposed. We found reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) signal pathway and biosynthesis of isoflavones were significantly up-regulated in the resistant soybean. Our results imply that following the P. sojae infection, ROS and SA signal pathway in soybean play the major roles in defense against P. sojae. This research will facilitate further investigation of the molecular regulatory mechanism of the defense response in soybean following infection by P. sojae.

  5. Studies on nitrogen metabolism of soybean plants, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yasumasa; Kitada, Subaru

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen that came from cotyledons and nitrogen ( 15 N) pulse-fed at 5 different times during the growth of young soybean plants were studied for 33-days after germination. Cotyledons furnished nitrogen to primary leaves, stems, and roots for the first 8 days, but thereafter principally to 1 st and 2 nd trifoliate leaves. Redistribution of the cotyledon-derived nitrogen from primary leaves commenced from the 14 th day after germination when their total nitrogen was still increasing. At the end of the experiment, the cotyledon-derived nitrogen was distributed approximately uniformly among 6 expanded leaves, and very small amount was found in 3 immature leaves. It was shown that soybean leaves took up 15 N (via roots) throughout the entire period of their life, and from their near-mature stage onwards, uptake and redistribution of nitrogen were observed simultaneously. Thus, the nitrogen in mature leaves was partially being renewed constantly. Considering this fact, the nitrogen supplying capacity of soybean leaves was estimated to be about two times as large as that estimated conventionally from the net loss of nitrogen during their senescence. The turnover of leaf nitrogen was closely related to the turnover of leaf protein. Influx of nitrogen was invariably accompanied by the simultaneous synthesis of leaf protein, and conversely, efflux by the simultaneous breakdown of leaf protein. Sink removal (topping treatment) prevented the breakdown of leaf protein (as measured from the rate of release of label after the pulse feeding) as well as the export of nitrogen from the leaves. The nitrogen supplying function of soybean leaves was discussed in relation to the nitrogen and protein turnover of leaves. (Kaihara, S.)

  6. Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soybe...

  7. Differential gene expression and mitotic cell analysis of the drought tolerant soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista under two water deficit induction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana K. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought cause serious yield losses in soybean (Glycine max, roots being the first plant organ to detect the water-stress signals triggering defense mechanisms. We used two drought induction systems to identify genes differentially expressed in the roots of the drought-tolerant soybean cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista and characterize their expression levels during water deficit. Soybean plants grown in nutrient solution hydroponically and in sand-pots were submitted to water stress and gene expression analysis was conducted using the differential display (DD and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Three differentially expressed mRNA transcripts showed homology to the Antirrhinum majus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH, the Arabidopsis thaliana phosphatidylinositol transfer protein PITP and the auxin-independent growth regulator 1 (axi 1. The hydroponic experiments showed that after 100 min outside the nutrient solution photosynthesis completely stopped, stomata closed and leaf temperature rose. Both stress induction treatments produced significant decrease in the mitotic indices of root cells. Axi 1, PITP and bHLH were not only differentially expressed during dehydration in the hydroponics experiments but also during induced drought in the pot experiments. Although, there were differences between the two sets of experiments in the time at which up or down regulation occurred, the expression pattern of all three transcripts was related. Similar gene expression and cytological analysis results occurred in both systems, suggesting that hydroponics could be used to simulate drought detection by roots growing in soil and thus facilitate rapid and easy root sampling.

  8. Interactions of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Phosphorus, and Heterodera glycines on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, G L; Hussey, R S; Roncadori, R W

    1991-01-01

    Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and soil phosphorus (P) fertility on parasitism of soybean cultivars Bragg and Wright by soybean cyst nematode (SCN) were investigated in field micropiot and greenhouse experiments. VAM fungi increased height of both cultivars and yield of Wright in microplot studies in 1986 and 1987. Conversely, yield of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants of both cultivars was suppressed by SCN. Soil population densities of SCN were unaffected by VAM fungi in 1986 but were greater in microplots infested with VAM fungi than in control microplots in 1987. Growth of Wright soybean was stimulated by VAM fungi and suppressed by SCN in greenhouse experiments. The effect of VAM fungi on SCN varied with time. Numbers of SCN in roots and soil were decreased by VAM fungi by as much as 73% at the highest SCN inoculum level through 49 days after planting. Later, however, SCN numbers were usually comparable on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. Soil P fertility generally had no effect on SCN. Results of a split-root experiment indicated that VAM fungal suppression of SCN was not systemic.

  9. Root rot symptoms in sugar beet lines caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum may cause both Fusarium yellows and Fusarium root rot diseases with severe yield losses in cultivated sugar beet worldwide. These two diseases cause similar foliar symptoms but different root response and have been proposed to be due to two distinct F. oxyspo...

  10. Development of SSR markers for genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of Phomopsis longicolla causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. The genome of P. longicolla type strain TWH P74 represents one of the important fungal pathogens in the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex. In this study, th...

  11. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc. for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Goto

    Full Text Available Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc. is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2% caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible.

  12. Crescimento radicular de soja em razão da sucessão de cultivos e da compactação do solo Soybean root growth as affected by previous crop and soil compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Helena da Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o crescimento radicular e produção de matéria seca da parte aérea da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivada após diversas espécies vegetais, em solo com diferentes níveis de compactação. O trabalho foi realizado em vasos contendo amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho, textura franco arenosa, com camada de 3,5 cm (profundidade de 15 a 18,5 cm compactada até as densidades 1,12, 1,36 e 1,60 Mg m-3, onde cultivaram-se anteriormente aveia-preta, guandu, milheto, mucuna-preta, soja, sorgo granífero e tremoço-azul, e um tratamento sem planta (pousio. Essas espécies se desenvolveram por 37 a 39 dias, foram cortadas ao nível do solo, picadas em partes de aproximadamente 3 cm e deixadas sobre a superfície do vaso por 40 dias. Após esse período, cultivou-se a soja até 28 dias após a emergência, quando, então, as plantas foram colhidas. Foram avaliados produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e de raízes, e comprimento e diâmetro radicular da soja. O cultivo anterior com aveia-preta, guandu e milheto favoreceu o crescimento radicular da soja abaixo de camadas compactadas do solo. Independentemente do nível de compactação, o cultivo anterior com qualquer das espécies estudadas beneficiou a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea da soja.This study aimed at evaluating root growth and shoot dry matter production of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cropped after different vegetal species, in a soil with different compaction levels. The experiment was conducted in pots containing a Dark-Red Latosol (Acrortox, loamy sand, and the pots had a layer 3.5 cm (15 to 18.5 cm thick and 15 cm deep compacted to 1.12, 1.36 and 1.60 Mg m-3. Before soybean, the pots were cropped with black oat, pigeon pea, pearl millet, black mucuna, soybean, grain sorghum and lupin, plus a treatment without plants. These species were grown for 37 to 39 days, when they were cut at soil level, prick in particles of

  13. Co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF inhibited soybean red crown rot: from field study to plant defense-related gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases.We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF.Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils.

  14. IAEA-ASSET's root cause analysis method applied to sodium leakage incident at Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi

    1997-08-01

    The present study applied the ASSET (Analysis and Screening of Safety Events Team) methodology (This method identifies occurrences such as component failures and operator errors, identifies their respective direct/root causes and determines corrective actions.) to the analysis of the sodium leakage incident at Monju, based on the published reports by mainly the Science and Technology Agency, aiming at systematic identification of direct/root causes and corrective actions, and discussed the effectiveness and problems of the ASSET methodology. The results revealed the following seven occurrences and showed the direct/root causes and contributing factors for the individual occurrences: failure of thermometer well tube, delayed reactor manual trip, inadequate continuous monitoring of leakage, misjudgment of leak rate, non-required operator action (turbine trip), retarded emergency sodium drainage, and retarded securing of ventilation system. Most of the occurrences stemmed from deficiencies in emergency operating procedures (EOPs), which were mainly caused by defects in the EOP preparation process and operator training programs. The corrective actions already proposed in the published reports were reviewed, identifying issues to be further studied. Possible corrective actions were discussed for these issues. The present study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the ASSET methodology and pointed out some problems, for example, in delineating causal relations among occurrences, for applying it to the detail and systematic analysis of event direct/root causes and determination of concrete measures. (J.P.N.)

  15. Root cause of waterborne diseases in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashml, H.N.; Ghumman, A.R.; Malik, N.E.

    2005-01-01

    The waterborne diseases are increasing rapidly at an alarming rate in Pakistan due to poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water supplies. This study shows that about 25 percent of all the illnesses in Lahore are due to severe cases of waterborne diseases. Unhygienic sanitation system is the root cause for this scenario. Drinking water, samples were collected from different zones of the city to find out the root cause of waterborne diseases. The samples from the distribution system serving 'Kachi Abbadies' (Underdeveloped areas) were much more contaminated, may be due to non-chlorination as compared to the water which is regularly chlorinated in posh areas of the city. Contribution of soakage pits in groundwater contamination is more significant at shallow depths. From the laboratory results it is clear that water distribution in underdeveloped areas of the city is highly contaminated and ground water available at shallow depth is also infected by microbial activities. Data collected from the different hospitals to investigate the problem shows that waterborne diseases vary their trend seasonally. Here in Pakistan, rainy season (July-August) reveals maximum number of cases of waterborne diseases. Proper sanitation and water supply systems are more essential to control the influence of waterborne diseases within the country. It is strongly recommended that reputable ways of communications are urgently required to highlight the diseases related to unsafe drinking water. (author)

  16. Distribution and Biocontrol Potential of phlD(+) Pseudomonads in Corn and Soybean Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden Gardener, Brian B; Gutierrez, Laura J; Joshi, Raghavendra; Edema, Richard; Lutton, Elizabeth

    2005-06-01

    ABSTRACT The abundance and diversity of phlD(+) Pseudomonas spp. colonizing the rhizospheres of young, field-grown corn and soybean plants were assayed over a 3-year period. Populations of these bacteria were detected on the large majority of plants sampled in the state of Ohio, but colonization was greater on corn. Although significant variation in the incidence of rhizosphere colonization was observed from site to site and year to year on both crops, the magnitude of the variation was greatest for soybean. The D genotype was detected on plants collected from all 15 counties examined, and it represented the most abundant subpopulation on both crops. Additionally, six other genotypes (A, C, F, I, R, and S) were found to predominate in the rhizosphere of some plants. The most frequently observed of these were the A genotype and a newly discovered S genotype, both of which were found on corn and soybean roots obtained from multiple locations. Multiple isolates of the most abundant genotypes were recovered and characterized. The S genotype was found to be phylogenetically and phenotypically similar to the D genotype. In addition, the novel R genotype was found to be most similar to the A genotype. All of the isolates displayed significant capacities to inhibit the growth of an oomycete pathogen in vitro, but such phenotypes were highly dependent on media used. When tested against multiple oomycete pathogens isolated from soybean, the A genotype was significantly more inhibitory than the D genotype when incubated on 1/10x tryptic soy agar and 1/5x corn meal agar. Seed inoculation with different isolates of the A, D, and S genotypes indicated that significant root colonization, generally in excess of log 5 cells per gram of root, could be attained on both crops. Field trials of the A genotype isolate Wayne1R indicated the capacity of inoculant populations to supplement the activities of native populations so as to increase soybean stands and yields. The relevance of

  17. A STUDY ON WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

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    S. TJITROSEMITO

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments on weed control in soybeans were carried out at BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia from February to June, 1989. The critical period for weed control was found to be between 20 - 40 days after planting of soybean (c. v. Wilis grown at a planting distance of 40 x 10 cm. It did not coincide with the fastest growth in terms of trifoliate leaf number. Further studies were suggested to understand the physiological growth of soybean related to weed control. Pendimethalin at 660- 1320 g a.e./ha applied one day after sowing did not cause any phytotoxic effect to soybean and had good weed control performance.

  18. Heavy metal toxicity in rice and soybean plants cultivated in contaminated soil

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    Maria Lígia de Souza Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals can accumulate in soil and cause phytotoxicity in plants with some specific symptoms. The present study evaluated the specific symptoms on rice and soybeans plants caused by excess of heavy metals in soil. Rice and soybean were grown in pots containing soil with different levels of heavy metals. A completely randomized design was used, with four replications, using two crop species and seven sample soils with different contamination levels. Rice and soybean exhibited different responses to the high concentrations of heavy metals in the soil. Rice plants accumulated higher Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations and were more sensitive to high concentrations of these elements in the soil, absorbing them more easily compared to the soybean plants. However, high available Zn concentrations in the soil caused phytotoxicity symptoms in rice and soybean, mainly chlorosis and inhibited plant growth. Further, high Zn concentrations in the soil reduced the Fe concentration in the shoots of soybean and rice plants to levels considered deficient.

  19. Flooding of the root system in soybean: biochemical and molecular aspects of N metabolism in the nodule during stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Sarah C R; Mazzafera, Paulo; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen fixation of the nodule of soybean is highly sensitive to oxygen deficiency such as provoked by waterlogging of the root system. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of flooding on N metabolism in nodules of soybean. Flooding resulted in a marked decrease of asparagine (the most abundant amino acid) and a concomitant accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Flooding also resulted in a strong reduction of the incorporation of (15)N2 in amino acids. Nodule amino acids labelled before flooding rapidly lost (15)N during flooding, except for GABA, which initially increased and declined slowly thereafter. Both nitrogenase activity and the expression of nifH and nifD genes were strongly decreased on flooding. Expression of the asparagine synthetase genes SAS1 and SAS2 was reduced, especially the former. Expression of genes encoding the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD1, GAD4, GAD5) was also strongly suppressed except for GAD2 which increased. Almost all changes observed during flooding were reversible after draining. Possible changes in asparagine and GABA metabolism that may explain the marked fluctuations of these amino acids during flooding are discussed. It is suggested that the accumulation of GABA has a storage role during flooding stress.

  20. Root cause evaluation of pressurizer relief valve leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.E.; Voll, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pressurizer relief valves at two pressurized water reactor units experienced unacceptable leakage during plant heatup. The leakage was suspected to be caused by excessive pipe loads on the valves. This paper describes how monitoring via hard-wired transducers and a digital data acquisition system was used to quantify the pipe loads on the valves, and assist in determining the root cause of the pipe loads and appropriate corrective actions. The selection of the parameters monitored, how the monitoring was accomplished and interpretation of the results is discussed. The corrective actions implemented based on the monitoring results are also discussed

  1. Application of grey incidence analysis to connection between human errors and root cause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yinxiang; Yu Ren; Zhou Gang; Chen Dengke

    2008-01-01

    By introducing grey incidence analysis, the relatively important impact of root cause upon human errors was researched in the paper. On the basis of WANO statistic data and grey incidence analysis, lack of alternate examine, bad basic operation, short of theoretical knowledge, relaxation of organization and management and deficiency of regulations are the important influence of root cause on human err ors. Finally, the question to reduce human errors was discussed. (authors)

  2. Structural studies on the development of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.) in susceptible soybean leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.; Ebrahim-Nesbat, F.; Hoppe, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Where soybeans are cultivated in the tropics, soybean rust may cause heavy crop losses. Resistance found so far was only of local and temporary value. More substantial breeding efforts are needed, but these may require a better understanding of the pathogen's biology and evolutionary capacity, the infection process and the host-pathogen relationships. The report deals with the infection process and the development of the fungus in a susceptible host variety. (author)

  3. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOYBEAN PROTEIN SOLUBILITY

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    RODICA CĂPRIŢĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of soybean products in animal feeds is limited due to the presence of antinutritional factors (ANF. Proper heat processing is required to destroy ANF naturally present in raw soybeans and to remove solvent remaining from the oil extraction process. Over and under toasting of soybean causes lower nutritional value. Excessive heat treatment causes Maillard reaction which affects the availability of lysine in particular and produces changes to the chemical structure of proteins resulting in a decrease of the nutritive value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating time on the protein solubility. The investigation of the heating time on protein solubility in soybean meal (SBM revealed a negative correlation (r = -0.9596. Since the urease index is suitable only for detecting under processed SBM, the protein solubility is an important index for monitoring SBM quality.

  4. Green-Lean Synergy - Root-Cause Analysis in Food Waste Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Amani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose_The goal of this paper is to explore the possible synergetic effects between lean philosophy and green endeavors in improving resource efficiency in the food sector. To that end, it is investigated how a proper and tailor-made adaptation of the lean six sigma root cause analysis method could help in overcoming the complexities of increased resource efficiency in food production.Design/methodology/approach_The case study concerned reduction of waste at an industrial production line of a dough-based product, through the implementation of the lean six sigma tool.Findings_An achievement of a 50% reduction of waste on the studied process line was reached, thus exceeding the initial improvement goal.Research limitations/implications (if applicable_While the explicit findings on the specific root causes of waste on this actual production line are not immediately transferrable to other cases, they show that applying this method to identifying and eliminating root causes of waste for other products and processes in the food sector could not only reduce costs but also contribute to more resource-efficient and sustainable industrial food production.Practical implications (if applicable_ Political and public high interest in environmental and social sustainability associated with food waste render this an important development.Originality/value_ While the potential of linking green and lean efforts has been acknowledged, the application of the lean six sigma methodology for more sustainable food production has not yet been explored. This paper contributes to this research

  5. ANALYSIS IMPORT POLICY OF SOYBEAN ON ECONOMICS PERFORMANCE OF INDONESIAN SOYBEAN

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    Muthiah Abda Azizah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalization is closely related to the opening of market access for Indonesian products to the world and vice versa. Since the soybean trade out of BULOG control began in 1998, soybean imports increased very rapidly (Sudaryanto and Swastika, 2007. This research aims to determine the general picture of soybean economy, factors analyses that influence the economic performance of Indonesian soybean and findings the alternative of policies that can reduce soybean imports in Indonesia. Methods of data analysis are descriptive analysis, 2SLS simultaneous equations, and simulation of policy alternatives. Results of the analysis of the factors that affect the economic performance of Indonesian soybean, consists of 1 The area of soybean harvest is influenced significantly by the price of domestic soybean and domestic prices of corn, 2 Productivity soybean influenced significantly by the domestic prices of soybean and fertilizer prices, 3 soybean demand influenced significantly by population, domestic prices of soybean, 4 domestic prices of soybean significantly affected by world prices of soybean, exchange rates, and soybean supply, 5 Imports of soybean influenced significantly by the domestic demand of soybean and soybean production. Therefore, policy scenarios should be made to reduce soybean imports, including by carrying out the expansion of soybean harvest policy, the policy of increasing the productivity of soybean, the policy of subsidizing the price of fertilizer.

  6. Delayed Recognition of Deterioration of Patients in General Wards Is Mostly Caused by Human Related Monitoring Failures: A Root Cause Analysis of Unplanned ICU Admissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise S van Galen

    Full Text Available An unplanned ICU admission of an inpatient is a serious adverse event (SAE. So far, no in depth-study has been performed to systematically analyse the root causes of unplanned ICU-admissions. The primary aim of this study was to identify the healthcare worker-, organisational-, technical,- disease- and patient- related causes that contribute to acute unplanned ICU admissions from general wards using a Root-Cause Analysis Tool called PRISMA-medical. Although a Track and Trigger System (MEWS was introduced in our hospital a few years ago, it was implemented without a clear protocol. Therefore, the secondary aim was to assess the adherence to a Track and Trigger system to identify deterioration on general hospital wards in patients eventually transferred to the ICU.Retrospective observational study in 49 consecutive adult patients acutely admitted to the Intensive Care Unit from a general nursing ward. 1. PRISMA-analysis on root causes of unplanned ICU admissions 2. Assessment of protocol adherence to the early warning score system.Out of 49 cases, 156 root causes were identified. The most frequent root causes were healthcare worker related (46%, which were mainly failures in monitoring the patient. They were followed by disease-related (45%, patient-related causes (7, 5%, and organisational root causes (3%. In only 40% of the patients vital parameters were monitored as was instructed by the doctor. 477 vital parameter sets were found in the 48 hours before ICU admission, in only 1% a correct MEWS was explicitly documented in the record.This in-depth analysis demonstrates that almost half of the unplanned ICU admissions from the general ward had healthcare worker related root causes, mostly due to monitoring failures in clinically deteriorating patients. In order to reduce unplanned ICU admissions, improving the monitoring of patients is therefore warranted.

  7. Root-Cause Analysis of a Potentially Sentinel Transfusion Event: Lessons for Improvement of Patient Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jeddian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Errors prevention and patient safety in transfusion medicine are a serious concern. Errors can occur at any step in transfusion and evaluation of their root causes can be helpful for preventive measures. Root cause analysis as a structured and systematic approach can be used for identification of underlying causes of adverse events. To specify system vulnerabilities and illustrate the potential of such an approach, we describe the root cause analysis of a case of transfusion error in emergency ward that could have been fatal. After reporting of the mentioned event, through reviewing records and interviews with the responsible personnel, the details of the incident were elaborated. Then, an expert panel meeting was held to define event timeline and the care and service delivery problems and discuss their underlying causes, safeguards and preventive measures. Root cause analysis of the mentioned event demonstrated that certain defects of the system and the ensuing errors were main causes of the event. It also points out systematic corrective actions. It can be concluded that health care organizations should endeavor to provide opportunities to discuss errors and adverse events and introduce preventive measures to find areas where resources need to be allocated to improve patient safety.

  8. Root causes occurrence of low BIM adoption in Malaysia: System dynamics modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamter, Shahela; Aziz, Abdul Rashid Abdul; Zulkepli, Jafri

    2017-11-01

    The global implementation of BIM in the construction field is increasing worldwide. Due to the advantages offered by BIM, its implementation is considered important in the construction projects. Nevertheless, the Construction Industry Transformation Plan has reported that the adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in Malaysia is still low and it is estimated at only 10 percent adoption amongst construction stake players. The barriers influencing the occurrence of low adoption BIM in Malaysia have been studied by some researchers. However, these researchers did not investigate the root causes which might lead to the recurring of the barriers to BIM adoption. Root causes that immediately occurrence of barriers, also known as precipitants or trigger causes. This conceptual paper developed the causal loop diagram (CLD) which presents the relationship between the perceived variables using system dynamic modelling approach. The findings revealed a novelty validated diagrams that design the holistic dynamic relationship on the root causes occurrence of low BIM adoption. Nonetheless, the diagram subject to more empirical testing for its practicability and further refinement upon more results expected to emerge as the research progresses.

  9. Growth patterns for etiolated soybeans germinated under spaceflight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Piastuch, William C.

    In the GENEX (GENe EXpression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87), six surface sterilized soybean seeds ( Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to initiate the process of seed germination on-orbit and subsequently transferred them to four light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight plants ( N = 177), (2) the corresponding ground control population ( N = 183), plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions ( N = 93). No significant morphological differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. Some causes underlying this phenomenon are speculated on.

  10. Novel process of fermenting black soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yogurt with dramatically reduced flatulence-causing oligosaccharides but enriched soy phytoalexins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shengbao; Saw, Chin Lee; Lee, Yuan Kun; Huang, Dejian

    2008-11-12

    Black soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were germinated under fungal stress with food grade R. oligosporus for 3 days and were homogenized and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce soy yogurt. Fungal stress led to the generation of oxylipins [oxooctadecadienoic acids (KODES) isomers and their respective glyceryl esters] and glyceollins--a type of phytoalexins unique to soybeans. In soy yogurt, the concentrations of total KODES and total glyceollins were 0.678 mg/g (dry matter) and 0.953 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of other isoflavones (mainly genistein and daidzein and their derivatives) in soy yogurt remained largely unchanged after the processes compared with the control soy yogurt. Germination of black soybean under fungal stress for 3 days was sufficient to reduce stachyose and raffinose (which cause flatulence) by 92 and 80%, respectively. With a pH value of 4.42, a lactic acid content of 0.262%, and a maximum viable cell count of 2.1 x 10 (8) CFU/mL in the final soy yogurt, soy milk from germinated soybeans under fungal stress was concluded to be a suitable medium for yogurt-making. The resulting soy yogurt had significantly altered micronutrient profiles with significantly reduced oligosaccharides and enriched glyceollins.

  11. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David

    2013-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation.

  12. EFFECT OF ALUMINUM ON PLANT GROWTH, PHOSPORUS AND CALCIUM UPTAKE OF TROPICAL RICE (Oryza sativa, MAIZE (Zea mays, AND SOYBEAN (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nursyamsi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum toxicity is the most limiting factor to plant growth on acid soils. Structural and functional damages in the root system by Al decrease nutrient uptake and lead to reduce plant growth and mineral deficiency in shoot. Greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of Al on plant growth, and P and Ca uptake of rice, maize, and soybean. The plants were grown in hydroponic solution added with 0, 5, 10, and 30 ppm Al, at pH 4.0. The results showed that relative growth of shoots and roots of upland rice, lowland rice, maize, and soybean decreased with an increase of Al level. However, sometimes the low Al level (5 ppm stimulated shoot and root growth of some varieties in these species. According to total AlRG30 values, which is Al concentration in solution when relative growth decreased to 50%, Al tolerance of species was in order of barley < maize < soybean < lowland rice < upland rice. For maize, Al tolerance was in the order of Arjuna < Kalingga < P 3540 < SA 5 < SA 4 < PM 95 A < SA 3 < Antasena; for soybean was Wilis < INPS < Galunggung < Kerinci < Kitamusume; for lowland rice was RD 23 < Kapuas < Cisadane < KDML 105 < IR 66 < RD 13, and for upland rice was Dodokan < JAC165 < Cirata < Orizyca sabana 6 < Danau Tempe < Laut Tawar. Based on the rank of Al tolerance, rice was the useful crop to be planted in acid soils. Antasena (maize, Kitamusume ( soybean , RD 13 (lowland rice, and Laut Tawar (upland rice were also recommended for acid soils. P and Ca concentration in shoots and roots commonly decreased with an increase of Al level. However, the low Al level stimulated absorption of P and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots.

  13. Static magnetic field treatment of seeds improves carbon and nitrogen metabolism under salinity stress in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghel, Lokesh; Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, Kadur Narayan

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of magnetopriming was assessed for alleviation of salt-induced adverse effects on soybean growth. Soybean seeds were pre-treated with static magnetic field (SMF) of 200 mT for 1 h to evaluate the effect of magnetopriming on growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and yield of soybean plants under different salinity levels (0, 25, and 50 mM NaCl). The adverse effect of NaCl-induced salt stress was found on growth, yield, and various physiological attributes of soybeans. Results indicate that SMF pre-treatment significantly increased plant growth attributes, number of root nodules, nodules, fresh weight, biomass accumulation, and photosynthetic performance under both non-saline and saline conditions as compared to untreated seeds. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from magnetically treated plants gave a higher fluorescence yield at J-I-P phase. Nitrate reductase activity, PIABS , photosynthetic pigments, and net rate of photosynthesis were also higher in plants that emerged from SMF pre-treated seeds as compared to untreated seeds. Leghemoglobin content and hemechrome content in root nodules were also increased by SMF pre-treatment. Thus pre-sowing exposure of seeds to SMF enhanced carbon and nitrogen metabolism and improved the yield of soybeans in terms of number of pods, number of seeds, and seed weight under saline as well as non-saline conditions. Consequently, SMF pre-treatment effectively mitigated adverse effects of NaCl on soybeans. It indicates that magnetopriming of dry soybean seeds can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for alleviating salinity stress. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:455-470, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Plant Chemistry, Growth, Yield of Resistant Soybean, and Feeding of a Target Lepidoptera Pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifei, Zhang; Yang, Dai; Guijun, Wan; Bin, Liu; Guangnan, Xing; Fajun, Chen

    2018-04-25

    Atmospheric CO2 level arising is an indisputable fact in the future climate change, as predicted, it could influence crops and their herbivorous insect pests. The growth and development, reproduction, and consumption of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on resistant (cv. Lamar) and susceptible (cv. JLNMH) soybean grown under elevated (732.1 ± 9.99 μl/liter) and ambient (373.6 ± 9.21 μl/liter) CO2 were examined in open-top chambers from 2013 to 2015. Elevated CO2 promoted the above- and belowground-biomass accumulation and increased the root/shoot ratio of two soybean cultivars, and increased the seeds' yield for Lamar. Moreover, elevated CO2 significantly reduced the larval and pupal weight, prolonged the larval and pupal life span, and increased the feeding amount and excretion amount of two soybean cultivars. Significantly lower foliar nitrogen content and higher foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were observed in the sampled foliage of resistant and susceptible soybean cultivars grown under elevated CO2, which brought negative effects on the growth of S. litura, with the increment of foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were greater in the resistant soybean in contrast to the susceptible soybean. Furthermore, the increment of larval consumption was less than 50%, and the larval life span was prolonged more obvious of the larvae fed on resistant soybean compared with susceptible soybean under elevated CO2. It speculated that the future climatic change of atmospheric CO2 level arising would likely cause the increase of the soybean yield and the intake of S. litura, but the resistant soybean would improve the resistance of the target Lepidoptera pest, S. litura.

  15. IAEA-ASSET`s root cause analysis method applied to sodium leakage incident at Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-08-01

    The present study applied the ASSET (Analysis and Screening of Safety Events Team) methodology (This method identifies occurrences such as component failures and operator errors, identifies their respective direct/root causes and determines corrective actions.) to the analysis of the sodium leakage incident at Monju, based on the published reports by mainly the Science and Technology Agency, aiming at systematic identification of direct/root causes and corrective actions, and discussed the effectiveness and problems of the ASSET methodology. The results revealed the following seven occurrences and showed the direct/root causes and contributing factors for the individual occurrences: failure of thermometer well tube, delayed reactor manual trip, inadequate continuous monitoring of leakage, misjudgment of leak rate, non-required operator action (turbine trip), retarded emergency sodium drainage, and retarded securing of ventilation system. Most of the occurrences stemmed from deficiencies in emergency operating procedures (EOPs), which were mainly caused by defects in the EOP preparation process and operator training programs. The corrective actions already proposed in the published reports were reviewed, identifying issues to be further studied. Possible corrective actions were discussed for these issues. The present study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the ASSET methodology and pointed out some problems, for example, in delineating causal relations among occurrences, for applying it to the detail and systematic analysis of event direct/root causes and determination of concrete measures. (J.P.N.)

  16. Carbon sequestration in soybean crop soils: the role of hydrogen-coupled CO2 fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A.; Layzell, D. B.; Scott, N. A.; Cen, Y.; Kyser, T. K.

    2011-12-01

    Conversion of native vegetation to agricultural land in order to support the world's growing population is a key factor contributing to global climate change. However, the extent to which agricultural activities contribute to greenhouse gas emissions compared to carbon storage is difficult to ascertain, especially for legume crops, such as soybeans. Soybean establishment often leads to an increase in N2O emissions because N-fixation leads to increased soil available N during decomposition of the low C:N legume biomass. However, soybean establishment may also reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by increasing soil fertility, plant growth, and soil carbon storage. The mechanism behind increased carbon storage, however, remains unclear. One explanation points to hydrogen coupled CO2 fixation; the process by which nitrogen fixation releases H2 into the soil system, thereby promoting chemoautotrophic carbon fixation by soil microbes. We used 13CO2 as a tracer to track the amount and fate of carbon fixed by hydrogen coupled CO2 fixation during one-year field and laboratory incubations. The objectives of the research are to 1) quantify rates of 13CO2 fixation in soil collected from a field used for long-term soybean production 2) examine the impact of H2 gas concentration on rates of 13CO2 fixation, and 3) measure changes in δ13C signature over time in 3 soil fractions: microbial biomass, light fraction, and acid stable fraction. If this newly-fixed carbon is incorporated into the acid-stable soil C fraction, it has a good chance of contributing to long-term soil C sequestration under soybean production. Soil was collected in the field both adjacent to root nodules (nodule soil) and >3cm away (root soil) and labelled with 13CO2 (1% v/v) in the presence and absence of H2 gas. After a two week labelling period, δ13C signatures already revealed differences in the four treatments of bulk soil: -17.1 for root, -17.6 for nodule, -14.2 for root + H2, and -6.1 for nodule + H2

  17. Improving protein quality of soybean through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Soybean is one of the most economical and nutritious food packed with basic nutrients that combat diseases stemming from mal- and under-nutrition. Despite its rich nutritional profile, use of soybean in food has been limited because soybean proteins are often associated with compounds, which could exert a negative impact on the nutritional quality of the protein. Trypsin inhibitor (TI) is one of the important anti-nutritional factors that exert negative effect by causing growth inhibition. Soybean cultivar VLS-2 was irradiated with 250 Gy gamma rays in a gamma cell (200) with 60 Co source installed at BARC to induce mutations for low trypsin inhibitor content. Three mutants with lower levels of TI content were identified and can be utilized for developing elite varieties of soybean. (author)

  18. Toothpick test: a methodology for the detection of RR soybean plants1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Mota da Silva

    Full Text Available Due to the large increase in the area cultivated with genetically modified soybean in Brazil, it has become necessary to determine methods that are fast and efficient for detecting these cultivars. The aim of this work was to test the efficiency of the toothpick method in the detection of RR soybean plants, as well as to distinguish between cultivars, for sensitivity caused by herbicide. Ten transgenic soybean cultivars, resistant to the active ingredient glyphosate, and ten conventional soybean cultivars were used. Toothpicks soaked in glyphosate were applied to all the plants at stage V6 and evaluations were made at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days after application (DAA. The effects of the glyphosate on the cultivars, and the symptoms of phytotoxicity caused in the transgenic plants were evaluated by means of grading scales. The toothpick test is effective in identifying RR soybean cultivars and also in separating them into groups by sensitivity to the symptoms caused by the glyphosate.

  19. Fungicides reduce Rhododendron root rot and mortality caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, but not by P. plurivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhododendron root rot, caused by several Phytophthora species, can cause devastating losses in nursery-grown plants. Most research on chemical control of root rot has focused on Phytophthora cinnamomi. However, it is unknown whether treatments recommended for P. cinnamomi are also effective for othe...

  20. Genome-wide identification of soybean WRKY transcription factors in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanchong; Wang, Nan; Hu, Ruibo; Xiang, Fengning

    2016-01-01

    Members of the large family of WRKY transcription factors are involved in a wide range of developmental and physiological processes, most particularly in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. Here, an analysis of the soybean genome sequence allowed the identification of the full complement of 188 soybean WRKY genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that soybean WRKY genes were classified into three major groups (I, II, III), with the second group further categorized into five subgroups (IIa-IIe). The soybean WRKYs from each group shared similar gene structures and motif compositions. The location of the GmWRKYs was dispersed over all 20 soybean chromosomes. The whole genome duplication appeared to have contributed significantly to the expansion of the family. Expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that in soybean root, 66 of the genes responded rapidly and transiently to the imposition of salt stress, all but one being up-regulated. While in aerial part, 49 GmWRKYs responded, all but two being down-regulated. RT-qPCR analysis showed that in the whole soybean plant, 66 GmWRKYs exhibited distinct expression patterns in response to salt stress, of which 12 showed no significant change, 35 were decreased, while 19 were induced. The data present here provide critical clues for further functional studies of WRKY gene in soybean salt tolerance.

  1. Phenotypic evaluation and genetic dissection of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in the Chinese soybean mini core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Guo, Na; Li, Yinghui; Sun, Jutao; Hu, Guanjun; Zhang, Haipeng; Li, Yanfei; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Jinming; Xing, Han; Qiu, Lijuan

    2016-06-18

    Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most serious diseases affecting soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) production all over the world. The most economical and environmentally-friendly way to control the disease is the exploration and utilization of resistant varieties. We screened a soybean mini core collection composed of 224 germplasm accessions for resistance against eleven P. sojae isolates. Soybean accessions from the Southern and Huanghuai regions, especially the Hubei, Jiangsu, Sichuan and Fujian provinces, had the most varied and broadest spectrum of resistance. Based on gene postulation, Rps1b, Rps1c, Rps4, Rps7 and novel resistance genes were identified in resistant accessions. Consequently, association mapping of resistance to each isolate was performed with 1,645 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A total of 14 marker-trait associations for Phytophthora resistance were identified. Among them, four were located in known PRR resistance loci intervals, five were located in other disease resistance quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions, and five associations unmasked novel loci for PRR resistance. In addition, we also identified candidate genes related to resistance. This is the first P. sojae resistance evaluation conducted using the Chinese soybean mini core collection, which is a representative sample of Chinese soybean cultivars. The resistance reaction analyses provided an excellent database of resistant resources and genetic variations for future breeding programs. The SNP markers associated with resistance will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs for resistance to PRR, and the candidate genes may be useful for exploring the mechanism underlying P. sojae resistance.

  2. Structure and composition of bacterial and fungal community in soil under soybean monoculture in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D Bresolin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important oilseed cultivated in the world and Brazil is the second major producer. Expansion of soybean cultivation has direct and indirect impacts on natural habitats of high conservation value, such as the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado. In addition to deforestation, land conversion includes the use of fertilizers and pesticides and can lead to changes in the soil microbial communities. This study evaluated the soil bacterial and fungal communities and the microbial biomass C in a native Cerrado and in a similar no-tillage soybean monoculture area using PCR-DGGE and sequencing of bands. Compared to the native area, microbial biomass C was lower in the soybean area and cluster analysis indicated that the structure of soil microbial communities differed. 16S and 18S rDNA dendrograms analysis did not show differences between row and inter-row samples, but microbial biomass C values were higher in inter-rows during soybean fructification and harvest. The study pointed to different responses and alterations in bacterial and fungal communities due to soil cover changes (fallow x growth period and crop development. These changes might be related to differences in the pattern of root exudates affecting the soil microbial community. Among the bands chosen for sequencing there was a predominance of actinobacteria, y-proteobacteria and ascomycetous divisions. Even under no-tillage management methods, the soil microbial community was affected due to changes in the soil cover and crop development, hence warning of the impacts caused by changes in land use.

  3. Proliferation of cyber insecurity in Nigeria: a root cause analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected were analysed using the 5 WHYs method of root causes analysis. The research identified poor promotion of cyber security professionals' recruitment, training, and upgrade in technical knowledge and development in Nigeria; lack of feasibility and workability analysis of the resultant effects of certain policies ...

  4. A Novel Soybean Dirigent Gene GmDIR22 Contributes to Promotion of Lignan Biosynthesis and Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninghui Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae is a destructive disease of soybean worldwide. Plant dirigent proteins (DIR are proposed to have roles in biosynthesis of either lignan or lignin-like molecules, and are important for defense responses, secondary metabolism, and pathogen resistance. In the present work, a novel DIR gene expressed sequence tag is identified as up-regulated in the highly resistant soybean cultivar ‘Suinong 10’ inoculated with P. sojae. The full length cDNA is isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and designated GmDIR22 (GenBank accession no. HQ_993047. The full length GmDIR22 is 789 bp and contains a 567 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 188 amino acids. The sequence analysis indicated that GmDIR22 contains a conserved dirigent domain at amino acid residues 43–187. The quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR demonstrated that soybean GmDIR22 mRNA is expressed most highly in stems, followed by roots and leaves. The treatments with stresses demonstrated that GmDIR22 is significantly induced by P. sojae and gibberellic acid (GA3, and also responds to salicylic acid, methyl jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid. The GmDIR22 is targeted to the cytomembrane when transiently expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Moreover, The GmDIR22 recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli could effectively direct E-coniferyl alcohol coupling into lignan (+-pinoresinol. Accordingly, the overexpression of GmDIR22 in transgenic soybean increased total lignan accumulation. Moreover, the lignan extracts from GmDIR22 transgenic plants effectively inhibits P. sojae hyphal growth. Furthermore, the transgenic overexpression of GmDIR22 in the susceptible soybean cultivar ‘Dongnong 50’ enhances its resistance to P. sojae. Collectively, these data suggested that the primary role of GmDIR22 is probably involved in the regulation of lignan biosynthesis, and which

  5. Peroxidase and lipid peroxidation of soybean roots in response to p-coumaric and p-hydroxybenzoic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Minatovicz F. Doblinski

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the present study was to investigate how the p-coumaric (p-CA and p-hydroxybenzoic (p-HD acids affect the peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7 activity, the lipid peroxidation (LP and the root growth of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution containing p-CA or p-HD (0.1 to 1 mM for 48 h. After uptake, both compounds (at 0.5 and 1 mM decreased root length (RL, fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW while increased soluble POD activity, cell wall (CW-bound POD activity (with 1 mM p-CA and 0.5 mM p-HD and LP.A proposta do presente trabalho foi investigar como os ácidos p-cumárico (p-CA e p-hidroxibenzóico (p-HD afetam a atividade da peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7, a peroxidação lipídica (LP e o crescimento de raízes de soja (Glycine max (L. Merr.. Plântulas de três dias foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com p-CA ou p-HD (0,1 a 1 mM por 48 horas. Após absorção, ambos os compostos (a 0,5 e 1 mM reduziram o comprimento das raízes (RL, a biomassa fresca (FW e a biomassa seca (DW enquanto aumentaram a atividade da POD solúvel, a atividade da POD ligada à parede celular (com p-CA 1 mM e p-HD 0,5 mM, e a LP.

  6. Genetically modified soybean plants and their ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.

  7. Ncl Synchronously Regulates Na+, K+, and Cl- in Soybean and Greatly Increases the Grain Yield in Saline Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuyen Duc; Chen, Huatao; Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Hamwieh, Aladdin; Yamada, Tetsuya; Sato, Tadashi; Yan, Yongliang; Cong, Hua; Shono, Mariko; Suenaga, Kazuhiro; Xu, Donghe

    2016-01-08

    Salt stress inhibits soybean growth and reduces gain yield. Genetic improvement of salt tolerance is essential for sustainable soybean production in saline areas. In this study, we isolated a gene (Ncl) that could synchronously regulate the transport and accumulation of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) from a Brazilian soybean cultivar FT-Abyara using map-based cloning strategy. Higher expression of the salt tolerance gene Ncl in the root resulted in lower accumulations of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) in the shoot under salt stress. Transfer of Ncl with the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method into a soybean cultivar Kariyutaka significantly enhanced its salt tolerance. Introgression of the tolerance allele into soybean cultivar Jackson, using DNA marker-assisted selection (MAS), produced an improved salt tolerance line. Ncl could increase soybean grain yield by 3.6-5.5 times in saline field conditions. Using Ncl in soybean breeding through gene transfer or MAS would contribute to sustainable soybean production in saline-prone areas.

  8. Production of a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids by solid-state fermentation of soybean meal and evaluation of its efficacy on the rapeseed growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Zhemin; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Wen; Mou, Haijin

    2014-10-10

    Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction and contains approximately 44% protein. We performed solid-state fermentation by using Bacillus subtilis strain N-2 to produce a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids. Strain N-2 produced a high yield of protease, which transformed the proteins in soybean meal into peptide and free amino acids that were dissolved in the fermentation products. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, the initial pH of the fermentation substrate, number of days of fermentation, and the ratio of liquid to soybean meal exhibited significant effects on the recovery of proteins in the resulting water-soluble solution. According to the predicted results of the central composite design, the highest recovery of soluble proteins (99.072%) was achieved at the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the resulting solution contained 50.42% small peptides and 7.9% poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). The water-soluble fertilizer robustly increased the activity of the rapeseed root system, chlorophyll content, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root length, and root weight at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). This methodology offers a value-added use of soybean meal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The fficiency of Mycorrhiza biofertilizer treatment to the growth and yield of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanhudi; Pujiasmanto, B.; Sudadi; Putra, I. H.; Mumtazah, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    Soybean is one of the major commodities in Indonesia. Due to its high demand, its requires an effort to increase the production. Soybeans are generally cultivated in dry land, for that its need a special management to increase the yield. The association between Mycorrhiza and roots help the plant to get water and nutrients. In this regard Mycorrhiza expected to increase soybean yield and efficiency. This research aim is to study the dose of Mycorrhiza on the growth and yield of soybean efficiently. The experiment was conducted in Selogiri District, Wonogiri, while the analysis of Mycorrhiza and soil was inFaculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta from February to April 2016. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two factors was emplyed for this experiment. The treatments are compost dose (derived from Waste Management Faculty of Agriculture UNS) and Mycorrhizal dose (obtained from BPPT Serpong). The result showed that the Mycorrhiza treatmentwas able to improved the growth and yield of soybean. The most efficient dose of is Mycorrhiza treatment at 0.64 ton ha-1.

  10. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic soybean expressing the Arabidopsis ferric chelate reductase gene, FRO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marta; Eckert, Helene; Arahana, Venancio; Graef, George; Grusak, Michael A; Clemente, Tom

    2006-10-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) production is reduced under iron-limiting calcareous soils throughout the upper Midwest regions of the US. Like other dicotyledonous plants, soybean responds to iron-limiting environments by induction of an active proton pump, a ferric iron reductase and an iron transporter. Here we demonstrate that heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana ferric chelate reductase gene, FRO2, in transgenic soybean significantly enhances Fe(+3) reduction in roots and leaves. Root ferric reductase activity was up to tenfold higher in transgenic plants and was not subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. In leaves, reductase activity was threefold higher in the transgenic plants when compared to control. The enhanced ferric reductase activity led to reduced chlorosis, increased chlorophyll concentration and a lessening in biomass loss in the transgenic events between Fe treatments as compared to control plants grown under hydroponics that mimicked Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient soil environments. However, the data indicate that constitutive FRO2 expression under non-iron stress conditions may lead to a decrease in plant productivity as reflected by reduced biomass accumulation in the transgenic events under non-iron stress conditions. When grown at Fe(III)-EDDHA levels greater than 10 microM, iron concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants was significantly higher than control. The same observation was found in the roots in plants grown at iron levels higher than 32 microM Fe(III)-EDDHA. These results suggest that heterologous expression of an iron chelate reductase in soybean can provide a route to alleviate iron deficiency chlorosis.

  11. The transport and distribution of 3H-ABA affected by al sress on soybean seedig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Sun Yang; Pang Jinduo

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment combining radioisotope techniques was carried out to understand the effect of Al stress on the transport and the distribution of 3 H-ABA by using Jilin70, a soybean variety of Al resistance. The transport and distribution of ABA affected by Al stress on soybean seedling were studied with radioisotope technique. The results showed that ABA could be transported up or down in soybean seedling. The stress of Al accelerated the transport of ABA and enhanced the distribution of ABA in the roots by Al stress. The paper present the foundation for the mechanisms of ABA under Al stress in plant. (authors)

  12. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis of Soybean LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain-Containing Genes: A Functional Investigation of GmLBD12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific ( genes play critical roles in various plant growth and development processes. However, the number and characteristics of genes in soybean [ (L. Merr.] remain unknown. Here, we identified 90 homologous genes in the soybean genome that phylogenetically clustered into two classes (I and II. The majority of the genes were evenly distributed across all 20 soybean chromosomes, and 77 (81.11% of them were detected in segmental duplicated regions. Furthermore, the exon–intron organization and motif composition for each were analyzed. A close phylogenetic relationship was identified between the soybean genes and 41 previously reported genes of different plants in the same group, providing insights into their putative functions. Expression analysis indicated that more than half of the genes were expressed, with the two gene classes showing differential tissue expression characteristics; in addition, they were differentially induced by biotic and abiotic stresses. To further explore the functions of genes in soybean, was selected for functional characterization. GmLBD12 was mainly localized to the nucleus and showed high expression in root and seed tissues. Overexpressing in (L. Heynh resulted in increases in lateral root (LR number and plant height. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that was induced by drought, salt, cold, indole acetic acid (IAA, abscisic acid (ABA, and salicylic acid SA treatments. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the soybean gene family and a valuable foundation for future functional studies of genes.

  14. Common cause failure: enhancing defenses against root cause and coupling factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Poorva; Kim, Sok Chul [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A Common Cause Failure(CCF) event refers to a specific class of dependent events that result from co-existence of two main factors: Susceptibility of components to fail or become unavailable due to particular root cause of failure, and coupling factor coupling mechanism) that creates the condition for multiple components getting affected. PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) operating experience of Nuclear Power Plants have demonstrated that dependent events such as CCF events are major contributor to risk during operation. From cost-benefit consideration, putting significant design modifications in place to prevent CCF would not be desirable in terms of risk management regulatory effectiveness and efficiency. The aim of this study was to propose feasible defenses against CCF from cost benefit consideration to enhance the safety. This study provides the CDM and CFDM of EDG. Defenses employed against cause and coupling factor can be easily employed in operation and maintenance programme of NPP and are not an additional cost burden. Such enhancement of defense against the CCF can give a modest improvement in CDF. This approach is specifically helpful in plants that are already under operation and significant modifications are not economically feasible.

  15. Root cause analysis of SI line-seated thermal sleeve separation failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Jhung, Myung Jo; Kim, Hho Jung

    2004-01-01

    At conventional pressurized water reactors, a thermal sleeve (named simply 'sleeve' hereafter) is seated inside the nozzle part of each Safety Injection (SI) branch pipe to prevent and relieve potential excessive transient thermal stress in the nozzle wall when a cold water is injected during the safety injection mode Recently, mechanical failures that the sleeves are separated from the SI branch pipe and fall into the connected cold leg main pipe were occurred in sequence at Yonggwang units 5 and 6 and Ulchin unit 5. There were many activities and efforts to figure out the causes of those failures with experts' reasoning, but the proposed causes were derived from superficial views rather than physically concrete grounds or analysis results. The prerequisites to find out the root causes of failure mechanism will be to identify the flow situation in the pipe junction area connecting the cold leg with the SI pipe and to know the vibration characteristics of sleeves. This paper investigates the flow field in the pipe junction thru a numerical simulation and vibration characteristics of thermal sleeves thru a modal analysis, from which the root causes of sleeve separation mechanism are analyzed

  16. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, S.

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties

  17. Analyses of flooding tolerance of soybean varieties at emergence and varietal differences in their proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Jang, Hee-Young; Kim, Hong-Sig; Hiraga, Susumu; Woo, Sun-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-10-01

    Flooding of fields due to heavy and/or continuous rainfall influences soybean production. To identify soybean varieties with flooding tolerance at the seedling emergence stage, 128 soybean varieties were evaluated using a flooding tolerance index, which is based on plant survival rates, the lack of apparent damage and lateral root development, and post-flooding radicle elongation rate. The soybean varieties were ranked according to their flooding tolerance index, and it was found that the tolerance levels of soybean varieties exhibit a continuum of differences between varieties. Subsequently, tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive varieties were selected and subjected to comparative proteomic analysis to clarify the tolerance mechanism. Proteomic analysis of the radicles, combined with correlation analysis, showed that the ratios of RNA binding/processing related proteins and flooding stress indicator proteins were significantly correlated with flooding tolerance index. The RNA binding/processing related proteins were positively correlated in untreated soybeans, whereas flooding stress indicator proteins were negatively correlated in flooded soybeans. These results suggest that flooding tolerance is regulated by mechanisms through multiple factors and is associated with abundance levels of the identified proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Roles of Soybean Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Protein GmPIP2;9 in Drought Tolerance and Seed Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghong Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins play an essential role in water uptake and transport in vascular plants. The soybean genome contains a total of 22 plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP genes. To identify candidate PIPs important for soybean yield and stress tolerance, we studied the transcript levels of all 22 soybean PIPs. We found that a GmPIP2 subfamily member, GmPIP2;9, was predominately expressed in roots and developing seeds. Here, we show that GmPIP2;9 localized to the plasma membrane and had high water channel activity when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using transgenic soybean plants expressing a native GmPIP2;9 promoter driving a GUS-reporter gene, it was found high GUS expression in the roots, in particular, in the endoderm, pericycle, and vascular tissues of the roots of transgenic plants. In addition, GmPIP2;9 was also highly expressed in developing pods. GmPIP2;9 expression significantly increased in short term of polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated drought stress treatment. GmPIP2;9 overexpression increased tolerance to drought stress in both solution cultures and soil plots. Drought stress in combination with GmPIP2;9 overexpression increased net CO2 assimilation of photosynthesis, stomata conductance, and transpiration rate, suggesting that GmPIP2;9-overexpressing transgenic plants were less stressed than wild-type (WT plants. Furthermore, field experiments showed that GmPIP2;9-overexpressing plants had significantly more pod numbers and larger seed sizes than WT plants. In summary, the study demonstrated that GmPIP2;9 has water transport activity. Its relative high expression levels in roots and developing pods are in agreement with the phenotypes of GmPIP2;9-overexpressing plants in drought stress tolerance and seed development.

  19. Root cause analysis of critical events in neurosurgery, New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Vanessa; Sheridan, Mark M P

    2015-09-01

    Adverse events reportedly occur in 5% to 10% of health care episodes. Not all adverse events are the result of error; they may arise from systemic faults in the delivery of health care. Catastrophic events are not only physically devastating to patients, but they also attract medical liability and increase health care costs. Root cause analysis (RCA) has become a key tool for health care services to understand those adverse events. This study is a review of all the RCA case reports involving neurosurgical patients in New South Wales between 2008 and 2013. The case reports and data were obtained from the Clinical Excellence Commission database. The data was then categorized by the root causes identified and the recommendations suggested by the RCA committees. Thirty-two case reports were identified in the RCA database. Breaches in policy account for the majority of root causes identified, for example, delays in transfer of patients or wrong-site surgery, which always involved poor adherence to correct patient and site identification procedures. The RCA committees' recommendations included education for staff, and improvements in rostering and procedural guidelines. RCAs have improved the patient safety profile; however, the RCA committees have no power to enforce any recommendation or ensure compliance. A single RCA may provide little learning beyond the unit and staff involved. However, through aggregation of RCA data and dissemination strategies, health care workers can learn from adverse events and prevent future events from occurring. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Overexpression of AtDREB1A causes a severe dwarf phenotype by decreasing endogenous gibberellin levels in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haicui Suo

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acids (GAs are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that three key enzymes of GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox are involved in GA biosynthesis. In this study, the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into soybean plants by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results showed that the transgenic soybean plants exhibited a typical phenotype of GA-deficient mutants, such as severe dwarfism, small and dark-green leaves, and late flowering compared to those of the non-transgenic plants. The dwarfism phenotype was rescued by the application of exogenous GA(3 once a week for three weeks with the concentrations of 144 µM or three times in one week with the concentrations of 60 µM. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the GA synthase genes were higher in the transgenic soybean plants than those in controls, whereas GA-deactivated genes except GmGA2ox4 showed lower levels of expression. The transcript level of GmGA2ox4 encoding the only deactivation enzyme using C(20-GAs as the substrates in soybean was dramatically enhanced in transgenic plants compared to that of wide type. Furthermore, the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs were significantly decreased in transgenic plants than those of wide type. The results suggested that AtDREB1A could cause dwarfism mediated by GA biosynthesis pathway in soybean.

  1. Overexpression of AtDREB1A causes a severe dwarf phenotype by decreasing endogenous gibberellin levels in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Haicui; Ma, Qibin; Ye, Kaixin; Yang, Cunyi; Tang, Yujuan; Hao, Juan; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; Chen, Mingluan; Feng, Yuqi; Nian, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellic acids (GAs) are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that three key enzymes of GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox are involved in GA biosynthesis. In this study, the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into soybean plants by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results showed that the transgenic soybean plants exhibited a typical phenotype of GA-deficient mutants, such as severe dwarfism, small and dark-green leaves, and late flowering compared to those of the non-transgenic plants. The dwarfism phenotype was rescued by the application of exogenous GA(3) once a week for three weeks with the concentrations of 144 µM or three times in one week with the concentrations of 60 µM. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the GA synthase genes were higher in the transgenic soybean plants than those in controls, whereas GA-deactivated genes except GmGA2ox4 showed lower levels of expression. The transcript level of GmGA2ox4 encoding the only deactivation enzyme using C(20)-GAs as the substrates in soybean was dramatically enhanced in transgenic plants compared to that of wide type. Furthermore, the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs were significantly decreased in transgenic plants than those of wide type. The results suggested that AtDREB1A could cause dwarfism mediated by GA biosynthesis pathway in soybean.

  2. The IQD gene family in soybean: structure, phylogeny, evolution and expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng

    Full Text Available Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa, systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1-67 was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I-IV based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1-3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development.

  3. Increases in snap bean and soybean seedling diseases associated with a chloride salt and changes in the micro-partitioning of tap root calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a series of field experiments from 1995 through 2010, the incidence of seedling diseases of snap bean and soybean caused by Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pythium spp., and Fusarium spp. was greater with an application of KCl than with K2SO4 applied at 93 kg K/ha. To determine if th...

  4. Antioxidant properties of soybean seedlings inoculated with Trichoderma asperellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Ana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to assess the effect of inoculation of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds with Trichoderma asperellum, followed by mites (Tetranychus urticae exposure on lipid peroxidation (LP process and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. T. urticae is an occasional pest of soybean that causes biotic stress. Biotic stress leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS which may cause damage to vital biomolecules. Enzymatic antioxidant defense systems protect plants against oxidative stress. T. asperellum is commonly used as biocontrol agent against plant pathogens. It has been suggested that previous inoculation of seeds with T. asperellum may cause induced resistance against biotic stress. The aim of this study was to determine LP intensity and antioxidant enzymes activity in inoculated and non-inoculated soybean seedlings with and without exposure to mites. Noticeably higher LP intensity was detected in non-inoculated group treated with mites compared to control group. Inoculated soybean seedlings treated with mites had lower LP intensity compared to noninoculated group. Also, it has been noticed that inoculation with Trichoderma asperellum itself, produced mild stress in plants. In addition, positive correlation between enzymes activity and LP was noticed. The level of oxidative stress in plants was followed by the change of LP intensity. According to results obtained, it was concluded that the greatest oxidative stress occurred in non-inoculated group treated with mites and that inoculation successfully reduced oxidative stress. The results indicate that inoculation of soybean seeds with T. asperellum improves resistance of soybean seedlings against mites attack. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31022

  5. Nematode pests threatening soybean production in South Africa, with reference to Meloidogyne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrika Fourie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The area planted to soybean in South Africa has increased by 54% since the 2009 growing season, mainly as a result of the increasing demand for protein-rich food and fodder sources. Moreover, the introduction of advanced technology, namely the availability of genetically modified herbicide tolerant soybean cultivars also contributed towards increased soybean production. The omnipresence of plant-parasitic nematodes in local agricultural soils, however, poses a threat to the sustainable expansion and production of soybean and other rotation crops. Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica are the predominant nematode pests in local soybean production areas and those where other grain-, legume- and/or vegetable crops are grown. The lack of registered nematicides for soybean locally, crop production systems that are conducive to nematode pest build-ups as well as the limited availability of genetic host plant resistance to root-knot nematode pests, complicate their management. Research aimed at various aspects related to soybean-nematode research, namely, audits of nematode assemblages associated with the crop, identification of genetic host plant resistance in soybean germplasm to M. incognita and M. javanica, the use of molecular markers that are linked to such genetic resistance traits as well as agronomic performance of pre-released cultivars that can be valuable to producers and the industry are accentuated in this review. Evaluation of synthetically-derived as well as biological-control agents are also discussed as complementary management tactics. It is important that lessons learned through extensive research on soybean-nematode interactions in South Africa be shared with researchers and industries in other countries as they might experience or expect similar problems and/or challenges.

  6. Various forms of organic and inorganic P fertilizers did not negatively affect soil- and root-inhabiting AM fungi in a maize-soybean rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, M S; Gauthier, M-P; Hamel, C; Zhang, T; Welacky, T; Tan, C S; St-Arnaud, M

    2013-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are key components of most agricultural ecosystems. Therefore, understanding the impact of agricultural practices on their community structure is essential to improve nutrient mobilization and reduce plant stress in the field. The effects of five different organic or mineral sources of phosphorus (P) for a maize-soybean rotation system on AM fungal diversity in roots and soil were assessed over a 3-year period. Total DNA was extracted from root and soil samples collected at three different plant growth stages. An 18S rRNA gene fragment was amplified and taxa were detected and identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis followed by sequencing. AM fungal biomass was estimated by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Soil P fertility parameters were also monitored and analyzed for possible changes related with fertilization or growth stages. Seven AM fungal ribotypes were detected. Fertilization significantly modified soil P flux, but had barely any effect on AM fungi community structure or biomass. There was no difference in the AM fungal community between plant growth stages. Specific ribotypes could not be significantly associated to P treatment. Ribotypes were associated with root or soil samples with variable detection frequencies between seasons. AM fungal biomass remained stable throughout the growing seasons. This study demonstrated that roots and soil host distinct AM fungal communities and that these are very temporally stable. The influence of contrasting forms of P fertilizers was not significant over 3 years of crop rotation.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Evolution of HECT Genes in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Meng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteins containing domains homologous to the E6-associated protein (E6-AP carboxyl terminus (HECT are an important class of E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. HECT-type E3s play crucial roles in plant growth and development. However, current understanding of plant HECT genes and their evolution is very limited. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the HECT domain-containing genes in soybean. Using high-quality genome sequences, we identified 19 soybean HECT genes. The predicted HECT genes were distributed unevenly across 15 of 20 chromosomes. Nineteen of these genes were inferred to be segmentally duplicated gene pairs, suggesting that in soybean, segmental duplications have made a significant contribution to the expansion of the HECT gene family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these HECT genes can be divided into seven groups, among which gene structure and domain architecture was relatively well-conserved. The Ka/Ks ratios show that after the duplication events, duplicated HECT genes underwent purifying selection. Moreover, expression analysis reveals that 15 of the HECT genes in soybean are differentially expressed in 14 tissues, and are often highly expressed in the flowers and roots. In summary, this work provides useful information on which further functional studies of soybean HECT genes can be based.

  8. Avaliação nutricional e desempenho da silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral em dietas para suínos = Nutritional evaluation and performance of cassava root silage with or without whole soybean in swine diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Alves da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar o valor nutritivo e o desempenho de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total, alimentados com dietas formuladas com silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral. No primeiro, foram utilizados 15 suínos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas (animais subdivididas no tempo (subparcelas, totalizando cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os alimentos avaliados foram silagem de raiz de mandioca (MA, silagem de raiz de mandioca com inoculante (MI, silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral (MS e silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral com inoculante (MSI. As silagens apresentaram bons valores nutritivos e o uso de inoculante não foi efetivo para melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. No segundo, foram utilizados 36 suínos mestiços, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com restrição na casualização para duas classes de peso inicial, com três tratamentos, seisrepetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em raçãotestemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja (RT e outras duas com substituição total do milho por MA e MS. Para fase de crescimento, a conversão alimentar melhorou com o uso das silagens.Conclui-se que as silagens de mandioca, contendo ou não soja integral, apresentam bons valores nutritivos e podem substituir totalmente o milho na ração de suínos nas fases de crescimento eperíodo total.Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and performance of growing and total-period swine fed cassava root silage with or without whole soybean. In the first group, 15 crossbred swine were used, in a completely randomized design with parcels (animals subdivided in time (subparcels with five treatmentsand six replications. The study evaluated cassava root silage (CA, cassava root silage with inoculant (CI, cassava root silage + whole soybean (CS and

  9. Selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PURWANINGSIH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in green house. The aim of the experiment the selection and potency of the Rhizobium strain to increase the growth of soybean. The experiment was carried out in green house condition in Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology-LIPI with sterile sand medium. The research design was Completely Randomized Design with three replications for each treatment. The Rhizobium strains used were 1 W (isolated from bean, Vigna radiata, 2 W (isolated from soybean, 3 W (isolated from bean, 4 W (isolated from soybean, 5 W (isolated from soybean, 6 W (isolated from peanut, Arachis hypogaea, 7 W (isolated from peanut, 8 W (isolated from peanut, the controls were uninoculated with Rhizobium strain and without urea fertilizer (K1, uninoculated and with urea fertilizer equal 100 kg/ha (K2. The plants were harvested after 50 days, the variable of investigation were the dry weight of canopy, roots, nodules root, total plants, number of nodules and ‘symbiotic capacity”. The results showed that all of experiment plant which be inoculated with Rhizobium able to form nodule. Strain of 2 W (isolated from soybean has given the best effects on the growth of soybean.

  10. An overview of the metabolic differences between Bradyrhizobium japonicum 110 bacteria and differentiated bacteroids from soybean (Glycine max) root nodules: an in vitro 13C- and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauclare, Pierre; Bligny, Richard; Gout, Elisabeth; Widmer, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that induce root nodules formation in legume soybean (Glycine max.). Using 13 C- and 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have analysed the metabolite profiles of cultivated B. japonicum cells and bacteroids isolated from soybean nodules. Our results revealed some quantitative and qualitative differences between the metabolite profiles of bacteroids and their vegetative state. This includes in bacteroids a huge accumulation of soluble carbohydrates such as trehalose, glutamate, myo-inositol and homo-spermidine as well as Pi, nucleotide pools and intermediates of the primary carbon metabolism. Using this novel approach, these data show that most of the compounds detected in bacteroids reflect the metabolic adaptation of rhizobia to the surrounding microenvironment with its host plant cells. (authors)

  11. An information transfer based novel framework for fault root cause tracing of complex electromechanical systems in the processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongxi; Gao, Xu; Gao, Jianmin; Gao, Zhiyong; Kang, Jiani

    2018-02-01

    As one of the most important approaches for analyzing the mechanism of fault pervasion, fault root cause tracing is a powerful and useful tool for detecting the fundamental causes of faults so as to prevent any further propagation and amplification. Focused on the problems arising from the lack of systematic and comprehensive integration, an information transfer-based novel data-driven framework for fault root cause tracing of complex electromechanical systems in the processing industry was proposed, taking into consideration the experience and qualitative analysis of conventional fault root cause tracing methods. Firstly, an improved symbolic transfer entropy method was presented to construct a directed-weighted information model for a specific complex electromechanical system based on the information flow. Secondly, considering the feedback mechanisms in the complex electromechanical systems, a method for determining the threshold values of weights was developed to explore the disciplines of fault propagation. Lastly, an iterative method was introduced to identify the fault development process. The fault root cause was traced by analyzing the changes in information transfer between the nodes along with the fault propagation pathway. An actual fault root cause tracing application of a complex electromechanical system is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework. A unique fault root cause is obtained regardless of the choice of the initial variable. Thus, the proposed framework can be flexibly and effectively used in fault root cause tracing for complex electromechanical systems in the processing industry, and formulate the foundation of system vulnerability analysis and condition prediction, as well as other engineering applications.

  12. Proteins involved in biophoton emission and flooding-stress responses in soybean under light and dark conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-02-01

    To know the molecular systems basically flooding conditions in soybean, biophoton emission measurements and proteomic analyses were carried out for flooding-stressed roots under light and dark conditions. Photon emission was analyzed using a photon counter. Gel-free quantitative proteomics were performed to identify significant changes proteins using the nano LC-MS along with SIEVE software. Biophoton emissions were significantly increased in both light and dark conditions after flooding stress, but gradually decreased with continued flooding exposure compared to the control plants. Among the 120 significantly identified proteins in the roots of soybean plants, 73 and 19 proteins were decreased and increased in the light condition, respectively, and 4 and 24 proteins were increased and decreased, respectively, in the dark condition. The proteins were mainly functionally grouped into cell organization, protein degradation/synthesis, and glycolysis. The highly abundant lactate/malate dehydrogenase proteins were decreased in flooding-stressed roots exposed to light, whereas the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme was increased in both light and dark conditions. Notably, however, specific enzyme assays revealed that the activities of these enzymes and biophoton emission were sharply increased after 3 days of flooding stress. This finding suggests that the source of biophoton emission in roots might involve the chemical excitation of electron or proton through enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation and reduction reactions. Moreover, the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme may play important roles in responses in flooding stress of soybean under the light condition and as a contributing factor to biophoton emission.

  13. Transcriptional profiling of root-knot nematode induced feeding sites in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. using a soybean genome array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sayan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The locus Rk confers resistance against several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Based on histological and reactive oxygen species (ROS profiles, Rk confers a delayed but strong resistance mechanism without a hypersensitive reaction-mediated cell death process, which allows nematode development but blocks reproduction. Results Responses to M. incognita infection in roots of resistant genotype CB46 and a susceptible near-isogenic line (null-Rk were investigated using a soybean Affymetrix GeneChip expression array at 3 and 9 days post-inoculation (dpi. At 9 dpi 552 genes were differentially expressed in incompatible interactions (infected resistant tissue compared with non-infected resistant tissue and 1,060 genes were differentially expressed in compatible interactions (infected susceptible tissue compared with non-infected susceptible tissue. At 3 dpi the differentially expressed genes were 746 for the incompatible and 623 for the compatible interactions. When expression between infected resistant and susceptible genotypes was compared, 638 and 197 genes were differentially expressed at 9 and 3 dpi, respectively. Conclusions In comparing the differentially expressed genes in response to nematode infection, a greater number and proportion of genes were down-regulated in the resistant than in the susceptible genotype, whereas more genes were up-regulated in the susceptible than in the resistant genotype. Gene ontology based functional categorization revealed that the typical defense response was partially suppressed in resistant roots, even at 9 dpi, allowing nematode juvenile development. Differences in ROS concentrations, induction of toxins and other defense related genes seem to play a role in this unique resistance mechanism.

  14. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of two soybean genotypes under dehydration and rehydration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is an important crop that provides valuable proteins and oils for human use. Because soybean growth and development is extremely sensitive to water deficit, quality and crop yields are severely impacted by drought stress. In the face of limited water resources, drought-responsive genes are therefore of interest. Identification and analysis of dehydration- and rehydration-inducible differentially expressed genes (DEGs) would not only aid elucidation of molecular mechanisms of stress response, but also enable improvement of crop stress tolerance via gene transfer. Using Digital Gene Expression Tag profiling (DGE), a new technique based on Illumina sequencing, we analyzed expression profiles between two soybean genotypes to identify drought-responsive genes. Results Two soybean genotypes—drought-tolerant Jindou21 and drought-sensitive Zhongdou33—were subjected to dehydration and rehydration conditions. For analysis of DEGs under dehydration conditions, 20 cDNA libraries were generated from roots and leaves at two different time points under well-watered and dehydration conditions. We also generated eight libraries for analysis under rehydration conditions. Sequencing of the 28 libraries produced 25,000–33,000 unambiguous tags, which were mapped to reference sequences for annotation of expressed genes. Many genes exhibited significant expression differences among the libraries. DEGs in the drought-tolerant genotype were identified by comparison of DEGs among treatments and genotypes. In Jindou21, 518 and 614 genes were differentially expressed under dehydration in leaves and roots, respectively, with 24 identified both in leaves and roots. The main functional categories enriched in these DEGs were metabolic process, response to stresses, plant hormone signal transduction, protein processing, and plant-pathogen interaction pathway; the associated genes primarily encoded transcription factors, protein kinases, and other regulatory proteins. The

  15. Evaluation of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean by labelling of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Freitas, J.R. de; Vose, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was carried out using the isotopic dilution method to evaluate symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean grown in soil labelled with 15 N enriched organic matter. Symbiotic N 2 -fixed was 71-76% of total N in the plant. Non nodulated soybean utilized 56-59% N from organic matter and 40% from soil. Roots of nodulated plants had lower NdN 2 than aereal plant parts. The advantage of using labelled organic matter as compared with 15 N-fertilizer addition in evaluating N 2 -fixation is discussed. (Author) [pt

  16. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  17. Using root cause analysis to promote critical thinking in final year Bachelor of Midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amanda G; Sidebotham, Mary; Creedy, Debra K; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Midwives require well developed critical thinking to practice autonomously. However, multiple factors impinge on students' deep learning in the clinical context. Analysis of actual case scenarios using root cause analysis may foster students' critical thinking and application of 'best practice' principles in complex clinical situations. To examine the effectiveness of an innovative teaching strategy involving root cause analysis to develop students' perceptions of their critical thinking abilities. A descriptive, mixed methods design was used. Final 3rd year undergraduate midwifery students (n=22) worked in teams to complete and present an assessment item based on root cause analysis. The cases were adapted from coroners' reports. After graduation, 17 (77%) students evaluated the course using a standard university assessment tool. In addition 12 (54%) students provided specific feedback on the teaching strategy using a 16-item survey tool based on the domain concepts of Educational Acceptability, Educational Impact, and Preparation for Practice. Survey responses were on a 5-point Likert scale and analysed using descriptive statistics. Open-ended responses were analysed using content analysis. The majority of students perceived the course and this teaching strategy positively. The domain mean scores were high for Educational Acceptability (mean=4.3, SD=.49) and Educational Impact (mean=4.19, SD=.75) but slightly lower for Preparation for Practice (mean=3.7, SD=.77). Overall student responses to each item were positive with no item mean less than 3.42. Students found the root cause analysis challenging and time consuming but reported development of critical thinking skills about the complexity of practice, clinical governance and risk management principles. Analysing complex real life clinical cases to determine a root cause enhanced midwifery students' perceptions of their critical thinking. Teaching and assessment strategies to promote critical thinking need to be

  18. Root rots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  19. Functional analysis of duplicated Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SymRK) genes during nodulation and mycorrhizal infection in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Wilde, Julia; Hayashi, Satomi; Li, Dongxue; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2015-03-15

    Association between legumes and rhizobia results in the formation of root nodules, where symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs. The early stages of this association involve a complex of signalling events between the host and microsymbiont. Several genes dealing with early signal transduction have been cloned, and one of them encodes the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase (SymRK; also termed NORK). The Symbiosis Receptor Kinase gene is required by legumes to establish a root endosymbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria as well as mycorrhizal fungi. Using degenerate primer and BAC sequencing, we cloned duplicated SymRK homeologues in soybean called GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ. These duplicated genes have high similarity of nucleotide (96%) and amino acid sequence (95%). Sequence analysis predicted a malectin-like domain within the extracellular domain of both genes. Several putative cis-acting elements were found in promoter regions of GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ, suggesting a participation in lateral root development, cell division and peribacteroid membrane formation. The mutant of SymRK genes is not available in soybean; therefore, to know the functions of these genes, RNA interference (RNAi) of these duplicated genes was performed. For this purpose, RNAi construct of each gene was generated and introduced into the soybean genome by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation. RNAi of GmSymRKβ gene resulted in an increased reduction of nodulation and mycorrhizal infection than RNAi of GmSymRKα, suggesting it has the major activity of the duplicated gene pair. The results from the important crop legume soybean confirm the joint phenotypic action of GmSymRK genes in both mycorrhizal and rhizobial infection seen in model legumes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. First report of 16SrII-C subgroup phytoplasma causing phyllody and witches’-broom disease in Soybean in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.; Owati, A.; Madata, C.S.; Joosten, M.; Beed, F.; Lava Kumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean production in Tanzania is steadily increasing, driven by growing demand from feed and livestock producers and also for human consumption. Soybean production area has increased from 795 ha in 2003 to 4,100 ha in 2013 (FAO 2014). Major soybean production is in the Morogro, Ruvuma, Iringa, and

  1. Interaction of a nodule specific, trans-acting factor with distinct DNA elements in the soybean leghaemoglobin Ibc(3) 5' upstream region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Marcker, Kjeld A; Schell, J

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from soybean nodules, leaves and roots were used to investigate protein-DNA interactions in the 5' upstream (promoter) region of the soybean leghaemoglobin lbc(3) gene. Two distinct regions were identified which strongly bind a nodule specific factor. A Bal31 deletion analysis......, but with different affinities. Elements 1 and 2 share a common motif, although their AT-rich DNA sequences differ. Element 2 is highly conserved at an analogous position in other soybean lb gene 5' upstream regions. Udgivelsesdato: 1988-May...

  2. Effect of rhizosphere pH condition on cadmium movement in a soybean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, T.; Tanoi, K.; Iikura, H.; Rai, H.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of rhizosphere pH condition on the cadmium uptake movement, 109 Cd, was applied as a radioisotope tracer to a soybean plant grown in a water culture at pH 4.5 or pH 6.5. The distribution of 109 Cd in the soybean plant was observed radiographically with an imaging plate (IP). The amount of Cd transported from the root to the upper part of the plant at pH 4.5 was approximately two times higher than that at pH 6.5. However, the movement of Cd in the upper part of the plant was similar under both pH conditions. The distribution of Cd inside the internodes at pH 4.5 also showed similar pattern to that at pH 6.5, suggesting that once Cd reached to the vessel of the root, the movement of Cd was not dependent on rhizosphere pH conditions. (author)

  3. Characterization of diverse soybean genotypes using 14 carbon for organic acid exudation under phosphorus stress and its relationship with phosphorus acquisition efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengavasi, Krishnapriya; Pandey, Renu

    2017-01-01

    To characterise the physiological aspects influencing organic acid exudation under low phosphorus (P) stress, experiment was conducted to screen a diverse soybean panel (comprising 116 genotypes) for total carbon exudation employing shoot labelling with 14 CO 2 technique. Among the traits measured at seedling stage, total carbon ( 14 C) exudation, P uptake and total dry weight contributed to the maximum genotypic variability in soybean. The proportion of organic acids (including oxalate, citrate, succinate and fumarate) was the highest among root-exuded compounds induced by low P stress in soybean. Improved root length, surface area and volume coupled with higher activity of enzymes in TCA cycle contributed to enhanced organic acid exudation under low P. Efficient soybean genotypes (EC-232019 and G-2344) exhibited superior growth and P acquisition efficiency under low soil P availability attributed to its higher root exudation potential aiding in mining fixed soil P. To understand the molecular mechanism differentially regulating root exudation potential in contrasting genotypes (EC-232019 and EC-113396), root proteome analysis at low P stress was carried out. Among the total proteins visualised by 2D-gel electrophoresis, 105 genotypes (32%) were differentially expressed between sufficient and low P levels. A total of 44 (14%) proteins were down-regulated by more than two-fold while 61 (15%) proteins were up-regulated by more than two-fold at low P. The differential proteins were involved in a myriad of functions including organic acid accumulation, carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism under low P stress. Characterisation of 17 proteins with unknown function indicated the role of novel genes under low P stress. The identified genotypes have potential to be used as donors in crop improvement programs to develop high-yielding P-efficient cultivars which may be an asset to low-input sustainable agriculture. (author)

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel salt-inducible gene encoding an acidic isoform of PR-5 protein in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, M; Tachi, H; Kojima, T; Shiraiwa, M; Takahara, H

    2006-10-01

    We identified a novel salt-inducible soybean gene encoding an acidic-isoform of pathogenesis-related protein group 5 (PR-5 protein). The soybean PR-5-homologous gene, designated as Glycine max osmotin-like protein, acidic isoform (GmOLPa)), encodes a putative polypeptide having an N-terminal signal peptide. The mature GmOLPa protein without the signal peptide has a calculated molecular mass of 21.5 kDa and a pI value of 4.4, and was distinguishable from a known PR-5-homologous gene of soybean (namely P21 protein) through examination of the structural features. A comparison with two intracellular salt-inducible PR-5 proteins, tobacco osmotin and tomato NP24, revealed that GmOLPa did not have a C-terminal extension sequence functioning as a vacuole-targeting motif. The GmOLPa gene was transcribed constitutively in the soybean root and was induced almost exclusively in the root during 24 h of high-salt stress (300 mM NaCl). Interestingly, GmOLPa gene expression in the stem and leaf, not observed until 24 h, was markedly induced at 48 and 72 h after commencement of the high-salt stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) and dehydration also induced expression of the GmOLPa gene in the root; additionally, dehydration slightly induced expression in the stem and leaf. In fact, the 5'-upstream sequence of the GmOLPa gene contained several putative cis-elements known to be involved in responsiveness to ABA and dehydration, e.g. ABA-responsive element (ABRE), MYB/MYC, and low temperature-responsive element (LTRE). These results suggested that GmOLPa may function as a protective PR-5 protein in the extracellular space of the soybean root in response to high-salt stress and dehydration.

  5. The Root Cause of Post-traumatic and Developmental Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Post - traumatic and Developmental Stress Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Keith A...28 Feb 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Root Cause of Post - traumatic and Developmental Stress Disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-­‐07-­‐1-­‐0244...goal of Project 1 is to describe the progression of post -deployment stress disorders ( PTSD , major depression, suicidality) in active duty troops

  6. Fate of exogenously supplied bacterial DNA in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndiku, Luyindula [Commissariat des Sciences Nucleaires, Kinshasa (Zaire). Centre Regional d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1980-01-01

    The fate of exogenously supplied radiolabelled DNA from agrobacterium tumefaciens and micrococcus lysodeikticus was investigated in soybean tissues growing under various physiological conditions. The following observations are made: (a) Rapid degradation and reutilization of the donor DNA was observed in callus tissue culture. (b) Germinating seeds and five-day old seedlings were shown to degrade DNA in the incubation medium and to ultilize these degradation products for their own DNA synthesis. Reutilization could be almost totally suppressed the addition of unlabelled thymidine as a competitor. This allowed a detection of significant amounts of residuel donor closely but transiently associated with the plant tissues. (c) In soybean shoots dipped into a solution of donor DNA, partly this DNA was found to first migrate to the leaves where mostly labelled endogenous DNA was later found. Very large amounts of polymerized exogenous DNA were found in the regenerated roots after 12 days of culture.

  7. Nitrate analogs as attractants for soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Akito; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ito, Shinsaku

    2017-08-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a plant parasite, is one of the most serious pests of soybean. In this paper, we report that SCN is attracted to nitrate and its analogs. We performed attraction assays to screen for novel attractants for SCN and found that nitrates were attractants for SCN and SCN recognized nitrate gradients. However, attraction of SCN to nitrates was not observed on agar containing nitrate. To further elucidate the attraction mechanism in SCN, we performed attraction assays using nitrate analogs ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). SCN was attracted to all nitrate analogs; however, attraction of SCN to nitrate analogs was not observed on agar containing nitrate. In contrast, SCN was attracted to azuki root, irrespective of presence or absence of nitrate in agar media. Our results suggest that the attraction mechanisms differ between plant-derived attractant and nitrate.

  8. Simulations of simple linoleic acid-containing lipid membranes and models for the soybean plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaohong; Ou, Anna; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2017-06-07

    The all-atom CHARMM36 lipid force field (C36FF) has been tested with saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated lipids; however, it has not been validated against the 18:2 linoleoyl lipids with an unsaturated sn-1 chain. The linoleoyl lipids are common in plants and the main component of the soybean membrane. The lipid composition of soybean plasma membranes has been thoroughly characterized with experimental studies. However, there is comparatively less work done with computational modeling. Our molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the pure linoleoyl lipids, 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (18:0/18:2) and 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (di-18:2), agree very well with the experiments, which demonstrates the accuracy of the C36FF for the computational study of soybean membranes. Based on the experimental composition, the soybean hypocotyl and root plasma membrane models are developed with each containing seven or eight types of linoleoyl phospholipids and two types of sterols (sitosterol and stigmasterol). MD simulations are performed to characterize soybean membranes, and the hydrogen bonds and clustering results demonstrate that the lipids prefer to interact with the lipids of the same/similar tail unsaturation. All the results suggest that these two soybean membrane models can be used as a basis for further research in soybean and higher plant membranes involving membrane-associated proteins.

  9. GmPGIP3 enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiyun; Wei, Xuening; Rong, Wei; Dang, Liang; Du, Li-Pu; Qi, Lin; Xu, Hui-Jun; Shao, Yanjun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-05-01

    Take-all (caused by the fungal pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Ggt) and common root rot (caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana) are devastating root diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Development of resistant wheat cultivars has been a challenge since no resistant wheat accession is available. GmPGIP3, one member of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family in soybean (Glycine max), exhibited inhibition activity against fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs) in vitro. In this study, the GmPGIP3 transgenic wheat plants were generated and used to assess the effectiveness of GmPGIP3 in protecting wheat from the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. Four independent transgenic lines were identified by genomic PCR, Southern blot, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The introduced GmPGIP3 was integrated into the genomes of these transgenic lines and could be expressed. The expressing GmPGIP3 protein in these transgenic wheat lines could inhibit the PGs produced by Ggt and B. sorokiniana. The disease response assessments postinoculation showed that the GmPGIP3-expressing transgenic wheat lines displayed significantly enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases caused by the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. These data suggested that GmPGIP3 is an attractive gene resource in improving resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in wheat.

  10. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended.

  11. Root growth and lignification of glyphosate susceptible and resistant soybean at low temperaturesCrescimento e lignificação de raízes de soja convencional e resistente ao glifosato, em baixa temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia da Costa Zonetti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature stress affects plant growth, including primary and secondary metabolism. Glyphosateresistant soybean contains a modified DNA, which encodes a different type of secondary metabolism enzyme related to lignin synthesis compared to conventional glyphosate-susceptible cultivars. Thus, this soybean cultivar might respond differently to low temperatures, compared to glyphosate-susceptible cultivars. This work aimed to investigate how decreasing temperatures influence the growth and lignin content of the glyphosate-resistant soybean compared to its susceptible parental cultivars. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C (±2°C, using a 12-h photoperiod. After 96 h, taproot growth, fresh and dry biomass, and lignin levels were determined. The results indicate that lower temperatures decreased seedling and root growth in both types of cultivars; however, glyphosate-resistant soybean exhibited greater root length, biomass, and lignin content compared to the glyphosate-susceptible parental cultivar. O estresse causado pela baixa temperatura, dentre outras implicações, afeta o crescimento do vegetal assim como o seu metabolismo secundário. Pelo fato da soja RR apresentar variante enzimática de uma das principais vias do metabolismo secundário, ligada à síntese de lignina, pode apresentar comportamento diferenciado, sob baixa temperatura, se comparada com sua linhagem parental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar possíveis diferenças no crescimento e nos conteúdos de lignina nas raízes de soja cultivar transgênica resistente ao glifosato e cultivar parental em resposta a redução de temperatura. Após três dias de germinação das sementes, as plântulas foram mantidas em solução nutritiva, a 10, 15, 20 e 25°C (±2°C, com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. Após 96 horas, foi avaliado o comprimento relativo da raiz primária, biomassa fresca e seca das raízes e os teores de lignina

  12. Leaf and Canopy Level Detection of Fusarium Virguliforme (Sudden Death Syndrome in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ittai Herrmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-visual detection of crop disease is critical for food security. Field-based spectroscopic remote sensing offers a method to enable timely detection, but still requires appropriate instrumentation and testing. Soybean plants were spectrally measured throughout a growing season to assess the capacity of leaf and canopy level spectral measurements to detect non-visual foliage symptoms induced by Fusarium virguliforme (Fv, which causes sudden death syndrome. Canopy reflectance measurements were made using the Piccolo Doppio dual field-of-view, two-spectrometer (400 to 1630 nm system on a tractor. Leaf level measurements were obtained, in different plots, using a handheld spectrometer (400 to 2500 nm. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA was applied to the spectroscopic data to discriminate between Fv-inoculated and control plants. Canopy and leaf spectral data allowed identification of Fv infection, prior to visual symptoms, with classification accuracy of 88% and 91% for calibration, 79% and 87% for cross-validation, and 82% and 92% for validation, respectively. Differences in wavelengths important to prediction by canopy vs. leaf data confirm that there are different bases for accurate predictions among methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR was used on a late-stage canopy level data to predict soybean seed yield, with calibration, cross-validation and validation R2 values 0.71, 0.59 and 0.62 (p < 0.01, respectively, and validation root mean square error of 0.31 t·ha−1. Spectral data from the tractor mounted system are thus sensitive to the expression of Fv root infection at canopy scale prior to canopy symptoms, suggesting such systems may be effective for precision agricultural research and management.

  13. Characterization of Insect Resistance Loci in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection Using Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Xun Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of insects that cause economic damage to yields of soybean mainly rely on insecticide applications. Sources of resistance in soybean plant introductions (PIs to different insect pests have been reported, and some of these sources, like for the soybean aphid (SBA, have been used to develop resistant soybean cultivars. With the availability of SoySNP50K and the statistical power of genome-wide association studies, we integrated phenotypic data for beet armyworm, Mexican bean beetle (MBB, potato leafhopper (PLH, SBA, soybean looper (SBL, velvetbean caterpillar (VBC, and chewing damage caused by unspecified insects for a comprehensive understanding of insect resistance in the United States Department of Agriculture Soybean Germplasm Collection. We identified significant single nucleotide (SNP polymorphic markers for MBB, PLH, SBL, and VBC, and we highlighted several leucine-rich repeat-containing genes and myeloblastosis transcription factors within the high linkage disequilibrium region surrounding significant SNP markers. Specifically for soybean resistance to PLH, we found the PLH locus is close but distinct to a locus for soybean pubescence density on chromosome 12. The results provide genetic support that pubescence density may not directly link to PLH resistance. This study offers a novel insight of soybean resistance to four insect pests and reviews resistance mapping studies for major soybean insects.

  14. Label-Free Detection of Soybean Rust Spores using Photonic Crystal Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases affecting soybeans grown worldwide. The disease was reported for the first time in the United States in 2004. Early spore detection, prior to the appearance of visible symptoms, is critical to ef...

  15. Identification of indicator proteins associated with flooding injury in soybean seedlings using label-free quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Nakamura, Takuji; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-11-01

    Flooding injury is one of the abiotic constraints on soybean growth. An experimental system established for evaluating flooding injury in soybean seedlings indicated that the degree of injury is dependent on seedling density in floodwater. Dissolved oxygen levels in the floodwater were decreased by the seedlings and correlated with the degree of injury. To understand the molecular mechanism responsible for the injury, proteomic alterations in soybean seedlings that correlated with severity of stress were analyzed using label-free quantitative proteomics. The analysis showed that the abundance of proteins involved in cell wall modification, such as polygalacturonase inhibitor-like and expansin-like B1-like proteins, which may be associated with the defense system, increased dependence on stress at both the protein and mRNA levels in all organs during flooding. The manner of alteration in abundance of these proteins was distinct from those of other responsive proteins. Furthermore, proteins also showing specific changes in abundance in the root tip included protein phosphatase 2A subunit-like proteins, which are possibly involved in flooding-induced root tip cell death. Additionally, decreases in abundance of cell wall synthesis-related proteins, such as cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase and cellulose synthase-interactive protein-like proteins, were identified in hypocotyls of seedlings grown for 3 days after flooding, and these proteins may be associated with suppression of growth after flooding. These flooding injury-associated proteins can be defined as indicator proteins for severity of flooding stress in soybean.

  16. Root cause analysis of the radiation workers (radiography) in excess doses of NBD (case study: PT. XYZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin M Wibowo; Fajariadi; Aditia Anamta

    2013-01-01

    Negligence and non-compliance is the main factor of causing an incident in radiography. It shown as the result of TLD evaluation of PT. XYZ workers exceeding the dose limit (NBD). Root cause analysis stage begin in collecting data such as license, workers permit, dose, and incident sequence report. Causal chart is a tool to identification root cause to make easier of the analysis. Results of collecting data are to be clarified in BAPETEN investigation and then there are some a recommendation to facility. (author)

  17. Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kee-Jong; Lee, Chan-Ho; Kim, Sung Woo

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality of food-grade soybeans and feed-grade soybean meals. Soybeans and soybean meals were fermented by Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 in a bed-packed solid fermentor for 48 hours. After fermentation, their nutrient contents as well as trypsin inhibitor were measured and compared with those of raw soybeans and soybean meals. Proteins were extracted from fermented and non-fermented soybeans and soybean meals, and the peptide characteristics were evaluated after electrophoresis. Fermented soybeans and fermented soybean meals contained 10% more (P 60 kDa) (P 60 kDa), whereas 22.1% of peptides in soybean meal were large-size (>60 kDa). Collectively, fermentation increased protein content, eliminated trypsin inhibitors, and reduced peptide size in soybeans and soybean meals. These effects of fermentation might make soy foods more useful in human diets as a functional food and benefit livestock as a novel feed ingredient.

  18. Root cause analysis of pump valve failures of three membrane pump systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, L.J.; Eijk, A.; Hooft, L. van

    2014-01-01

    This paper will present the root cause analysis and the solution of fatigue failures of the pump valves of three membrane pump systems installed on a chemical plant of Momentive in Pernis, the Netherlands. The membrane pumps were installed approximately 30 years ago. Each system has encountered

  19. Plant root absorption and metabolic fate of technetium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1984-10-01

    Root absorption characteristics for the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) were determined using hydroponically grown soybean seedlings (Glycine max, cv. Williams). Absorption of TcO 4 - was found to be linear with time, sensitive to metabolic inhibitors, and exhibit multiple absorption isotherms over the concentration range 0.02 to 10 μM. The isotherms had calculated K/sub s/ values of 0.09, 8.9, and 54 μM for intact seedlings. The uptake of TcO 4 - (0.25 μM) was inhibited by a fourfold concentration excess of sulfate, phosphate, and selenate, but not by borate, nitrate, tungstate, perrhenate, iodate or vanadate. Kinetic studies demonstrated that sulfate, phosphate, and selenate were competitive inhibitors of TcO 4 - absorption. Once absorbed, Tc was readily transported as TcO 4 - to shoot tissues of soybean and subsequently associated with protein constituents. The chemical fate of Tc in plants varies with plant species. Plants high in nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds (Allium species) exhibited markedly different root/shoot distribution and protein incorporation patterns from species with low sulfur requirements (soybean, alfalfa, mustard). Based on these differences, Tc/S/Se tracer studies were employed to resolve the comparative fate of these probable analogs. 20 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  20. Root canal treatment of a periradicular lesion caused by unintentional root damage after orthodontic miniscrew placement: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, K; Bayram, M; Taşdemir, T

    2011-12-01

    To present the successful endodontic management of a maxillary lateral incisor tooth with a periradicular lesion caused by unintentional root damage after orthodontic miniscrew placement. A 22-year-old female was diagnosed with a skeletal Class II, Division 2 malocclusion with Class II molar and canine relationships on both sides. The treatment plan included distalization of the maxillary first molars bilaterally followed by full fixed appliance therapy. For the maxillary molar distalization, an appliance in conjunction with a miniscrew anchorage system was designed. Two months later, the patient came to the clinic with complaints of pain in the maxillary right lateral incisor region. On intraoral examination, intraoral sinus tracts were detected in the maxillary right buccal sulcus and palate. A large radiolucent lesion with a well-defined margin around the root of the maxillary right lateral incisor was seen. Root canal treatment was performed on the maxillary right lateral incisor tooth. The root canal was filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, using a lateral compaction technique. The final restoration of the tooth was completed using composite, and the tooth was reviewed after 10 months. The tooth was asymptomatic and radiographically showed repair of the lesion. Healing was achieved without any need for further endodontic or surgical intervention. Key learning points • This case illustrates the need to take care with miniscrews when performing orthodontic treatment, especially when the miniscrews are in close proximity to root apices. • The periradicular lesion as a result of miniscrew damage was successfully treated with root canal treatment. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  1. LAND SUITABILITY AND DYNAMIC SYSTEM MODELLING TO DEFINE PRIORITY AREAS OF SOYBEAN PLANTATION IN PADDY FIELDS IN KARAWANG, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the agricultural public commodities in Indonesia which still cannot fulfill its domestic consumption needs is soybean. The objectives of the research, which was conducted in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia, were to: (i identify the suitable area for soybean plantations in paddy fields, (ii assess the development of soybeans in land use and socio-economic context, and (iii plan the spatially soybean plantation. A soil survey and land evaluation for soybean was completed. IKONOS imagery was applied to delineate paddy fields while a dynamic system modelling was developed using Powersim 8.0 software. The results of the research showed that the suitability class for soybean plantation in the paddy fields of Karawang Regency ranges from unsuitable (N to suitable (S2, with limiting factors being temperature, fertility, nutrients retention, slope, erosion, rooting media and toxicity. Very limited arable land has been used so far for soybeans plantations due to low economic returns. The model predicts that, should the development of soybean continues in its business as usual path, a deficit of soybean will occur in 2030. The model provides alternative scenarios to reduce the deficit. Prioritization was done spatially using the suitable land gradually, corresponding to the government budget availability.

  2. Utilizing soybean milk to culture soybean pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean ...

  3. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2016-07-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  4. Guideline for regulatory agencies in evaluating contents of root cause analysis by operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Takaya; Makino, Maomi; Kosaka, Atsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    'Guideline for Regulatory Agencies in Evaluating Contents of Root cause Analysis by Operators' was enacted as the policy for new inspection system in Japan. The objective is to indicate the view point to verify the appropriateness of the corrective actions and preventive actions implemented by operators based on root cause analysis and its analysis results. This guideline is leading to take four points into special consideration for adequate application. They are encouragement of further activities of the operators, flexible interpretation of the intention, versatility of the analysis methods and concepts and consideration of no blame culture. Moreover, as view point for regulatory agencies, it indicates with special emphasis that neutrality of the analyzing party, objectivity of analysis result, and logicality of the analysis method are ensured. This guideline shall be continuously reviewed through integration of lessons learned from active use in future. (author)

  5. Upgrading wholesomeness of soybeans through radiation deactivation of toxic lectin content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of raw soybeans were investigated through feeding experiments on rats and the wholesomeness of soybeans after radiation deactivation of toxic lectin present in seeds has been evaluated. The injection of crude lectins extracted from 0.15 g raw soybean by intraperitoneal route was toxic to rats (120-125 g body weight) and caused death within 24 hour while lectins extracted from irradiated beans showed no lethal effect. Administration of 28% raw beans diet as the sole protein in balanced diet caused strong growth depression in young rats. Radiation treatment corrects poor growth but did not prevent liver and stomach hypertrophy. No significant differences in relative organs body weight, between groups fed irradiated soybeans and casein diet were observed, except for an increased relative lever and stomach weights with group fed irradiated beans. Rats which received raw beans in their diet suffered from pancreatic, liver, stomach, testes and kidney hypertrophy and spleen atrophy. Data obtained on certain blood plasma chemical constituents (total plasma protein creatine, creatinine) revealed no significant difference between the control and experimental groups. 4 tabs

  6. Mutagenic effects of gamma rays on soybean (Glycine max L.) germination and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmiyati, F.; Sutarno; Sas, M. G. A.; Herwibawa, B.

    2018-01-01

    Narrow genetic diversity is a main problem restricting the progress of soybean breeding. One way to improve genetic diversity of plant is through mutation. The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of different dose of gamma rays as induced mutagen on physiological, morphological, and anatomical markers during seed germination and seedling growth of soybean. Seeds of soybean cultivars Dering-1 were irradiated with 11 doses of gamma rays (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1280, and 2560 Gy [Gray]. The research design was arranged in a completely randomized block design in three replicates. Results showed that soybean seed exposed at high doses (640, 1280, and 2560 Gy) did not survive more than 20 days, the doses were then removed from anatomical evaluation. Higher doses of gamma rays siginificantly reduced germination percentage at the first count and final count, coefficient of germination velocity, germination rate index, germination index, seedling height and seedling root length, and significantly increased mean germination time, first day of germination, last day of germination, and time spread of germination. However, the effects of gamma rays were varies for density, width, and length of stomata. The LD50 obtained based on survival percentage was 314.78 Gy. It can be concluded that very low and low doses of gamma rays (5-320 Gy) might be used to study the improvement of soybean diversity.

  7. Identification of geneticaly modified soybean seeds resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Maria Ângela André

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in genetic engineering permit the modification of plants to be tolerant to certain herbicides that are usually not selective. For practical and commercial purposes, it is important to be able to detect the presence or absence of these traits in genotypes. The objective of this research was to develop a procedure for identifying genetically modified soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. with resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. Two studies were conducted based on germination test. In the first study, soybean seeds were pre-imbibed in paper towel with the herbicide solutions, then transferred to moist paper towel for the germination test. In the second study, seeds were placed directly in herbicide solutions in plastic cups and tested for germination using the paper towel method. Eight soybean genotypes were compared: four Roundup Ready, that contained the gene resistant to the herbicide (G99-G725, Prichard RR, G99-G6682, and H7242 RR and four non-transgenic parental cultivars (Boggs, Haskell, Benning, and Prichard. In the first study, the seeds were imbibed for 16 hours at 25°C in herbicide concentrations between 0.0 and 1.5% of the glyphosate active ingredient. In the second, seeds were subjected to concentrations between 0.0 and 0.48%, for one hour, at 30°C. The evaluation parameters were: germination, hypocotyl length, root length and total length of the seedlings. Both methods are efficient in identifying glyphosate-resistant soybean genotypes. It is possible to identify the genetically modified soybean genotypes after three days, by imbibing the seed in 0.12% herbicide solution, and after six days if the substrate is pre-imbibed in a 0.6% herbicide solution. The resistance trait was identified in all cultivars, independent of the initial physiological quality of the seed.

  8. Tratamento de sementes de soja com inseticidas e um bioestimulante Soybean seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e um bioestimulante na germinação no crescimento da planta e raiz de soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em que as sementes foram tratadas com aldicarb, thiametoxan, imidacloprid e duas testemunhas: uma sem produto e uma com bioestimulante. Em laboratório, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de rolos de papel toalha com sementes de soja, para avaliar o vigor, a germinação, as plantas anormais e mortas, o comprimento de radículas e de plântulas. Nos testes em casa de vegetação, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de tubos de PVC, com volume de 16 dm³, e foram avaliados: os teores de N, P e K; a matéria seca; o comprimento, a área e o raio médio radicular; a eficiência de absorção de N, P e K; e a taxa de crescimento radicular da soja. Os tratamentos de sementes de soja com os inseticidas e o bioestimulante levam à formação de raízes mais finas, o que caracteriza um efeito tônico. O produto aldicarb, na dose empregada, prejudica o vigor e a germinação das sementes de soja. O tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e bioestimulante não proporciona maior crescimento das raízes das plantas de soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant on soybean germination and plant and root growth. Two experiments were performed in complete randomized blocks, in which seeds were treated with aldicarb, thiamethoxan, imidacloprid and two checks: one without treatment and one treated with biostimulant. The experimental units at the laboratory were germination sheet rolls with soybean seeds. Plantlet vigor, germination, normal and abnormal plantlets, root and hypocotyl lengths were evaluated. For the greenhouse study PVC pots with 16 dm-3 were used, and determinations were made for: N, P and K contents; dry matter yield; root length

  9. Morphological change of plant root revealed by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino-Nakanishi, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hisao.

    1992-01-01

    Morphological change with soybean root development was investigated non-destructively by neutron radiography. Not only the main root but also the side roots were shown as an clear image on both X-ray and dry films. In the case of dry film, the resolution of the image obtained was about the same as that by X-ray film and the thermal neutron flux was reduced to be about one fifteenth. The image of the root was much clearly obtained in the sand than in the soil where the soil aggregates were randomly shown. In order to know to which degree the root can be shown in the image, the aluminum containers with various thickness were tested. Even when the thickness of the container was increased up to 1.7 cm, the image of the main root was clearly observed through the soil. It was shown that by neutron radiography the morphology of the plant root could be traced non-destructively during the development of the plant. (author)

  10. First report of the Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is the most damaging pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), causing more than $1 billion in yield losses annually in the United States (Koenning and Wrather 2010). The SCN distribution map updated in 2014 showed that SCN were dete...

  11. Specific binding of a fungal glucan phytoalexin elicitor to membrane fractions from soybean Glycine max

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.E.; Ebel, J.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of soybean tissues with elicitors results in the production of phytoalexins, one of a number of inducible plant defense reactions against microbial infections. The present study uses a β-1,3-[ 3 H] glucan elicitor fraction from Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea, a fungal pathogen of soybean, to identify putative elicitor targets in soybean tissues. Use of the radiolabeled elicitor disclosed saturable high-affinity elicitor binding site(s) in membrane fractions of soybean roots. Highest binding activity is associated with a plasma membrane-enriched fraction. The apparent K/sub d/ value for β-glucan elicitor binding is ≅ 0.2 x 10 -6 M and the maximum number of binding sites is 0.5 pmol per mg of protein. Competition studies the [ 3 H]glucan elicitor and a number of polysaccharides demonstrate that only polysaccharides of a branched β-glucan type effectively displace the radiolabeled ligand from membrane binding. Differential displacing activity of the glucans on P. megasperma elicitor binding corresponds closely to their respective ability to elicit phytoalexin production in a cotyledon bioassay

  12. Stimulating a Sustainable Construction through Holistic BIM Adoption: The Root Causes of Recurring Low BIM Adoption in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamter, S.; Abdul-Aziz, AR; Mamat, ME

    2017-06-01

    Fostering the Building Information Modelling (BIM) implementation is one of Malaysia sustainable strategies towards greener construction. Hence, the Eleventh Malaysia plan focuses on transforming construction industry through the increase of technology adoption in order to enhance construction productivity. Therefore, there is a growing and urgent demand to provide BIM competent. However, a significant number of parties are reluctant to develop and invest in BIM due to unsolved root causes. Scholars have identified barriers relating to the infancy stage of BIM adoption in Malaysia. Unfortunately, there is a lack of study to explore deeper the root causes of recurring for the barriers anticipate the low BIM adoption. This paper attempts to delve into the initiatives of BIM stake players in fostering BIM adoption and to determine the root causes of recurring barriers due to low BIM adoption. The study adopted the semi-structured interviews which involved BIM stake players as a sample population. From the findings, authors revealed four root causes of recurring barriers; absence of BIM policy and BIM compulsion, poor holistic readiness, software integration competition strategy, and reluctant in sharing knowledge. The findings espoused here are preliminary and more results are expected to emerge as the research progresses.

  13. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S; Prischmann, Deirdre A; Dashiell, Kenton E

    2012-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Merr., that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host plant resistance as an effective alternative management strategy. Here, previously identified resistant lines were evaluated in laboratory tests against field-collected populations of soybean aphid and in field-plot tests over 2 yr in South Dakota. Six lines previously identified with resistance to soybean aphid--Jackson, Dowling, K1639, Cobb, Palmetto and Sennari--were resistant in this study, but relatively high aphid counts on Tie-feng 8 in field plots contrasted with its previously reported resistance. Bhart-PI 165989 showed resistance in one of two laboratory tests, but it had relatively large aphid infestations in both years of field tests. Intermediate levels of soybean aphid occurred in field plots on lines previously shown to have strong (Sugao Zairai, PI 230977, and D75-10169) or moderate resistance to soybean aphid (G93-9223, Bragg, Braxton, and Tracy-M). Sugao Zairai also failed to have a significant proportion of resistant plants in two laboratory tests against aphids field-collected in 2008, but it was resistant in laboratory tests with aphids collected in 2002, 2005, and 2006. Overall, results showed that lines with Rag (i.e., Jackson) or Rag1 gene (i.e., Dowling) had low aphid numbers, whereas lines with Rag2 (i.e., Sugao Zairai, Sennari) had mixed results. Collectively, responses of soybean aphid populations in laboratory and field tests in 2008 resembled a virulence pattern reported previously for biotype 3 soybean aphids, but virulence in soybean aphid populations was variable and dynamic over years of the study. These results, coupled with previous reports of biotypes virulent to Rag1, suggest that deployment of lines with a single aphid

  14. Nodule-Enriched GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 Enzymes Have Distinct Substrate Specificities and Are Important for Proper Soybean Nodule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Damodaran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Legume root nodules develop as a result of a symbiotic relationship between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria in soil. Auxin activity is detected in different cell types at different stages of nodule development; as well as an enhanced sensitivity to auxin inhibits, which could affect nodule development. While some transport and signaling mechanisms that achieve precise spatiotemporal auxin output are known, the role of auxin metabolism during nodule development is unclear. Using a soybean root lateral organ transcriptome data set, we identified distinct nodule enrichment of three genes encoding auxin-deactivating GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA amido transferase enzymes: GmGH3-11/12, GmGH3-14 and GmGH3-15. In vitro enzymatic assays showed that each of these GH3 proteins preferred IAA and aspartate as acyl and amino acid substrates, respectively. GmGH3-15 showed a broad substrate preference, especially with different forms of auxin. Promoter:GUS expression analysis indicated that GmGH3-14 acts primarily in the root epidermis and the nodule primordium where as GmGH3-15 might act in the vasculature. Silencing the expression of these GH3 genes in soybean composite plants led to altered nodule numbers, maturity, and size. Our results indicate that these GH3s are needed for proper nodule maturation in soybean, but the precise mechanism by which they regulate nodule development remains to be explained.

  15. Remote Sensing for Mapping Soybean Crop in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, K.; Bernardes, T.; Mello, M. P.; Formaggio, A.; Rosa, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The soybean expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado has been strongly affected by internal and external markets. The main factors driving that expansion are the climatic conditions, the development of technologies and genetic improvement. Recent studies have shown that the soybean expansion has become a major cause of reduction of native vegetation in Mato Grosso State - Brazil, responding for 17% of deforestation from 2000 to 2004. This work aims to map soybean areas in the Brazilian Cerrado in Mato Grosso State, using MODIS data. Thirteen MODIS images (MOD13 - 16 days composition), acquired from September, 2005 to March, 2006, were used to run principal component analysis (PCA) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data. The first three components (PC1, PC2 and PC3), which contained about 90% of data variability were segmented and utilized as input for an unsupervised classification using the ISOSEG classifier, implemented in the SPRING software. Eighty field work points were randomly selected for the accuracy assessment. An intersection between the soybean map and a map generated by the "Project Monitoring Deforestation of Brazilian Biomes Satellite - PMDBBS", which aimed at identifying anthropic areas, was conducted in order to evaluate the distribution of soybeans within those areas. Moreover a soil map was used in order to evaluate the soybean distribution over the classes of soil. The classification result presented overall index of 83% and the kappa coefficient of 0.64 for the soybean map, which presented a total soybean area of about 42,317 square kilometers. Furthermore, it was verified that 27% of anthropic area was covered by soybean. In relation to the soil analysis, 87% of the total soybean area was planted in Oxisoils. Despite the economic gain related to the soybean production, an adequate management is needed to avoid soil acidification, soil erosion and pollution, aiming at providing a sustainable environment.

  16. Nutritive composition of soybean by-products and nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products (soybean germ, soybean milk residue, soybean hull, soybean pod husk and soybean stem were subjected to proximate analysis, and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD were determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in 2 ANKOMII Daisy Incubators using Completely Randomised Design. Four native cattle (body weight 210 + 13.5 kg were used to determine nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk. They were randomly assigned by Cross-over Design to receive two roughage sources, i.e. guinea grass and guinea grass + soybean pod husk (60:40 DM basis, in two experimental periods. Guinea grass was harvested on the 35th day after the first cut of the year and used as green forage. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients and digestibility by difference was used to calculate nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk.The nutritive composition showed that soybean germ was highest in CP content (42.27% of DM and EE content (5.07% of DM but lowest in NDF and ADF content (20.09 and 21.53% of DM respectively. The average CP content of soybean straw, soybean stem and soybean pod husk was low (4.91, 4.67 and 5.04% respectively, while ADF content was high (42.76, 38.01 and 42.08% respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD showed that all of them, except soybean stem, can be used as cattle feed, e.g. as supplemented feed or admixture in concentrate feed. Digestibility coefficients of guinea grass were higher in CP, CF and EE when compared to the other groups. The apparent digestibility of CP and CF were highly different (P0.05. The digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF of soybean pod husk were 53.81 + 4.3, 59.69 + 4.6, 42.38 + 3.8, 30.71 + 3.2, 50.74 + 4.3, 75.26 + 4.0, 45.78 + 3.7 and 30.53 + 4.2 % respectively. Soybean pod husk was higher in total digestible nutrients (TDN (51.87 + 3.3 vs

  17. Effects of Fungicides, Essential Oils and Gamma Irradiated Bioagents on Chickpea Root Rot Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Batal, A.I.; Fathy, R.M.; Ismail, A.A.; Mubark, H.M.; Mahmoud, Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii (S. rolfsii) causes root rot disease in several crops including Cicer arietinum (chickpea) that results in low yield. In vitro experiments on fungicides, vitavax and monceren T, and essential oils, clove and mint oils, were conducted to control root rot disease of chickpea caused by S. rolfsii. The treatments resulted in 80 % suppression of root rot disease. Gliocladium virens (G. virens) and Gliocladium deliquescens (G. deliquescens) were effective as biocontrol agents against S. rolfsii. The results showed that these treatments greatly reduced the root rot disease in chickpea. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy on the pathogenecity of G. virens and G. deliquescens against S. rolfsii were investigated. The results revealed that gamma irradiation increased the pathogenecity of G. virens and G. deliquescens against S. rolfsii

  18. Breeding for high N2 fixation in groundnut and soybean in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Xuan Hong

    1998-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Mer.) are grown mainly on two types of soil in Viet Nam: coastal-sandy and upland-degraded soils. These soils are deficient in N, and considering that fertilizer N is not only costly to farmers but also a threat to the environment, it is important to maximize productivity by exploiting the ability of these legumes to fix N 2 symbiotically in their root nodules. We initiated programmes of breeding and selection to combine high N 2 fixation and high grain-yielding capacity. In the spring of 1992, breeding lines of groundnut and soybean were tested under greenhouse conditions for varietal differences in the capacity to fix N 2 using the acetylene reduction assay and the 15 N-dilution technique, with upland rice as reference plants. Varietal differences were found in nitrogenase activity, and percent N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) ranged from 11 to 63% for groundnut and from 9 to 79% for soybean. Field experiments in the autumn-winter season of 1992 again revealed significant varietal differences; %Ndfa ranged from 36 to 56% for groundnut and from 28 to 58% for soybean. Gamma-irradiated seeds of soybean were propagated in bulk from M 1 to M 4 . Five high-yielding mutant lines of both species were selected from the M 5 populations, and N 2 fixation was estimated using the 15 N-dilution technique. The average values for %Ndfa of the mutants were 55 and 57%, significant improvements over the parent-cultivar values of 25 and 29% for soybean and groundnut, respectively

  19. Transpiration effect on the uptake and distribution of bromacil, nitrobenzene, and phenol in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.C.; Pfleeger, T.; Fletcher, J.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of transpiration rate on the uptake and translocation of two industrial waste compounds, phenol and nitrobenzene, and one pesticide, 5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil (bromacil), was examined. Carbon-14 moieties of each compound were provided separately in hydroponic solution to mature soybean plants maintained under three humidity conditions. The uptake of each compound was determined by monitoring the removal of 14 C from the hydroponic solution. The extent to which 14 C was adsorbed to roots and translocated to plant shoots and leaves was examined by assaying root and shoot parts for 14 C. Bromacil was taken up slower than the other chemicals, had the most 14 C translocated to the shoot, and the amount translocated to the shoot responded directly to the rate of transpiration. In contrast, both phenol and nitrobenzene were rapidly lost from solution and bound to the roots. Less than 1.5% of the 14 C from phenol or nitrobenzene was translocated to the plant shoots. Increased transpiration rates had little influence on root binding of 14 C; however, increasing transpiration rate from low to medium was associated with an increased uptake of nitrobenzene. The three chemicals studied have similar Log K/sub ow/ values, but their interactions with soybean were not the same. Thus, despite the usefulness of the octanol/water partitioning coefficient in predicting the fate of organic chemicals in animals and in correlating with root binding and plant uptake for many pesticides, log K/sub ow/ may not be equally useful in describing uptake and binding of nonpesticide chemicals in plants

  20. EVALUATION OF CASSAVA/SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean plants were taller when intercropped with NR 8212 or with TMS 30572 than in sole soybean, which had similar height with soybean in soybean/TMS 91934 mixture. The soybean canopy diameter, number of leaves per plant and LAI were higher with sole soybean. Within the soybean intercrops, canopy diameter, ...

  1. Enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in genetically engineered pineapple plants using soybean ferritin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Minal; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2011-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr., cv. "Queen") leaf bases were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring the pSF and pEFESF plasmids with soybean ferritin cDNA. Four to eight percent of the co-cultivated leaf bases produced multiple shoots 6 weeks after transfer to Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid 1.8 mg/l, indole-3-butyric acid 2.0 mg/l, kinetin 2.0 mg/l, cefotaxime 400 mg/l, and kanamycin 50 mg/l. Putatively transformed shoots (1-2 cm) were selected and multiplied on medium of the same composition and elongated shoots (5 cm) were rooted on liquid rooting medium supplemented with cefotaxime 400 mg/l and kanamycin 100 mg/l. The rooted plants were analyzed through PCR, genomic Southern analysis, and reverse transcription PCR. The results clearly confirmed the integration and expression of soybean ferritin gene in the transformed plants. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis carried out with six independently transformed lines of pSF and pEFE-SF revealed a maximum of 5.03-fold increase in iron and 2.44-fold increase in zinc accumulation in the leaves of pSF-transformed plants. In pEFE-SF-transformed plants, a 3.65-fold increase in iron and 2.05-fold increase in zinc levels was observed. Few of the transgenic plants were hardened in the greenhouse and are being grown to maturity to determine the enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in the fruits. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the transformation of pineapple with soybean ferritin for enhanced accumulation of iron and zinc content in the transgenic plants.

  2. Root causes, clinical effects, and outcomes of unintentional exposures to buprenorphine by young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonas, Eric J; Banner, William; Bradt, Pamela; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Brown, Kimberly R; Rajan, Pradeep; Murrelle, Lenn; Dart, Richard C; Green, Jody L

    2013-11-01

    To characterize the rates, root causes, and clinical effects of unintentional exposures to buprenorphine sublingual formulations among young children and to determine whether exposure characteristics differ between formulations. Unintentional exposures to buprenorphine-containing products among children 28 days to less than 6 years old were collected from the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance System Poison Center Program and Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals' pharmacovigilance system from October 2009-March 2012. After adjustment for drug availability, negative binomial regression was used to estimate average exposure rates. Root cause assessment was conducted, and an expert clinician panel adjudicated causality and severity of moderate to severe adverse events (AEs). A total of 2380 cases were reviewed, including 4 deaths. Exposures to buprenorphine-naloxone combination film were significantly less frequent than exposures to buprenorphine tablets (rate ratio 3.5 [95% CI, 2.7-4.5]) and buprenorphine-naloxone combination tablets (rate ratio 8.8 [7.2-10.6]). The most commonly identified root causes were medication stored in sight, accessed from a bag or purse, and not stored in the original packaging. Among 536 panel review cases, the most common AEs reported for all formulations were lethargy, respiratory depression, miosis, and vomiting. The highest level AE severity did not differ significantly by formulation. Unintentional exposure to buprenorphine can cause central nervous system depression, respiratory depression, and death in young children. Exposure rates to film formulations are significantly less than to tablet formulations. Package and storage deficiencies contribute to unintentional exposures in young children. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fine mapping of a Phytophthora-resistance gene RpsWY in soybean (Glycine max L.) by high-throughput genome-wide sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Qibin; Ren, Hailong; Xia, Qiuju; Song, Enliang; Tan, Zhiyuan; Li, Shuxian; Zhang, Gengyun; Nian, Hai

    2017-05-01

    Using a combination of phenotypic screening, genetic and statistical analyses, and high-throughput genome-wide sequencing, we have finely mapped a dominant Phytophthora resistance gene in soybean cultivar Wayao. Phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important soil-borne diseases in many soybean-production regions in the world. Identification of resistant gene(s) and incorporating them into elite varieties are an effective way for breeding to prevent soybean from being harmed by this disease. Two soybean populations of 191 F 2 individuals and 196 F 7:8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed to map Rps gene by crossing a susceptible cultivar Huachun 2 with the resistant cultivar Wayao. Genetic analysis of the F 2 population indicated that PRR resistance in Wayao was controlled by a single dominant gene, temporarily named RpsWY, which was mapped on chromosome 3. A high-density genetic linkage bin map was constructed using 3469 recombination bins of the RILs to explore the candidate genes by the high-throughput genome-wide sequencing. The results of genotypic analysis showed that the RpsWY gene was located in bin 401 between 4466230 and 4502773 bp on chromosome 3 through line 71 and 100 of the RILs. Four predicted genes (Glyma03g04350, Glyma03g04360, Glyma03g04370, and Glyma03g04380) were found at the narrowed region of 36.5 kb in bin 401. These results suggest that the high-throughput genome-wide resequencing is an effective method to fine map PRR candidate genes.

  4. Effects of UV-B radiation on the isoflavone accumulation and physiological-biochemical changes of soybean during germination: Physiological-biochemical change of germinated soybean induced by UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effects of UV-B radiation on the isoflavones accumulation, physiological and nutritional quality, water status, and characteristics of proteins in germinated soybeans were investigated. The results showed that isoflavones content in soybeans increased with appropriate intensity and time of UV-B radiation and decreased with excessive treatment. Fresh weight, length, free amino acids, reducing sugar contents and bulk water (T 23 ) in germinated soybeans decreased with increasing radiation time, indicating that UV-B inhibited the growth and nutrients metabolism of soybean during germination. Cell damage was detected in germinated soybeans with excessive UV-B radiation, as shown by the black spots in cotyledons and the increased intercellular water determined by LF-NMR. Germination resulted in an increase in random coil structures, while UV-B radiation induced no obvious changes in FT-IR spectrum and protein conformation of soybeans. Both UV-B radiation and germination caused the increase in soluble proteins, especially in 1.0-75.0 kDa fraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional quality and ions uptake to PTNDS in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Porous-tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) allows high control of the root environment and prevents plant infections in both microgravity and ground conditions. In this paper, six soybean cultivars ('ZH13', 'ZH57', 'LD10', 'HH35', 'HH43', and 'ZGDD') were evaluated in terms of yield, photosynthetic efficiency, insoluble dietary fiber and ions uptake efficiency. Besides proximal composition, the concentrations of mineral and isoflavones were monitored in the seeds. 'HH35' and 'ZH13' plants showed much higher yield and harvest index, in addition to the lower lignin content of inedible biomass. Data showed that 'HH35' had the higher photosynthetic efficiency of soybean leaves with regard to photosynthetic rate and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency, whereas chlorophyll ratio and carotenoids content were no difference with the other cultivars. Both cations and anions except NH4(+) and H2PO4(-), were accumulated excessively compared to controls, especially with anions in PTNDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. rDNA-based characterization of a new binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing root rot on kale in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Buzeto, A.L.; Nakatani, A.K.; Souza, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the first report of the occurrence of a binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing hypocotyl and root rot in kale in Brazil. Rhizoctonia spp. were isolated from kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with symptoms of hypocotyl and root rot. The isolates, characterized as binucleate

  7. Effect of formulations on the absorption and translocation of glyphosate in transgenic soybean; Efeito de formulacoes na absorcao e translocacao do glyphosate em soja transgenica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.B. [UNIVALE, Governador Valadares, MG (Brazil). FAAG. Agronomia]. E-mail: jbarbosa@univale.br; Ferreira, E.A.; Silva, A.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: evanderalves@yahoo.com.br; aasilva@ufv.br; Oliveira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral]. E-mail: jalves@ufv.br; Fialho, C.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Agronomia]. E-mail: cintiamtfialho@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the absorption and translocation of glyphosate formulations in genetically modified (GM) soybean by applying 14C-glyphosate mixed to three glyphosate formulations (Roundup Ready and R. Transorb - both with +isopropylamine salt, and Zapp Qi, formulated from potassic salt ), using a precision micro syringe. Plant samples were collected after herbicide application (4, 16, 40 and 64 hours) and then divided into leaf (trifolium), aerial part, roots and root nodes for radiation reading. 14C-glyphosate that was not absorbed was recovered and counted by washing the leaf with methanol. Penetration and translocation of 14C-glyphosate to the different parts evaluated was found to vary. However, the highest absorption was verified at intervals after 16 hours of application. The highest herbicide percentage in the aerial part of the soybean plants was found when Zapp (potassic salt) was applied on the aerial part and when isopropylamin salt was applied on the roots; 14C-glyphosate was found in the plant root nodules in all treatments, with the highest percentage being observed with R. Transorb, 40 hours after application (0.13% of the total measured or 0.4%, considering only the plant total). Results highlight the hypothesis that glyphosate could harm symbiosis between rhizobium and soybean, since the former also shows in its metabolism EPSPS, which is susceptible to this herbicide. (author)

  8. Review on resistance to soybean mosaic virus in soybean%大豆抗大豆花叶病毒研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大刚; 智海剑; 张磊

    2013-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus disease caused by soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is the major virus disease worldwide in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.),resulting in substantial yield losses and significant seed quality deterioration.This paper reviewed the research advances on resistance to SMV in soybean,which includes screening of resistant germplasm,studying on inheritance of resistance,fine mapping and marker-assisted selection of resistance genes,and some resistant candidate genes to SMV in soybeans.Future research directions of SMV resistance are proposed.The summary of related study could assist molecular breeding and functional analysis of resistance genes to SMV in soybean.%由大豆花叶病毒(soybean mosaic virus,SMV)引起的大豆花叶病毒病是一种世界性大豆病害,严重地影响了大豆的产量和品质.本文介绍了国内外大豆抗SMV的最新研究进展,主要包括:抗源筛选、抗性遗传、抗性基因的精细定位和分子标记辅助选择以及大豆对SMV候选抗性基因的研究等,并对该领域的研究进行了初步展望,以期为大豆抗SMV分子育种和抗性候选基因的功能研究提供参考.

  9. Insights into soybean transcriptome reconfiguration under hypoxic stress: Functional, regulatory, structural, and compositional characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago J Nakayama

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic or total (anoxic oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits. In this study, we analyzed conserved and divergent root transcriptional responses between flood-tolerant Embrapa 45 and flood-sensitive BR 4 soybean cultivars under hypoxic stress conditions with RNA-seq. To understand how soybean genes evolve and respond to hypoxia, stable and differentially expressed genes were characterized structurally and compositionally comparing its mechanistic relationship. Between cultivars, Embrapa 45 showed less up- and more down-regulated genes, and stronger induction of phosphoglucomutase (Glyma05g34790, unknown protein related to N-terminal protein myristoylation (Glyma06g03430, protein suppressor of phyA-105 (Glyma06g37080, and fibrillin (Glyma10g32620. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis of non-symbiotic hemoglobin (Glyma11g12980 indicated divergence in gene structure between cultivars. Transcriptional changes for genes in amino acids and derivative metabolic process suggest involvement of amino acids metabolism in tRNA modifications, translation accuracy/efficiency, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in both cultivars under hypoxia. Gene groups differed in promoter TATA box, ABREs (ABA-responsive elements, and CRT/DREs (C-repeat/dehydration-responsive elements frequency. Gene groups also differed in structure, composition, and codon usage, indicating biological significances. Additional data suggests that cis-acting ABRE elements can mediate gene expression

  10. Insights into soybean transcriptome reconfiguration under hypoxic stress: Functional, regulatory, structural, and compositional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Thiago J; Rodrigues, Fabiana A; Neumaier, Norman; Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Molinari, Hugo B C; Santiago, Thaís R; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Basso, Marcos F; Farias, José R B; Emygdio, Beatriz M; de Oliveira, Ana C B; Campos, Ângela D; Borém, Aluízio; Harmon, Frank G; Mertz-Henning, Liliane M; Nepomuceno, Alexandre L

    2017-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic) or total (anoxic) oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits. In this study, we analyzed conserved and divergent root transcriptional responses between flood-tolerant Embrapa 45 and flood-sensitive BR 4 soybean cultivars under hypoxic stress conditions with RNA-seq. To understand how soybean genes evolve and respond to hypoxia, stable and differentially expressed genes were characterized structurally and compositionally comparing its mechanistic relationship. Between cultivars, Embrapa 45 showed less up- and more down-regulated genes, and stronger induction of phosphoglucomutase (Glyma05g34790), unknown protein related to N-terminal protein myristoylation (Glyma06g03430), protein suppressor of phyA-105 (Glyma06g37080), and fibrillin (Glyma10g32620). RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis of non-symbiotic hemoglobin (Glyma11g12980) indicated divergence in gene structure between cultivars. Transcriptional changes for genes in amino acids and derivative metabolic process suggest involvement of amino acids metabolism in tRNA modifications, translation accuracy/efficiency, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in both cultivars under hypoxia. Gene groups differed in promoter TATA box, ABREs (ABA-responsive elements), and CRT/DREs (C-repeat/dehydration-responsive elements) frequency. Gene groups also differed in structure, composition, and codon usage, indicating biological significances. Additional data suggests that cis-acting ABRE elements can mediate gene expression independent of ABA

  11. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T-aloe against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Ge, Honglian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Ning; Wang, Yucheng; Chen, Long; Ji, Xiue; Li, Chengwei

    2016-03-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). At present, we revealed the three-way interaction between Trichoderma harzianum T-aloe, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of T-aloe against S. sclerotiorum in soybean. In our experiments, T-aloe inhibited the growth of S. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture tests. T-aloe hyphae grew in parallel or intertwined with S. sclerotiorum hyphae and produced hooked contact branches, indicating mycoparasitism. Plate tests showed that T-aloe culture filtrate inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth with an inhibition efficiency of 51.2% and sclerotia production. T-aloe pretreatment showed growth-promoting effect on soybean plants. The activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the superoxide radical (O2(-)) content in soybean leaves decreased after T-aloe pretreatment in response to S. sclerotiorum pathogen challenge. T-aloe treatment diminished damage caused by pathogen stress on soybean leaf cell membrane, and increased chlorophyll as well as total phenol contents. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR3 were expressed in the leaves of T-aloe-treated plants. In summary, T-aloe displayed biocontrol potential against S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report of unraveling biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Spp. to soybean sclerotinia stem rot from the three-way interaction between the biocontrol agent, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The early nodulin transcript ENOD2 is located in the nodule parenchyma (inner cortex) of pea and soybean root nodules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.; Scheres, B.; Franssen, H.J.; Lierop, van M.J.; Lammeren, van A.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1990-01-01

    A pea cDNA clone homologous to the soybean early nodulin clone pGmENOD2 that most probably encodes a cell wall protein was isolated. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea ENOD2 protein shows that it contains the same repeating pentapeptides, ProProHisGluLys and ProProGluTyrGln, as the soybean

  14. The early nodulin transcript ENOD2 is located in the nodule parenchyma (inner cortex) of pea and soybean root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, C. van de; Scheres, B.J.G.; Franssen, H.; Lierop, M.-J.; Lammeren, A. van; Kammen, A. van; Bisseling, T.

    1990-01-01

    A pea cDNA clone homologous to the soybean early nodulin clone pGmENOD2 that most probably encodes a cell wall protein was isolated. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea ENOD2 protein shows that it contains the same repeating pentapeptides, ProProHisGluLys and ProProGluTyrGln, as the soybean

  15. Progress in Root Cause and Fault Propagation Analysis of Large-Scale Industrial Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale industrial processes, a fault can easily propagate between process units due to the interconnections of material and information flows. Thus the problem of fault detection and isolation for these processes is more concerned about the root cause and fault propagation before applying quantitative methods in local models. Process topology and causality, as the key features of the process description, need to be captured from process knowledge and process data. The modelling methods from these two aspects are overviewed in this paper. From process knowledge, structural equation modelling, various causal graphs, rule-based models, and ontological models are summarized. From process data, cross-correlation analysis, Granger causality and its extensions, frequency domain methods, information-theoretical methods, and Bayesian nets are introduced. Based on these models, inference methods are discussed to find root causes and fault propagation paths under abnormal situations. Some future work is proposed in the end.

  16. Absorption, transport, and chemical fate of plutonium in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption of plutonium (Pu) by soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Williams) is limited by Pu solubility in soils. Changes in Pu concentration in different tissues with time to senescence indicate Pu is freely transported through the xylem during growth but not subject to remobilization on flowering. Studies in which the DTPA complex of 238 Pu was supplied to the plant suggest a change in chemical form following root absorption. Of the Pu in roots, stems, and leaves at senescence, 28, 54, and 67%, respectively, were soluble. The Pu in the solluble fraction was primarily associated with components of >10000 equivalent molecular weight in leaves and roots, whereas stems exhibited an equal distribution between components in the >10000 and <500 molecular weight fractions. Plutonium associated with mature seeds is concentrated in the seed hull (85%) and cotyledons (14%). The Pu associated with the cotyledon was primarily in the insoluble residues and soluble soy whey

  17. Effects of stress temperatures of germination on polyamine titers of soybean seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Mejia, Renan

    High and low stress temperatures during seed germination and seedling development limit total germination and the rate of germination and growth. Changes in polyamine (PA) concentrations in seeds of different species have been associated with germination, growth and environmental stresses such as temperature, drought, oxygen, chilling injury and osmotic conditions. Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of stress temperatures during germination and seedling development on polyamine titers in soybean seeds. Three germination temperatures, 25, 30, and 36°C were used in the first study to evaluate their influence on changes in polyamine concentrations in soybean seeds germinated at 76 and 90 hours. The polyamines (PAs), cadaverine (Cad), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), agmatine (Agm), and spermine (Spin) were quantified by HPLC using a cation exchange column and an electrochemical detector. Cad, Put, Agm, and Spd declined as the germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Conversely, Spin increased considerably with an increase in temperature. Total germination was reduced from 97.2 to 92.5% as germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Germination time did not affect Cad, Agm and Spm, and total germination, however, the interaction between temperature and germination time for Put and Spd concentrations was significant. In the second study, changes in PA concentrations, seedling growth, germination time (t50), fresh and dry weight, and moisture content were measured in the embryonic axis and cotyledons of soybean seeds germinated at 10 and 25°C through six stages of germination dry seed (DS), testa split (TS), radicle at 10 mm (Ra-10), root hairs visible (RHV), secondary root primordia (SRP), and complete seedling (CS). The concentrations of Cad and Put in the embryonic axis, were significantly higher in seeds germinated under low temperature than in seeds at 25°C (approximately 10 and 3 fold respectively). However, this

  18. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... differences, suggesting that there are both qualitative and quantitative changes in the metal ion and radical species present. A major component of the spectra obtained from young nodules is assigned to a complex (Lb-NO) of nitric oxide (NO.) with the heme protein leghemoglobin (Lb). This Lb-NO species, which...... has not been previously detected in intact root nodules of plants grown in the absence of nitrate, is thought to be formed by reaction of nitric oxide with iron(II) leghemoglobin. The nitric oxide may be generated from arginine via a nitric oxide synthase-like activity present in the nodules...

  19. An analysis of root cause identification and continuous quality improvement in public health H1N1 after-action reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Christa-Marie; Debastiani, Summer; Rose, Dale; Kahn, Emily B

    2014-01-01

    To identify the extent to which the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program's (HSEEP) After Action Report/Improvement Plan (AAR/IP) template was followed by public health entities and facilitated the identification of detailed corrective actions and continuous improvement. Data were drawn from the US H1N1 Public Health Emergency Response (PHER) federal grant awardees (n = 62). After action report/improvement plan text was examined to identify the presence of AAR/IP HSEEP elements and characterized as "minimally complete," "partially complete," or "complete." Corrective actions (CA) and recommendations within the IP focusing on performance deficits were coded as specific, measurable, and time-bound, and whether they were associated with a problem that met root cause criteria and whether the CA/recommendation was intended to address or fix the root cause. A total of 2619 CA/recommendations were identified. More than half (n = 1480, 57%) addressed root causes. Corrective actions/recommendations associated with complete AARs more frequently addressed root cause (58% vs 51%, χ = 9.1, P < 0.003) and were more specific (34% vs 23%, χ = 32.3, P < 0.0001), measurable (30% vs 18%, χ = 37.9, P < 0.0001), and time-bound (38% vs 15%, χ = 115.5, P < 0.0001) than partially complete AARs. The same pattern was not observed with completeness of IPs. Corrective actions and recommendations were similarly specific and measurable. Recommendations significantly addressed root cause more than CAs. Our analysis indicates a possible lack of awardee distinction between CA and recommendations in AARs. As HSEEP adapts to align with the 2011 National Preparedness Goal and National Preparedness System, future HSEEP documents should emphasize the importance of root cause analysis as a required element within AAR documents and templates in the exercise and real incident environment, as well as the need for specific and measurable CAs.

  20. Antioxidant response of soybean seedlings to joint stress of lanthanum and acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chanjuan; Wang, Weimin

    2013-11-01

    Excess of rare earth elements in soil can be a serious environmental stress on plants, in particular when acid rain coexists. To understand how such a stress affects plants, we studied antioxidant response of soybean leaves and roots exposed to lanthanum (0.06, 0.18, and 0.85 mmol L(-1)) under acid rain conditions (pH 4.5 and 3.0). We found that low concentration of La3+ (0.06 mmol L(-1)) did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and peroxidase) whereas high concentration of La3+ (≥0.18 mmol L(-1)) did. Compared to treatment with acid rain (pH 4.5 and pH 3.0) or La3+ alone, joint stress of La3+ and acid rain affected more severely the activity of catalase and peroxidase, and induced more H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation. When treated with high level of La3+ (0.85 mmol L(-1)) alone or with acid rain (pH 4.5 and 3.0), roots were more affected than leaves regarding the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, physiological function, and growth. The severity of oxidative damage and inhibition of growth caused by the joint stress associated positively with La3+ concentration and soil acidity. These results will help us understand plant response to joint stress, recognize the adverse environmental impact of rare earth elements in acidic soil, and develop measures to eliminate damage caused by such joint stress.

  1. Vitamins as radioprotectors in vivo II. protection by vitamin A and soybean oil against radiation damage caused by internal radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harapanhalli, R.S.; Narra, V.R.; Yaghmai, V.; Azure, M.T.; Goddu, M.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    Tissue-incorporated radionuclides impart radiation energy over extended periods of time depending on their effective half-lives. The capacity of vitamin A dissolved in soybean oil to protect against the biological effects caused by internal radionuclides is investigated. The radiochemicals examined are DNA-binding 125 IdU, cytoplasmically localized H 125 IPDM and the α-particle emitter 210 Po citrate. As in our previous studies, spermatogenesis in mice is used as the experimental model and spermatogonial cell survival is the biological end point. Surprisingly, soybean oil itself provides substantial and equal protection against the Auger effect of 125 IdU, which is comparable to a high-LET radiation effect, as well as the low-LET effects of H 125 IPDM, the dose modification factors (DMFs) being 3.6 ± 0.9 (SEM) and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively. The protection afforded by the oil against the effects of 5.3 MeV α particles emitted by 210Po is also significant (DMF = 2.2 ± 0.4). The presence of vitamin A in the oil further enhanced the radioprotection against the effect of 125 IdU (DMF = 4.8 ± 1.3) and H 125 IKPDM (DMF = 5.1 ± 0.6); however, no enhancement is provided against the effects of α particles. These interesting results with soybean oil and vitamin A, together with data on the subcellular distribution of the protectors, provide clues regarding the mechanistic aspects of the protection. In addition, the data for vitamin A reaffirm our earlier conclusion that the mechanism by which DNA-bound Auger emitters impart biological damage is primarily indirect in nature. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  3. Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L F; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason

    2011-09-01

    Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed.

  4. Sequential Path Model for Grain Yield in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine some physiological traits that affect soybean,s grain yield via sequential path analysis. In a factorial experiment, two cultivars (Harcor and Williams were sown under four levels of nitrogen and two levels of weed management at the research station of Tabriz University, Iran, during 2004 and 2005. Grain yield, some yield components and physiological traits were measured. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that grain yield had significant positive and negative association with measured traits. A sequential path analysis was done in order to evaluate associations among grain yield and related traits by ordering the various variables in first, second and third order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Two first-order variables, namely number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis revealed highest direct effect on total grain yield and explained 49, 44 and 47 % of the variation in grain yield based on 2004, 2005, and combined datasets, respectively. Four traits i.e. post-flowering net photosynthesis, plant height, leaf area index and intercepted radiation at the bottom layer of canopy were found to fit as second-order variables. Pre- and post-flowering chlorophyll content, main root length and intercepted radiation at the middle layer of canopy were placed at the third-order path. From the results concluded that, number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis are the best selection criteria in soybean for grain yield.

  5. Regulatory interplay between soybean root and soybean cyst nematode during a resistant and susceptible reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are obligate parasites that feed on the roots of living host plants. Often, these nematodes can lay hundreds of eggs, each capable of surviving in the soil for as long as 12 years. When it comes to wreaking havoc on agricultural yield, few nematodes can c...

  6. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long-lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities.

  7. Root Causes and Impacts of Severe Accidents at Large Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities

  8. Root Causes and Impacts of Severe Accidents at Large Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, Lars

    2013-04-15

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities.

  9. effect of exogenous application of rhizopine on lucerne root nodulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Calvert, H. E., Pence, M. K., Pierce, M., Malik, N. S. A., and Bauer, W. D. ( 1984). Anatomical analysis of the development and distribution of Rhizobium infection in soybean roots. Canadian Journal of Botany 62:2375-2384. Cardenas, L., Vidali, L., Domsnguez, J., Pirez, H., Sanchez, F., Helper, P.K. and. Quinto, C. (1998).

  10. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the soybean pathogen Phomopsis longicolla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla. PSD impairs seed germination, reduces seedling vigor, and can substantially reduce stand establishment. In hot and humid conditions, PSD can cause significant yield losses. Few studies have explore...

  11. De novo Genome Assembly and Single Nucleotide Variations for Soybean Mosaic Virus Using Soybean Seed Transcriptome Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important legume crop in the world. Several diseases in soybean lead to serious yield losses in major soybean-producing countries. Moreover, soybean can be infected by diverse viruses. Recently, we carried out a large-scale screening to identify viruses infecting soybean using available soybean transcriptome data. Of the screened transcriptomes, a soybean transcriptome for soybean seed development analysis contains several virus-associated sequences. In this study, we identified five viruses, including soybean mosaic virus (SMV, infecting soybean by de novo transcriptome assembly followed by blast search. We assembled a nearly complete consensus genome sequence of SMV China using transcriptome data. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the consensus genome sequence of SMV China was closely related to SMV isolates from South Korea. We examined single nucleotide variations (SNVs for SMVs in the soybean seed transcriptome revealing 780 SNVs, which were evenly distributed on the SMV genome. Four SNVs, C-U, U-C, A-G, and G-A, were frequently identified. This result demonstrated the quasispecies variation of the SMV genome. Taken together, this study carried out bioinformatics analyses to identify viruses using soybean transcriptome data. In addition, we demonstrated the application of soybean transcriptome data for virus genome assembly and SNV analysis.

  12. Iron Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Effects on Plant Performance and Root Associated Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Burke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect of positively and negatively charged Fe3O4 and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs on the growth of soybean plants (Glycine max. and their root associated soil microbes. Soybean plants were grown in a greenhouse for six weeks after application of different amounts of NPs, and plant growth and nutrient content were examined. Roots were analyzed for colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi and nodule-forming nitrogen fixing bacteria using DNA-based techniques. We found that plant growth was significantly lower with the application of TiO2 as compared to Fe3O4 NPs. The leaf carbon was also marginally significant lower in plants treated with TiO2 NPs; however, leaf phosphorus was reduced in plants treated with Fe3O4. We found no effects of NP type, concentration, or charge on the community structure of either rhizobia or AM fungi colonizing plant roots. However, the charge of the Fe3O4 NPs affected both colonization of the root system by rhizobia as well as leaf phosphorus content. Our results indicate that the type of NP can affect plant growth and nutrient content in an agriculturally important crop species, and that the charge of these particles influences the colonization of the root system by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

  13. Effect of solar radiation on severity of soybean rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather M; George, Sheeja; Narváez, Dario F; Srivastava, Pratibha; Schuerger, Andrew C; Wright, David L; Marois, James J

    2012-08-01

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a damaging fungal disease of soybean (Glycine max). Although solar radiation can reduce SBR urediniospore survival, limited information is available on how solar radiation affects SBR progress within soybean canopies. Such information can aid in developing accurate SBR prediction models. To manipulate light penetration into soybean canopies, structures of shade cloth attenuating 30, 40, and 60% sunlight were constructed over soybean plots. In each plot, weekly evaluations of severity in lower, middle, and upper canopies, and daily temperature and relative humidity were recorded. Final plant height and leaf area index were also recorded for each plot. The correlation between amount of epicuticular wax and susceptibility of leaves in the lower, middle, and upper canopies was assessed with a detached leaf assay. Final disease severity was 46 to 150% greater in the lower canopy of all plots and in the middle canopy of 40 and 60% shaded plots. While daytime temperature within the canopy of nonshaded soybean was greater than shaded soybean by 2 to 3°C, temperatures recorded throughout typical evenings and mornings of the growing season in all treatments were within the range (10 to 28.5°C) for SBR development as was relative humidity. This indicates temperature and relative humidity were not limiting factors in this experiment. Epicuticular wax and disease severity in detached leaf assays from the upper canopy had significant negative correlation (P = 0.009, R = -0.84) regardless of shade treatment. In laboratory experiments, increasing simulated total solar radiation (UVA, UVB, and PAR) from 0.15 to 11.66 MJ m(-2) increased mortality of urediniospores from 2 to 91%. Variability in disease development across canopy heights in early planted soybean may be attributed to the effects of solar radiation not only on urediniospore viability, but also on plant height, leaf area index, and epicuticular wax, which influence

  14. Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Woo Byun; Il-Jun Kang; Joong-Ho Kwon; Hayashi, Yukako; Mori, Tomohiko

    1996-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans (0-10 kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal increased remarkably as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans. (author)

  15. Physiochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Kang, I.J.; Kwon, J.H.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, T.

    1995-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans (0-10kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexagonal content remarkably increased as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans. (Author)

  16. The strategy of sustainable soybean development to increase soybean needs in North Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, L.; Rauf, A.; Rahmawaty; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the research was to analyze both internal and external factors influencing the strategy of sustainable soybean development to increase soybean needs in North Sumatera. SWOT analysis was used as the method of the research through identifying internal factors in the development of sustainable soybean the strategy to increase soybean production in research area is aggressive strategy or strategy of SO (Strengths - Oppurtunities) that is using force to exploit existing opportunity with activities as follows: (1). Use certified seeds in accordance with government regulations and policies. (2). Utilizing the level of soil fertility and cropping patterns to be able to meet the demand for soybeans. (3). Utilizing human resources by becoming a member of farmer groups.

  17. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

  18. On the fate of exogenously supplied bacterial DNA in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyindula Ndiku

    1980-01-01

    The fate of exogenously supplied radiolabelled DNA from agrobacterium tumefaciens and micrococcus lysodeikticus was investigated in soybean tissues growing under various physiological conditions. The following observations are made: a) Rapid degradation and reutilization of the donor DNA was observed in callus tissue culture. b) Germinating seeds and five-day old seedlings were shown to degrade DNA in the incubation medium and to ultilize these degradation products for their own DNA synthesis. Reutilization could be almost totally suppressed the addition of unlabelled thymidine as a competitor. This allowed a detection of significant amounts of residuel donor closely but transiently associated with the plant tissues. c) In soybean shoots dipped into a solution of donor DNA, partly this DNA was found to first migrate to the leaves where mostly labelled endogenous DNA was later found. Very large amounts of polymerized exogenous DNA were found in the regenerated roots after 12 days of culture. (author)

  19. Mass spectrometry characterisation of fatty acids from metabolically engineered soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, André M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Machado, Alex M; da Cunha, Nicolau B; Coelho, Cíntia M; Lacerda, Valquiria A M; Coelho, Marly C; Rech, Elibio L

    2014-05-01

    Improving the quality and performance of soybean oil as biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of its fatty acids and requires an increase in monounsaturated acids and a reduction in polyunsaturated acids. Despite its current use as a source of biofuel, soybean oil contains an average of 25 % oleic acid and 13 % palmitic acid, which negatively impacts its oxidative stability and freezing point, causing a high rate of nitrogen oxide emission. Gas chromatography and ion mobility mass spectrometry were conducted on soybean fatty acids from metabolically engineered seed extracts to determine the nature of the structural oleic and palmitic acids. The soybean genes FAD2-1 and FatB were placed under the control of the 35SCaMV constitutive promoter, introduced to soybean embryonic axes by particle bombardment and down-regulated using RNA interference technology. Results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 94.58 %) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and non-transgenic oil extracts.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of soybean diet on interferon-α-induced depression in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Azimi Fashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Interferon-α (IFN therapy can cause depressive symptom which may lead to drug discontinuation. By interfering with tryptophan pathway, the available level of tryptophan required for serotonin synthesis decreases which could be related to depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether soybean diet could improve IFN-induced depression. Materials and Methods: Male mice weighing 28±3 g were used in the forced swimming test (FST as an animal model of depression; also, locomotor activity was recorded. IFN 16×105 IU/kg was injected subcutaneously for 6 days. Animals were fed with regular diet or soybean diet at 3 concentrations throughout the experiment. Fluoxetine was the reference drug. To check whether the tryptophan content in the soy bean diet was effective, a group of animals was injected with a single dose of tryptophan on the test day. Results: IFN-α increased the immobility time in the FST (192 sec ± 5.4, that denotes depression in mice. Soybean diets caused less immobility that was more profound with 50% soybean (26.4 sec ± 6. This diet overcame the depression caused by IFN in the FST (54 sec±18. This result was parallel with that of tryptophan injected to animals (38 sec±17. All the animals showed normal locomotor activity. Conclusion: For the first time, we showed that soybean diet could counteract with depression caused by IFN-α. Since tryptophan therapy had similar effects, possibly the tryptophan content of soybean had induced the serotonin synthesis. Thus, not only less harmful kynurenine was produced but also more serotonin was available in the brain to overcome depression. However, this interpretation needs further evaluations.

  1. Resistance of Advanced Soybean Lines to Pod Borrer (Etiella zinckenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Kuswantoro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing and stabilizing of soybean product in Indonesia face many limitations. One of the limiting factors is pod borrer (Etiella zinckenella Treitschke infestation that is able to cause yield loss up to 80%. Objective of the research was to find out some advanced soybean lines that resistant to pod borrer. Design was randomized complete block with three replications. Soybean lines were grown gradualy to ensure the simultanously flowering. The plants were caged at 35 days after planting (DAT and infested with the imago of E. zinckenella at 56 DAT. Results showed that different soybean lines affected imago population, eggs population, larvae population, infected pods and infected seeds. Some genotypes were consistantly resistant to E. zinckenella. The resistance of those genotypes were non preference resistance based on eggs population, larvae population, infected pod and infected seeds. This study discovered nine soybean lines that is resistant to E. zinckenella, so that it can be beneficial for improving soybean resistance to this pest through releasing as a new resistant pod borer variety after tested further in potential yield and genetic x environment interaction trials. In addition, there were three varieties and two germplasm accessions that can be used as gene sources for improving the resistance of the varieties. The three varieties are able to be cultivated directly in field to decrease the E. zinckenella occurrence. 

  2. Effect of foliar application of chitosan and salicylic acid on the growth of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanah, Y.; Sembiring, M.

    2018-02-01

    Elicitors such as chitosan and salicylic acid could be used not only to increase isoflavone concentration of soybean seeds, but also to increase the growth and seed yield. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of foliar application of elicitor compounds (i.e. chitosan, and salicylic acid)on the growth of two soybean varieties under dry land conditions. Experimental design was a randomized block design with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was soybean varieties (Wilis and Devon). The second factor was foliar application of elicitors consisted of without elicitor; chitosan at V4 (four trifoliate leaves are fully developed); chitosan at R3 (early podding); chitosan at V4 and R3; salicylic acid at V4; salicylic acid at R3 and salicylic acid at V4 and R3. Parameters observed was plant height at 2-7 week after planting (WAP), shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The results suggest that the Wilis variety had higher plant height 7 WAP than Devon. The foliar application of chitosan increased the plant height at 7 WAP, shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The foliar application of chitosan at V4 and R3 on Devon variety increased shoot dry weight.

  3. Manganese (Mn) stress toward hyperaccumulators plants combination (HPC) using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition on soybean (Glycine max) seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Tania Sylviana; Zahroh, Tata Taqiyyatuz; Merindasya, Mirza; Masfaridah, Ririn; Hartanti, Dyah Ayu Sri; Arum, Sekar; Nurhatika, Sri; Muhibuddin, Anton; Surtiningsih, Tini; Arifiyanto, Achmad

    2017-06-01

    Heavy metals were a metal bracket which had a specific gravity greater than 5 g / cm3. Manganese was one of them because it has a specific gravity of 7.4 g / cm3. Together with widespread cases of soil contamination caused by heavy metals as well as increased development of the science of breeding ground rapidly, then the alternative rehabilitation techniques were relatively cheap and effective it needs to be developed and even some cases of contaminated management soil using a combination of plants with microorganisms to be more effective. Thus it was necessary to develop research on plants that were able to accumulate heavy metals and other toxic materials, such as Mn so that the land becomes safe for health and the environment. Based on above reason this research aimed to see the influence of hyperaccumulators combination of plants using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition to stressed by manganese (Mn) on soybean (Glycine max). Observations of growth, chlorophyll content and heavy metals analysis performed on nine treatments (P1-P9) and one control (P0). The results showed a combination of hyperaccumulators under mychorrizal helped overcome the stress of manganese (Mn) in the leaves of soybean (G. max). It gave an influence on the number of leaves and chlorophyll content of soybean (G. max), but no effect performed on the height and the roots of soybean (G. max). The use of plants in small amounts hyperaccumulators (P1;1 jatropha and 1 lamtoro) was sufficient to cope with stress of Mn in the leaves of soybean (G. max).

  4. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by Apiaceae root vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Petersen, Thomas H; Fretté, Xavier C

    2014-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to root vegetables of the Umbelliferae plant family (Apiaceae) is well known. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is rarely reported.......Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to root vegetables of the Umbelliferae plant family (Apiaceae) is well known. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is rarely reported....

  5. Fate of 15N-urea applied to wheat-soybean succession crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Muraoka, Takashi; Spolidorio, Eduardo Scarpari; Freitas, Jose Guilherme de; Cantarella, Heitor

    2004-01-01

    The wheat crop in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is fertilized with N, P and K. The rate of applied N (0 to 120 kg.ha -1 ) depends on the previous grown crop and the irrigation possibility. The response of wheat to rates and time of N application and the fate of N applied to irrigated wheat were studied during two years. Residual N recovery by soybean grown after the wheat was also studied. The maximum grain productivity was obtained with 92 kg.ha -1 of N. The efficiency of 15 N-urea utilization ranged from 52% to 85%. The main loss of applied 15 N, 5% to 12% occurred as ammonia volatilized from urea applied on soil surface. The N loss by leaching even at the N rate of 135 kg.ha -1 , was less than 1% of applied 15 N, due to the low amount of rainfall during the wheat grown season and a controlled amount of irrigated water, that were sufficient to moisten only the wheat root zone. The residual 15 N after wheat harvest represents around 40% of N applied as urea: 20% in soil, 3% in wheat root system and 16% in the wheat straw. Soybean recovered less than 2% of the 15 N applied to wheat at sowing or at tillering stage. (author)

  6. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  7. Effects of proton beam irradiation on seed germination and growth of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Juhyun; Kim, Woon Ji; Kim, Sang Hun; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the morphological effects of proton beam irradiation on the seed germination, seedling survival, and plant growth of soybean. Seeds of three Korean elite cultivars (Kwangankong, Daepungkong, and Pungsannamulkong) were irradiated with a 57-MeV proton beam in the range of 50 - 400 Gy. The germination rates of all the varieties increased to > 95%; however, the survival rates were significantly reduced. At doses of > 300 Gy irradiation, the Daepungkong, Kwangankong, and Pungsannamulkong cultivars exhibited 39, 75, and 71% survival rates, respectively. In addition, plant height and the fresh weight of shoots and roots were significantly decreased by doses of > 100 Gy irradiation, as were the dry weights of the shoots and roots. However, SPAD values increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Abnormal plants with atypically branched stems, modified leaves, and chlorophyll mutations were observed. Based on the survival rate, plant growth inhibition, and mutation frequency, it appears that the optimum dosage of proton beam irradiation for soybean mutation breeding is between 250 and 300 Gy.

  8. Abscisic Acid accumulates at positive turgor potential in excised soybean seedling growing zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1991-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) hypocotyl elongating regions when seedlings were transferred to low water potential vermiculite (Psi = -0.3 megapascals) even though positive turgor is retained in this tissue. Accumulation of ABA in growing zones could occur from de novo biosynthesis within this tissue or transport from adjacent nongrowing zones. Both growing and nongrowing hypocotyl and root tissues accumulated significant levels of ABA when excised and dehydrated to reduce turgor. Surprisingly, excised growing zones (which experienced no water loss) also accumulated ABA when incubated in darkness for 4 hours at 100% relative humidity and 29 degrees C. Induction of ABA accumulation in the excised elongating region of the hypocotyl was not caused by disruption of root pressure or wounding. While excision of hypocotyl elongating regions induced ABA accumulation, no change in either extensin or p33 mRNA levels was observed. Accumulation of extensin or p33 mRNA required more severe wounding. This suggests that ABA is not involved in the response of these genes in wounded tissue and that wound signals are not causing ABA accumulation in excised tissue. Accumulation of ABA in excised elongating regions was correlated with growth inhibition and a decline in turgor to the yield threshold (Psi;(p) = 0.37 megapascals; R Matyssek, S Maruyama, JS Boyer [1988] Plant Physiol 86: 1163-1167). Inhibiting hypocotyl growth by transferring seedlings to lower temperatures or light did not cause ABA accumulation. We conclude that induction of ABA accumulation in growing zones is more sensitive to changes in turgor than the induction which occurs in mature tissues.

  9. Root Cause Analysis: Learning from Adverse Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Olga R; Kruskal, Jonathan B; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Larson, David B

    2015-10-01

    Serious adverse events continue to occur in clinical practice, despite our best preventive efforts. It is essential that radiologists, both as individuals and as a part of organizations, learn from such events and make appropriate changes to decrease the likelihood that such events will recur. Root cause analysis (RCA) is a process to (a) identify factors that underlie variation in performance or that predispose an event toward undesired outcomes and (b) allow for development of effective strategies to decrease the likelihood of similar adverse events occurring in the future. An RCA process should be performed within the environment of a culture of safety, focusing on underlying system contributors and, in a confidential manner, taking into account the emotional effects on the staff involved. The Joint Commission now requires that a credible RCA be performed within 45 days for all sentinel or major adverse events, emphasizing the need for all radiologists to understand the processes with which an effective RCA can be performed. Several RCA-related tools that have been found to be useful in the radiology setting include the "five whys" approach to determine causation; cause-and-effect, or Ishikawa, diagrams; causal tree mapping; affinity diagrams; and Pareto charts. © RSNA, 2015.

  10. Resistance to Root Galling Caused by the Powdery Scab Pathogen Spongospora subterranea in Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato selections (clones and commercial cultivars) were examined for resistance to root galling, caused by the powdery scab pathogen Spongospora subterranea in 7 field trials conducted between 2003 and 2007 in the states of Washington (WA) and Idaho (ID). In 2003, Shepody demonstrated the highest l...

  11. Nitrogen nutrition and temporal effects of enhanced carbon dioxide on soybean growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr

    1990-01-01

    Plants grown on porous media at elevated CO2 levels generally have low concentrations of tissue N and often appear to require increased levels of external N to maximize growth response. This study determines if soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. Ransom'] grown hydroponically at elevated CO2 requires increases in external NO3- concentrations beyond levels that are optimal at ambient CO2 to maintain tissue N concentrations and maximize the growth response. This study also investigates temporal influences of elevated CO2 on growth responses by soybean. Plants were grown vegetatively for 34 d in hydroponic culture at atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 400, 650, and 900 microliters L-1 and during the final 18 d at NO3- concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mM in the culture solution. At 650 and 900 microliters L-1 CO2, plants had maximum increases of 31 and 45% in dry weight during the experimental period. Plant growth at 900 microliters L-1 CO2 was stimulated earlier than at 650 microliters L-1. During the final 18 d of the experiment, the relative growth rates (RGR) of plants grown at elevated CO2 declined. Elevated CO2 caused increases in total N and total NO3(-)-N content and leaf area but not leaf number. Enhancing CO2 levels also caused a decrease in root:shoot ratios. Stomatal resistance increased by 2.1- and 2.8-fold for plants at the 650 and 900 microliters L-1 CO2, respectively. Nitrate level in the culture solutions had no effect on growth or on C:N ratios of tissues, nor did increases in CO2 levels cause a decrease in N concentration of plant tissues. Hence, increases in NO3- concentration of the hydroponic solution were not necessary to maintain the N status of the plants or to maximize the growth response to elevated CO2.

  12. Effects of nitrogen applocation on yield and nitrogen accumulation in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Wei; Jin Xijun; Ma Chunmei; Dong Shoukun; Gong Zhenping; Zhang Lei

    2010-01-01

    Methods of sand cultre and 15 N tracing were used to study the effects of nitrogen application on yield and nitrogen accumulation in soybean variety SN 14 . The results showed as follows: accumulated nitrogen in the whole plant, petiole, pod shell and seed increased at the beginning and then decreased with the increase of nitrogen levels; Nitrogen accumulation in leaf and stem increased in 3 and 5 times for N 150 than that of N 0 , which indicated that high nitrogen levels promoted the nitrogen accumulation in leaf and stem, however compared with N 0 , nitrogen accumulation in root, Nodulation-N accumulated in the whole plant and seed of N 150 decreased by 60.3%, 74. 9% and 85.7% respectively, and Fertilizer-N harvest index of N 150 decreased, which was 19.8% lower than that of N 50 , as well as Nodulation-N harvest index 25.5% lower than that of N 50 . The nitrogen levels of soybean yield also firstly increased and then decreased; Compared with N 0 , plant height, pod height and lowest pod nodes of soybean treated with N 150 increased by 55.2%, 199.7% and 142.9% respectively, while no effects were found on node number. (authors)

  13. 78 FR 1 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... practice and procedure; Advertising; Agricultural research; Marketing agreements; Soybeans and soybean...] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board... occurred since the Board was reapportioned in 2009. As required by the Soybean Promotion, Research, and...

  14. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the plant-specific NAC transcription factor family in soybean during development and dehydration stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Mochida, Keiichi; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2011-08-01

    Plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulating diverse biological processes, including development, senescence, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stress stimuli. Within the soybean genome, we identified 152 full-length GmNAC TFs, including 11 membrane-bound members. In silico analysis of the GmNACs, together with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts, revealed similar NAC architecture. Next, we explored the soybean Affymetrix array and Illumina transcriptome sequence data to analyse tissue-specific expression profiles of GmNAC genes. Phylogenetic analysis using stress-related NAC TFs from Arabidopsis and rice as seeding sequences identified 58 of the 152 GmNACs as putative stress-responsive genes, including eight previously reported dehydration-responsive GmNACs. We could design gene-specific primers for quantitative real-time PCR verification of 38 out of 50 newly predicted stress-related genes. Twenty-five and six GmNACs were found to be induced and repressed 2-fold or more, respectively, in soybean roots and/or shoots in response to dehydration. GmNAC085, whose amino acid sequence was 39%; identical to that of well-known SNAC1/ONAC2, was the most induced gene upon dehydration, showing 390-fold and 20-fold induction in shoots and roots, respectively. Our systematic analysis has identified excellent tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive candidate GmNAC genes for in-depth characterization and future development of improved drought-tolerant transgenic soybeans.

  15. Genetic mapping and development of co-segregating markers of RpsQ, which provides resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinping; Sun, Suli; Zhong, Chao; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Zhu, Zhendong

    2017-06-01

    The RpsQ Phytophthora resistance locus was finely mapped to a 118-kb region on soybean chromosome 3. A best candidate gene was predicted and three co-segregating gene markers were developed. Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by Phytophthora sojae, is a major threat to sustainable soybean production. The use of genetically resistant cultivars is considered the most effective way to control this disease. The Chinese soybean cultivar Qichadou 1 exhibited a broad spectrum resistance, with a distinct resistance phenotype, following inoculation with 36 Chinese P. sojae isolates. Genetic analyses indicated that the disease resistance in Qichadou 1 is controlled by a single dominant gene. This gene locus was designated as RpsQ and mapped to a 118-kb region between BARCSOYSSR_03_0165 and InDel281 on soybean chromosome 3, and co-segregated with Insert11, Insert144 and SNP276. Within this region, there was only one gene Glyma.03g27200 encoding a protein with a typical serine/threonine protein kinase structure, and the expression pattern analysis showed that this gene induced by P. sojae infection, which was suggested as a best candidate gene of RpsQ. Candidate gene specific marker Insert144 was used to distinguish RpsQ from the other known Rps genes on chromosome 3. Identical polymerase chain reaction amplification products were produced for cultivars Qichadou 1 (RpsQ) and Ludou 4 (Rps9). All other cultivars carrying Rps genes on chromosome 3 produced different PCR products, which all lacked a 144-bp fragment present in Qichadou 1 and Ludou 4. The phenotypes of the analyzed cultivars combined with the physical position of the PRR resistance locus, candidate gene analyses, and the candidate gene marker test revealed RpsQ and Rps9 are likely the same gene, and confer resistance to P. sojae.

  16. Automated mapping of soybean and corn using phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Hu, Lina; Yu, Le; Gong, Peng; Biging, Gregory S.

    2016-09-01

    For the two of the most important agricultural commodities, soybean and corn, remote sensing plays a substantial role in delivering timely information on the crop area for economic, environmental and policy studies. Traditional long-term mapping of soybean and corn is challenging as a result of the high cost of repeated training data collection, the inconsistency in image process and interpretation, and the difficulty of handling the inter-annual variability of weather and crop progress. In this study, we developed an automated approach to map soybean and corn in the state of Paraná, Brazil for crop years 2010-2015. The core of the approach is a decision tree classifier with rules manually built based on expert interaction for repeated use. The automated approach is advantageous for its capacity of multi-year mapping without the need to re-train or re-calibrate the classifier. Time series MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance product (MCD43A4) were employed to derive vegetation phenology to identify soybean and corn based on crop calendar. To deal with the phenological similarity between soybean and corn, the surface reflectance of the shortwave infrared band scaled to a phenological stage was used to fully separate the two crops. Results suggested that the mapped areas of soybean and corn agreed with official statistics at the municipal level. The resultant map in the crop year 2012 was evaluated using an independent reference data set, and the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 87.2% and 0.804 respectively. As a result of mixed pixel effect at the 500 m resolution, classification results were biased depending on topography. In the flat, broad and highly-cropped areas, uncultivated lands were likely to be identified as soybean or corn, causing over-estimation of cropland area. By contrast, scattered crop fields in mountainous regions with dense natural vegetation tend to be overlooked. For future mapping efforts, it has great

  17. Exudation of fluorescent beta-carbolines from Oxalis tuberosa L roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Harsh Pal; Park, Sang-Wook; Stermitz, Frank R; Halligan, Kathleen M; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2002-11-01

    Root fluorescence is a phenomenon in which roots of seedlings fluoresce when irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Soybean (Glycine max) and rye grass (Elymus glaucus) are the only plant species that have been reported to exhibit this occurrence in germinating seedling roots. The trait has been useful as a marker in genetic, tissue culture and diversity studies, and has facilitated selection of plants for breeding purposes. However, the biological significance of this occurrence in plants and other organisms is unknown. Here we report that the Andean tuber crop species Oxalis tuberosa, known as oca in the highlands of South America, secretes a fluorescent compound as part of its root exudates. The main fluorescent compounds were characterized as harmine (7-methoxy-1-methyl-beta-carboline) and harmaline (3, 4-dihydroharmine). We also detected endogenous root fluorescence in other plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Phytolacca americana, a possible indication that this phenomenon is widespread within the plant kingdom.

  18. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  19. Characterization and quantitation of concanavalin A binding by plasma membrane enriched fractions from soybean root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, R.L.; Travis, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The binding of concanavalin A (Con A) to soybean root membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions (recovered from the 34/45% interface of simplified discontinuous sucrose density gradients) was studied using a radiochemical assay employing tritated ( 3 H)-Con A. The effect of lectin concentration, time, and membrane protein concentration on the specific binding of 3 H-Con A by the membranes was evaluated. Kinetic analyses showed that Con A will react with membranes in that fraction in a characteristic and predictable manner. The parameters for an optimal and standard binding assay were established. Maximal binding occurred with Con A concentrations in the range of 8 to 16% of the total membrane protein with incubation times greater than 40 min at 22 C. Approximately 10 15 molecules of 3 H-Con A were bound per microgram of membrane protein at saturation. Binding was reversible. Greater than 92% of the total Con A bound at saturation was released by addition of α-methyl mannoside. A major peak of 3 H-Con A binding was also observed in fractions recovered from the 25/30% interface of a complex discontinuous sucrose density gradient when membranes were isolated in the absence of Mg 2+ . When high Mg 2+ was present in the isolation and gradient media, the peak was shifted to a fraction recovered from the 34/38% sucrose interface. These results suggest that Con A binding sites are also present on membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. The amount of Con A bound by endoplasmic reticulum membranes was at least twice the amount bound by membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions when binding was compared on a per unit membrane protein basis. In contrast, mitochondrial inner membranes, which equilibrate at the same density as plasma membranes, had little ability to bind the lectin

  20. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Yong Ki; Hong, Sung Jun; Park, Jong Ho; Han, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Suk Chul

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR). It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT) based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO(-) 3-N than NH(+) 4-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%), Ochrobactrum (13.0%), Spingomonas (6.0%) and uncultured bacterium (4.0%) by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition.

  1. Random safety auditing, root cause analysis, failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursprung, Robert; Gray, James

    2010-03-01

    Improving quality and safety in health care is a major concern for health care providers, the general public, and policy makers. Errors and quality issues are leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the health care industry. There is evidence that patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at high risk for serious medical errors. To facilitate compliance with safe practices, many institutions have established quality-assurance monitoring procedures. Three techniques that have been found useful in the health care setting are failure mode and effects analysis, root cause analysis, and random safety auditing. When used together, these techniques are effective tools for system analysis and redesign focused on providing safe delivery of care in the complex NICU system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Initial organic products of fixation of [13N]dinitrogen by root nodules of soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, J.C.; Wolk, C.P.; Schilling, N.; Shaffer, P.W.; Avissar, Y.; Chien, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    When detached soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Hark, nodules assimilate ( 13 N)N 2 , the initial organic product of fixation is glutamine; glutamate becomes more highly radioactive than glutamine within 1 minute; 13 N in alanine becomes detectable at 1 minute of fixation and increases rapidly between 1 and 2 minutes. After 15 minutes of fixation, the major 13 N-labeled organic products in both detached and attached nodules are glutamate and alanine, plus, in the case of attached nodules, an unidentified substance, whereas ( 13 N)glutamine comprises only a small fraction of organic 13 N, and very little 13 N is detected in asparagine. The fixation of ( 13 N)N 2 into organic products was inhibited more than 99 percent by C 2 H 2 (10 percent, v/v). The results support the idea that the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase pathway is the primary route for assimilation of fixed nitrogen in soybean nodules

  3. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  4. New Cyst Nematode, Heterodera sojae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Soybean in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Heonil; Eun, Geun; Ha, Jihye; Kim, Yongchul; Park, Namsook; Kim, Donggeun; Choi, Insoo

    2016-12-01

    A new soybean cyst nematode Heterodera sojae n. sp. was found from the roots of soybean plants in Korea. Cysts of H. sojae n. sp. appeared more round, shining, and darker than that of H. glycines . Morphologically, H. sojae n. sp. differed from H. glycines by fenestra length (23.5-54.2 µm vs. 30-70 µm), vulval silt length (9.0-24.4 µm vs. 43-60 µm), tail length of J2 (54.3-74.8 µm vs. 40-61 µm), and hyaline part of J2 (32.6-46.3 µm vs. 20-30 µm). It is distinguished from H. elachista by larger cyst (513.4-778.3 µm × 343.4-567.1 µm vs. 350-560 µm × 250-450 µm) and longer stylet length of J2 (23.8-25.3 µm vs. 17-19 µm). Molecular analysis of rRNA large subunit (LSU) D2-D3 segments and ITS gene sequence shows that H. sojae n. sp. is more close to rice cyst nematode H. elachista than H. glycines . Heterodera sojae n. sp. was widely distributed in Korea. It was found from soybean fields of all three provinces sampled.

  5. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Meloidogyne spp. populations from Brazilian soybean production regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Martins de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soybean is a commodity of great economic importance worldwide, particularly in Brazil, world’s second largest producer. Nematodes, especially those of the Meloidogyne genus, severely limit productivity. Identification of nematode species is important for effective soybean management. Here, 26 populations of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. from 15 municipalities in the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goias, and Minas Gerais were characterized based on the morphology of the female perineal region, esterase profile, and identification based on amplification of specific regions of the population genome. Among the Meloidogyne spp. populations obtained, M. incognita and M. javanica, were identified. No mixed populations were present in the samples. Diagnosis based on molecular analysis was shown to be reliable and the fastest for characterization of nematode populations compared to other methods analyzed.

  6. Identification and comparative analysis of differential gene expression in soybean leaf tissue under drought and flooding stress revealed by RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is the second largest crop in the US. Its yield directly impacts US agricultural economics. Drought and flooding are two major causes for soybean yield loss. To better understand their underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms, we sequenced the transcriptomes of soybean grown in drought a...

  7. The cryoprotective effects of soybean lecithin on boar spermatozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Soybean lecithin has been attracted increasing attention and has been used to replace egg yolk in the .... with a selective staining of the whole acrosome; 2) negative sper- .... The causes of reduced fertility with cryopreserved.

  8. A new hemoglobin gene from soybean: a role for hemoglobin in all plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, C R; Jensen, E O; LLewellyn, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a new hemoglobin gene from soybean. It is expressed in cotyledons, stems of seedlings, roots, young leaves, and in some cells in the nodules that are associated with the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium symbiont. This contrasts with the expression of the leghemoglobins, which...... are active only in the infected cells of the nodules. The deduced protein sequence of the new gene shows only 58% similarity to one of the soybean leghemoglobins, but 85-87% similarity to hemoglobins from the nonlegumes Parasponia, Casuarina, and barley. The pattern of expression and the gene sequence...... indicate that this new gene is a nonsymbiotic legume hemoglobin. The finding of this gene in legumes and similar genes in other species strengthens our previous suggestion that genomes of all plants contain hemoglobin genes. The specialized leghemoglobin gene family may have arisen from a preexisting...

  9. Abscisic Acid Accumulates at Positive Turgor Potential in Excised Soybean Seedling Growing Zones 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) hypocotyl elongating regions when seedlings were transferred to low water potential vermiculite (Ψ = −0.3 megapascals) even though positive turgor is retained in this tissue. Accumulation of ABA in growing zones could occur from de novo biosynthesis within this tissue or transport from adjacent nongrowing zones. Both growing and nongrowing hypocotyl and root tissues accumulated significant levels of ABA when excised and dehydrated to reduce turgor. Surprisingly, excised growing zones (which experienced no water loss) also accumulated ABA when incubated in darkness for 4 hours at 100% relative humidity and 29°C. Induction of ABA accumulation in the excised elongating region of the hypocotyl was not caused by disruption of root pressure or wounding. While excision of hypocotyl elongating regions induced ABA accumulation, no change in either extensin or p33 mRNA levels was observed. Accumulation of extensin or p33 mRNA required more severe wounding. This suggests that ABA is not involved in the response of these genes in wounded tissue and that wound signals are not causing ABA accumulation in excised tissue. Accumulation of ABA in excised elongating regions was correlated with growth inhibition and a decline in turgor to the yield threshold (Ψ;p = 0.37 megapascals; R Matyssek, S Maruyama, JS Boyer [1988] Plant Physiol 86: 1163-1167). Inhibiting hypocotyl growth by transferring seedlings to lower temperatures or light did not cause ABA accumulation. We conclude that induction of ABA accumulation in growing zones is more sensitive to changes in turgor than the induction which occurs in mature tissues. Images Figure 2 PMID:16668113

  10. Disaster forensics understanding root cause and complex causality

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to uncover the root causes of natural and man-made disasters by going beyond the typical reports and case studies conducted post-disaster. It opens the black box of disasters by presenting ‘forensic analysis approaches’ to disasters, thereby revealing the complex causality that characterizes them and explaining how and why hazards do, or do not, become disasters. This yields ‘systemic’ strategies for managing disasters. Recently the global threat landscape has seen the emergence of high impact, low probability events. Events like Hurricane Katrina, the Great Japan Earthquake and tsunami, Hurricane Sandy, Super Typhoon Haiyan, global terrorist activities have become the new norm. Extreme events challenge our understanding regarding the interdependencies and complexity of the disaster aetiology and are often referred to as Black Swans. Between 2002 and 2011, there were 4130 disasters recorded that resulted from natural hazards around the world. In these, 1,117,527 people perished and a mi...

  11. Nine years of irrigation cause vegetation and fine root shifts in a water-limited pine forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Herzog

    Full Text Available Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L. in the inner-Alpine dry valleys of Switzerland have suffered from increased mortality during the past decades, which has been caused by longer and more frequent dry periods. In addition, a proceeding replacement of Scots pines by pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd. has been observed. In 2003, an irrigation experiment was performed to track changes by reducing drought pressure on the natural pine forest. After nine years of irrigation, we observed major adaptations in the vegetation and shifts in Scots pine fine root abundance and structure. Irrigation permitted new plant species to assemble and promote canopy closure with a subsequent loss of herb and moss coverage. Fine root dry weight increased under irrigation and fine roots had a tendency to elongate. Structural composition of fine roots remained unaffected by irrigation, expressing preserved proportions of cellulose, lignin and phenolic substances. A shift to a more negative δ13C signal in the fine root C indicates an increased photosynthetic activity in irrigated pine trees. Using radiocarbon (14C measurement, a reduced mean age of the fine roots in irrigated plots was revealed. The reason for this is either an increase in newly produced fine roots, supported by the increase in fine root biomass, or a reduced lifespan of fine roots which corresponds to an enhanced turnover rate. Overall, the responses belowground to irrigation are less conspicuous than the more rapid adaptations aboveground. Lagged and conservative adaptations of tree roots with decadal lifespans are challenging to detect, hence demanding for long-term surveys. Investigations concerning fine root turnover rate and degradation processes under a changing climate are crucial for a complete understanding of C cycling.

  12. Analysis of root causes of major hazard precursors (hydrocarbon leaks) in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnem, Jan Erik; Hestad, Jon Andreas; Kvaloy, Jan Terje; Skogdalen, Jon Espen

    2010-01-01

    The offshore petroleum industry in Norway reports major hazard precursors to the authorities, and data are available for the period 1996 through 2009. Barrier data have been reported since 2002, as have data from an extensive questionnaire survey covering working environment, organizational culture and perceived risk among all employees on offshore installations. Several attempts have been made to analyse different data sources in order to discover relations that may cast some light on possible root causes of major hazard precursors. These previous attempts were inconclusive. The study presented in this paper is the most extensive study performed so far. The data were analysed using linear regression. The conclusion is that there are significant correlations between number of leaks and safety climate indicators. The discussion points to possible root causes of major accidents.

  13. Regional aggressive root resorption caused by neuronal virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger; Strøm, Carsten; Worsaae, Nils

    2012-01-01

    During orthodontic treatment, root resorption can occur unexplainably. No clear distinction has been made between resorption located within specific regions and resorption occurring generally in the dentition. The purpose is to present cases with idiopathic (of unknown origin) root resorption...... occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One...... stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface...

  14. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  15. In vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in soybean by rosemary extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Anghinoni Müller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of nematodes in plants can be challenging, and there is a need for alternative, environmentally conscious methods for their management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis on the in vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in CD 206 and CD 215 soybean cultivars. Using an in vitro assay, 500 M. incognita eggs per plate were observed for 15 days after incubation with rosemary extract at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10%. Soybean plants were studied under greenhouse conditions, and starting at V3 stage, were sprayed weekly with the same concentration of rosemary extract for 64 days. Three days after the first treatment, each soybean plant was inoculated with 1800 eggs and 400 second-stage juveniles (J2. At the end of this essay, number of eggs and J2 in the roots and soil, number of galls, and the reproduction factor (RF were evaluated. Our results showed that in the in vitro assay, rosemary extract reduced the number of M. incognita eggs that hatched. Under greenhouse conditions, the CD 206 cultivar showed a 48% reduction in the number of galls, as well as fewer eggs in the soil and a lower RF. Similarly, in the CD 215 cultivar, the number of eggs was reduced and the RF was lower. These results indicate the potential for rosemary extract to control M. incognita in soybean crops.

  16. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  17. Glyphosate-tolerant soybeans remain compositionally equivalent to conventional soybeans (Glycine max L.) during three years of field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Melinda C; Liu, Keshun; Trujillo, William A; Dobert, Raymond C

    2005-06-29

    Previous studies have shown that the composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS) and selected processed fractions was substantially equivalent to that of conventional soybeans over a wide range of analytes. This study was designed to determine if the composition of GTS remains substantially equivalent to conventional soybeans over the course of several years and when introduced into multiple genetic backgrounds. Soybean seed samples of both GTS and conventional varieties were harvested during 2000, 2001, and 2002 and analyzed for the levels of proximates, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, and isoflavones. The measured analytes are representative of the basic nutritional and biologically active components in soybeans. Results show a similar range of natural variability for the GTS soybeans as well as conventional soybeans. It was concluded that the composition of commercial GTS over the three years of breeding into multiple varieties remains equivalent to that of conventional soybeans.

  18. Oomycete Species Associated with Soybean Seedlings in North America-Part II: Diversity and Ecology in Relation to Environmental and Edaphic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J Alejandro; Jacobs, Janette L; Napieralski, Stephanie; Karaj, Behirda; Bradley, Carl A; Chase, Thomas; Esker, Paul D; Giesler, Loren J; Jardine, Doug J; Malvick, Dean K; Markell, Samuel G; Nelson, Berlin D; Robertson, Alison E; Rupe, John C; Smith, Damon L; Sweets, Laura E; Tenuta, Albert U; Wise, Kiersten A; Chilvers, Martin I

    2017-03-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is produced across a vast swath of North America, with the greatest concentration in the Midwest. Root rot diseases and damping-off are a major concern for production, and the primary causal agents include oomycetes and fungi. In this study, we focused on examination of oomycete species distribution in this soybean production system and how environmental and soil (edaphic) factors correlate with oomycete community composition at early plant growth stages. Using a culture-based approach, 3,418 oomycete isolates were collected from 11 major soybean-producing states and most were identified to genus and species using the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. Pythium was the predominant genus isolated and investigated in this study. An ecology approach was taken to understand the diversity and distribution of oomycete species across geographical locations of soybean production. Metadata associated with field sample locations were collected using geographical information systems. Operational taxonomic units (OTU) were used in this study to investigate diversity by location, with OTU being defined as isolate sequences with 97% identity to one another. The mean number of OTU ranged from 2.5 to 14 per field at the state level. Most OTU in this study, classified as Pythium clades, were present in each field in every state; however, major differences were observed in the relative abundance of each clade, which resulted in clustering of states in close proximity. Because there was similar community composition (presence or absence) but differences in OTU abundance by state, the ordination analysis did not show strong patterns of aggregation. Incorporation of 37 environmental and edaphic factors using vector-fitting and Mantel tests identified 15 factors that correlate with the community composition in this survey. Further investigation using redundancy analysis identified latitude, longitude, precipitation, and temperature

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Juan; Li Xihong; Fan Xuetong; Tang Yao; Xiao Yao; Wan Sen

    2012-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation. - Highlights: ► The objective of this study concerns the elimination of microbial load factors at different radiation dose (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy). ► Investigated the degradation of the gamma irradiation on the reduction of flatulence-causing. ► Indicated the effect of irradiation on the isoflavone and tocopherol contents of the soybeans. ► Evaluated the effect of the gamma irradiation on the sensory properties of soybeans.

  20. Search for Nodulation and Nodule Development-related cystatin genes in the genome of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songli Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nodulation, nodule development and senescence directly affects nitrogen fixation efficiency, and previous studies have shown that inhibition of some cysteine proteases delay nodule senescence, so their nature inhibitors, cystatin genes, are very important in nodulation, nodule development and senescence. Although several cystatins are actively transcribed in soybean nodules, their exact roles and functional diversities in legume have not been well explored in genome-wide survey studies. In this report, we performed a genome-wide survey of cystatin family genes to explore their relationship to nodulation and nodule development in soybean and identified 20 cystatin genes that encode peptides with 97~245 amino acid residues, different isoelectric points (pI and structure characteristics, and various putative plant regulatory elements in 3000 bp putative promoter fragments upstream of the 20 soybean cystatins in response to different abiotic/biotic stresses, hormone signals and symbiosis signals. The expression profiles of these cystatin genes in soybean symbiosis with rhizobium strain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 113-2 revealed that 7 cystatin family genes play different roles in nodulation as well as nodule development and senescence. However, these genes were not root nodule symbiosis (RNS - specific and did not encode special clade cystatin protein with structures related to nodulation and nodule development. Besides, only two of these soybean cystatins were not upregulated in symbiosis after ABA treatment. The functional analysis showed that a candidate gene Glyma.15G227500 (GmCYS16 was likely to play a positive role in soybean nodulation. Besides, evolutionary relationships analysis divided the cystatin genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, rice, barley and four legume plants into three groups. Interestingly, Group A cystatins are special in legume plants, but only include one of the above-mentioned 7 cystatin genes related to

  1. Finite Element Creep-Fatigue Analysis of a Welded Furnace Roll for Identifying Failure Root Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. P.; Mohr, W. C.

    2015-11-01

    Creep-fatigue induced failures are often observed in engineering components operating under high temperature and cyclic loading. Understanding the creep-fatigue damage process and identifying failure root cause are very important for preventing such failures and improving the lifetime of engineering components. Finite element analyses including a heat transfer analysis and a creep-fatigue analysis were conducted to model the cyclic thermal and mechanical process of a furnace roll in a continuous hot-dip coating line. Typically, the roll has a short life, modeling heat convection from hot air inside the furnace. The creep-fatigue analysis was performed by inputting the predicted temperature history and applying mechanical loads. The analysis results showed that the failure was resulted from a creep-fatigue mechanism rather than a creep mechanism. The difference of material properties between the filler metal and the base metal is the root cause for the roll failure, which induces higher creep strain and stress in the interface between the weld and the HAZ.

  2. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR. It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO⁻₃-N than NH⁺₄-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%, Ochrobactrum (13.0%, Spingomonas (6.0% and uncultured bacterium (4.0% by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition.

  3. Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhn, T; Cuhra, M; Traavik, T; Sanden, M; Fagan, J; Primicerio, R

    2014-06-15

    This article describes the nutrient and elemental composition, including residues of herbicides and pesticides, of 31 soybean batches from Iowa, USA. The soy samples were grouped into three different categories: (i) genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soy (GM-soy); (ii) unmodified soy cultivated using a conventional "chemical" cultivation regime; and (iii) unmodified soy cultivated using an organic cultivation regime. Organic soybeans showed the healthiest nutritional profile with more sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, significantly more total protein, zinc and less fibre than both conventional and GM-soy. Organic soybeans also contained less total saturated fat and total omega-6 fatty acids than both conventional and GM-soy. GM-soy contained high residues of glyphosate and AMPA (mean 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg, respectively). Conventional and organic soybean batches contained none of these agrochemicals. Using 35 different nutritional and elemental variables to characterise each soy sample, we were able to discriminate GM, conventional and organic soybeans without exception, demonstrating "substantial non-equivalence" in compositional characteristics for 'ready-to-market' soybeans. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of endogenous allergens in genetically modified soybeans--short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, Gregory S; Budziszewski, Gregory J; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Joshi, Saurabh; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; McClain, Scott; Ward, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of endogenous allergens is required by the European Commission (EC) as part of the compositional analysis for GM products from host plants that are common causes of food allergy, such as soybean (EC Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). In each case, the EC Implementing Regulation indicates that analysis be conducted on identified allergens as specified in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consensus documents on compositional considerations for new plant varieties. This communication discusses the methods available to measure endogenous allergens as well as the endogenous soybean allergens that should be analyzed. It is suggested herein that in conjunction with the 2012 OECD consensus document on soybean, any list of soybean allergens should be based on clinically relevant data among publicly available allergen databases and peer-reviewed scientific publications, and the ability to measure the identified allergen. Based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature, the following key points are recommended: (1) the acceptance of serum-free, quantitative analytical method data as an alternative to traditional IgE reactivity qualitative or semi-quantitative data for evaluation of endogenous soybean allergen content; (2) eight of the 15 potential allergens listed in the OECD soybean consensus document (Gly m 3, Gly m 4, Gly m Bd28K, Gly m Bd30K, Gly m 5, Gly m 6, Gly m 8, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor) have both appropriate supporting clinical data and sufficient sequence information to be evaluated in comparative endogenous soybean allergen studies; and (3) the remaining seven proteins (Gly m 1, Gly m 2, unknown 50kDa protein, unknown 39kDa protein, P-22-25, lipoxygenase and lectin) lack sufficient data for clear classification as confirmed allergens and/or available sequence information and should not be currently included in the measurement of endogenous soybean allergens in the compositional analysis for the EU

  5. EFFECTS OF ZEOLITE AND CADMIUM ON GROWTH AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mahmoodabadi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available   There are areas in the world which are polluted by trace metals some of which may not be degraded by biotic process. Some of these metals might enter into surface and/or underground water resources thus causing serious human and animal health problems. In recent years, natural amendments, such as the use of zeolite, have been widely used to address trace metals contamination. In the present study the effect of zeolite on the growth and nodulation of soybean (Glycine max L. was evaluated. Treatments consisted on factorial combination of three levels of zeolite (0, 2 and 5 g kg-1 and three levels of cadmium (0, 10 and 50 mg kg-1. Cadmium application significantly decreased shoot and root dry weight while its concentration in plant parts was increased. In addition, cadmium application decreased number and dry weight of nodules, and N, K, and Mn concentrations. On the other hand, zeolite application markedly increased number and dry weight of nodules and N, P, K concentrations in shoot, Mn and Cu concentrations in shoot and root. The results from the present study can be used for predicting the efficiency of zeolite application for the remediation of contaminated soils.

  6. Regional Aggressive Root Resorption Caused by Neuronal Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During orthodontic treatment, root resorption can occur unexplainably. No clear distinction has been made between resorption located within specific regions and resorption occurring generally in the dentition. The purpose is to present cases with idiopathic (of unknown origin root resorption occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One of the patients was treated with dental implants. Virus spreading along nerve paths is a possible explanation for the unexpected resorptions. In both cases, the resorptions began cervically. The extent of the resorption processes in the dentition followed the virus infected nerve paths and the resorption process stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface against resorption. Therefore, the normal nerve pattern is important for diagnostics and for predicting the course of severe unexpected root resorption.

  7. Circadian rhythm in ''1''5O-labeled water uptake manner of a soybean plant by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yokota, Harumi; Tanoi, Keitaro; Furukawa, Jun; Ikeue, Natsuko; Ookuni, Yoko; Uchida, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Atsunori

    2001-01-01

    We present a circadian rhythm of water uptake manner in a soybean plant through realtime imaging of water, labeled with 15 O. Nitrogen gas was irradiated with deuterons accelerated by a cyclotron at Hamamatsu Photonics Co. to produce 15 O-labeled water. Then the 15 O-labeled water was supplied to a soybean plant from the root and the realtime water uptake amount was measured for 20 min by Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System (PETIS). All the targeting positions for the measurements were stems, two points at an internode between root and the first leaves, between the first leaves and the first trifoliates and between the first trifoliates and the second trifoliates. The water uptake amount was gradually increased and showed its maximum at around 13:00, especially at the basal part of the stem. Then the water uptake activity was gradually decreased until 17:00. The water amount taken up by a plant at 13:00 was about 40% higher than that at 17:00. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the suitability of root cause analysis frameworks for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers: a systematic review and documentary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Caroline; Drennan, Vari M

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the suitability of root cause analysis frameworks for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers. The objective was to identify the extent to which these frameworks take account of the setting where the ulcer originated as being the person's home rather than a hospital setting. Pressure ulcers involving full-thickness skin loss are increasingly being regarded as indicators of nursing patient safety failure, requiring investigation using root cause analysis frameworks. Evidence suggests that root cause analysis frameworks developed in hospital settings ignore the unique dimensions of risk in home healthcare settings. A systematic literature review and documentary analysis of frameworks used to investigate community-acquired grade three and four pressure ulcers by home nursing services in England. No published papers were identified for inclusion in the review. Fifteen patient safety investigative frameworks were collected and analysed. Twelve of the retrieved frameworks were intended for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers; seven of which took account of the setting where the ulcer originated as being the patient's home. This study provides evidence to suggest that many of the root cause analysis frameworks used to investigate community-acquired pressure ulcers in England are unsuitable for this purpose. This study provides researchers and practitioners with evidence of the need to develop appropriate home nursing root cause analysis frameworks to investigate community-acquired pressure ulcers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Beta-conglycinin and gut histology of sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-GM soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is reported that the soybean protein (Beta-conglycinin) might cause inflammation of the distal intestine and stimulate endogenous cholecystokinin release that suppresses food intake in fish. We are studying the effects of meals made from new strains of non-GMO soybeans with high protein and redu...

  10. Partial improvements in the flavor quality of soybean seeds using intercropping systems with appropriate shading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Yang, Cai-qiong; Zhang, Qing; Lou, Ying; Wu, Hai-jun; Deng, Jun-cai; Yang, Feng; Yang, Wen-yu

    2016-09-15

    The profiles of isoflavone and fatty acids constitute important quality traits in soybean seeds, for making soy-based functional food products, due to their important contributions to the flavor and nutritional value of these products. In general, the composition of these constituents in raw soybeans is affected by cultivation factors, such as sunlight; however, the relationship of the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles with cultivation factors is not well understood. This study evaluated the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles in soybeans grown under a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system with different row spacings, and with changes in the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) transmittance. The effects of PAR on the isoflavone and fatty acid contents were found to be quadratic. Appropriate intercropping shading may reduce the bitterness of soybeans caused by soy aglycone and could improve their fatty acid composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The root causes of ineffective and inefficient healthcare technology management in Benin public health sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houngbo, T.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Bunders- Aelen, J.G.F.; Coleman, H.L.S.; Medenou, D.; Dakpanon, L.Y.; de Cock Buning, Tjard

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the root causes and solutions of main problems facing Healthcare Technology Management in Benin׳s public health sector. Conducted in Benin from 2008 to 2010, two surveys were used with key actors in Healthcare Technology Management. The first survey was based on 377

  12. Root Causes of Field Emitters in SRF Cavities Placed in CEBAF Tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Rongli

    2016-05-01

    It has been suspected that appearance of new field emitters can occur in SRF cavities after their placement in accelerator tunnel for long term beam operation. This apparently has been the case for CEBAF. However, no physical evidence has been shown in the past. In this contribution, we will report on the recent results concerning the root cause of field emitters in SRF cavities placed in CEBAF tunnel. We will discuss these results in the context of high-reliability and low-cryogenic-loss operation of CEBAF.

  13. Next-generation sequencing to identify candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers for a novel Phytophthora resistance gene, RpsHC18, in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chao; Sun, Suli; Li, Yinping; Duan, Canxing; Zhu, Zhendong

    2018-03-01

    A novel Phytophthora sojae resistance gene RpsHC18 was identified and finely mapped on soybean chromosome 3. Two NBS-LRR candidate genes were identified and two diagnostic markers of RpsHC18 were developed. Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora sojae is a destructive disease of soybean. The most effective disease-control strategy is to deploy resistant cultivars carrying Phytophthora-resistant Rps genes. The soybean cultivar Huachun 18 has a broad and distinct resistance spectrum to 12 P. sojae isolates. Quantitative trait loci sequencing (QTL-seq), based on the whole-genome resequencing (WGRS) of two extreme resistant and susceptible phenotype bulks from an F 2:3 population, was performed, and one 767-kb genomic region with ΔSNP-index ≥ 0.9 on chromosome 3 was identified as the RpsHC18 candidate region in Huachun 18. The candidate region was reduced to a 146-kb region by fine mapping. Nonsynonymous SNP and haplotype analyses were carried out in the 146-kb region among ten soybean genotypes using WGRS. Four specific nonsynonymous SNPs were identified in two nucleotide-binding sites-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes, RpsHC18-NBL1 and RpsHC18-NBL2, which were considered to be the candidate genes. Finally, one specific SNP marker in each candidate gene was successfully developed using a tetra-primer ARMS-PCR assay, and the two markers were verified to be specific for RpsHC18 and to effectively distinguish other known Rps genes. In this study, we applied an integrated genomic-based strategy combining WGRS with traditional genetic mapping to identify RpsHC18 candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers. These results suggest that next-generation sequencing is a precise, rapid and cost-effective way to identify candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers, and it can accelerate Rps gene cloning and marker-assisted selection for breeding of P. sojae-resistant soybean cultivars.

  14. Natural occurrence of heavy metal, fungi and mycotoxins in soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Heavy metals are a definite human health hazard be- cause of their .... The mean values of nutrient composition of the soybean meal samples ..... A food borne disease outbreak due to the consumption of moldy sorghum and.

  15. Gamma Radiation-Induced Mutations in Soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of soybean radiation experiments was to create genetic variability in soybeans of various cultivars, mutants and mutation-derived lines with the aim of producing superior breeding lines with resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyhrizi Syd.) It took altogether 12 generations over six years after gamma irradiation if soybean seeds to produce the best resistant line (81-1-038) which a variety could be developed from it. This Line 81-1-038 showed a very good specific resistance to soybean rust, Thai race 2 and moderately resistance to Thai race 1. In the rainy season of 1985, Line 81-1-038 out yielded S.J.4 (a mother line) by 868 kg/ha in a yield trail at Suwan Farm, Pak Chong, Nakorn Rajchasima. This soybean rust mutant was later named D oi Kham

  16. Study of a new alternative antioxidant in soybean plants subjected to abiotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilli, C.; Santa Cruz, D.; Caggiano, E.; Romanello, M.; Tomaro, M.; Balestrasse, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently, demonstrated that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role for soybean plants against oxidative stress produced by cadmium and UV-B radiation. At this moment we propose to investigate if the enzyme has the same capacity against another type of abiotic stress, such as drought, for to demonstrate that heme oxygenase acts as an enzyme of plant antioxidant defense system under several different stress situations, as occur in mammalian tissues. To carry out this objective we propose to study, in leaf, root and nodule of soybean plants, the oxidative stress generation; the behavior of classical antioxidant system; the behavior of HO-1 activity and protein and gene expression; the effect of its reaction products and inhibitors on the oxidative stress parameters; the signaling mechanism that produce HO-1 induction and the immunohistochemistry localization of the enzyme in the different plant tissues. The results obtained let us undoubtedly demonstrate the involvement of HO-1 in the antioxidant defense system in plants. This finding will allow the increase in the knowledge of the defense mechanisms in interesting economic plants for our country, such as soybean, and against drought, an abiotic stress considered one of the most important factors limiting plant performance and yield worldwide. (authors)

  17. Correlation maps to assess soybean yield from EVI data in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce Kelly Dantas Araújo Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vegetation indices are widely used to monitor crop development and generally used as input data in models to forecast yield. The first step of this study consisted of using monthly Maximum Value Composites to create correlation maps using Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor mounted on Terra satellite and historical yield during the soybean crop cycle in Paraná State, Brazil, from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. We compared the ability of forecasting crop yield based on correlation maps and crop specific masks. We ran a preliminary regression model to test its ability on yield estimation for four municipalities during the soybean growing season. A regression model was developed for both methodologies to forecast soybean crop yield using leave-one-out cross validation. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE values in the implementation of the model ranged from 0.037 t ha−1 to 0.19 t ha−1 using correlation maps, while for crop specific masks, it varied from 0.21 t ha−1 to 0.35 t ha−1. The model was able to explain 96 % to 98 % of the variance in estimated yield from correlation maps, while it was able to explain only 2 % to 67 % for crop specific mask approach. The results showed that the correlation maps could be used to predict crop yield more effectively than crop specific masks. In addition, this method can provide an indication of soybean yield prior to harvesting.

  18. [Endodontic treatment of a periapical lesion causing root separation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    A case is presented of a periapical lesion of a rather large size, which produced an important separation of two inferior incisor roots. The root canal was treated, with calcium hydroxide overextending the apex. Clinic and radiographic control after two years complete reparation of the periapex.

  19. Genetic architecture of wild soybean (Glycine soja) response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Song, Qijian; Griffin, Joshua D; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Host-plant resistance is an environmentally friendly method to mitigate SCN damage. To date, the resistant soybean cultivars harbor limited genetic variation, and some are losing resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of the SCN resistance, as well as developing diverse resistant soybean cultivars, is urgently needed. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 1032 wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions with over 42,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to understand the genetic architecture of G. soja resistance to SCN race 1. Ten SNPs were significantly associated with the response to race 1. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 were localized within the previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and two of which were localized within a strong linkage disequilibrium block encompassing a nucleotide-binding (NB)-ARC disease resistance gene (Glyma.18G102600). Genes encoding methyltransferases, the calcium-dependent signaling protein, the leucine-rich repeat kinase family protein, and the NB-ARC disease resistance protein, were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes can not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying SCN resistance, but also can facilitate soybean improvement employing wild genetic resources.

  20. An Analysis of Adverse Events in the Rehabilitation Department: Using the Veterans Affairs Root Cause Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagley, Gregory W; Mills, Peter D; Shiner, Brian; Hemphill, Robin R

    2018-04-01

    Root cause analyses (RCA) are often completed in health care settings to determine causes of adverse events (AEs). RCAs result in action plans designed to mitigate future patient harm. National reviews of RCA reports have assessed the safety of numerous health care settings and suggested opportunities for improvement. However, few studies have assessed the safety of receiving care from physical therapists, occupational therapists, or speech and language pathology pathologists. The objective of this study was to determine the types of AEs, root causes, and action plans for risk mitigation that exist within the disciplines of rehabilitation medicine. This study is a retrospective, cross-sectional review. A national search of the Veterans Health Administration RCA database was conducted to identify reports describing AEs associated with physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech and language pathology services between 2009 and May 2016. Twenty-five reports met the inclusion requirements. The reports were classified by the event type, root cause, action plans, and strength of action plans. Delays in care (32.0%) and falls (28.0%) were the most common type of AE. Three AEs resulted in death. RCA teams identified deficits regarding policy and procedures as the most common root cause. Eighty-eight percent of RCA reports included strong or intermediate action plans to mitigate risk. Strong action plans included standardizing emergency terminology and implementing a dedicated line to call for an emergency response. These data are self-reported and only AEs that are scored as a safety assessment code 3 in the system receive a full RCA, so there are likely AEs that were not captured in this study. In addition, the RCA reports are deidentified and so do not include all patient characteristics. As the Veterans Health Administration system services mostly men, the data might not generalize to non-Veterans Health Administration systems with a different patient mix. Care

  1. The root cause analysis of 9DVN002ZV fan failure in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Jianjun; Zhang Mingjia

    2005-01-01

    Extensive investigations and detailed analysis of the failure reason of 9DVN002ZV fan in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station showed that the fan destroy was caused by the failure of non-drive end bear. The direct cause of this bearing' failure was its improper assembly caused by improper maintenance procedure, and the root cause was too small internal radial clearance after mounting. The factor affecting bearing internal radial clearance, the relationship between clearance and operating life time and fan failure process were discussed. (authors)

  2. Immunodetection of nucleolar proteins and ultrastructure of nucleoli of soybean root meristematic cells treated with chilling stress and after recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepiński, Dariusz

    2009-03-01

    The nucleolar proteins, fibrillarin and nucleophosmin, have been identified immunofluorescently in the root meristematic cells of soybean seedlings under varying experimental conditions: at 25 degrees C (control), chilling at 10 degrees C for 3 h and 4 days and recovery from the chilling stress at 25 degrees C. In each experimental variant, the immunofluorescence signals were present solely at the nucleolar territories. Fluorescent staining for both proteins was mainly in the shape of circular domains that are assumed to correspond to the dense fibrillar component of the nucleoli. The fewest fluorescent domains were observed in the nucleoli of chilled plants, and the highest number was observed in the plants recovered after chilling. This difference in the number of circular domains in the nucleoli of each variant may indicate various levels of these proteins in each variant. Both the number of circular domains and the level of these nucleolar proteins changed with changes in the transcriptional activity of the nucleoli, with the more metabolically active cell having higher numbers of active areas in the nucleolus and higher levels of nucleolar proteins, and conversely. Electron microscopic studies revealed differences in the ultrastructure of the nucleoli in all experimental variants and confirmed that the number of fibrillar centres surrounded by dense fibrillar component was the lowest in the nucleoli of chilled plants, and the highest in the nucleoli of recovered seedlings.

  3. Evaluation of four improved soybean varieties under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... emergence of soybean seeds in the field from year to year such that plant population densities cannot be met. (McGee et al., 1980). The causes of these problems include the use of poor quality seeds (Nangju et al.,. 1980), poor storage conditions (Delouche, 1981), increased incidence of seed-borne ...

  4. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kanobe

    Full Text Available The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of "metabolic hijacking" by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor.

  5. Automated electronic reminders to prevent miscommunication among primary medical, surgical and anaesthesia providers: a root cause analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, Robert E; Grondin, Louise; Tremper, Kevin K; Saran, Kelly A; Kheterpal, Sachin

    2012-10-01

    In this case report, the authors present an adverse event possibly caused by miscommunication among three separate medical teams at their hospital. The authors then discuss the hospital's root cause analysis and its proposed solutions, focusing on the subsequent hospital-wide implementation of an automated electronic reminder for abnormal laboratory values that may have helped to prevent similar medical errors.

  6. Root Cause Analysis and Productivity Improvement Of An Apparel Industry In Bangladesh Through Kaizen Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taposh Kumar Kapuria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Garments industry is playing the pioneering role in improving Bangladesh economic condition. It was started in late 1970’s and now the leading foreign currency earner for Bangladesh. It’s no dubiousness to say that, the Bangladesh garment industry is ameliorating garment’s service quality and innovative design features to exist in the global competitive market. Global competition in the garment’s market is changing day to day. Leading garment manufacturer from all over the world are adopting new innovative features and techniques to sustain global fierce competitive market. But the point is, Bangladeshi garment manufacturers are not lingered. They are also emphasizing on better service quality by adding latest design features and using the latest technologies to the garments. The sole purpose of this paper is to identify the root causes of sewing defects of an apparel industry in Bangladesh and continuous improvement in reducing the defects through Kaizen (Continuous Improvement system. In short, productivity improvement of the apparel industry. Our studied garment manufacturing company is “ABONTI Color Tex. Ltd.”. Pareto Analysis is used to identify the top defect items. Cause-Effect Analysis helped to identify the root causes of sewing defects. Then, Kaizen is used for continuous improvement of the minimization of sewing defects.

  7. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the following...

  8. Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of common beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-processing methods caused significant (pbean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal processing. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different processing methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal processing caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  10. Management of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines with combinations of different rhizobacterial strains on soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhou

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN is the most damaging soybean pest worldwide. To improve soybean resistance to SCN, we employed a soybean seed-coating strategy through combination of three rhizobacterial strains, including Bacillus simple, B. megaterium and Sinarhizobium fredii at various ratios. We found seed coating by such rhizobacterial strains at a ratio of 3:1:1 (thereafter called SN101 produced the highest germination rate and the mortality of J2 of nematodes. Then, the role of soybean seed coating by SN101 in nematode control was evaluated under both greenhouse and two field conditions in Northeast China in 2013 and 2014. Our results showed that SN101 treatment greatly reduced SCN reproduction and significantly promoted plant growth and yield production in both greenhouse and field trials, suggesting that SN101 is a promising seed-coating agent that may be used as an alternative bio-nematicide for controlling SCN in soybean fields. Our findings also demonstrate that combination of multiple rhizobacterial strains needs to be considered in the seed coating for better management of plant nematodes.

  11. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-08-01

    foxtail (Setaria viridis L., foxtail grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds, and red root pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. in the experimental field. The other weed was considered as the others. At the soybean canopy closure stage, a vertical card board frame marked in 20-cm increments was used in the field as a guide to cut standing plants including soybean, cover crops and weeds. In each vertical layer of canopy, leaves and stem samples were separated. The leaf area both crops and weeds were measured with a leaf area meter LICOR-3000A (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE, USA. Stem and leaf samples oven dried. Results and discussion The results showed that the maximum leaf area and dry matter of soybean was varied in different layers of canopy depending on the type of cover crop and cover crop planting time, while delaying in planting of cover crop causes lower leaf area and dry matter than the plants were planted at the same time with soybean. In most cases, the maximum leaf area index and dry matter accumulation of weeds were obtained in primary layer (0-20 cm. The maximum weed leaf area (290.4 cm2 was observed in simultaneous planting of soybean with fenugreek and maximum of total weed dry matter (12.4 g.plant-1 was observed in soybean without weeding, while the minimum of weed total leaf area and total weed dry matter (0 cm2 and 0 g.plant-1, respectively was achieved in planting of winter vetch after 21 days of soybean planting. Also delayed planting of winter vetch produced the maximum grain yield (3792.6 kg.ha-1 of soybean in weedy plots, where it had the greatest weed suppressive ability than other cover crops. Conclusion Winter vetch can suppress weed with competition and allelopathic mechanism, so we can conclude that winter vetch planting21 days after soybean planting is suitable replacement for weed suppression in sustainable agriculture.

  12. Characteristics of superior soybean breeding lines tolerance to rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Inayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi is one of the most important diseases which limits soybean production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of 28 superior soybean lines and their tolerance to rust. The study was conducted at a screen house and arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD; three replications. All genotypes tested were artificially inoculated with P. pachyrhizi, and a set of un-inoculated genotypes was planted as a comparison. Number of pustules was recorded weekly, and resistant criteria was rated based on the International working group on soybean rust IWGSR method. Lesion color (LC, sporulation level (SL, number of uredia (NoU, frequency of pustule which had uredia, and yield were also recorded. Among 28 genotypes tested, only one was categorized as resistant and 2 genotypes were susceptible. Resistant genotypes had few pustules, lower AUDPC values, low disease severity, and Reddish Brown lesion type. Soybean rust affected yield components, i.e. number of intact pods and yield per plant. Yield loses due to rust in this study varied from 5-89%, and the average was 51%. The set of lines from Tanggamus pedigree showed more resistant to rust but less tolerant compared to Sinabung pedigree.How to CiteInayati, A., & Yusnawan, E. (2016. Characteristics of superior soybean breeding lines tolerancet to rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 47-55.

  13. Genome-wide identification of soybean microRNA responsive to soybean cyst nematodes infection by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Wang, Shichen; Todd, Timothy C; Johnson, Charles D; Tang, Guiliang; Trick, Harold N

    2017-08-02

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is one of the most devastating diseases limiting soybean production worldwide. It is known that small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), play important roles in regulating plant growth and development, defense against pathogens, and responses to environmental changes. In order to understand the role of soybean miRNAs during SCN infection, we analyzed 24 small RNA libraries including three biological replicates from two soybean cultivars (SCN susceptible KS4607, and SCN HG Type 7 resistant KS4313N) that were grown under SCN-infested and -noninfested soil at two different time points (SCN feeding establishment and egg production). In total, 537 known and 70 putative novel miRNAs in soybean were identified from a total of 0.3 billion reads (average about 13.5 million reads for each sample) with the programs of Bowtie and miRDeep2 mapper. Differential expression analyses were carried out using edgeR to identify miRNAs involved in the soybean-SCN interaction. Comparative analysis of miRNA profiling indicated a total of 60 miRNAs belonging to 25 families that might be specifically related to cultivar responses to SCN. Quantitative RT-PCR validated similar miRNA interaction patterns as sequencing results. These findings suggest that miRNAs are likely to play key roles in soybean response to SCN. The present work could provide a framework for miRNA functional identification and the development of novel approaches for improving soybean SCN resistance in future studies.

  14. Effects of inoculation with organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max) growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yang; Duan, Man-Li

    2017-05-01

    Three different organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) strains were inoculated to soil planted with soybean (Glycine max), and their effects on soybean growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity were investigated. Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens Z4-1 and Brevibacillus agri L7-1 increased organic phosphorus degradation by 22% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control at the mature stage. Strains P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 significantly improved the soil alkaline phosphatase activity, average well color development, and the soybean root activity. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could persist in the soil at relative abundances of 2.0%-6.4% throughout soybean growth. Thus, P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could potentially be used in organic-phosphorus-mineralizing biofertilizers. OPMB inoculation altered the genetic structure of the soil bacterial communities but had no apparent influence on the carbon source utilization profiles of the soil bacterial communities. Principal components analysis showed that the changes in the carbon source utilization profiles of bacterial community depended mainly on the plant growth stages rather than inoculation with OPMB. The results help to understand the evolution of the soil bacterial community after OPMB inoculation.

  15. Vernonia DGATs can complement the disrupted oil and protein metabolism in epoxygenase-expressing soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Tateno, Mizuki; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Hildebrand, David F

    2012-01-01

    Plant oils can be useful chemical feedstocks such as a source of epoxy fatty acids. High seed-specific expression of a Stokesia laevis epoxygenase (SlEPX) in soybeans only results in 3-7% epoxide levels. SlEPX-transgenic soybean seeds also exhibited other phenotypic alterations, such as altered seed fatty acid profiles, reduced oil accumulation, and variable protein levels. SlEPX-transgenic seeds showed a 2-5% reduction in total oil content and protein levels of 30.9-51.4%. To address these pleiotrophic effects of SlEPX expression on other traits, transgenic soybeans were developed to co-express SlEPX and DGAT (diacylglycerol acyltransferase) genes (VgDGAT1 & 2) isolated from Vernonia galamensis, a high accumulator of epoxy fatty acids. These side effects of SlEPX expression were largely overcome in the DGAT co-expressing soybeans. Total oil and protein contents were restored to the levels in non-transgenic soybeans, indicating that both VgDGAT1 and VgDGAT2 could complement the disrupted phenotypes caused by over-expression of an epoxygenase in soybean seeds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Silicon application to the soil on soybean yield and seed physiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of quality seeds, balanced plant nutrition and the adoption of adequate cultivation techniques are critical to the success of the soybean crop. Use of silicon (Si is a clean technology from an environmental point of view, which can confer several benefits to the plants as stimulate growth and plant production, improve tolerance of plants to attack by insects and diseases, reduce perspiration and increase the photosynthetic rate and protect against abiotic stresses. The goal was to evaluate the effect of soil Si application derived from rice husk ash on the agronomic characteristics, productivity and physiological quality of soybean cultivars seeds. The experiment was conducted in pots of 18 L filled with soil, under a randomized block design with four replications. The soybean cultivars were BMX Turbo RR and NA 5909 RR, grown under five doses of silicon (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 t ha-1. Agronomic traits and seed yield were evaluated (total number of pods on branches, total number of seeds on the branches, the total number of pods on the main stem, total number of seeds on the main stem, total number of pods per plant, total number of seeds per plant, seed weight per plant and seed weight of 1000. Physiological seed quality was evaluated by germination and vigor tests (first count of germination, cold test, accelerated aging, shoot length and root. The soil application of silicon is beneficial for the soybean crop, improving the main agronomic characteristics (total number of pods on branches, total number of seeds in the branches, total number of pods per plant, weight of seeds per plant and increasing seed yield per plant in soybean cultivar BMX Turbo RR. The mass of a thousand seeds is positively influenced by the dose of 1.67 t ha-1 for the cultivar BMX Turbo RR and up to a dose of 2.32 t ha-1 for the cultivar NA 5909 RR. Cultivar BMX Turbo RR seed vigor is increased with the use of silicon in the soil.

  17. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  18. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  19. Effect of root exudates of various plants on composition of bacteria and fungi communities with special regard to pathogenic soil-borne fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Piętka; Elżbieta Patkowska

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the studies conducted in the years 1996 - 1998 was to determine the composition of bacteria and fungi populations in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, spring wheat, soybean and potato, and in non-rhizosphere soil. Besides, the effect of root exudates of these plants on the formation of pathogenic fungi communities was established. The microbiological analysis showed that the greatest tolal number of bacteria was found in the rhizospheres of potato and soybean, and the lowest num...

  20. The root caused analysis of leakaged heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Salleh, M.A.A. Mohd; Rahmat, Azmi; Anuar, Mohd Arif; Harun, Mohd; Zayid, Hafizal; Noor, Mazlee Mohd

    2015-01-01

    AISI type 316L stainless steel was used as a heat exchanger tube material in an inter-cooler column. After less than a year of operation, severe corrosion failures occurred and a transverse opening leakage was observed on one of the heat exchanger tubes. The failed tube was carefully analyzed using various metallurgical laboratory equipments. The root cause of the tube leakage was believed due to the presence of horizontal micro and macro pores as a hydrogen gas entrapment during casting of the parent ingot. The overlapped and gaping pores formed notch on the shell side of the tube surface, and it increasingly evident when the use of a high-energy water-jet and metal brush as cleaning procedure results in an establishment of pitting type local-action corrosion cells penetrated the tube wall. As a result, corrosive fluid in the tube side dissolved into the cooling water, accelerating the corrosion process.

  1. Genetic improvement of soybean through induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.; Nandanwar, R.S.; Thengane, R.J.; Muthiah, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) is one of the important oilseed crops of India. The country produces more than 9.00 million tonnes of soybean per annum and has acquired first place amongst oilseed crops grown in India. Narrow genetic base of cultivated varieties in soybean is of global concern. Efficient mutant production systems, through physical or chemical mutagenesis, have been well established in soybean. A vast amount of genetic variability, of both quantitative and qualitative traits, has been generated through experimental mutagenesis. Two soybean varieties TAMS-38 and TAMS 98-21 have been developed and released for commercial cultivation by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). In this paper the role of mutation breeding in soybean improvement has been discussed. (author)

  2. Germinaton performance of selected local soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrills) cultivars during drought stress induced by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, R. F.; Damanik, R. I.; Khardinata, E. H.

    2018-02-01

    Drought stress is one of the factors that can decreased growth and production, so that required a variety that has the ability to sustain cellular metabolism, and growth during the stress. This research was aimed to investigated the involvement of germination performance invitro of five local soybean cultivars, Grobogan, Kaba, Anjasmoro, Argomulyo, and Dering to drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6%). The measurable seedling traits as the day appearance of shoots and roots, total of leaves, shoot length, root length, fresh plant weight, dry plant weight, fresh root weight, and dry root weight under control as well as water stress condition were recorded. The experiment units were arranged in factorial completely randomized design with four replications. The result showed that the value for most parameters was recorded highest for Argomulyo cultivar compared with Dering cultivar which is known to be tolerant to drought. In terms of roots performance, Grobogan and Argomulyo cultivars produced the longest and heaviest of roots, while Grobogan cultivar had no significant different for root length compared with control. In conclusion, the root length and fresh weight root parameters can be used as quick criteria for drought tolerance.

  3. Transcript profiling of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. using the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronwald John W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and soybean (Glycine max both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. This suggests that the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array (soybean GeneChip may be used for gene expression studies using common bean. Results To evaluate the utility of the soybean GeneChip for transcript profiling of common bean, we hybridized cRNAs purified from nodule, leaf, and root of common bean and soybean in triplicate to the soybean GeneChip. Initial data analysis showed a decreased sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression in common bean cross-species hybridization (CSH GeneChip data compared to that of soybean. We employed a method that masked putative probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions between common bean and soybean. A masking signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression. After masking for ISV regions, the number of differentially-expressed genes identified in common bean was increased by 2.8-fold reflecting increased sensitivity. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of 20 randomly selected genes and purine-ureide pathway genes demonstrated an increased accuracy of measuring differential gene expression after masking for ISV regions. We also evaluated masked probe frequency per probe set to gain insight into the sequence divergence pattern between common bean and soybean. The sequence divergence pattern analysis suggested that the genes for basic cellular functions and metabolism were highly conserved between soybean and common bean. Additionally, our results show that some classes of genes, particularly those associated with environmental adaptation, are highly divergent. Conclusions The soybean GeneChip is a suitable cross-species platform for transcript profiling in common bean when used in combination with the masking protocol described. In

  4. Avaliação nutricional e desempenho da silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral em dietas para suínos - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8055 Nutritional evaluation and performance of cassava root silage with or without whole soybean in swine diets - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8055

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Levi Oliveira Carvalho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar o valor nutritivo e o desempenho de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total, alimentados com dietas formuladas com silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral. No primeiro, foram utilizados 15 suínos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas (animais subdivididas no tempo (subparcelas, totalizando cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os alimentos avaliados foram silagem de raiz de mandioca (MA, silagem de raiz de mandioca com inoculante (MI, silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral (MS e silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral com inoculante (MSI. As silagens apresentaram bons valores nutritivos e o uso de inoculante não foi efetivo para melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. No segundo, foram utilizados 36 suínos mestiços, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com restrição na casualização para duas classes de peso inicial, com três tratamentos, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em ração-testemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja (RT e outras duas com substituição total do milho por MA e MS. Para fase de crescimento, a conversão alimentar melhorou com o uso das silagens. Conclui-se que as silagens de mandioca, contendo ou não soja integral, apresentam bons valores nutritivos e podem substituir totalmente o milho na ração de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total. alimentos alternativos; amido; desempenho; digestibilidade; valores energéticosTwo experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and performance of growing and total-period swine fed cassava root silage with or without whole soybean. In the first group, 15 crossbred swine were used, in a completely randomized design with parcels (animals subdivided in time (subparcels with five treatments and six replications. The study evaluated cassava root silage (CA

  5. Laura: Soybean variety lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain of conventional soybean varieties requires heat processing to break down trypsin inhibitor's activity before using as food or animal feed. At the same time, protein denaturation and other qualitative changes occur in soybean grain, especially if the temperature of heating is not controlled. Two types of trypsin inhibitor were found in soybean grain the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mature grain of soybean Laura is lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Grain yield of variety Laura is equal to high yielding varieties from the maturity group I, where it belongs. Lacking of Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor makes soybean grain suitable for direct feeding in adult non ruminant animals without previous thermal processing. Grain of variety Laura can be processed for a shorter period of time than conventional soybeans. This way we save energy, and preserve valuable nutritional composition of soybean grain, which is of interest in industrial processing.

  6. Identification of reference genes for expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR in drought-stressed soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stolf-Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to validate, by quantitative PCR in real time (RT-qPCR, genes to be used as reference in studies of gene expression in soybean in drought-stressed trials. Four genes commonly used in soybean were evaluated: Gmβ-actin, GmGAPDH, GmLectin and GmRNAr18S. Total RNA was extracted from six samples: three from roots in a hydroponic system with different drought intensities (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 minutes of water stress, and three from leaves of plants grown in sand with different soil moistures (15, 5 and 2.5% gravimetric humidity. The raw cycle threshold (Ct data were analyzed, and the efficiency of each primer was calculated for an overall analysis of the Ct range among the different samples. The GeNorm application was used to evaluate the best reference gene, according to its stability. The GmGAPDH was the least stable gene, with the highest mean values of expression stability (M, and the most stable genes, with the lowest M values, were the Gmβ-actin and GmRNAr18S, when both root and leaves samples were tested. These genes can be used in RT-qPCR as reference gene for expression analysis.

  7. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  8. Multiple loci condition seed transmission of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and SMV-induced seed coat mottling in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, Leslie L; Hobbs, Houston A; McCoppin, Nancy K; Bowen, Charles R; Steinlage, Todd A; Chang, Sungyul; Wang, Yi; Hartman, Glen L

    2011-06-01

    Infection of soybean plants with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), which is transmitted by aphids and through seed, can cause significant reductions in seed production and quality. Because seedborne infections are the primary sources of inoculum for SMV infections in North America, host-plant resistance to seed transmission can limit the pool of plants that can serve as sources of inoculum. To examine the inheritance of SMV seed transmission in soybean, crosses were made between plant introductions (PIs) with high (PI88799), moderate (PI60279), and low (PI548391) rates of transmission of SMV through seed. In four F(2) populations, SMV seed transmission segregated as if conditioned by two or more genes. Consequently, a recombinant inbred line population was derived from a cross between PIs 88799 and 548391 and evaluated for segregation of SMV seed transmission, seed coat mottling, and simple sequence repeat markers. Chromosomal regions on linkage groups C1 and C2 were significantly associated with both transmission of isolate SMV 413 through seed and SMV-induced seed coat mottling, and explained ≈42.8 and 46.4% of the variability in these two traits, respectively. Chromosomal regions associated with seed transmission and seed coat mottling contained homologues of Arabidopsis genes DCL3 and RDR6, which encode enzymes involved in RNA-mediated transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  9. Soybean phytase and nucleic acid encoding the same

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Isolated soybean phytase polypeptides and isolated nucleic acids encoding soybean phytases are provided. The invention is also directed to nucleic acid expression constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the isolated soybean phytase nucleic acids, as well as methods for producing recombinant and non-recombinant purified soybean phytase. The invention also relates to transgenic plants expressing the soybean phytase, particularly expression under seed-specific expression control elements.

  10. INTERCROPPING OF BRAQUIARIA WITH SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnara, Deise Dalazen; Bulegon, Lucas Guilherme; Zoz, Tiago [UNESP; Rossol, Charles Douglas; Berte, Luiz Neri; Rabello de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio; Neres, Marcela Abbado

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the intercropping of Brachiaria brizantha. Marandu with soybeans. The experiment has been planted in a 3 year prevailing area with no-tillage, in eutrophic Oxisol at Maripa - PR. The experimental design was a randomized block with five replications. For the forage study, four treatments were performed which consisted of seeding times brachiaria [early ( seven days before planting soybeans) joint (same day of soybean planting) and after (at stages V-3 an...

  11. Making sense of root cause analysis investigations of surgery-related adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassin, Bryce R; Barach, Paul R

    2012-02-01

    This article discusses the limitations of root cause analysis (RCA) for surgical adverse events. Making sense of adverse events involves an appreciation of the unique features in a problematic situation, which resist generalization to other contexts. The top priority of adverse event investigations must be to inform the design of systems that help clinicians to adapt and respond effectively in real time to undesirable combinations of design, performance, and circumstance. RCAs can create opportunities in the clinical workplace for clinicians to reflect on local barriers and identify enablers of safe and reliable outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Agrobacterium rhizogenes - based transformation of soybean roots to form composite plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite plants are a powerful tool to rapidly analyze the effects of gene overexpression, gene silencing, and examine test promoter expression in transgenic roots. No sterile tissue culture is needed. This avoids loss of valuable material due to contamination of sterile cultures. This method uses ...

  13. Comparison of soybean cultivars for enhancement of the polyamine contents in the fermented soybean natto using Bacillus subtilis (natto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Horii, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kubo, Yuji; Koguchi, Kumiko; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Soda, Kuniyasu

    2017-03-01

    Polyamines have beneficial properties to prevent aging-associated diseases. Raw soybean has relatively high polyamine contents; and the fermented soybean natto is a good source of polyamines. However, detailed information of diversity of polyamine content in raw soybean is lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of polyamines among raw soybeans and select the high polyamine-containing cultivar for natto production. Polyamine contents were measured chromatographically in 16 samples of soybean, which showed high variation among soybeans as follows: 93-861 nmol/g putrescine, 1055-2306 nmol/g spermidine, and 177-578 nmol/g spermine. We then confirmed the high correlations of polyamine contents between raw soybean and natto (r = 0.96, 0.95, and 0.94 for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively). Furthermore, comparison of the polyamine contents among 9 Japanese cultivars showed that 'Nakasen-nari' has the highest polyamine contents, suggesting its suitability for enhancement of polyamine contents of natto.

  14. Root cause analysis of oxide scale forming and shedding in high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Jiang; Hao, Weidong; Hu, Zhihong; Liu, Fuguo

    2015-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of over temperature tube-burst caused by oxide scale shedding and blocking tubes of high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure power plant boiler, this paper expounds the mechanism of scale forming and shedding, and analyzes the probable causes of the tube-burst failure. The results show that the root cause of scale forming is that greater steam extraction flow after reforming of the second extraction leads to less steam flow into reheater, which causes over temperature to some of the heated tubes; and the root cause of scale shedding is that long term operation in AGC-R mode brings about great fluctuations of unit load, steam temperature and pressure, accelerating scale shedding. In conclusion, preventive measures are drawn up considering the operation mode of the unit.

  15. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  16. Identification of wild soybean (Glycine soja) TIFY family genes and their expression profiling analysis under bicarbonate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-02-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja L. G07256) exhibits a greater adaptability to soil bicarbonate stress than cultivated soybean, and recent discoveries show that TIFY family genes are involved in the response to several abiotic stresses. A genomic and transcriptomic analysis of all TIFY genes in G. soja, compared with G. max, will provide insight into the function of this gene family in plant bicarbonate stress response. This article identified and characterized 34 TIFY genes in G. soja. Sequence analyses indicated that most GsTIFY proteins had two conserved domains: TIFY and Jas. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that these GsTIFY genes could be classified into two groups. A clustering analysis of all GsTIFY transcript expression profiles from bicarbonate stress treated G. soja showed that there were five different transcript patterns in leaves and six different transcript patterns in roots when the GsTIFY family responds to bicarbonate stress. Moreover, the expression level changes of all TIFY genes in cultivated soybean, treated with bicarbonate stress, were also verified. The expression comparison analysis of TIFYs between wild and cultivated soybeans confirmed that, different from the cultivated soybean, GsTIFY (10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f, 11a, and 11b) were dramatically up-regulated at the early stage of stress, while GsTIFY 1c and 2b were significantly up-regulated at the later period of stress. The frequently stress responsive and diverse expression profiles of the GsTIFY gene family suggests that this family may play important roles in plant environmental stress responses and adaptation.

  17. Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of Hydroxylated Soybean Lecithin from Crude Soybean Lecithin as an Emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplunkar, Pranali P; Pratap, Amit P

    2017-10-01

    Soybean lecithin is a by-product obtained during degumming step of crude soybean oil refining. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) contains major amount of phospholipids (PLs) along with minor amount of acylglycerols, bioactive components, etc. Due to presence of PLs, CSL can be used as an emulsifier. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) was utilized to synthesize hydroxylated soybean lecithin (HSL) by hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide and catalytic amount of lactic acid to enhance the hydrophilicity and emulsifying properties of CSL. To reduce the reaction time and to increase rate of reaction, HSL was synthesized under ultrasound irradiation. The effect of different operating parameters such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle in synthesis of HSL were studied and optimized. The surface tension (SFT), interfacial tension (IFT) and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the HSL (26.11 mN/m, 2.67 mN/m, 112 mg/L) were compared to CSL (37.53 mN/m, 6.22 mN/m, 291 mg/L) respectively. The HSL has better emulsion stability and low foaming characteristics as compared to CSL. Therefore, the product as an effective emulsifier can be used in food, pharmacy, lubricant, cosmetics, etc.

  18. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  19. Physiological responses of genotypes soybean to simulated drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonóra Krivosudská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate possible genetic variation in the sensitivity of soybean cultivars for nitrogen fixation rates in response to soil drying. The work confirmed that the selected physiological characteristics (RWC, osmotic potential, stress index and created nodules on roots are good evaluating parameters for the determination of water stress in plant. In the floricultural year 2014 an experiment with four genetic resources of soybean was launched. Sowing of Maverick (USA, Drina (HRV, Nigra (SVK and Polanka (CZK genotypes was carried out in the containers of 15 l capacity. This stress had a negative impact on the physiological parameters. By comparing the RWC values, the decrease was more significant at the end of dehydration, which was monitored in Maverick and Drina genotypes using the Nitrazon inoculants and water stress effect. Inoculated stressed Nigra and Polanka genotypes have kept higher water content till the end of dehydration period. Also the proline accumulation was monitored during the water stress, whilst higher content of free proline reached of Maverick. More remarkable decrease of osmotic potential was again registered in a foreign Drina and Maverick genotypes in the inoculated variations. Nigra and Polanka genotypes responses not so significant in the given conditions.

  20. Remote sensing of soybean stress as an indicator of chemical concentration of biosolid amended surface soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B. B. Maruthi; Vincent, Robert K.; Roberts, Sheila J.; Czajkowski, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in the biosolid amended soils and the risk of their uptake into different plant parts is a topic of great concern. This study examines the accumulation of several heavy metals and nutrients in soybeans grown on biosolid applied soils and the use of remote sensing to monitor the metal uptake and plant stress. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with soybeans grown on soils applied with biosolids at varying rates. The plant growth was monitored using Landsat TM imagery and handheld spectroradiometer in field and greenhouse studies, respectively. Soil and plant samples were collected and then analyzed for several elemental concentrations. The chemical concentrations in soils and roots increased significantly with increase in applied biosolid concentrations. Copper (Cu) and Molybdenum (Mo) accumulated significantly in the shoots of the metal-treated plants. Our spectral and Landsat TM image analysis revealed that the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) can be used to distinguish the metal stressed plants. The NDVI showed significant negative correlation with increase in soil Cu concentrations followed by other elements. This study suggests the use of remote sensing to monitor soybean stress patterns and thus indirectly assess soil chemical characteristics.

  1. Effect of Soybeans on Hot Flashes in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mozaffari-khosravi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hot flashes are common and discomfortable signs of menopause that present with blazing sweatiness, sense of hotness, tachycardia and agitation. Hot flashes cause disturbances in daily activity and quality of night sleep. In spite of the effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT on hot flashes, nowadays, there are diverse opinions about HRT and the reason is that it has chronic complications. In addition, the acceptance of HRT by Iranian women is very low. Study of numerous texts has shown that isofliavone present in soybean is a phytoestrogen that could be effective in control of hot flashes. The purpose of the study is to examine the changes in time periods of hot flashes in response to consumption of 74 mg Isoflavone/day present in 60 grams soybeans in menopausal women. Methods: This study was a clinical trial with before and after design that included 31 postmenopausal women. The participants were assessed with respect to daily hot flashes at baseline and after one, two and three months of intervention. Participants consumed daily 60 grams soybeans for 3 months. Blood samples were taken at the start and end of intervention for determining levels of gonadotropins and estradiol. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There was a decrease in time period of hot flashes from baseline of 5.88±2.61 to 3.45±1.82 after one month, 2.73±1.57 after two months and 2.16±1.48 after three months of consumption of soybeans (P<0.001. There was decrease in levels of FSH, LH & estradiol after 3 months, but this decrease was not significant, except in the case of estradiol. Conclusion: In line with various studies proposing the use of soybeans in the form of concentrate, drink or capsule, this study suggests that consumption of soybeans (60 gr daily as snacks may be a safe and effective method for controlling hot flashes in postmenopausal women..

  2. Transgenic and conventional Brazilian soybeans don't cause or prevent preneoplastic colon lesions or oxidative stress in a 90-day in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Sbruzzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study presents the results of a 90-day safety assessment of rats fed with four varieties of soybeans, BRS 245 RR and BRS Valiosa RR (transgenic, BRS 133 and MG BR46 Conquista (non-transgenic. METHODS: Diets were prepared by incorporating toasted soybean flour to a commercial diet at 1%, 10% or 20% weight In the in vivo experimental the rats' body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, number of aberrant crypt foci, oxidative stress biomarkers, urea and creatinine levels were analyzed and compared between experimental groups, as well as histopathological observations (digestive tract, liver, kidneys. RESULTS: The results indicate that glyphosate-tolerant soy varieties neither induce nor prevent aberrant crypt foci induction, nor do their conventional counterparts. Similarly, none of the four soybean varieties tested induced changes in the digestive tract, liver or kidney. Serum biochemical parameters were also unchanged. CONCLUSION: The consumption of both, conventional and transgenic soybeans, were insufficient to ameliorate dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress.

  3. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Zamarreño, Angel M; Iriarte, Juan C; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Baigorri, Roberto; García-Mina, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. The endogenous transposable element Tgm9 is suitable for functional analyses of soybean genes and generating novel mutants for genetic improvement of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    In soybean, variegated flowers can be caused by somatic excision of the CACTA-type transposable element Tgm9 from intron 2 of the DFR2 gene encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase in the anthocyanin pigment biosynthetic pathway. DFR2 has been mapped to the W4 locus where the allele containing the elem...

  5. Chemical composition and lipoxygenase activity in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) submitted to gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Érica Amanda de; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Sartori, Maria M. P.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2014-05-01

    Soybeans are an important food due to their functional and nutritional characteristics. However, consumption by western populations is limited by the astringent taste of soybeans and their derivatives which results from the action of lipoxygenase, an enzyme activated during product processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and specific activity of lipoxygenase in different soybean cultivars. Soybeans were stored in plastic bags and irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, lipids, ashes, crude fiber, and carbohydrates) and lipoxygenase specific activity were determined for each sample. Gamma irradiation induced a small increase of protein and lipid content in some soybean cultivars, which did not exceed the highest content of 5% and 26%, respectively, when compared to control. Lipoxygenase specific activity decreased in the three cultivars with increasing gamma irradiation dose. In conclusion, the gamma irradiation doses used are suitable to inactivate part of lipoxygenase while not causing expressive changes in the chemical composition of the cultivars studied.

  6. Rhizosphere Microbiomes Modulated by Pre-crops Assisted Plants in Defense Against Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elhady

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes cause considerable damage to crop plants. The rhizosphere microbiome can affect invasion and reproductive success of plant-parasitic nematodes, thus affecting plant damage. In this study, we investigated how the transplanted rhizosphere microbiome from different crops affect plant-parasitic nematodes on soybean or tomato, and whether the plant’s own microbiome from the rhizosphere protects it better than the microbiome from fallow soil. Soybean plants growing in sterilized substrate were inoculated with the microbiome extracted from the rhizosphere of soybean, maize, or tomato. Controls were inoculated with extracts from bulk soil, or not inoculated. After the microbiome was established, the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans was added. Root invasion of P. penetrans was significantly reduced on soybean plants inoculated with the microbiome from maize or soybean compared to tomato or bulk soil, or the uninoculated control. In the analogous experiment with tomato plants inoculated with either P. penetrans or the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the rhizosphere microbiomes of maize and tomato reduced root invasion by P. penetrans and M. incognita compared to microbiomes from soybean or bulk soil. Reproduction of M. incognita on tomato followed the same trend, and it was best suppressed by the tomato rhizosphere microbiome. In split-root experiments with soybean and tomato plants, a systemic effect of the inoculated rhizosphere microbiomes on root invasion of P. penetrans was shown. Furthermore, some transplanted microbiomes slightly enhanced plant growth compared to uninoculated plants. The microbiomes from maize rhizosphere and bulk soil increased the fresh weights of roots and shoots of soybean plants, and microbiomes from soybean rhizosphere and bulk soil increased the fresh weights of roots and shoots of tomato plants. Nematode invasion did not affect plant growth in these short-term experiments. In

  7. Delayed Recognition of Deterioration of Patients in General Wards Is Mostly Caused by Human Related Monitoring Failures: A Root Cause Analysis of Unplanned ICU Admissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Galen, Louise S.; Struik, Patricia W.; Driesen, Babiche E. J. M.; Merten, Hanneke; Ludikhuize, Jeroen; van der Spoel, Johannes I.; Kramer, Mark H. H.; Nanayakkara, Prabath W. B.

    2016-01-01

    An unplanned ICU admission of an inpatient is a serious adverse event (SAE). So far, no in depth-study has been performed to systematically analyse the root causes of unplanned ICU-admissions. The primary aim of this study was to identify the healthcare worker-, organisational-, technical,- disease-

  8. Growth Protocols for Etiolated Soybeans Germinated within BRIC-60 Canisters Under Spaceflight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Sharek, J. A.; Johnson, K. M.; Stryjewski, E. C.; Prima, V. I.; Martynenko, O. I.; Piastuch, W. C.

    As part of the GENEX (Gene Expression) spaceflight experiment, protocols were developed to optimize the inflight germination and subsequent growth of 192 soybean (Glycine max cv McCall) seeds during STS-87. We describe a method which provided uniform growth and development of etiolated seedlings while eliminating root and shoot restrictions for short-term (4-7 day) experiments. Final seedling growth morphologies and the gaseous CO2 and ethylene levels present both on the last day in space and at the time of recovery within the spaceflight and ground control BRIC-60 canisters are presented

  9. The soybean-Phytophthora resistance locus Rps1-k encompasses coiled coil-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat-like genes and repetitive sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Madan K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of Rps (resistance to Pytophthora sojae genes have been protecting soybean from the root and stem rot disease caused by the Oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora sojae. Five Rps genes were mapped to the Rps1 locus located near the 28 cM map position on molecular linkage group N of the composite genetic soybean map. Among these five genes, Rps1-k was introgressed from the cultivar, Kingwa. Rps1-k has been providing stable and broad-spectrum Phytophthora resistance in the major soybean-producing regions of the United States. Rps1-k has been mapped and isolated. More than one functional Rps1-k gene was identified from the Rps1-k locus. The clustering feature at the Rps1-k locus might have facilitated the expansion of Rps1-k gene numbers and the generation of new recognition specificities. The Rps1-k region was sequenced to understand the possible evolutionary steps that shaped the generation of Phytophthora resistance genes in soybean. Results Here the analyses of sequences of three overlapping BAC clones containing the 184,111 bp Rps1-k region are reported. A shotgun sequencing strategy was applied in sequencing the BAC contig. Sequence analysis predicted a few full-length genes including two Rps1-k genes, Rps1-k-1 and Rps1-k-2. Previously reported Rps1-k-3 from this genomic region 1 was evolved through intramolecular recombination between Rps1-k-1 and Rps1-k-2 in Escherichia coli. The majority of the predicted genes are truncated and therefore most likely they are nonfunctional. A member of a highly abundant retroelement, SIRE1, was identified from the Rps1-k region. The Rps1-k region is primarily composed of repetitive sequences. Sixteen simple repeat and 63 tandem repeat sequences were identified from the locus. Conclusion These data indicate that the Rps1 locus is located in a gene-poor region. The abundance of repetitive sequences in the Rps1-k region suggested that the location of this locus is in or near a

  10. Variability in colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its effect on mycorrhizal dependency of improved and unimproved soybean cultivars.