WorldWideScience

Sample records for soybean plant

  1. Genetically modified soybean plants and their ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.

  2. Photosynthate partitioning and distribution in soybean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latche, J.; Cavalie, G.

    1983-01-01

    Plants were grown in a controlled environment chamber and fed with a modified Hoagland solution containing nitrate as nitrogen source (N+ medium). Soybeans, 33 days old (flowering stage), 45 and 56 days old (pods formation and filling stages) were used for experimentation. In each experiment, the eight trifoliated leaf (F 8 ) was exposed to 14 CO 2 (10 μCi; 400 vpm), in the light (80 W x m -2 ) for 30 min. After a 6 h chase period (22 - 25 0 C; 80 W x m -2 ), the radiocarbon distribution among plant parts was determined and labelled compounds were identified. (orig.)

  3. Control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus sown offseason, after soybean crop (Glycine max, is affected by the competition imposed by volunteer plants. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crops. The sulfentrazone herbicide (75 g ha-1, 100 g ha-1 and 250 g ha-1 causes phytotoxicity to sunflower immediately after application, however, plants recover, with no yield losses. These doses do not cause the total death of volunteer soybean plants, but temporarily paralyzes their growth, avoiding the competition with the sunflower crop. The glufosinate ammonium and ametryn herbicides are effective in controlling volunteer soybean plants, however, symptoms of phytotoxicity in the sunflower crop are high, reflecting in losses of dry weight biomass and crop yield. The other treatments do not provide satisfactory control of volunteer soybean plants and even reduce the sunflower dry weight biomass and yield.

  4. Methyl jasmonate induced resistance in cheniere rice and soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a compound naturally occurring in certain plants that aids in plant defense. In this study, we examined the difference in herbivory of fall armyworm (FAW) on control plants (treated without MJ) and MJ-treated plants. Seeds of cheniere rice and soybean were soaked in MJ overnight and planted in the greenhouse, although the soybean never grew. Therefore, only the mature plant leaves of cheniere rice were fed to FAW and the difference in herbivory was looked at. Our results show there is no statistical difference in the herbivory of the cheniere rice plant leaves.

  5. Physiological response of soybean genotypes to plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, Y; Stulen, [No Value; van Keulen, H; Kuiper, PJC

    2002-01-01

    Response of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) to plant density has occupied a segment of agronomic research for most of the century. Genotype differences have been noted especially in response to planting date, lodging problems and water limitation. There is limited information on the physiological

  6. Productive performance of soybean cultivars grown in different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Belchior Marchetti Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Plants density in soybean cultivation is an important management practice to achieve high grain yield. In this way, the objective was to evaluate the agronomic traits and grain yield in soybean in different plant densities, in two locations in the south of Minas Gerais. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, arranged in a split plot design, with three replications. Plots were composed of four population densities (300, 400, 500 and 600 thousand plants per hectare and the subplots were composed of six cultivars (‘BMX Força RR’, ‘CD 250 RR’, ‘FMT 08 - 60.346/1’, ‘NA 5909 RR’, ‘TMG 7161 RR’ and ‘V - TOP RR’ grown in Lavras and Inconfidentes, both in Minas Gerais. At the time of harvest was determined the plant height, lodging, insertion of the first pod, harvest index, number of pods per plant, number of grains, number of grains per pod and yield. Regardless of the soybean cultivar, the plant density of up to 600,000 per ha does not affect grain yield, plant height, lodging, harvest index, and number of grains per pod. The cultivars ‘V-TOP RR’ and ‘BMX FORÇA RR’ showed high grain yield and good agronomic traits in Lavras and Incofidentes.

  7. Determination of Carbaryl residues in soybean and peanut plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, M.; Soejono; Sisworo, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Carbaryl is one of the insecticides used in large quantities in Indonesia. It is effective against soybean and peanut plant insects. The residues in the plants are determined by Colorimetry at the residues level up to 5 ppm and by thin layer chromatography at level up to 0,1 ppm. Both methods use coupling reaction between hydrolysis product of Carbaryl and diazo reagent to produce colour. (author)

  8. Plant densities and modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean

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    Marcos Javier de Luca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean nitrogen (N demands can be supplied to a large extent via biological nitrogen fixation, but the mechanisms of source/sink regulating photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation in high yielding cultivars and current crop management arrangements need to be investigated. We investigated the modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] at different plant densities. A field trial was performed in southern Brazil with six treatments, including non-inoculated controls without and with N-fertilizer, both at a density of 320,000 plants ha−1, and plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii at four densities, ranging from 40,000 to 320,000 plants ha−1. Differences in nodulation, biomass production, N accumulation and partition were observed at stage R5, but not at stage V4, indicating that quantitative and qualitative factors (such as sunlight infrared/red ratio assume increasing importance during the later stages of plant growth. Decreases in density in the inoculated treatments stimulated photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation per plant. Similar yields were obtained at the different plant densities, with decreases only at the very low density level of 40,000 plants ha−1, which was also the only treatment to show differences in seed protein and oil contents. Results confirm a fine tuning of the mechanisms of source/sink, photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation under lower plant densities. Higher photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation rates are capable of sustaining increased plant growth.

  9. Changes in micronutrients, dry weight and plant growth of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars under salt stress. Murat Tunçturk1* ... Salinity stress negatively affected soybean cultivars and the extent of ... INTRODUCTION. Soybean is a ..... A general approach. Science 210: ...

  10. Studies on nitrogen metabolism of soybean plants, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yasumasa; Kitada, Subaru

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen that came from cotyledons and nitrogen ( 15 N) pulse-fed at 5 different times during the growth of young soybean plants were studied for 33-days after germination. Cotyledons furnished nitrogen to primary leaves, stems, and roots for the first 8 days, but thereafter principally to 1 st and 2 nd trifoliate leaves. Redistribution of the cotyledon-derived nitrogen from primary leaves commenced from the 14 th day after germination when their total nitrogen was still increasing. At the end of the experiment, the cotyledon-derived nitrogen was distributed approximately uniformly among 6 expanded leaves, and very small amount was found in 3 immature leaves. It was shown that soybean leaves took up 15 N (via roots) throughout the entire period of their life, and from their near-mature stage onwards, uptake and redistribution of nitrogen were observed simultaneously. Thus, the nitrogen in mature leaves was partially being renewed constantly. Considering this fact, the nitrogen supplying capacity of soybean leaves was estimated to be about two times as large as that estimated conventionally from the net loss of nitrogen during their senescence. The turnover of leaf nitrogen was closely related to the turnover of leaf protein. Influx of nitrogen was invariably accompanied by the simultaneous synthesis of leaf protein, and conversely, efflux by the simultaneous breakdown of leaf protein. Sink removal (topping treatment) prevented the breakdown of leaf protein (as measured from the rate of release of label after the pulse feeding) as well as the export of nitrogen from the leaves. The nitrogen supplying function of soybean leaves was discussed in relation to the nitrogen and protein turnover of leaves. (Kaihara, S.)

  11. Translocation of photoassimilates in γ-irradiated soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursino, D.J.; Schefski, H.; Latour, P.W.

    1977-01-01

    Young soybean plants received on a single occasion a dose of 3.75 krads of γ-radiation after which they were allowed to photoassimilate 14 CO 2 so that the magnitude of translocation and distribution pattern of exported 14 C could be determined. In comparison to the non-irradiated controls, plants exposed to ionizing radiation showed a large reduction, almost 70%, in the magnitude of 14 C exported from the source leaf in a one hour period. Furthermore, the pattern of distribution of exported 14 C was altered such that less was exported to the shoot apex region and more to the region below the node of the source leaf. Replacement of the shoot apex with 20 ppm IAA immediately following irradiation completely restored the pattern of distribution but was able to only partially increase the magnitude of translocation. These results are interpreted with reference to the results from the author's previous study with soybean showing radiation effects on photosynthesis and shoot development. (author)

  12. Absorption, transport, and chemical fate of plutonium in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption of plutonium (Pu) by soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Williams) is limited by Pu solubility in soils. Changes in Pu concentration in different tissues with time to senescence indicate Pu is freely transported through the xylem during growth but not subject to remobilization on flowering. Studies in which the DTPA complex of 238 Pu was supplied to the plant suggest a change in chemical form following root absorption. Of the Pu in roots, stems, and leaves at senescence, 28, 54, and 67%, respectively, were soluble. The Pu in the solluble fraction was primarily associated with components of >10000 equivalent molecular weight in leaves and roots, whereas stems exhibited an equal distribution between components in the >10000 and <500 molecular weight fractions. Plutonium associated with mature seeds is concentrated in the seed hull (85%) and cotyledons (14%). The Pu associated with the cotyledon was primarily in the insoluble residues and soluble soy whey

  13. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  14. Lignification of the plant and seed quality of RR soybeans sprayed with herbicide glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Gris,Cristiane Fortes; Pinho,Edila Vilela de Resende Von; Carvalho,Maria Laene de Moreira; Diniz,Rafael Parreira; Andrade,Thaís de

    2013-01-01

    Differences in levels of lignin in the plant between conventional and transgenic cultivars RR has been reported by several authors, however, there are few studies evaluating the influence of spraying of glyphosate on the lignin in the plant and RR soybean seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of RR transgenic soybean seeds and the lignin contents of plants sprayed with the herbicide glyphosate. The assays were conducted both in greenhouse and field in the muni...

  15. Methyl salicylate, a soybean aphid-induced plant volatile attractive to the predator Coccinella septempunctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei; Park, Kye-Chung

    2005-08-01

    Induced volatiles provide a signal to foraging predatory insects about the location of their prey. In Iowa, early in the growing season of soybean, Glycine max, many predacious seven-spotted lady beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, were observed on plants with heavy infestations of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. We studied whether the attraction of this beetle is caused by the release of specific volatile compounds of soybean plants infested by aphids. Volatile compounds emitted by soybean plants infested by aphids were compared with those of undamaged, uninfested, and artificially damaged plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed consistent differences in the profiles of volatile compounds between aphid-infested soybean plants and undamaged ones. Significantly more methyl salicylate was released from infested plants at both the V1 and V2 plant growth stages. However, release patterns of two other induced plant volatiles, (D)-limonene and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, differed between the two plant growth stages. Gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection of volatile extracts from infested soybean plants showed that methyl salicylate elicited significant electrophysiological responses in C. septempunctata. In field tests, traps baited with methyl salicylate were highly attractive to adult C. septempunctata, whereas 2-phenylethanol was most attractive to the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea and syrphid flies. Another common lady beetle, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, showed no preference for the compounds. These results indicate that C. septempunctata may use methyl salicylate as the olfactory cue for prey location. We also tested the attractiveness of some selected soybean volatiles to alate soybean aphids in the field, and results showed that traps baited with benzaldehyde caught significantly higher numbers of aphids.

  16. Plant height and grain yield of soybean depending on the year, irrigation and variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Galić Šubašić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-year field trials determined the influence of the year, irrigation treatment and varieties on plant height and grain yield of soybeans in the eastern Croatia conditions. All three investigated factors, as well as their interactions, with the exception of irrigation interactions and varieties that were significant at P=0.05, show a statistically significant influence (P=0.01 on the height of soybean plants. Soybean grain yields, as well as all their interactions, affect the significance level P=0.01. The obtained values of soybean grain yields during the study (mostly greater than 3000 kg ha-1 indicate the importance of selecting appropriate varieties and irrigation treatment in adapting soybean production to adverse weather effects of the year.

  17. No-till Organic Soybean Production Following a Fall-planted Rye Cover Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Paul; Feyereisen, Gary; De Bruin, Jason; Johnson, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    The conventional corn-soybean rotation in the United States (USA) is a leaky system with respect to nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate-N), in part because these crops grow only five months of the year. Ecosystem functioning can be improved with the use of an appropriate fall-planted cover crop, but this practice is not common. Organic soybean production in the USA typically relies on delayed planting, crop rotation, intensive harrowing and interrow cultivation for weed control. Research on timing of ...

  18. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Tamrin Abdullah; Ahdin Gassa; Sri Nur Aminah Ngatimin; Nurariaty Agus And Abdul Fattah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conduc...

  19. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Gassa, Ahdin; Ngatimin, Sri Nur Aminah; Agus, Nurariaty; Fattah, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e: neem seed extract together with rice planting, neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting, synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting (Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice), respectively. Research was conducted...

  20. Heavy metal toxicity in rice and soybean plants cultivated in contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lígia de Souza Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals can accumulate in soil and cause phytotoxicity in plants with some specific symptoms. The present study evaluated the specific symptoms on rice and soybeans plants caused by excess of heavy metals in soil. Rice and soybean were grown in pots containing soil with different levels of heavy metals. A completely randomized design was used, with four replications, using two crop species and seven sample soils with different contamination levels. Rice and soybean exhibited different responses to the high concentrations of heavy metals in the soil. Rice plants accumulated higher Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations and were more sensitive to high concentrations of these elements in the soil, absorbing them more easily compared to the soybean plants. However, high available Zn concentrations in the soil caused phytotoxicity symptoms in rice and soybean, mainly chlorosis and inhibited plant growth. Further, high Zn concentrations in the soil reduced the Fe concentration in the shoots of soybean and rice plants to levels considered deficient.

  1. Heme oxygenase behavior in ultraviolet-B irradiated soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannarelli, G.G.; Noriega, G.O.; Tomaro, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has a negative impact on plant cells, and leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Heme oxygenase (HO) plays a protective role against oxidative stress in mammals, but little is known about this issue in plants. Here, we report for the first time the response of HO in leaves of soybean plants subjected to UV-B radiation. HO activity, protein and gene expression, as well as stress markers were evaluated. Under lower UV-B doses (7.5 and 15 kJ m -2 ), the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) remained unaltered, while quantitative RT-PCR revealed that HO and catalase (CAT) transcripts were increased 40% and 20% after 8 h, respectively. Treatment with 30 kJ m -2 brought about a 90% enhancement in TBARS indicating that an oxidative burst occurred, and a downregulation in gene expression was observed. Immunoblot analysis showed a 4.3 and 3.7-fold increase in HO protein after irradiation with 75 and 15 kJ m -2 , respectively. HO and CAT enzymes activities were enhanced at these doses but diminished at 30 kJ m -2 UV-B. These results indicate that the up regulation of HO and CAT genes at the lower doses occurred as a signal of cell protection against oxidative damage. On the other hand, irradiation with 30 kJ m -2 overcome the cellular antioxidant capacity and repressed the response as a result of ROS overproduction. (author)

  2. Soybean Yield along the Texas Gulf Coast during Periods of Variable Rainfall as Influenced by Soybean Cultivar and Planting Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Grichar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans (Glycine max can be planted along the upper Texas Gulf Coast from mid-March through May to take advantage of early season rains and to complete harvest before hurricane season and fall rains become a problem. When average to above average rainfall was received in May through July, yields were greater with the early April to mid-April planting; however, under high rainfall conditions throughout the season, the mid-April to early May planting produced the highest yields, with yields of over 4000 kg/ha. When rainfall was below normal, late March to early April plantings produced the greatest yields. When rainfall was above average, soybeans took longer to reach harvestability regardless of cultivar or plant dates, while under drought conditions the interval between planting and harvest was reduced. However, when planting was delayed, there was a greater risk of detrimental late-season effects from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula or the brown stink bug (Euschistus heros.

  3. Response of soybean plants to phosphorus, boron and molybdenum fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, H. A.; Aly, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of added phosphorus levels (30. 60 kg p/fed) with the addition of boron at (2, 6 ppm) and molybdenum at (5, 10.ppm) and without addition beside the control the control on growth and mineral content and root nodules in soybean plants. The results indicated that the effect of phosphorus on the formation of nodules had a clear effect when added with boron, molybdenum and when boron added at a rate of 2 ppm in the absence of phosphorus led to increase in root nodules in each of the 5, 10 ppm led to increased formation of, naldetuss in of the alluvial and calcareous soil. The molybdenum, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake increased directly proportional to the result of increased rate of addition of phosphorus and molybdenum. While the uptake born may be added with the rate of increased concentration of 2 ppm, while when added at 6 ppm led tp increased absorption of boron in the calcareous soil, but led to a decrease in the alluvial soils. (Author)

  4. Plant subcellular proteomics: Application for exploring optimal cell function in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-06-30

    Plants have evolved complicated responses to developmental changes and stressful environmental conditions. Subcellular proteomics has the potential to elucidate localized cellular responses and investigate communications among subcellular compartments during plant development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soybean, which is a valuable legume crop rich in protein and vegetable oil, can grow in several climatic zones; however, the growth and yield of soybean are markedly decreased under stresses. To date, numerous proteomic studies have been performed in soybean to examine the specific protein profiles of cell wall, plasma membrane, nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and endoplasmic reticulum. In this review, methods for the purification and purity assessment of subcellular organelles from soybean are summarized. In addition, the findings from subcellular proteomic analyses of soybean during development and under stresses, particularly flooding stress, are presented and the proteins regulated among subcellular compartments are discussed. Continued advances in subcellular proteomics are expected to greatly contribute to the understanding of the responses and interactions that occur within and among subcellular compartments during development and under stressful environmental conditions. Subcellular proteomics has the potential to investigate the cellular events and interactions among subcellular compartments in response to development and stresses in plants. Soybean could grow in several climatic zones; however, the growth and yield of soybean are markedly decreased under stresses. Numerous proteomics of cell wall, plasma membrane, nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and endoplasmic reticulum was carried out to investigate the respecting proteins and their functions in soybean during development or under stresses. In this review, methods of subcellular-organelle enrichment and purity assessment are summarized. In addition, previous findings of

  5. Expression of the double-stranded RNA of the soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) ribosomal protein P0 gene enhances the resistance of transgenic soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanli; Li, Yang; Zang, Zhenyuan; Li, Na; Ran, Ruixue; Cao, Yingxue; Li, Tianyu; Zhou, Quan; Li, Wenbin

    2017-12-01

    The soybean pod borer [SPB; Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)] is the most important soybean pest in northeastern Asia. Silencing genes using plant-mediated RNA-interference is a promising strategy for controlling SPB infestations. The ribosomal protein P0 is important for protein translation and DNA repair in the SPB. Thus, transferring P0 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into plants may help prevent SPB-induced damage. We investigated the effects of SpbP0 dsRNA injections and SpbP0 dsRNA-expressing transgenic soybean plants on the SPB. Larval mortality rates were greater for SpbP0 dsRNA-injected larvae (96%) than for the control larvae (31%) at 14 days after injections. Transgenic T 2 soybean plants expressing SpbP0 dsRNA sustained less damage from SPB larvae than control plants. In addition, the expression level of the SpbP0 gene decreased and the mortality rate increased when SPB larvae were fed on T 3 transgenic soybean pods. Moreover, the surviving larvae were deformed and exhibited inhibited growth. Silencing SpbP0 expression is lethal to the SPB. Transgenic soybean plants expressing SpbP0 dsRNA are more resistant to the SPB than wild-type plants. Thus, SpbP0 dsRNA-expressing transgenic plants may be useful for controlling insect pests. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on plant growth, nodulation, nutritional status and yield of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Hefni, E.H.; Maghraby, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted under the conditions of a sandy clay-loam soil. Soybean seeds were exposed to gamma rays (0,5,10,20,40,80 and 160 Gry) before planting. Low-medium range of gamma rays (5-40 Gry), particularly at 20 Gry, considerably stimulated plant growth, nodules formation and development as well as the total uptake of N and Mn by plants. Significant increase in seed yield was obtained as a result of gamma rays ranged from 10 to 40 Gry, but the dose of 160 Gry, reduced it. The total contents of protein and oil in seeds were highly related to the produced yield, however their concentrations did not affect by the tested range of gamma rays. Generally, seed yield of soybean seemed to be positively related to the rate of plant growth, nodulation and nutritional status. Therefore, irradiation of seeds before planting with low gamma doses could be recommended to improve the productivity of soybean

  7. A novel FAD2-1 A allele in a soybean plant introduction offers an alternate means to produce soybean seed oil with 85% oleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2011-09-01

    The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean to improve soybean oil quality has been a long-time goal of soybean researchers. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of soybean oil compared to other oils. In the lipid biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is responsible for the conversion of oleic acid precursors to linoleic acid precursors in developing soybean seeds. Two genes encoding FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were identified to be expressed specifically in seeds during embryogenesis and have been considered to hold an important role in controlling the seed oleic acid content. A total of 22 soybean plant introduction (PI) lines identified to have an elevated oleic acid content were characterized for sequence mutations in the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genes. PI 603452 was found to contain a deletion of a nucleotide in the second exon of FAD2-1A. These important SNPs were used in developing molecular marker genotyping assays. The assays appear to be a reliable and accurate tool to identify the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genotype of wild-type and mutant plants. PI 603452 was subsequently crossed with PI 283327, a soybean line that has a mutation in FAD2-1B. Interestingly, soybean lines carrying both homozygous insertion/deletion mutation (indel) FAD2-1A alleles and mutant FAD2-1B alleles have an average of 82-86% oleic acid content, compared to 20% in conventional soybean, and low levels of linoleic and linolenic acids. The newly identified indel mutation in the FAD2-1A gene offers a simple method for the development of high oleic acid commercial soybean varieties.

  8. Uptake, translocation, and transformation of pentachlorophenol in soybean and spinach plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casterline, J.L. Jr.; Barnett, N.M.; Ku, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean plants were grown for 90 days and spinach plants for 64 days in a mixture of sterilized greenhouse soil and sand containing 10 ppm pentachlorophenol. All plant parts and soil samples were extracted and separated into nonpolar and polar fractions. Major nonpolar and polar metabolites were identified by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Nonpolar fractions from both soybean and spinach plants were found to contain pentachlorophenol and its metabolites, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, methoxytetrachlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachloroanisole, and pentachloroanisole. Cleavage of polar metabolites from the soybean plants by acid hydrolysis yielded organic solvent-extractable products. These products were identified as pentachlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and methoxytetrachlorophenol. Cleavage of polar materials from spinach plants yielded only pentachlorophenol. The polar metabolites from the soybean plants were also subjected to enzymatic cleavage by beta-glucosidase. The conjugates consisted mostly of O-glucosides of the same metabolites released by acid hydrolysis. Failure of hydrolysis by aryl sulfatase indicated that very little or no sulfates were present. The metabolites found in the plants were not detected in soil samples obtained from pots immediately after the plants were harvested

  9. The effect of phosphorus application and liming in corn and soybean intercrop on the plant yield and symbiotic N fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, W.H.; Abdullah, N.; Rasyid, Havid; Soeminto, Bagyo

    1986-01-01

    A field experiment consisting of seven treatments and six replications was arranged in a randomized block design. The objectives of experiment were to study the effect of phosphorus placement and liming in corn and soybean intercrop on the plant yield and the amount of N fixed symbiotically by soybean. Results obtained shows the grain yield of soybean was influenced significantly by phosphorus placement, but corn was not. Fertilizer which was banded in the plant rows bellow seeds shows the higher grain yield of soybean that those broad-casted and incorporated with the soil or banded near the plant rows. Liming increased grain yield of soybean or corn as much as 31 percent higher than without lime. Lime also increased the amount of soybean N obtained from symbiotic N fixation. The partitioning of plant N requirement from soil, fixation, and fertilizer were subsequently 58, 36 and 6 percent. (author). 14 refs

  10. Silicon does not alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress in soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Ruppenthal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of silicon (Si in the plants growth under conditions of drought stress have been associated with to uptake and accumulation ability of element by different species. However, the effects of Si on soybean under water stress are still incipient and inconclusive. This study investigated the effect of Si application as a way to confer greater soybean tolerance to drought stress. The experiment was carried out in 20-L pots under greenhouse conditions. Treatments were arranged in a randomized block design in a 2 × 4 factorial: two water regimes (no stress or water stress and four Si rates (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg kg–1. Soybean plants were grown until beginning flowering (R1 growth stage with soil moisture content near at the field capacity, and then it started the differentiation of treatments under drought by the suspension of water supply. Changes in relative water content (RWC in leaf, electrolyte leakage from cells, peroxidase activity, plant nutrition and growth were measured after 7 days of drought stress and 3 days recovery. The RWC in soybean leaves decreased with Si rates in the soil. Silicon supply in soil with average content of this element, reduced dry matter production of soybean under well-irrigated conditions and caused no effect on dry matter under drought stress. The nitrogen uptake by soybean plants is reduced with the Si application under drought stress. The results indicated that the Si application stimulated the defense mechanisms of soybean plants, but was not sufficient to mitigate the negative effects of drought stress on the RWC and dry matter production.

  11. The Effect of Temperature and Host Plant Resistance on Population Growth of the Soybean Aphid Biotype 1 (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Ashley R; Nechols, James R; McCornack, Brian P; Margolies, David C; Sandercock, Brett K; Yan, Donglin; Murray, Leigh

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate direct and indirect effects of temperature on demographic traits and population growth of biotype 1 of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Our objectives were to better understand how temperature influences the expression of host plant resistance, quantify the individual and interactive effects of plant resistance and temperature on soybean aphid population growth, and generate thermal constants for predicting temperature-dependent development on both susceptible and resistant soybeans. To assess indirect (plant-mediated) effects, soybean aphids were reared under a range of temperatures (15-30 °C) on soybean seedlings from a line expressing a Rag1 gene for resistance, and life history traits were quantified and compared to those obtained for soybean aphids on a susceptible soybean line. Direct effects of temperature were obtained by comparing relative differences in the magnitude of life-history traits among temperatures on susceptible soybeans. We predicted that temperature and host plant resistance would have a combined, but asymmetrical, effect on soybean aphid fitness and population growth. Results showed that temperature and plant resistance influenced preimaginal development and survival, progeny produced, and adult longevity. There also appeared to be a complex interaction between temperature and plant resistance for survival and developmental rate. Evidence suggested that the level of plant resistance increased at higher, but not lower, temperature. Soybean aphids required about the same number of degree-days to develop on resistant and susceptible plants. Our results will be useful for making predictions of soybean aphid population growth on resistant plants under different seasonal temperatures. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuying; Yao, Xingdong; Zhao, Mingzhe; Zhao, Qiang; Du, Yanli; Yu, Cuimei; Xie, Futi

    2015-08-07

    The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert) with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman), which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA) levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA). Higher zeatin riboside (ZR) content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively.

  13. Toothpick test: a methodology for the detection of RR soybean plants1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Mota da Silva

    Full Text Available Due to the large increase in the area cultivated with genetically modified soybean in Brazil, it has become necessary to determine methods that are fast and efficient for detecting these cultivars. The aim of this work was to test the efficiency of the toothpick method in the detection of RR soybean plants, as well as to distinguish between cultivars, for sensitivity caused by herbicide. Ten transgenic soybean cultivars, resistant to the active ingredient glyphosate, and ten conventional soybean cultivars were used. Toothpicks soaked in glyphosate were applied to all the plants at stage V6 and evaluations were made at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days after application (DAA. The effects of the glyphosate on the cultivars, and the symptoms of phytotoxicity caused in the transgenic plants were evaluated by means of grading scales. The toothpick test is effective in identifying RR soybean cultivars and also in separating them into groups by sensitivity to the symptoms caused by the glyphosate.

  14. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Jia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman, which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA. Higher zeatin riboside (ZR content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively.

  15. Performance of weed Extracts on Growth Characteristics and Biochemical Activities in Salt Stressed Soybean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The changes induced in the growth parameters and certain metabolic activities in response to both salt (NaCI) shock treatments and foliar spray of weed extracts (jungle rice, cocklebur and purslane) plus salinity were studied, using soybean seedlings grown in Hoagland's nutrient solution supplemented with various concentrations of NaCI. When seedlings were subjected to high salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCI), their growth criteria, the photosynthetic capacity, pigment contents and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly decreased. Under salinized conditions and weed extract treatments, the growth pattern,''1''4CO 2 -fixation rate, pigment as well as carbohydrate contents of soybean plants were significantly increased comparable to NaCI-treated samples. It was suggested that weed extract and in particular jungle rice might oppose the harsh effect of salinity in soybean plants

  16. EVALUATION OF CASSAVA/SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean plants were taller when intercropped with NR 8212 or with TMS 30572 than in sole soybean, which had similar height with soybean in soybean/TMS 91934 mixture. The soybean canopy diameter, number of leaves per plant and LAI were higher with sole soybean. Within the soybean intercrops, canopy diameter, ...

  17. Study of a new alternative antioxidant in soybean plants subjected to abiotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilli, C.; Santa Cruz, D.; Caggiano, E.; Romanello, M.; Tomaro, M.; Balestrasse, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently, demonstrated that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role for soybean plants against oxidative stress produced by cadmium and UV-B radiation. At this moment we propose to investigate if the enzyme has the same capacity against another type of abiotic stress, such as drought, for to demonstrate that heme oxygenase acts as an enzyme of plant antioxidant defense system under several different stress situations, as occur in mammalian tissues. To carry out this objective we propose to study, in leaf, root and nodule of soybean plants, the oxidative stress generation; the behavior of classical antioxidant system; the behavior of HO-1 activity and protein and gene expression; the effect of its reaction products and inhibitors on the oxidative stress parameters; the signaling mechanism that produce HO-1 induction and the immunohistochemistry localization of the enzyme in the different plant tissues. The results obtained let us undoubtedly demonstrate the involvement of HO-1 in the antioxidant defense system in plants. This finding will allow the increase in the knowledge of the defense mechanisms in interesting economic plants for our country, such as soybean, and against drought, an abiotic stress considered one of the most important factors limiting plant performance and yield worldwide. (authors)

  18. Soybean Lectin Enhances Biofilm Formation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the Absence of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Pérez-Giménez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean lectin (SBL purified from soybean seeds by affinity chromatography strongly bound to Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 cell surface. This lectin enhanced biofilm formation by B. japonicum in a concentration-dependent manner. Presence of galactose during biofilm formation had different effects in the presence or absence of SBL. Biofilms were completely inhibited in the presence of both SBL and galactose, while in the absence of SBL, galactose was less inhibitory. SBL was very stable, since its agglutinating activity of B. japonicum cells as well as of human group A+ erythrocytes was resistant to preincubation for one week at 60°C. Hence, we propose that plant remnants might constitute a source of this lectin, which might remain active in soil and thus favor B. japonicum biofilm formation in the interval between soybean crop seasons.

  19. Utilization of 15NO3− by nodulated soybean plants under conditions of root hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes Menolli Lanza, Luciana; Ferreira Lanza, Daniel Carlos; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2014-01-01

    Waterlogging of soils is common in nature. The low availability of oxygen under these conditions leads to hypoxia of the root system impairing the development and productivity of the plant. The presence of nitrate under flooding conditions is regarded as being beneficial towards tolerance to this stress. However, it is not known how nodulated soybean plants, cultivated in the absence of nitrate and therefore not metabolically adapted to this compound, would respond to nitrate under root hypox...

  20. Effect of Planting Date and Maturity Group on Soybean Yield Response to Injury by Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Roberts, P M

    2016-02-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an invasive member of the family Plataspidae originating from Asia. Since its discovery in Georgia in 2009, its distribution has increased to 13 southern and eastern states. In the United States, M. cribraria is bivoltine and has two primary developmental hosts, kudzu and soybean. Here, we evaluated the yield response of soybean to M. cribraria feeding injury in relation to planting date and soybean maturity group. The study contained four replicated trials in Griffin, Tifton, and Midville, GA, in 2012 and 2013. Four planting dates from April to July, served as the whole plot of a split-plot design with maturity group five and seven soybean and insecticide (lambda-cyhalothrin) randomized within planting date. Egg masses, nymphs, and adults were enumerated weekly to biweekly until soybean reached maturity. Two generations were observed in April and May plantings, but only one generation was evident in June and July soybean plantings. Insecticide-protected plots had consistently higher yields than unprotected plots. Grain yield was greatest in the May planting and lowest in the July planting. Season-long feeding by M. cribraria reduced grain yield in April, May, and June plantings but not in the July planting. Maturity group and planting date had significant effects on yield components in most comparisons. This study indicated that early-planted soybean are at greater risk of yield loss from M. cribraria injury compared with later-planted soybean. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Narrow row and crossed lines associated with different plant densities of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvadi Antonio Balbinot Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The spatial arrangement of soybean plants affects the intraspecific competition for light, water and nutrients, which can change the biomass production, incidence of pests, diseases and weeds, plant lodging, and grain yield. This work aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance under different row spacing, plant densities and crossed rows. Two field experiments were carried out in Campo Mourão, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, using the randomized complete block experimental design, in a 3x3x2 factorial arrangement, with four replications. The treatments were formed by the combination of three row spacings (0.30, 0.45, and 0.60 m, three plant densities (300,000; 450,000; and 600,000 plants ha-1, and two row design (crossed or parallel rows. For all variables, interaction of the experimental factors was not significant. The row spacing of 0.45 m provided the highest grain yield in relation to 0.30 and 0.60 m. The density of 300,000 plants ha-1 showed higher yield of soybeans in late sowing. The crossed lines did not increase the productive performance in soybean.

  2. Introgression of leginsulin, a cysteine-rich protein, and high-protein trait from an Asian soybean plant introduction genotype into a North American experimental soybean line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kim, Won-Seok; Oehrle, Nathan W; Alaswad, Alaa A; Baxter, Ivan; Wiebold, William J; Nelson, Randall L

    2015-03-25

    Soybean is an important protein source for both humans and animals. However, soybean proteins are relatively poor in the sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Improving the content of endogenous proteins rich in sulfur-containing amino acids could enhance the nutritive value of soybean meal. Leginsulin, a cysteine-rich peptide, predominantly accumulates in Asian soybean accessions but not in most North American cultivars. By screening diverse soybean accessions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection, we were able to identify one plant introduction, PI 427138, as a high-protein line with relatively high amounts of both elemental sulfur and leginsulin. We introgressed these desirable traits from PI 427138 into an experimental line with the aim of improving the overall protein content and quality of seed proteins. Biochemical characterization of inbred progenies from the cross of LD00-3309 with PI 427138 grown at six locations revealed stable ingression of high protein, high elemental sulfur, and high leginsulin accumulation. Comparison of soybean seed proteins resolved by high-resolution 2-D gel electrophoresis in combination with Delta2D image analysis software revealed preferential accumulation of a few glycinin subunits contributed to the increased protein content in the introgressed lines. Amino acid analysis revealed that even though the leginsulin introgressed lines had higher protein, leginsulin, and elemental sulfur, the overall concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids was not significantly altered when compared with the parental lines. The experimental soybean lines developed during this study (Leg-3, Leg-7, and Leg-8) lack A5, A4, and B3 glycinin subunits and could be utilized in breeding programs to develop high-quality tofu cultivars.

  3. Production of soybean isoflavone genistein in non-legume plants via genetically modified secondary metabolism pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongrong; Hu, Yuanlei; Li, Jialin; Lin, Zhongping

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification of secondary metabolic pathways to produce desirable natural products is an attractive approach in plant biotechnology. In our study, we attempted to produce a typical soybean isoflavone genistein, a well-known health-promoting metabolite, in non-legume plants via genetic engineering. Both overexpression and antisense suppression strategies were used to manipulate the expression of several genes encoding key enzymes in the flavonoids/isoflavonoids pathway in transgenic tobacco, lettuce, and petunia. Introducing soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS) into these plants, which naturally do not produce isoflavonoids due to a lack of this leguminous enzyme, resulted in genistein biosynthesis in tobacco petals, petunia leaves and petals, and lettuce leaves. In tobacco, when flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) expression was suppressed by its antisense gene while soybean IFS was overexpressed at the same time, genistein yield increased prominently. In addition, overexpression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) also led to an enhanced genistein production in tobacco petals and lettuce leaves in the presence of IFS than in the plants that overexpressed only IFS.

  4. Lignification of the plant and seed quality of RR soybeans sprayed with herbicide glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fortes Gris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Differences in levels of lignin in the plant between conventional and transgenic cultivars RR has been reported by several authors, however, there are few studies evaluating the influence of spraying of glyphosate on the lignin in the plant and RR soybean seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of RR transgenic soybean seeds and the lignin contents of plants sprayed with the herbicide glyphosate. The assays were conducted both in greenhouse and field in the municipality of Lavras, MG, in the agricultural year 2007/08. The experiment was arranged in a splitplot design with four replicates, considering the treatments hand weeding and herbicide glyphosate as plots, and five RR soybean cultivars (BRS 245 RR, BRS 247 RR, Valiosa RR, Silvânia RR and Baliza RR as splitplots. In the greenhouse, the cultivars tested were BRS 245 RR and Valiosa RR in a randomized block design with four replicates. The sprayings were carried out at stages V3, V7 and early R5 (3L/ha. The 1000 seed weight, mechanical injury, germination and germination velocity index, emergence velocity index, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and water soaking seed test, lignin content in the seed coat, in the stem and legumes were determined. The spraying of glyphosate herbicide, in greenhouse and field, did not alter the physiological quality of seeds and the lignin contents in the plant.

  5. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minobu Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implicating that the transplantation induced equal increases in the rate of CO2 diffusion via leaf stomata and the rate of CO2 fixation in leaf photosynthetic cells. Analyses of Rubisco activity and contents of a substrate (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP for Rubisco and total protein in leaf suggested that an increase in leaf Rubisco activity, which is likely to result from an increase in leaf Rubisco content, could contribute to the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate. Analyses of leaf major photosynthetic carbohydrates and dry weights of source and sink organs revealed that transplantation increased plant sink capacity that uses leaf starch, inducing a decrease in leaf starch content and an increase in whole plant growth, particularly, growth of sink organs. Previously, in the same soybean species, it was demonstrated that negative correlation exists between leaf starch content and photosynthetic rate and that accumulation of starch in leaf decreases the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf. Thus, it was suggested that the transplantation-induced increase in plant sink capacity decreasing leaf starch content could cause the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate by inducing an increase in the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf and thereby substantiating an increase in leaf Rubisco activity in vivo. It was therefore concluded that transplantation of soybean plants into larger pots attempted in this study increased the

  6. Response of Soybean to Early-Season Planting Dates along the Upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Grichar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans (Glycine max L. can be planted along the upper Texas Gulf Coast from mid-March through May to take advantage of early season rains and to complete harvest before hurricane season and fall rains become a problem. However, in the Calhoun County area (28.5° north latitude, these planting dates have resulted in below average yields and reasons for these yield reductions are not clear. To determine if earlier planting dates could be an option to eliminate the low yields, field studies were conducted from 2005 through 2010 in Calhoun County, Texas, to determine soybean cultivar response to planting dates which ranged from mid-February through the last of April. Typically, soil temperatures in this area are above 18°C in mid-February and depending on weather patterns may not fall much lower during any time in the early portion of the growing season. The greatest yield was obtained with the mid-February and mid-March planting dates compared with early- or late-April planting dates. Typically, as planting date was delayed, the interval between planting and harvest decreased.

  7. Cytological effects of Tc on young soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.W.; Onasch, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Soybean seedlings (Glycine max cv. Williams) were exposed for 24 to 67 h to 99 TcO 4 - (Tc) at various concentrations in dilute culture solution. Reduced primary leaf midrib length was observed with 67-h exposures to greater than or equal to 6.0 mu M Tc. Cellular effects were consistently observed by a light microscope after 43-h or longer exposure to 6.6 microM Tc and higher concentrations. At lower Tc levels, abnormal cells were interspersed among cells of normal appearance. Abnormal cells displayed blockshaped nuclei which were more densely stained by Harris' hematoxylineosin Y than controls; such cells frequently demonstrated incipient plasmolysis. The number of affected cells increased with dose; both nuclei and cytoplasm demonstrated greater staining intensity and more severe plasmolysis at higher levels. At levels of greater than or equal to 13.2 Tc, cellular damage was extensive. Cells were reduced in size and were highly plasmolysed; cell walls were distorted, and intercellular spaces were reduced or became nonexistent. Mitotic activity was observed at Tc levels less than or equal to 9.9 microM. Observed Tc cellular effects are attributed principally to the alteration of membrane permeability characteristics

  8. Accelerating Planted Green Ash Establishment on an Abandoned Soybean Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Groninger; Didier A. Babassana

    2002-01-01

    Planted green ash seedlings exhibit high survival rates on most bottomland sites that have recently come out of row crop production, making this species a popular choice for afforestation. Sub-optimal growth of planted hardwood tree species, including green ash, often delays the realization of many of the economic and environmental benefits that are used to justify the...

  9. Enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in genetically engineered pineapple plants using soybean ferritin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Minal; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2011-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr., cv. "Queen") leaf bases were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring the pSF and pEFESF plasmids with soybean ferritin cDNA. Four to eight percent of the co-cultivated leaf bases produced multiple shoots 6 weeks after transfer to Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid 1.8 mg/l, indole-3-butyric acid 2.0 mg/l, kinetin 2.0 mg/l, cefotaxime 400 mg/l, and kanamycin 50 mg/l. Putatively transformed shoots (1-2 cm) were selected and multiplied on medium of the same composition and elongated shoots (5 cm) were rooted on liquid rooting medium supplemented with cefotaxime 400 mg/l and kanamycin 100 mg/l. The rooted plants were analyzed through PCR, genomic Southern analysis, and reverse transcription PCR. The results clearly confirmed the integration and expression of soybean ferritin gene in the transformed plants. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis carried out with six independently transformed lines of pSF and pEFE-SF revealed a maximum of 5.03-fold increase in iron and 2.44-fold increase in zinc accumulation in the leaves of pSF-transformed plants. In pEFE-SF-transformed plants, a 3.65-fold increase in iron and 2.05-fold increase in zinc levels was observed. Few of the transgenic plants were hardened in the greenhouse and are being grown to maturity to determine the enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in the fruits. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the transformation of pineapple with soybean ferritin for enhanced accumulation of iron and zinc content in the transgenic plants.

  10. Physiological quality of soybean seeds under different yield environments and plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. Baron

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yield potential of agricultural fields associated with plant spatial arrangement could determine the physiological quality of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seeds from different yield environments and plant densities. Experiments were carried out in Boa Vista das Missões-RS, Brazil, during the 2014/2015 growing season. Yield environments were delineated by overlapping yield maps from the 2008, 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 growing seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with two yield environments (low and high and five plant densities, with four replicates. Two varieties were tested: Brasmax Ativa RR (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 plants m-1 and Nidera 5909 RR (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 plants m-1. After harvested, the seeds were analysed as following: first count index, germination, abnormal seedlings, dead seeds, electrical conductivity, accelerate aging test, root length, hypocotyl length and seedling length. The spatial variability of seed vigor in the production field could be reduced by adjusting plant density, but the adjustment should consider the variety. Harvest according to yield environment is a strategy to separate lots of seeds with higher vigor, originated from high-yield environments.

  11. A new hemoglobin gene from soybean: a role for hemoglobin in all plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, C R; Jensen, E O; LLewellyn, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a new hemoglobin gene from soybean. It is expressed in cotyledons, stems of seedlings, roots, young leaves, and in some cells in the nodules that are associated with the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium symbiont. This contrasts with the expression of the leghemoglobins, which...... are active only in the infected cells of the nodules. The deduced protein sequence of the new gene shows only 58% similarity to one of the soybean leghemoglobins, but 85-87% similarity to hemoglobins from the nonlegumes Parasponia, Casuarina, and barley. The pattern of expression and the gene sequence...... indicate that this new gene is a nonsymbiotic legume hemoglobin. The finding of this gene in legumes and similar genes in other species strengthens our previous suggestion that genomes of all plants contain hemoglobin genes. The specialized leghemoglobin gene family may have arisen from a preexisting...

  12. Transgenic soybean plants overexpressing O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase accumulate enhanced levels of cysteine and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Seok; Chronis, Demosthenis; Juergens, Matthew; Schroeder, Amy C; Hyun, Seung Won; Jez, Joseph M; Krishnan, Hari B

    2012-01-01

    Soybeans provide an excellent source of protein in animal feed. Soybean protein quality can be enhanced by increasing the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids. Previous attempts to increase the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids through the expression of heterologous proteins have met with limited success. Here, we report a successful strategy to increase the cysteine content of soybean seed through the overexpression of a key sulfur assimilatory enzyme. We have generated several transgenic soybean plants that overexpress a cytosolic isoform of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). These transgenic soybean plants exhibit a four- to tenfold increase in OASS activity when compared with non-transformed wild-type. The OASS activity in the transgenic soybeans was significantly higher at all the stages of seed development. Unlike the non-transformed soybean plants, there was no marked decrease in the OASS activity even at later stages of seed development. Overexpression of cytosolic OASS resulted in a 58-74% increase in protein-bound cysteine levels compared with non-transformed wild-type soybean seeds. A 22-32% increase in the free cysteine levels was also observed in transgenic soybeans overexpressing OASS. Furthermore, these transgenic soybean plants showed a marked increase in the accumulation of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor, a cysteine-rich protein. The overall increase in soybean total cysteine content (both free and protein-bound) satisfies the recommended levels required for the optimal growth of monogastric animals.

  13. Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis S141, a New Strain of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Isolated from Soybean Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibponkrung, Surachat; Kondo, Takahiko; Tanaka, Kosei; Tittabutr, Panlada; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Teaumroong, Neung; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2017-11-30

    Bacillus velezensis strain S141 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from soybean ( Glycine max ) rhizosphere that enhances soybean growth, nodulation, and N 2 fixation efficiency by coinoculation with Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110. The S141 genome was identified to comprise a 3,974,582-bp-long circular DNA sequence encoding at least 3,817 proteins. Copyright © 2017 Sibponkrung et al.

  14. Identification of plant compounds involved in the microbe-plant communication during the co-inoculation of soybean with Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Delftia sp. JD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagide, Celica; Riviezzi, Braulio; Minteguiaga, Manuel; Morel, Maria; Castro-Sowinski, Susana

    2018-05-30

    Delftia sp. JD2 is a Betaproteobacterium characterized as a plant growth-promoting bacterium with a "helper" function, enhancing the performance of rhizobial inoculant strains during the co-inoculation of alfalfa and clover. In this work we analyzed: (i) the effect of the co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Delftia sp. JD2 strains on the performance of soybean plants and, (ii) the production of a few secondary plant metabolites that would explain the positive effect of co-inoculation on the growth and development of soybean plants. The results showed a beneficial effect of co-inoculation on soybean growth, nodulation rate and pulse yield, with the concomitant benefit for the agricultural economy. In addition, based on a metabolomics approach, we demonstrated that a different pattern of plant metabolites is being produced at different stages of plant growth. The new information suggests that the co-inoculation of soybean changes the primary and secondary metabolism of the plant, including changes in the metabolic status of main and secondary nodules within the plant. The relevance of producing a different pattern of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments, flavonoids, organic acids and carbohydrates are discussed. Finally, we propose that JD2 could be used, together with bradyrhizobia, to manipulate the chemical composition of plant tissues, promoting the nutritional benefits and health of soybean.

  15. Biological control of Heterodera glycines by spore-forming plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Xiang

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, is the most economically important plant-parasitic nematode on soybean production in the U.S. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR strains for mortality of H. glycines J2 in vitro and for reducing nematode population density on soybean in greenhouse, microplot, and field trials. The major group causing mortality to H. glycines in vitro was the genus Bacillus that consisted of 92.6% of the total 663 PGPR strains evaluated. The subsequent greenhouse, microplot, and field trials indicated that B. velezensis strain Bve2 consistently reduced H. glycines cyst population density at 60 DAP. Bacillus mojavensis strain Bmo3 suppressed H. glycines cyst and total H. glycines population density under greenhouse conditions. Bacillus safensis strain Bsa27 and Mixture 1 (Bve2 + Bal13 reduced H. glycines cyst population density at 60 DAP in the field trials. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strains Bsssu2 and Bsssu3, and B. velezensis strain Bve12 increased early soybean growth including plant height and plant biomass in the greenhouse trials. Bacillus altitudinis strain Bal13 increased early plant growth on soybean in the greenhouse and microplot trials. Mixture 2 (Abamectin + Bve2 + Bal13 increased early plant growth in the microplot trials at 60 DAP, and also enhanced soybean yield at harvest in the field trials. These results demonstrated that individual PGPR strains and mixtures can reduce H. glycines population density in the greenhouse, microplot, and field conditions, and increased yield of soybean.

  16. Biological control of Heterodera glycines by spore-forming plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ni; Lawrence, Kathy S; Kloepper, Joseph W; Donald, Patricia A; McInroy, John A

    2017-01-01

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, is the most economically important plant-parasitic nematode on soybean production in the U.S. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains for mortality of H. glycines J2 in vitro and for reducing nematode population density on soybean in greenhouse, microplot, and field trials. The major group causing mortality to H. glycines in vitro was the genus Bacillus that consisted of 92.6% of the total 663 PGPR strains evaluated. The subsequent greenhouse, microplot, and field trials indicated that B. velezensis strain Bve2 consistently reduced H. glycines cyst population density at 60 DAP. Bacillus mojavensis strain Bmo3 suppressed H. glycines cyst and total H. glycines population density under greenhouse conditions. Bacillus safensis strain Bsa27 and Mixture 1 (Bve2 + Bal13) reduced H. glycines cyst population density at 60 DAP in the field trials. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strains Bsssu2 and Bsssu3, and B. velezensis strain Bve12 increased early soybean growth including plant height and plant biomass in the greenhouse trials. Bacillus altitudinis strain Bal13 increased early plant growth on soybean in the greenhouse and microplot trials. Mixture 2 (Abamectin + Bve2 + Bal13) increased early plant growth in the microplot trials at 60 DAP, and also enhanced soybean yield at harvest in the field trials. These results demonstrated that individual PGPR strains and mixtures can reduce H. glycines population density in the greenhouse, microplot, and field conditions, and increased yield of soybean.

  17. Effect of rhizosphere pH condition on cadmium movement in a soybean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, T.; Tanoi, K.; Iikura, H.; Rai, H.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of rhizosphere pH condition on the cadmium uptake movement, 109 Cd, was applied as a radioisotope tracer to a soybean plant grown in a water culture at pH 4.5 or pH 6.5. The distribution of 109 Cd in the soybean plant was observed radiographically with an imaging plate (IP). The amount of Cd transported from the root to the upper part of the plant at pH 4.5 was approximately two times higher than that at pH 6.5. However, the movement of Cd in the upper part of the plant was similar under both pH conditions. The distribution of Cd inside the internodes at pH 4.5 also showed similar pattern to that at pH 6.5, suggesting that once Cd reached to the vessel of the root, the movement of Cd was not dependent on rhizosphere pH conditions. (author)

  18. Antimicrobial activity of γ-thionin-like soybean SE60 in E. coli and tobacco plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yeonhee; Choi, Yang Do; Lee, Jong Seob

    2008-01-01

    The SE60, a low molecular weight, sulfur-rich protein in soybean, is known to be homologous to wheat γ-purothionin. To elucidate the functional role of SE60, we expressed SE60 cDNA in Escherichia coli and in tobacco plants. A single protein band was detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after anti-FLAG affinity purification of the protein from transformed E. coli. While the control E. coli cells harboring pFLAG-1 showed standard growth with Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, E. coli cells expressing the SE60 fusion protein did not grow at all, suggesting that SE60 has toxic effects on E. coli growth. Genomic integration and the expression of transgene in the transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants demonstrated enhanced resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that SE60 has antimicrobial activity and play a role in the defense mechanism in soybean plants

  19. Soybean growth and yield after single tillage and species mixture of cover plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Piccolo de Lima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops is important for the agricultural crop and soil management in order to improve the system and, consequently, to increase yield. Therefore, the present study analyzed the effect of crop residues of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. (BO and a cocktail (CO of BO, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. (FT and common vetch (Vicia sativa L. (V on the emergence speed index (ESI, seedling emergence speed (SES plant height and soybean yield in different intervals between cover crop desiccation with glyphosate 480 (3 L ha-1 and BRS 232 cultivar sowing. Plots of 5 x 2.5 m with 1 m of border received four treatments with BO cover crops and four with CO as well as a control for each cover crop, at random, with five replications. The plots were desiccated in intervals of 1, 10, 20 and 30 days before soybean seeding. The harvest was manual while yield was adjusted to 13% of moisture content. The experimental design was completely randomized with splitplots and means compared by the Scott and Knott test at 5% of significance. The results showed that CO of cover crops can be recommended for soybean to obtain a more vigorous seedling emergence, from 10 days after cover crop desiccation.

  20. Utilization of early soybeans for food and reproduction by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the delta of Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, G L; Jackson, R E; Abel, C A; Perera, O P

    2010-08-01

    Commercially produced maturity group (MG) IV soybeans, Glycine max L., were sampled during bloom for tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), during May and June 1999 (3 fields) and 2001 (18 fields). The adults and nymphs were found primarily in single population peaks in both years, indicating a single new generation was produced during each year. The peak mean numbers of nymphs were 0.61 and 0.84 per drop cloth sample in 1999 and 2001, respectively. Adults peaked at 3.96 (1999) and 3.76 (2001) per sweep net sample (25 sweeps). Tests using laboratory-reared and field-collected tarnished plant bugs resulted in very poor survival of nymphs on 16 different soybean varieties (MG III, one; IV, four; V, nine; VI, two). A large cage (0.06 ha) field test found that the number of nymphs produced on eight soybean varieties after mated adults were released into the cages was lower than could be expected on a suitable host. These results indicated that soybean was a marginal host for tarnished plant bugs. However, the numbers of adults and nymphs found in the commercially produced fields sampled in the study may have been high enough to cause feeding damage to the flowering soybeans. The nature of the damage and its possible economic importance were not determined. Reproduction of tarnished plant bugs in the commercially produced early soybean fields showed that the early soybeans provided tarnished plant bugs with a very abundant host at a time when only wild hosts were previously available.

  1. [1-14C]Glycolate metabolism and serine biosynthesis in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmes, J.; Viala, G.; Latche, J.C.; Cavalie, G.

    1977-01-01

    [1- 14 C]Glycolate metabolism was examined in leafy shoots of soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr., var. Adepta). Only small amounts of 14 C were incorporated into evolved carbon dioxide and glucidic compounds. Free and protein glycine was labelled but higher levels of radioactivity were found in free serine. Changes in the distribution of 14 C with time showed that metabolic conversion glycollate → glycine → serine occurred very early and serine biosynthesis was more important in the shoot than in the leaves. Carbon dioxide labelling was always slight compared to serine labelling. These data suggest strong relations between glycollate and nitrogen metabolism

  2. Soybean mother plant exposure to temperature stress and its effect on germination under osmotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.K.; Rehman, A.; Khan, A.Z.; Mexal, J.G.; Zubair, M.; Wahab, S.; Khalil, I.H.; Mohammad, F.

    2010-01-01

    High temperature reduces quality of soybean seed developed at different positions on the plant. The objective of this research was to study the quality of seed produced under different temperature regimes located at different position in the canopy. Soybean plants grown in pots were transferred at first pod stage to three growth chambers fixed at 18/10, 25/15 and 32/20 deg. C day/night temperature having 13/11 hrs day/night length. The plants remained in growth chambers until physiological maturity. Seeds harvested from each growth chamber were exposed to osmotic stress having osmotic potential of -0.5 MPa and unstressed control. Both stressed and control treatments were germinated in three growth chambers fixed at 18, 25 and 35 deg. C. Seed developed at lowest temperature (18/10 deg. C day/night) had maximum germination. Germination decreased linearly with increased day/night temperature and lowest germination was recorded at highest temperature of 32/20 deg. C (day/night). Seed developed at bottom position was heaviest and had better germination compared with seed developed at middle and top position. Seed germination was highest at 25 deg. C and took fewer days to 50% germination than 18 and 25 deg. C. Osmotic stress decreased germination and delayed days to 50% germination than control. It can be concluded that optimum temperature for seed development was 18/10 deg. C (day/night) whereas best germination temperature was 25 deg. C. (author)

  3. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrin Abdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conducted in rice fields with irrigation channels. The land area is 0.8 hectares with extensive experiments each rice terraces approximately 900 m2 with separate by rice terraces for every treatment. Each treatment consisted of three groups and using nine rice terraces. Samples of the rice plant population is 25 plants per sample unit. The results was showed treatment by neem seed extract with different time planting of soybeans able to reduce number of pest insects populations such as N. virescens 80.38 N. lugens 67.17 S. incertulas 66.5 and L. oratorius 93.46 when compared to treatment with synthetic insecticides Delthamethrin and Chlorpyrifos.

  4. Influence of planting date on seed protein oil sugars minerals and nitrogen metabolism in soybean under irrigated and non-irrigated enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the effect of planting date and irrigation on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition in the Early Soybean Production System is deficient, and what is available is inconclusive. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date on seed protein, o...

  5. Induced of plastid mutations in soybean plant (Glycine max L. Merrill) with gamma radiation and determination with RAPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atak, Cimen; Alikamanoglu, Sema; Acik, Leyla; Canbolat, Yasemin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of our study was to induce with radiation of atrazine resistant and tolerated mutants in Coles, Amsoy-71 and 1937 soybean varieties. Atrazine that is photosynthetic inhibitor is the most important herbicide of S-triazin group, and shows toxic effect on soybean plant. For the improvement of the atrazine resistant plants with mutation breeding, the seeds belonging to the three varieties were irradiated with 200 Gy of gamma radiation dose. The irradiated seeds were sown in the field and at the end of harvesting season, every pod at node situated on the main stem was picked up separately and M 2 generations were obtained. At the plants, which were obtained from M 2 generation, chlorophyll mutants were determined and atrazine selection was made. The percentage of chlorophyll mutants for Amsoy-71, Coles and 1937 soybean varieties were found as 1.07, 1.48 and 1.32, respectively. At the end of atrazine selection, the percentages of atrazine resistant plants for Amsoy-71, Coles and 1937 soybean varieties were 0.80, 0.60 and 0.53, respectively. The percentages of atrazine tolerated plants were 1.07, 1.18 and 1.05, respectively as well. In our research; the differences among the mutants replying to atrazine in various concentrations were examined by using RAPD procedure as the molecular marker techniques in comparison with polymorphism. In the study done by using 14 primers; according to the amplification results, the differences between atrazine resistant plants were shown

  6. Transpiration effect on the uptake and distribution of bromacil, nitrobenzene, and phenol in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.C.; Pfleeger, T.; Fletcher, J.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of transpiration rate on the uptake and translocation of two industrial waste compounds, phenol and nitrobenzene, and one pesticide, 5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil (bromacil), was examined. Carbon-14 moieties of each compound were provided separately in hydroponic solution to mature soybean plants maintained under three humidity conditions. The uptake of each compound was determined by monitoring the removal of 14 C from the hydroponic solution. The extent to which 14 C was adsorbed to roots and translocated to plant shoots and leaves was examined by assaying root and shoot parts for 14 C. Bromacil was taken up slower than the other chemicals, had the most 14 C translocated to the shoot, and the amount translocated to the shoot responded directly to the rate of transpiration. In contrast, both phenol and nitrobenzene were rapidly lost from solution and bound to the roots. Less than 1.5% of the 14 C from phenol or nitrobenzene was translocated to the plant shoots. Increased transpiration rates had little influence on root binding of 14 C; however, increasing transpiration rate from low to medium was associated with an increased uptake of nitrobenzene. The three chemicals studied have similar Log K/sub ow/ values, but their interactions with soybean were not the same. Thus, despite the usefulness of the octanol/water partitioning coefficient in predicting the fate of organic chemicals in animals and in correlating with root binding and plant uptake for many pesticides, log K/sub ow/ may not be equally useful in describing uptake and binding of nonpesticide chemicals in plants

  7. Xylem-to-phloem transfer of organic nitrogen in young soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M.C.; Shelp, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    Xylem-to-phloem transfer in young vegetative soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants (V4 stage) was identified as the difference in the distribution of [ 14 C]inulin, a xylem marker, and [ 14 C]aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), a synthetic amino acid, fed via the transpiration stream. Since [ 14 C]AIB was retained in the stem to some extent, whereas [ 14 C]inulin was not, the distribution of these marker compounds in each leaf was expressed as a percentage of the total [ 14 C] radioactivity recovered in the foliage. The developing third trifoliolate was a consistent and reliable indicator of xylem-to-phloem transfer. The phloem stream provided to the developing trifoliolate up to fourfold the relative proportion of solute received from the xylem stream; this was markedly reduced by increased light intensity and consequently water flow through the xylem. Evidence from heat girdling experiments is discussed with respect to the vascular anatomy of the soybean plant, and interpreted to suggest that direct xylem-to-phloem transfer in the stem, in the region of the second node, accounted for about one-half of the AIB supplied to the developing trifoliolate, with the remainder being provided from the second trifoliolate. Since AIB is not metabolized it seems likely that rapid transfer within the second trifoliolate occurred as direct veinal transfer rather than indirect cycling through the mesophyll. This study confirmed that xylem-to-phloem transfer plays a major role in the partitioning of nitrogen for early leaf development

  8. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: ammonium as a nitrogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr

    1989-01-01

    When NO3- is the sole nitrogen source in flowing solution culture, the net rate of nitrogen uptake by nonnodulated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Ransom) plants cycles between maxima and minima with a periodicity of oscillation that corresponds with the interval of leaf emergence. Since soybean plants accumulate similar quantities of nitrogen when either NH4+ or NO3- is the sole source in solution culture controlled at pH 6.0, an experiment was conducted to determine if the oscillations in net rate of nitrogen uptake also occur when NH4+ is the nitrogen source. During a 21-day period of vegetative development, net uptake of NH4+ was measured daily by ion chromatography as depletion of NH4+ from a replenished nutrient solution containing 1.0 millimolar NH4+. The net rate of NH4+ uptake oscillated with a periodicity that was similar to the interval of leaf emergence. Instances of negative net rates of uptake indicate that the transition between maxima and minima involved changes in influx and efflux components of net NH4+ uptake.

  9. Utilization of (15)NO3 (-) by nodulated soybean plants under conditions of root hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Menolli Lanza, Luciana; Ferreira Lanza, Daniel Carlos; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2014-07-01

    Waterlogging of soils is common in nature. The low availability of oxygen under these conditions leads to hypoxia of the root system impairing the development and productivity of the plant. The presence of nitrate under flooding conditions is regarded as being beneficial towards tolerance to this stress. However, it is not known how nodulated soybean plants, cultivated in the absence of nitrate and therefore not metabolically adapted to this compound, would respond to nitrate under root hypoxia in comparison with non-nodulated plants grown on nitrate. A study was conducted with (15)N labelled nitrate supplied on waterlogging for a period of 48 h using both nodulated and non-nodulated plants of different physiological ages. Enrichment of N was found in roots and leaves with incorporation of the isotope in amino acids, although to a much smaller degree under hypoxia than normoxia. This demonstrates that nitrate is taken up under hypoxic conditions and assimilated into amino acids, although to a much lesser extent than for normoxia. The similar response obtained with nodulated and non-nodulated plants indicates the rapid metabolic adaptation of nodulated plants to the presence of nitrate under hypoxia. Enrichment of N in nodules was very much weaker with a distinct enrichment pattern of amino acids (especially asparagine) suggesting that labelling arose from a tissue source external to the nodule rather than through assimilation in the nodule itself.

  10. Cultivation of Podospora anserina on soybean hulls results in an efficient enzyme cocktail for plant biomass hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Bouzid, Ourdia; Ruiz-Robleto, J.; Post, Harm|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341667374; Peng, Mao; Heck, Albert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Altelaar, Maarten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833517; de Vries, Ronald P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186324960

    2017-01-01

    The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic

  11. Biochemical response of Anticarsia gemmatalis fed with soybean plants pulverized with the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.G.A.; Pilon, A.M.; Pilon, F.M.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Silva, F.C.; Ribon, A.O.B.; Reis, A.P.; Visotto, L.E.; Guedes, R.N.C.; Oliveira, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Insects are responsible for severe crop losses. New alternatives for pest control other than agrochemicals have been investigated. Protease inhibitors are one of the prime candidates effective against insect pests. In this work we studied the effect of the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis, an important pest of the soybean culture. Larvae were reared on soybean plants containing 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% (w/w) of benzamidine. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of feeding midgut extracts were prepared and assayed for enzymatic activity (proteolytic, amidasic and stearic). Benzamidine altered the activity patterns but was not able to totally abolish enzyme activity. The proteolytic, amidasic and stearic activity showed the higher time of inhibition in 48 h in concentration of 0,75%, the inhibition was the around 93%, 63.1% and 36.6%, respectively. We suggest that the presence of inhibitor has made insects to adapt and produce proteases which are insensitive to the action of benzamidine. (author)

  12. Leaf water stress detection utilizing thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 in soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Schutt, J. B.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

    1983-01-01

    The total and diffuse radiance responses of Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns), and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) to water stress in a soybean canopy are compared. Polarization measurements were used to separate the total from the diffuse reflectance; the reflectances were compared statistically at a variety of look angles at 15 min intervals from about 09.00 until 14.00 hrs EST. The results suggest that remotely sensed data collected in the photographic infrared region (TM4) are sensitive to leaf water stress in a 100 percent canopy cover of soybeans, and that TM3 is less sensitive than TM4 for detection of reversible foliar water stress. The mean values of TM5 reflectance data show similar trends to TM4. The primary implication of this study is that remote sensing of water stress in green plant canopies is possible in TM4 from ground-based observations primarily through the indirect link of leaf geometry.

  13. Plant regeneration from cotyledons of mature soybean (Glycine max L.) Wilis cultivar using gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, D.; Ratna, R.

    1999-01-01

    Soybean Wilis cultivar was efficiently regenerated in vitro via somatic embryogenesis. Cotyledonary explants were excised from mature germinating seeds. Seeds were germinated on agar solution and on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate. Cotyledonary nodes from both germinating seeds were excised and cultured on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate. Age of seedlings had a remarkable influence on shoot regeneration. Cotyledon from seeds germinated on agar solution with light gave better result in shoot regeneration compare with those germinated in darkness. The highest number of regenerants per explants (5 shoots) was produced by cotyledon from seeds germinated on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate in darkness. The seeds of soybean were exposed to gamma-rays doses 10 Gy then germinated on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate did not improve the number of plant regeneration. Only 5-day-old seedlings from seeds were exposed to gamma-rays dose 30 Gy could improve the number of shoot regeneration, one of the cotyledonary node treated produced 21 regeneration shoots

  14. Biochemical response of Anticarsia gemmatalis fed with soybean plants pulverized with the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.G.A.; Pilon, A.M.; Pilon, F.M.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Silva, F.C.; Ribon, A.O.B.; Reis, A.P.; Visotto, L.E. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Guedes, R.N.C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Oliveira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Insects are responsible for severe crop losses. New alternatives for pest control other than agrochemicals have been investigated. Protease inhibitors are one of the prime candidates effective against insect pests. In this work we studied the effect of the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis, an important pest of the soybean culture. Larvae were reared on soybean plants containing 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% (w/w) of benzamidine. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of feeding midgut extracts were prepared and assayed for enzymatic activity (proteolytic, amidasic and stearic). Benzamidine altered the activity patterns but was not able to totally abolish enzyme activity. The proteolytic, amidasic and stearic activity showed the higher time of inhibition in 48 h in concentration of 0,75%, the inhibition was the around 93%, 63.1% and 36.6%, respectively. We suggest that the presence of inhibitor has made insects to adapt and produce proteases which are insensitive to the action of benzamidine. (author)

  15. Pulsed magnetic field: a contemporary approach offers to enhance plant growth and yield of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Ranjitha Kumari, Bollipo Diana

    2012-02-01

    The possible involvement of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) pretreatment in development and yield of soybean was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 20 days with 1500 nT at 10.0 Hz of PMF for 5 h per day. PMF pretreatment increased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, and protein content with the changes of protein profile in 8 days old seedlings. In addition, activity of enzymes such as β-amylase, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase and catalase was enhanced while α-amylase, alkaline phosphatase, protease and nitrate reductase activities declined due to PMF exposure. However, a considerable increment of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mg, K and Na contents with reduced level of Ca was found in PMF treated seedlings. The number of leaves, pods, seeds and length of pods, and weight of seeds were also remarkably higher in PMF treatment in contrast to controls. The results suggest that pretreatment of PMF plays important roles in improvement of crop productivity of soybean through the enhancement of protein, mineral accumulation and enzyme activities which leads to increase the growth and yield. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Tunisian aromatic plants on the prevention of oxidation in soybean oil under heating and frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Salma; Chammem, Nadia; Sifaoui, Ines; Bouassida-Beji, Maha; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Silva, Sandra Diniz; Hamdi, Moktar; Bronze, Maria Rosário

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil by using aromatic plants. Soybean oil flavored with rosemary (ROS) and soybean oil flavored with thyme (THY) were subjected to heating for 24h at 180°C. The samples were analyzed every 6h for their total polar compounds, anisidine values, oxidative stability and polyphenols content. The tocopherols content was determined and volatile compounds were also analyzed. After 24h of heating, the incorporation of these plants using a maceration process reduced the polar compounds by 69% and 71% respectively, in ROS and THY compared to the control. Until 6h of heating, the ROS kept the greatest oxidative stability. The use of the two extracts preserves approximately 50% of the total tocopherols content until 18h for the rosemary and 24h for the thyme flavored oils. Volatile compounds known for their antioxidant activity were also detected in the formulated oils. Aromatic plants added to the soybean oil improved the overall acceptability of potato crisps (p<0.05) until the fifteenth frying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyramids of QTLs enhance host-plant resistance and Bt-mediated resistance to leaf-chewing insects in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, María A; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-04-01

    QTL-M and QTL-E enhance soybean resistance to insects. Pyramiding these QTLs with cry1Ac increases protection against Bt-tolerant pests, presenting an opportunity to effectively deploy Bt with host-plant resistance genes. Plant resistance to leaf-chewing insects minimizes the need for insecticide applications, reducing crop production costs and pesticide concerns. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], resistance to a broad range of leaf-chewing insects is found in PI 229358 and PI 227687. PI 229358's resistance is conferred by three quantitative trait loci (QTLs): M, G, and H. PI 227687's resistance is conferred by QTL-E. The letters indicate the soybean Linkage groups (LGs) on which the QTLs are located. This study aimed to determine if pyramiding PI 229358 and PI 227687 QTLs would enhance soybean resistance to leaf-chewing insects, and if pyramiding these QTLs with Bt (cry1Ac) enhances resistance against Bt-tolerant pests. The near-isogenic lines (NILs): Benning(ME), Benning(MGHE), and Benning(ME+cry1Ac) were developed. Benning(ME) and Benning(MGHE) were evaluated in detached-leaf and greenhouse assays with soybean looper [SBL, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], corn earworm [CEW, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], fall armyworm [FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)], and velvetbean caterpillar [VBC, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)]; and in field-cage assays with SBL. Benning(ME+cry1Ac) was tested in detached-leaf assays against SBL, VBC, and Southern armyworm [SAW, Spodoptera eridania (Cramer)]. In the detached-leaf assay, Benning(ME) showed the strongest antibiosis against CEW, FAW, and VBC. In field-cage conditions, Benning(ME) and Benning(MGHE) suffered 61 % less defoliation than Benning. Benning(ME+cry1Ac) was more resistant than Benning(ME) and Benning (cry1Ac) against SBL and SAW. Agriculturally relevant levels of resistance in soybean can be achieved with just two loci, QTL-M and QTL-E. ME+cry1Ac could present an opportunity to protect the durability of Bt

  18. Plant growth promoting effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 on crop plants and influence on physiological changes in soybean under soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Kim, Jong-Guk; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to identify plant growth-promoting bacterial isolates from soil samples and to investigate their ability to improve plant growth and salt tolerance by analysing phytohormones production and phosphate solubilisation. Among the four tested bacterial isolates (I-2-1, H-1-4, H-2-3, and H-2-5), H-2-5 was able to enhance the growth of Chinese cabbage, radish, tomato, and mustard plants. The isolated bacterium H-2-5 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 based on 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. The secretion of gibberellins (GA 4 , GA 8 , GA 9 , GA 19 , and GA 20 ) from B. amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 and their phosphate solubilisation ability may contribute to enhance plant growth. In addition, the H-2-5-mediated mitigation of short term salt stress was tested on soybean plants that were affected by sodium chloride. Abscisic acid (ABA) produced by the H-2-5 bacterium suppressed the NaCl-induced stress effects in soybean by enhancing plant growth and GA 4 content, and by lowering the concentration of ABA, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and proline. These results suggest that GAs, ABA production, and the phosphate solubilisation capacity of B. amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 are important stimulators that promote plant growth through their interaction and also to improve plant growth by physiological changes in soybean at saline soil.

  19. Elevated temperature intensity, timing, and duration of exposure affect soybean internode elongation, mainstem node number, and pod number per plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Hartwell Allen, Jr.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in four compartments of a polycarbonate greenhouse at Gainesville, FL, USA to investigate how a soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar, Maverick (maturity group III, indeterminate, responded to three elevated temperatures, ELT, (day/night of 34/26 °C, 38/30 °C, and 42/34 °C in comparison to a control growth temperature (30/22 °C. Carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration was maintained at 700 μmol mol−1 in each compartment by a processor controlled air-sampling and CO2-injection system. Three sequential experiments were conducted at different times of year (summer, autumn, and early spring to investigate the effect of intensity, timing, and duration of ELT on soybean node number, internode elongation, mainstem length, and number of pods set per plant. At the control temperature, the soybean plants grown in the polycarbonate greenhouse were taller than field-grown plants. When plants were grown under continuous ELT applied soon after sowing or at initial flowering, the number of nodes increased with increasing ELT intensity, whereas the length of individual internodes decreased. When ELT treatment was applied during the beginning of flowering stage (R1–R2 or earlier, more nodes were produced and the length of affected internodes was decreased. When the ELT was imposed later at reproductive stage R5+ just before the beginning of seed filling, effects on node numbers and internode lengths were negligible. Short-term (10-day duration of ELT applied at four stages from V3 to R5+ did not significantly affect final mean numbers of nodes or mean mainstem lengths. Possible mechanisms of elevated temperature effects on soybean internode elongation and node number (internode number are discussed. Total pod numbers per plant increased linearly with mainstem node numbers and mainstem length. Furthermore, total pod numbers per plant were greatest at 34/26 °C rather than at the control temperature of 30/22 °C (and

  20. Utilizing soybean milk to culture soybean pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean ...

  1. Physiological control of the distribution of translocated amino acids and amides in young soybean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C D; Gorham, P R

    1959-01-01

    Each of 10 C/sup 14/-labelled amino acids or amides was introduced into young soybean plants through the cut petiole of one primary leaf. The compounds used were asparagine, glutamine, urea, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, alanine, norleucine, and arginine. The rates of uptake of all the solutions except arginine were in the range 1.0 to 1.5 ..mu..l per minute. After 1 to 5 minutes, the distribution of C/sup 14/ throughout the plants was determined. Each amino acid was translocated as such without conversion to other compounds. From the point of introduction, translocation of each amino acid or amide was mainly downward toward the root; very little was translocated upward. The amount of asparagine or glutamine that was translocated into the primary leaf opposite the cut petiole increased as the leaf aged, while the amount of the other eight compounds decreased as the leaf aged. When asparagine and serine were administered together, serine moved into the young primary leaf while asparagine was excluded. Both excision of the roots and chilling the roots decreased the velocity of downward translocation of aspartic acid indicating that the roots exert a strong demand which favors translocation in a downward direction more than an upward direction in the stem. 17 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  2. Foliar Reflectance and Fluorescence Responses for Corn and Soybean Plants Under Nitrogen Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Corp, L. A.; Butcher, L. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    We are investigating the use of spectral indices derived from actively induced fluorescence spectra and passive optical spectra. We examined the influence of photosynthetic pigment, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content on the spectral fluorescence and passive optical property characteristics of mature, upper leaves from plants provided different N fertilizer application rates: 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of recommended N levels. A suite of optical, fluorescence, and biophysical measurements were collected on leaves from field grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean plants (Glycine max L.) grown in pots (greenhouse + ambient sunlight. Steady state laser-induced fluorescence emission spectra (5 nm resolution) were obtained from adaxial and abaxial surfaces resulting from excitation at single wavelengths (280, 380 or 360, and 532 nm). For emission spectra produced by each of these excitation wavelengths, ratios of emission peaks were calculated, including the red far-red chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) ratio (F685/F740) and the far-red/green (F740/F525) ratio. High resolution (treatment groups was possible with specific fluorescence band ratios (e.g., F740/F525 obtained with 380 nm excitation). Higher ChlF and blue-green emissions were measured from the abaxial leaf surfaces. Abaxial surfaces also produced higher reflectances, in general, in the 400-800 nm spectrum.

  3. Fungi and bacteria inventory on soybean (Glycine max (L.) merill) planting media applied by local microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhsan, Ni'matuljannah; Vionita

    2017-02-01

    An experiment aimed to determine the effect of application of several types of local microorganisms (MOL) and the number of doses to the development of fungi and bacteria on soybean planting media, have been conducted in Samarinda for 3 (three) months. Factorial experiment arranged in a completely randomized design and repeated three times, was used in this experiment. The first factor was the type of MOL consisted of cow dung (m1), snails (m2), banana peel (m3) and bamboo roots (m4), and the second factor was the dose MOL zero mL (d0), 100 mL (d1), 200 mL (d2), 300 mL (d3), 400 mL (d4) analyzed with Anova and Least Significance Difference (LSD) at 5%. Fungi and bacteria contained in the local microorganisms (cow dung, snails, banana peel and bamboo root) are: fungus Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., cellulotic and lignolitic bacteria. An increase in the type and amount of fungus is happened for some genus. The dominant bacteria in the planting medium is a gram-negative bacteria. Cow dung seemed the best source at the dosages level of 400 ml.

  4. Functional analysis of structurally related soybean GmWRKY58 and GmWRKY76 in plant growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan; Chi, Yingjun; Wang, Ze; Zhou, Yuan; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors constitute a large protein superfamily with a predominant role in plant stress responses. In this study we report that two structurally related soybean WRKY proteins, GmWRKY58 and GmWRKY76, play a critical role in plant growth and flowering. GmWRKY58 and GmWRKY76 are both Group III WRKY proteins with a C2HC zinc finger domain and are close homologs of AtWRKY70 and AtWRKY54, two well-characterized Arabidopsis WRKY proteins with an important role in plant responses to...

  5. The translocation and distribution of CeO2 nanoparticles in plants (Soybeans, Chili, Eggplant and Tomato)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Dai, Yanhui

    2018-02-01

    Intensive production of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) would lead to their release into the environment. While their use in commercial goods is constantly increasing, location of NPs in plant is still poorly documented. In this study we determined the translocation of CeO2-NPs in four plants (Soybeans, Tomato, Chili and Eggplant) grown in natural conditions. The plants were digged out 1/4 roots into 2000 mg/L CeO2-NPs solution during the blossoming period. After being exposed for one month, the contents of Ce in plant tissues were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There was more Ce in the leaf of treated plants than in control plants. The contents of Ce in leaf tissues was different. This research offers vital information about the translocation and distribution of CeO2-NPs in higher plants.

  6. Inhibition of aflatoxin B production of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from soybean seeds by certain natural plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Y L; Shashikala, J

    2006-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cowdung fumes, Captan, leaf powder of Withania somnifera, Hyptis suaveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, peel powder of Citrus sinensis, Citrus medica and Punica granatum, neem cake and pongamia cake and spore suspension of Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger on aflatoxin B(1) production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from soybean seeds was investigated. Soybean seed was treated with different natural products and fungicide captan and was inoculated with toxigenic strain of A. flavus and incubated for different periods. The results showed that all the treatments were effective in controlling aflatoxin B(1) production. Captan, neem cake, spore suspension of T. harzianum, A. niger and combination of both reduced the level of aflatoxin B(1) to a great extent. Leaf powder of W. somnifera, H. suaveolens, peel powder of C. sinensis, C. medica and pongamia cake also controlled the aflatoxin B(1) production. All the natural product treatments applied were significantly effective in inhibiting aflatoxin B(1) production on soybean seeds by A. flavus. These natural plant products may successfully replace chemical fungicides and provide an alternative method to protect soybean and other agricultural commodities from aflatoxin B(1) production by A. flavus.

  7. Integrating Plant Science and Crop Modeling: Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Soybean and Maize Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Nándor; Challinor, Andrew; Droutsas, Ioannis; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Zabel, Florian; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-11-01

    Increasing global CO2 emissions have profound consequences for plant biology, not least because of direct influences on carbon gain. However, much remains uncertain regarding how our major crops will respond to a future high CO2 world. Crop model inter-comparison studies have identified large uncertainties and biases associated with climate change. The need to quantify uncertainty has drawn the fields of plant molecular physiology, crop breeding and biology, and climate change modeling closer together. Comparing data from different models that have been used to assess the potential climate change impacts on soybean and maize production, future yield losses have been predicted for both major crops. When CO2 fertilization effects are taken into account significant yield gains are predicted for soybean, together with a shift in global production from the Southern to the Northern hemisphere. Maize production is also forecast to shift northwards. However, unless plant breeders are able to produce new hybrids with improved traits, the forecasted yield losses for maize will only be mitigated by agro-management adaptations. In addition, the increasing demands of a growing world population will require larger areas of marginal land to be used for maize and soybean production. We summarize the outputs of crop models, together with mitigation options for decreasing the negative impacts of climate on the global maize and soybean production, providing an overview of projected land-use change as a major determining factor for future global crop production. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  8. Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Mitochondrial Proteins in Biophoton Emission in Roots of Soybean Plants under Flooding Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-05-01

    To understand the mechanism of biophoton emission, ROS and mitochondrial proteins were analyzed in soybean plants under flooding stress. Enzyme activity and biophoton emission were increased in the flooding stress samples when assayed in reaction mixes specific for antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species; although the level of the hydroxyl radicals was increased at day 4 (2 days of flooding) compared to nonflooding at day 4, the emission of biophotons did not change. Mitochondria were isolated and purified from the roots of soybean plants grown under flooding stress by using a Percoll gradient, and proteins were analyzed by a gel-free proteomic technique. Out of the 98 mitochondrial proteins that significantly changed abundance under flooding stress, 47 increased and 51 decreased at day 4. The mitochondrial enzymes fumarase, glutathione-S-transferase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase increased at day 4 in protein abundance and enzyme activity. Enzyme activity and biophoton emission decreased at day 4 by the assay of lipoxygenase under stress. Aconitase, acyl CoA oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, and NADH ubiquinone dehydrogenase were up-regulated at the transcription level. These results indicate that oxidation and peroxide scavenging might lead to biophoton emission and oxidative damage in the roots of soybean plants under flooding stress.

  9. Changes in Leaf Anatomical Traits Enhanced Photosynthetic Activity of Soybean Grown in Hydroponics with Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Arena, Carmen; De Micco, Veronica; Giordano, Maria; Aronne, Giovanna; De Pascale, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs). However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.], we evaluated the effects of a PGPMs mix, containing bacteria, yeasts, mycorrhiza and trichoderma beneficial species on leaf anatomy, photosynthetic activity and plant growth of soybean cv. 'Pr91m10' in closed nutrient film technique (NFT). Plants were grown in a growth chamber under semi-aseptic conditions and inoculated at seed, seedling and plant stages, and compared to non-inoculated (control) plants. Light and epi-fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that leaves of inoculated plants had higher density of smaller stomata (297 vs. 247 n/mm 2 ), thicker palisade parenchyma (95.0 vs. 85.8 μm), and larger intercellular spaces in the mesophyll (57.5% vs. 52.2%), compared to non-inoculated plants. The modifications in leaf functional anatomical traits affected gas exchanges; in fact starting from the reproductive phase, the rate of leaf net photosynthesis (NP) was higher in inoculated compared to control plants (8.69 vs. 6.13 μmol CO 2 m -2 s -1 at the beginning of flowering). These data are consistent with the better maximal PSII photochemical efficiency observed in inoculated plants (0.807 vs. 0.784 in control); conversely no difference in leaf chlorophyll content was found. The PGPM-induced changes in leaf structure and photosynthesis lead to an improvement of plant growth (+29.9% in plant leaf area) and seed yield (+36.9%) compared to control. Our results confirm that PGPMs may confer benefits in

  10. Changes in Leaf Anatomical Traits Enhanced Photosynthetic Activity of Soybean Grown in Hydroponics with Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paradiso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs. However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.], we evaluated the effects of a PGPMs mix, containing bacteria, yeasts, mycorrhiza and trichoderma beneficial species on leaf anatomy, photosynthetic activity and plant growth of soybean cv. ‘Pr91m10’ in closed nutrient film technique (NFT. Plants were grown in a growth chamber under semi-aseptic conditions and inoculated at seed, seedling and plant stages, and compared to non-inoculated (control plants. Light and epi-fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that leaves of inoculated plants had higher density of smaller stomata (297 vs. 247 n/mm2, thicker palisade parenchyma (95.0 vs. 85.8 μm, and larger intercellular spaces in the mesophyll (57.5% vs. 52.2%, compared to non-inoculated plants. The modifications in leaf functional anatomical traits affected gas exchanges; in fact starting from the reproductive phase, the rate of leaf net photosynthesis (NP was higher in inoculated compared to control plants (8.69 vs. 6.13 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 at the beginning of flowering. These data are consistent with the better maximal PSII photochemical efficiency observed in inoculated plants (0.807 vs. 0.784 in control; conversely no difference in leaf chlorophyll content was found. The PGPM-induced changes in leaf structure and photosynthesis lead to an improvement of plant growth (+29.9% in plant leaf area and seed yield (+36.9% compared to control. Our results confirm that PGPMs may confer benefits in

  11. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: effects of external nitrate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Granato, T. C.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Net uptake of NO3- by non-nodulated soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] growing in flowing hydroponic cultures containing 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- was measured daily during a 24-d period of vegetative development to determine if amplitude of maximum and minimum rates of net NO3- uptake are responsive to external concentrations of NO3-. Removal of NO3- from the replenished solutions during each 24-h period was determined by ion chromatography. Neither dry matter accumulation nor the periodicity of oscillations in net uptake rate was altered by the external NO3- concentrations. The maxima of the oscillations in net uptake rate, however, increased nearly 3-fold in response to external NO3- concentrations. The maxima and minima, respectively, changed from 4.0 and 0.6 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 0.5 mol m-3 NO3- to 15.2 and -2.7 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 10.0 mol m-3 NO3-. The negative values for minimum net uptake rate from 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- solutions show that net efflux was occurring and indicate that the magnitude of the efflux component of net uptake was responsive to external concentration of NO3-.

  12. Uptake of pharmaceutical and personal care products by soybean plants from soils applied with biosolids and irrigated with contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenxi; Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Fang, Min; Czajkowski, Kevin P

    2010-08-15

    Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are commonly found in biosolids and effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Land application of these biosolids and the reclamation of treated wastewater can transfer those PPCPs into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, giving rise to potential accumulation in plants. In this work, a greenhouse experiment was used to study the uptake of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, and fluoxetine) and two personal care products (triclosan and triclocarban) by an agriculturally important species, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Two treatments simulating biosolids application and wastewater irrigation were investigated. After growing for 60 and 110 days, plant tissues and soils were analyzed for target compounds. Carbamazepine, triclosan, and triclocarban were found to be concentrated in root tissues and translocated into above ground parts including beans, whereas accumulation and translocation for diphenhydramine and fluoxetine was limited. The uptake of selected compounds differed by treatment, with biosolids application resulting in higher plant concentrations, likely due to higher loading. However, compounds introduced by irrigation appeared to be more available for uptake and translocation. Degradation is the main mechanism for the dissipation of selected compounds in biosolids applied soils, and the presence of soybean plants had no significant effect on sorption. Data from two different harvests suggest that the uptake from soil to root and translocation from root to leaf may be rate limited for triclosan and triclocarban and metabolism may occur within the plant for carbamazepine.

  13. Silicon alleviates the adverse effects of salinity and drought stress on growth and endogenous plant growth hormones of soybean (glycine max L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzyun, M.; Sohn, Eun-Young; Khan, A.L.; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural industry is subjected to enormous environmental constraints, particularly due to salinity and drought. We evaluated the role of silicon (Si) in alleviating salinity and drought induced physio-hormonal changes in soybean grown in perlite. The plant growth attributes i.e., shoot length, plant fresh weight and dry weight parameters of soybean improved with elevated Si nutrition, while they decreased with NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) application. The adverse effects of NaCl and PEG on plant growth were alleviated by adding 100 mg L/sup -1/ and 200 mg L/sup -1/ Si to salt and drought stressed treatments. It was observed that Si effectively mitigated the adverse effects of NaCl on soybean than that of PEG. The chlorophyll contents were found to be least affected as an insignificant increase was observed with Si application. Bioactive GA1 and GA4 contents of soybean leaves increased, when Si was added to control or stressed plants. Jasmonic acid (JA) contents sharply increased under salinity and drought stress but declined when the plants were supplemented with Si. Similarly, free salicylic acid (SA) level also increased with NaCl and PEG application. However, free SA level further increased with the addition of Si to salt treated plants, but decreased when Si was given to PEG treated plants. It was concluded that Si improves physio-hormonal attributes of soybean and mitigate adverse effects of salt and drought stress. (author)

  14. Distribution and utilization of nitrogenated compounds explanted by the soybean nodules by plants during seeds developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Severino Matias de

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out, using radioisotopes, for evaluation of the leaf, schuck and seeds areas and, examination of the pattern which is used by the nitrogenated compounds explanted by the soybean nodules

  15. Irrigation, Planting Date And Intra-Row Spacing Effects On Soybean Grown Under Dry Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, A. M. A. [احمد محمد علي اسماعيل; Khalifa, F. M.

    1987-01-01

    Two soybean cultivars (Glycine maxima (L) Merr.) differing in maturity period, leaf size and stem height were sown five times at fortnight intervals during the rainy season at four intra—row spacings under supplementary irrigation at one site and under rainfed conditions at another site in the central rainlands of Sudan. Cultivars responded differently to the system of production. Sowing date and moisture availability were the main factors controlling soybean production. The late maturing cul...

  16. Pre-treatment of soybean plants with calcium stimulates ROS responses and mitigates infection by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaoui, Arbia; El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Daayf, Fouad

    2018-01-01

    Considering the high incidence of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in a variety of field crops and vegetables, different control strategies are needed to keep the disease under economical threshold. This study assessed the effect of foliar application of a calcium formulation on disease symptoms, oxalic acid production, and on the oxidative stress metabolism in soybean plants inoculated with each of two isolates of the pathogen that have contrasting aggressiveness (HA, highly-aggressive versus WA, weakly-aggressive). Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in soybean plants inoculated with S. sclerotiorum isolates were assessed at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (hpi). Generation of ROS including hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), anion superoxide (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl radical (OH) was evaluated. Inoculation with the WA isolate resulted in more ROS accumulation compared to the HA isolate. Pre-treatment with the calcium formulation restored ROS production in plants inoculated with the HA isolate. We also noted a marked decrease in oxalic acid content in the leaves inoculated with the HA isolate in presence of calcium, which coincided with an increase in plant ROS production. The expression patterns of genes involved in ROS detoxification in response to the calcium treatments and/or inoculation with S. Sclerotiorum isolates were monitored by RT-qPCR. All of the tested genes showed a higher expression in response to inoculation with the WA isolate. The expression of most genes tested peaked at 6 hpi, which preceded ROS accumulation in the soybean leaves. Overall, these data suggest that foliar application of calcium contributes to a decrease in oxalic acid production and disease, arguably via modulation of the ROS metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. SOYBEAN PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian soybean production almost never moved, even tended to decrease. Indonesia does not have a specific area of land for planting soybeans. Soybean are generally just a byproduct of plant or land filling vacant after farmers grow rice. In addition soybean price fluctuations that affect tofu and tempe entrepreneurs, it turns soybean farmers are often losers. Policy biased to the consumer sector than soybean production, cause national soybean production declining. The decrease occurred primarily because of the narrowing of soybean plantation land owned by farmers, this happens because soy is less interesting than the business side so that the farmers based on rationality, farmers prefer the other commodities, especially rice. Increasing decline in domestic soybean production resulted in the growing dependence on imports which would deplete foreign exchange. Procurement policies of national soybean stocks through imports is easy to do but its adverse implications for the development of domestic agricultural production, especially soybeans, very bad.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal stimulant affect dry matter and nutrient accumulation in bean and soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Henrique Moreira Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of biological resources in agriculture may allow less dependence and better use of finite resources. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to the Brazilian Savannah associated with the application of mycorrhizal stimulant (7-hydroxy, 4'-methoxy-isoflavone, in the early growth of common bean and soybean. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, joint inoculation (junction of all species in equal proportions and native fungi (without inoculation, in the presence and absence of stimulant. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry matter, root dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, nodules dry matter and accumulation of calcium, zinc and phosphorus in the shoot dry matter. The increase provided by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the use of stimulant reached over 200 % in bean and over 80 % in soybean plants. The fungi Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, for bean, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and the joint inoculation, for soybean, increased the dry matter and nutrients accumulation.

  19. Iron supply to soybean plants through the foliar application of IDHA/Fe3+: effect of plant nutritional status and adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lucena, Patricia; Ropero, Edgar; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Lucena, Juan J

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic Fe chelates are commonly used to overcome Fe deficiencies in crops, but most of them are scarcely biodegradable. Iminodisuccinic acid (IDHA) is a biodegradable chelating agent that is currently being evaluated as an alternative to EDTA. In this work, the efficacy of the foliar application of IDHA/Fe(3+) to soybean chlorotic plants under controlled conditions was studied, testing the influence of the adjuvant used and of the plant nutritional status. When IDHA/Fe(3+) was applied to soybean plants with severe Fe chlorosis and the foliar sprays were the sole source of Fe, this chelate behaved similarly to the EDTA/Fe(3+) and the recovery of the plants was slight in both cases. The same chelates were tested when foliar sprays were an additional source of Fe for mildly chlorotic plants, which were also being supplied with low concentrations of Fe applied to the nutrient solution. Then, plant recovery was appreciable in all cases, and the IDHA/Fe(3+) was as effective as EDTA/Fe(3+). Among the adjuvants studied, a urea-based product was the only one that did not damage the leaf surface and that could improve the efficiency of IDHA/Fe(3+) up tp the level of EDTA/Fe(3+). Thus, it was concluded the foliar application of IDHA/Fe(3+) can be an environmentally friendly alternative to the non-biodegradable chelate EDTA/Fe(3+) when the appropriate adjuvant is used. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  1. INTERCROPPING OF BRAQUIARIA WITH SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnara, Deise Dalazen; Bulegon, Lucas Guilherme; Zoz, Tiago [UNESP; Rossol, Charles Douglas; Berte, Luiz Neri; Rabello de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio; Neres, Marcela Abbado

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the intercropping of Brachiaria brizantha. Marandu with soybeans. The experiment has been planted in a 3 year prevailing area with no-tillage, in eutrophic Oxisol at Maripa - PR. The experimental design was a randomized block with five replications. For the forage study, four treatments were performed which consisted of seeding times brachiaria [early ( seven days before planting soybeans) joint (same day of soybean planting) and after (at stages V-3 an...

  2. Foliar Reflectance and Fluorescence Responses for Corn and Soybean Plants Under Nitrogen Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Corp, L. A.; Butcher, L. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    We are investigating the use of spectral indices derived from actively induced fluorescence spectra and passive optical spectra. We examined the influence of photosynthetic pigment, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content on the spectral fluorescence and passive optical property characteristics of mature, upper leaves from plants provided different N fertilizer application rates: 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of recommended N levels. A suite of optical, fluorescence, and biophysical measurements were collected on leaves from field grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean plants (Glycine max L.) grown in pots (greenhouse + ambient sunlight. Steady state laser-induced fluorescence emission spectra (5 nm resolution) were obtained from adaxial and abaxial surfaces resulting from excitation at single wavelengths (280, 380 or 360, and 532 nm). For emission spectra produced by each of these excitation wavelengths, ratios of emission peaks were calculated, including the red far-red chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) ratio (F685/F740) and the far-red/green (F740/F525) ratio. High resolution (< 3 nm) optical spectra (350-2500 nm) of reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance were also acquired for both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Species differences were demonstrated for several optical parameters. A 'red edge' derivative ratio determined from transmittance spectra [as the maximum first deivative, between 650-750 nm, normalized to the value at 744 nm, or Dmax/D744], was strongly associated with the C/N ratio (r(exp 2) = 0.90, P +/- 0.001). This ratio, calculated from reflectance spectra, was inversely related to chlorophyll b content (r(exp 2) = 0.91, P +/- 0.001) as was the ChlF (F685/F740) ratio obtained with 532 nm excitation (r(exp 2) = 0.76, P +/- 0.01). Discrimination of N treatment groups was possible with specific fluorescence band ratios (e.g., F740/F525 obtained with 380 nm excitation). Higher ChlF and blue-green emissions were measured from the abaxial leaf surfaces

  3. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  4. The influence of gamma rays irradiation on chlorophyll mutation and genetic variability of agronomic characters in soybean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratma, Rivaie; Sumargono, A.M. Riyanti

    1998-01-01

    Seeds of soybean mutant line No. 13/PsJ with 12% moisture content were irradiated by 0,10;0,20;0.30 and 0.40 kGy of gamma rays treatment. Number of irradiated seed for each treatment was 1500 seeds. Irradiated of seeds were planted in the 4m X 5m plot size with 0,20m x 0,40m spacing and two seed each hole and were planted as M-1 plants in the wet season of 1996/1997 at PAIR field experiment in Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. The experiment was designed Randomized Block Design with three replication Plans of M-1 generation were harvested individuality and were planted as known M2 plants in the next generation in dry season of 1997 at PAIR field experiment. Seven days planting the chlorophyll mutation of plants were recorded by Frydenberg method and the genetic variability of plant height, number of fertile pods and nodes were calculated by Singh and Chaudhary formula. Results of the experiment showed that chlorophyll mutation and genetic variability of plant height and number of fertile pods could be improved be 0.10 and 0,20 kGy of gamma rays treatment. (authors)

  5. A novel cold-inducible zinc finger protein from soybean, SCOF-1, enhances cold tolerance in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Lee, S H; Cheong, Y H; Yoo, C M; Lee, S I; Chun, H J; Yun, D J; Hong, J C; Lee, S Y; Lim, C O; Cho, M J

    2001-02-01

    Cold stress on plants induces changes in the transcription of cold response genes. A cDNA clone encoding C2H2-type zinc finger protein, SCOF-1, was isolated from soybean. The transcription of SCOF-1 is specifically induced by low temperature and abscisic acid (ABA) but not by dehydration or high salinity. Constitutive overexpression of SCOF-1 induced cold-regulated (COR) gene expression and enhanced cold tolerance of non-acclimated transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. SCOF-1 localized to the nucleus but did not bind directly to either C-repeat/dehydration (CRT/DRE) or ABA responsive element (ABRE), cis-acting DNA regulatory elements present in COR gene promoters. However, SCOF-1 greatly enhanced the DNA binding activity of SGBF-1, a soybean G-box binding bZIP transcription factor, to ABRE in vitro. SCOF-1 also interacted with SGBF-1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. The SGBF-1 transactivated the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the ABRE element in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts. Furthermore, the SCOF-1 enhanced ABRE-dependent gene expression mediated by SGBF-1. These results suggest that SCOF-1 may function as a positive regulator of COR gene expression mediated by ABRE via protein-protein interaction, which in turn enhances cold tolerance of plants.

  6. Soybean plant growth study conducted using purified protein hydrolysate-based fertilizer made from chrome-tanned leather waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Anupama; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2015-12-01

    Leather processing discharges enormous amount of chrome containing leather solid waste which creates a major disposal problem. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is a complex of collagen and chromium. The presence of chromium limits protein application in fertilizer industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used as a nitrogen source for fertilizer formulation. In this study, an attempt has been made to employ purified protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather shavings (CTLS) in formulation of fertilizer. The formulated fertilizer (1–3 t ha(-1)) is employed as nitrogen source in production of soybean. Plant growth study demonstrates that formulated fertilizer dosage 3 t ha(-1) produced similar effects of commercial fertilizer-treated plants. Application of formulated fertilizer yielded higher seed in plant than commercial fertilizer.

  7. Response of Pennsylvania native plant species, corn and soybean to tank mixes of dicamba and glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crops such as soybean are being genetically modified to be tolerant to multiple herbicides, such as dicamba and glyphosate, in order to allow treatment with several herbicides to control the development of herbicide resistance in weeds. However, with increased use of multiple-he...

  8. Structure of soybean seed coat peroxidase: a plant peroxidase with unusual stability and haem-apoprotein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, A; Mirza, O; Indiani, C

    2001-01-01

    Soybean seed coat peroxidase (SBP) is a peroxidase with extraordinary stability and catalytic properties. It belongs to the family of class III plant peroxidases that can oxidize a wide variety of organic and inorganic substrates using hydrogen peroxide. Because the plant enzyme is a heterogeneous...... glycoprotein, SBP was produced recombinant in Escherichia coli for the present crystallographic study. The three-dimensional structure of SBP shows a bound tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane molecule (TRIS). This TRIS molecule has hydrogen bonds to active site residues corresponding to the residues that interact...... with the small phenolic substrate ferulic acid in the horseradish peroxidase C (HRPC):ferulic acid complex. TRIS is positioned in what has been described as a secondary substrate-binding site in HRPC, and the structure of the SBP:TRIS complex indicates that this secondary substrate-binding site could...

  9. Evaluating the growth parameters of soybean in response to plant growth promoting fungi under Mazandaran climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad yazdani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In low-input cropping systems, the natural roles of microorganisms in maintaining soil fertility may be more important than conventional system. In order to investigate the effects of plant growth promoting fungi on improvement of growth and development in soybean (cv: JK an experiment was conducted at the research farm of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during the 2011-2012 growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a factorial experiment based a completely randomized block design with three replications. The first factor was six levels of fungi: inoculation T. harzianum and AMF genus Glumus: G. mosseae, G. intraradices, and co-inoculation of T. harzianum + G. mosseae, T. harzianum + G. intraradices and non-inoculation (control. The second factor was three levels of phosphorus (0, 70 and 140 kg.ha-1 from superphosphate trip. Results showed that inoculation of T. harzianum and G. mosseae significantly had maximum chlorophyll content up to 17% and 16% at reduced phosphorus dosage (70 kg.ha-1 and conventional phosphorus dosage as compared to the control respectively. The greatest effect was recorded at reduced phosphorus dosage (70 kg.ha-1 and conventional phosphorus dosage significant increase in terms of chlorophyll content. In addition, the dry weights and chlorophyll content of soybean plants in reduced phosphorous dosage (70 kg.ha-1 and co-inoculated with T. harzianum + G. mosseae as well as conventional phosphorous dosage were significantly higher than the non-inoculated plants. In this experiment, at reduce phosphate fertilizer (P0%: 0 treatment, not affected of plant growth promoting fungi compared to control. But, reduced phosphorous dosage (70 kg.ha-1 was more affected.

  10. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  11. Heterologous Expression of Panax ginseng PgTIP1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance of Soybean Cotyledon Hairy Roots, Composite, and Whole Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the

  12. Comparative studies focusing on transgenic through cp4EPSPS gene and non-transgenic soybean plants: an analysis of protein species and enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Sandra C C; Barbosa, Herbert S; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Arruda, Marco A Z

    2013-11-20

    This work evaluates the activity of a few key enzymes involved in combating reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2), and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), as well as the concentration of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in transgenic and non-transgenic soybean leaves. Additionally, differential protein species from leaves of both genotypes were evaluated by applying a regulation factor of ≥1.8 to further corroborate the hypothesis that genetic modification itself can be a stress factor for these plants. For this task, transgenic soybean plants were obtained from seeds modified with the cp4EPSPS gene. The results revealed higher activities of all evaluated enzymes in transgenic than in non-transgenic soybean leaves (ranging from 13.8 to 70.1%), as well as higher concentrations of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in transgenic soybean leaves, clearly indicating a condition of oxidative stress established in the transgenic genotype. Additionally, 47 proteins were differentially abundant when comparing the leaves of both plants, with 26 species accurately identified, including the protein involved in the genetic modification (CP4EPSPS). From these results, it is possible to conclude that the plant is searching for a new equilibrium to maintain its metabolism because the stress condition is being maintained within levels that can be tolerated by the plant. The present paper is the first one in the literature where are shown translational aspects involving plant stress and the genetic modification for soybean involving the cp4 EPSPS gene. The main biological importance of this work is to make possible the demystification of the genetic modification, allowing answers for some questions that still remain unknown, and enlarge our knowledge about genetically modified organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. Copyright

  13. Characterization of Soybean WRKY Gene Family and Identification of Soybean WRKY Genes that Promote Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2017-12-19

    WRKY proteins are a superfamily of plant transcription factors with important roles in plants. WRKY proteins have been extensively analyzed in plant species including Arabidopsis and rice. Here we report characterization of soybean WRKY gene family and their functional analysis in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the most important soybean pathogen. Through search of the soybean genome, we identified 174 genes encoding WRKY proteins that can be classified into seven groups as established in other plants. WRKY variants including a WRKY-related protein unique to legumes have also been identified. Expression analysis reveals both diverse expression patterns in different soybean tissues and preferential expression of specific WRKY groups in certain tissues. Furthermore, a large number of soybean WRKY genes were responsive to salicylic acid. To identify soybean WRKY genes that promote soybean resistance to SCN, we first screened soybean WRKY genes for enhancing SCN resistance when over-expressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots. To confirm the results, we transformed five WRKY genes into a SCN-susceptible soybean cultivar and generated transgenic soybean lines. Transgenic soybean lines overexpressing three WRKY transgenes displayed increased resistance to SCN. Thus, WRKY genes could be explored to develop new soybean cultivars with enhanced resistance to SCN.

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on some radiobiological and genetic plant reactions in four soybean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, A.; Nikolov, Ch.

    1990-01-01

    Dry soybean seeds of several cultivars were gamma-irradiated with 60 Co in doses 5, 7.5 and 10 krad. Most resistant to the highest dose proved to be cv. Beeson-80 and most sensitive - L-4207. No correlation was found between cultivar radiosensitivity and their mutability, the most resistant cv. Beeson having highest general mutability. The doses 7.5 and 10 krad could be recommended as most effective in inducing useful mutations. In the cvs. S-137 and S-2596 irradiation with doses of 5 and 10 krad also produced high effect. Mutant forms of interest for soybean breeding were produced by gamma-irradiation. 3 tabs., 5 figs., 20 refs

  15. Curative and eradicant action of fungicides to control Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experiments were carried out in a growth chamber and laboratory to quantify the curative and eradicant actions of fungicides in Asian soybean rust control. The experiments were conducted with the CD 214 RR cultivar, assessing the following fungicides, separately or in association, chlorothalonil, flutriafol, cyproconazole + trifloxystrobin, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, cyproconazole + azoxystrobin, and cyproconazole + picoxystrobin. The fungicides were applied at four (curative and nine days after inoculation (eradicant treatment. Treatments were evaluated according to the density of lesions and uredia/cm2, and the eradicant treatment was assessed based on the necrosis of lesions/uredia and on uredospore viability. Except for the fungicide chlorothalonil, there was curative action of latent/virtual infections by the fungicides. Penetrant fungicides that are absorbed have curative and eradicant action to soybean rust.

  16. Water fluxes in maize, millet and soybean plant-residue mulches used in direct seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernando Antonio Macena da; Pinto, Hilton Silveira; Scopel, Eric; Corbeels, Marc; Affholder, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of crop residue mulches from maize, millet and soybean on water storage capacity, water evaporation, soil cover, solar radiation interception and surface water run-off as well as to incorporate these effects in a crop growth model. The mulch of millet and maize presented higher capacity for water storage than soybean mulch: 3.26, 3.24 and 2.62 g of water per gram of dry matter, respectively. Water losses from wet mulches were related to the potential evapotranspiration. The soil cover levels were similar among the three types of material. The three types of mulch intercepted similar quantities of photosynthetically active radiation and infrared radiation. The mulch of maize straw was slightly more efficient in intercepting radiation than that from millet or soybean. Mulching with millet residues was efficient in the control of surface water run-off: only 45.5 mm of water (out of 843.5 mm rainfall) was lost through runoff under the no-till system with millet as cover crop, whereas 222.5 mm of water was lost in the conventional system with tillage. Most of the relations derived in this work could be described by exponential models. (author)

  17. Effect of bacterial root symbiosis and urea as source of nitrogen on performance of soybean plants grown hydroponically for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is traditionally grown in soil, where root symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum can supply nitrogen (N), by means of bacterial fixation of atmospheric N2. Nitrogen fertilizers inhibit N-fixing bacteria. However, urea is profitably used in soybean cultivation in soil, where urease enzymes of telluric microbes catalyze the hydrolysis to ammonium, which has a lighter inhibitory effect compared to nitrate. Previous researches demonstrated that soybean can be grown hydroponically with recirculating complete nitrate-based nutrient solutions. In Space, urea derived from crew urine could be used as N source, with positive effects in resource procurement and waste recycling. However, whether the plants are able to use urea as the sole source of N and its effect on root symbiosis with B. japonicum is still unclear in hydroponics. We compared the effect of two N sources, nitrate and urea, on plant growth and physiology, and seed yield and quality of soybean grown in closed-loop Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) in growth chamber, with or without inoculation with B. japonicum. Urea limited plant growth and seed yield compared to nitrate by determining nutrient deficiency, due to its low utilization efficiency in the early developmental stages, and reduced nutrients uptake (K, Ca, and Mg) throughout the whole growing cycle. Root inoculation with B. japonicum did not improve plant performance, regardless of the N source. Specifically, nodulation increased under fertigation with urea compared to nitrate, but this effect did not result in higher leaf N content and better biomass and seed production. Urea was not suitable as sole N source for soybean in closed-loop NFT. However, the ability to use urea increased from young to adult plants, suggesting the possibility to apply it during reproductive phase or in combination with nitrate in earlier developmental stages. Root symbiosis did not contribute significantly to N nutrition and did not enhance the plant ability to use

  18. Influence of soil-extractable aluminium and pH on the uptake of aluminium from soil into the soybean plant (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D; Thornton, I; Ramsey, M H

    1993-09-01

    The effects of soil pH and other soil properties on the uptake of AI by soybean plants have been investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Six soils were compared that were developed over six contrasting bedrock types ranging widely in their AI content and other chemical and physical characteristics, namely Oxford Clay, Chalk, Lower Lias Clay, Devonian Shale, Granite and Lower Greensand. Soil pH varied naturally between soil types and each soil was also amended to give two other pH levels using elemental sulphur and/or calcium carbonate. AI concentrations in various parts of the soybean plants were determined by ICP-AES after acid digestion. The AI solubility in the soils and hence its availability to the plants was estimated using a number of different reagents designed to extract different forms of AI.The AI concentration measured in the soybean leaves was found to be predicted most accurately by the 'available' AI extracted from soils by 0.02 M CaCl2. The relationship appears to the linear, with a correlation coefficient of 0.97 (p <0.01). The AI content of the leaves increases with decreasing soil pH. The relationship is non-linear with a marked increase in leaf AI for soils with pH <4.4. The amounts of 'plant-available' AI in the soils extracted with 0.02 M CaCl2 was much less than that extracted with 0.05 M EDTA, although both increased markedly with decreasing soil pH. The amount of AI measured in the soybean plants was directly related to both the 'available' forms of AI in the soils, and also to the pH of the soils. Soil pH was identified as a major factor that controls the uptake of Al from soil into the soybean plant.

  19. Analysis of various quality attributes of sunflower and soybean plants by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy: Development and validation calibration models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower and soybean are summer annuals that can be grown as an alternative to corn and may be particularly useful in organic production systems. Rapid and low cost methods of analyzing plant quality would be helpful for crop management. We developed and validated calibration models for Near-infrar...

  20. Analysis of various quality attributes of sunflower and soybean plants by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy: Development and validation of calibration models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean and sunflower are summer annuals that can be grown as an alternative to corn and may be particularly useful in organic production systems for forage in addition to their traditional use as protein and/or oil yielding crops. Rapid and low cost methods of analyzing plant quality would be helpf...

  1. Co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF inhibited soybean red crown rot: from field study to plant defense-related gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases.We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF.Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils.

  2. EFFECT OF ALUMINUM ON PLANT GROWTH, PHOSPORUS AND CALCIUM UPTAKE OF TROPICAL RICE (Oryza sativa, MAIZE (Zea mays, AND SOYBEAN (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nursyamsi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum toxicity is the most limiting factor to plant growth on acid soils. Structural and functional damages in the root system by Al decrease nutrient uptake and lead to reduce plant growth and mineral deficiency in shoot. Greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of Al on plant growth, and P and Ca uptake of rice, maize, and soybean. The plants were grown in hydroponic solution added with 0, 5, 10, and 30 ppm Al, at pH 4.0. The results showed that relative growth of shoots and roots of upland rice, lowland rice, maize, and soybean decreased with an increase of Al level. However, sometimes the low Al level (5 ppm stimulated shoot and root growth of some varieties in these species. According to total AlRG30 values, which is Al concentration in solution when relative growth decreased to 50%, Al tolerance of species was in order of barley < maize < soybean < lowland rice < upland rice. For maize, Al tolerance was in the order of Arjuna < Kalingga < P 3540 < SA 5 < SA 4 < PM 95 A < SA 3 < Antasena; for soybean was Wilis < INPS < Galunggung < Kerinci < Kitamusume; for lowland rice was RD 23 < Kapuas < Cisadane < KDML 105 < IR 66 < RD 13, and for upland rice was Dodokan < JAC165 < Cirata < Orizyca sabana 6 < Danau Tempe < Laut Tawar. Based on the rank of Al tolerance, rice was the useful crop to be planted in acid soils. Antasena (maize, Kitamusume ( soybean , RD 13 (lowland rice, and Laut Tawar (upland rice were also recommended for acid soils. P and Ca concentration in shoots and roots commonly decreased with an increase of Al level. However, the low Al level stimulated absorption of P and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots.

  3. Modeling of the radiative energy balance within a crop canopy for estimating evapotranspiration: Studies on a row planted soybean canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Hirota, O.

    1990-01-01

    The spatial distribution and density of the leaf area within a crop canopy were used to estimate the radiational environment and evapotranspiration. Morphological measurements were pursued on the soybean stands in the early stage of growth when the two-dimensional foliage distribution pattern existed. The rectangular tube model was used to calculate the light absorption by parallel row of crops both short-wave radiation (direct and diffuse solar radiation, and scattered radiation by plant elements) and long-wave radiation (emanated radiation from the sky, ground and leaves). The simulated profiles are in close agreement with the experimentally measured short-wave and net radiation data. The evapotranspiration of a row was calcuated using a simulated net radiation. The model calculation also agreed well with the evapotranspiration estimated by the Bowen ratio method

  4. Proteomic analysis of mature soybean seeds from the Chernobyl area suggests plant adaptation to the contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Rashydov, Namik M; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Mátel, L'ubomír; Salaj, Terézia; Pret'ová, Anna; Hajduch, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The explosion in one of the four reactors of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, Chernobyl) caused the worst nuclear environmental disaster ever seen. Currently, 23 years after the accident, the soil in the close vicinity of CNPP is still significantly contaminated with long-living radioisotopes, such as (137)Cs. Despite this contamination, the plants growing in Chernobyl area were able to adapt to the radioactivity, and survive. The aim of this study was to investigate plant adaptation mechanisms toward permanently increased level of radiation using a quantitative high-throughput proteomics approach. Soybeans of a local variety (Soniachna) were sown in contaminated and control fields in the Chernobyl region. Mature seeds were harvested and the extracted proteins were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In total, 9.2% of 698 quantified protein spots on 2-D gel were found to be differentially expressed with a p-value Chernobyl soil conditions was proposed. Our results suggest that adaptation toward heavy metal stress, protection against radiation damage, and mobilization of seed storage proteins are involved in plant adaptation mechanism to radioactivity in the Chernobyl region.

  5. Unraveling the effect of structurally different classes of insecticide on germination and early plant growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Il-Doo; Kwak, Hwa-Sook; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Although a considerable number of studies about the effect of different insecticides on plant physiology and metabolism have been carried out, research work about the comparative action of structurally different classes of insecticide on physiological and biochemical properties of soybean seed germination and early growth has not been found. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different classes of insecticides on soybean seed germination and early plant growth. Soybean seeds of Bosuk cultivar were soaked for 24h in distilled water or recommended dose (2mLL(-1), 1mLL(-1), 0.5gL(-1), and 0.5gL(-1) water for insecticides Mepthion, Myungtaja, Actara, and Stonate, respectively) of pesticide solutions of four structurally different classes of insecticides - Mepthion (fenitrothion; organophosphate), Myungtaja (etofenprox; pyrethroid), Actara (thiamethoxam; neonicotinoid), and Stonate (lambda-cyhalothrin cum thiamethoxam; pyrethroid cum neonicotinoid) - which are used for controlling stink bugs in soybean crop. Insecticides containing thiamethoxam and lamda-cyhalothrin cum thiamethoxam showed positive effects on seedling biomass and content of polyphenol and flavonoid, however fenitrothion insecticide reduced the seed germination, seed and seedling vigor, and polyphenol and flavonoid contents in soybean. Results of this study reveal that different classes of insecticide have differential influence on physiologic and metabolic actions like germination, early growth, and antioxidant activities of soybean and this implies that yield and nutrient content also might be affected with the application of different types of insecticide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content.

  7. Manganese (Mn) stress toward hyperaccumulators plants combination (HPC) using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition on soybean (Glycine max) seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Tania Sylviana; Zahroh, Tata Taqiyyatuz; Merindasya, Mirza; Masfaridah, Ririn; Hartanti, Dyah Ayu Sri; Arum, Sekar; Nurhatika, Sri; Muhibuddin, Anton; Surtiningsih, Tini; Arifiyanto, Achmad

    2017-06-01

    Heavy metals were a metal bracket which had a specific gravity greater than 5 g / cm3. Manganese was one of them because it has a specific gravity of 7.4 g / cm3. Together with widespread cases of soil contamination caused by heavy metals as well as increased development of the science of breeding ground rapidly, then the alternative rehabilitation techniques were relatively cheap and effective it needs to be developed and even some cases of contaminated management soil using a combination of plants with microorganisms to be more effective. Thus it was necessary to develop research on plants that were able to accumulate heavy metals and other toxic materials, such as Mn so that the land becomes safe for health and the environment. Based on above reason this research aimed to see the influence of hyperaccumulators combination of plants using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition to stressed by manganese (Mn) on soybean (Glycine max). Observations of growth, chlorophyll content and heavy metals analysis performed on nine treatments (P1-P9) and one control (P0). The results showed a combination of hyperaccumulators under mychorrizal helped overcome the stress of manganese (Mn) in the leaves of soybean (G. max). It gave an influence on the number of leaves and chlorophyll content of soybean (G. max), but no effect performed on the height and the roots of soybean (G. max). The use of plants in small amounts hyperaccumulators (P1;1 jatropha and 1 lamtoro) was sufficient to cope with stress of Mn in the leaves of soybean (G. max).

  8. Genome-wide association mapping of partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean plant introductions from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rhiannon; Rolling, William; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry; Dorrance, Anne E; McHale, Leah K

    2016-08-11

    Phytophthora root and stem rot is one of the most yield-limiting diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr], caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. Partial resistance is controlled by several genes and, compared to single gene (Rps gene) resistance to P. sojae, places less selection pressure on P. sojae populations. Thus, partial resistance provides a more durable resistance against the pathogen. In previous work, plant introductions (PIs) originating from the Republic of Korea (S. Korea) have shown to be excellent sources for high levels of partial resistance against P. sojae. Resistance to two highly virulent P. sojae isolates was assessed in 1395 PIs from S. Korea via a greenhouse layer test. Lines exhibiting possible Rps gene immunity or rot due to other pathogens were removed and the remaining 800 lines were used to identify regions of quantitative resistance using genome-wide association mapping. Sixteen SNP markers on chromosomes 3, 13 and 19 were significantly associated with partial resistance to P. sojae and were grouped into seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) by linkage disequilibrium blocks. Two QTL on chromosome 3 and three QTL on chromosome 19 represent possible novel loci for partial resistance to P. sojae. While candidate genes at QTL varied in their predicted functions, the coincidence of QTLs 3-2 and 13-1 on chromosomes 3 and 13, respectively, with Rps genes and resistance gene analogs provided support for the hypothesized mechanism of partial resistance involving weak R-genes. QTL contributing to partial resistance towards P. sojae in soybean germplasm originating from S. Korea were identified. The QTL identified in this study coincide with previously reported QTL, Rps genes, as well as novel loci for partial resistance. Molecular markers associated with these QTL can be used in the marker-assisted introgression of these alleles into elite cultivars. Annotations of genes within QTL allow hypotheses on the possible mechanisms of partial

  9. Analysis of nitrate absorption and transport in non-nodulated and nodulated soybean plants with 13NO3- and 15NO3-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Ohtake, Norikuni; Ohyama, Takuji

    1999-01-01

    Nodulating (T202) and non-nodulating (T201) soybean isolines were hydroponically cultivated, then nitrate labeled with 13 N or 15 N, was added to the culture solution in order to investigate the nitrate absorption and transport in soybean. The accumulation pattern of the absorbed 13 N in the first trifoliate was observed by positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) as well as bioimaging analyzer system (BAS). The 15 N abundance of each part was determined by emission spectrometry. Real time changes in two dimensional image of the radioactivity could be monitored by PETIS, besides the distribution 13 N in whole plant could be observed by BAS. However quantitative data were hardly obtained by the 13 N analysis. Stable isotope 15 N is more reliable in the quantitative analysis in each part. Combing the data obtained by 15 N and 13 N tracer experiments, the absorption and translocation of N in plant should be more clearly figured out. (author)

  10. Aphid (Myzus persicae) feeding on the parasitic plant dodder (Cuscuta australis) activates defense responses in both the parasite and soybean host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Juan; Song, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Schuman, Meredith C; Sun, Guiling; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Song, Dunlun; Wu, Jianqiang

    2018-06-01

    Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are shoot holoparasites, whose haustoria penetrate host tissues to enable fusion between the parasite and host vascular systems, allowing Cuscuta to extract water, nutrients and other molecules from hosts. Aphids are piercing-sucking herbivores that use specialized stylets to feed on phloem sap. Aphids are known to feed on Cuscuta, but how Cuscuta and its host plant respond to aphids attacking the parasite was unknown. Phytohormone quantification, transcriptomic analysis and bioassays were performed to determine the responses of Cuscuta australis and its soybean (Glycine max) hosts to the feeding of green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae) on C. australis. Decreased salicylic acid levels and 172 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in GPA-attacked C. australis, and the soybean hosts exhibited increased jasmonic acid contents and 1015 DEGs, including > 100 transcription factor genes. Importantly, GPA feeding on C. australis increased the resistance of the soybean host to subsequent feeding by the leafworm Spodoptera litura and soybean aphid Aphis glycines, resulting in 21% decreased leafworm mass and 41% reduced aphid survival rate. These data strongly suggest that GPA feeding on Cuscuta induces a systemic signal, which is translocated to hosts and activates defense against herbivores. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Evaluation of auxin and thiamine interaction effect on PAL activity and phenolic compounds content in vegetative growth stage of soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nazi nadernejad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycin max L. is one of the most important oily seeds in the world. This plant is rich in protein and unsaturated fats, and plays a significant role in human health with phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Indole Butyric Acid (IBA is a plant growth regulator that plays a key role in producing phenolic compounds and increasing the antioxidant capacity of the plant. Thiamine is one of the important vitamins in strengthening the immune system and increasing the resistance to environmental stresses in the plant's growth stages. Regarding the effect of hormone auxin and thiamine on the production of phenolic compounds as one of the antioxidant compounds in growth stages, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the two compounds in two stages of soybean growth and compare their effect on phenolic compounds changes in order to Detecting higher antioxidant capacity in environmental stress tolerance. For this purpose, the DPX cultivar of soybean seeds were prepared from Dezful Agriculture Research Center and planted in perlite containing flowers. The plants were planted under factorial design under IBA treatments with three concentrations of 0, 10 and 50 and thiamine with three concentrations of 0, 50 and 200. Extraction and evaluation of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and pigments in leaves were performed. Data were analyzed using Duncan's test at a significant level of 5%. The results showed that the combined use of auxin and thiamine increased the carotenoid content in both phases and caused a significant increase in phenolic content. Application of auxin alone reduced auxin and thiamine the anthocyanin content significantly in both phases, but did not have a significant effect on phenolic content. The results showed that the PAL activity of the phenolic and anthocyanin content increased significantly in the 9-leaf stage compared to 3-leaf. Generally, the results showed that interaction effect between auxin and thiamine on

  12. The number of measurements needed to obtain high reliability for traits related to enzymatic activities and photosynthetic compounds in soybean plants infected with Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tássia Boeno; Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Alvarenga, Amauri Alves; Bhering, Leonardo Lopes; Campo, Clara Beatriz Hoffmann

    2018-01-01

    Asian rust affects the physiology of soybean plants and causes losses in yield. Repeatability coefficients may help breeders to know how many measurements are needed to obtain a suitable reliability for a target trait. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the repeatability coefficients of 14 traits in soybean plants inoculated with Phakopsora pachyrhizi and to establish the minimum number of measurements needed to predict the breeding value with high accuracy. Experiments were performed in a 3x2 factorial arrangement with three treatments and two inoculations in a random block design. Repeatability coefficients, coefficients of determination and number of measurements needed to obtain a certain reliability were estimated using ANOVA, principal component analysis based on the covariance matrix and the correlation matrix, structural analysis and mixed model. It was observed that the principal component analysis based on the covariance matrix out-performed other methods for almost all traits. Significant differences were observed for all traits except internal CO2 concentration for the treatment effects. For the measurement effects, all traits were significantly different. In addition, significant differences were found for all Treatment x Measurement interaction traits except coumestrol, chitinase and chlorophyll content. Six measurements were suitable to obtain a coefficient of determination higher than 0.7 for all traits based on principal component analysis. The information obtained from this research will help breeders and physiologists determine exactly how many measurements are needed to evaluate each trait in soybean plants infected by P. pachyrhizi with a desirable reliability. PMID:29438380

  13. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. VI. Changing sensitivity to auxin in gravistimulated soybean hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, P. A.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    Although the Cholodny-Went model of auxin redistribution has been used to explain the transduction phase of gravitropism for over 60 years, problems are apparent, especially with dicot stems. An alternative to an auxin gradient is a physiological gradient in which lower tissues of a horizontal stem become more sensitive than upper tissues to auxin already present. Changes in tissue sensitivity to auxin were tested by immersing marked Glycine max Merrill (soybean) hypocotyl sections in buffered auxin solutions (0, 10(-8) to 10(-2) molar indoleacetic acid) and observing bending and growth of upper and lower surfaces. The two surfaces of horizontal hypocotyl sections responded differently to the same applied auxin stimulus; hypocotyls bent up (lower half grew more) in buffer alone or in low auxin levels, but bent down (upper half grew more) in high auxin. Dose-response curves were evaluated with Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with auxin-receptor binding analogous to enzyme-substrate binding. Vmax for the lower half was usually greater than that for the upper half, which could indicate more binding sites in the lower half. Km of the upper half was always greater than that of the lower half (unmeasurably low), which could indicate that upper-half binding sites had a much lower affinity for auxin than lower-half sites. Dose-response curves were also obtained for sections scrubbed' (cuticle abraded) on top or bottom before immersion in auxin, and gravitropic memory' experiments of L. Brauner and A. Hagar (1958 Planta 51: 115-147) were duplicated. [1-14C]Indoleacetic acid penetration was equal into the two halves, and endogenous plus exogenously supplied (not radiolabeled) free auxin in the two halves (by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry) was also equal. Thus, differential growth occurred without free auxin redistribution, contrary to Cholodny-Went but in agreement with a sensitivity model.

  14. Soybean plant-based toxicity assessment and phytoremediation of soils contaminated by vegetable and mineral oils used in power electrical transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Karina; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando Rodolfo; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes; Júnior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Schuelter, Adilson Ricken; Neves, Camila Vargas; Kroumov, Alexander Dimitrov

    2018-04-01

    In this work, deleterious effects in soils due to the presence of dielectric fluids were investigated. For this purpose, vegetable (Envirotemp ® FR3) and mineral (Lubrax AV 66 IN) oils were used for simulating a set of soils contaminated in different oil contents (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10%) in which three 120-days soybean crop periods (SCP) were carried out using the species Glycine max (L.) Merr. Both soil and soybean plant samples were analysed on following the changes on chemical attributes, content of oils and greases (COG) in soils and phytotechnical characteristics of soybean plant. No significant changes on soil chemical attributes were found. For a 0.5% vegetable oil fraction, COG removals of 35, 60 and 90% were observed after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd SCPs, respectively, whereas removals of 25, 40 and 70% were observed for 0.5% mineral oil fraction after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd SCPs, respectively. There was an effectively accumulated removal on all tested oil fractions as being proportional to the integrated 120-days SCPs, suggesting a lesser number of crops for a complete abatement of oil fraction in soil. A 100% recovery on the seedlings emergence fractions was also evidenced, revealing that at least a number of 7 and 9 SCPs should be applied continuously in soils contaminated by vegetable and mineral oils, respectively, in order to no longer jeopardize soybean plant growth. Finally, an empirical prediction of the number of SCPs necessary for the complete removal of oil from the soil was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating effect of biofertilizer on nodulation and soybean (Glycine max L plants growth characteristics under water deficit stress of seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tajik Khaveh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer on soybean (Glycine max L. seed vigor that produced under water deficit condition and related traits, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based of complete randomized block design with four replications at the research greenhouse of Aboureihan campus- Tehran University, Iran. Experimental treatments were include biofertilizer (seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae, Cultivar (Zalta Zalha and Clark×Hobbit line and water deficit stress [irrigation plants after 50 (normal irrigation, 100 (medium stress, 150 (sever stress mm evaporation from pan class A, in parents field]. Results showed that the water deficit stress had negative effects on seed quality and seedling emergence percentage, mean daily seedling emergence, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of nodule were decreased. ZaltaZalha cultivar had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaf compared with other cultivars. Applications of biofertilzer was effective on stem diameter, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of leaf and nodule and those attributes increased by co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae. Also, use of biofertilizer in stress levels was effective on stem dry weight. Stem dry weight was increased by Co-inoculation of cultivar seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae.

  16. Uptake and distribution of combined nitrogen and its incorporation into seeds of nodulated soybean plants as revealed by 15N studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, R.K.; Arima, Yasuhiro; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1980-01-01

    Pot experiments were carried out with soybean plants grown with N-free solution, then supplied with NO 3 - or NH 4 + before 15 N administration, in order to study the uptake, distribution and redistribution of absorbed nitrogen. To determine the utilization and incorporation of combined nitrogen to the yield of seeds, as influenced by the form of N and application time, another series of experiments was carried out, in which the plants were grown with N-free solution, then 15 N was fed as 15 NO 3 - or 15 NH 4 + at pod setting stage (PS) or initial pod filling stage (IPF). By comparing the nitrate-treated plants (Nt plants) with the ammonia-treated ones (Am plants), and the treatment at PS with that at IPF, the following results were obtained. Nt plants accumulated larger amount of dry matters in respective plant parts than Am plants, particularly in the pods, and it was proved that the pods were the active sinks for newly metabolized nitrate. Both 15 N abundance and 15 N incorporation in the whole plants were much higher in Nt plants, and those in respective plant parts except nodules were also higher in Nt plants. Large part of the 15 N in roots was redistributed to the top parts in Nt plants, while large part of the absorbed N was distributed to the nodules in Am plants. Some more results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. Discovery of a seventh Rpp soybean rust resistance locus in soybean accession PI 605823

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & Syd, is a disease threat to soybean production in regions of the world with mild winters. Host plant resistance to P. pachyrhizi conditioned by Rpp genes has been found in numerous soybean accessions, and at...

  18. Agrobacterium rhizogenes - based transformation of soybean roots to form composite plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite plants are a powerful tool to rapidly analyze the effects of gene overexpression, gene silencing, and examine test promoter expression in transgenic roots. No sterile tissue culture is needed. This avoids loss of valuable material due to contamination of sterile cultures. This method uses ...

  19. The effect of rainy and dry seasons upon the application of controlled release of dimethoate formulation on soybean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahrir, Ulfa T.; Rahayu, Ali; Sulistyati, M.; Sofnie M CH; Sumatra, Made

    1998-01-01

    Controlled release formulation of dimethoate (o,o-dimetil s-(metil karbonil metil) fosforoditioate) was applicated on soybean varieties Willis, G-58, G-7, and G-55. The observation was made on damage leaves pod, and residue on seed and soil. The residue of dimethoate was determined using Gas Chromatography with Flame Photometric Detector. The result on rainy season that damage leaves pod and small and soybean grain 7% more than dry season. (authors)

  20. Soybean phytase and nucleic acid encoding the same

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Isolated soybean phytase polypeptides and isolated nucleic acids encoding soybean phytases are provided. The invention is also directed to nucleic acid expression constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the isolated soybean phytase nucleic acids, as well as methods for producing recombinant and non-recombinant purified soybean phytase. The invention also relates to transgenic plants expressing the soybean phytase, particularly expression under seed-specific expression control elements.

  1. Effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and Seed Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Filling Period of Soybean (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seyed Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Utilizing biological fertilizer is a proper and cheap method for crop production. Potentially, soybean can be used as biological fertilizers and seed inoculation. Zinc is an essential element that have positive effects on plant growth and its development. Canola, sunflower, soybean and safflower are the main cultivated oilseeds in Iran. Soybean production in Iran is very low as compared to other countries. One of the most effective factor in increasing the soybean yield is seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and application of Zinc fertilizer. Some of the benefits provided by PGPR are the ability to produce gibberellic acid, cytokinins and ethylene, N2 fixation, solubilization of mineral phosphates and other nutrients (56. Numerous studies have shown a substantial increase in dry matter accumulation and seed yield following inoculation with PGPR. Seyed Sharifi (45 reported that seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5 increased all of the growth indices such as total dry matter, crop growth rate and relative growth rate. Increasing and extending the role of biofertilizers such as Rhizobium can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and decrease adverse environmental effects. Therefore, in the development and implementation of sustainable agricultural techniques, biofertilization has great importance in alleviating environmental pollution and deterioration of the nature. As a legume, soybean can obtain a significant portion (4-85% of its nitrogen requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation when grown in association with effective and compatible Rhizobium strains. Since there is little available information on nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on yield in the agro-ecological growing zones of Ardabil province of Iran. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the effects of nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation with plant growth

  2. Overexpression of a specific soybean GmGSTU4 isoenzyme improves diphenyl ether and chloroacetanilide herbicide tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benekos, Kostantinos; Kissoudis, Christos; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Labrou, Nikolaos; Madesis, Panagiotis; Kalamaki, Mary; Makris, Antonis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2010-10-01

    Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) superfamily consists of multifunctional enzymes and forms a major part of the plants herbicide detoxification enzyme network. The tau class GST isoenzyme GmGSTU4 from soybean, exhibits catalytic activity towards the diphenyl ether herbicide fluorodifen and is active as glutathione-dependent peroxidase (GPOX). Transgenic tobacco plants of Basmas cultivar were generated via Agrobacterium transformation. The aim was to evaluate in planta, GmGSTU4's role in detoxifying the diphenyl ether herbicides fluorodifen and oxyfluorfen and the chloroacetanilides alachlor and metolachlor. Transgenic tobacco plants were verified by PCR and Southern blot hybridization and expression of GmGSTU4 was determined by RT-PCR. Leaf extracts from transgenic plants showed moderate increase in GST activity towards CDNB and a significant increase towards fluorodifen and alachlor, and at the same time an increased GPOX activity towards cumene hydroperoxide. GmGSTU4 overexpressing plants when treated with 200 μM fluorodifen or oxyfluorfen exhibited reduced relative electrolyte leakage compared to wild type plants. Moreover all GmGSTU4 overexpressing lines exhibited significantly increased tolerance towards alachlor when grown in vitro at 7.5 mg/L alachlor compared to wild type plants. No significant increased tolerance was observed to metolachlor. These results confirm the contribution of this particular GmGSTU4 isoenzyme from soybean in the detoxification of fluorodifen and alachlor, and provide the basis towards the development of transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capabilities for future use in environmental cleanup of herbicides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  4. Dependence of the productivity of maize and soybean intercropping systems on hybrid type and plant arrangement pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolijanović Željko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping systems could improve utilization of the most important resources (soil, water and nutrients, provide a better control of weeds, pests and diseases, and finally higher productivity, especially under rain-fed growing conditions. This study aimed to determine the effects of three maize (Zea mays L. prolific hybrids (FAO 500, 600 and 700 and the spatial intercrop patterns on the above-ground biomass and grain yields of maize and soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill, on chernozem soil type at Zemun Polje, Belgrade, in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications and three treatments: 3 rows of maize and 3 rows of soybean in strips for each maize hybrid (three variants, 3 rows of maize and 3 rows of soybean in alternate rows for each hybrid (another three variants and monocrops of both maize and soybeans. To optimize the ecological and economic benefits of maize/soybean intercrop in terms of yield, variety selection and compatibility of the component crops should be made using established agronomic management practices involving the two crops. Suitable maize varieties for maize/soybean intercrop systems are varieties that have less dense canopy. These varieties would therefore have lesser shading effect to the understory beans. However, establishment of an appropriate spatial arrangement of the component crops would be essential to alleviate negative effects especially on the less competitive crop. The intercropping system in alternate rows showed significantly higher above-ground biomass and grain yields in comparation with both the strip intercropping system and maize monocrops in 2004. Soybean gave significantly lower above-ground biomass and grain yield in intercrops than in monocrops. Maize prolific hybrid growing in intercropping with soybean as legume crop, increased productivity of cropping system, especially in favourable agroecological conditions. Maize and soybean yields

  5. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the plant-specific NAC transcription factor family in soybean during development and dehydration stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Mochida, Keiichi; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2011-08-01

    Plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulating diverse biological processes, including development, senescence, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stress stimuli. Within the soybean genome, we identified 152 full-length GmNAC TFs, including 11 membrane-bound members. In silico analysis of the GmNACs, together with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts, revealed similar NAC architecture. Next, we explored the soybean Affymetrix array and Illumina transcriptome sequence data to analyse tissue-specific expression profiles of GmNAC genes. Phylogenetic analysis using stress-related NAC TFs from Arabidopsis and rice as seeding sequences identified 58 of the 152 GmNACs as putative stress-responsive genes, including eight previously reported dehydration-responsive GmNACs. We could design gene-specific primers for quantitative real-time PCR verification of 38 out of 50 newly predicted stress-related genes. Twenty-five and six GmNACs were found to be induced and repressed 2-fold or more, respectively, in soybean roots and/or shoots in response to dehydration. GmNAC085, whose amino acid sequence was 39%; identical to that of well-known SNAC1/ONAC2, was the most induced gene upon dehydration, showing 390-fold and 20-fold induction in shoots and roots, respectively. Our systematic analysis has identified excellent tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive candidate GmNAC genes for in-depth characterization and future development of improved drought-tolerant transgenic soybeans.

  6. Evaluation of Seed Germination and Seed Vigor of Different Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. Cultivars Under Different Planting Dates in Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gorzin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean seed germination and seed vigor potential is lower compared with other crops, and it often greatly reduces at the planting time. The occurrence of unfavorable conditions during seed formation in field causes severe deterioration of seeds and reduces the seed quality. Planting date is one of the most important influencing factors on seed quality of soybean in field conditions. Since planting date affect seed quality by changing the environmental conditions including temperature, relative humidity and rainfall during seed development and maturation. Materials and Methods To evaluate the seed germination and seed vigor of soybean seeds wshich were obtained from various planting dates, a field experiment was conducted with a split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design in three replications in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in 2011. Main plot included five planting dates April 20, May 13, June 3, June 29 and July 22, and sub plot consisted of three cultivars (Williams, Sahar and DPX. About 50 plants were selected and harvested during R7 (physiological maturity stage from each plot, and their pods were removed by hand. Then, pods were dried in shade. To avoid mechanical damage, the seeds were removed by hand from the pods. Ultimately, seed quality was assessed by seed germination and seed vigor including accelerated aging, seedling growth rate (SGR and electrical conductivity tests. Results and Discussion According to obtained results, the use of different planting dates caused the change at the beginning and ending time of seed filling period (R5-R7 of all three cultivars. This event in turn leads to creation different conditions in terms of temperature, rainfall and relative humidity during seed filling period in all three cultivars. Therefore Williams cultivar coincided with high temperatures more than two other cultivars, especially in the early planting dates. While DPX that

  7. Circadian rhythm in ''1''5O-labeled water uptake manner of a soybean plant by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yokota, Harumi; Tanoi, Keitaro; Furukawa, Jun; Ikeue, Natsuko; Ookuni, Yoko; Uchida, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Atsunori

    2001-01-01

    We present a circadian rhythm of water uptake manner in a soybean plant through realtime imaging of water, labeled with 15 O. Nitrogen gas was irradiated with deuterons accelerated by a cyclotron at Hamamatsu Photonics Co. to produce 15 O-labeled water. Then the 15 O-labeled water was supplied to a soybean plant from the root and the realtime water uptake amount was measured for 20 min by Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System (PETIS). All the targeting positions for the measurements were stems, two points at an internode between root and the first leaves, between the first leaves and the first trifoliates and between the first trifoliates and the second trifoliates. The water uptake amount was gradually increased and showed its maximum at around 13:00, especially at the basal part of the stem. Then the water uptake activity was gradually decreased until 17:00. The water amount taken up by a plant at 13:00 was about 40% higher than that at 17:00. (author)

  8. Circadian rhythm in ''1''5O-labeled water uptake manner of a soybean plant by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yokota, Harumi; Tanoi, Keitaro; Furukawa, Jun; Ikeue, Natsuko; Ookuni, Yoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences; Uchida, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Atsunori

    2001-05-01

    We present a circadian rhythm of water uptake manner in a soybean plant through realtime imaging of water, labeled with {sup 15}O. Nitrogen gas was irradiated with deuterons accelerated by a cyclotron at Hamamatsu Photonics Co. to produce {sup 15}O-labeled water. Then the {sup 15}O-labeled water was supplied to a soybean plant from the root and the realtime water uptake amount was measured for 20 min by Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System (PETIS). All the targeting positions for the measurements were stems, two points at an internode between root and the first leaves, between the first leaves and the first trifoliates and between the first trifoliates and the second trifoliates. The water uptake amount was gradually increased and showed its maximum at around 13:00, especially at the basal part of the stem. Then the water uptake activity was gradually decreased until 17:00. The water amount taken up by a plant at 13:00 was about 40% higher than that at 17:00. (author)

  9. Effects of foliar boron application on seed composition, cell wall boron, and seed δ15N and δ13C isotopes in water-stressed soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Hu, Yanbo; Mengistu, Alemu; Kassem, My A.; Abel, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of foliar boron (B) application on soybean seed composition. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars). Our hypothesis was that since B is involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism, it may impact seed composition. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted where half of the soybean plants was exposed to water stress (WS) and the other half was well-watered. Foliar boron (FB) in the form of boric acid was applied twice at a rate of 1.1 kg ha−1. The first application was during flowering stage, and the second application was during seed-fill stage. Treatments were water stressed plants with no FB (WS–B); water stressed plants with FB (WS+B); watered plants without FB (W–B), and watered plants with FB (W+B). The treatment W–B was used as a control. Comparing with WS–B plants, B concentration was the highest in leaves and seed of W+B plants (84% increase in leaves and 73% in seed). Seeds of W+B plants had higher protein (11% increase), oleic acid (27% increase), sucrose (up to 40% increase), glucose, and fructose comparing with W–B. However, seed stachyose concentrations increased by 43% in WS–B plants seed compared with W–B plants. Cell wall (structural) B concentration in leaves was higher in all plants under water stress, especially in WS–B plants where the percentage of cell wall B reached up to 90%. Water stress changed seed δ15N and δ13C values in both B applied and non-B applied plants, indicating possible effects on nitrogen and carbon metabolism. This research demonstrated that FB increased B accumulation in leaves and seed, and altered seed composition of well-watered and water stressed plants, indicating a possible involvement of B in seed protein, and oleic and linolenic fatty acids. Further research is needed to explain mechanisms of B involvement in seed protein and fatty acids. PMID:23888163

  10. A STUDY ON WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TJITROSEMITO

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments on weed control in soybeans were carried out at BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia from February to June, 1989. The critical period for weed control was found to be between 20 - 40 days after planting of soybean (c. v. Wilis grown at a planting distance of 40 x 10 cm. It did not coincide with the fastest growth in terms of trifoliate leaf number. Further studies were suggested to understand the physiological growth of soybean related to weed control. Pendimethalin at 660- 1320 g a.e./ha applied one day after sowing did not cause any phytotoxic effect to soybean and had good weed control performance.

  11. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Thawatchai

    2013-01-01

    Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed qual...

  12. Behavioral and physiological responses of cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), to steam distillates from resistant versus susceptible soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Z R; Ciepiela, A; Norris, D M

    1987-08-01

    Soybean plant volatiles, extracted as steam distillates, significantly affected the behavior and biology of the cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Distillates from the susceptible Davis variety attractedT. ni larvae and female adults, whereas those from resistant PI 227687 plants repelled them. When mixed in an artificial diet, steam distillates from PI 227687 plants caused mortality of first-instar larvae. Adults emerging from pupae topically treated with 5 μg of such PI 227687 extractable showed developmental abnormalities. Larval feeding was significantly less on Davis leaves treated with PI 227687 volatiles as compared to solvent (acetone) or such Davis extractables. However, Davis volatiles on PI 227687 leaves did not increase larval feeding. HPLC analyses of steam distillates from susceptible Davis versus resistant PI 227687 indicated differences.

  13. Glyphosate and dicamba herbicide tank mixture effects on native plant and non-genetically engineered soybean seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed species are becoming resistant to intensive and extensive use of specific herbicides associated with the production of herbicide resistant crops, e.g., the use of glyphosate for weed management with glyphosate resistant soybeans. To counter this resistance, crops engineered ...

  14. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling the water use efficiency of soybean and maize plants under environmental stresses: application of a synthetic model of photosynthesis-transpiration based on stomatal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gui-Rui; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Zhuang, Jie

    2004-03-01

    Understanding the variability of plant WUE and its control mechanism can promote the comprehension to the coupling relationship of water and carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem, which is the foundation for developing water-carbon coupling cycle model. In this paper, we made clear the differences of net assimilation rate, transpiration rate, and WUE between the two species by comparing the experiment data of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants under water and soil nutrient stresses. WUE of maize was about two and a half times more than that of soybean in the same weather conditions. Enhancement of water stresses led to the marked decrease of Am and Em of two species, but water stresses of some degree could improve WUE, and this effect was more obvious for soybean. WUE of the two species changed with psiL in a second-order curve relation, and the WUE at high fertilization was higher than that at low fertilization, this effect was especially obvious for maize. Moreover, according to the synthetic model of photosynthesis-transpiration based on stomatal behavior (SMPTSB) presented by Yu et al. (2001), the WUE model and its applicability were discussed with the data measured in this experiment. The WUE estimated by means of the model accorded well with the measured values. However, this model underestimated the WUE for maize slightly, thus further improvement on the original model was made in this study. Finally, by discussing some physiological factors controlling Am and WUE, we made clear the physiological explanation for differences of the relative contributions of stomata- and mesophyll processes to control of Am and WUE, and the applicability of WUE model between the two species. Because the requirement to stomatal conductance by unit change of net assimilation rate is different, the responses of opening-closing activity of stomata to environmental stresses are different between the two species. To obtain the same level of net assimilation

  16. Overexpression of four Arabidopsis thaliana NHLgenes in soybean (Glycine max) roots and their effect over resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean. Currently grown soybean varieties are not resistant to all field populations of SCN. We genetically engineered soybean roots so they expressed genes from the model plant, Arabidopsis. When the Arabidopsis genes, ...

  17. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  18. Time-dependent transfer of 54Mn, 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs from a sandy soil to soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Han, Moon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were performed to investigate the dependence of 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs transfer from sandy soil to soybean plants on the growth stage when a radioactive deposition occurs. A solution containing 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs was applied onto the soil surfaces in the lysimeters at six different times -2 d before sowing and 13, 40, 61, 82 and 96 d after sowing. Soil-to-plant transfer was quantified with a transfer factor (m 2 kg -1 -dry) specified for the deposition time. The transfer factor values of 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs for the seeds were in the range of 1.5×10 -3 -1.0×10 -2 , 4.7×10 -4 -3.2×10 -3 , 5.7×10 -4 -1.0×10 -2 and 3.0×10 -5 -2.7×10 -4 , respectively, for different deposition times. The corresponding values for the leaves were 6.4×10 -3 -3.2×10 -2 , 4.3×10 -4 -2.0×10 -3 , 5.1×10 -3 -5.3×10 -2 and 9.2×10 -5 -1.9×10 -4 , respectively. The values for the seeds were on the whole highest following the middle-growth-stage deposition. After the pre-sowing deposition, the transfer factor values of 54 Mn, 60 Co and 137 Cs for the seeds decreased annually so those in the fourth year were 53%, 75% and 34% of those in the first year, respectively. The present results may be useful for predicting the radionuclide concentrations in soybean plants due to their root uptake following an acute soil-deposition during the vegetation period, and for validating a relevant model. (author)

  19. Mutation breeding in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    In Indonesia, soybean is one of the important crop after rice. It is generally cultivated in the lowlands and rarely in the highlands. Seeds of soybean variety ORBA were treated with various doses of fast neutrons, gamma rays, EMS and NaN 3 with the aims of studying the mutagen effects in M-1 and M-2 generations and also to select mutants adapted to highland conditions. D-50 doses for gamma rays, fast neutrons and EMS were around 23 krad, 2,300 rad, 0.3%, respectively. Much higher chlorophyll mutation frequency was observed in EMS treatment of 0.3%. Seven mutants were shorter and four early mutants matured from 4 to 20 days earlier than the control plants. Two early mutants were quite adaptable in both the low and highlands and produced better yields than the parental material. (author)

  20. Analysis on Variation and Features of Cost and Benefit of Soybean Planting in Shanxi Province%山西省大豆种植成本收益变化及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙隆祥; 崔福柱; 郭秀卿; 杜天庆; 郝建平; 薛建福; 段永红; 杨琳; 崔江辉

    2017-01-01

    In recent years,with the rapid growth of soybean imports,domestic soybean did not be recognized by the market.Consequently,little companies would not like to purchase domestic soybean and farmers could hardly sell beans,frustrated to continue soybean production.Meanwhile,another situation was that the excessive soybean coucd not be stored by nation.Seeking solutions had become one of the focus problem in our country.In this study,the comparative analysis and principal component regression analysis were used to analyze the cost and benefit of soybean planting in Shanxi province from 2004 to 2013.The results showed that compared to the same period of the average yield per unit area,Shanxi province had the absolute advantage,the planting cost of soybeans in Shanxi province showed a sustained growth trend,with 163.07% increasing compared to 2004.Under different planting costs,the artificial cost growth momentum was the most obvious.The principal component regression analysis model showed that following measures could effectively improve the profit of soybean planting,such as increasing the seed quality,increasing the input of agricultural land,reducing the input of pesticides,artificial and indirect costs.%近年来,随着大豆进口数量的迅猛增长,国产大豆出现了市场不认可、企业不收购、国储存不下、农民卖豆难、豆农种植热情受挫的局面,寻求解决对策已成为我国焦点问题之一.采用比较分析和主成分回归分析,对山西省2004-2013年大豆种植成本收益情况进行分析.结果表明,与全国相比,山西省平均单位面积产量具有绝对的优势,但山西省大豆种植成本呈持续增长的态势,2013年比2004年增长了163.07%,各构成部分中,人工成本的增加最为明显.主成分回归分析模型表明,提高种子品质,加大农业土地投入,减少农药、人工、间接费用的投入量,可以有效地提高大豆种植净利润.

  1. The effect of the soil pH on 134Cs transfer factors for soybean and sunflower plants; 134Cs fate in the extracted seed-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massas, I.; Skarlou, C.; Anoussis, J.; Haidouti, C.; Arapis, G.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of soil pH on 134 Cs TFs as well as the fate of 134 Cs in the extracted oil was studied in a greenhouse experiment with soybean and sunflower plants. A soil with pH 4.2 was used as a basis and its pH value has increased to 5.7, 6.5 and 7.6 (by the addition of different amounts of Ca(OH) 2 ). The lowest TF value was observed in the calcareous soil (pH 7.6), while the highest in the lowest pH (4.2) for the vegetative part and in the pH 6.5 for the edible part for both studied plants. TFs were practically the same for soya plants grown on the three lowest soil pH and reduced significantly only at pH 7.6 for either pods or other plant material. However, the lowest/highest TF was ∼ 4 for pods and ∼ 6 for the other plant material. For the sunflower plants while TFs for other plant material reduced from lowest to highest soil pH by only a factor of 2, for the seeds TFs remained rather constant. The difference in TF between the two studied species in each soil pH was in some cases higher than the difference due to pH effect. When an oil fraction (∼ 20 %) was extracted from seeds of both plants, no 134 Cs was detected. Refs. 4 (author)

  2. Diversity of Antifungal Compounds-Producing Bacillus spp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant Based on ARDRA and 16S rRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIS TRI WAHYUDI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR play an important role in improvement of seed germination, root development, and water utilization by plants. These rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth directly by producing growth hormones or indirectly by producing antifungal compounds/antibiotics to suppress phytopathogenic fungi. The objective of this research was to analyze the diversity of 22 antifungal-producing rhizobacteria of Bacillus sp. isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant based on Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA and 16S rRNA Sequence. Restriction enzymes in ARDRA analysis, HinfI, HaeIII, and RsaI were used to digest 22 16S rDNA amplified from Bacillus sp. genomes. Based on this analysis, genetic diversity of 22 Bacillus sp. producing antifungal compounds were classified into eight different groups. Moreover, six selected isolates randomly from each ARDRA group that have strong activity to suppress fungal growth were analyzed for their 16S rDNA sequences compared with reference strains. The distributions of these isolates were genetically diverse on several species of Bacillus sp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus, and B. fusiformis. ARDRA is a reliable technique to analyze genetic diversity of Bacillus sp. community in the rhizosphere.

  3. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on plants during mild water stress, 4: The insensitivity of soybean internal water relations to ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.; Forseth, I.N.; Lydon, J.

    1984-01-01

    The combined effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280–320 nm) radiation and water stress were investigated on the water relations of greenhouse grown soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Essex]. On a weighted (Caldwell 1971), total daily dose basis, plants received either 0 or 3 000 effective J m 2 UV-B BE supplied by filtered FS-40 sunlamps. The latter dose simulated the solar UV-B radiation anticipated at College Park, Maryland, U.S.A. (39°N latitude) in the event that the global stratospheric ozone column is reduced by 25%. Plants were either well-watered or preconditioned by drought stress cycles. Diurnal measurements of water potential and stomatal conductance were made on the youngest fully expanded leaf. Various internal water relations parameters were determined for detached leaves. Plants were monitored before, during and after water stress. There were no significant differences in leaf water potential or stomatal conductance between treatments before plants were preconditioned to water stress. However, drought stress resulted in significantly lower midday and afternoon leaf water potentials and lower leaf conductances as compared to well-watered plants. UV-B radiation had no additional effect on leaf water potential; however, UV did result in lower leaf conductances in plants preconditioned to water stress. Turgid weight:dry weight ratio, elastic modulus, bound water and relative water content were unaffected by UV-B radiation. Osmotic potentials at full and zero turgor were significantly lower in the drought stressed treatments as compared to well-watered plants. (author)

  4. Phenotyping soybean plants transformed with rd29A:AtDREB1A for drought tolerance in the greenhouse and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Rolla, Amanda Alves; de Fátima Corrêa Carvalho, Josirley; Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Engels, Cibelle; do Rio, Alexandre; Marin, Silvana Regina Rockenbach; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Neves; Beneventi, Magda A; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Farias, José Renato Bouças; Neumaier, Norman; Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima

    2014-02-01

    The development of drought tolerant plants is a high priority because the area suffering from drought is expected to increase in the future due to global warming. One strategy for the development of drought tolerance is to genetically engineer plants with transcription factors (TFs) that regulate the expression of several genes related to abiotic stress defense responses. This work assessed the performance of soybean plants overexpressing the TF DREB1A under drought conditions in the field and in the greenhouse. Drought was simulated in the greenhouse by progressively drying the soil of pot cultures of the P58 and P1142 lines. In the field, the performance of the P58 line and of 09D-0077, a cross between the cultivars BR16 and P58, was evaluated under four different water regimes: irrigation, natural drought (no irrigation) and water stress created using rain-out shelters in the vegetative or reproductive stages. Although the dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB) plants did not outperform the cultivar BR16 in terms of yield, some yield components were increased when drought was introduced during the vegetative stage, such as the number of seeds, the number of pods with seeds and the total number of pods. The greenhouse data suggest that the higher survival rates of DREB plants are because of lower water use due to lower transpiration rates under well watered conditions. Further studies are needed to better characterize the soil and atmospheric conditions under which these plants may outperform the non-transformed parental plants.

  5. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakri, A.H.; Jalani, B.S.; Ng, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  6. Effect of fertilization and soil treatment on the soybean nodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel aziz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. ) is one of the most important leguminosae crops all over the world. It is considered one of the most important protein sources for human and animals. During the last 20 years, soybean was introduced to Egypt, however the nodulation of soybean under field conditions remains a problem because the egyptian soils were void of soybean rhizobia. Since soybean is a leguminosae crop, symbiosis with root - nodule R hizobium might play a significant role in the management of its production . Nevertheless, soybean suffers from poor nodulation in egypt, hence nitrogenase fertilization for legume is a logical practice. Soybean can utilize both soil -N or applied N and symbiotically fixed atmospheric nitrogen under normal field condition. The fixation of atmospheric N by the legume/Rhizobium symbiosis is an integrated process in which the host plant ( macrosymbiont) supplies the bacterium (microsymbiont) with energy and the bacterium supplies the plant with reduced N. figs.,172 refs

  7. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  8. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  9. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muchlish Adie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addition, the use of soybean for biofuel feedstock is expected to motivate farmers to cultivate soybeans, so their use is not limited to non-energy raw materials. Soybean varieties that have a high oil content as well as high yield is a source of major biodiesel feedstock. From 73 soybean varieties that have been released in Indonesia, has an average oil content of 18%. Varieties with high oil content can be used as raw material for biodiesel. Research on the use of soy as an ingredient of energy crops (biodiesel have been carried out. In fact, soybean oil is the vegetable oil feedstock for most of the biodiesel being produced in the United States today. With the potential for soybean crops in Indonesia, both in terms of availability of land and varieties, the use of soybean oil for biofuel development in Indonesia is the flagship prospective materials for bio fuel substitute than other plants in the future.

  10. Gamma radiation effects on crude oil yield of some soybean seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the crude oil yield of eight different varieties of soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds ... the health advantages of soybeans in both in vivo and in vitro experiments [2]. Therefore, plant breeding has gained importance especially soybean plants. ..... Ionizing radiation might affect the quality of oils.

  11. Comparative Profiling of microRNA Expression in Soybean Seeds from Genetically Modified Plants and their Near-Isogenic Parental Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Lan, Qingkuo; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Wentao; Li, Feiwu; Wang, Qinying; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely demonstrated to play fundamental roles in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. To date, there has been no study describing the miRNA composition in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, small RNAs from dry seeds of two GM soybean lines and their parental cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, several differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were found between the GM and non-GM soybeans. Meanwhile, more differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were identified between distantly relatednon-GM soybeans, indicating that the miRNA components of soybean seeds varied among different soybean lines, including the GM and non-GM soybeans, and the extent of difference might be related to their genetic relationship. Additionally, fourteen novel gma-miRNA candidates were predicted in soybean seeds including a potential bidirectionally transcribed miRNA family with two genomic loci (gma-miR-N1). Our findings firstly provided useful data for miRNA composition in edible GM crops and also provided valuable information for soybean miRNA research. PMID:27214227

  12. Intersubgeneric hybridization between Glycine max and G. tomentella: Production of F1, amphidiploid, BC1, BC2 BC3 and fertile soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic resources of the 26 species of the subgenus Glycine have not been exploited to broaden the genetic base of soybean (Glycine max; 2n = 40). Initially, we hybridized eight soybean cultivars with six accessions of 78- and one accession of 40-chromosome G. tomentella. One accession of G. arg...

  13. Comparative Profiling of microRNA Expression in Soybean Seeds from Genetically Modified Plants and their Near-Isogenic Parental Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Lan, Qingkuo; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Wentao; Li, Feiwu; Wang, Qinying; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely demonstrated to play fundamental roles in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. To date, there has been no study describing the miRNA composition in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, small RNAs from dry seeds of two GM soybean lines and their parental cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, several differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were found between the GM and non-GM soybeans. Meanwhile, more differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were identified between distantly relatednon-GM soybeans, indicating that the miRNA components of soybean seeds varied among different soybean lines, including the GM and non-GM soybeans, and the extent of difference might be related to their genetic relationship. Additionally, fourteen novel gma-miRNA candidates were predicted in soybean seeds including a potential bidirectionally transcribed miRNA family with two genomic loci (gma-miR-N1). Our findings firstly provided useful data for miRNA composition in edible GM crops and also provided valuable information for soybean miRNA research.

  14. Comparative Profiling of microRNA Expression in Soybean Seeds from Genetically Modified Plants and their Near-Isogenic Parental Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been widely demonstrated to play fundamental roles in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. To date, there has been no study describing the miRNA composition in genetically modified organisms (GMOs. In this study, small RNAs from dry seeds of two GM soybean lines and their parental cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, several differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were found between the GM and non-GM soybeans. Meanwhile, more differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were identified between distantly relatednon-GM soybeans, indicating that the miRNA components of soybean seeds varied among different soybean lines, including the GM and non-GM soybeans, and the extent of difference might be related to their genetic relationship. Additionally, fourteen novel gma-miRNA candidates were predicted in soybean seeds including a potential bidirectionally transcribed miRNA family with two genomic loci (gma-miR-N1. Our findings firstly provided useful data for miRNA composition in edible GM crops and also provided valuable information for soybean miRNA research.

  15. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  16. Current development and application of soybean genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli HE; Jing ZHAO; Man ZHAO; Chaoying HE

    2011-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max),an important domesticated species originated in China,constitutes a major source of edible oils and high-quality plant proteins worldwide.In spite of its complex genome as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidilization,platforms for map-based genomics,sequence-based genomics,comparative genomics and functional genomics have been well developed in the last decade,thus rich repertoires of genomic tools and resources are available,which have been influencing the soybean genetic improvement.Here we mainly review the progresses of soybean (including its wild relative Glycine soja) genomics and its impetus for soybean breeding,and raise the major biological questions needing to be addressed.Genetic maps,physical maps,QTL and EST mapping have been so well achieved that the marker assisted selection and positional cloning in soybean is feasible and even routine.Whole genome sequencing and transcriptomic analyses provide a large collection of molecular markers and predicted genes,which are instrumental to comparative genomics and functional genomics.Comparative genomics has started to reveal the evolution of soybean genome and the molecular basis of soybean domestication process.Microarrays resources,mutagenesis and efficient transformation systems become essential components of soybean functional genomics.Furthermore,phenotypic functional genomics via both forward and reverse genetic approaches has inferred functions of many genes involved in plant and seed development,in response to abiotic stresses,functioning in plant-pathogenic microbe interactions,and controlling the oil and protein content of seed.These achievements have paved the way for generation of transgenic or genetically modified (GM) soybean crops.

  17. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Plant Chemistry, Growth, Yield of Resistant Soybean, and Feeding of a Target Lepidoptera Pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifei, Zhang; Yang, Dai; Guijun, Wan; Bin, Liu; Guangnan, Xing; Fajun, Chen

    2018-04-25

    Atmospheric CO2 level arising is an indisputable fact in the future climate change, as predicted, it could influence crops and their herbivorous insect pests. The growth and development, reproduction, and consumption of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on resistant (cv. Lamar) and susceptible (cv. JLNMH) soybean grown under elevated (732.1 ± 9.99 μl/liter) and ambient (373.6 ± 9.21 μl/liter) CO2 were examined in open-top chambers from 2013 to 2015. Elevated CO2 promoted the above- and belowground-biomass accumulation and increased the root/shoot ratio of two soybean cultivars, and increased the seeds' yield for Lamar. Moreover, elevated CO2 significantly reduced the larval and pupal weight, prolonged the larval and pupal life span, and increased the feeding amount and excretion amount of two soybean cultivars. Significantly lower foliar nitrogen content and higher foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were observed in the sampled foliage of resistant and susceptible soybean cultivars grown under elevated CO2, which brought negative effects on the growth of S. litura, with the increment of foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were greater in the resistant soybean in contrast to the susceptible soybean. Furthermore, the increment of larval consumption was less than 50%, and the larval life span was prolonged more obvious of the larvae fed on resistant soybean compared with susceptible soybean under elevated CO2. It speculated that the future climatic change of atmospheric CO2 level arising would likely cause the increase of the soybean yield and the intake of S. litura, but the resistant soybean would improve the resistance of the target Lepidoptera pest, S. litura.

  18. RELATIVE COMPETITIVENESS OF GOOSEGRASS BIOTYPES AND SOYBEAN CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JADER JOB FRANCO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he goosegrass ( Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn is an annual plant that has a low - level resistance to glyphosate (LLRG, resulting in control failure in genetically modified soybean crops for resistance to this herbicide. Alleles related to resistance may cause changes in the plant biotype, such as inferior competitive ability. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluated the competitive ability of soybean crops and susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. Replacement series experiments were conducted with soybean crops and goosegrass biotypes. The ratios of soybean to susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass plants were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, with a total population of 481 plants m - 2 . The leaf area, plant height and shoot dry weight were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the soybean crops and weeds. The soybean crop had superior competitive ability to the susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The soybean crop showed similar competitive ability in both competitions, either with the susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The intraspecific competition was more harmful to the soybean crop, while the interspecific competition caused greater damage to the goosegrass biotypes competing with the soybean crop

  19. Genetically modified soybeans and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M

    2003-05-01

    Allergenic reactions to proteins expressed in GM crops has been one of the prominent concerns among biotechnology critics and a concern of regulatory agencies. Soybeans like many plants have intrinsic allergens that present problems for sensitive people. Current GM crops, including soybean, have not been shown to add any additional allergenic risk beyond the intrinsic risks already present. Biotechnology can be used to characterize and eliminate allergens naturally present in crops. Biotechnology has been used to remove a major allergen in soybean demonstrating that genetic modification can be used to reduce allergenicity of food and feed. This provides a model for further use of GM approaches to eliminate allergens.

  20. Metabolism of 7-14C-2,3,5 triodobenzoic acid (TIBA) in soybeans plant (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Anna, R.; Ohlrogge, A.J.; Christian, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A metabolic study was done in mature seeds of field grown soybeans sprayed with 7- 14 C-2,3,5 triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) at the onset of flowering. Seed extraction with 95% alcohol yielded only 65% of the total radioactivity present. No further studies were performed on the ethanol insoluble fraction. Upon acid base purification of the 14 C seed extracts, the ether phase (pH 9,0) contained about 70% of the activity suggesting the existence of a low polarity compound(s). Acid hydrolysis of the alcoholic extracts increased the radioactivity in the ether soluble fraction, while the basic treatment decreased it about the same level as for free TIBA. The latter behaviour seemed to indicate hydrolysis of a conjugation product(s). Alumina column chromatography was unsuccessful for separating the oil-activity combination; however, three radioactive peaks were obtained. The first two peaks degrated to form the last one, which coincided with the TIBA peak. When the alcoholic extracts were run in a Sephadex LH-20 column, oils, proteins and pigments separated from the radioactivity. Two main peaks appeared for the 14 C seeds extracts. Peak I was essentially unaltered when it was co-cromatographed with the standard 14 C-TIBA, peak II was indistinguishable from the TIBA peak. Although the work did not reach the final stage of caracterization, postulation was made for a conjugate nature of the ester type for peak I and the correspondence of peak II with free TIBA or TIBA in mixture with related compounds, such as 2,5 DIBA and 3,5 DIBA, products of its deiodination [pt

  1. Microarrays for global expression constructed with a low redundancy set of 27,500 sequenced cDNAs representing an array of developmental stages and physiological conditions of the soybean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retzel Ernest

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are an important tool with which to examine coordinated gene expression. Soybean (Glycine max is one of the most economically valuable crop species in the world food supply. In order to accelerate both gene discovery as well as hypothesis-driven research in soybean, global expression resources needed to be developed. The applications of microarray for determining patterns of expression in different tissues or during conditional treatments by dual labeling of the mRNAs are unlimited. In addition, discovery of the molecular basis of traits through examination of naturally occurring variation in hundreds of mutant lines could be enhanced by the construction and use of soybean cDNA microarrays. Results We report the construction and analysis of a low redundancy 'unigene' set of 27,513 clones that represent a variety of soybean cDNA libraries made from a wide array of source tissue and organ systems, developmental stages, and stress or pathogen-challenged plants. The set was assembled from the 5' sequence data of the cDNA clones using cluster analysis programs. The selected clones were then physically reracked and sequenced at the 3' end. In order to increase gene discovery from immature cotyledon libraries that contain abundant mRNAs representing storage protein gene families, we utilized a high density filter normalization approach to preferentially select more weakly expressed cDNAs. All 27,513 cDNA inserts were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The amplified products, along with some repetitively spotted control or 'choice' clones, were used to produce three 9,728-element microarrays that have been used to examine tissue specific gene expression and global expression in mutant isolines. Conclusions Global expression studies will be greatly aided by the availability of the sequence-validated and low redundancy cDNA sets described in this report. These cDNAs and ESTs represent a wide array of developmental

  2. Incidence of storage fungi and hydropriming on soybean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Denis Santiago da; Bonassa,Nathalie; Novembre,Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Priming is a technique applicable to seeds of various plant species; however, for soybean seed there is little available information correlating such technique to the storage fungi. The objective of this study was to assess hydropriming on soybeans seeds and correlate this technique to occurrence of such fungi. For this, soon after acquisition the soybean seeds, cv. M-SOY 7908 RR, were characterized by: moisture content, mechanical damage, viability (seed germination and seedling emergence) a...

  3. Intercropping soybean and maize in a derived savanna ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to sole soybean, intercropping soybean and maize on flat and ridge reduced yields by 1.0 –29.1% and 29.4 - 40.2% respectively. In maize, intercropping on flat and ridge reduced yields by 13.2 - 25.2% and 24.8 - 43.5% respectively. Planting sole soybean on ridge enhanced mean yield by 18.6% as compared to ...

  4. Soybean improvement: Achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of vegetable protein and oil in the world. Worldwide demand continues to be high and production has more than doubled in the past 20 years to a total of 264.2 million metric tons in 2011 (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2012. Much of this increase has been due to increased planting in Argentina and Brazil. But, there have been genetic gains as well. We now have powerful genetic tools and these will be useful in gene discovery and in developing selectable markers for those genes. But for traits that are quantitative and multigenic, marker assisted selection may not be practical. We are facing unprecedented changes in our climate which will require resourceful use of the new genetic tools along with standard plant breeding methodology to maintain soybean productivity and quality.

  5. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  6. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  7. Dissipation behavior and risk assessment of butralin in soybean and soil under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congdi; Liu, Rong; Li, Li; Li, Wei; He, Yujian; Yuan, Longfei

    2017-08-29

    Dissipation behavior, final residue, and risk assessment of butralin in soybean, green soybean, plant, and soil were investigated. Butralin residues were extracted with acetonitrile and then soybean samples were detected with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and soil samples were determined with GC with nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD). The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 mg/kg for soybean, green soybean, plant, and soil. Average recoveries ranged from 90.4 ~ 98.2% for green soybean, 86.2 ~ 86.6% for soybean, 86.0 ~ 98.8% for plant, and 85.0 ~ 106.8% for soil. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.0 ~ 7.2% for green soybean, 2.0 ~ 3.0% for soybean, 3.1 ~ 8.1% for plant, and 1.8 ~ 6.6% for soil. Half-lives of butralin in soil samples varied in the range of 11-22 days. At harvest time, final residues of butralin in soybean and green soybean were lower than LOQ. Risk assessment demonstrated that, at recommended dosage and frequency, butralin would not induce significant harm on humans. The study could be used as a quantitative basis for application of butralin on soybean.

  8. Rendimento de grãos da soja em função do arranjo de plantas Soybean yield response to plant arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Rambo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação do arranjo de plantas que resulte em menor competição intraespecífica permite melhor aproveitamento dos recursos disponíveis para o crescimento e rendimento de grãos da soja. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS em Eldorado do Sul, RS, na estação de crescimento 2000/01, objetivando avaliar como o arranjo de plantas de soja modifica a competição intraespecífica e de que forma isto se reflete no rendimento de grãos e seus componentes. Utilizou-se a cultivar 'BRS 137' (semiprecoce, determinada em semeadura direta. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas sub-subdivididas e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de dois regimes hídricos (irrigado e não irrigado; dois espaçamentos entre linhas (20 e 40cm, e três populações de plantas (20, 30 e 40 plantas.m-2. O rendimento de grãos foi afetado pela irrigação e pela interação espaçamento e população. O tratamento irrigado (5015kg.ha-1 apresentou rendimento de grãos 18% superior ao não irrigado (4253kg.ha-1. A maior taxa de enchimento de grãos (TEG, que resultou no maior peso do grão, explica o maior rendimento obtido no tratamento irrigado. O arranjo de plantas que proporcionou maior rendimento de grãos foi a associação do espaçamento de 20 cm com a população de 20 plantas.m-2, obtendo-se 5014kg.ha-1 em comparação a 4322kg.ha-1 em 40cm de espaçamento. Houve decréscimo linear no rendimento com o aumento da população de plantas no espaçamento reduzido (20cm. Estes resultados são conseqüência do maior número de ramos, nós férteis e de legumes férteis.m-2 obtidos. O arranjo com 20cm de espaçamento e 20 plantas.m-2 amenizou a competição intraespecífica, resultando em maior rendimento de grãos.Plant arrangement that decrease interplant competition can improve soybean growth and yield by better use of resources. The experiment was performed at the Agronomic

  9. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenach, A.-M.; Chalamet, Alain; Pachiaudi, Christiane

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of 15 N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference [fr

  10. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenach, A M; Chalamet, A; Pachiaudi, C [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1979-07-16

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of /sup 15/N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference.

  11. Interaction of Heterodera glycines and Glomus mosseae on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T C; Winkler, H E; Wilson, G W

    2001-12-01

    The effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on Heterodera glycines-soybean interactions were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal soybean cultivars that were either resistant or susceptible to H. glycines were exposed to initial nematode population densities (Pi) of 0, 100, 1,000, or 10,000 eggs and infective juveniles. Soybean growth, nematode reproduction, and AM fungal colonization were determined after 35 (experiment I) and 83 (experiment II) days. Soybean shoot and root weights were reduced an average 29% across H. glycines Pi but were 36% greater overall in the presence of G. mosseae. Analyses of variance indicated that root colonization and stimulation of soybean growth by G. mosseae were inhibited at high H. glycines Pi, while the combined effects of the nematode and fungus on soybean growth were best described as additive in linear regression models. No evidence for increased nematode tolerance of mycorrhizal soybean plants was observed. Nematode population densities and reproduction were lower on a nematode-resistant soybean cultivar than on a susceptible cultivar, but reproduction was comparable on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. Root colonization by G. mosseae was reduced at high nematode Pi. The results suggest that nematode antagonism to the mycorrhizal symbiosis is a more likely consequence of interactions between H. glycines and AM fungi on soybean than is nematode suppression by the fungus.

  12. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S; Prischmann, Deirdre A; Dashiell, Kenton E

    2012-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Merr., that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host plant resistance as an effective alternative management strategy. Here, previously identified resistant lines were evaluated in laboratory tests against field-collected populations of soybean aphid and in field-plot tests over 2 yr in South Dakota. Six lines previously identified with resistance to soybean aphid--Jackson, Dowling, K1639, Cobb, Palmetto and Sennari--were resistant in this study, but relatively high aphid counts on Tie-feng 8 in field plots contrasted with its previously reported resistance. Bhart-PI 165989 showed resistance in one of two laboratory tests, but it had relatively large aphid infestations in both years of field tests. Intermediate levels of soybean aphid occurred in field plots on lines previously shown to have strong (Sugao Zairai, PI 230977, and D75-10169) or moderate resistance to soybean aphid (G93-9223, Bragg, Braxton, and Tracy-M). Sugao Zairai also failed to have a significant proportion of resistant plants in two laboratory tests against aphids field-collected in 2008, but it was resistant in laboratory tests with aphids collected in 2002, 2005, and 2006. Overall, results showed that lines with Rag (i.e., Jackson) or Rag1 gene (i.e., Dowling) had low aphid numbers, whereas lines with Rag2 (i.e., Sugao Zairai, Sennari) had mixed results. Collectively, responses of soybean aphid populations in laboratory and field tests in 2008 resembled a virulence pattern reported previously for biotype 3 soybean aphids, but virulence in soybean aphid populations was variable and dynamic over years of the study. These results, coupled with previous reports of biotypes virulent to Rag1, suggest that deployment of lines with a single aphid

  13. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  14. GmCYP82A3, a Soybean Cytochrome P450 Family Gene Involved in the Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathway, Enhances Plant Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yan

    Full Text Available The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s represent a large and important enzyme superfamily in plants. They catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways, P450s are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and participate in the homeostasis of phytohormones. The CYP82 family genes specifically reside in dicots and are usually induced by distinct environmental stresses. However, their functions are largely unknown, especially in soybean (Glycine max L.. Here, we report the function of GmCYP82A3, a gene from soybean CYP82 family. Its expression was induced by Phytophthora sojae infection, salinity and drought stresses, and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA or ethephon (ETH. Its expression levels were consistently high in resistant cultivars. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants overexpressing GmCYP82A3 exhibited strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica, and enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Furthermore, transgenic plants were less sensitive to jasmonic acid (JA, and the enhanced resistance was accompanied with increased expression of the JA/ET signaling pathway-related genes.

  15. Incidence of root rot diseases of soybean in Multan Pakistan and its management by the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.I.; Tahir, M.I.; Mahmood, S.

    2012-01-01

    Eight villages in Multan district were surveyed to record incidence of disease and losses of soybean (Glycine max L.) caused by root rot fungi. The root incidence ranged 10-17% and losses ranged 6.75-15.5%. The evaluation of four PGPR isolates was used in combination with organic amendment for the management of root-rot disease incidence and to reduce the population of root pathogenic fungi and to increase the yield in field. This study demonstrated effective biological control by the PGPR isolates tested, thereby indicating the possibility of application of rhizobacteria for control of soil bor ne diseases of soybean in Pakistan and other countries. (author)

  16. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  17. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  18. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  19. Weed Control in Soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipkemoi, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Weed Compete for limited growth factors with crop plants. This result in loss of crop vigour and hence reduces crop yields. A study was conducted in 1997 and 2001 to evaluate the use of herbicides and hand hoeing for weed control in soybeans. Crop establishment was by hand planting. The herbicides were applied using CP3 Knap sack sprayer calibrated to deliver a spray volume of 150l/ha. Hand weeding treatment were done as appropriate. The trial layout was randomised complete block design with four replications in both years. The tested herbicides did not satisfactorily control the weeds present at the experimental site in both years. Hand weeding on the other hand gave good control of the weeds which were reflected in high soybean yields. In these trials yields were negatively correlated with the number of weeds present. The tested herbicides alone appeared to be inadequate in controlling weeds in soybean. Compared with the weed-free treatment a single application of soil-applied or post-emergence herbicides did not control a broad spectrum of weeds and reduced soybean yields. It can also be inferred that soybean yield losses are minimised if they are kept weed free for at most 6 weeks after emergence

  20. Management of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines with combinations of different rhizobacterial strains on soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhou

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN is the most damaging soybean pest worldwide. To improve soybean resistance to SCN, we employed a soybean seed-coating strategy through combination of three rhizobacterial strains, including Bacillus simple, B. megaterium and Sinarhizobium fredii at various ratios. We found seed coating by such rhizobacterial strains at a ratio of 3:1:1 (thereafter called SN101 produced the highest germination rate and the mortality of J2 of nematodes. Then, the role of soybean seed coating by SN101 in nematode control was evaluated under both greenhouse and two field conditions in Northeast China in 2013 and 2014. Our results showed that SN101 treatment greatly reduced SCN reproduction and significantly promoted plant growth and yield production in both greenhouse and field trials, suggesting that SN101 is a promising seed-coating agent that may be used as an alternative bio-nematicide for controlling SCN in soybean fields. Our findings also demonstrate that combination of multiple rhizobacterial strains needs to be considered in the seed coating for better management of plant nematodes.

  1. Genetic architecture of wild soybean (Glycine soja) response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Song, Qijian; Griffin, Joshua D; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Host-plant resistance is an environmentally friendly method to mitigate SCN damage. To date, the resistant soybean cultivars harbor limited genetic variation, and some are losing resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of the SCN resistance, as well as developing diverse resistant soybean cultivars, is urgently needed. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 1032 wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions with over 42,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to understand the genetic architecture of G. soja resistance to SCN race 1. Ten SNPs were significantly associated with the response to race 1. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 were localized within the previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and two of which were localized within a strong linkage disequilibrium block encompassing a nucleotide-binding (NB)-ARC disease resistance gene (Glyma.18G102600). Genes encoding methyltransferases, the calcium-dependent signaling protein, the leucine-rich repeat kinase family protein, and the NB-ARC disease resistance protein, were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes can not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying SCN resistance, but also can facilitate soybean improvement employing wild genetic resources.

  2. Nitrogen credits from cowpea, soybean, groundnut and Mucuna to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    fixing capacity. A field study was conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Ejura in the forest savanna transition ..... plants. Soybean, cowpea, and groundnut could be susceptible to various root knot nematode ..... Maize and legumes production guide.

  3. Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill) plants mediated via whisker-supersonic (WSS) method. MM Khalafalla, HA El-Shemy, SM Rahman, M Teraishi, H Hasegawa, T Terakawa, M Ishimoto ...

  4. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kanobe

    Full Text Available The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of "metabolic hijacking" by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor.

  5. RESOURCE UTILISATION IN SOYBEAN/MAIZE INTERCROPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean and maize may be planted as intercrops in alternating single rows in forage production systems to take advantage of available solar radiation and greater dry matter yields. Key Words: Nitrogen, row arrangement, photosynthetic active radiation, productivity. Résumé Des études des champs étaient conduites en ...

  6. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...

  7. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  8. Research of composite mutagenesis on Soybean HeFeng25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Guo Tai; Wang Zhixin; Wu Xiuhong; Li Candong; Liu Zhongtang; Zhang Maoming; Han Shifeng; Liu Yuhong

    2011-01-01

    On the research four main strains agronomic characters of M2 are analyzed, using space launch and gamma radiation 60 Co-γ composite process for the test materials Soybean HeFeng25. The results show that: the plant height, the first pod hight, number of node, number of plant pod and seed were significant or highly significantlevel. There were only one strain has mutation rate. Other strains on number of node variation is not obvious. Plant hight, the first pod hight, number of plant pod, number of plant seed have different levels of mutation rate. It can be used for soybean breeding. (authors)

  9. Genome Sequence of the Palaeopolyploid soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Cannon, Steven B.; Schlueter, Jessica; Ma, Jianxin; Mitros, Therese; Nelson, William; Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Thelen, Jay J.; Cheng, Jianlin; Xu, Dong; Hellsten, Uffe; May, Gregory D.; Yu, Yeisoo; Sakura, Tetsuya; Umezawa, Taishi; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder; Valliyodan, Babu; Lindquist, Erika; Peto, Myron; Grant, David; Shu, Shengqiang; Goodstein, David; Barry, Kerrie; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Abernathy, Brian; Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Zhu, Liucun; Gill, Navdeep; Joshi, Trupti; Libault, Marc; Sethuraman, Anand; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wing, Rod A.; Cregan, Perry; Specht, James; Grimwood, Jane; Rokhsar, Dan; Stacey, Gary; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2009-08-03

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale draft sequence assembly. We predict 46,430 protein-coding genes, 70percent more than Arabidopsis and similar to the poplar genome which, like soybean, is an ancient polyploid (palaeopolyploid). About 78percent of the predicted genes occur in chromosome ends, which comprise less than one-half of the genome but account for nearly all of the genetic recombination. Genome duplications occurred at approximately 59 and 13 million years ago, resulting in a highly duplicated genome with nearly 75percent of the genes present in multiple copies. The two duplication events were followed by gene diversification and loss, and numerous chromosome rearrangements. An accurate soybean genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of many soybean traits, and accelerate the creation of improved soybean varieties.

  10. Remote Sensing for Mapping Soybean Crop in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, K.; Bernardes, T.; Mello, M. P.; Formaggio, A.; Rosa, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The soybean expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado has been strongly affected by internal and external markets. The main factors driving that expansion are the climatic conditions, the development of technologies and genetic improvement. Recent studies have shown that the soybean expansion has become a major cause of reduction of native vegetation in Mato Grosso State - Brazil, responding for 17% of deforestation from 2000 to 2004. This work aims to map soybean areas in the Brazilian Cerrado in Mato Grosso State, using MODIS data. Thirteen MODIS images (MOD13 - 16 days composition), acquired from September, 2005 to March, 2006, were used to run principal component analysis (PCA) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data. The first three components (PC1, PC2 and PC3), which contained about 90% of data variability were segmented and utilized as input for an unsupervised classification using the ISOSEG classifier, implemented in the SPRING software. Eighty field work points were randomly selected for the accuracy assessment. An intersection between the soybean map and a map generated by the "Project Monitoring Deforestation of Brazilian Biomes Satellite - PMDBBS", which aimed at identifying anthropic areas, was conducted in order to evaluate the distribution of soybeans within those areas. Moreover a soil map was used in order to evaluate the soybean distribution over the classes of soil. The classification result presented overall index of 83% and the kappa coefficient of 0.64 for the soybean map, which presented a total soybean area of about 42,317 square kilometers. Furthermore, it was verified that 27% of anthropic area was covered by soybean. In relation to the soil analysis, 87% of the total soybean area was planted in Oxisoils. Despite the economic gain related to the soybean production, an adequate management is needed to avoid soil acidification, soil erosion and pollution, aiming at providing a sustainable environment.

  11. Effect of plant density on soybean carbon and nitrogen metabolism, yield and quality%密度对大豆群体碳氮代谢相关指标及产量、品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓艳; 郑殿峰; 冯乃杰; 李建英; 杜吉到

    2011-01-01

    Effects of plant density on carbon and nitrogen metabolism, yield and quality of soybean cultivar Kennong 4 were investigated in field. The results showed that nitrogen, soluble protein, starch and cane sugar accumulation increased gradually with the increase of plant density, and there was significant difference among different density of soybean populations; With the increase of density, the proten content in soybean seed increased but fat content decreased;Through analyzing correlation at each stage, we known that there was a negative correlation among nitrogen, soluble protein, starch and cane sugar accumulation and proten content, and a positive correlation with fat content; The pod number, seed number and seed weight went higher when the density got smaller, and the yield of 3.6 × lO5-plants-per-hm2 reached to the highest.%以垦农4号大豆为试验材料,在大田条件下,研究了密度对大豆群体碳氮代谢相关指标及产量品质的影响.结果表明,群体单株叶片氮素、可溶性蛋白、淀粉及蔗糖积累量均随着密度的增加而下降,低密度与高密度群体间差距显著;随着种植密度的增加,大豆子粒中蛋白质的含量有所上升,脂肪的含量有所下降;各生育时期氮素、可溶性蛋白、淀粉和蔗糖积累量与子粒蛋白质含量呈负相关,与脂肪含量呈正相关;随着种植密度的增加,群体内单株的荚数、粒数、粒重逐渐减少.在密度36万株/hm时,群体产量最高.

  12. Transporte de compostos nitrogenados em soja cultivada com diferentes fontes de nitrogênio Xylem sap composition of soybean plants treated with different nitrogen sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de soja inoculadas com Rhizobium japonicum foram cultivadas em vermiculita com solução nutritiva sem nitrogênio, em casa de vegetação, no Centro Experimental de Campinas, do Instituto Agronômico. Foi estudado o efeito quanto aos níveis de ureídeos (alantoína e ácido alantóico, aminoácidos (total e qualitativo por analisador de aminoácidos, NO3- e NH4+, encontrados na seiva do xilema. Para esse fim, as plantas (noduladas foram tratadas durante sete dias com soluções nutritivas contendo os íons NO3- (15mM ou NH4+ (10mM aplicadas próximo à época de floração, ou sem nitrogênio (controle. O ácido alantóico predominou em relação à alantoína, e essa proporção tendeu a aumentar com a exposição da planta a N-mineral. O transporte de nitrogênio total pelo xilema foi maior para o processo de fixação de N2, decrescendo para o de absorção de NH4+ e para o de absorção de NO3-, sugerindo que o transporte de nitrogênio tenha dependido da interação entre presença de N-mineral no solo e disponibilidade de energia. A fixação de N2, processo mais dispendioso de energia, possibilita maior produção de ureídeos, que exportam mais nitrogênio que os aminoácidos. A asparagina foi o aminoácido encontrado em maior quantidade no xilema, independente do tratamento. O tratamento NH4+ não alterou o teor de N-NH4+, mas aumentou o nível de glutamina e asparagina em comparação com o tratamento NO3-, que, por sua vez, aumentou o teor de ácido aspártico e o de N-NO3-. Esses resultados sugerem que a diferenciação na formação de aminoácidos decorreu dos processos específicos de absorção de nitrogênio.Soybean plants, inoculated with Rhizobium japonicum, were grown in vermiculite with a nitrogen free nutrient solution in a greenhouse, in the Experimental Station of Campinas, Instituto Agronômico, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The effects of NO3- and NH4+ were studied in terms of ureide and amino acid levels in

  13. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  14. Diurnal oscillations of soybean circadian clock and drought responsive genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marcolino-Gomes

    Full Text Available Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans.

  15. Mycorrhizal association in soybean and weeds in competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Maria Teixeira Fialho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mycorrhizal association on the interference of Bidens pilosa, Urochloa decumbens and Eleusine indica on soybean culture in two conditions: a plants competing without contact with roots of another species; b with contact between roots. At 60 days after planting, growth, nutrient accumulation and mycorrhizal colonization of soybean and weeds were evaluated. The contact between roots of soybean plant and weed species increased the negative interference effects for both species, with less growth and nutrient accumulation. With the individualization of roots, higher competition occurred for soil resources up to 60 days of coexistence between species. In competition with soybean, Bidens pilosa and Urochloa decumbens stood out in accumulation of most nutrients without differing from when cultivated in monocultivation. The increase of the soybean mycorrhizal colonization was 53, 40 and 33% when in competition with Urochloa decumbens, Eleusine indica and Bidens pilosa species, respectively. A positive interaction occurred for soybean mycorrhizal colonization and competing plants irrespective of weed species or root contact.

  16. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  17. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti....... The primary transcript was processed in the same way as in soybean nodules and the resulting mRNA was translated into Lbc(3) protein. Quantitative determination of the Lbc(3) protein in nodules of transgenic plants indicated that the steady-state level of the soybean protein is comparable...

  18. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  19. Effect Of Soil Acidity On Some Soybean Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafiah, Diana Sofia; Lubis, Alida; Asmarlaili

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the mechanism of adaptation and morphophysiology character of soybean genotypes to soil acidity levels. Research using randomized block design with four replications, the first factor consists of soybean varieties: Tanggamus varieties, Detam 2, Anjasmoro and Detam 1, while the second factor is the media's treatment consisted of medium acid soils and limed soil. The results showed that the low level acidity of planting medium will affect the growth and ...

  20. Irradiation effects on the variability of yield characteristics of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, K.; Egri, K.; Toeroek, Z.; Bornemiszane, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    The seeds of soybean varieties 'Merit' and 'S-1346' were irradiated by fast neutrons with doses between 4 and 174 Gy. The doses in the range of 57-174 Gy proved to be lethal. After low dose irradiation, shorter breeding time and the stimulation of plant growth could be observed. The effects of irradiation on the oil and protein contents of soybeans were contradictory. (V.N.)

  1. Agglomeration Determines Effects of Carbonaceous Nanomaterials on Soybean Nodulation, Dinitrogen Fixation Potential, and Growth in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential effects of carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNMs) on agricultural plants are of concern. However, little research has been performed using plants cultivated to maturity in soils contaminated with various CNMs at different concentrations. Here, we grew soybean for 39 days...

  2. Ecological aspects study of replacement intercropping patterns of Soybean (Glycine max L. and Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudarz Ahmadvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping is considered for increasing and stability of yield in per unit. In order to study the effects of soybean (Glycine max L. and millet (Panicum miliaceum L. replacement intercropping on agronomic traits, diversity of weeds and soil biological activity, an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Agricultural Faculty, of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2014. The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The replacement intercropping series consisted of monoculture of soybean, monoculture of millet, 75% soybean+ 25% millet, 50% soybean+ 50% millet and 25% soybean+ 75% millet. The results showed that the highest seed yield of 219.8 and 171.9 gm-2 belonged to monoculture of soybean and monoculture of millet, respectively. Intercropping reduced maximum leaf area index of soybean and millet but leaf chlorophyll content of soybean and millet were increased. The highest number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant in soybean and panicle number per plant in millet were obtained in 50S:50M ratio. Mean soil respiration rate in intercropping treatments was 4 and 8 % higher than the monoculture of soybean and millet, respectively. Intercropping patterns of 50S:50M and 25S:75M were successful in reducing weed plant density and diversity in comparison with soybean monoculture. Results showed that in all intercropping treatments, land equivalent ratio was more than one. Maximum value of land equivalent ratio (2.20 was achieved in 50S:50M treatment. Soybean and millet intercropping at different levels of replacement, didn’t have actual yield loss. Calculating the aggressivity showed that millet was more dominate than soybean. The maximum relative crowding coefficient of soybean was observed in 75S:25M, however that of millet was obtained in 25S:75M and 50S:50M intercroppings indicating that millet is more competitor than soybean.

  3. EFICIÊNCIA DE ABSORÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DE POTÁSSIO POR PLANTAS DE SOJA EM SOLUÇÃO NUTRITIVA EFFICIENCY OF POTASSIUM UPTAKE AND UTILIZATION BY SOYBEAN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS VITOR SILVA DO SACRAMENTO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Em casa de vegetação, desenvolveu-se o experimento em blocos casualizados com esquema fatorial 4 x 2 x 3 e três repetições a fim de estudar a influência da idade sobre as relações de eficiência (EAB, eficiência de absorção; EC, eficiência de conversão, e EUK, eficiência de utilização de potássio e sobre o índice de utilização (IU. Os cultivares de soja IAC 17, IAC 18, IAC 11 e FT 2, crescidos em solução nutritiva com dois níveis de potássio (0,50 e 1,82 mmol.L-1, foram coletadas e separadas em folhas inferiores, medianas e superiores, caule e raiz aos 20, 40 e 60 dias após a transferência para a solução nutritiva. Depois da secagem, as partes foram preparadas para a determinação de K. Verificou-se que plantas deficientes, independentemente do cultivar, retranslocaram K tentando manter seu conteúdo nas folhas medianas, a expensas de demais órgãos. Destacam-se, nesse comportamento, 'IAC 18' e 'IAC 11'. Plantas adequadamente nutridas em K apresentaram maior EAB, ocorrendo o contrário para plantas deficientes. 'IAC 17' e 'IAC 18' apresentaram maior EAB em ambas as condições nutricionais em K e 'FT 2', a maior EUK em condições de deficiência, aos 40 dias (antes do início da floração e, a menor, aos 60 dias. 'IAC 11' teve a maior EUK e 'IAC 18', a menor, aos 60 dias. O IU permitiu atribuir critérios de plasticidade aos cultivares ao se adaptarem à deficiência de K. A maior plasticidade foi observada para 'FT 2' aos 40 dias e, para 'IAC 18', aos 60. Plantas K-deficientes foram mais eficazes na EC, produzindo mais matéria seca por unidade do mineral absorvido.A greenhouse experiment was conducted in a factorial design of randomized complete blocks, with three replications, to study plantage response of soybean cultivars on efficiency: update (EAB; conversion (EC and utilization, as well as utilization index (IU by soybean cultivars. Four soybean cultivars (IAC 17, IAC 18, IAC 11 e FT 2 were grown in

  4. 播期与密度对南方早熟春大豆产量和品质的影响%Effects of Sowing Date,Planting Density on Yield and Quality of Early Maturing Spring Soybeans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢运河; 李小红; 王同华; 杨汉民; 王业建

    2011-01-01

    In this study, effects of sowing date and planting density on yield and quality of a national authorized early maturing spring soybean variety, Xiangchundou 26, were studied. The results showed with the delay of sowing date or with the increase of density, the yield showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing. The content of protein and the total content of protein and fat showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increase of density, and showed a trend of decreasing with the delay of sowing date. The content of fat decreased with the delay of sowing date or increase of density. The proper period of early seeding and reasonable density was propitious to high yield and protein content and protein and total content of fat of early maturing spring soybeans.%以国审早熟春大豆品种湘春豆26为供试材料,研究了播期和密度对南方早熟春大豆产量和品质的影响.结果表明,南方早熟春大豆产量随播期的延迟、密度的增加呈先增后降趋势;蛋白质含量、蛋脂总含量随密度的增加先增后减,随播期推迟而降低:脂肪含量随密度的增加而降低,随播期的推迟而降低.适期早播,合理密植有利于早熟春大豆高产,同时提高蛋白质含量和蛋脂总含量.

  5. Correlation, path analysis and heritability estimation for agronomic traits contribute to yield on soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyo, A.; Purwantoro; Sari, K. P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection is a routine activity in plant breeding programs that must be done by plant breeders in obtaining superior plant genotypes. The use of appropriate selection criteria will determine the effectiveness of selection activities. The purpose of this study was to analysis the inheritable agronomic traits that contribute to soybean yield. A total of 91 soybean lines were planted in Muneng Experimental Station, Probolinggo District, East Java Province, Indonesia in 2016. All soybean lines were arranged in randomized complete block design with two replicates. Correlation analysis, path analysis and heritability estimation were performed on days to flowering, days to maturing, plant height, number of branches, number of fertile nodes, number of filled pods, weight of 100 seeds, and yield to determine selection criteria on soybean breeding program. The results showed that the heritability value of almost all agronomic traits observed is high except for the number of fertile nodes with low heritability. The result of correlation analysis shows that days to flowering, plant height and number of fertile nodes have positive correlation with seed yield per plot (0.056, 0.444, and 0.100, respectively). In addition, path analysis showed that plant height and number of fertile nodes have highest positive direct effect on soybean yield. Based on this result, plant height can be selected as one of selection criteria in soybean breeding program to obtain high yielding soybean variety.

  6. Enhanced resistance to soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines in transgenic soybean by silencing putative CLE receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoli; Chronis, Demosthenis; De La Torre, Carola M; Smeda, John; Wang, Xiaohong; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2015-08-01

    CLE peptides are small extracellular proteins important in regulating plant meristematic activity through the CLE-receptor kinase-WOX signalling module. Stem cell pools in the SAM (shoot apical meristem), RAM (root apical meristem) and vascular cambium are controlled by CLE signalling pathways. Interestingly, plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLE-like effector proteins, which act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful parasitism. Recently, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis CLE receptors CLAVATA1 (CLV1), the CLAVATA2 (CLV2)/CORYNE (CRN) heterodimer receptor complex and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2), which transmit the CLV3 signal in the SAM, are required for perception of beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii CLEs. Reduction in nematode infection was observed in clv1, clv2, crn, rpk2 and combined double and triple mutants. In an effort to develop nematode resistance in an agriculturally important crop, orthologues of Arabidopsis receptors including CLV1, CLV2, CRN and RPK2 were identified from soybean, a host for the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. For each of the receptors, there are at least two paralogues in the soybean genome. Localization studies showed that most receptors are expressed in the root, but vary in their level of expression and spatial expression patterns. Expression in nematode-induced feeding cells was also confirmed. In vitro direct binding of the soybean receptors with the HgCLE peptide was analysed. Knock-down of the receptors in soybean hairy roots showed enhanced resistance to SCN. Our findings suggest that targeted disruption of nematode CLE signalling may be a potential means to engineer nematode resistance in crop plants. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Lignification of the plant and seed quality of RR soybeans sprayed with herbicide glyphosate Lignificação da planta e qualidade de sementes de soja RR pulverizadas com herbicida glifosato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fortes Gris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Differences in levels of lignin in the plant between conventional and transgenic cultivars RR has been reported by several authors, however, there are few studies evaluating the influence of spraying of glyphosate on the lignin in the plant and RR soybean seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of RR transgenic soybean seeds and the lignin contents of plants sprayed with the herbicide glyphosate. The assays were conducted both in greenhouse and field in the municipality of Lavras, MG, in the agricultural year 2007/08. The experiment was arranged in a splitplot design with four replicates, considering the treatments hand weeding and herbicide glyphosate as plots, and five RR soybean cultivars (BRS 245 RR, BRS 247 RR, Valiosa RR, Silvânia RR and Baliza RR as splitplots. In the greenhouse, the cultivars tested were BRS 245 RR and Valiosa RR in a randomized block design with four replicates. The sprayings were carried out at stages V3, V7 and early R5 (3L/ha. The 1000 seed weight, mechanical injury, germination and germination velocity index, emergence velocity index, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and water soaking seed test, lignin content in the seed coat, in the stem and legumes were determined. The spraying of glyphosate herbicide, in greenhouse and field, did not alter the physiological quality of seeds and the lignin contents in the plant.Diferenças nos teores de lignina na planta entre cultivares transgênicos RR e convencionais, tem sido relatadas, por vários autores, no entanto, são escassos os trabalhos avaliando a influência da aplicação do glifosato sobre os teores de lignina na planta e em sementes de soja RR. Neste sentido, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja transgênica RR e os teores de lignina de plantas submetidas à pulverização com o herbicida glifosato. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação e em campo, no munic

  8. INFLUENCE OF SOWING SPEED ON SOYBEAN CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. A. Tiesen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso state is the largest producer of soybeans in the country, therefore is the focus of several studies and research in order to improve and increase the production. For an activity that reduces the movements on the field, the no-tillage is a great activity when it done properly. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of speed of sowing on soybean crop, with pneumatic system type for seed metering. The experiment was conducted at São Luiz Farm, in Sinop city, in the northern of Mato Grosso state. The experimental adopted was the randomized blocks design with four treatments and four replications. The seeding speeds studied were 3; 5; 7 and 9 km h-1. The variables evaluated were: initial plant population, longitudinal distribution and yield components. The data were submitted to variance and regression analysis. The speed of 3 km h-1 show the best performance for acceptable spacing, flawed, plant stand on the pre-established area, number of pods per plant, thousand grain mass and yield. The speeds rate used for sowing did not influence the establishment of soybean crop, but affected the beans productivity.

  9. Resistance of Advanced Soybean Lines to Pod Borrer (Etiella zinckenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Kuswantoro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing and stabilizing of soybean product in Indonesia face many limitations. One of the limiting factors is pod borrer (Etiella zinckenella Treitschke infestation that is able to cause yield loss up to 80%. Objective of the research was to find out some advanced soybean lines that resistant to pod borrer. Design was randomized complete block with three replications. Soybean lines were grown gradualy to ensure the simultanously flowering. The plants were caged at 35 days after planting (DAT and infested with the imago of E. zinckenella at 56 DAT. Results showed that different soybean lines affected imago population, eggs population, larvae population, infected pods and infected seeds. Some genotypes were consistantly resistant to E. zinckenella. The resistance of those genotypes were non preference resistance based on eggs population, larvae population, infected pod and infected seeds. This study discovered nine soybean lines that is resistant to E. zinckenella, so that it can be beneficial for improving soybean resistance to this pest through releasing as a new resistant pod borer variety after tested further in potential yield and genetic x environment interaction trials. In addition, there were three varieties and two germplasm accessions that can be used as gene sources for improving the resistance of the varieties. The three varieties are able to be cultivated directly in field to decrease the E. zinckenella occurrence. 

  10. Drought stress responses in soybean roots and nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kunert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  11. Drought Stress Responses in Soybean Roots and Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Karl J; Vorster, Barend J; Fenta, Berhanu A; Kibido, Tsholofelo; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  12. Glyphosate tolerance of soybean mutant gained after boarding on satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lingxue; Ren Honglei; Zhang Hongyan; Liu Zhangxiong; Jin Longguo; Guo Yong; Qiu Lijuan; Tao Bo

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate-tolerant germplasm and genetic variation characteristics of SP 2 and SP 3 soybean varieties boarded on Shijian No.8 satellite were analyzed after treated by herbicide glyphosate in the field. Abundant variations of traits were produced, and the resistance within and among cultivars were different in their offspring of space mutagenesis. Plant height and maturity were used as index to screen glyphosate tolerant materials. Space mutation increased of soybean 661 SP 3 of Zhongpin, and one glyphosate-resistance variant was screened from Zhongpin 661 SP 3 . It showed that glyphosate tolerance was different among offspring of different space mutagenesis soybean materials. It is feasible to systemically screen elite traits soybean by applying space mutation breeding. (authors)

  13. Soybean breeding through cross breeding combined with irradiation mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiutian; Zheng Yanhai; Yang Xiufeng; Zhang Kunpu; Jia Aijun

    2005-01-01

    Using 'Heidou 2' which immune to the race 2 of Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) crossbreeded with 'Huangsha soybean' which has high yield characteristic. The authors obtained some better cultivars of soybean. Then, the authors used laser irradiation to these cultivars and selected a variety with high yield, good quality, resistance to the race 2 of SCN, called 'Dedou 99-16' which in black seed coat. In the year 2001 to 2003, the authors joined the variety comparison and regional test of Shandong province. Its yield hit 2739.0 kg/hm 2 , crude protein and crude oil content had reached the governmental standard of good quality soybean, and it had high resistance to the race 2 of SCN. It is suitable for planting in Huanghuaihai area. (authors)

  14. Induced mutations for soybean rust resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.; Wongpiyasatid, A.; Lamseejan, S.

    1983-01-01

    Soybean mutation experiments for inducing rust resistance in the cultivars G 8375, Wakashima mutant number 10, Taichung N, S.J.2, S.J.4, BM 50, BM 98, G 8377, G 8586 and G 8587 have been carried out since 1979. Six pods from each of 4438 control and 43,907 M 1 plants were randomly harvested. M 2 seeds of each cultivar of different doses were bulked (M 2 bulk). In addition, 270 good M 1 plants were selected and threshed singly (M 2 single). M 2 -bulk and M 2 -single seeds were advanced to M 3 . Both, M 3 -bulk and M 3 -single plants, together with the remaining M 2 -bulk seeds were screened for rust resistance in the rainy season of 1980 in Nong Hoi Valley (altitude about 1000 m above sea level) and at Mae Joe Station, both in Chiang Mai Province (latitude 18 deg. 31'-19 deg. N). Based on the IWGSR rating system, soybean plants with slow growth of rust were selected from both locations. The results were as follows: Six plants were selected from a total of 2802 control plants, and 115 from a total of 28,834 M 2 and M 3 plants. Further evaluation of these selections for rust resistance will be carried out in the rainy season of 1981 in Nong Hoi Valley, Chiang Mai. (author)

  15. REVIEW - Advances on molecular studies of the interaction soybean - Asian rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguida Maria Alves Pereira Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective management practices are essential for controlling rust outbreaks. The main control methodused is the application of fungicides, which increases substantially the cost of production and is harmful to theenvironment. Prevention is still the best way to avoid more significant losses in soybean yields. Alternatives,such as planting resistant varieties to the fungus, are also important. The use of resistant or tolerant varietiesis the most promising method for controlling Asian soybean rust. Recently, five dominant genes resistant to soybean rust were described: Rpp1, Rpp2, Rpp3, Rpp4 and Rpp5. However, little is known about the molecular interaction among soybean plant and soybean rust and on the molecular pathway triggered by pathogen recognition. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in defense responses is of primary importance for planning strategies to control stress and, consequently, to increase plant adaptation to limiting conditions

  16. [Nutrition and bone health. Soybean and soy foods, and bone health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Megumi; Shimizu, Hirotoshi

    2009-10-01

    Soybean and various types of soy products, such as natto, tofu, miso, and soy sauce, have long been consumed in Japan. Soybean, a rich source of plant proteins, contains a relatively high amount of calcium as well as being an important source of isoflavones, a group of substances whose chemical structure is similar to that of estrogen. Natto, fermented soybeans, contains vitamin K, which is involved in the activation of osteocalcin. For bone health and osteoporosis prevention in Japanese, it is thus beneficial to consume adequate amounts of soybean and soy products on a daily basis.

  17. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti...

  18. Recovery Plan for Red Leaf Blotch of Soybean Caused by Phoma glycinicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red leaf blotch (RLB) of soybean is caused by the fungal pathogen Phoma glycinicola, formerly known in the plant pathology literature as Pyrenochaeta glycines, Dactuliophora glycines, and Dactuliochaeata glycines. The disease presently occurs in only a few African countries on soybean and a wild leg...

  19. No choice but to find resistance to soybean aphid biotype 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] utilizes its natural defenses to limit soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura, SBA) injury, reducing insecticide reliance. Specific genes called Rag or Resistance to Aphis glycines are unfavorable to SBA and may suppress their development and...

  20. Comparison of corn, grain sorghum, soybean, and sunflower under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] constitute a large share of the annual total irrigated planted area in the central Great Plains. This study aimed to determine the effect of limited irrigation on grain yield, water use, and profitability of corn and soybean in comparison with ...

  1. A comparison of protein and phenolic compounds in seed from GMO and non-GMO soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean protein is a valuable and important component in human and animal diets. Approximately 94% of the soybean planted in the US is genetically modified (GM) to enhance quality and productivity. Since value-added traits are continuously being developed by genetic modification, it is important t...

  2. Drought resistant of bacteria producing exopolysaccharide and IAA in rhizosphere of soybean plant (Glycine max) in Wonogiri Regency Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, A.; Puspita, A. A.; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    Drought is one of the main problem which limitating the agriculture productivity in most arid region such as in district Eromoko, Wuryantro and SelogiriWonogiri Central Java Indonesia. Bacteria are able to survive under stress condition by producte exopolysaccharide. This study aims to determine the presence of exopolysaccharide-producing drought-resistant bacteria on rhizosphere of soybean (Glycine max) and to determine the species of bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene. Isolation of bacteria carried out by the spread plate method. The decreased of osmotic potential for screening drought tolerant bacteria according to the previous equation [12]. Selection of exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria on solid media ATCC 14 followed by staining the capsule. 16S rRNA gene amplification performed by PCR using primers of 63f and 1387r. The identificationof the bacteria is determined by comparing the results of DNA sequence similarity with bacteria databank in NCBI database. The results showed 11 isolates were exopolysaccharide-producing drought tolerant bacteria. The identity of the bacteria which found are Bacillus sp, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus.

  3. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc. for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Goto

    Full Text Available Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc. is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2% caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible.

  4. Major soybean maturity gene haplotypes revealed by SNPViz analysis of 72 sequenced soybean genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Langewisch

    Full Text Available In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species.

  5. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  6. 大豆玉米“扩行增密”带状复种技术在山西应用初探%Application of ‘ Entend Row and Higher Density’ Strip Compound Planting System of Soybean-Maize in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小荣; 马俊奎; 刘学义

    2017-01-01

    为确定大豆玉米“扩行增密”带状复种技术在山西的增产效果及筛选适宜的大豆品种,应用大豆品种汾豆78与玉米品种大丰30研究了山西省传统玉米大豆套作模式与大豆玉米“扩行增密”带状复种技术对比,应用大豆品种汾豆78、79、56、92及93与玉米品种大丰30进行了大豆新品种筛选.测定了大豆苗期、盛花期、结荚期的叶绿素含量和干物质积累,大豆成熟后的品质,大豆玉米成熟后的植株性状和产量.结果表明:大豆玉米“扩行增密”带状复种技术与传统套作模式相比,带状复种技术下大豆植株总叶绿素、籽粒蛋白质及油脂含量更高,蛋白质和油脂含量分别为42.28%和19.84%,大豆与玉米产量分别为531.0和9 514.5 kg·hm-2,分别增产6.6%和70.7%.大豆新品种筛选结果显示,汾豆93在植株生长后期干物质及叶绿素含量最高,植株性状最佳,成熟后籽粒的品质最好,蛋白质和油脂含量分别为44.08%和20.2%,玉米大豆综合产量最高,大豆和玉米的产量分别为894.0及10 550.7 kg·hm-2,比对照组分别增产了68.7%和10.9%.表明这种大豆玉米“扩行增密”带状复种技术适合在山西省生态环境条件下应用推广,汾豆93与大丰30是“扩行增密”带状复种模式较好的搭配品种.%In order to investigate the application of ‘ entend row and higher density’ strip compound planting system of soybean-maize in Shanxi province,and screen out suitable soybean cultivars,we carried out a contrastive study of ‘ extend row and higher density’ strip compound planting system of soybean-maize and the traditional interplanting mode in Shanxi which used Fendou 78 and Dafeng 30,and selected five cultivars Fendou 78,79,56,92 and 93 suitable for the strip compound planting system.Then we determined the chlorophyll content,dry matter accumulation of soybean at seedling stage,flowering stage and seed filling period

  7. Interference of soybean and corn with Chloris distichophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In nature, plants interact with each other and establish positive, negative, and neutral interference relationships. In agricultural ecosystems, crops are usually affected by competition with weeds, and the effects of this process are influenced by the plant population density and proportional abundance and by the species involved. The present study evaluates the competitive interactions of soybean and corn with Chloris distichophylla. Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the University of Passo Fundo during the 2011/12 crop season: one experiment involving corn and C. distichophylla and another involving soybean and C. distichophylla. The experimental units were plastic pots, and the treatments were based on a replacement series, with a constant total density of eight plants per pot. The treatments included five combinations of soybean or corn plants with the weed species (8:0, 6:2, 4:4, 2:6 and 0:8, corresponding to relative abundances of 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of the crop species (and the reverse for the weed species. Competitiveness was analyzed using replacement-series experiment diagrams and competitive indices. Total dry matter and plant height were the two variables analyzed. The competitive indices indicated that corn and soybean crops were more competitive than the weed. The plant height was not affected by competition between both the species.

  8. Studying Plant–Insect Interactions with Solid Phase Microextraction: Screening for Airborne Volatile Emissions Response of Soybeans to the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingshuang Cai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects trigger plants to release volatile compounds that mediate the interaction with both pest and beneficial insects. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines induces soybean (Glycine max leaves to produce volatiles that attract predators of the aphid. In this research, we describe the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME for extraction of volatiles from A. glycines-infested plant. Objectives were to (1 determine if SPME can be used to collect soybean plant volatiles and to (2 use headspace SPME-GC-MS approach to screen compounds associated with A. glycines-infested soybeans, grown in the laboratory and in the field, to identify previously known and potentially novel chemical markers of infestation. A total of 62 plant volatiles were identified, representing 10 chemical classes. 39 compounds had not been found in previous studies of soybean volatile emissions. 3-hexen-1-ol, dimethyl nonatriene, indole, caryophyllene, benzaldehyde, linalool, methyl salicylate (MeSA, benzene ethanol, and farnesene were considered herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs. For reproductive field-grown soybeans, three compounds were emitted in greater abundance from leaves infested with A. glycines, cis-3-hexen-1-ol acetate, MeSA and farnesene. In summary, SPME can detect the emission of HIPVs from plants infested with insect herbivores.

  9. Ectopic expression of AtPAD4 broadens resistance of soybean to soybean cyst and root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Reham M; MacDonald, Margaret H; Brewer, Eric P; Bauchan, Gary R; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2013-04-25

    The gene encoding PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) is required in Arabidopsis for expression of several genes involved in the defense response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. AtPAD4 (Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4) encodes a lipase-like protein that plays a regulatory role mediating salicylic acid signaling. We expressed the gene encoding AtPAD4 in soybean roots of composite plants to test the ability of AtPAD4 to deter plant parasitic nematode development. The transformed roots were challenged with two different plant parasitic nematode genera represented by soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) and root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne incognita). Expression of AtPAD4 in soybean roots decreased the number of mature SCN females 35 days after inoculation by 68 percent. Similarly, soybean roots expressing AtPAD4 exhibited 77 percent fewer galls when challenged with RKN. Our experiments show that AtPAD4 can be used in an economically important crop, soybean, to provide a measure of resistance to two different genera of nematodes.

  10. Early Identification of Herbicide Stress in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Pei; Weber, Jonas Felix; Gerhards, Roland

    2017-12-22

    Herbicides may damage soybean in conventional production systems. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology has been applied to identify herbicide stress in weed species a few days after application. In this study, greenhouse experiments followed by field experiments at five sites were conducted to investigate if the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging is capable of identifying herbicide stress in soybean shortly after application. Measurements were carried out from emergence until the three-to-four-leaf stage of the soybean plants. Results showed that maximal photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield and shoot dry biomass was significantly reduced in soybean by herbicides compared to the untreated control plants. The stress of PS II inhibiting herbicides occurred on the cotyledons of soybean and plants recovered after one week. The stress induced by DOXP synthase-, microtubule assembly-, or cell division-inhibitors was measured from the two-leaf stage until four-leaf stage of soybean. We could demonstrate that the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology is capable for detecting herbicide stress in soybean. The system can be applied under both greenhouse and field conditions. This helps farmers to select weed control strategies with less phytotoxicity in soybean and avoid yield losses due to herbicide stress.

  11. Comparative inference of duplicated genes produced by polyploidization in soybean genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanmei; Wang, Jinpeng; Di, Jianyong

    2013-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for providing protein and oil. It is important to investigate soybean genome for its economic and scientific value. Polyploidy is a widespread and recursive phenomenon during plant evolution, and it could generate massive duplicated genes which is an important resource for genetic innovation. Improved sequence alignment criteria and statistical analysis are used to identify and characterize duplicated genes produced by polyploidization in soybean. Based on the collinearity method, duplicated genes by whole genome duplication account for 70.3% in soybean. From the statistical analysis of the molecular distances between duplicated genes, our study indicates that the whole genome duplication event occurred more than once in the genome evolution of soybean, which is often distributed near the ends of chromosomes.

  12. Pyrosequencing assessment of rhizosphere fungal communities from a soybean field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-10-01

    Soil fungal communities play essential roles in soil ecosystems, affecting plant growth and health. Rhizosphere bacterial communities have been shown to undergo dynamic changes during plant growth. This study utilized 454 pyrosequencing to analyze rhizosphere fungal communities during soybean growth. Members of the Ascomycota and Basiodiomycota dominated in all soils. There were no statistically significant changes at the phylum level among growth stages or between bulk and rhizosphere soils. In contrast, the relative abundance of small numbers of operational taxonomic units, 4 during growth and 28 between bulk and rhizosphere soils, differed significantly. Clustering analysis revealed that rhizosphere fungal communities were different from bulk fungal communities during growth stages of soybeans. Taken together, these results suggest that in contrast to rhizosphere bacterial communities, most constituents of rhizosphere fungal communities remained stable during soybean growth.

  13. Soybean Proteome Database 2012: Update on the comprehensive data repository for soybean proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eOhyanagi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soybean Proteome Database (SPD was created to provide a data repository for functional analyses of soybean responses to flooding stress, thought to be a major constraint for establishment and production of this plant. Since the last publication of the SPD, we thoroughly enhanced the contents of database, particularly protein samples and their annotations from several organelles. The current release contains 23 reference maps of soybean (Glycine max cv. Enrei proteins collected from several organs, tissues and organelles including the maps for plasma membrane, cell wall, chloroplast and mitochondrion, which were electrophoresed on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Furthermore, the proteins analyzed with gel-free proteomics technique have been added and available online. In addition to protein fluctuations under flooding, those of salt and drought stress have been included in the current release. An omics table also has been provided to reveal relationships among mRNAs, proteins and metabolites with a unified temporal-profile tag in order to facilitate retrieval of the data based on the temporal profiles. An intuitive user interface based on dynamic HTML enables users to browse the network as well as the profiles of multiple omes in an integrated fashion. The SPD is available at: http://proteome.dc.affrc.go.jp/Soybean/.

  14. Biorregulador na composição química e na produtividade de grãos de soja Plant growth regulator in the chemical composition and yield of soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Paiola Albrecht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a composição química e a produtividade de grãos de soja, em resposta à aplicação de biorregulador na cultura da soja. Para tanto, sementes de soja da cultivar BRS 246 RR foram semeadas no mês de outubro dos anos agrícolas de 2007/2008 e 2008/2009, no delineamento experimental em blocos completos com os tratamentos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos, arranjados em esquema fatorial, foram compostos pela combinação do tratamento de sementes com o biorregulador (sem e com 0,500 L 100 kg-1 de sementes e cinco doses do produto (0; 0,125; 0,250; 0,375 e 0,500 L ha-1 aplicadas via foliar, em dois estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura (V5 ou R3. Utilizou-se um biorregulador líquido da Stoller do Brasil Ltda., denominado de Stimulate®, composto por três reguladores vegetais na seguinte concentração: 0,005% do ácido indolbutirico - IBA (análogo de auxina, 0,009% de cinetina (citocinina e 0,005% de ácido giberélico - GA3 (giberelina. O uso do biorregulador influenciou no incremento da produtividade; os teores de óleo e proteínas foram alterados pela ação do biorregulador, com tendência de favorecimento do conteúdo proteico.The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and yield of the soybean in response to the application of plant growth regulator to a soybean crop. For this purpose, seeds of the cultivar BRS 246 RR were sown in October of the agricultural years 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, in an experimental layout of complete blocks, with randomized treatments and four replications. The treatments, arranged in factorial design, consisted of the combination of seed treatments and plant growth regulator (with and without 0.5 L 100kg-1 of seeds and five doses of the product (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375 and 0.5 L ha-1 applied to the leaves at two stages of the crop development (V5 or R3. A liquid growth regulator, Stimulate®, from Stoller of Brazil Ltda

  15. Genome-wide identification of soybean microRNA responsive to soybean cyst nematodes infection by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Wang, Shichen; Todd, Timothy C; Johnson, Charles D; Tang, Guiliang; Trick, Harold N

    2017-08-02

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is one of the most devastating diseases limiting soybean production worldwide. It is known that small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), play important roles in regulating plant growth and development, defense against pathogens, and responses to environmental changes. In order to understand the role of soybean miRNAs during SCN infection, we analyzed 24 small RNA libraries including three biological replicates from two soybean cultivars (SCN susceptible KS4607, and SCN HG Type 7 resistant KS4313N) that were grown under SCN-infested and -noninfested soil at two different time points (SCN feeding establishment and egg production). In total, 537 known and 70 putative novel miRNAs in soybean were identified from a total of 0.3 billion reads (average about 13.5 million reads for each sample) with the programs of Bowtie and miRDeep2 mapper. Differential expression analyses were carried out using edgeR to identify miRNAs involved in the soybean-SCN interaction. Comparative analysis of miRNA profiling indicated a total of 60 miRNAs belonging to 25 families that might be specifically related to cultivar responses to SCN. Quantitative RT-PCR validated similar miRNA interaction patterns as sequencing results. These findings suggest that miRNAs are likely to play key roles in soybean response to SCN. The present work could provide a framework for miRNA functional identification and the development of novel approaches for improving soybean SCN resistance in future studies.

  16. Fluorescence imaging of soybean flavonol isolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Edward H.; Mulchi, Charles L.; McMurtrey, James E., III; Chappelle, Emmett W.; Rowland, Randy A.

    1998-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the fluorescence emission of leaves from four soybean ('Harosoy') plants containing different concentrations of flavonols (kaempferol glycosides). The investigation utilized genetically mutated soybean flavonol isolines grown in a constant environment, thus limiting factors known to affect fluorescence emission characteristics other than different kaempferol glycosides concentrations. Flavonol isolines included OX922, OX941, OX942, OX944. The first two isolines contain kaempferol (K) glycosides; K3, K6, and K9, and the latter two did not have K3, K6, and K9. A fluorescence imaging system (FIS) was used to characterize steady state florescence images of the sample leaves measured at wavelengths centered at 450, 550, 680, and 740 nm with an excitation at 360 nm. Images taken with FIS greatly complement non-imaging fluorescence measurements by characterizing the spatial variation of fluorescence within leaves. We also acquired fluorescence emission spectra to characterize spectral features of the soybean flavonol isolines. The emission spectral shape of the fluorescence emission characteristics were not significantly different between the soybeans that contain kaempferol glycosides and the ones that do not contain kaempferol glycosides. Typical emission maxima of green vegetation in the blue, green, red, and far-red bands were noticed in all four soybean isolines. However, plants containing kaempferol glycosides, OX922 and OX941 had significantly lower intensities throughout the wavelength regions. These results imply that fluorescence emission intensities in the fluorescence emission bands studied are significantly affected by the presence and absence of kaempferol glycosides concentrations (UV radiation screening compounds). Pure kaempferol glycoside dissolved in solution show minimal fluorescence emission when excited with the absorption maximum radiation at 365 nm. However, a broad band emission can be seen in the green

  17. Antioxidant properties of soybean seedlings inoculated with Trichoderma asperellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Ana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to assess the effect of inoculation of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds with Trichoderma asperellum, followed by mites (Tetranychus urticae exposure on lipid peroxidation (LP process and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. T. urticae is an occasional pest of soybean that causes biotic stress. Biotic stress leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS which may cause damage to vital biomolecules. Enzymatic antioxidant defense systems protect plants against oxidative stress. T. asperellum is commonly used as biocontrol agent against plant pathogens. It has been suggested that previous inoculation of seeds with T. asperellum may cause induced resistance against biotic stress. The aim of this study was to determine LP intensity and antioxidant enzymes activity in inoculated and non-inoculated soybean seedlings with and without exposure to mites. Noticeably higher LP intensity was detected in non-inoculated group treated with mites compared to control group. Inoculated soybean seedlings treated with mites had lower LP intensity compared to noninoculated group. Also, it has been noticed that inoculation with Trichoderma asperellum itself, produced mild stress in plants. In addition, positive correlation between enzymes activity and LP was noticed. The level of oxidative stress in plants was followed by the change of LP intensity. According to results obtained, it was concluded that the greatest oxidative stress occurred in non-inoculated group treated with mites and that inoculation successfully reduced oxidative stress. The results indicate that inoculation of soybean seeds with T. asperellum improves resistance of soybean seedlings against mites attack. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31022

  18. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. under weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bagheri Shirvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JK with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. with weed interference, an experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications at a field located 10 km of Shirvan during year of 2011. The treatments were included 75% soybean: 25%sweet basil, 50%soybean: 50% sweet basil, 25% soybean: 75% sweet basil, 75% soybean: 25% borage, 50% soybean: 50% borage and 25% soybean: 75% borage under weed infestation, in addition sole cropping of plants under weed control and weed interference. Intercropped plants had more success in reduction of weed density and biomass compared to monoculture. Soybean50: sweet basil50, reduced the weed density by 47.95% and 52.9%, and reduced the weed biomass by 68.91% and 61.87% more than sweet basil and soybean pure stand, respectively. Investigation of dry matter accumulation showed that increasing of plant proportion in intercropping caused increasing of plant dry matter. The height of soybean and borage was increased in intercropping and weed interference, while the highest height of sweet basil was observed in monoculture at second harvest. Biological and economical yield of soybean in intercropping with sweet basil was higher than intercropping with borage. The highest harvest index was related to 50:50 soybean: sweet basil ratio. In this ratio, the harvest index increased 4.9% compared to soybean monoculture. Yield of sweet basil and borage decreased with increasing of soybean rows in intercropping. Based on area-time equivalent ratio, soybean 75% with sweet basil and borage 25% (based on borage seed yield had 3% and 4% advantage compared to monoculture.

  19. ANALYSIS IMPORT POLICY OF SOYBEAN ON ECONOMICS PERFORMANCE OF INDONESIAN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Abda Azizah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalization is closely related to the opening of market access for Indonesian products to the world and vice versa. Since the soybean trade out of BULOG control began in 1998, soybean imports increased very rapidly (Sudaryanto and Swastika, 2007. This research aims to determine the general picture of soybean economy, factors analyses that influence the economic performance of Indonesian soybean and findings the alternative of policies that can reduce soybean imports in Indonesia. Methods of data analysis are descriptive analysis, 2SLS simultaneous equations, and simulation of policy alternatives. Results of the analysis of the factors that affect the economic performance of Indonesian soybean, consists of 1 The area of soybean harvest is influenced significantly by the price of domestic soybean and domestic prices of corn, 2 Productivity soybean influenced significantly by the domestic prices of soybean and fertilizer prices, 3 soybean demand influenced significantly by population, domestic prices of soybean, 4 domestic prices of soybean significantly affected by world prices of soybean, exchange rates, and soybean supply, 5 Imports of soybean influenced significantly by the domestic demand of soybean and soybean production. Therefore, policy scenarios should be made to reduce soybean imports, including by carrying out the expansion of soybean harvest policy, the policy of increasing the productivity of soybean, the policy of subsidizing the price of fertilizer.

  20. Root interactions in a maize/soybean intercropping system control soybean soil-borne disease, red crown rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum. The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices.

  1. Performance of Soil-Applied FeEDDHA Isomers in Delivering Fe to Soybean Plants in Relation to the Moment of Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.; Reichwein, A.M.; Bugter, M.H.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2010-01-01

    FeEDDHA (iron(3+) ethylenediamine-N,N-bis(hydroxyphenylacetic acid) products are commonly applied to mend and prevent Fe deficiency chlorosis in soil-grown crops. Plants mainly take up Fe in the progressed vegetative and in the reproductive stages. This study examined which of the principal

  2. Deletion of the SACPD-C locus alters the symbiotic relationship between Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 and soybean, resulting in elicitation of plant defense response and nodulation defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen int...

  3. Effect of solar radiation on severity of soybean rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather M; George, Sheeja; Narváez, Dario F; Srivastava, Pratibha; Schuerger, Andrew C; Wright, David L; Marois, James J

    2012-08-01

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a damaging fungal disease of soybean (Glycine max). Although solar radiation can reduce SBR urediniospore survival, limited information is available on how solar radiation affects SBR progress within soybean canopies. Such information can aid in developing accurate SBR prediction models. To manipulate light penetration into soybean canopies, structures of shade cloth attenuating 30, 40, and 60% sunlight were constructed over soybean plots. In each plot, weekly evaluations of severity in lower, middle, and upper canopies, and daily temperature and relative humidity were recorded. Final plant height and leaf area index were also recorded for each plot. The correlation between amount of epicuticular wax and susceptibility of leaves in the lower, middle, and upper canopies was assessed with a detached leaf assay. Final disease severity was 46 to 150% greater in the lower canopy of all plots and in the middle canopy of 40 and 60% shaded plots. While daytime temperature within the canopy of nonshaded soybean was greater than shaded soybean by 2 to 3°C, temperatures recorded throughout typical evenings and mornings of the growing season in all treatments were within the range (10 to 28.5°C) for SBR development as was relative humidity. This indicates temperature and relative humidity were not limiting factors in this experiment. Epicuticular wax and disease severity in detached leaf assays from the upper canopy had significant negative correlation (P = 0.009, R = -0.84) regardless of shade treatment. In laboratory experiments, increasing simulated total solar radiation (UVA, UVB, and PAR) from 0.15 to 11.66 MJ m(-2) increased mortality of urediniospores from 2 to 91%. Variability in disease development across canopy heights in early planted soybean may be attributed to the effects of solar radiation not only on urediniospore viability, but also on plant height, leaf area index, and epicuticular wax, which influence

  4. [Symbiotic matching between soybean cultivar Luhuang No. 1 and different rhizobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhao-jun; Wang, Fei-meng; Wang, Su-ge; Yang, Sheng-hui; Guo, Rui; Tang, Ru-you; Chen, Wen-xin; Chen, Wen-feng

    2014-12-01

    Soybean plants could establish symbiosis and fix nitrogen with different rhizobial species in the genera of Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. Studies on the symbiotic matching between soybean cultivars and different rhizobial species are theoretically and practically important for selecting effective strains used to inoculate the plants and improve the soybean production and quality. A total of 27 strains were isolated and purified from a soil sample of Huanghuaihai area by using the soybean cultivar Luhang No. 1, a protein-rich cultivar grown in that area, as the trapping plants. These strains were identified as members of Sinorhizobium (18 strains) and Bradyrhizobium (9 strains) based on the sequence analysis of housekeeping gene recA. Two representative strains (Sinorhizobium fredii S6 and Bradyrhizobium sp. S10) were used to inoculate the seeds of Luhang No. 1 alone or mixed, in pots filled with vermiculite or soil, and in the field trial to investigate their effects on soybean growth, nodulation, nitrogen fixation activity, yield, contents of protein and oil in seeds. The results demonstrated that strain S6 showed better effects on growth-promotion, yield of seeds and seed quality than strain S10. Thus strain S6 was finally regarded as the effective rhizobium matching to soybean Luhuang No. 1, which could be the candidate as a good inoculant for planting the soybean Luhuang No. 1 at a large scale in the Huanghuaihai area.

  5. Competition partition of soil and solar radiation resources between soybean cultivars and concurrent genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.A.; Fleck, N.G.; Dillenburg, L.R.

    2006-01-01

    Plants compete for environmental resources located below and over soil surface. Physical separation of competition allows understanding the relative importance of each fraction, as well as identifying possible differences among species. The aim of this research was to separate the individual effects resulting from competition for soil or solar radiation resources, between soybean and concurrent plants. Thus, experiments using pots were carried out at UFRGS, in Porto Alegre-RS, in 2001 and 2002. The treatments tested resulted from the combinations of two concurrent genotypes (crop and competitor) and four competition conditions (absence of competition, competition for soil and solar radiation, competition for soil resources, and competition for solar radiation). Soybean cultivars IAS 5 and FEPAGRO RS 10 represented the crop, whereas radish forage and the soybean cultivar FUNDACEP 33 were the competitors tested. Morpho-physiological variables were evaluated in the soybean plants and radish forage. Growth of the soybean plants was most affected by soil resources competition, with RS 10 cultivar being more competitive than IAS 5.Radish forage did not interfere in the growth of soybean cultivars but it benefited from soybean presence. (author) 6

  6. Genome-wide identification of soybean WRKY transcription factors in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanchong; Wang, Nan; Hu, Ruibo; Xiang, Fengning

    2016-01-01

    Members of the large family of WRKY transcription factors are involved in a wide range of developmental and physiological processes, most particularly in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. Here, an analysis of the soybean genome sequence allowed the identification of the full complement of 188 soybean WRKY genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that soybean WRKY genes were classified into three major groups (I, II, III), with the second group further categorized into five subgroups (IIa-IIe). The soybean WRKYs from each group shared similar gene structures and motif compositions. The location of the GmWRKYs was dispersed over all 20 soybean chromosomes. The whole genome duplication appeared to have contributed significantly to the expansion of the family. Expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that in soybean root, 66 of the genes responded rapidly and transiently to the imposition of salt stress, all but one being up-regulated. While in aerial part, 49 GmWRKYs responded, all but two being down-regulated. RT-qPCR analysis showed that in the whole soybean plant, 66 GmWRKYs exhibited distinct expression patterns in response to salt stress, of which 12 showed no significant change, 35 were decreased, while 19 were induced. The data present here provide critical clues for further functional studies of WRKY gene in soybean salt tolerance.

  7. Investigation on genetically modified soybean (RoundUp Ready in goat nutrition: DNA detection in suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Infascelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of plant DNA fragments in blood, kidney, hearth, liver, spleen and muscle tissue from suckling kids was investigated by using PCR approach. Fragments of high copy number chloroplast and low copy soybean lectin genes were found in several samples of kids whose mother were fed diet containing conventional (control or transgenic soybean (treated. Only in treated group, fragments of 35S and CP4 epsps soybean genes were found in several samples.

  8. Determination of effective nodulation in early juvenile soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No standardized, efficient method is available to critically examine the effect of altering the genetic elements in either component by selection and/or genetic engineering. At planting, seeds of a tropical ('TGX-4E') and non-tropical ('Soma') soybean cultivar were inoculated individually in sand-filled Conetainers® in a ...

  9. QTL Analysis of Major Agronomic Traits in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-shan; ZHANG Zhong-chen; LIU Chun-yan; XIN Da-wei; QIU Hong-mei; SHAN Da-peng; SHAN Cai-yun; HU Guo-hua

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a main crop, and most agronomic traits of soybean are quantitative; therefore, there is very important studying and applying value to locating these traits. A F2:10 RIL population containing 154 lines, derived from the cross between Charleston as female and Dongnong 594 as male parent, were used in this experiment. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 164 SSR primers, which were screened with the two parents and amplified on the 154 lines. 12 agronomic traits different between the two parents were investigated, and QTLs of all the traits were analyzed using the software Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0. The agronomic traits included quality traits: protein content, oil content, and content of protein and oil; yield traits: pods per plant, seed weight per plant, arnd 100 seeds weight; and other agronomic traits: plant height, days to maturity, branches, nod number in main stem, average leaf length, and average leaf width. The results showed that 68 QTLs in total were found for the 12 agronomic traits. The number of QTLs per trait varied from 3 for the average leaf width to 11 for 100 seeds weight and plant height, and was 5.8 on average. Good accordance was seen in many QTLs between the results of this study and the results obtained by other similar studies; therefore, these QTLs may be valuable for molecular marker assistant selection in soybean. In this study, 68 major QTLs of 12 important traits of soybean were analyzed.

  10. Evaluation of four improved soybean varieties under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... emergence of soybean seeds in the field from year to year such that plant population densities cannot be met. (McGee et al., 1980). The causes of these problems include the use of poor quality seeds (Nangju et al.,. 1980), poor storage conditions (Delouche, 1981), increased incidence of seed-borne ...

  11. Availability and Market Penetration of GMO Corn and Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock; Michael D. Duffy; Robert Wisner

    1999-01-01

    The authors survey various types of GMO (genetically modified organism) corn and soybeans, including both pest-resistant and herbicide-resistant varieties, and then evaluate the extent to which farmers have begun to use GMO crops. Figures cited include percentages of acres planted with GMO crops, as well as comparisons of non-GMO versus GMO yields.

  12. 5' Analysis of the soybean leghaemoglobin lbc(3) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, J; Sandal, N N; Grøn, A

    1987-01-01

    The soybean leghaemoglobin lbc(3) gene promoter was analysed in transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants. Hybrid-promoter constructions and 5' deletions were studied using chimeric genes composed of the various promoters, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) coding sequence and the lbc(3) 3...

  13. Soybean ( Glycine max ) as a versatile biocatalyst for organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones were reduced using plant cell preparations of Glycine max seeds (soybean). The biotransformation of five aromatic aldehydes in water, at room temperature afforded the corresponding alcohols in excellent yields varying from 89 to 100%. Two prochiral aromatic ...

  14. Differential regulation of defense-related proteins in soybean during compatible and incompatible interactions between Phytophthora sojae and soybean by comparative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Maofeng; Ma, Hongyu; Li, Haiyang; Guo, Baodian; Zhang, Xin; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Haonan; Wang, Qiuxia; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-07-01

    Few proteomic studies have focused on the plant- Phytophthora interactions, our study provides important information regarding the use of proteomic methods for investigation of the basic mechanisms of plant-Phytophthora interactions. Phytophthora sojae is a fast-spreading and devastating pathogen that is responsible for root and stem rot in soybean crops worldwide. To better understand the response of soybean seedlings to the stress of infection by virulent and avirulent pathogens at the proteomic level, proteins extracted from the hypocotyls of soybean reference cultivar Williams 82 infected by P. sojae P6497 (race 2) and P7076 (race 19), respectively, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. 95 protein spots were differently expressed, with 83 being successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and subjected to further analysis. Based on the majority of the 83 defense-responsive proteins, and defense-related pathway genes supplemented by a quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay, a defense-related network for soybean infected by virulent and avirulent pathogens was proposed. We found reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) signal pathway and biosynthesis of isoflavones were significantly up-regulated in the resistant soybean. Our results imply that following the P. sojae infection, ROS and SA signal pathway in soybean play the major roles in defense against P. sojae. This research will facilitate further investigation of the molecular regulatory mechanism of the defense response in soybean following infection by P. sojae.

  15. Anatomia foliar de soja infectada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais Leaf anatomy of soybean infected with Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Mussury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Glycine max (L. Merril,infectadas pelo fungo Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais foram avaliadas, visando determinar in vivo as modificações anatômicas nas diferentes estruturas/tecidos foliares, além de reconhecer prováveis mecanismos de defesa. Folhas de soja cultivar 181 provenientes do quinto nó foram inoculadas com fungo e tratadas com diferentes extratos vegetais, água e álcool 70%. Para comparação foram analisadas a anatomia das folhas sadia e infectada e realizadas medidas nas estruturas/tecidos foliares. Na folha infectada, observou-se destruição da epiderme e parênquima lacunoso, visível proliferação de tricomas e cutícula espessada, principalmente na face abaxial. Observou-se a presença de compostos fenólicos nas células da epiderme quando rompida, em função do crescimento micelial. Nas folhas infectadas e tratadas com os extratos vegetais de Azadirachta indica, Maytenus ilicifolia e Allium sativum, as estruturas/tecidos vegetais apresentaram aumento de espessura por alongamento celular.Glycine max (L. Merril leaves, infected by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts, were evaluated with the aim of determining in vivo the anatomical modifications in different leaf structures and of identifying probable defense mechanisms. Leaves from the 181 soybean cultivar originated from the fifth node were inoculated with the fungus and treated with different plant extracts, water and alcohol at 70%. For comparison, the anatomy of the healthy and infected leaves was analyzed and the leaf structures were measured. In the infected leaf, there was destruction of the epidermis and lacunar parenchyma, apparent trichome proliferation and denser cuticle, especially on the abaxial surface. There were also phenolic compounds in ruptured epidermis cells, due to mycelium growth. In the infected leaves treated with Azadirachta indica, Maytenus

  16. SoyDB: a knowledge database of soybean transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valliyodan Babu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors play the crucial rule of regulating gene expression and influence almost all biological processes. Systematically identifying and annotating transcription factors can greatly aid further understanding their functions and mechanisms. In this article, we present SoyDB, a user friendly database containing comprehensive knowledge of soybean transcription factors. Description The soybean genome was recently sequenced by the Department of Energy-Joint Genome Institute (DOE-JGI and is publicly available. Mining of this sequence identified 5,671 soybean genes as putative transcription factors. These genes were comprehensively annotated as an aid to the soybean research community. We developed SoyDB - a knowledge database for all the transcription factors in the soybean genome. The database contains protein sequences, predicted tertiary structures, putative DNA binding sites, domains, homologous templates in the Protein Data Bank (PDB, protein family classifications, multiple sequence alignments, consensus protein sequence motifs, web logo of each family, and web links to the soybean transcription factor database PlantTFDB, known EST sequences, and other general protein databases including Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology, KEGG, EMBL, TAIR, InterPro, SMART, PROSITE, NCBI, and Pfam. The database can be accessed via an interactive and convenient web server, which supports full-text search, PSI-BLAST sequence search, database browsing by protein family, and automatic classification of a new protein sequence into one of 64 annotated transcription factor families by hidden Markov models. Conclusions A comprehensive soybean transcription factor database was constructed and made publicly accessible at http://casp.rnet.missouri.edu/soydb/.

  17. Tratamento de sementes com fungicidas e inseticidas como redutores dos efeitos do estresse hídrico em plantas de soja Seed treatment with fungicides and insecticides reducing the hydric stress on soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silveiro Balardin

    2011-07-01

    was evaluate four seed treatments: water (T1, carbendazim + thiram (T2, fipronil + thiophanate methyl + pyraclostrobin (T3 and abamectin + thiamethoxam + fludioxonil + mefenoxan + thiabendazole (T4 on growth parameters of soybean plants with or without low water availability. The experiments were conducted under field conditions and greenhouse. In greenhouse, in treatments without low water availability, it was made four irrigations by day and in treatments with low water availability, it was made one irrigation each three days. In this trial, it was evaluated the plant height, root length, root volume, dry shoot weight, dry root weight and foliar area. In the field trial, low water availability was established by construction of low tunnels of polyethylene which prevented the water supply by irrigation and rain. In the field, it was also evaluated the plant height, the relative chlorophyll content, emergence, lesser cornstalk borer attack and grain yield. In the both environment, the plants were kept on stress until 28th days after emergence. In greenhouse, all the parameters were influenced by seed treatments with or without low water availability. In field, the treatment with fipronil + thiophanate methyl + pyraclostrobin (T3 and abamectin + thiamethoxam + fludioxonil + mefenoxan + thiabendazole (T4 promoted higher plant height and relative chlorophyll content in both hydric schemes, higher emergence and grain yield in plants without and with lower water availability, respectively. It was concluded that seed treatment with these products promote benefit changes in plant, increasing its tolerance to hydric stress, with positive effect on soybean grain yield.

  18. Relationship between Protein Accumulation Regulation and Yield Formation in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lihua; LI Jie; LIU Lijun; ZU Wei

    2006-01-01

    Three different genotypes soybeans were adopted in this experiment under three fertilizer levels.The object of this study was to investigate protein accumulation regulation of soybean cultivars under the condition of different nutrient levels, and their effects on soybean yield and quality, and to provide theoretical evidence for breed, cultivation and agricultural production, also man-powered controllable locations. The concentration of N in the leaves declined after seedling stage, then increased again at stage of early flowering, and started to decrease up to leaf senescence, declined rapidly from seed-filling season to stage of yellow ripeness. The concentration of N in the stems and pod walls declined with growth stage. High seed protein genotypes exhibited higher N assimilating and partitioning during whole growth stages. Pod walls were media of N partitioning. Protein was accumulated mainly during the later period of reproductive growth stage up to harvest, so plant growth after stage of yellow ripeness could not be neglected.

  19. Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soertini, G.; Hendratno

    1988-01-01

    Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants. Research activities comprising of three experiments were carried out to screen several soybean varieties and mutants for symbiotic N fixation potential. The first two experiments involved screening of seven rhizobium strains/isolate for effective N fixation. Depending on the medium used, plant response to strains was different. In sterile medium, rhizobium strain USDA 136, 142 and TAL 102 showed a high nitrogen fixation potential. In soil only rhizobium strain USDA 110 had better performance and proved to be competitive to the native strains. Nitrogen-15 dilution method was used to screen nitrogen fixing ability of several soybean varieties and mutants. Guntur variety showed a better response to high dose of N fertilizer without disturbance in its fixing ability. This variety then was considered good to be introduced in the cropping system. (author). 8 refs

  20. Nematode pests threatening soybean production in South Africa, with reference to Meloidogyne

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    Hendrika Fourie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The area planted to soybean in South Africa has increased by 54% since the 2009 growing season, mainly as a result of the increasing demand for protein-rich food and fodder sources. Moreover, the introduction of advanced technology, namely the availability of genetically modified herbicide tolerant soybean cultivars also contributed towards increased soybean production. The omnipresence of plant-parasitic nematodes in local agricultural soils, however, poses a threat to the sustainable expansion and production of soybean and other rotation crops. Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica are the predominant nematode pests in local soybean production areas and those where other grain-, legume- and/or vegetable crops are grown. The lack of registered nematicides for soybean locally, crop production systems that are conducive to nematode pest build-ups as well as the limited availability of genetic host plant resistance to root-knot nematode pests, complicate their management. Research aimed at various aspects related to soybean-nematode research, namely, audits of nematode assemblages associated with the crop, identification of genetic host plant resistance in soybean germplasm to M. incognita and M. javanica, the use of molecular markers that are linked to such genetic resistance traits as well as agronomic performance of pre-released cultivars that can be valuable to producers and the industry are accentuated in this review. Evaluation of synthetically-derived as well as biological-control agents are also discussed as complementary management tactics. It is important that lessons learned through extensive research on soybean-nematode interactions in South Africa be shared with researchers and industries in other countries as they might experience or expect similar problems and/or challenges.

  1. Proteomic analysis of the flooding tolerance mechanism in mutant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nanjo, Yohei; Nishimura, Minoru

    2013-02-21

    Flooding stress of soybean is a serious problem because it reduces growth; however, flooding-tolerant cultivars have not been identified. To analyze the flooding tolerance mechanism of soybean, the flooding-tolerant mutant was isolated and analyzed using a proteomic technique. Flooding-tolerance tests were repeated five times using gamma-ray irradiated soybeans, whose root growth (M6 stage) was not suppressed even under flooding stress. Two-day-old wild-type and mutant plants were subjected to flooding stress for 2days, and proteins were identified using a gel-based proteomic technique. In wild-type under flooding stress, levels of proteins related to development, protein synthesis/degradation, secondary metabolism, and the cell wall changed; however, these proteins did not markedly differ in the mutant. In contrast, an increased number of fermentation-related proteins were identified in the mutant under flooding stress. The root tips of mutant plants were not affected by flooding stress, even though the wild-type plants had damaged root. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the mutant increased at an early stage of flooding stress compared with that of the wild-type. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the fermentation system in the early stages of flooding may be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in soybean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2016-07-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  3. Genetic similarity of soybean genotypes revealed by seed protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More accurate and complete descriptions of genotypes could help determinate future breeding strategies and facilitate introgression of new genotypes in current soybean genetic pool. The objective of this study was to characterize 20 soybean genotypes from the Maize Research Institute "Zemun Polje" collection, which have good agronomic performances, high yield, lodging and drought resistance, and low shuttering by seed proteins as biochemical markers. Seed proteins were isolated and separated by PAA electrophoresis. On the basis of the presence/absence of protein fractions coefficients of similarity were calculated as Dice and Roger and Tanamoto coefficient between pairs of genotypes. The similarity matrix was submitted for hierarchical cluster analysis of un weighted pair group using arithmetic average (UPGMA method and necessary computation were performed using NTSYS-pc program. Protein seed analysis confirmed low level of genetic diversity in soybean. The highest genetic similarity was between genotypes P9272 and Kador. According to obtained results, soybean genotypes were assigned in two larger groups and coefficients of similarity showed similar results. Because of the lack of pedigree data for analyzed genotypes, correspondence with marker data could not be determined. In plant with a narrow genetic base in their gene pool, such as soybean, protein markers may not be sufficient for characterization and study of genetic diversity.

  4. Aboveground dry biomass partitioning and nitrogen accumulation in early maturing soybean ‘Merlin’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the biomass and nitrogen accumulation in early maturing soybean plants experiencing contrasting weather conditions. Soybean (Glycine max is a species of agricultural crop plant that is widely described in scientific publications. During 2014–2016, a field experiment with early maturing soybean ‘Merlin’ was carried out at Grodziec Śląski, Poland (49°48'01" N, 18°52'04" E. Results showed that the morphological traits of the plants, the yield of individual plants, and the soybean crop were all closely related to the climatic conditions. A high amount of precipitation stimulated seed development, resulting in a high production potential. The harvest index calculated for soybean ‘Merlin’ was high and exceeded 0.5 g g−1. The nitrogen content of the aboveground biomass increased during ontogenesis. The maximum yield of dry matter was noted at the green maturity phase, which subsequently decreased at the full maturity phase because of the loss of the leaf fraction. The variation in the effectiveness of nitrogen accumulation in seeds between 2015 and 2016 was 30%. The nitrogen harvest index values were high in each year of the experiment and exceeded 0.92 g−1. For the production of 1 ton of seeds with an adequate amount of soybean straw, plants needed, on average, 68 kg of nitrogen.

  5. Tolerância à interferência de plantas competidoras e habilidade de supressão por genótipos de soja: II. Resposta de variáveis de produtividade Tolerance to interference of competing plants and suppressive ability by soybean genotypes: II. Response of yield variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Lamego

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As perdas de produtividade das culturas em decorrência da competição de plantas concorrentes geralmente aumentam quanto mais semelhantes forem suas características morfofisiológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da competição de cultivares de soja, simulando espécies daninhas dicotiledôneas, sobre cultivares de soja portadores de características diferenciais de planta. Para isso, conduziu-se um experimento em campo, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Os fatores e tratamentos comparados foram: três condições de competição (ausência de plantas de soja concorrentes e presença de plantas concorrentes do cultivar de soja BRS 205 ou Cobb; e quatro cultivares reagentes de soja à competição (IAS 5, BR-16, CD 205 e Fepagro RS-10. Avaliaram-se variáveis relacionadas à produtividade dos cultivares e outras correlatas. Características dissimilares em plantas de cultivares de soja, como estatura e ciclo, resultaram em habilidade competitiva diferenciada com plantas concorrentes. O cultivar de soja CD 205, de estatura elevada e ciclo tardio, mostrou alta habilidade competitiva; IAS 5, de baixa estatura e ciclo precoce, apresentou baixa tolerância à competição, enquanto BR-16 e Fepagro RS-10 são intermediários. Cultivares com elevada habilidade competitiva, além de tolerarem a competição, preservando o potencial de produtividade, também suprimem a produção de grãos das plantas concorrentes.Due to concurrent plant competition, crop yield losses generally increase as their morphophysiological characteristics become more similar. The objective of this research was to evaluate the competitive effects of soybean cultivars mimicking dicotyledonous weed species on soybean cultivars holding dissimilar plant characteristics. Thus, a field experiment was carried out in Eldorado do Sul-RS. The factors and treatments compared were: three competition conditions (absence of competing plants and presence of the soybean cultivar

  6. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...

  7. Characterization of Insect Resistance Loci in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection Using Genome-Wide Association Studies

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    Hao-Xun Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of insects that cause economic damage to yields of soybean mainly rely on insecticide applications. Sources of resistance in soybean plant introductions (PIs to different insect pests have been reported, and some of these sources, like for the soybean aphid (SBA, have been used to develop resistant soybean cultivars. With the availability of SoySNP50K and the statistical power of genome-wide association studies, we integrated phenotypic data for beet armyworm, Mexican bean beetle (MBB, potato leafhopper (PLH, SBA, soybean looper (SBL, velvetbean caterpillar (VBC, and chewing damage caused by unspecified insects for a comprehensive understanding of insect resistance in the United States Department of Agriculture Soybean Germplasm Collection. We identified significant single nucleotide (SNP polymorphic markers for MBB, PLH, SBL, and VBC, and we highlighted several leucine-rich repeat-containing genes and myeloblastosis transcription factors within the high linkage disequilibrium region surrounding significant SNP markers. Specifically for soybean resistance to PLH, we found the PLH locus is close but distinct to a locus for soybean pubescence density on chromosome 12. The results provide genetic support that pubescence density may not directly link to PLH resistance. This study offers a novel insight of soybean resistance to four insect pests and reviews resistance mapping studies for major soybean insects.

  8. The dynamic simulation model of soybean in Central Java to support food self sufficiency: A supply chain perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktyajati, Nancy; Hisjam, Muh.; Sutopo, Wahyudi

    2018-02-01

    Consider food become one of the basic human needs in order to survive so food sufficiency become very important. Food sufficiency of soybean commodity in Central Java still depends on imported soybean. Insufficiency of soybean because of there is much gap between local soybean productions and its demand. In the year 2016 the shortage of supply soybean commodity as much 68.79%. Soybean is an important and strategic commodity after rice and corn. The increasing consumption of soybean is related to increasing population, increasing incomes, changing of healthy life style. The aims of this study are to determine the soybean dynamic model based on supply chain perspective, define the proper price of local soybean to trigger increasing of local production, and to define the alternative solution to support food self sufficiency. This study will capture the real condition into dynamics model, then simulate a series of scenario into a computer program to obtain the best results. This study will be conducted the following first scenario with government intervention policy and second without government intervention policy. The best solution of the alternative can be used as government consideration for governmental policy. The results of the propose scenarios showed that self sufficiency on soybean can be achieved after the next 20 years by increasing planting area 4% and land productivity 1% per year.

  9. Overexpression of GmCaM4 in soybean enhances resistance to pathogens and tolerance to salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is the major oilseed crop in the world and is a main source of oil and high-quality protein for both humans and animals worldwide. Plant diseases inflict heavy losses on soybean yield that negatively impact the US economy. Implicit in the high economic value of this ...

  10. First report of new phytoplasma diseases associated with soybean, sweet pepper, and passion fruit in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new soybean disease outbreak occurred in 2002 in a soybean (Glycine max) plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. Symptoms in the affected plants included general stunting, little leaf, formation of excessive buds, and aborted seed pods. Another two diseases occurred in sweet pepper (Capsicum ...

  11. Physiological response of soybean and wheat to gamma radiation and gibberellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study and evaluate physiological effects of gamma radiation and/or GA 3 on plant growth, nutritional status of plants, yield and some quality of seeds of soybean and wheat. Two field experiments were conducted under the condition of clay loam soil at kaliobia governorate during 1993 and 1994 and 1992/1993 and 1993/1994 for soybean and wheat, respectively. Growth of soybean and wheat plants was considerably stimulated by irradiation seeds before sowing with low gamma doses and/or concentration of Ga 3. Maximum growth of both plants was obtained by the combined treatment of 2 0 Gy x 25 ppm GA 3 and 1 0 Gy x 100 ppm GA 3 for soybean and wheat, respectively. On the contrary high gamma doses and/or high rates of GA 3 depressed growth of both plants. Low gamma doses and/or GA 3 at low concentration greatly encouraged nutrients uptake by soybean and wheat plants, i.e., N, Fe, Mn and Zn which seemed to be positively related to plant growth. Whereas, high doses and/or high concentrations of GA 3 reduced these nutrients in plant. 53 tabs., 5 figs., 91 refs

  12. Daytime soybean transcriptome fluctuations during water deficit stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabiana Aparecida; Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa; Lobo, Francisco Pereira; Harmon, Frank G; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima

    2015-07-07

    Since drought can seriously affect plant growth and development and little is known about how the oscillations of gene expression during the drought stress-acclimation response in soybean is affected, we applied Illumina technology to sequence 36 cDNA libraries synthesized from control and drought-stressed soybean plants to verify the dynamic changes in gene expression during a 24-h time course. Cycling variables were measured from the expression data to determine the putative circadian rhythm regulation of gene expression. We identified 4866 genes differentially expressed in soybean plants in response to water deficit. Of these genes, 3715 were differentially expressed during the light period, from which approximately 9.55% were observed in both light and darkness. We found 887 genes that were either up- or down-regulated in different periods of the day. Of 54,175 predicted soybean genes, 35.52% exhibited expression oscillations in a 24 h period. This number increased to 39.23% when plants were submitted to water deficit. Major differences in gene expression were observed in the control plants from late day (ZT16) until predawn (ZT20) periods, indicating that gene expression oscillates during the course of 24 h in normal development. Under water deficit, dissimilarity increased in all time-periods, indicating that the applied stress influenced gene expression. Such differences in plants under stress were primarily observed in ZT0 (early morning) to ZT8 (late day) and also from ZT4 to ZT12. Stress-related pathways were triggered in response to water deficit primarily during midday, when more genes were up-regulated compared to early morning. Additionally, genes known to be involved in secondary metabolism and hormone signaling were also expressed in the dark period. Gene expression networks can be dynamically shaped to acclimate plant metabolism under environmental stressful conditions. We have identified putative cycling genes that are expressed in soybean leaves

  13. Interference of Selected Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes in Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. has become difficult to control in row crops due to selection for biotypes that are no longer controlled by acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides and/or glyphosate. Early season interference in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] for 40 days after emergence by three glyphosate-resistant (GR and three glyphosate-susceptible (GS Palmer amaranth biotypes from Georgia and North Carolina was compared in the greenhouse. A field experiment over 2 years compared season-long interference of these biotypes in soybean. The six Palmer amaranth biotypes reduced soybean height similarly in the greenhouse but did not affect soybean height in the field. Reduction in soybean fresh weight and dry weight in the greenhouse; and soybean yield in the field varied by Palmer amaranth biotypes. Soybean yield was reduced 21% by Palmer amaranth at the established field density of 0.37 plant m−2. When Palmer amaranth biotypes were grouped by response to glyphosate, the GS group reduced fresh weight, dry weight, and yield of soybean more than the GR group. The results indicate a possible small competitive disadvantage associated with glyphosate resistance, but observed differences among biotypes might also be associated with characteristics within and among biotypes other than glyphosate resistance.

  14. Trichoderma harzianum containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and chitinase improved growth and diminished adverse effect caused by Fusarium oxysporum in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Lidong; Liu, Jidong; Chen, Long; Fan, Xiaoning; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Ke; He, Yuting; Chen, Chen; Ji, Xiue

    2017-03-01

    An isolate, named Trichoderma harzianum T-soybean, showed growth-promoting for soybean seedlings and induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum under greenhouse. Compared to control soybean seedlings, fresh weight, dry weight, lateral root number, chlorophyll content, root activity and soluble protein of plants pretreated with T-soybean increased, but initial pod height reduced. Furthermore, we found that T-soybean inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum by parasitic function. In addition, plate test results showed that culture filtrates of T-soybean also inhibited significantly F. oxysporum growth. Meanwhile, T-soybean treatment obviously reduced disease severity and induced quickly the H 2 O 2 and O 2 - burst as well as pathogenesis related protein gene (PR3) expression after F. oxysporum inoculation, and subsequently diminished the cell damage in soybean caused by the pathogen challenge. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes activity analysis showed that the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly in T-soybean pretreated plants. These results suggested that T-soybean treatment induced resistance in soybean seedlings to F. oxysporum by companying the production of ROS and the increasing of ROS scavenging enzymes activity as well as PR3 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Efeitos da dessecação de plantas de soja no potencial fisiológico e sanitário das sementes Effects of desiccation on the physiological potential and sanitary condition of seeds from soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz de Souza Lacerda

    2005-01-01

    /98, respectively. The desiccants applied during the season agricultural year 1996/97 were: paraquat, diquat, paraquat+diquat mix at the doses 400; 300; 200+150 e 400 g a.i.ha-1, respectively. In 1997/98 the same desiccants were used, at the same doses, with additional treatment application of ammonium glufosinate at the dose of 400 g a.i.ha-1. The desiccants were applied three times in 1996/97 and four times in 1997/98 with 5 days intervals starting at the R6 stage. According to the environmental conditions of this research the best desiccation time was when soybean plants had 80% to 90% of pods with yellow and brown coloration and seeds with 45% to 60% of water content. There were no effects of any of the desiccants tested in the physiological and sanitary potential required for commercialization of the seeds.

  16. Potencial de rendimento da soja durante a ontogenia em razão da irrigação e arranjo de plantas Potential yield of soybean during the ontogeny according to water availability and plant arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Roberto Maehler

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimativas do potencial de rendimento (PR da soja podem ser feitas durante a ontogenia pela quantificação das estruturas reprodutivas, de modo a avaliar o efeito de fatores ambientais e práticas de manejo na produção e fixação dessas estruturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da disponibilidade hídrica e arranjo de plantas no PR e seus componentes, durante a ontogenia de duas cultivares de soja. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de dois regimes hídricos (irrigado e não irrigado, duas cultivares (BRS 137 e BRS 138 e três espaçamentos entre linhas (20 cm, 40 cm e 20 e 40 cm em linhas pareadas. O PR médio foi de 15.295 kg ha-1 no estádio de florescimento; 12.325 kg ha-1 na formação de legumes; 5.508 kg ha-1 no início do enchimento de grãos e 4.315 kg ha-1 na maturação. O tratamento irrigado apresentou PR mais elevado em razão da maior produção e fixação de estruturas reprodutivas, mais grãos por legume e grãos mais pesados do que o tratamento não irrigado. Não houve diferença significativa entre espaçamentos. O PR da cultivar BRS 137 é mais elevado do que o da BRS 138, em virtude da menor abscisão de flores, grãos mais pesados e maior número de grãos por legume.The quantification of reproductive structures during the ontogeny allows to estimate soybean yield potential (YP, making possible to quantify the effect of environmental factors and management practices on the production and fixation of these structures. This work aimed to determine the effect of water availability and plant arrangement on the YP and its components, during ontogeny of two soybean cultivars. Treatments were two water availability (irrigated and non irrigated, two cultivars (BRS 137 and BRS 138, and three row spacings (20 cm, 40 cm and 20 and 40 cm in skip row. The average YP obtained was of 15,295 kg ha-1 at blooming; 12,325 kg ha-1 during legume formation; 5,508 kg ha-1 at the beginning of grain filling and 4,315 kg ha-1

  17. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  18. Metabolic profiles of flooding-tolerant mechanism in early-stage soybean responding to initial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Hashiguchi, Akiko; Nishimura, Minoru; Tian, Jingkui; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-08-01

    Metabolomic analysis of flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic acid-treated soybeans suggests that accumulated fructose might play a role in initial flooding tolerance through regulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress, which markedly reduces plant growth. To explore the mechanism underlying initial-flooding tolerance in soybean, mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis was performed using flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic-acid treated soybeans. Among the commonly-identified metabolites in both flooding-tolerant materials, metabolites involved in carbohydrate and organic acid displayed same profile at initial-flooding stress. Sugar metabolism was highlighted in both flooding-tolerant materials with the decreased and increased accumulation of sucrose and fructose, respectively, compared to flooded soybeans. Gene expression of hexokinase 1 was upregulated in flooded soybean; however, it was downregulated in both flooding-tolerant materials. Metabolites involved in carbohydrate/organic acid and proteins related to glycolysis/tricarboxylic acid cycle were integrated. Increased protein abundance of phosphofructokinase was identified in both flooding-tolerant materials, which was in agreement with its enzyme activity. Furthermore, sugar metabolism was pointed out as the tolerant-responsive process at initial-flooding stress with the integration of metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics. Moreover, application of fructose declined the increased fresh weight of plant induced by flooding stress. These results suggest that fructose might be the critical metabolite through regulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase to confer initial-flooding stress in soybean.

  19. Simulations of simple linoleic acid-containing lipid membranes and models for the soybean plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaohong; Ou, Anna; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2017-06-07

    The all-atom CHARMM36 lipid force field (C36FF) has been tested with saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated lipids; however, it has not been validated against the 18:2 linoleoyl lipids with an unsaturated sn-1 chain. The linoleoyl lipids are common in plants and the main component of the soybean membrane. The lipid composition of soybean plasma membranes has been thoroughly characterized with experimental studies. However, there is comparatively less work done with computational modeling. Our molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the pure linoleoyl lipids, 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (18:0/18:2) and 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (di-18:2), agree very well with the experiments, which demonstrates the accuracy of the C36FF for the computational study of soybean membranes. Based on the experimental composition, the soybean hypocotyl and root plasma membrane models are developed with each containing seven or eight types of linoleoyl phospholipids and two types of sterols (sitosterol and stigmasterol). MD simulations are performed to characterize soybean membranes, and the hydrogen bonds and clustering results demonstrate that the lipids prefer to interact with the lipids of the same/similar tail unsaturation. All the results suggest that these two soybean membrane models can be used as a basis for further research in soybean and higher plant membranes involving membrane-associated proteins.

  20. Volatile Organic Compounds Induced by Herbivory of the Soybean Looper Chrysodeixis includens in Transgenic Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean and the Behavioral Effect on the Parasitoid, Meteorus rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Da Silva Gomes, Sandra M; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic soybean plants (RR) engineered to express resistance to glyphosate harbor a variant of the enzyme EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) involved in the shikimic acid pathway, the biosynthetic route of three aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. The insertion of the variant enzyme CP4 EPSPS confers resistance to glyphosate. During the process of genetic engineering, unintended secondary effects are likely to occur. In the present study, we quantified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted constitutively or induced in response to herbivory by the soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens in transgenic soybean and its isogenic (untransformed) line. Since herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are known to play a role in the recruitment of natural enemies, we assessed whether changes in VOC profiles alter the foraging behavior of the generalist endoparasitic larval parasitoid, Meteorus rubens in the transgenic line. Additionally, we assessed whether there was a difference in plant quality by measuring the weight gain of the soybean looper. In response to herbivory, several VOCs were induced in both the conventional and the transgenic line; however, larger quantities of a few compounds were emitted by transgenic plants. Meteorus rubens females were able to discriminate between the odors of undamaged and C. includens-damaged plants in both lines, but preferred the odors emitted by herbivore-damaged transgenic plants over those emitted by herbivore-damaged conventional soybean plants. No differences were observed in the weight gain of the soybean looper. Our results suggest that VOC-mediated tritrophic interactions in this model system are not negatively affected. However, as the preference of the wasps shifted towards damaged transgenic plants, the results also suggest that genetic modification affects that tritrophic interactions in multiple ways in this model system.

  1. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  2. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Pfat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; PMilk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (Pfat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (Pfat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  3. Proteomic Techniques and Management of Flooding Tolerance in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Tougou, Makoto; Nanjo, Yohei

    2015-09-04

    Climate change is considered a major threat to world agriculture and food security. To improve the agricultural productivity and sustainability, the development of high-yielding stress-tolerant, and climate-resilient crops is essential. Of the abiotic stresses, flooding stress is a very serious hazard because it markedly reduces plant growth and grain yield. Proteomic analyses indicate that the effects of flooding stress are not limited to oxygen deprivation but include many other factors. Although many flooding response mechanisms have been reported, flooding tolerance mechanisms have not been fully clarified for soybean. There were limitations in soybean materials, such as mutants and varieties, while they were abundant in rice and Arabidopsis. In this review, plant proteomic technologies are introduced and flooding tolerance mechanisms of soybeans are summarized to assist in the improvement of flooding tolerance in soybeans. This work will expedite transgenic or marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in crops for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant lines or varieties under abiotic stress.

  4. The transport and distribution of 3H-ABA affected by al sress on soybean seedig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Sun Yang; Pang Jinduo

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment combining radioisotope techniques was carried out to understand the effect of Al stress on the transport and the distribution of 3 H-ABA by using Jilin70, a soybean variety of Al resistance. The transport and distribution of ABA affected by Al stress on soybean seedling were studied with radioisotope technique. The results showed that ABA could be transported up or down in soybean seedling. The stress of Al accelerated the transport of ABA and enhanced the distribution of ABA in the roots by Al stress. The paper present the foundation for the mechanisms of ABA under Al stress in plant. (authors)

  5. Effects of gamma ray irradiation on early growth of soybean (Glycine mac (L). Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Harsanti; Yulidar

    2015-01-01

    Increase my in domestic soybean production is one of the government's program to reduce dependence on imported soybeans and soybean efforts to achieve self-sufficiency in 2015. An experiment has been conducted to study the effects of gamma ray irradiation of of 60 Cobalt on early growth of soybean seed. Variety Denna 2 varieties have been irradiated by gamma rays with 0 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy, 400 Gy doses, and then planted in green house on Ps Jumat PAIR-BATAN. Plant growth from each doses is proved to be varied. From germination viability on the third day, the highest percentage of seedling with leaves is on 100 Gy dose (73.75%), and 7, 14 and 21 day the lowest is on dose 400 Gy. (author)

  6. A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Lu; Yong-Cai Lai; Wei-Guang Du; Wei-Qun Man; Shou-Yi Chen; Jin-Song Zhang; Qing Xiong; Tong Cheng; Qing-Tian Li; Xin-Lei Liu; Ying-Dong Bi; Wei Li; Wan-Ke Zhang; Biao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated soybeans may lose some useful genetic loci during domestication.Introgression of genes from wild soybeans could broaden the genetic background and improve soybean agronomic traits.In this study,through whole-genome sequencing of a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between a wild soybean ZYD7 and a cultivated soybean HN44,and mapping of quantitative trait loci for seed weight,we discovered that a phosphatase 2C-1 (PP2C-1) allele from wild soybean ZYD7 contributes to the increase in seed weight/size.PP2C-1 may achieve this function by enhancing cell size of integument and activating a subset of seed trait-related genes.We found that PP2C-1 is associated with GmBZR1,a soybean ortholog of Arabidopsis BZR1,one of key transcription factors in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling,and facilitate accumulation of dephosphorylated GmBZR1.In contrast,the PP2C-2 allele with variations of a few amino acids at the N-terminus did not exhibit this function.Moreover,we showed that GmBZR1 could promote seed weight/size in transgenic plants.Through analysis of cultivated soybean accessions,we found that 40% of the examined accessions do not have the PP2C-1 allele,suggesting that these accessions can be improved by introduction of this allele.Taken together,our study identifies an elite allele PP2C-1,which can enhance seed weight and/or size in soybean,and pinpoints that manipulation of this allele by molecular-assisted breeding may increase production in soybean and other legumes/crops.

  7. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PLANT PROTEIN AND VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fisenko G. V.; Koshchaeva O. V.; Luneva A. V.; Petenko I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Results of the use of plant protein feed additives containing pumpkin paste and soybean seeds of different varieties for quail are presented in the article. It was established that the use of such additives on the basis of Valens soybean allowed to receive higher growth parameters than groups treated with Vilan soybean additive

  8. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T-aloe against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Ge, Honglian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Ning; Wang, Yucheng; Chen, Long; Ji, Xiue; Li, Chengwei

    2016-03-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). At present, we revealed the three-way interaction between Trichoderma harzianum T-aloe, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of T-aloe against S. sclerotiorum in soybean. In our experiments, T-aloe inhibited the growth of S. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture tests. T-aloe hyphae grew in parallel or intertwined with S. sclerotiorum hyphae and produced hooked contact branches, indicating mycoparasitism. Plate tests showed that T-aloe culture filtrate inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth with an inhibition efficiency of 51.2% and sclerotia production. T-aloe pretreatment showed growth-promoting effect on soybean plants. The activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the superoxide radical (O2(-)) content in soybean leaves decreased after T-aloe pretreatment in response to S. sclerotiorum pathogen challenge. T-aloe treatment diminished damage caused by pathogen stress on soybean leaf cell membrane, and increased chlorophyll as well as total phenol contents. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR3 were expressed in the leaves of T-aloe-treated plants. In summary, T-aloe displayed biocontrol potential against S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report of unraveling biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Spp. to soybean sclerotinia stem rot from the three-way interaction between the biocontrol agent, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. APPEARANCE OF GEMA AND BURANGRANG SUPERIOR SOYBEAN BANTARWARU VILLAGE, GANTAR DISTRICT, INDRAMAYU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hastini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is one of important food crop useful as feedstock of tofu and tempe, soy souce and other product. Domestic soybean production is still very low compared with the soybean needs. The amount of soybean import volume was greater than domestic production. New varieties implementation is one of the technology to increase production. Gema and Burangrang are soybean new varieties with high yield, however have not known by the farmers. Through farmer demfarm, the two varieties are introduced to the farmers. The cultivation done by no-tillage cultivation technology, certified seed, Rhizobium seed treatment, cow manure application, drainage, and by row spacing 40 cm × 15 cm. The agronomic characters observed are plant height, number of pods per plant, number of filled pods per plant, number of unfilled pod per plant, number of productive branches, yield and productivity of Gema and Burangrang. Data was analyzed using non-parametric statistica Mann-Whitney, and description statistica for yield. The result showed that Burangrang more superior than Gema in number of pod per plant, number of filled pods per plant and productivity.

  10. Optimization of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxuan; Cong, Yahui; Liu, Yaping; Wang, Tingting; Shuai, Qin; Chen, Nana; Gai, Junyi; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    High transformation efficiency is a prerequisite for study of gene function and molecular breeding. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a preferred method in many plants. However, the transformation efficiency in soybean is still low. The objective of this study is to optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in soybean by improving the infection efficiency of Agrobacterium and regeneration efficiency of explants. Firstly, four factors affecting Agrobacterium infection efficiency were investigated by estimation of the rate of GUS transient expression in soybean cotyledonary explants, including Agrobacterium concentrations, soybean explants, Agrobacterium suspension medium, and co-cultivation time. The results showed that an infection efficiency of over 96% was achieved by collecting the Agrobacterium at a concentration of OD650 = 0.6, then using an Agrobacterium suspension medium containing 154.2 mg/L dithiothreitol to infect the half-seed cotyledonary explants (from mature seeds imbibed for 1 day), and co-cultured them for 5 days. The Agrobacterium infection efficiencies for soybean varieties Jack Purple and Tianlong 1 were higher than the other six varieties. Secondly, the rates of shoot elongation were compared among six different concentration combinations of gibberellic acid (GA3) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The shoot elongation rate of 34 and 26% was achieved when using the combination of 1.0 mg/L GA3 and 0.1 mg/L IAA for Jack Purple and Tianlong 1, respectively. This rate was higher than the other five concentration combinations of GA3 and IAA, with an 18 and 11% increase over the original laboratory protocol (a combination of 0.5 mg/L GA3 and 0.1 mg/L IAA), respectively. The transformation efficiency was 7 and 10% for Jack Purple and Tianlong 1 at this optimized hormone concentration combination, respectively, which was 2 and 6% higher than the original protocol, respectively. Finally, GUS histochemical staining, PCR, herbicide

  11. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. The IQD gene family in soybean: structure, phylogeny, evolution and expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng

    Full Text Available Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa, systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1-67 was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I-IV based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1-3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development.

  13. [Effects of reduced nitrogen application and soybean intercropping on nitrogen balance of sugarcane field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Wen-ting; Li, Zhi-xian; Guan, Ao-mei

    2015-03-01

    A four-year (2010-2013) field experiment was carried out to explore the effects of three planting patterns (sugarcane, soybean monoculture and sugarcane-soybean 1:2 intercropping) with two nitrogen input levels (300 and 525 kg . hm-2) on soybean nitrogen fixation, sugarcane and soybean nitrogen accumulation, and ammonia volatilization and nitrogen leaching in sugarcane field. The results showed that the soybean nitrogen fixation efficiency (NFE) of sugarcane-soybean inter-cropping was lower than that of soybean monoculture. There was no significant difference in NFE among the treatments with the two nitrogen application rates. The nitrogen application rate and inter-cropping did not remarkably affect nitrogen accumulation of sugarcane and soybean. The ammonia volatilization of the reduced nitrogen input treatment was significantly lower than that of the conventional nitrogen input treatment. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in nitrogen leaching at different nitrogen input levels and among different planting patterns. The sugarcane field nitrogen balance analysis indicated that the nitrogen application rate dominated the nitrogen budget of sugarcane field. During the four-year experiment, all treatments leaved a nitrogen surplus (from 73.10 to 400.03 kg . hm-2) , except a nitrogen deficit of 66.22 kg . hm-2 in 2011 in the treatment of sugarcane monoculture with the reduced nitrogen application. The excessive nitrogen surplus might increase the risk of nitrogen pollution in the field. In conclusion, sugarcane-soybean intercropping with reduced nitrogen application is feasible to practice in consideration of enriching the soil fertility, reducing nitrogen pollution and saving production cost in sugarcane field.

  14. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amount and vertical distribution of leaf area are essential for estimating interception and utilization of solar radiation of crop canopies and, consequently dry matter accumulation (Valentinuz & Tollenaar, 2006. Vertical distribution of leaf area is leaf areas per horizontal layers, based on height (Boedhram et al., 2001. Above-ground biomass is one of the central traits in functional plant ecology and growth analysis. It is a key parameter in many allometric relationships (Niklas & Enquist, 2002. The vertical biomass distribution is considered to be the main determinant of competitive strength in plant species. The presence of weeds intensifies competition for light, with the effect being determined by plant height, position of the branches, and location of the maximum leaf area. So, this experiment was conducted to study the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of soybean canopy in competition with weeds and cover crops. Materials and methods This experiment was performed based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications in center of Agriculture of Joybar in 2013. Soybean was considered as main crop and soybean and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., fenugreek (Trigonella foenum–graecum L., chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus L. and winter vetch (Vicia sativa L. were the cover crops. Treatments were included cover crops (Persian clover, fenugreek, chickling pea and winter vetch and cover crop planting times (simultaneous planting of soybean with cover crops and planting cover crops three weeks after planting of soybeans and also monoculture of soybeans both in weedy and weed free conditions were considered as controls. Soybean planted in 50 cm row spacing with 5 cm between plants in the same row. Each plot was included 5 rows soybeans. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Crops were planted on 19 May 2013 for simultaneous planting of soybean. The dominant weed species were green

  15. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  16. Spectroscopic measurements of soybeans used to parameterize physiological traits in the AgroIBIS ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Serbin, S.; Kucharik, C. J.; Townsend, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystem models such AgroIBIS require detailed parameterizations of numerous vegetation traits related to leaf structure, biochemistry and photosynthetic capacity to properly assess plant carbon assimilation and yield response to environmental variability. In general, these traits are estimated from a limited number of field measurements or sourced from the literature, but rarely is the full observed range of variability in these traits utilized in modeling activities. In addition, pathogens and pests, such as the exotic soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), which affects photosynthetic pathways in soybean plants by feeding on phloem and sap, can potentially impact plant productivity and yields. Capturing plant responses to pest pressure in conjunction with environmental variability is of considerable interest to managers and the scientific community alike. In this research, we employed full-range (400-2500 nm) field and laboratory spectroscopy to rapidly characterize the leaf biochemical and physiological traits, namely foliar nitrogen, specific leaf area (SLA) and the maximum rate of RuBP carboxylation by the enzyme RuBisCo (Vcmax) in soybean plants, which experienced a broad range of environmental conditions and soybean aphid pressures. We utilized near-surface spectroscopic remote sensing measurements as a means to capture the spatial and temporal patterns of aphid impacts across broad aphid pressure levels. In addition, we used the spectroscopic data to generate a much larger dataset of key model parameters required by AgroIBIS than would be possible through traditional measurements of biochemistry and leaf-level gas exchange. The use of spectroscopic retrievals of soybean traits allowed us to better characterize the variability of plant responses associated with aphid pressure to more accurately model the likely impacts of soybean aphid on soybeans. Our next steps include the coupling of the information derived from our spectral measurements with the Agro

  17. Rapid detection of fifteen known soybean viruses by dot-immunobinding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhtar

    2017-11-01

    A dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) was optimized and used successfully for the rapid detection of 15 known viruses [Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), Peanut stunt virus (PSV), Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), and Tobacco streak virus (TSV)] infecting soybean plants in Oklahoma. More than 1000 leaf samples were collected in approximately 100 commercial soybean fields in 24 counties of Oklahoma, during the 2012-2013 growing seasons. All samples were tested by DIBA using polyclonal antibodies of the above 15 plant viruses. Thirteen viruses were detected, and 8 of them were reported for the first time in soybean crops of Oklahoma. The highest average incidence was recorded for PeMoV (13.5%) followed by SVNV (6.9%), TSV (6.4%), BYMV, (4.5%), and TRSV (3.9%), while the remaining seven viruses were detected in less than 2% of the samples tested. The DIBA was quick, and economical to screen more than 1000 samples against 15 known plant viruses in a very short time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Interferência de picão-preto e guanxuma com a soja: efeitos da densidade de plantas e época relativa de emergência Interference of hair beggarticks and arrowleaf sida with soybeans: effects of plant density and relative emergence time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Gilberto Fleck

    2004-02-01

    soybean emergence. In microplot assays, three weed emergence times were compared in relation to soybeans (4 days before, at the same day, and 4 days after and six weed densities (0, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 plants m-2. It was found that weed relative emergence time, in relation to soybeans, modifies competitive relations between these species, and that beggarticks performs greater competition effects on soybean and is less affected by the crop than is sida. Delay in soybean emergence in relation to weeds increases the negative effects of these species on the crop, which are potentialized by increase in weed density, mainly in presence of beggarticks.

  19. Enhancement of soybean (Glycine max L.) growth by bio-fertilizers of Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholkamy, E.N.; Komy, H.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the nitrogenase activity of Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare was evaluated in vitro; the test showed that Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare have the ability to fix nitrogen. In a pot experiment under field conditions, the results of the present study showed that inoculation of the soybean plant with Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare, either alone or in combination with N-fertilizer at 50 and 100 kg N/ha, caused a significant increase in the growth of these plants, as reflected in plant height, leaf area, weight of plant as well as the legume weight of soybeans. The combination of biofertilization and N-fertilization, especially at 100 kg N/ha, had more effect on both the growth of soybeans and nitrogenase activity compared to biofertilization alone. Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare are a promising biofertilizers for achieving an efficient association between N2 fixing cyanobacteria and soybeans; and thus enhancement of the growth. (author)

  20. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  1. Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... In our study, the combination of Nannong88-1 with EHA105 is the optimum selection for explant and bacterial inoculum in soybean transformation, which could be applied in future functional study of soybean ...

  2. Multiple loci condition seed transmission of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and SMV-induced seed coat mottling in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, Leslie L; Hobbs, Houston A; McCoppin, Nancy K; Bowen, Charles R; Steinlage, Todd A; Chang, Sungyul; Wang, Yi; Hartman, Glen L

    2011-06-01

    Infection of soybean plants with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), which is transmitted by aphids and through seed, can cause significant reductions in seed production and quality. Because seedborne infections are the primary sources of inoculum for SMV infections in North America, host-plant resistance to seed transmission can limit the pool of plants that can serve as sources of inoculum. To examine the inheritance of SMV seed transmission in soybean, crosses were made between plant introductions (PIs) with high (PI88799), moderate (PI60279), and low (PI548391) rates of transmission of SMV through seed. In four F(2) populations, SMV seed transmission segregated as if conditioned by two or more genes. Consequently, a recombinant inbred line population was derived from a cross between PIs 88799 and 548391 and evaluated for segregation of SMV seed transmission, seed coat mottling, and simple sequence repeat markers. Chromosomal regions on linkage groups C1 and C2 were significantly associated with both transmission of isolate SMV 413 through seed and SMV-induced seed coat mottling, and explained ≈42.8 and 46.4% of the variability in these two traits, respectively. Chromosomal regions associated with seed transmission and seed coat mottling contained homologues of Arabidopsis genes DCL3 and RDR6, which encode enzymes involved in RNA-mediated transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  3. Aplicação de dessecantes na cultura de soja: teor de umidade nas sementes e biomassa nas plantas Application dissecants in soybean: degree of humidity in the plant's seeds and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.S. Lacerda

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a eficácia dos dessecantes e determinar a melhor época de aplicação na cultura de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, estando os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x3 e 4x4 de produtos (dessecantes e épocas de aplicação, nos anos agrícolas 1996/97 e 1997/98, respectivamente. Os dessecantes utilizados foram: paraquat, diquat e paraquat + diquat em 1996/97 e paraquat, diquat, paraquat + diquat e glufosinato de amônio em 1997/98, respectivamente nas dosagens de 0,4, 0,3 e 0,2 + 0,15; e 0,4, 0,3, 0,2 + 0,15 e 0,4 kg i.a. ha¹. Como épocas, foram realizadas três aplicações em 1996/97 e quatro em 1997/98, com intervalos de cinco dias a partir do estádio R6. Após análise e interpretação dos resultados, concluiu-se que os dessecantes foram eficazes na dessecação e que o teor de umidade das sementes entre 50 e 60%, as plantas com baixa incidência de vagens amarelas e marrons e a relação peso de biomassa verde de vagens/biomassa verde total de cerca de 0,5 foram características marcantes na determinação da melhor época de aplicação dos dessecantes.The objectives of this work were to evaluate dissecant efficiency and determine the best application time for soybean crop. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial schemes 3x3 and 4x4 (dissecants x application time, in 1996/1997 and 1997/1998, respectively. The dissecants applied were: paraquat, diquat and paraquat + diquat in 1996/97 and paraquat, diquat, paraquat + diquat and ammonium glufosinate in 1997/1998, respectively, in the following doses: 0.4; 0.3 and 0.2 + 0.15 and 0.4; 0.3; 0.2 + 0.15 and 0.4 kg a.i. ha-1 Three application times were used in 1996/1997 and four in 1997/1998, with intervals of five days starting from stage R6. Analysis and interpretation of the results allowed to conclude that the dissecants were efficient and that seed moisture between 50 and 60

  4. Nutritional quality and ions uptake to PTNDS in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Porous-tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) allows high control of the root environment and prevents plant infections in both microgravity and ground conditions. In this paper, six soybean cultivars ('ZH13', 'ZH57', 'LD10', 'HH35', 'HH43', and 'ZGDD') were evaluated in terms of yield, photosynthetic efficiency, insoluble dietary fiber and ions uptake efficiency. Besides proximal composition, the concentrations of mineral and isoflavones were monitored in the seeds. 'HH35' and 'ZH13' plants showed much higher yield and harvest index, in addition to the lower lignin content of inedible biomass. Data showed that 'HH35' had the higher photosynthetic efficiency of soybean leaves with regard to photosynthetic rate and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency, whereas chlorophyll ratio and carotenoids content were no difference with the other cultivars. Both cations and anions except NH4(+) and H2PO4(-), were accumulated excessively compared to controls, especially with anions in PTNDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitrate analogs as attractants for soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Akito; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ito, Shinsaku

    2017-08-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a plant parasite, is one of the most serious pests of soybean. In this paper, we report that SCN is attracted to nitrate and its analogs. We performed attraction assays to screen for novel attractants for SCN and found that nitrates were attractants for SCN and SCN recognized nitrate gradients. However, attraction of SCN to nitrates was not observed on agar containing nitrate. To further elucidate the attraction mechanism in SCN, we performed attraction assays using nitrate analogs ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). SCN was attracted to all nitrate analogs; however, attraction of SCN to nitrate analogs was not observed on agar containing nitrate. In contrast, SCN was attracted to azuki root, irrespective of presence or absence of nitrate in agar media. Our results suggest that the attraction mechanisms differ between plant-derived attractant and nitrate.

  6. Evaluation of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean by labelling of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Freitas, J.R. de; Vose, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was carried out using the isotopic dilution method to evaluate symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean grown in soil labelled with 15 N enriched organic matter. Symbiotic N 2 -fixed was 71-76% of total N in the plant. Non nodulated soybean utilized 56-59% N from organic matter and 40% from soil. Roots of nodulated plants had lower NdN 2 than aereal plant parts. The advantage of using labelled organic matter as compared with 15 N-fertilizer addition in evaluating N 2 -fixation is discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Soybean Cultivars under Different Continuous Cropping Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Weiguang; Liu, Xiaorui; Cai, Baiyan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that continuous cropping in soybean causes substantial changes to the microbial community in rhizosphere soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous cropping for various time periods on the diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in various soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The soybean cultivars Heinong 37 (an intermediate cultivar), Heinong 44 (a high-fat cultivar) and Heinong 48 (a high-protein cultivar) were seeded in a field and continuously cropped for two or three years. We analyzed the diversity of rhizosphere soil AM fungi of these soybean plants at the branching stage using morphological and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The clustering analysis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the AM fungal community shifts. The results showed that increasing the number of years of continuous cropping can improve the colonization rate of AM fungi in different soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The dominant AM fungi in the experimental fields were Funneliformismosseae and Glomus spp. The number of years of continuous cropping and the soybean cultivar both had obvious effects on the diversity of AM fungi, which was consistent with the results of colonization rate analysis. This study establishes a basis for screening dominant AM fungi of soybean. In addition, the results of this study may be useful for the development of AM fungal inoculants. PMID:23977368

  8. Diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in various soybean cultivars under different continuous cropping regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Weiguang; Liu, Xiaorui; Cai, Baiyan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that continuous cropping in soybean causes substantial changes to the microbial community in rhizosphere soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous cropping for various time periods on the diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in various soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The soybean cultivars Heinong 37 (an intermediate cultivar), Heinong 44 (a high-fat cultivar) and Heinong 48 (a high-protein cultivar) were seeded in a field and continuously cropped for two or three years. We analyzed the diversity of rhizosphere soil AM fungi of these soybean plants at the branching stage using morphological and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The clustering analysis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the AM fungal community shifts. The results showed that increasing the number of years of continuous cropping can improve the colonization rate of AM fungi in different soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The dominant AM fungi in the experimental fields were Funneliformismosseae and Glomus spp. The number of years of continuous cropping and the soybean cultivar both had obvious effects on the diversity of AM fungi, which was consistent with the results of colonization rate analysis. This study establishes a basis for screening dominant AM fungi of soybean. In addition, the results of this study may be useful for the development of AM fungal inoculants.

  9. Analyses of flooding tolerance of soybean varieties at emergence and varietal differences in their proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Jang, Hee-Young; Kim, Hong-Sig; Hiraga, Susumu; Woo, Sun-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-10-01

    Flooding of fields due to heavy and/or continuous rainfall influences soybean production. To identify soybean varieties with flooding tolerance at the seedling emergence stage, 128 soybean varieties were evaluated using a flooding tolerance index, which is based on plant survival rates, the lack of apparent damage and lateral root development, and post-flooding radicle elongation rate. The soybean varieties were ranked according to their flooding tolerance index, and it was found that the tolerance levels of soybean varieties exhibit a continuum of differences between varieties. Subsequently, tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive varieties were selected and subjected to comparative proteomic analysis to clarify the tolerance mechanism. Proteomic analysis of the radicles, combined with correlation analysis, showed that the ratios of RNA binding/processing related proteins and flooding stress indicator proteins were significantly correlated with flooding tolerance index. The RNA binding/processing related proteins were positively correlated in untreated soybeans, whereas flooding stress indicator proteins were negatively correlated in flooded soybeans. These results suggest that flooding tolerance is regulated by mechanisms through multiple factors and is associated with abundance levels of the identified proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phosphoproteomics reveals the effect of ethylene in soybean root under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Flooding has severe negative effects on soybean growth. To explore the flooding-responsive mechanisms in early-stage soybean, a phosphoproteomic approach was used. Two-day-old soybean plants were treated without or with flooding for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, and root tip proteins were then extracted and analyzed at each time point. After 3 h of flooding exposure, the fresh weight of soybeans increased, whereas the ATP content of soybean root tips decreased. Using a gel-free proteomic technique, a total of 114 phosphoproteins were identified in the root tip samples, and 34 of the phosphoproteins were significantly changed with respect to phosphorylation status after 3 h of flooding stress. Among these phosphoproteins, eukaryotic translation initiation factors were dephosphorylated, whereas several protein synthesis-related proteins were phosphorylated. The mRNA expression levels of sucrose phosphate synthase 1F and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G were down-regulated, whereas UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase mRNA expression was up-regulated during growth but down-regulated under flooding stress. Furthermore, bioinformatic protein interaction analysis of flooding-responsive proteins based on temporal phosphorylation patterns indicated that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G was located in the center of the network during flooding. Soybean eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G has homology to programmed cell death 4 protein and is implicated in ethylene signaling. The weight of soybeans was increased with treatment by an ethylene-releasing agent under flooding condition, but it was decreased when plants were exposed to an ethylene receptor antagonist. These results suggest that the ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role, via the protein phosphorylation, in mechanisms of plant tolerance to the initial stages of flooding stress in soybean root tips.

  11. Induced mutation for soybean quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiying; Xu Dechun; Guo Yuhong; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiaonan

    2000-01-01

    Gamma rays of acute and chronic radiation, thermal neutrons as well as ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), sodium azide (NaN 3 ) of chemical mutagens were used to improve the quality of soybean seed. Some mutants of better quality were selected. 'Heinong No.41' With protein and oil content of 45.23% and 18.80% respectively was tolerant to akali-saline and had a higher yield potential; 90-3527 with earlier mature (110 days of growth period) and high protein content (47.53%) had a resistance to soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and frog-eye lief spot of soybean. The mutants with higher linoleic acid content (more than 60%) and lower linolenic acid content (less than 3.5%) were developed

  12. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  13. Evaluation of Soybean and Cowpea Genotypes for Phosphorus Use Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaga, F. K.; Ofori, K.; Adiku, S. K.; Kugblenu, Y. O.; Asante, W.; Seidu, H. [College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Initial screening of one hundred and fifty-two (152) and fifty (50) genotypes of soybean and cowpea, respectively, were conducted at the early growth stage to evaluate root traits associated with phosphorus (P) efficiency. Fifty soybean genotypes were subsequently selected and evaluated on a tropical low P soil (Lixisol) for growth and yield under low and adequate P availability. Plants were sampled at twelve and thirty days after sowing and at maturity. Six cowpea genotypes were also selected and evaluated in pots filled with Alfisol under low, moderate and high P availability. Plants were sampled at forty days and assessed for shoot yield and nodulation under low P availability. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Phosphorus Efficiency Index (PEI) was used to determine P efficiency of soybean and cowpea genotypes. A wide variation in root traits for soybean and cowpea at the early growth stage was found, and allometric analysis showed a significant correlation between the root and shoot parameters at this stage. The study provided an opportunity to compare root traits of newly developed cowpea genotypes (early maturing, medium maturing, dual purpose and Striga resistant lines) with older released cultivars. There were significant differences in root length among the groups. In general, dual purpose, Striga resistant and medium/early maturing genotypes showed the longest roots while the older varieties showed the least total root length. Field and pot results also showed differential growth of soybean and cowpea with low P availability. Further, PCA of the results indicated that soybean genotypes could be grouped into three distinct P efficiency categories. Retaining the PC and the relative weight for each genotype in combination with yield potential under high P, four categories of responsiveness to P were obtained. Cowpea genotypes were grouped into three P efficiency categories and two categories of responsiveness to P. The study also found genetic

  14. Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L F; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason

    2011-09-01

    Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed.

  15. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Murphy, Mackensie; Mutava, Raymond N; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Nguyen, Na; Kim, Yoon Ha; Pathan, Safiullah M; Shannon, Grover J; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-05-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germplasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Leaf development of soybean and bean crops and weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Santos, Jose Barbosa do; Silva, Antonio Alberto da; Costa, Luiz Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the emission rate and expansion of the leaves, duration of the leaf area (DLA) and the extinction coefficient (k) for the crops soybean and of the bean, and for the weeds Euphorbia heterophylla sensitive and Euphorbia heterophylla resistant to the herbicides inhibiting of the ALS enzyme, Bidens pilosa and Desmodium tortuosum. The experiment was developed in the field, in soil classified as Red-Yellow Claysoil, in the period of october of 2000 to march of 2001. Each plant species consisted of a treatment. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The mensurations of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were accomplished in two points of the plants: above and bellow the canopy, by means of a light ceptometer. The emission rate and the expansion of leaves was calculated at the end of the cycle of the crops. The DLA and k were calculated before and after the plant flowering. It was not observed differences in the development of the biotypes of E. heterophylla with relation to the rate of appearance of leaves, expansion rate, DLA or k. Among the cultures, the bean presented smaller leaf emission rate (0.591 / day) compared to the soybean (0.933 / day). Among the weeds, the largest leaf emission rate was with D. tortuosum (0.699 / day). The leaf expansion rate observed by the soybean was superior to all the other species (6.77 cm 2 .day-1). All plant species presented larger value for DLA after the flowering compared before flowering. The soybean presented larger value of k (before and after the flowering 0.52 and 0.93, respectively) compared to the other species, demonstrating high potential of interception of solar radiation. (author)

  17. Perennial soybean seeds coated with high doses of boron and zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to study combinations of high doses of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) in the recoating of perennial soybean seeds, in order to provide these nutrients to the future plants. The physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics of the coated seeds and initial development of plants in a greenhouse ...

  18. Induction of soybean resistance to the Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.L. Iverson; R.B. Hammond; L.R. Iverson

    2001-01-01

    We tested chemical and insect feeding-induced insect resistance on soybean plants.The chemical induction effects of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) were investigated. We also evaluated the effects of plants stressed with previous insect herbivory. A larval antibiosis screening technique (LAST) and a preference test were performed in petri dishes using...

  19. Gamma radiation effect on the anatomical structure of soybean (Glycine max. Merr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhikuningputra, W.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma radiation effects on soybean plant (Glycine max. Merr) have been studied by using radiation doses of 0, 20, 25, 30, and 35 Krad. Investigation is carried out after each treatment. It proves that each treatment causes different morphological changes on leaves, stems, roots, and fibres of the treated plants. (SMN)

  20. First report of the spiral nematode Helicotylenchus microlobus infecting soybean in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.) are common plant-parasitic nematodes in fields of many crops. In June 2015, two soil samples were collected from a soybean field in Richland County, ND. Nematodes were extracted from soil using the sugar centrifugal flotation method. Plant-parasitic nematodes ...

  1. Sequential Path Model for Grain Yield in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine some physiological traits that affect soybean,s grain yield via sequential path analysis. In a factorial experiment, two cultivars (Harcor and Williams were sown under four levels of nitrogen and two levels of weed management at the research station of Tabriz University, Iran, during 2004 and 2005. Grain yield, some yield components and physiological traits were measured. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that grain yield had significant positive and negative association with measured traits. A sequential path analysis was done in order to evaluate associations among grain yield and related traits by ordering the various variables in first, second and third order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Two first-order variables, namely number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis revealed highest direct effect on total grain yield and explained 49, 44 and 47 % of the variation in grain yield based on 2004, 2005, and combined datasets, respectively. Four traits i.e. post-flowering net photosynthesis, plant height, leaf area index and intercepted radiation at the bottom layer of canopy were found to fit as second-order variables. Pre- and post-flowering chlorophyll content, main root length and intercepted radiation at the middle layer of canopy were placed at the third-order path. From the results concluded that, number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis are the best selection criteria in soybean for grain yield.

  2. gene from soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... 2Plant Biotechnology Institute, National Research Council, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0W9, Canada. .... pusilla. RNA extraction, first-strand cDNA synthesis and quantitative .... expression in the other four chosen tissues, root, stem,.

  3. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Damude, Howard G.; Everard, John D.; Booth, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm. Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  4. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  5. Evaluating the Potential for Soybean Culture in Romania Compared with the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ŞURCĂ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a very popular plant for its wide use, and it is coming back to the attention of farmers due to its special importance in various sectors. Thus, the present study, aims to highlight Romania’s position regarding the areas cultivated with this plant, grain and oil production, consumption per capita and also forage consumption in the zootechnical sector. Also, it will bring in the highlight aspects very important, like imports and exports for the period of 2000-2016 in order to assess the potential of soybean culture and its necessity on the territory of Romania. Due to the high demand for soybeans and / or soybean products, Romania has to resort to the European or world market in order to satisfy the demand for this product, mainly used in the livestock sector. Soybean culture will be analyzed in two different period, the first period will be the pre-accession (2000-2007 and the second one will be the post-accession (2007-2016 of Romanian to the European Union, thus reference will be made to genetically modified soybeans and their use on national and European territories.

  6. Acquisition of Cry1Ac protein by non-target arthropods in Bt soybean fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Yu

    Full Text Available Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentration was highest in the grasshopper Atractomorpha sinensis and represented about 50% of the concentration in soybean leaves. Other species/taxa did not contain detectable toxin or contained a concentration that was between 1 and 10% of that detected in leaves. These Cry1Ac-positive arthropods included a number of mesophyll-feeding Hemiptera, a cicadellid, a curculionid beetle and, among the predators, a thomisid spider and an unidentified predatory bug belonging to the Anthocoridae. Within an arthropod species/taxon, the Cry1Ac content sometimes varied between life stages (nymphs/larvae vs. adults and sampling dates (before, during, and after flowering. Our study is the first to provide information on Cry1Ac-expression levels in soybean plants and Cry1Ac concentrations in non-target arthropods in Chinese soybean fields. The data will be useful for assessing the risk of non-target arthropod exposure to Cry1Ac in soybean.

  7. Characteristics of superior soybean breeding lines tolerance to rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.

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    Alfi Inayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi is one of the most important diseases which limits soybean production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of 28 superior soybean lines and their tolerance to rust. The study was conducted at a screen house and arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD; three replications. All genotypes tested were artificially inoculated with P. pachyrhizi, and a set of un-inoculated genotypes was planted as a comparison. Number of pustules was recorded weekly, and resistant criteria was rated based on the International working group on soybean rust IWGSR method. Lesion color (LC, sporulation level (SL, number of uredia (NoU, frequency of pustule which had uredia, and yield were also recorded. Among 28 genotypes tested, only one was categorized as resistant and 2 genotypes were susceptible. Resistant genotypes had few pustules, lower AUDPC values, low disease severity, and Reddish Brown lesion type. Soybean rust affected yield components, i.e. number of intact pods and yield per plant. Yield loses due to rust in this study varied from 5-89%, and the average was 51%. The set of lines from Tanggamus pedigree showed more resistant to rust but less tolerant compared to Sinabung pedigree.How to CiteInayati, A., & Yusnawan, E. (2016. Characteristics of superior soybean breeding lines tolerancet to rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 47-55.

  8. Acquisition of Cry1Ac Protein by Non-Target Arthropods in Bt Soybean Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentration was highest in the grasshopper Atractomorpha sinensis and represented about 50% of the concentration in soybean leaves. Other species/taxa did not contain detectable toxin or contained a concentration that was between 1 and 10% of that detected in leaves. These Cry1Ac-positive arthropods included a number of mesophyll-feeding Hemiptera, a cicadellid, a curculionid beetle and, among the predators, a thomisid spider and an unidentified predatory bug belonging to the Anthocoridae. Within an arthropod species/taxon, the Cry1Ac content sometimes varied between life stages (nymphs/larvae vs. adults) and sampling dates (before, during, and after flowering). Our study is the first to provide information on Cry1Ac-expression levels in soybean plants and Cry1Ac concentrations in non-target arthropods in Chinese soybean fields. The data will be useful for assessing the risk of non-target arthropod exposure to Cry1Ac in soybean. PMID:25110881

  9. Influence of harvesting and processing methods on organic viability of soybean seed

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    Đukanović Lana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic viability of soybean seed for three soybean varieties - elite (Bosa, ZPS 015 and Nena depending on methods of manipulation with seeds during harvesting and processing phase were determined in this paper. Trial was conducted in Zemun Polje during 1999; manual and mechanized harvesting or processing methods were applied. Seed germination was tested using ISTA methods (Standard method and Cold test. Following parameters were evaluated: germination viability, germination, rate-speed of emergence, length of hypocotile and main root Rate-speed of emergence was based on number of emerged plants per day. Length of hypocotile or root and percent of germination determined vigour index. Based on obtained results it maybe concluded that methods of seed manipulation during harvesting or processing phase were influenced on soybean seed quality parameters evaluated. Ways of seed manipulation - methods evaluated were influenced organic viability of soybean seed by decreasing germination viability, total germination and length of main root.

  10. Genetic studies on two soybean cultivars irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Demerdash, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of gamma irradiation was used in two Egyptian soybean cultivars; Giza-22 and Giza-82, to induce genetic variability with doses of 100, 150 and 200 Gy. Some agronomic characters were tested in M1 and M2 generations single plants. Oil and protein contents were measured from the resulted mutants of the two soybean cultivars at M2 generation. Some genetic parameters were estimated on the mean values of M2 generation. The results showed significant differences induced by gamma ray doses in all studied characters, particularly for 200 Gy in M1 generation. Gamma irradiation increased the genetic variability in M2 generation, which helped in selecting some high yielding mutants and some mutants with high oil and protein contents from the two cultivars. The estimated coefficients of phenotypic variance as well as coefficient of genotypic variance were high for seeds weight/plant, pod weight/plant, number of seeds/plant, number of pods/plant and number of nods/plant which showed better scope in genetic improvement. Heritability in the broad sense was high in most of the studied characters. The expected genetic advance (G.A) from selection was high for number of seeds, for number of pods, for pods weight and for mature plant height

  11. Genes related to antioxidant metabolism are involved in Methylobacterium mesophilicum-soybean interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Welington Luiz; Santos, Daiene Souza; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Salgueiro-Londoño, Jennifer Katherine; Camargo-Neves, Aline Aparecida; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega

    2015-10-01

    The genus Methylobacterium is composed of pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacterial species that are widespread in natural environments, such as soils, stream water and plants. When in association with plants, this genus colonizes the host plant epiphytically and/or endophytically. This association is known to promote plant growth, induce plant systemic resistance and inhibit plant infection by phytopathogens. In the present study, we focused on evaluating the colonization of soybean seedling-roots by Methylobacterium mesophilicum strain SR1.6/6. We focused on the identification of the key genes involved in the initial step of soybean colonization by methylotrophic bacteria, which includes the plant exudate recognition and adaptation by planktonic bacteria. Visualization by scanning electron microscopy revealed that M. mesophilicum SR1.6/6 colonizes soybean roots surface effectively at 48 h after inoculation, suggesting a mechanism for root recognition and adaptation before this period. The colonization proceeds by the development of a mature biofilm on roots at 96 h after inoculation. Transcriptomic analysis of the planktonic bacteria (with plant) revealed the expression of several genes involved in membrane transport, thus confirming an initial metabolic activation of bacterial responses when in the presence of plant root exudates. Moreover, antioxidant genes were mostly expressed during the interaction with the plant exudates. Further evaluation of stress- and methylotrophic-related genes expression by qPCR showed that glutathione peroxidase and glutathione synthetase genes were up-regulated during the Methylobacterium-soybean interaction. These findings support that glutathione (GSH) is potentially a key molecule involved in cellular detoxification during plant root colonization. In addition to methylotrophic metabolism, antioxidant genes, mainly glutathione-related genes, play a key role during soybean exudate recognition and adaptation, the first step in

  12. Laura: Soybean variety lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

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    Srebrić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain of conventional soybean varieties requires heat processing to break down trypsin inhibitor's activity before using as food or animal feed. At the same time, protein denaturation and other qualitative changes occur in soybean grain, especially if the temperature of heating is not controlled. Two types of trypsin inhibitor were found in soybean grain the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mature grain of soybean Laura is lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Grain yield of variety Laura is equal to high yielding varieties from the maturity group I, where it belongs. Lacking of Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor makes soybean grain suitable for direct feeding in adult non ruminant animals without previous thermal processing. Grain of variety Laura can be processed for a shorter period of time than conventional soybeans. This way we save energy, and preserve valuable nutritional composition of soybean grain, which is of interest in industrial processing.

  13. Influência do espaçamento e população de plantas sobre doenças de final de ciclo e oídio e caracteres agronômicos em soja = Influence of row spacing and plant population on late season disease severity, powdery mildew and agronomic characters in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Knebel

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido em Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, na safra de2004/2005, utilizando a cultivar de soja CD 202, para avaliar a influência do espaçamento e da população de plantas sobre a severidade de (DFC doenças de final de ciclo (Septoria glycines e Cercospora kikuchii e oídio da soja (Microsphaera diffusa e caracteres agronômicos da cultura. Os tratamentos foram 3 espaçamentos (22,5; 45,0 e 67,5 cm e 3 populações (200; 400; e 600 mil plantas ha-1. As DFC tiveram menor severidade no espaçamento reduzido e na população mais baixa, enquanto a ocorrência de oídio não se alterou. Em todos os espa��amentos, quanto maior a população de plantas, maior a altura final e, conseqüentemente, maior o acamamento de plantas. O número de legumes/planta foi superior no maior espaçamento e reduziu com o aumento da população; o número de grãos/planta diminuiu com o aumento da população; e a produtividade foi superior no menor espaçamento.This study was carried out in Cascavel, Paraná State, during the growing season 2004/2005, using soybean cultivar CD 202. The aim was to evaluate the influence of row-spacing and plant population on lateseason disease severity (Septoria glycines and Cercospora kikuchii, soybean powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa and agronomic characters of the culture. The treatments were three row spacing (22.5; 45.0 and 67.5 cm and three plant populations (200; 400; and 600 thousand plants ha-1. Late season disease had smaller severity in the reduced spacing and in the lowest population, while the powdery mildew occurrence did not modify with these factors. In all spacing, as larger the plants density, larger the plants height and consequently larger the plants fallen. The number pods per plant was higher with the largest spacing and it decreased with the population increase; the number of grains per plant decreased with the population increase; and the productivity was higher in the smallest spacing.

  14. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs)Sprayed at R5 on the Amino Acid Components in Soybean Seeds%R5期喷施植物生长调节剂对不同品质类型大豆籽粒氨基酸组分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋柏权; 赵黎明; 林思宇; 冯乃杰; 杨骥; 李建英; 郑殿峰

    2012-01-01

    In field trail, three plant growth regulators( PGRs) of SOD simulations( SODM ) ,Choline chloride( Cc) and diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate( DTA-6) were sprayed on soybeans with different quality types at R5,and the amino acid components of soybean seeds were determined after harvest. SODM , Cc and DTA-6 all reduced total amino acids content for three soybean types, the decreasing amplitude was the smallest (0.50% -1.03 % ) in high protein cultivar Heinong 35 , while was the largest in high protein and high oil cultivar Kennong 4. The three PGRs changed the ratio of different amino acids for three quality type soybeans,and all improved the contents of alanine,valine,isoleucine in high protein cultivar Heinong 35.%在大田条件下,于R5期对不同品质类型大豆品种叶片喷施SOD摸拟物(SODM)、氯化胆碱(Choline chloride,Cc)和2-N,N-二乙氨基乙基己酸酯(Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate,DTA-6)3种植物生长调节剂,成熟收获后测定籽粒中氨基酸组分含量.结果表明:SODM、Cc、DTA-6均降低了不同品种类型大豆的氨基酸总量,其中高蛋白品种黑农35氨基酸总量降幅(0.50% ~ 1.03%)最小,而双高品种垦农4号氨基酸总量降幅(2.53% ~4.67%)最大.SODM、Cc、DTA-6对不同品质类型大豆氨基酸组分比例均有影响,三者均提高了高蛋白品种黑农35的丙氨酸、缬氨酸和异亮氨酸含量.

  15. Analysis of the direct contamination pathway of 85Sr, 103Ru and 134Cs in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, K. M.; Park, D. W.; Park, H. K.; Choi, Y. H.; Choi, S. D.; Lee, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    A solution containing 85 Sr, 103 Cs was sprayed to the aerial part of the soybean plant in a greenhouse at 6 different times before harvest and the direct contamination pathway of the radionuclide analyzed. Plant interception factor showed little difference among radionuclides. The maximum value was 0.93, which was observed at the middle growth stage. Translocation factors 85 Sr, 103 Cs in the soybean seed at harvest were in the range of 4.5x10 -5 ∼2.5x10 -3 , 6.0x10 -5 ∼2.3x10 -4 and 4.5x10 -3 ∼3.0x10 -1 , respectively. They were highest at the 3rd application for 85 Sr and 134 Cs and at the 2nd application for 103 Ru. Translocation factors of 85 Sr and 103 Ru in the soybean shell tended to increase with decreasing time interval between application and harvest but that of 134 Cs was highest at the 2nd application. The fractions of the initial deposition that remained in the soybeam plant at harvest were in the range of 0.14 ∼15.2% for 85 Sr and 103 Ru, 9.9∼41.9% for 134 Cs. These results can be utilized for predicting the radionuclide concentration in mature soybean plant and deciding counter-measures when an accidental deposition of the radionuclides occurs during the growing season of soybean

  16. Molecular approaches for genetic improvement of seed quality and characterization of genetic diversity in soybean: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Niraj; Khare, Dhirendra

    2016-10-01

    Soybean is an economically important leguminous crop. Genetic improvements of soybeans have focused on enhancement of seed and oil yield, development of varieties suited to different cropping systems, and breeding resistant/tolerant varieties for various biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant breeders have used conventional breeding techniques for the improvement of these traits in soybean. The conventional breeding process can be greatly accelerated through the application of molecular and genomic approaches. Molecular markers have proved to be a new tool in soybean breeding by enhancing selection efficiency in a rapid and time-bound manner. An overview of molecular approaches for the genetic improvement of soybean seed quality parameters, considering recent applications of marker-assisted selection and 'omics' research, is provided in this article.

  17. Static magnetic field treatment of seeds improves carbon and nitrogen metabolism under salinity stress in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghel, Lokesh; Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, Kadur Narayan

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of magnetopriming was assessed for alleviation of salt-induced adverse effects on soybean growth. Soybean seeds were pre-treated with static magnetic field (SMF) of 200 mT for 1 h to evaluate the effect of magnetopriming on growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and yield of soybean plants under different salinity levels (0, 25, and 50 mM NaCl). The adverse effect of NaCl-induced salt stress was found on growth, yield, and various physiological attributes of soybeans. Results indicate that SMF pre-treatment significantly increased plant growth attributes, number of root nodules, nodules, fresh weight, biomass accumulation, and photosynthetic performance under both non-saline and saline conditions as compared to untreated seeds. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from magnetically treated plants gave a higher fluorescence yield at J-I-P phase. Nitrate reductase activity, PIABS , photosynthetic pigments, and net rate of photosynthesis were also higher in plants that emerged from SMF pre-treated seeds as compared to untreated seeds. Leghemoglobin content and hemechrome content in root nodules were also increased by SMF pre-treatment. Thus pre-sowing exposure of seeds to SMF enhanced carbon and nitrogen metabolism and improved the yield of soybeans in terms of number of pods, number of seeds, and seed weight under saline as well as non-saline conditions. Consequently, SMF pre-treatment effectively mitigated adverse effects of NaCl on soybeans. It indicates that magnetopriming of dry soybean seeds can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for alleviating salinity stress. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:455-470, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Measurement of endogenous allergens in genetically modified soybeans--short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, Gregory S; Budziszewski, Gregory J; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Joshi, Saurabh; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; McClain, Scott; Ward, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of endogenous allergens is required by the European Commission (EC) as part of the compositional analysis for GM products from host plants that are common causes of food allergy, such as soybean (EC Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). In each case, the EC Implementing Regulation indicates that analysis be conducted on identified allergens as specified in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consensus documents on compositional considerations for new plant varieties. This communication discusses the methods available to measure endogenous allergens as well as the endogenous soybean allergens that should be analyzed. It is suggested herein that in conjunction with the 2012 OECD consensus document on soybean, any list of soybean allergens should be based on clinically relevant data among publicly available allergen databases and peer-reviewed scientific publications, and the ability to measure the identified allergen. Based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature, the following key points are recommended: (1) the acceptance of serum-free, quantitative analytical method data as an alternative to traditional IgE reactivity qualitative or semi-quantitative data for evaluation of endogenous soybean allergen content; (2) eight of the 15 potential allergens listed in the OECD soybean consensus document (Gly m 3, Gly m 4, Gly m Bd28K, Gly m Bd30K, Gly m 5, Gly m 6, Gly m 8, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor) have both appropriate supporting clinical data and sufficient sequence information to be evaluated in comparative endogenous soybean allergen studies; and (3) the remaining seven proteins (Gly m 1, Gly m 2, unknown 50kDa protein, unknown 39kDa protein, P-22-25, lipoxygenase and lectin) lack sufficient data for clear classification as confirmed allergens and/or available sequence information and should not be currently included in the measurement of endogenous soybean allergens in the compositional analysis for the EU

  19. Development of Separator for Soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.C.P.; Rijpma, P.J.; Owaa, J.S.E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple and effective separator for soybeans was developed for small-scale farmers in Uganda, to clean the seeds from foreign material, chaff, broken beans etc. as demanded by local and world markets. It will help to avoid losses during post-harvest time and to reduce human drudgery of cleaning the

  20. Effect of phosphorus level on nitrogen accumulation and yield in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Yubo; Wu Dongmei; Gong Zhenping; Ma Chunmei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the 15 N labeling with sand culture was conducted to study effects of phosphorus level on nitrogen accumulation, nodule nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean plants. Results showed that nitrogen accumulation, fixation and yield of soybean plants all presented a single peak curve with improvement of phosphorus nutrition level, with the peak value of phosphorus concentration in nutrient solution of 31 mg/L. When phosphorus concentration of nutrient solution was 11 mg/L, no obvious promotion was found on the ratio of nodule nitrogen fixation when increasing phosphorus concentration again, However, when phosphorus concentration of nutrient solution was 21 mg/L, increasing phosphorus concentration again had no obvious promotion on soybean plant nitrogen accumulation, nodule nitrogen fixation accumulation and yield, indicating that effect of phosphorus nutrition level on nitrogen fixation was lower than that on yield formation level. (authors)

  1. Optimization of soybean (glycine max L.) regeneration for korean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phat, P.; Rehman, S. U.; Ju, H. J.; Jung, H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue culture could provide key insights into the development of transgenic plants, production of good cultivars and secondary metabolites, conservation of endangered plants, and safeguarding of germplasms. In this study, the effects of shoot induction media, explants, cultivars, and phytohormone concentrations on the regeneration efficiency of Korean soybean cultivars were evaluated. Restricted dormancy and poor germination may affect regeneration, depending on the type of germination medium or initiation of phytohormone treatment. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different germination media containing plant growth regulators, i.e. 6-benzyladenine (BAP), gibberellic acid 3 (GA /sub 3/), and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), prior to investigating the influences of explant types, media with or without vitamins, cultivars, and different phytohormones (BAP and GA3). A high frequency of germination was observed in Murashige and Skooge (MS) medium with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.25 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/. Cotyledonary node explants and Gamborg B5 with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.17 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/ in callus induction medium (CIM) and 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP in shoot induction medium (SIM) were found to be the most efficient conditions for induction of soybean regeneration, both in callus development and shoot regeneration. Two Korean soybean cultivars, cv. Daepung and Nampung, showed similar development of shoot regeneration efficiency, but significantly different shoot induction times. Therefore, the protocol reported here may be used for further development of regeneration efficiency and can be employed for efficient transformation in soybeans. (author)

  2. Identification of geneticaly modified soybean seeds resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Maria Ângela André

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in genetic engineering permit the modification of plants to be tolerant to certain herbicides that are usually not selective. For practical and commercial purposes, it is important to be able to detect the presence or absence of these traits in genotypes. The objective of this research was to develop a procedure for identifying genetically modified soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. with resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. Two studies were conducted based on germination test. In the first study, soybean seeds were pre-imbibed in paper towel with the herbicide solutions, then transferred to moist paper towel for the germination test. In the second study, seeds were placed directly in herbicide solutions in plastic cups and tested for germination using the paper towel method. Eight soybean genotypes were compared: four Roundup Ready, that contained the gene resistant to the herbicide (G99-G725, Prichard RR, G99-G6682, and H7242 RR and four non-transgenic parental cultivars (Boggs, Haskell, Benning, and Prichard. In the first study, the seeds were imbibed for 16 hours at 25°C in herbicide concentrations between 0.0 and 1.5% of the glyphosate active ingredient. In the second, seeds were subjected to concentrations between 0.0 and 0.48%, for one hour, at 30°C. The evaluation parameters were: germination, hypocotyl length, root length and total length of the seedlings. Both methods are efficient in identifying glyphosate-resistant soybean genotypes. It is possible to identify the genetically modified soybean genotypes after three days, by imbibing the seed in 0.12% herbicide solution, and after six days if the substrate is pre-imbibed in a 0.6% herbicide solution. The resistance trait was identified in all cultivars, independent of the initial physiological quality of the seed.

  3. Soybean flour asthma: detection of allergens by immunoblotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.K.; Schroeckenstein, D.; Meier-Davis, S.; Balmes, J.; Rempel, D.

    1988-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman developed asthma 6 years after beginning work in a food-processing plant in which soybean flour was used as a protein extender. Symptoms of sneezing, coughing, and wheezing would begin within minutes of exposure to soybean flour and resolve 2 hours after exposure ceased. Skin tests were positive to a soy extract prepared from the flour. Airway hyperreactivity was confirmed by a positive bronchial challenge to methacholine. Bronchial challenge with soybean flour produced an immediate increase in specific airway resistance from 5.0 to 22.7 L. cm of H2O/L/sec. There was no response to challenge with lactose. The patient's allergic response to soy-flour extract was further characterized by several immunologic methods. IgE binding to soy-flour protein by direct RAST was 5.98 times that of a normal control serum. The soy-flour extract was separated by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four protein bands were detected in the crude soy-flour extract. After immunoblotting and subsequent autoradiography, nine proteins with molecular weights ranging from 54,500 to 14,875 were found. Cross-reactivity studies with other legumes demonstrated apparent immunologic identity between a component in green pea extract and a soybean protein with a molecular weight of 17,000. The clinical significance of this cross-reactivity is not known. We conclude that in this case of occupational asthma to soybean flour, multiple allergens were involved. Immunoblotting may be useful in identifying the allergens involved in occupational asthma

  4. Potential damages, seasonal abundance and distribution of Empoasca terminalis Distant (Homoptera: Cicadellidae on soybean in South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nasruddin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant damages caused by leafhopper, Empoasca terminalis Distant (Homoptera: Cicadellidae on soybean were first encountered in 2007 in Makassar, South Sulawesi. The insect has been constantly associated with soybean crops in the province ever since. The purposes of the present study were to (i evaluate potential yield loss attributable to the leafhopper in an experimental set up, (ii seasonal abundance of E. terminalis, and (iii distribution of E. terminalis in all major soybean-producing areas in the province. Potential yield loss due to the leafhopper was assessed in a field experiment using two large plots. One of the plots was kept leafhopper-free by weekly insecticide sprays; and the other plot was left unsprayed to allow leafhopper infestation to occur. Adult abundance was weekly monitored using a sweep net throughout the season. Nymph abundance was determined by direct count on the plant leaves. Leafhopper distribution was assessed through surveys conducted in all major soybean-producing areas in South Sulawesi, from 2009–2013. The results of the study showed that E. terminalis caused an average yield loss of 26% on susceptible crops without insecticide use. First leafhopper infestation in all planting seasons occurred two weeks after the plant emergence. Rainfall negatively correlated with the leafhopper abundance. The leafhopper existed in all major soybean production areas in the province. Therefore, our results confirmed the status of E. terminalis as an important soybean pest in the region. In addition, crops planted early in the dry season could escape from heavy leafhopper infestation.

  5. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  6. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcarlos Mannfredini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias

  7. Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kee-Jong; Lee, Chan-Ho; Kim, Sung Woo

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality of food-grade soybeans and feed-grade soybean meals. Soybeans and soybean meals were fermented by Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 in a bed-packed solid fermentor for 48 hours. After fermentation, their nutrient contents as well as trypsin inhibitor were measured and compared with those of raw soybeans and soybean meals. Proteins were extracted from fermented and non-fermented soybeans and soybean meals, and the peptide characteristics were evaluated after electrophoresis. Fermented soybeans and fermented soybean meals contained 10% more (P 60 kDa) (P 60 kDa), whereas 22.1% of peptides in soybean meal were large-size (>60 kDa). Collectively, fermentation increased protein content, eliminated trypsin inhibitors, and reduced peptide size in soybeans and soybean meals. These effects of fermentation might make soy foods more useful in human diets as a functional food and benefit livestock as a novel feed ingredient.

  8. 78 FR 1 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... practice and procedure; Advertising; Agricultural research; Marketing agreements; Soybeans and soybean...] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board... occurred since the Board was reapportioned in 2009. As required by the Soybean Promotion, Research, and...

  9. The effects of gamma radiation on soybean isoflavones contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br, e-mail: mrramos@ipen.br; Mandarino, Jose M.G. [EMBRAPA Soybean, Londrina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: jmarcos@cnpso.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is the most common source of isoflavones in human feeding. It was suggested that there is a correlation among antioxidant activity of flavonoids and total phenolics content. Plants use isoflavones and their derivatives as part of the plant's defensive arsenal, to ward off disease-causing pathogenic fungi and other microbes. Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, with the exception of fermented miso, which has increased levels. Little is known about the influence of oxidative stress induced by radiation on the isoflavones contents. In the present paper, the effects of gamma irradiation on soybean isoflavones contents are presented. Samples from several Brazilian soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 kGy, dose rate about 3 kGy/h in a {sup 60}Co (Gammacell 220 - AECL). Isoflavones contents were determined after extraction with 70% ethanol containing 0.1% acetic acid by an HPLC method. The total isoflavone content remained almost unchanged with the increase of radiation dose up to 10 kGy. Although a general correlation among total isoflavone content and radiation dose was not found, some data suggest that for a few of the isoflavones from specific cultivars, the increase in the radiation dose induced a decrease in their content as for glucosyl glucosides and malonyl isoflavones, as well as an increase in their aglycone content. (author)

  10. Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

    1990-01-01

    A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers.

  11. The effects of gamma radiation on soybean isoflavones contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mastro, Nelida L. del; Mandarino, Jose M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is the most common source of isoflavones in human feeding. It was suggested that there is a correlation among antioxidant activity of flavonoids and total phenolics content. Plants use isoflavones and their derivatives as part of the plant's defensive arsenal, to ward off disease-causing pathogenic fungi and other microbes. Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, with the exception of fermented miso, which has increased levels. Little is known about the influence of oxidative stress induced by radiation on the isoflavones contents. In the present paper, the effects of gamma irradiation on soybean isoflavones contents are presented. Samples from several Brazilian soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 kGy, dose rate about 3 kGy/h in a 60 Co (Gammacell 220 - AECL). Isoflavones contents were determined after extraction with 70% ethanol containing 0.1% acetic acid by an HPLC method. The total isoflavone content remained almost unchanged with the increase of radiation dose up to 10 kGy. Although a general correlation among total isoflavone content and radiation dose was not found, some data suggest that for a few of the isoflavones from specific cultivars, the increase in the radiation dose induced a decrease in their content as for glucosyl glucosides and malonyl isoflavones, as well as an increase in their aglycone content. (author)

  12. HERITABILITAS, NISBAH POTENSI, DAN HETEROSIS KETAHANAN KEDELAI (Glycine max [L.] Merrill TERHADAP SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyimas Sa’diyah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heritability, potential ratio, and heterosis of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill resistance to soybean mosaic virus. The use of soybean cultivars with resistance to SMV is a way for controlling soybean mosaic disease. The objective of this research was to estimate the disease severity, the narrow sense heritability, potential ratio and heterosis of resistance character and number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant of ten F1 populations of soybean crossing result to SMV infection. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in two replications. Observed characters were disease severity, number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant. The result of this research showed that 1 the crossing combinations those which were resistant to SMV (lower disease severity were Yellow Bean x Tanggamus, Tanggamus x Orba, and Tanggamus x Taichung, 2 the narrow sense heritability of disease severity was included in medium criteria, 3 number of pithy pods belonged to high criteria, and 4 number of healthy seeds and healthy seeds weight per plant were included in low criteria. The crossing combinations that had low estimation value of heterosis and heterobeltiosis of resistance to SMV infection were Yellow Bean x Taichung, Bean x Tanggamus and Tanggamus x B3570. Disease severity or resistance to SMV is influenced by genetic and environmental factors.

  13. Fate of exogenously supplied bacterial DNA in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndiku, Luyindula [Commissariat des Sciences Nucleaires, Kinshasa (Zaire). Centre Regional d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1980-01-01

    The fate of exogenously supplied radiolabelled DNA from agrobacterium tumefaciens and micrococcus lysodeikticus was investigated in soybean tissues growing under various physiological conditions. The following observations are made: (a) Rapid degradation and reutilization of the donor DNA was observed in callus tissue culture. (b) Germinating seeds and five-day old seedlings were shown to degrade DNA in the incubation medium and to ultilize these degradation products for their own DNA synthesis. Reutilization could be almost totally suppressed the addition of unlabelled thymidine as a competitor. This allowed a detection of significant amounts of residuel donor closely but transiently associated with the plant tissues. (c) In soybean shoots dipped into a solution of donor DNA, partly this DNA was found to first migrate to the leaves where mostly labelled endogenous DNA was later found. Very large amounts of polymerized exogenous DNA were found in the regenerated roots after 12 days of culture.

  14. On the fate of exogenously supplied bacterial DNA in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyindula Ndiku

    1980-01-01

    The fate of exogenously supplied radiolabelled DNA from agrobacterium tumefaciens and micrococcus lysodeikticus was investigated in soybean tissues growing under various physiological conditions. The following observations are made: a) Rapid degradation and reutilization of the donor DNA was observed in callus tissue culture. b) Germinating seeds and five-day old seedlings were shown to degrade DNA in the incubation medium and to ultilize these degradation products for their own DNA synthesis. Reutilization could be almost totally suppressed the addition of unlabelled thymidine as a competitor. This allowed a detection of significant amounts of residuel donor closely but transiently associated with the plant tissues. c) In soybean shoots dipped into a solution of donor DNA, partly this DNA was found to first migrate to the leaves where mostly labelled endogenous DNA was later found. Very large amounts of polymerized exogenous DNA were found in the regenerated roots after 12 days of culture. (author)

  15. Construction and transformation of RNAi plant expression vector of lipoxygenase and kunitz tripsin inhibitor genes from soybean%大豆胰蛋白酶抑制剂和脂肪氧化酶基因双价RNAi表达载体的改造及转化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 付永平; 王丕武; 马建

    2012-01-01

    【目的】应用RNA干扰技术同时抑制大豆脂肪氧化酶(Lox)和胰蛋白酶抑制剂(KTi)基因的表达,改良大豆品质,培育缺失Lox和KTi的大豆新材料。【方法】应用RNAi原理,以双价RNAi植物表达载体pCAM-BIA1301-KtiRi-LoxRi为基础,以植物表达载体pCAMBIA3301的质粒DNA为模板,利用CaMV35S启动子的上游引物和CaMV35S终止子的下游引物,PCR扩增含有除草剂抗性基因bar的整个表达原件,然后将其插入到pCAM-BIA1301-KtiRi-LoxRi中,构建以除草剂为筛选标记的双价RNAi表达载体,并通过花粉管通道法转化至大豆吉农18、吉农28和吉农27 3个品种中,对转基因植株进行PCR、Southern杂交、RT-PCR分子水平检测和除草剂抗性检测。【结果】质粒PCR和酶切鉴定以及测序结果表明,双价RNAi植物表达载体pCAMBIA1301-KtiRi-LoxRi-bar构建成功。将其转入到大豆中,分别获得吉农18、吉农28、吉农27T1代籽粒47,25和86粒,以及T2代转基因植株50株。RT-PCR结果表明,转基因株系中脂肪氧化酶和胰蛋白酶抑制剂mRNA积累受到明显抑制。【结论】获得了转pCAMBIA1301-KtiRi-LoxRi-bar的T2代转基因大豆。%【Objective】 The objective of this study was to find a new breeding technique of soybean to improve its quality and create new elite germplasm resource of soybean by RNAi,which prohibited the expression of lipoxygenase and kunitz tripsin inhibitor genes in soybean seed.【Method】 In this research,we used plant expression vector pCAMBIA1301-KtiRi-LoxRi as substrate and used pCAMBIA3301 as the template.CaMV35S promoter was upstream primer and CaMV35s terminator was downstream primer.The whole expression objective with herbicide resistance gene was amplified by PCR before being inserted into pCAMBIA1301-KtiRi-LoxRi to construct the RNAi expression vector using herbicide as selection marker.Then the obtained expression vector was transferred to soybean cultivars Jinong 18,Jinong 28 and

  16. Toxicity of vanadium in soil on soybean at different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyan; Wang, Mei; Jia, Yanbo; Gou, Min; Zeyer, Josef

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium(V) is present in trace amounts in most plants and widely distributed in soils. However, the environmental toxicity of V compound in soils is controversial. A greenhouse study with soybean from germination to bean production under exposure to pentavalent V [V(V)] was conducted to elucidate the interaction of plants and V fractions in soils and to evaluate the toxicity of V at different plant growth stages. Soybean growth has no effect on non-specific-bond and specific-bond fractions of V in soils, but V fractionation occurred in more extraction-resistant phases at high V concentrations. High concentrations of V(V) postponed the germination and growth of the soybeans. Bean production was less than half of that of the control at 500 mg kg -1 spiked V(V). For the 0 mg kg -1 spiked V(V) treated plants, the root was not the main location where V was retained. Vanadium in the soils at ≤ 250 mg kg -1 did not significantly affect the V concentration in the shoot and leaf of soybeans. With the increase in V concentration in soil, V concentrations in roots increased, whereas those in beans and pods decreased. From vegetative growth to the reproductive growth, the soybeans adsorbed more V and accumulated more V in the roots, with soil. Meanwhile, the ratio of V concentration in cell wall to the total V concentration in the root increased with the increase in V(V) concentration in soils. Our results revealed that high concentrations of V inhibited soybean germination and biomass production. However, plants may produce self-defense systems to endure V toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gamma Radiation-Induced Mutations in Soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of soybean radiation experiments was to create genetic variability in soybeans of various cultivars, mutants and mutation-derived lines with the aim of producing superior breeding lines with resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyhrizi Syd.) It took altogether 12 generations over six years after gamma irradiation if soybean seeds to produce the best resistant line (81-1-038) which a variety could be developed from it. This Line 81-1-038 showed a very good specific resistance to soybean rust, Thai race 2 and moderately resistance to Thai race 1. In the rainy season of 1985, Line 81-1-038 out yielded S.J.4 (a mother line) by 868 kg/ha in a yield trail at Suwan Farm, Pak Chong, Nakorn Rajchasima. This soybean rust mutant was later named D oi Kham

  18. Genetic improvement of soybean through induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.; Nandanwar, R.S.; Thengane, R.J.; Muthiah, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) is one of the important oilseed crops of India. The country produces more than 9.00 million tonnes of soybean per annum and has acquired first place amongst oilseed crops grown in India. Narrow genetic base of cultivated varieties in soybean is of global concern. Efficient mutant production systems, through physical or chemical mutagenesis, have been well established in soybean. A vast amount of genetic variability, of both quantitative and qualitative traits, has been generated through experimental mutagenesis. Two soybean varieties TAMS-38 and TAMS 98-21 have been developed and released for commercial cultivation by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). In this paper the role of mutation breeding in soybean improvement has been discussed. (author)

  19. Synthesis and Secretion of Isoflavones by Field-Grown Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2017-09-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions. Daidzein and genistein secreted by soybean roots induce the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and may modulate rhizosphere interactions with microbes. Yet despite their important roles, little is known about the biosynthesis, secretion and fate of isoflavones in field-grown soybeans. Here, we analyzed isoflavone contents and the expression of isoflavone biosynthesis genes in field-grown soybeans. In roots, isoflavone contents and composition did not change with crop growth, but the expression of UGT4, an isoflavone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase, and of ICHG (isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase) was decreased during the reproductive stages. Isoflavone contents were higher in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during both vegetative and reproductive stages, and were comparable in the rhizosphere soil between these two stages. We analyzed the degradation dynamics of daidzein and its glucosides to develop a model for predicting rhizosphere isoflavone contents from the amount of isoflavones secreted in hydroponic culture. Conjugates of daidzein were degraded much faster than daidzein, with degradation rate constants of 8.51 d-1 for malonyldaidzin and 11.6 d-1 for daidzin, vs. 9.15 × 10-2 d-1 for daidzein. The model suggested that secretion of isoflavones into the rhizosphere is higher during vegetative stages than during reproductive stages in field-grown soybean. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Chemical compositions as quality parameters of ZP soybean and wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the analysis of chemical characteristics of ZP soybean and wheat genotypes, as well as, on nutritional differences between this two complementary plant species. The experimental material consisted of two bread (ZP 96/I and ZP 87/Ip, two durum (ZP 34/I ZP and ZP DSP/01-66M wheat genotypes and four soybean varieties (Nena, Lidija, Lana and Bosa of different genetic background. All ZP soybean genotypes, except the Lana, had over 40% of total proteins by dry matter. Lana and Lidija, variety of recent creation, developed as a result of selection for specific traits, had high oil content. Wheat genotypes had much a lower content of ash, oil, total and water soluble proteins than soybean cultivars. The highest oil, total and water soluble proteins content was detected in grain of durum genotype ZP DSP/01-66M. Lignin content varies much more among soybean than among the wheat genotypes. Generally, contents of total phenolics, carotenes and tocopherol were more abundant in ZP soybean than bread and durum wheat genotypes.

  1. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ming; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Lam, Sin-Man; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-04-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean ( Glycine max ) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351 , encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1 , BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2 , 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III , DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1 , and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean ( Glycine soja ) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of the GmSnRK2 Family in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Cheng, Yi-Hui; Zhang, Chi; Shen, Xin-Jie; You, Qing-Bo; Guo, Wei; Li, Xiang; Song, Xue-Jiao; Zhou, Xin-An; Jiao, Yong-Qing

    2017-08-23

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) that were reported to be involved in the transduction of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Compared to the systemic investigation of SnRK2s in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa , little is known regarding SnRK2s in soybean, which is one of the most important oil and protein crops. In the present study, we performed genome-wide identification and characterization of GmSnRK2s in soybean. In summary, 22 GmSnRK2s were identified and clustered into four groups. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the expansion of SnRK2 gene family during the evolution of soybean. Various cis -acting elements such as ABA Response Elements (ABREs) were identified and analyzed in the promoter regions of GmSnRK2s . The results of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data for different soybean tissues showed that GmSnRK2s exhibited spatio-temporally specific expression patterns during soybean growth and development. Certain GmSnRK2s could respond to the treatments including salinity, ABA and strigolactones. Our results provide a foundation for the further elucidation of the function of GmSnRK2 genes in soybean.

  3. Vernonia DGATs can complement the disrupted oil and protein metabolism in epoxygenase-expressing soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Tateno, Mizuki; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Hildebrand, David F

    2012-01-01

    Plant oils can be useful chemical feedstocks such as a source of epoxy fatty acids. High seed-specific expression of a Stokesia laevis epoxygenase (SlEPX) in soybeans only results in 3-7% epoxide levels. SlEPX-transgenic soybean seeds also exhibited other phenotypic alterations, such as altered seed fatty acid profiles, reduced oil accumulation, and variable protein levels. SlEPX-transgenic seeds showed a 2-5% reduction in total oil content and protein levels of 30.9-51.4%. To address these pleiotrophic effects of SlEPX expression on other traits, transgenic soybeans were developed to co-express SlEPX and DGAT (diacylglycerol acyltransferase) genes (VgDGAT1 & 2) isolated from Vernonia galamensis, a high accumulator of epoxy fatty acids. These side effects of SlEPX expression were largely overcome in the DGAT co-expressing soybeans. Total oil and protein contents were restored to the levels in non-transgenic soybeans, indicating that both VgDGAT1 and VgDGAT2 could complement the disrupted phenotypes caused by over-expression of an epoxygenase in soybean seeds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of the GmSnRK2 Family in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Cheng, Yi-Hui; Zhang, Chi; Shen, Xin-Jie; You, Qing-Bo; Guo, Wei; Li, Xiang; Song, Xue-Jiao; Zhou, Xin-An

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) that were reported to be involved in the transduction of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Compared to the systemic investigation of SnRK2s in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, little is known regarding SnRK2s in soybean, which is one of the most important oil and protein crops. In the present study, we performed genome-wide identification and characterization of GmSnRK2s in soybean. In summary, 22 GmSnRK2s were identified and clustered into four groups. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the expansion of SnRK2 gene family during the evolution of soybean. Various cis-acting elements such as ABA Response Elements (ABREs) were identified and analyzed in the promoter regions of GmSnRK2s. The results of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data for different soybean tissues showed that GmSnRK2s exhibited spatio-temporally specific expression patterns during soybean growth and development. Certain GmSnRK2s could respond to the treatments including salinity, ABA and strigolactones. Our results provide a foundation for the further elucidation of the function of GmSnRK2 genes in soybean. PMID:28832544

  5. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  6. Expression of an osmotin-like protein from Solanum nigrum confers drought tolerance in transgenic soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ricardo Luís Mayer; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Bredemeier, Christian; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; de Brito, Giovani Greigh; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Bertagnolli, Paulo Fernando; de Sá, Maria Eugênia Lisei; Campos, Magnólia de Araújo; de Amorim, Regina Maria Santos; Beneventi, Magda Aparecida; Margis, Rogério; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2014-12-10

    Drought is by far the most important environmental factor contributing to yield losses in crops, including soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. To address this problem, a gene that encodes an osmotin-like protein isolated from Solanum nigrum var. americanum (SnOLP) driven by the UBQ3 promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana was transferred into the soybean genome by particle bombardment. Two independently transformed soybean lines expressing SnOLP were produced. Segregation analyses indicated single-locus insertions for both lines. qPCR analysis suggested a single insertion of SnOLP in the genomes of both transgenic lines, but one copy of the hpt gene was inserted in the first line and two in the second line. Transgenic plants exhibited no remarkable phenotypic alterations in the seven analyzed generations. When subjected to water deficit, transgenic plants performed better than the control ones. Leaf physiological measurements revealed that transgenic soybean plants maintained higher leaf water potential at predawn, higher net CO2 assimilation rate, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration rate than non-transgenic plants. Grain production and 100-grain weight were affected by water supply. Decrease in grain productivity and 100-grain weight were observed for both transgenic and non-transgenic plants under water deficit; however, it was more pronounced for non-transgenic plants. Moreover, transgenic lines showed significantly higher 100-grain weight than non-transgenic plants under water shortage. This is the first report showing that expression of SnOLP in transgenic soybeans improved physiological responses and yield components of plants when subjected to water deficit, highlighting the potential of this gene for biotechnological applications.

  7. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Jin, Longguo; Zhang, Lijuan; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-...

  8. Ambient ultraviolet radiation induces protective responses in soybean but does not attenuate indirect defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Thorsten R.; Rostas, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation on (i) the performance and chemistry of soybean plants, (ii) the performance of Spodoptera frugiperda and (iii) the foraging behavior of the herbivore's natural enemy Cotesia marginiventris which exploits herbivore-induced plant volatiles (VOC) for host location. The accumulation of protective phenolics was faster in plants receiving ambient UV than in controls exposed to sun light lacking UV. Accordingly, isorhamnetin- and quercetin-based flavonoids were increased in UV exposed plants. No UV effects were found on the performance and feeding behavior of S. frugiperda. Herbivore-damaged plants emitted the same VOC when grown under ambient or attenuated UV for 5, 10 or 30 days. Consequently, C. marginiventris was attracted but did not discriminate between exposed and unexposed soybeans. In summary, ambient UV radiation affected soybean morphology and physiology but did not destabilize interactions between trophic levels. - Ambient ultraviolet radiation does not alter induced VOC emission in soybean and thus host location of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris remains effective

  9. Ambient ultraviolet radiation induces protective responses in soybean but does not attenuate indirect defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Thorsten R. [Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biosciences, University of Wuerzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, 97082 Wuerzburg (Germany); Rostas, Michael [Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biosciences, University of Wuerzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, 97082 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: rostas@botanik.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2008-09-15

    We investigated the effects of ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation on (i) the performance and chemistry of soybean plants, (ii) the performance of Spodoptera frugiperda and (iii) the foraging behavior of the herbivore's natural enemy Cotesia marginiventris which exploits herbivore-induced plant volatiles (VOC) for host location. The accumulation of protective phenolics was faster in plants receiving ambient UV than in controls exposed to sun light lacking UV. Accordingly, isorhamnetin- and quercetin-based flavonoids were increased in UV exposed plants. No UV effects were found on the performance and feeding behavior of S. frugiperda. Herbivore-damaged plants emitted the same VOC when grown under ambient or attenuated UV for 5, 10 or 30 days. Consequently, C. marginiventris was attracted but did not discriminate between exposed and unexposed soybeans. In summary, ambient UV radiation affected soybean morphology and physiology but did not destabilize interactions between trophic levels. - Ambient ultraviolet radiation does not alter induced VOC emission in soybean and thus host location of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris remains effective.

  10. Application of soybean shoot-cutting in SMV-resistance genetic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng Chen; Zhihui Shan; Xin'an zhou; Zhonglu Yang; Qiao Wan; Yanyan Yang; Shuilian Chen; Chanjuan Zhang; Limiao Chen; Songli Yuan; Dezhen Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most serious diseases affecting soy-bean yield. Recombination inbred lines (RILs) are common materials for resistance genetic research. However, the population construction always takes quite a long time which pro-long the breading process. Shoot-cutting is a well-established technique for plant multipli-cation. It has high successful ratio in soybean. In this study, we use shoot-cutting to multiply two F2 populations from the crosses of susceptible and resistant varieties. Soybean plants can be multiplied from 1 into 3 homogenous ones within 30 days, bringing on well-grown plants with normal seeds. The SMV resistance from cutting-shoot plants was consistent with that from original plants. When shoot-cutting is applied in a F2 population, the pheno-typic and genotypic data can be simultaneously collected and corresponding saved during population development. The genetic research and resistant breeding can be effectively promoted by this technology.

  11. Can phosphorus application and cover cropping alter arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and soybean performance after a five-year phosphorus-unfertilized crop rotational system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masao; Sato, Ryohei; Serizawa, Ayu; Takahashi, Yuichi; Gunji, Kento; Tatewaki, Yuya; Isobe, Katsunori

    2018-01-01

    Understanding diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important for optimizing their role for phosphorus (P) nutrition of soybeans ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in P-limited soils. However, it is not clear how soybean growth and P nutrition is related to AMF colonization and diversity of AMF communities in a continuous P-unfertilized cover cropping system. Thus, we investigated the impact of P-application and cover cropping on the interaction among AMF colonization, AMF diversity in soybean roots, soybean growth and P nutrition under a five-year P-unfertilized crop rotation. In this study, we established three cover crop systems (wheat, red clover and oilseed rape) or bare fallow in rotation with soybean. The P-application rates before the seeding of soybeans were 52.5 and 157.5 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. We measured AMF colonization in soybean roots, soybean growth parameters such as aboveground plant biomass, P uptake at the flowering stage and grain yields at the maturity stage in both years. AMF community structure in soybean roots was characterized by specific amplification of small subunit rDNA. The increase in the root colonization at the flowering stage was small as a result of P-application. Cover cropping did not affect the aboveground biomass and P uptake of soybean in both years, but the P-application had positive effects on the soybean performance such as plant P uptake, biomass and grain yield in 2015. AMF communities colonizing soybean roots were also significantly influenced by P-application throughout the two years. Moreover, the diversity of AMF communities in roots was significantly influenced by P-application and cover cropping in both years, and was positively correlated with the soybean biomass, P uptake and grain yield throughout the two years. Our results indicated that P-application rather than cover cropping may be a key factor for improving soybean growth performance with respect to AMF diversity in P-limited cover

  12. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis

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    Kai Shu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA biogenesis, which leads to a decrease in the GA/ABA ratio. This study suggests that fluridone (FLUN, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential plant growth regulator that can promote soybean seed germination under saline stress. Different soybean cultivars, which possessed distinct genetic backgrounds, showed a similar repressed phenotype during seed germination under exogenous NaCl application. Biochemical analysis revealed that NaCl treatment led to high MDA (malondialdehyde level during germination and the post-germinative growth stages. Furthermore, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities also changed after NaCl treatment. Subsequent quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that the transcription levels of ABA and GA biogenesis and signaling genes were altered after NaCl treatment. In line with this, phytohormone measurement also revealed that NaCl considerably down-regulated active GA1, GA3, and GA4 levels, whereas the ABA content was up-regulated; and therefore ratios, such as GA1/ABA, GA3/ABA, and GA4/ABA, are decreased. Consistent with the hormonal quantification, FLUN partially rescued the delayed-germination phenotype caused by NaCl-treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate that NaCl stress inhibits soybean seed germination by decreasing the GA/ABA ratio, and that FLUN might be a potential plant growth regulator that could promote soybean seed germination under salinity stress.

  13. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Qi, Ying; Chen, Feng; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Shuai, Haiwei; Zhou, Wenguan; Ding, Jun; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Weiguo; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Yang, Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA) biogenesis, which leads to a decrease in the GA/ABA ratio. This study suggests that fluridone (FLUN), an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential plant growth regulator that can promote soybean seed germination under saline stress. Different soybean cultivars, which possessed distinct genetic backgrounds, showed a similar repressed phenotype during seed germination under exogenous NaCl application. Biochemical analysis revealed that NaCl treatment led to high MDA (malondialdehyde) level during germination and the post-germinative growth stages. Furthermore, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities also changed after NaCl treatment. Subsequent quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that the transcription levels of ABA and GA biogenesis and signaling genes were altered after NaCl treatment. In line with this, phytohormone measurement also revealed that NaCl considerably down-regulated active GA 1 , GA 3 , and GA 4 levels, whereas the ABA content was up-regulated; and therefore ratios, such as GA 1 /ABA, GA 3 /ABA, and GA 4 /ABA, are decreased. Consistent with the hormonal quantification, FLUN partially rescued the delayed-germination phenotype caused by NaCl-treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate that NaCl stress inhibits soybean seed germination by decreasing the GA/ABA ratio, and that FLUN might be a potential plant growth regulator that could promote soybean seed germination under salinity stress.

  14. Highly syntenic regions in the genomes of soybean, Medicago truncatula, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roe Bruce A

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent genome sequencing enables mega-base scale comparisons between related genomes. Comparisons between animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria demonstrate extensive synteny tempered by rearrangements. Within the legume plant family, glimpses of synteny have also been observed. Characterizing syntenic relationships in legumes is important in transferring knowledge from model legumes to crops that are important sources of protein, fixed nitrogen, and health-promoting compounds. Results We have uncovered two large soybean regions exhibiting synteny with M. truncatula and with a network of segmentally duplicated regions in Arabidopsis. In all, syntenic regions comprise over 500 predicted genes spanning 3 Mb. Up to 75% of soybean genes are colinear with M. truncatula, including one region in which 33 of 35 soybean predicted genes with database support are colinear to M. truncatula. In some regions, 60% of soybean genes share colinearity with a network of A. thaliana duplications. One region is especially interesting because this 500 kbp segment of soybean is syntenic to two paralogous regions in M. truncatula on different chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of individual genes within these regions demonstrates that one is orthologous to the soybean region, with which it also shows substantially denser synteny and significantly lower levels of synonymous nucleotide substitutions. The other M. truncatula region is inferred to be paralogous, presumably resulting from a duplication event preceding speciation. Conclusion The presence of well-defined M. truncatula segments showing orthologous and paralogous relationships with soybean allows us to explore the evolution of contiguous genomic regions in the context of ancient genome duplication and speciation events.

  15. Biological responses of two soybean cultivars exposed to enhanced UVB radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Surney, S.J.; Tschaplinski, T.J.; Edwards, N.T.; Shugart, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    A UVB exposure and monitoring system has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Global Climate Change Research Facility. The system consists of a power supply, and data acquisition and exposure equipment to accomplish controlled, elevated exposure of terrestrial plants to UVB. Plant biomass, selected compounds that absorb UV radiation, and DNA integrity/damage were measured for two soybean cultivars [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Forrest and Essex exposed to elevated UVB (32% above ambient) in this system. The biomass of each major plant organ was observed to be less in soybean cultivar Forrest upon exposure to enhanced UVB with the greatest response in seed pods and stems. In contrast, soybean cultivar Essex showed no biomass response to elevated UVB. Enhanced UVB caused significant (P < 0.1) changes in concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds in both soybean cultivars. The Essex cultivar had an increase in UV-absorbing compounds, whereas a decline was observed for soybean Forrest. There was a decrease in the integrity of DNA, as measured by strand breaks, from both cultivars at 30 and 52 days to exposure. DNA pyrimidine dimers in isolated plant DNA were measured with Micrococcus luteus UV endonuclease. DNA from soybean Forrest exposed to UVB and sampled at 30 and 52 days of exposure had significantly greater (P<0.05) pyrimidine dimer concentration (dimer frequency ≈ 1 dimer per 28,000 DNA bases) than either cultivar exposed to UV treatment for 1 day or Essex at days 30–52 (dimer frequencies < /1 per 120,000 bases of DNA). Decrease in DNA integrity and biomass production in Forrest under elevated UVB may be related to the inability to maintain high concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds in leaves. The tolerant cultivar Essex increased the concentration of UV-absorbing compounds while maintaining biomass production and DNA integrity under elevated UVB

  16. Weeding volatiles reduce leaf and seed damage to field-grown soybeans and increase seed isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiojiri, Kaori; Ozawa, Rika; Yamashita, Ken-Ichi; Uefune, Masayoshi; Matsui, Kenji; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Tokumaru, Susumu; Takabayashi, Junji

    2017-01-30

    Field experiments were conducted over 3 years (2012, 2013, and 2015), in which half of the young stage soybean plants were exposed to volatiles from cut goldenrods three times over 2-3 weeks, while the other half remained unexposed. There was a significant reduction in the level of the total leaf damage on exposed soybean plants compared with unexposed ones. In 2015, the proportion of damage to plants by Spodoptera litura larvae, a dominant herbivore, was significantly less in the exposed field plots than in the unexposed plots. Under laboratory conditions, cut goldenrod volatiles induced the direct defenses of soybean plants against S. litura larvae and at least three major compounds, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and limonene, of cut goldenrod volatiles were involved in the induction. The number of undamaged seeds from the exposed plants was significantly higher than that from unexposed ones. Concentrations of isoflavones in the seeds were significantly higher in seeds from the exposed plants than in those from the unexposed plants. Future research evaluating the utility of weeding volatiles, as a form of plant-plant communications, in pest management programs is necessary.

  17. Genome-wide annotation of the soybean WRKY family and functional characterization of genes involved in response to Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencke-Malato, Marta; Cabreira, Caroline; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Mancini, Estefania; Osorio, Marina B; Homrich, Milena S; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; De Carvalho, Mayra C C G; Stolf, Renata; Weber, Ricardo L M; Westergaard, Gastón; Castagnaro, Atílio P; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar C; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2014-09-10

    Many previous studies have shown that soybean WRKY transcription factors are involved in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Phakopsora pachyrhizi is the causal agent of Asian Soybean Rust, one of the most important soybean diseases. There are evidences that WRKYs are involved in the resistance of some soybean genotypes against that fungus. The number of WRKY genes already annotated in soybean genome was underrepresented. In the present study, a genome-wide annotation of the soybean WRKY family was carried out and members involved in the response to P. pachyrhizi were identified. As a result of a soybean genomic databases search, 182 WRKY-encoding genes were annotated and 33 putative pseudogenes identified. Genes involved in the response to P. pachyrhizi infection were identified using superSAGE, RNA-Seq of microdissected lesions and microarray experiments. Seventy-five genes were differentially expressed during fungal infection. The expression of eight WRKY genes was validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of these genes in a resistant genotype was earlier and/or stronger compared with a susceptible genotype in response to P. pachyrhizi infection. Soybean somatic embryos were transformed in order to overexpress or silence WRKY genes. Embryos overexpressing a WRKY gene were obtained, but they were unable to convert into plants. When infected with P. pachyrhizi, the leaves of the silenced transgenic line showed a higher number of lesions than the wild-type plants. The present study reports a genome-wide annotation of soybean WRKY family. The participation of some members in response to P. pachyrhizi infection was demonstrated. The results contribute to the elucidation of gene function and suggest the manipulation of WRKYs as a strategy to increase fungal resistance in soybean plants.

  18. Dinâmica da água nas palhadas de milho, milheto e soja utilizadas em plantio direto Water fluxes in maize, millet and soybean plant-residue mulches used in direct seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio Macena da Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das palhadas de milho, milheto e soja na capacidade de interceptação e de armazenamento de água, velocidade de dessecamento, porcentagem de cobertura do solo, interceptação da radiação solar e escoamento superficial, assim como incorporar estes efeitos em um modelo de crescimento de plantas. As palhadas de milheto e de milho apresentaram capacidade maior de armazenar água do que a de soja: 3,26, 3,24 e 2,62 g de água por grama de palhada, respectivamente. A quantidade de água perdida pelos resíduos foi proporcional à evapotranspiração potencial. As taxas de cobertura foram equivalentes nos três tipos de material. Os três tipos de palhada foram similares na interceptação das radiações fotossinteticamente ativa e infravermelha. Os resíduos do milheto foram eficientes no controle do escoamento superficial: do total de 843,5 mm de água precipitada, apenas 45,5 mm foram perdidos pelo escoamento superficial no sistema de plantio direto enquanto no convencional as perdas de água foram de 222,5 mm. Os modelos linear e exponencial expressam de forma significativa a maior parte das relações estudadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of crop residue mulches from maize, millet and soybean on water storage capacity, water evaporation, soil cover, solar radiation interception and surface water run-off as well as to incorporate these effects in a crop growth model. The mulch of millet and maize presented higher capacity for water storage than soybean mulch: 3.26, 3.24 and 2.62 g of water per gram of dry matter, respectively. Water losses from wet mulches were related to the potential evapotranspiration. The soil cover levels were similar among the three types of material. The three types of mulch intercepted similar quantities of photosynthetically active radiation and infrared radiation. The mulch of maize straw was slightly more efficient in intercepting radiation

  19. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post

  20. Evaluation of symbiotic performance of some mutant lines of soybean inoculated with two bradyrhizobium japonicum strains using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Mir-Ali, N.; Al-Nabulsi, I.

    2002-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the symbiotic performance of two soybean varieties and some of their mutants (that were obtained as a result of a previous mutation breeding program) with two bradyrhizobium japonicum strains (RG and FA3) using 15 N isotopic dilution method. Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique (RAPD) was used to study the genetic relationships among the soybean genotypes and to make sure that the two rhizobial strains are different. The 25 random primers used discriminated the different soybean genotypes and the dendrogram resultants from shared polymorphic fragments put each variety and its mutants in two separate clusters asserting that the mutants and their mother lines are different. Both strains of B. japonicum were able to form effective nodules on all soybean plants. However, number of nodules, dry matter yield and N-uptake from the available sources by soybeans were affected by both plant genotype and rhizobial strains. N 2 -fixation was affected to a large extent by different strain and plant genotype combinations. Percentage of fixed N 2 (N dfa) ranged between 35 and 49%; whereas, the actual amounts of fixed N 2 were between 105 and 210 mg N/pot. Amounts of N 2 -fixed by FA3 strain were higher than of RG in both soybean varieties, whereas, the latter strain showed higher performance in the mutant lines. The results showed that total plant N estimation may not be a sufficient indicator for high N 2 -fixation. the results also showed that it is very important to determine both the amount of nitrogen derived from N 2 -fixation and N derived from soil for evaluating the symbiotic performance ability. Moreover, the performance of symbiotic N 2 -fixation in soybean was shown to depend on both plant genotype and rhizobial strain and the amount of N 2 -fixation can be increased by combining the best plant genotypes and the most adapted strain. (author)

  1. Implication of Legal References on Technological Dissemination: A Study on Transgenic Soybeans Resistant to Glyphosate Herbicide in Brazil

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    Roberta Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims at establishing a connection between the evolution of legal landmarks related to soybeans tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide in Brazil and the planting growth of this transgenic soybean in Brazil, in order to determine the role that such soybeans play in today's domestic agricultural scenario. To do so, a study of Brazilian laws that protect intellectual creations was carried out (Industrial Property Law - Law number 9.279/96 and the Plant Protection Law – Law number 9.456/97, the Law on Biosafety – Law number 11105 / 05 – and the Law on Brazilian Seeds and Seedlings - Law number 10.711/03, in order to delimit the matter protected by each of those laws while establishing its interfaces. Regarding planting, the Biosafety Law of 2005 corresponds to the fourth law which deals with soybeans tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide and ensures that those previously registered may be marketed without limitation per crop. In order to estimate the space that soybean seeds tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide began to occupy in the Brazilian market, in the 2008/2009 harvest, compared to the other not genetically modified soybeans, a search in the Ministry of Agriculture´s database was done (http://www.agricultura.gov.br through the available records of certified, non-certified and basic seeds.

  2. Assessing the value and pest management window provided by neonicotinoid seed treatments for management of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) in the Upper Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Christian H; Alford, Adam M; Cullen, Eileen M; Hodgson, Erin W; Knodel, Janet J; McCornack, Brian; Potter, Bruce D; Spigler, Madeline I; Tilmon, Kelley; Welch, Kelton

    2017-10-01

    A 2-year, multi-state study was conducted to assess the benefits of using soybean seed treated with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam to manage soybean aphid in the upper Midwestern USA and compare this approach with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that included monitoring soybean aphids and treating with foliar-applied insecticide only when the economic threshold was reached. Concentrations of thiamethoxam in soybean foliage were also quantified throughout the growing season to estimate the pest management window afforded by insecticidal seed treatments. Both the IPM treatment and thiamethoxam-treated seed resulted in significant reductions in cumulative aphid days when soybean aphid populations reached threshold levels. However, only the IPM treatment resulted in significant yield increases. Analysis of soybean foliage from thiamethoxam-treated seeds indicated that tissue concentrations of thiamethoxam were statistically similar to plants grown from untreated seeds beginning at the V2 growth stage, indicating that the period of pest suppression for soybean aphid is likely to be relatively short. These data demonstrate that an IPM approach, combining scouting and foliar-applied insecticide where necessary, remains the best option for treatment of soybean aphids, both in terms of protecting the yield potential of the crop and of break-even probability for producers. Furthermore, we found that thiamethoxam concentrations in foliage are unlikely to effectively manage soybean aphids for most of the pests' activity period across the region. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effectiveness of cow manure and mycorrhiza on the growth of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiyanta, M. N. A.; Samanhudi; Yunus, A.; Pujiasmanto, B.; Minardi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Soybean is one of the major food crop commodities in Indonesia. The needs of soybean each year is always increasing, but the the production rate is low. The research aimed to know the influence of treatment doses of cow manure and mycorrhiza towards growth and yield of soybeans. This research was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two factors. The first factor is the dose of cow manure: S0 (0 g/plot), S1 (781.25 g/plot), S2 (1562.5 g/plot), and S3 (2343.75 g/plot). The second factor is the dose of mycorrhiza: M0 (0 g/plot), M1 (100 g/plot), and M2 (200 g/plot). The observed parameters is plant height, the number of productive branches, weight of 100 seeds, root length, fresh weight of biomass, dry weight of biomass, conversion calculation results of soybeans per hectacre and the percentage of roots infected with mycorrhiza. Data were analyzed with ANOVA at 5% significance level, continued with Duncan test at 5% confidence level. The results showed that no interaction between the two treatments. Doses of cow manure provides significant influence to plant height and the length of the root. Whereas, the doses of mycorrhiza provides significant effect to the number of productive branch, weight of 100 seeds, dry weight of biomass, and the conversion of soybean yield per hectare.

  4. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses of soybean root tips under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nakamura, Takuji; Sugimoto, Yurie; Sakamoto, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is one of the serious problems for soybean plants because it inhibits growth. Proteomic and metabolomic techniques were used to determine whether proteins and metabolites are altered in the root tips of soybeans under flooding stress. Two-day-old soybean plants were flooded for 2 days, and proteins and metabolites were extracted from root tips. Flooding-responsive proteins were identified using two-dimensional- or SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis- based proteomics techniques. Using both techniques, 172 proteins increased and 105 proteins decreased in abundance in the root tips of flood-stressed soybean. The abundance of methionine synthase, heat shock cognate protein, urease, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase was significantly increased by flooding stress. Furthermore, 73 flooding-responsive metabolites were identified using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. The levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine, NADH2, and phosphoenol pyruvate were increased by flooding stress. Taken together, these results suggest that synthesis of phosphoenol pyruvate by way of oxaloacetate produced in the tricarboxylic acid cycle is activated in soybean root tips in response to flooding stress, and that flooding stress also leads to modulation of the urea cycle in the root tips.

  5. Rhizobial Nodulation Factors Stimulate Mycorrhizal Colonization of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z. P.; Staehelin, C.; Vierheilig, H.; Wiemken, A.; Jabbouri, S.; Broughton, W. J.; Vogeli-Lange, R.; Boller, T.

    1995-08-01

    Legumes form tripartite symbiotic associations with noduleinducing rhizobia and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Co-inoculation of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots with Bradyrhizobium japonicum 61-A-101 considerably enhanced colonization by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae. A similar stimulatory effect on mycorrhizal colonization was also observed in nonnodulating soybean mutants when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and in wild-type soybean plants when inoculated with ineffective rhizobial strains, indicating that a functional rhizobial symbiosis is not necessary for enhanced mycorrhiza formation. Inoculation with the mutant Rhizobium sp. NGR[delta]nodABC, unable to produce nodulation (Nod) factors, did not show any effect on mycorrhiza. Highly purified Nod factors also increased the degree of mycorrhizal colonization. Nod factors from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 differed in their potential to promote fungal colonization. The acetylated factor NodNGR-V (MeFuc, Ac), added at concentrations as low as 10-9 M, was active, whereas the sulfated factor, NodNGR-V (MeFuc, S), was inactive. Several soybean flavonoids known to accumulate in response to the acetylated Nod factor showed a similar promoting effect on mycorrhiza. These results suggest that plant flavonoids mediate the Nod factor-induced stimulation of mycorrhizal colonization in soybean roots.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Evolution of HECT Genes in Soybean

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    Xianwen Meng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteins containing domains homologous to the E6-associated protein (E6-AP carboxyl terminus (HECT are an important class of E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. HECT-type E3s play crucial roles in plant growth and development. However, current understanding of plant HECT genes and their evolution is very limited. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the HECT domain-containing genes in soybean. Using high-quality genome sequences, we identified 19 soybean HECT genes. The predicted HECT genes were distributed unevenly across 15 of 20 chromosomes. Nineteen of these genes were inferred to be segmentally duplicated gene pairs, suggesting that in soybean, segmental duplications have made a significant contribution to the expansion of the HECT gene family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these HECT genes can be divided into seven groups, among which gene structure and domain architecture was relatively well-conserved. The Ka/Ks ratios show that after the duplication events, duplicated HECT genes underwent purifying selection. Moreover, expression analysis reveals that 15 of the HECT genes in soybean are differentially expressed in 14 tissues, and are often highly expressed in the flowers and roots. In summary, this work provides useful information on which further functional studies of soybean HECT genes can be based.

  7. Phosphorus bioavailability in soybean grown after pasture under different fertility regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Néia Eberhardt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of phosphorus (P fertilizer applied to an Urochloa decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture on the P bioavailability to the following soybean crop. Low-productivity pasture, planted on an Oxisol in an experimental field at Embrapa Cerrados, was divided into three strips, each of 1.5 ha and fertilized by broadcasting annual applications of 0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 of P2O5 for four years. After the pasture was desiccate with herbicide, soybeans were sown and fertilized with 0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1 of P2O5 applied within each strip, making a total of nine (3x3 P treatments. Residual available P content (Mehlich-1 and resin from the pasture fertilization was lower than from soybean fertilization. However, the bioavailable residual P from the pasture, determined by P accumulated in plants, production of dry matter and grain yield, had similar availability to inorganic P applied to the soybean. Early P fertilization applied to pasture is technically feasible and can be used to maintain the pasture: it is recommended to replace corrective fertilization for following soybean crops.

  8. Competition between the phytophagous stink bugs Euschistus heros and Piezodorus guildinii in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuelher, Edmar S; Silva, Éder H; Hirose, Edson; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Oliveira, Eugênio E

    2016-10-01

    The abundance and contribution of the neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.), and the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (West.), to the composition of insect pests of soybean, Glycine max (L.), fields have changed both spatially and temporally in neotropical soybean production areas. Therefore, we assessed the competitiveness of each species in direct competition experiments following an additive series. We performed mixed (adult) insect infestations in soybean plants and evaluated the fitness of each species and the soybean yield. While the competitive ability of E. heros was significantly compromised by increments in conspecifics and heterospecifics (i.e. P. guildinii), the competitive ability of P. guildinii was compromised by the presence of heterospecifics (i.e. E. heros). The reproductive output of P. guildinii remained unaffected by increments in E. heros or of P. guildinii. Intriguingly, despite the fact that P. guildinii apparently lost the competition with E. heros, almost no pod production was observed in any plant colonised by the former. The higher abundance of E. heros in neotropical soybean fields seems to result from higher competitive ability than its heterospecific competitor P. guildinii, which may prevent the higher losses caused by P. guildinii. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Screening of Brazilian soybean genotypes with high potential for somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration Seleção de genótipos brasileiros de soja com alto potencial para embriogênese somática e regeneração de plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Droste

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify Brazilian soybean (Glycine max genotypes with potential to respond to in vitro culture stimuli for primary somatic embryo induction, secondary embryo proliferation and plant regeneration. Differences among eight tested cultivars were observed at each stage. Two cultivars, IAS-5 and BRSMG 68 Vencedora, were selected for the evaluation of the capacity for embryo differentiation and plant regeneration. These cultivars had high embryo induction frequencies, repetitive embryogenic proliferation, and low precocious embryo germination in the initial experiment. The effect of abscisic acid (ABA and charcoal addition on plant regeneration was investigated. The addition of ABA to proliferation medium and of ABA and activated charcoal to maturation medium increased embryo differentiation rates, which resulted in a higher number of regenerated plants. The BRSMG 68 Vencedora cultivar was found to have a high potential for embryo induction, embryo proliferation and plant regeneration. The potential of this cultivar for somatic embryogenesis was similar to that observed for cultivar IAS-5, which is currently used for soybean transformation in Brazil. BRSMG 68 Vencedora may be a good alternative genotype for soybean genetic engineering via somatic embryogenesis protocols.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar cultivares brasileiras de soja (Glycine max com capacidade de resposta aos estímulos da cultura in vitro para a indução de embriões somáticos primários, proliferação de embriões secundários e regeneração de plantas. Foram observadas diferenças para cada estádio entre as oito cultivares testadas. Foram selecionadas duas cultivares, 'IAS-5' e BRSMG 68 Vencedora, para avaliação do potencial dos embriões quanto à diferenciação e conversão em plantas. Essas cultivares tiveram altas taxas de indução, proliferação embriogênica repetitiva e baixa germinação precoce dos embriões, no experimento

  10. Field Phenotyping of Soybean Roots for Drought Stress Tolerance

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    Berhanu A. Fenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Root architecture was determined together with shoot parameters under well watered and drought conditions in the field in three soybean cultivars (A5409RG, Jackson and Prima 2000. Morphology parameters were used to classify the cultivars into different root phenotypes that could be important in conferring drought tolerance traits. A5409RG is a drought-sensitive cultivar with a shallow root phenotype and a root angle of <40°. In contrast, Jackson is a drought-escaping cultivar. It has a deep rooting phenotype with a root angle of >60°. Prima 2000 is an intermediate drought-tolerant cultivar with a root angle of 40°–60°. It has an intermediate root phenotype. Prima 2000 was the best performing cultivar under drought stress, having the greatest shoot biomass and grain yield under limited water availability. It had abundant root nodules even under drought conditions. A positive correlation was observed between nodule size, above-ground biomass and seed yield under well-watered and drought conditions. These findings demonstrate that root system phenotyping using markers that are easy-to-apply under field conditions can be used to determine genotypic differences in drought tolerance in soybean. The strong association between root and nodule parameters and whole plant productivity demonstrates the potential application of simple root phenotypic markers in screening for drought tolerance in soybean.

  11. Metabolic and Transcriptional Reprogramming in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

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    Ruth Grene

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max seeds are an important source of seed storage compounds, including protein, oil, and sugar used for food, feed, chemical, and biofuel production. We assessed detailed temporal transcriptional and metabolic changes in developing soybean embryos to gain a systems biology view of developmental and metabolic changes and to identify potential targets for metabolic engineering. Two major developmental and metabolic transitions were captured enabling identification of potential metabolic engineering targets specific to seed filling and to desiccation. The first transition involved a switch between different types of metabolism in dividing and elongating cells. The second transition involved the onset of maturation and desiccation tolerance during seed filling and a switch from photoheterotrophic to heterotrophic metabolism. Clustering analyses of metabolite and transcript data revealed clusters of functionally related metabolites and transcripts active in these different developmental and metabolic programs. The gene clusters provide a resource to generate predictions about the associations and interactions of unknown regulators with their targets based on “guilt-by-association” relationships. The inferred regulators also represent potential targets for future metabolic engineering of relevant pathways and steps in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in soybean embryos and drought and desiccation tolerance in plants.

  12. Induced mutation for the improvement of soybean (Glycine max L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asencion, A.B.; Lapade, A.G.; Grafia, A.O.; Barrida, A.C.; Veluz, A.M.; Marbella, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    A study on the use of gamma radiation in the induction of mutations in eight varieties of soybean was conducted. The radiosensitivity of the seeds of both local and introduced soybean varieties was determined. The effects of gamma radiation in the M1 generation were evaluated. Percentage germination was not affected by doses of 200 and 250 Gy gamma radiation in all the eight soybean varieties. No significant differences in seedling height were observed at 200 Gy and the control except for the 250 Gy in BPI-Sy4, PSB-Sy4 and PSB-Sy5. In the Vietnamese varieties, significant differences in seedling height were obtained in doses of 200, 250 Gy and the control except for the variety AKO 6. There was significant difference in plant height of mature plants between the control and treatment dose of 250 Gy in varieties DT 95 and AKO 6. Likewise, significant differences in mature plant height were noted between the control and those at 250 Gy in local varieties BPI-Sy4, PSB-Sy5 and NSIC-Sy8. The number of days to flower was not affected by gamma radiation in both the local and introduced varieties. There were significant differences in the number of pods per plant between the control and a low dose of 200 Gy in Vietnamese variety DT 96 and the local varieties PSB-Sy4, PSB-Sy5 and NSIC-Sy8. The 3 types of chlorophyll mutation induced by gamma rays in the local varieties were: chlorina, striatia,and spotted yellow. Only chlorina mutant was induced in the introduced varieties. Desirable mutants that are early and high yielding were selected. Results of the drought tolerance tests indicated that the number of days to flowering of the control and 8 varieties was not affected by the duration of irrigation withdrawals 20,30,40 and 50 days after planting. Significant differences in seed weight among the different varieties were noted only in 20 and 30 day irrigation withdrawal treatment. When the effects of the different treatments were analyzed on a per variety bases, some of the

  13. Accumulation of genistein and daidzein, soybean isoflavones implicated in promoting human health, is significantly elevated by irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John O; Yu, Oliver; Heatherly, Larry G; Krishnan, Hari B

    2004-12-15

    To circumvent drought conditions persisting during seed fill in the mid-south U.S. soybean production region, researchers have developed the early soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production system (ESPS), which entails early planting of short-season varieties. Because soybean supplies a preponderance of the world's protein and oil and consumption of soy-based foods has been associated with multiple health benefits, the effects of this agronomic practice on seed quality traits such as protein, oil, and isoflavones should be investigated. Four cultivars of soybean, two from maturity group IV and two from maturity group V, were planted in April (ESPS) and May (traditional) in a two-year study at Stoneville, MS. Near-infrared analysis of soybean seed was utilized to determine the percentages of protein and oil. Dependent upon variety, the oil content of the early-planted crop was increased by 3-8%, whereas protein was not significantly changed. Visualization of protein extracts fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that early planting did not affect the relative accumulation of the major seed-storage proteins; thus, protein composition was equal to that of traditionally cultivated soybeans. Maturity group IV cultivars contained a higher percentage of oil and a lower percentage of protein than did the maturity group V cultivars, regardless of planting date. Gas chromatographic separation of fatty acids revealed that the percentages of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were not significantly altered by planting date. Methanol extracts of seed harvested from different planting dates when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography showed striking differences in isoflavone content. Dependent upon the variety, total isoflavone content was increased as much as 1.3-fold in early-planted soybeans. Irrigation enhanced the isoflavone content of both early- and

  14. Chemical desiccation for early harvest in soybean cultivars

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    Tamara Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of desiccants is an alternative to anticipate the soybean harvest and keep the physiological quality of seed. The objective of this work was to assess the production performance and germination seeds in response to differents stages and desiccation chemicals products to early harvest of soybean cultivars. The experiment was conducted in Campos Novos, in two harvests, it was used a randomized complete block design disposed in split-split-plots. Two phenological stages of application (stage R7.1 and R7.3 were tested in the main plot. Five soybean cultivars (NA 5909 RG, CD 2585 RR, BMX Turbo RR, SYN 1059 RR and BENSO 1RR were evaluated in the subplots, and three desiccants ammonium glufosinate, paraquat, carfentrazone-ethyl in the 2011/12 season and one control (without the desiccant application were evaluated in the sub-subplots. In the 2012/13 season the carfentrazone-ethyl was substituted by diquat. It were evaluated the number of the days in the early harvest, yield, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, mass of 100 seeds and germination percentage. The chemical dessecation with the use of glufosinate ammonium and paraquat applied in R7.1 stage allowed to anticipate the harvest in six days (2011/12 and provided maintenance germination percentage (90% and 92% compared to control (76%. The dessecation didn’t influence negatively on seeds productivity, but reduced the mass of seeds in the two growing seasons, and early harvest was dependent of pre-harvest rain absence, with this preamble. The use of dessicants is a possibility of early harvest in production field of soybean seeds.

  15. The success of BNF in soybean in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Bruno J.R.; Boddey, Robert M.; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2001-01-01

    Approximately forty years after commercial cropping of soybean in Brazil began, the total area under this crop has reached over 13 M ha with a mean productivity of 2400 kg ha -I . Soybean varieties introduced from the USA and varieties rescued from early introductions in Brazilian territory were part of the Brazilian soybean-breeding programme which spread the crop from high to low latitudes. Disease-resistance, pest-resistance, tolerance to low fertility soils, as well as production of plants with pods sufficiently high above the ground for efficient mechanical harvesting, were all aims of the programme. Although BNF was not explicitly considered as a trait for selection in the breeding/selection programme, maximisation of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was favoured by conducting selection and breeding trials on soils low in N, in which the seeds were inoculated with efficient Bradyrhizobium inoculants but without N fertiliser application. Several efficient imported Bradyrhizobium strains were found to be unable to compete with native soil micro-flora and other previously-introduced Bradyrhizobium strains. Surprisingly, after being in the soil for many years one or two of these strains had become more competitive while maintaining their high BNF capacity. Today, these strains are included amongst the recommended Brazilian inoculants and have promoted significant improvements in grain yields. The breeding of soybeans in conditions that made grain yield highly dependent on BNF, and the continuous attention paid to the selection of Bradyrhizobium strains appropriate for the newly released varieties, have been the main contributors to today's high yields and their great benefit to the Brazilian economy. There seems to be no reason why this ongoing research programme should not serve as an appropriate model to improve BNF inputs to grain legumes in other countries of the world. (author)

  16. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Coffey, Peter L; Dively, Galen P; Lamp, William O

    2014-01-01

    The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855), contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  17. RNAseq reveals weed-induced PIF3-like as a candidate target to manipulate weed stress response in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, David P; Hansen, Stephanie A; Moriles-Miller, Janet P; Pierik, Ronald; Yan, Changhui; Clay, David E; Scheffler, Brian; Clay, Sharon A

    2015-07-01

    Weeds reduce yield in soybeans (Glycine max) through incompletely defined mechanisms. The effects of weeds on the soybean transcriptome were evaluated in field conditions during four separate growing seasons. RNASeq data were collected from six biological samples of soybeans growing with or without weeds. Weed species and the methods to maintain weed-free controls varied between years to mitigate treatment effects, and to allow detection of general soybean weed responses. Soybean plants were not visibly nutrient- or water-stressed. We identified 55 consistently downregulated genes in weedy plots. Many of the downregulated genes were heat shock genes. Fourteen genes were consistently upregulated. Several transcription factors including a PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-like gene (PIF3) were included among the upregulated genes. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated roles for increased oxidative stress and jasmonic acid signaling responses during weed stress. The relationship of this weed-induced PIF3 gene to genes involved in shade avoidance responses in Arabidopsis provide evidence that this gene may be important in the response of soybean to weeds. These results suggest that the weed-induced PIF3 gene will be a target for manipulating weed tolerance in soybean. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dilip Venugopal

    Full Text Available The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855, contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  19. Soybean (Glycine max) WRINKLED1 transcription factor, GmWRI1a, positively regulates seed oil accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zheng, Yuhong; Dong, Zhimin; Meng, Fanfan; Sun, Xingmiao; Fan, Xuhong; Zhang, Yunfeng; Wang, Mingliang; Wang, Shuming

    2018-04-01

    Soybean is the world's most important leguminous crop producing high-quality protein and oil. Elevating oil accumulation in soybean seed is always many researchers' goal. WRINKLED1 (WRI1) encodes a transcription factor of the APETALA2/ethylene responsive element-binding protein (AP2/EREBP) family that plays important roles during plant seed oil accumulation. In this study, we isolated and characterized three distinct orthologues of WRI1 in soybean (Glycine max) that display different organ-specific expression patterns, among which GmWRI1a was highly expressed in maturing soybean seed. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrid experiments demonstrated that the GmWRI1a protein was capable of binding to AW-box, a conserved sequence in the proximal upstream regions of many genes involved in various steps of oil biosynthesis. Transgenic soybean seeds overexpressing GmWRI1a under the control of the seed-specific napin promoter showed the increased total oil and fatty acid content and the changed fatty acid composition. Furthermore, basing on the activated expressions in transgenic soybean seeds and existence of AW-box element in the promoter regions, direct downstream genes of GmWRI1a were identified, and their products were responsible for fatty acid production, elongation, desaturation and export from plastid. We conclude that GmWRI1a transcription factor can positively regulate oil accumulation in soybean seed by a complex gene expression network related to fatty acid biosynthesis.

  20. SEED VIGOR TESTING OF SOME DOMESTIC SOYBEAN CULTIVARS (Glycine max (L. Merrill

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    Luka Andrić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed ageing is an important cause of low vigor and bad field emergence, especially in adverse seedbed conditions. Therefore, in this investigation, soybean seed vigor was tested by four laboratory tests (germination energy GE, standard germination SG, cold test CT, electrical conductivity EC and in field trial, as well (early planting dates Epd and optimal planting dates Opd. The soybean seed of 5 cultivars from Agricultural Institute Osijek, produced in the 3 years (1999., 2000., 2001. was used in the investigation. The seed was stored in a warehouse conditions for 6, 18 or 30 months prior to testing. Tested soybean seed showed significant differences in seed vigor influenced by seed age, seed treatment with fungicide (Vitavax 200 FF, cultivar and planting date. High quality seed with GE and SG over 85%,performed quite well in both planting dates, as well as seeds with the CT over 70% or with EC under 42 μScm-1g-1. On the contrary, considering seed with reduced vigor there is a very great possibility of reduced FE especially in Epd. However, seed treatment with fungicide and sowing in optimal seedbed conditions can significantly contribute to improvement of soybean seed performance and stand establishment. Correlation analyses showed that all tested seed vigor parameters were significantly connected (sign. level 99%. At early planting, the strongest correlation was established between the field emergence and CT (untreated seed, r=0.949** and for treated seed r=0.951** whereas in optimal planting date was between the field emergence and SG (for untreated seed r=0. 938** and for treated seed r=0.942**. Laboratory seed health testing showed significant differences in fungal disease intensity influenced by fungicide seed treatment, cultivar and seed age. Total seed infection and infection with Fusarium spp. was adversely correlated with all vigor parameters. All tested vigor parameters of soybean seed had influence on grain yield indirectly by

  1. Soybean cultivation for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs): The effect of hydroponic system and nitrogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A.; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the plant species selected within the European Space Agency (ESA) Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project for hydroponic cultivation in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSSs), because of the high nutritional value of seeds. Root symbiosis of soybean with Bradirhizobium japonicum contributes to plant nutrition in soil, providing ammonium through the bacterial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two hydroponic systems, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) and cultivation on rockwool, and two nitrogen sources in the nutrient solution, nitrate (as Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2), on root symbiosis, plant growth and seeds production of soybean. Plants of cultivar 'OT8914', inoculated with B. japonicum strain BUS-2, were grown in a growth chamber, under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivation on rockwool positively influenced root nodulation and plant growth and yield, without affecting the proximate composition of seeds, compared to NFT. Urea as the sole source of N drastically reduced the seed production and the harvest index of soybean plants, presumably because of ammonium toxicity, even though it enhanced root nodulation and increased the N content of seeds. In the view of large-scale cultivation for space colony on planetary surfaces, the possibility to use porous media, prepared using in situ resources, should be investigated. Urea can be included in the nutrient formulation for soybean in order to promote bacterial activity, however a proper ammonium/nitrate ratio should be maintained.

  2. Vermiculite's strong buffer capacity renders it unsuitable for studies of acidity on soybean (Glycine max L.) nodulation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-11-14

    Vermiculite is the most common soil-free growing substrate used for plants in horticultural and scientific studies due to its high water holding capacity. However, some studies are not suitable to be conducted in it. The described experiments aimed to test the suitability of vermiculite to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.). Two different nutrient solutions (Broughton & Dilworth, and modified Herridge nutrient solutions) with or without MES buffer addition were used to irrigate soybean grown on vermiculite growth substrates. The pH of nutrient solutions was adjusted to either pH 4.0 or 7.0 prior its use. The nodulation and vegetative growth of soybean plants were assessed at 3 and 4 weeks after inoculation. The unsuitability of presumably inert vermiculite as a physical plant growth substrate for studying the effects of acidity on soybean nodulation and plant growth was illustrated. Nodulation and growth of soybean grown in vermiculite were not affected by irrigation with pH-adjusted nutrient solution either at pH 4.0 or 7.0. This was reasonably caused by the ability of vermiculite to neutralise (buffer) the pH of the supplied nutrient solution (pH 2.0-7.0). Due to its buffering capacity, vermiculite cannot be used as growth support to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and plant growth.

  3. Participation of gibberellin in the control of apical dominance in soybean and redwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddat, M.; Pharis, R.P.

    1966-01-01

    Loss of apical dominance in soybeans and redwood was increased when the plants were treated with the growth retardant AMO-1618. Simultaneous application of gibberellin reduced the number of elongating buds and promoted growth of the first or second uppermost auxillary bud, thus restoring apical dominance. It is concluded that gibberellin participates in the expression of apical dominance. 30 references, 2 tables.

  4. Climatic thresholds for concentrations of minerals and heavy metals in Argentinean soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineral undernourishment is of concern throughout the world, and plant-derived foods are considered a major dietary source contributing to adequate daily mineral intake. Soybeans and soy ingredients are consumed daily by humans and animals. In this study, we demonstrate the climate thresholds for op...

  5. Genetics and physiology of the nuclearly inherited yellow foliar mutants in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant photosynthetic pigments are important in harvesting the light energy and transfer of energy during photosynthesis. There are several yellow foliar mutants discovered in soybean and chromosomal locations for about half of them have been deduced. Viable-yellow mutants are capable of surviving wi...

  6. Irrigation initiation timing in soybean grown on sandy soils in Northeast Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation initiation timing was evaluated in furrow-irrigated soybean field with sandy soils in Mississippi County, AR. A major objective of this 2015 study was to validate and expand irrigation timing recommendations that pair plant growth measures with weather cues including use of local weather ...

  7. Responses of Soybean Mutant Lines to Aluminium under In Vitro and In Vivo Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliasti; Sudarsono

    2011-01-01

    The main limited factors of soybean plants expansion in acid soil are Aluminium (Al) toxicity and low pH. The best approach to solve this problem is by using Al tolerance variety. In vitro or in vivo selections using selective media containing AlCl 3 and induced callus embryonic of mutant lines are reliable methods to develop a new variety. The objectives of this research are to evaluate response of soybean genotypes against AlCl 3 under in vitro and in vivo condition. Addition of 15 part per million (ppm) AlCl 3 into in vitro and in vivo media severely affected plant growth. G3 soybean mutant line was identified as more tolerant than the control soybean cultivar Tanggamus. This mutant line was able to survive under more severe AlCl 3 concentrations (15 ppm) under in vitro conditions. Under in vivo conditions, G1 and G4 mutants were also identified as more tolerant than Tanggamus since they produced more pods and higher dry seed weigh per plant. Moreover, G4 mutant line also produced more dry seed weight per plant than Tanggamus when they were grown on soil containing high Al concentration 8.1 me/100 gr = 81 ppm Al +3 . (author)

  8. 76 FR 78232 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... peer review of safety tests, and health effects of genetically modified organisms and glyphosate. APHIS...] Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a Modified... that there is reason to believe are plant pests. Such genetically engineered organisms and products are...

  9. Liquid organomineral fertilizer containing humic substances on soybean grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. V. Prado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effect of an organomineral fertilizer enriched with humic substances on soybean grown under water stress. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse using a Red Latosol (Oxisol with adequate fertility as substrate, in which soybean plants were cultivated with and without water stress. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme (two moisture levels and five fertilizer doses: 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mL dm-3, totaling 10 treatments, with four replicates. The organomineral fertilizer was applied in the soil 21 days after plant emergence and the water regimes were established one week thereafter. The fertilizer was not able to attenuate the effects of water stress, reducing soybean grain yield by more than 50% compared with plants cultivated under no stress. Fertilizer doses caused positive response on soybean nutrition and grain yield and, under water stress condition, the most efficient dose was 5.4 mL dm-3. There were lower leaf concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and higher concentrations of sulfur in plants under stress. Humic substances favor the absorption of micronutrients.

  10. Distinct transcriptional profiles of ozone stress in soybean (Glycine max) flowers and pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a secondary air pollutant and anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Concentrations of tropospheric O3 ([O3] have more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution, and are high enough to damage plant productivity. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is the world's most important legume...

  11. Identification of soybean purple acid phosphatase genes and their expression responses to phosphorus availability and symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are members of the metallo-phosphoesterase family and have been known to play important roles in phosphorus (P) acquisition and recycling in plants. Low P availability is a major constraint to growth and production of soybean, Glycine max. Comparat...

  12. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  13. Food type soybean cooking time: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonisio Destro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an extensive crop that produces more protein per hectare and, compared to other sources, has the lowest proteincost. This turns soybean into one of the basic foods with the potential to fight malnutrition and hunger in the planet. Even though itrepresents the fourth crop in grain production in the world (261 million tons year-1, most of its production is used as animal fodder.Currently, one of the greatest research challenges is to improve soybean production for human consumption. Cooking time is one theseveral characteristics that need improvement so that soybean can be used more extensively in our everyday diet. The objective of thiswork is to carry out a bibliographic review on the topic, to sensitize researchers in the area of soybean breeding about its importance.

  14. Inheritance and Gene Mapping of Resistance to Soybean Mosaic Virus Strain SC14 in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Chao Li; Hai-Jian Zhi; Jun-Yi Gai; Dong-Quan Guo; Yan-Wei Wang; Kai Li; Li Bai; Hua Yang

    2006-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most broadly distributed diseases worldwide. It causes severe yield loss and seed quality deficiency in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). SMV Strain SC14 isolated from Shanxi Province, China, was a newly identified virulent strain and can infect Kefeng No. 1, a source with wide spectrum resistance. In the present study, soybean accessions, PI96983, Qihuang No. 1 and Qihuang No. 22 were identified to be resistant (R) and Nannong 1138-2, Pixianchadou susceptible (S) to SC14. Segregation analysis of PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 indicated that a single dominant gene (designated as Rsc14) controlled the resistance to SC14 at both V2 and R1 developmental stages. The same results were obtained for the crosses of Qihuang No. 1 × Nannong 1138-2 and Qihuang No. 22 × Nannong 1138-2 as in PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 at V2 stage, but at R1 stage,the F1 performed as necrosis (a susceptible symptom other than mosaic), F2 segregated in a ratio of 1R:2N:1S,and the progenies of necrotic (N) F2 individuals segregated also in R, N and S. It indicated that a single gene (designated as Rsc14o, to be different from that of PI96983) controlled the resistance to SC14, its dominance was the same as in PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 (without symptoms) at V2 stage and not the same at R1 stage. The tightly linked co-dominant simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker Satt334 indicated that all the heterozygous bands were completely corresponding to the necrotic F2 individuals, or all the necrotic F2 individuals were heterozygotes.It was inferred that necrosis might be due to the interaction among SMV strains, resistance genes, genetic background of the resistance genes, and plant development stage. Furthermore, the bulked segregant analysis (BSA) of SSR markers was conducted to map the resistance genes. In F2 of PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2, five SSR markers, Sat_297, Sat_234, Sat_154, Sct_033 and Sat_120, were found closely linked to Rsc14, with genetic distances of 14

  15. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  16. Understanding abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms in soybean: a comparative evaluation of soybean response to drought and flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutava, Raymond N; Prince, Silvas Jebakumar K; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Song, Li; Valliyodan, Babu; Chen, Wei; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Many sources of drought and flooding tolerance have been identified in soybean, however underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to illuminate different plant responses to these abiotic stresses and understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance. Towards this goal we used four contrasting soybean (Glycine max) genotypes (PI 567690--drought tolerant, Pana--drought susceptible, PI 408105A--flooding tolerant, S99-2281--flooding susceptible) grown under greenhouse conditions and compared genotypic responses to drought and flooding at the physiological, biochemical, and cellular level. We also quantified these variations and tried to infer their role in drought and flooding tolerance in soybean. Our results revealed that different mechanisms contribute to reduction in net photosynthesis under drought and flooding stress. Under drought stress, ABA and stomatal conductance are responsible for reduced photosynthetic rate; while under flooding stress, accumulation of starch granules played a major role. Drought tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A had higher plastoglobule numbers than the susceptible Pana and S99-2281. Drought stress increased the number and size of plastoglobules in most of the genotypes pointing to a possible role in stress tolerance. Interestingly, there were seven fibrillin proteins localized within the plastoglobules that were up-regulated in the drought and flooding tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A, respectively, but down-regulated in the drought susceptible genotype Pana. These results suggest a potential role of Fibrillin proteins, FBN1a, 1b and 7a in soybean response to drought and flooding stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  18. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  19. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the following...

  20. Agronomic performance of old soybean variety 'Altona' derived mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodosne, K.G.; Heszky, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    An induced mutation program has been initiated at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding to develop early maturing cultivars with good yielding capacity. Some new mutants have been produced by irradiation of variety Altona with 60 Co gamma rays. Ten years of breeding resulted in two new mutant varieties named 'Noventa' and 'Gate 511'. The present study deals with agronomic performance of these mutants. Registered soybean varieties Altona and 'McCall' as well as Altona derived mutants (Gate 511 and Noventa) have been compared

  1. Clone and characterization of photolyase-gene from soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najrana, T.; Hirouchi, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidone photoproduct (6-4pp) are the major products of UV-radiation. Both CPD and 6-4pp posses lethal as well as mutagenic property. Excision repair and photoreactivation are involved as major pathways in repairing those photoproducts. To repair those products plant uses photoreactivation as a major pathway. In photoreactivation process photolyase (enzyme encoded by PHR-gene) catalyzes the splitting of the dimer into a monomer under blue light. Photolyase is specific for damage CPD or 6-4pp. The CPD and 6-4pp photolyases are responsible for repairing CPD and 6-4pp lesions respectively. Several investigators reported that removal of CPD lesion is necessary for survival in higher plants in the early development. Thus one should realize the importance of clone and characterization of CPD-photolyase gene from plants especially from those are lying in the list of foods such as wheat, corn, soybean etc. cDNA library (pSPORT-P) of soybean was amplified using the primers that designated as common for CPD-photolyase gene for plants. These primers gave the desire size of PCR product. Desirable PCR product inserted into TA-cloning vector and sequenced. Amino acid sequence revealed considerable homology with CPD-photolyases of rice, arabidopsis thaliana. Then using dilution-PCR amplification method (Hirouchi et al., MGG in press) I have identified the true clone from cDNA library of soybean that containing the full length of CPD-photolyase gene. Full length of cloned gene is about 1698 bps long and exist start and stop codon. Amino acid sequence of the cloned gene shows more than 70% homology with rice, arabidopsis thaliana. Cloned gene enables to complement the E. coli ( phr-uvrA-recA-) system that is completely defective in photoreactivation. The size of CPD-photolyase of soybean is about 56 KDa as identified by 12% SDS PAGE

  2. Impact of broadcasting a cereal rye or oat cover crop before corn and soybean harvest on nitrate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corn and soybean rotation in Iowa has no living plants taking up water and nutrients from crop maturity until planting, a period of over six months in most years. In many fields, this results in losses of nitrate in effluent from artificial drainage systems during this time. In a long-term fiel...

  3. Roles of small RNAs in soybean defense against Phytophthora sojae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, James; Gao, Lei; Yang, Yang; Zhai, Jixian; Arikit, Siwaret; Yu, Yu; Duan, Shuyi; Chan, Vicky; Xiong, Qin; Yan, Jun; Li, Shengben; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Yuanchao; Tang, Guiliang; Meyers, Blake C; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-09-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of many notorious pathogens of crops and forestry trees. At present, battling Phytophthora diseases is challenging due to a lack of understanding of their pathogenesis. We investigated the role of small RNAs in regulating soybean defense in response to infection by Phytophthora sojae, the second most destructive pathogen of soybean. Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are universal regulators that repress target gene expression in eukaryotes. We identified known and novel small RNAs that differentially accumulated during P. sojae infection in soybean roots. Among them, miR393 and miR166 were induced by heat-inactivated P. sojae hyphae, indicating that they may be involved in soybean basal defense. Indeed, knocking down the level of mature miR393 led to enhanced susceptibility of soybean to P. sojae; furthermore, the expression of isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes was drastically reduced in miR393 knockdown roots. These data suggest that miR393 promotes soybean defense against P. sojae. In addition to miRNAs, P. sojae infection also resulted in increased accumulation of phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) that are predominantly generated from canonical resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat proteins and genes encoding pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins. This work identifies specific miRNAs and phasiRNAs that regulate defense-associated genes in soybean during Phytophthora infection. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Endophytic fungal communities associated with field-grown soybean roots and seeds in the Huang-Huai region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants depend on beneficial interactions between roots and fungal endophytes for growth, disease suppression, and stress tolerance. In this study, we characterized the endophytic fungal communities associated with the roots and corresponding seeds of soybeans grown in the Huang-Huai region of China. For the roots, we identified 105 and 50 genera by culture-independent and culture-dependent (CD methods, respectively, and isolated 136 fungal strains (20 genera from the CD samples. Compared with the 52 soybean endophytic fungal genera reported in other countries, 28 of the genera we found were reported, and 90 were newly discovered. Even though Fusarium was the most abundant genus of fungal endophyte in every sample, soybean root samples from three cities exhibited diverse endophytic fungal communities, and the results between samples of roots and seeds were also significantly different. Together, we identified the major endophytic fungal genera in soybean roots and seeds, and revealed that the diversity of soybean endophytic fungal communities was influenced by geographical effects and tissues. The results will facilitate a better understanding of soybean–endophytic fungi interaction systems and will assist in the screening and utilization of beneficial microorganisms to promote healthy of plants such as soybean.

  5. Extensive Analysis of GmFTL and GmCOL Expression in Northern Soybean Cultivars in Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guangyu; Xu, Kun; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhu, Jinlong; Lu, Mingyang; Chen, Fulu; Liu, Linpo; Xi, Zhang-Ying; Bachmair, Andreas; Chen, Qingshan; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is a highly conserved florigen gene among flowering plants. Soybean genome encodes six homologs of FT, which display flowering activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their contributions to flowering time in different soybean cultivars, especially in field conditions, are unclear. We employed six soybean cultivars with different maturities to extensively investigate expression patterns of GmFTLs (Glycine max FT-like) and GmCOLs (Glycine max CO-like) in the field conditions. The results show that GmFTL3 is an FT homolog with the highest transcript abundance in soybean, but other GmFTLs may also contribute to flower induction with different extents, because they have more or less similar expression patterns in developmental-, leaf-, and circadian-specific modes. And four GmCOL genes (GmCOL1/2/5/13) may confer to the expression of GmFTL genes. Artificial manipulation of GmFTL expression by transgenic strategy (overexpression and RNAi) results in a distinct change in soybean flowering time, indicating that GmFTLs not only impact on the control of flowering time, but have potential applications in the manipulation of photoperiodic adaptation in soybean. Additionally, transgenic plants show that GmFTLs play a role in formation of the first flowers and in vegetative growth.

  6. The refining of soybean oil to optimum quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusell, J.

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the American Soybean Association is to improve the quality of soybean and related products in Turkey. In order to achieve this, a number of extraction plants and refineries were visited to enable first hand information to be obtained on the type of equipment used in all unit processes, the methodology employed, quality standards and levels of efficiency. The culmination of the visit was a seminar organised jointly by the American Soybean Association and the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association in Istanbul on 22nd September 1989, at which a paper with the above title was presented. A reproduction of this paper is attached which briefly describes the critical areas of soybean oil processing and includes recommendations for quality improvements. It concludes with the comment that provided proper care is taken and optimum refining processes employed, including hydrogenation where appropriate, an impressive range of oils, margarines and shortenings of high quality can ben produced. The author would like to record his grateful thanks to Dr. R. Leysen of the American Soybean Association for all his help and guidance, to Mr. Kenon Marasoglu, Chairman of the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association and to the management and staff of all the factories visited. Acknowledgement is also made to Dr. D. R. Arickson and Mr. L. H. Wiedermann of the American Soybean Association for the use of some technical information from a paper entitled «Soybean Oil-Modern Processing and Utilisation» which is to be published shortly.

    Uno de los objetivos de la Asociación Americana de Soja en Turquía es mejorar la calidad de la soja y de los productos relacionados. En orden a conseguir esto, diversas plantas de extracción y refinerías fueron visitadas para permitir obtener de primera mano información sobre el tipo de equipo usado en todas las unidades de proceso, la metodología empleada, los estándar de calidad y los niveles de eficacia. La

  7. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of soybean primary root under varying water-deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Prince, Silvas; Valliyodan, Babu; Joshi, Trupti; Maldonado dos Santos, Joao V; Wang, Jiaojiao; Lin, Li; Wan, Jinrong; Wang, Yongqin; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-01-15

    Soybean is a major crop that provides an important source of protein and oil to humans and animals, but its production can be dramatically decreased by the occurrence of drought stress. Soybeans can survive drought stress if there is a robust and deep root system at the early vegetative growth stage. However, little is known about the genome-wide molecular mechanisms contributing to soybean root system architecture. This study was performed to gain knowledge on transcriptome changes and related molecular mechanisms contributing to soybean root development under water limited conditions. The soybean Williams 82 genotype was subjected to very mild stress (VMS), mild stress (MS) and severe stress (SS) conditions, as well as recovery from the severe stress after re-watering (SR). In total, 6,609 genes in the roots showed differential expression patterns in response to different water-deficit stress levels. Genes involved in hormone (Auxin/Ethylene), carbohydrate, and cell wall-related metabolism (XTH/lipid/flavonoids/lignin) pathways were differentially regulated in the soybean root system. Several transcription factors (TFs) regulating root growth and responses under varying water-deficit conditions were identified and the expression patterns of six TFs were found to be common across the stress levels. Further analysis on the whole plant level led to the finding of tissue-specific or water-deficit levels specific regulation of transcription factors. Analysis of the over-represented motif of different gene groups revealed several new cis-elements associated with different levels of water deficit. The expression patterns of 18 genes were confirmed byquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method and demonstrated the accuracy and effectiveness of RNA-Seq. The primary root specific transcriptome in soybean can enable a better understanding of the root response to water deficit conditions. The genes detected in root tissues that were associated with

  8. Efeito de bicarbonato de potássio sobre a severidade do oídio em plantas de soja Effect of potassium bicarbonate on the severity of powdery mildew in soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Medice

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O oídio da soja, causado por Erysiphe diffusa, é considerado uma doença esporádica podendo ocasionar perdas quando atinge proporções epidêmicas. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de bicarbonato de potássio (Kaligreen® no controle do oídio da soja. As pulverizações do bicarbonato de potássio nas concentrações de 0; 0,25%, 0,5%, 0,75% e 1,0% e do fungicida (piraclostrobina + epoxiconazole e as avaliações foram semanais. Folhas foram coletadas para análise ultraestrutural através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O bicarbonato de potássio controlou a doença em todas as concentrações, mas causou fitotoxicidade a partir de 0,5%. Na analise ultraestrutural pode-se observar que o produto apresentou ação direta sobre o patógeno ocasionando murchamento e redução na germinação dos conídios. O produto apresenta potencial para controlar a doença, porém deve ser adequada a concentração a ser recomenda, bem como a frequência de aplicação para evitar os problemas de fitotoxicidade.The soybean powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe diffusa, is considered a sporadic disease which can cause losses when it reaches epidemic proportions. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of potassium bicarbonate (Kaligreen® in controlling soybean powdery mildew. Sprays of both potassium bicarbonate at concentrations of 0, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0% and fungicide (pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole, as well as assessments, were weekly carried out. Leaves were collected for ultrastructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy. Potassium bicarbonate controlled the disease at all concentrations but caused phytotoxicity from 0.5%. In the ultrastructural analysis, the product had a direct action on the pathogen, causing wilting and reduction in conidium germination. The product has the potential to control the disease, but the concentration to be recommended should be adequate, as well as the frequency of application to

  9. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Gan et al., 2003). Nitrogen increases yield by influencing a variety of agronomic and quality parameters. In general, there was an increase in plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant in soybean (Manral and Saxena, ...

  10. Selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PURWANINGSIH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in green house. The aim of the experiment the selection and potency of the Rhizobium strain to increase the growth of soybean. The experiment was carried out in green house condition in Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology-LIPI with sterile sand medium. The research design was Completely Randomized Design with three replications for each treatment. The Rhizobium strains used were 1 W (isolated from bean, Vigna radiata, 2 W (isolated from soybean, 3 W (isolated from bean, 4 W (isolated from soybean, 5 W (isolated from soybean, 6 W (isolated from peanut, Arachis hypogaea, 7 W (isolated from peanut, 8 W (isolated from peanut, the controls were uninoculated with Rhizobium strain and without urea fertilizer (K1, uninoculated and with urea fertilizer equal 100 kg/ha (K2. The plants were harvested after 50 days, the variable of investigation were the dry weight of canopy, roots, nodules root, total plants, number of nodules and ‘symbiotic capacity”. The results showed that all of experiment plant which be inoculated with Rhizobium able to form nodule. Strain of 2 W (isolated from soybean has given the best effects on the growth of soybean.

  11. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muchlish Adie, M; Krisnawati, Ayda

    2014-01-01

    These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addi...

  12. Engineered resistance and hypersusceptibility through functional metabolic studies of 100 genes in soybean to its major pathogen, the soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Benjamin F; Beard, Hunter; MacDonald, Margaret H; Kabir, Sara; Youssef, Reham M; Hosseini, Parsa; Brewer, Eric

    2013-05-01

    During pathogen attack, the host plant induces genes to ward off the pathogen while the pathogen often produces effector proteins to increase susceptibility of the host. Gene expression studies of syncytia formed in soybean root by soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) identified many genes altered in expression in resistant and susceptible roots. However, it is difficult to assess the role and impact of these genes on resistance using gene expression patterns alone. We selected 100 soybean genes from published microarray studies and individually overexpressed them in soybean roots to determine their impact on cyst nematode development. Nine genes reduced the number of mature females by more than 50 % when overexpressed, including genes encoding ascorbate peroxidase, β-1,4-endoglucanase, short chain dehydrogenase, lipase, DREPP membrane protein, calmodulin, and three proteins of unknown function. One gene encoding a serine hydroxymethyltransferase decreased the number of mature cyst nematode females by 45 % and is located at the Rhg4 locus. Four genes increased the number of mature cyst nematode females by more than 200 %, while thirteen others increased the number of mature cyst nematode females by more than 150 %. Our data support a role for auxin and ethylene in susceptibility of soybean to cyst nematodes. These studies highlight the contrasting gene sets induced by host and nematode during infection and provide new insights into the interactions between host and pathogen at the molecular level. Overexpression of some of these genes result in a greater decrease in the number of cysts formed than recognized soybean cyst nematode resistance loci.

  13. Vegetable soybean: seed composition and production research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable soybean (edamame [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is a low input, high nutritional value, short crop cycle and soil-enriching profitable crop. It offers quick economic return and provides health benefits to the consumers. The market demand for edamame has begun to flourish and expand dramatically in recent decades due to increased awareness of nutritional properties, and the change in life styles towards healthier food. This article highlighted the importance of edamame as a nutraceutical and functional food-grade produce, summarised the research advances in seed composition and their roles, cultivar selection and crop establishment, planting date and fertilisation, weed management and harvesting. Current production problem of extensive labor at harvest and future research challenges in improving crop establishment, developing cultivars competitive to weed and resistant to pest insects/diseases, assessing biological activities of edamame elemental and phytochemical properties on cancer cell inhibition, and developing organic production system were also proposed with aims of enhancing farm profitability and expanding opportunities for extensive use of edamame.

  14. EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES AND LINES OF SOYBEAN FOR BREEDING FOR VALUABLE TRAITS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Shafigullin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans is the most important source of high quality protein using as food and oil. Soybean protein is balanced for amino acid composition that is advantage in comparison with other legumes, oil crops, and cereals. Soybean protein contains all the essential amino acids in a ratio close to the animal protein. Due to the acute deficiency of protein, the interest in soybean production and breeding of new varieties are constantly growing worldwide. The early ripening lines for the duration of the vegetation period and interphase periods of development were selected. The soybean samples with a maximum seed weight per a plant, thousand-seed weight and the largest number of seeds in a bean were revealed. The genotypes with the optimal displays of these traits for the breeding in the different directions were identified.

  15. Interactions in the Agrobacterium-soybean system and capability of some Brazilian soybean cultivars to produce somatic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Antonio Orlando Di

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five Brazilian soybean cultivars were studied for susceptibility to four strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (C58, Ach5, Bo542 and A281 and for their ability to produce somatic embryos. Twelve plants of each cultivar were inoculated in a greenhouse at 4-6 weeks of age, using 12 inoculation sites per plant. The number of galls formed on plants were counted 8-10 weeks after inoculation. To study ability to produce somatic embryos, immature cotyledons, 4-6 mm in length, were plated onto N10 medium for induction of somatic embryogenesis, using four Petri dishes with 20 cotyledons for each cultivar. The embryogenic tissues were transferred onto new N10 medium six times at 15-day intervals and the number of somatic embryos per cultivar determined. Significant interaction between soybean cultivars and A. tumefaciens strains was observed; the most virulent strain was A281. The opine type apparently had no effect on strain virulence, and the most embryogenic cultivars were IAS-5, Cristalina, FT-Cometa, IAC-7 and OC-3.

  16. Plant density and levels of NPK on the production components of vegetable soybean in the Savannah of the state of Roraima=Densidade de plantas e doses de NPK nos componentes de produção de soja-hortaliça na Savana de Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alynny Neftaly Lopes Monteiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sowing densities and levels of NPK (02-24- 12 on the production components of the JLM 08 strain of vegetable soybean, in the Savannah of Boa Vista, in the state of Roraima, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in the experimental area of the Centre for Agrarian Sciences at the Cauamé Campus of the Federal University of Roraima in Boa Vista. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a factorial scheme (2 x 5 with three replications. The two densities (40,000 and 80,000 plants per hectare comprised the first factor, while five levels of NPK (02-24-12 made up the second (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 kg ha-1. The following were evaluated: height of insertion of the first and last pod; stem diameter; number of pods per plant having 1, 2, and 3 grains; total number of pods per plant; 100 grain weight and estimated grain yield. The height of insertion of the first and last pod in the JLM 08 genotype of the vegetable soybean is not influenced by the planting densities or levels of formulated fertiliser. At a density of 80,000 plants per hectare, the number of pods per plant is influenced by the levels of fertiliser, demonstrating a positive quadratic response. The level of fertiliser with the maximum technical efficiency (492.86 kg ha-1 gives an 18% increase in grain yield at the highest planting density. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de duas densidades de semeadura e doses de NPK (02-24-12 nos componentes de produção da soja hortaliça linhagem JLM 08, na Savana de Boa Vista, Roraima. O experimento foi conduzido no período de novembro de 2013 a março de 2014, na área experimental do Centro de Ciências Agrária da Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus Cauamé, em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (2 x 5, com três repetições. O primeiro fator correspondeu a duas

  17. Mycoflora of soybeans used for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-06-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju.

  18. Assessment of soy genotype and processing method on quality of soybean tofu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Sladjana P; Barac, Miroljub B; Pesic, Mirjana B; Vucelic-Radovic, Biljana V

    2011-07-13

    Protein quality in six soybean varieties, based on subunit composition of their protein, was correlated with quality of the produced tofu. Also, protein changes due to a pilot plant processing method involving high temperature/pressure and commercial rennet as coagulant were assessed. In each soybean variety, glycinin (11S) and β-conglycinin (7S) as well as 11S/7S ratio significantly changed from beans to tofu. Between varieties, the 11S/7S protein ratio in seed indicated genotypic influence on tofu yield and gel hardness (r = 0.91 and r = 0.99, respectively; p soybean β'-subunit of 7S protein negatively influenced tofu hardness (r = -0.91, p Seed protein composition and proportion of 7S protein subunits under the applied production method had an important role in defining tofu quality.

  19. Study Quality Protein and Fat in Some Romanian and Foreign Soybean Varieties

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    Daniela Cenan (Pasc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide soy is one of the most important sources of vegetable protein and vegetable fats supplying plant. Soybean proteins are important both for human food and animal feed industry concentrated. In the last twenty years soybeans have become an irreplaceable product for the food industry. This paper presents the results of the production capacity, protein and oil content of 25 soybean genotypes studied in 2011-2013 at Agricultural Research Station Turda Development. Were calculated  the amounts of protein and oil produced by each genotype in part each year and averaged over three experimental years. Protein content was between 39 per cent and 43.9 per cent and for fat percentage values ​​were between 18.9 per cent and 21.8 per cent. Romanian genotypes quality results are similar to those obtained for foreign genotypes. These genotypes can be grown in climatic conditions of Transylvania resulting quality for there production.

  20. Growth reponses of eggplant and soybean seedlings to mechanical stress in greenhouse and outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, J. G.; Pappas, T.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum 'Burpee's Black Beauty') and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. 'Wells II'] seedlings were assigned to a greenhouse or a windless or windy outdoor environment. Plants within each environment received either periodic seismic (shaking) or thigmic (flexing or rubbing) treatment, or were left undisturbed. Productivity (dry weight) and dimensional (leaf area and stem length) growth parameters generally were reduced more by mechanical stress in the greenhouse (soybean) or outdoor-windless environment (eggplant) than in the outdoor windy environment. Outdoor exposure enhanced both stem and leaf specific weights, whereas mechanical stress enhanced only leaf specific weight. Although both forms of controlled mechanical stress tended to reduce node and internode diameters of soybean, outdoor exposure increased stem diameter.

  1. Fate of 14 C Labelled fungicides maneb and mancozeb during processing of contaminated soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Hegazi, B.

    1991-01-01

    Soybeans from plants previously treated with 14 C-maneb and 14 C-mancozeb contain 0.62% and 3.15% of the applied dose, respectively. Crude soybean soil extracted from seeds was subjected to different refining processes. The effect of commercial refining processes, namely: alkali treatment, bleacking, winterization and deoderization on the nature and magnitude of the original residues was investigated. A high percentage of the residues was eliminated by alkali refining and deoderization processes. Analysis of residues after each step showed the ETU, ETM and ETD, in addition to two unknowns where the main 14 C-residues present in the oil. The refined oil contains around 1% of the residues originally present in the crude soybean oil.4 tab

  2. Effect of NS-nitragin application on soybean yield and yield components

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    Marinković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils of Serbia are low in soybean symbiotic bacteria and application of bacteriological preparations has been introduced as a regular cultivation practice when growing soybean. A trial was set up on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops from Novi Sad on chernozem soil using a randomized block design with four replicates. Mineral nitrogen fertilizers were used in rates of 0, 30, 60, and 90 kg ha-1 in the experiment. Each of the nitrogen treatments had two variations, with and without inoculation. The effects of inoculation and different nitrogen fertilizer rates on yield and yield components were determined based on the pod number, seed number, 1000 seed mass and protein and oil content in seeds. Significantly higher pod number was observed in inoculated plants with the application of 30 kg N ha-1. Inoculation with NS-Nitragin increased seed number per plant. In treatment with no mineral nitrogen applied and with application of 30 kg N ha-1 and 60 kg N ha-1, 1000 seed mass was statistically higher in inoculated plants than in uninoculated ones. Inoculation produced statistically significant difference in soybean yield only in the treatment with no mineral nitrogen applied. Inoculation and applied mineral nitrogen rates had no significant effect on protein content in soybean grain.

  3. GmCLC1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance through Regulating Chloride Accumulation in Soybean

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    Peipei Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The family of chloride channel proteins that mediate Cl- transportation play vital roles in plant nutrient supply, cellular action potential and turgor pressure adjustment, stomatal movement, hormone signal recognition and transduction, Cl- homeostasis, and abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. The anionic toxicity, mainly caused by chloride ions (Cl-, on plants under salt stress remains poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the function of soybean Cl-/H+ antiporter GmCLC1 under salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, soybean, and yeast. We found that GmCLC1 enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic A. thaliana by reducing the Cl- accumulation in shoots and hence released the negative impact of salt stress on plant growth. Overexpression of GmCLC1 in the hairy roots of soybean sequestered more Cl- in their roots and transferred less Cl- to their shoots, leading to lower relative electrolyte leakage values in the roots and leaves. When either the soybean GmCLC1 or the yeast chloride transporter gene, GEF1, was transformed into the yeast gef1 mutant, and then treated with different chloride salts (MnCl2, KCl, NaCl, enhanced survival rate was observed. The result indicates that GmCLC1 and GEF1 exerted similar effects on alleviating the stress of diverse chloride salts on the yeast gef1 mutant. Together, this work suggests a protective function of GmCLC1 under Cl- stress.

  4. In vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in soybean by rosemary extract

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    Mônica Anghinoni Müller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of nematodes in plants can be challenging, and there is a need for alternative, environmentally conscious methods for their management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis on the in vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in CD 206 and CD 215 soybean cultivars. Using an in vitro assay, 500 M. incognita eggs per plate were observed for 15 days after incubation with rosemary extract at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10%. Soybean plants were studied under greenhouse conditions, and starting at V3 stage, were sprayed weekly with the same concentration of rosemary extract for 64 days. Three days after the first treatment, each soybean plant was inoculated with 1800 eggs and 400 second-stage juveniles (J2. At the end of this essay, number of eggs and J2 in the roots and soil, number of galls, and the reproduction factor (RF were evaluated. Our results showed that in the in vitro assay, rosemary extract reduced the number of M. incognita eggs that hatched. Under greenhouse conditions, the CD 206 cultivar showed a 48% reduction in the number of galls, as well as fewer eggs in the soil and a lower RF. Similarly, in the CD 215 cultivar, the number of eggs was reduced and the RF was lower. These results indicate the potential for rosemary extract to control M. incognita in soybean crops.

  5. In silico identification of known osmotic stress responsive genes from Arabidopsis in soybean and Medicago

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    Nina M. Soares-Cavalcanti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants experience various environmental stresses, but tolerance to these adverse conditions is a very complex phenomenon. The present research aimed to evaluate a set of genes involved in osmotic response, comparing soybean and medicago with the well-described Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. Based on 103 Arabidopsis proteins from 27 categories of osmotic stress response, comparative analyses against Genosoja and Medicago truncatula databases allowed the identification of 1,088 soybean and 1,210 Medicago sequences. The analysis showed a high number of sequences and high diversity, comprising genes from all categories in both organisms. Genes with unknown function were among the most representative, followed by transcription factors, ion transport proteins, water channel, plant defense, protein degradation, cellular structure, organization & biogenesis and senescence. An analysis of sequences with unknown function allowed the annotation of 174 soybean and 217 Medicago sequences, most of them concerning transcription factors. However, for about 30% of the sequences no function could be attributed using in silico procedures. The establishment of a gene set involved in osmotic stress responses in soybean and barrel medic will help to better understand the survival mechanisms for this type of stress condition in legumes.

  6. Constitutive expression of feedback-insensitive cystathionine γ-synthase increases methionine levels in soybean leaves and seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yang; HOU Wen-sheng; YaeI Hacham; SUN Shi; WU Cun-xiang; Ifat Matityahu; SONG Shikui; RacheI Amir; HAN Tian-fu

    2018-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a major crop that provides plant-origin protein and oil for humans and livestock. Although the soybean vegetative tissues and seeds provide a major source of high-quality protein, they suffer from low concentration of an essential sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine, which significantly limits their nutritional quality. The level of methionine is mainly controlled by the first unique enzyme of methionine synthesis, cystathione γ-synthase (CGS). Aiming to elevate methionine level in vegetative tissues and seeds, we constitutively over-expressed a feedback-insensitive Arabidopsis CGS (AtD-CGS) in soybean cultivars, Zigongdongdou (ZD) and Jilinxiaoli 1 (JX). The levels of soluble methionine increased remarkably in leaves of transgenic soybeans compared to wild-type plants (6.6- and 7.3-fold in two transgenic ZD lines, and 3.7-fold in one transgenic JX line). Furthermore, the total methionine contents were significantly increased in seeds of the transgenic ZD lines (1.5- to 4.8-fold increase) and the transgenic JX lines (1.3- to 2.3-fold increase) than in the wild type. The protein contents of the transgenic soybean seeds were significantly elevated compared to the wild type, suggesting that the scarcity of methionine in soybeans may limit protein accumulation in soybean seeds. The increased protein content did not alter the profile of major storage proteins in the seeds. Generally, this study provides a promising strategy to increase the levels of methionine and protein in soybean through the breeding programs.

  7. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  8. Mass spectrometry characterisation of fatty acids from metabolically engineered soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, André M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Machado, Alex M; da Cunha, Nicolau B; Coelho, Cíntia M; Lacerda, Valquiria A M; Coelho, Marly C; Rech, Elibio L

    2014-05-01

    Improving the quality and performance of soybean oil as biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of its fatty acids and requires an increase in monounsaturated acids and a reduction in polyunsaturated acids. Despite its current use as a source of biofuel, soybean oil contains an average of 25 % oleic acid and 13 % palmitic acid, which negatively impacts its oxidative stability and freezing point, causing a high rate of nitrogen oxide emission. Gas chromatography and ion mobility mass spectrometry were conducted on soybean fatty acids from metabolically engineered seed extracts to determine the nature of the structural oleic and palmitic acids. The soybean genes FAD2-1 and FatB were placed under the control of the 35SCaMV constitutive promoter, introduced to soybean embryonic axes by particle bombardment and down-regulated using RNA interference technology. Results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 94.58 %) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and non-transgenic oil extracts.

  9. Lipoxygenase activity of soybean and protein evaluation of soy milk produced from irradiated grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Erica A.; Broetto, Fernando; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2011-01-01

    Soybean and its derivative are considered as a functional food because it has high quality protein and are used for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. The irradiation technique is used in soybeans to increase shelf life and avoid problems in plant products consumed raw or processed. However, the controversy in the literature that the irradiation dose up 10 kGy food can alter the functional properties and structures of macronutrients. With the prospect of more information on the use of radiation on soybeans, the objective of this study was to determine the activity of lipoxygenase in soybeans and to evaluate possible changes in the protein content of soymilk processed from grain-BRS 213, BRS 258 and Embrapa 48 subjected to dosages of 2.5 , 5.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. The soybean cultivars were wrapped in plastic bags and subjected to gamma radiation source 60 Co, Gammacell 220 (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.), except the control. The grains irradiated induced reduction of enzyme activity. The results for the protein content of soymilk were similar, appropriate to that required by ANVISA and showed little protein solubility for cultivars BRS-258 and Embrapa48. It was concluded that the technique of irradiation beyond to keep the nutritional value of soy can contribute to the organoleptic quality of soymilk. (author)

  10. Antibiosis in Soybean Genotypes and the Resistance Levels to Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, B H S; Silva, A G; Janini, J C; Boica Júnior, A L

    2014-12-01

    The southern armyworm (SAW) Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) is one of the most common armyworm species defoliating soybeans. Preliminary screening trials have indicated that some soybean genotypes exhibit resistance to SAW. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the development of SAW larvae fed on ten soybean genotypes in order to identify genotypes with antibiosis-type resistance. Neonate SAW larvae were daily fed with young leaves collected from plants at the vegetative growth stages V4-V5. Larval development and survival were recorded. Genotypes PI 227687 and PI 227682 delayed larval, pupal, and larva-adult development and yielded larvae with the lowest weight and survival and pupae with the lowest weight. Genotypes IAC 100 and DM 339 also negatively affected larval and pupal development and larval survival but at a lower level. Based on our results, the soybean lines PI 227687 and PI 227682 could be used as sources of genes for soybean breeding programs aiming to develop high yield, SAW-resistant cultivars. Moreover, further trials must be carried out under field conditions to validate if the commercial cultivars IAC 100 and DM 339, which expressed moderate levels of antibiosis-type resistance in the laboratory, are effective in suppressing SAW larvae populations.

  11. Uptake and translocation of imidacloprid, clothianidin and flupyradifurone in seed-treated soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Mitchell D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Baxendale, Frederick P; Siegfried, Blair D; Blankenship, Erin E; Nauen, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Seed treatment insecticides have become a popular management option for early-season insect control. This study investigated the total uptake and translocation of seed-applied [(14) C]imidacloprid, [(14) C]clothianidin and [(14) C]flupyradifurone into different plant parts in three soybean vegetative stages (VC, V1 and V2). The effects of soil moisture stress on insecticide uptake and translocation were also assessed among treatments. We hypothesized that (1) uptake and translocation would be different among the insecticides owing to differences in water solubility, and (2) moisture stress would increase insecticide uptake and translocation. Uptake and translocation did not follow a clear trend in the three vegetative stages. Initially, flupyradifurone uptake was greater than clothianidin uptake in VC soybeans. In V1 soybeans, differences in uptake among the three insecticides were not apparent and unaffected by soil moisture stress. Clothianidin was negatively affected by soil moisture stress in V2 soybeans, while imidacloprid and flupyradifurone were unaffected. Specifically, soil moisture stress had a positive effect on the distribution of flupyradifurone in leaves. This was not observed with the neonicotinoids. This study enhances our understanding of the uptake and distribution of insecticides used as seed treatments in soybean. The uptake and translocation of these insecticides differed in response to soil moisture stress. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

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    Ling Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1, which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71% and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3% in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts.

  13. Essential oils and whole milk in the control of soybean powdery mildew

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    Fabiano José Perina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils (EOs and cow's whole milk (CWM in order to control soybean powdery mildew and to estimate the most effective concentrations of these natural products in reducing the disease severity on soybean plants. Three experiments were carried out: The first experiment evaluated and selected the most effective treatments to reduce the severity of soybean powdery mildew under greenhouse conditions; the second experiment evaluated the effect of CWM and EOs of citronella, lemongrass, eucalyptus, cinnamon and tea tree on the pathogen through the ultrastructure analysis of soybean leaflets infected by Erysiphe diffusa using the scanning electron microscope (SEM and light microscope (LM technology. In the third experiment, the most effective products were tested at several concentrations in order to define the most effective concentrations to reduce disease severity under greenhouse conditions. The treatments CWM (100mL L-1 and EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus (1.0mL L-1, reduced the disease severity from 67 to 74%. Direct effects from all natural products tested on the structures of E. diffusa were demonstrated through the SEM and LM analysis. Concentrations at 1.5mL L-1 for EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus and also at 180mL L-1