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Sample records for soybean oil hpeso

  1. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the following...

  2. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

  4. Polymercaptanized soybean oil – properties and tribological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized vegetable oils are produced in industrial scale by the addition of hydrogen sulfide across double bonds or epoxides of vegetable oils, in the presence of UV-light. To date, soybean oil, epoxidized soybean oil, and castor oil has been mercaptanized using such a procedure. Depending ...

  5. Immediate catalytic upgrading of soybean shell bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertero, Melisa; Sedran, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis of soybean shell and the immediate catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over an equilibrium FCC catalyst was studied in order to define its potential as a source for fuels and chemicals. The experiments of pyrolysis and immediate catalytic upgrading were performed at 550 °C during 7 min with different catalysts to oil relationships in an integrated fixed bed pyrolysis-conversion reactor. The results were compared under the same conditions against those from pine sawdust, which is a biomass source commonly used for the production of bio-oil. In the pyrolysis the pine sawdust produced more liquids (61.4%wt.) than the soybean shell (54.7%wt.). When the catalyst was presented, the yield of hydrocarbons increased, particularly in the case of soybean shell, which was four time higher than in the pyrolysis. The bio-oil from soybean shell produced less coke (between 3.1 and 4.3%wt.) in its immediate catalytic upgrading than that from pine sawdust (between 5 and 5.8%wt.), due to its lower content of phenolic and other high molecular weight compounds (three and five times less, respectively). Moreover, soybean shell showed a higher selectivity to hydrocarbons in the gasoline range, with more olefins and less aromatic than pine sawdust. - Highlights: • Soybean shell is a possible source of fuels with benefits as compared to pine sawdust. • Bio-oils upgraded over FCC catalyst in an integrated pyrolysis-conversion reactor. • Pine sawdust bio-oil had more phenols than soybean shell bio-oil. • Soybean shell bio-oil produced more hydrocarbons in gasoline range and less coke.

  6. Extruded linseed and linseed oil as alternative to soybean meal and soybean oil in diets for fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Caputi Jambrenghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal and soybean oil respectively with extruded linseed and linseed oil on the productive performances and meat quality traits in lambs slaughtered at 90 days. Lambs weaned at 40 days were divided into 3 groups (N.=10 fed ad libitum for 6 weeks as follows: C (control, commercial feed containing soybean meal and soybean oil; LO (feed containing linseed oil instead of soybean oil; EL (feed containing extruded linseed. Meat quality traits were evaluated on the Longissimus lumborum (Ll and Semimembranosus (Sm muscles. The lambs’ growth performances and the slaughtering and sectioning data did not differ between groups. The redness of meat was significantly higher (P<0.05 for the LO and EL groups compared to the control for both the muscles tested. Ll meat samples of the EL group showed a greater cooking loss compared to LO (P<0.01 and to the control (P<0.05. The amount of linoleic acid in raw Ll meat samples was significantly (P<0.01 lower in both LO and EL groups with respect to control. The concentration of α-linolenic acid was significantly (P<0.01 higher in the EL group and this positively affected the total content of ω3 as well as the ω6/ω3 ratio.

  7. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  8. Chemical interesterification of soybean oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil: Influence of the reaction time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Grimaldi, Renato; Goncalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical interesterification is an important alternative to produce zero trans fats. In practice, however, excessive reaction times are used to ensure complete randomization. This work evaluated the influence of the reaction time on the interesterification of soybean oil/fully hydrogenated soybean oil blend, carried out in the following conditions: 100 deg C, 500 rpm stirring speed, 0.4% (w/w) sodium methoxide catalyst. The triacylglycerol composition, solid fat content and melting point analysis showed that the reaction was very fast, reaching the equilibrium within 5 min. This result suggests the interesterification can be performed in substantially lower times, with reduction in process costs. (author)

  9. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) and the effects on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Aline A P; Forgiarini, Juliana; Xavier, Eduardo G; Lopes, Débora C N; Roll, Victor F B; Rutz, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01) and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01). All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  10. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa E03-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy-polyols are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus ...

  11. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix and the effects on egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE A.P. ROLL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01 and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01. All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  12. Effect of substitution of low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRienzo, Maureen A; Astwood, James D; Petersen, Barbara J; Smith, Kim M

    2006-02-01

    Low linolenic acid soybean oil (LLSO) has been developed as a substitute for hydrogenated soybean oil to reduce intake of trans FA while improving stability and functionality in processed foods. We assessed the dietary impact of substitution of LLSO for hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO) used in several food categories. All substitutions were done using an assumption of 100% market penetration. The impact of this substitution on the intake of five FA and trans FA was assessed. Substitution of LLSO for current versions of HSBO resulted in a 45% decrease in intake of trans FA. Impacts on other FA intakes were within the realm of typical dietary intakes. No decrease in intake of alpha-linolenic acid was associated with the use of LLSO in place of HSBO because LLSO substitutes for HSBO that are already low in alpha-linolenic acid.

  13. Chemical, physical and tribological investigation of polymercaptanized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized soybean oil (PMSO) was investigated for its chemical, physical and tribological properties relative to soybean oil (SO) and also as a potential multi-functional lubricant additive in high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO). Analytical investigations showed that PMSO is obtained by convers...

  14. Comparative Effect of Dietary Soybean Oil, Fish Oil, and Coconut Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X F; Liu, S; Tong, J M

    2018-04-14

    Two hundred and sixteen 28-wk-old Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to three dietary treatments and fed 1of 3 diets containing 8% soybean oil, fish oil, or coconut oil from 28 to 47 wk of age to investigate comparative effect of dietary soybean oil, fish oil, and coconut oil on the performance, egg quality and blood malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and uric acid (UA). Hens fed fish oil showed poor performance compared with soybean oil or coconut oil, and especially egg weight throughout the trial was significantly and consistently decreased (P oil. Unexpectedly, shell reflectivity throughout the majority of the trial was consistently and significantly higher (P oil than that when fed soybean oil or coconut oil. Dietary treatments affected (P oil treatment was higher (P oil group. Albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk color were influenced by dietary treatments only at 1 or 2 time points. However, average albumen height and Haugh unit in fish oil treatment were higher (P soybean oil or coconut oil treatments and average yolk color in coconut oil treatment was higher (P soybean oil group. Serum MDA, AST and UA concentrations were increased (P oil during the majority of the first 2 mo of the trial. These data suggested that the inclusion of fish oil into feed may reduce the performance of laying hens, especially the egg weight, decrease the intensity of egg brown color and increase blood MDA, AST and UA levels compared with soybean oil or coconut oil. As a result, hens fed fish oil may lay smaller, longer and lighter-brown eggs whereas those fed coconut oil produce blunter and darker-brown eggs relative to soybean oil.

  15. Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Woo Byun; Il-Jun Kang; Joong-Ho Kwon; Hayashi, Yukako; Mori, Tomohiko

    1996-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans (0-10 kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal increased remarkably as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans. (author)

  16. Physiochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Kang, I.J.; Kwon, J.H.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, T.

    1995-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans (0-10kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexagonal content remarkably increased as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans. (Author)

  17. Biobased composites from cross-linked soybean oil and thermoplastic polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethane contribute to the adhesion of the blend compon...

  18. Effects of petroleum oil and soybean oil in adjuvants for postemergence herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean oil is an abundant and renewable resource through annual crop production. The replacement of paraffin oil with soybean oil in agricultural adjuvants would create an additional market for surplus soybeans and help alleviate dependence on non-renewable petroleum oil. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to compare effects of a petroleum oil-emulsifier blend (POC) and a soybean oil-emulsifier blend (SBOC) as adjuvants for postemergence herbicides. In field experiments, little difference was observed between POC and SBOC in the ability to enhance control of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.) with 0.6 or 1.1 kg/ha bentazon [3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide]. Control of giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) with 0.1 kg/ha sethoxydim {2-[1-(ethoxyimino)butyl]-5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one} was enhanced more by POC than by SBOC. The effects of adjuvants and relative humidity (RH) on absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the methyl ester of 14 C-haloxyfop {2-[4-[[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid} in corn (Zea mays L.) were investigated. Addition of 1.0% (v/v) POC to the treatment solution resulted in greater foliar absorption and translocation of 14 C than addition of 1.0% (v/v) SBOC

  19. Breeding and application of high-oil soybean varieties through radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Tai; Liu Zhongtang; Hu Xiping; Wang Zhixin; Wu Xiuhong; Zheng Wei; Chen Dexiang

    2005-01-01

    This paper reported the results of breeding and utilizing of high-oil soybean varieties, and at the same time, discussed the key technique of selecting high-oil soybean variety. This research based on crossbreeding, through genetic improvement and radiation treatment, continuous directive selection, combined with quality analysis and disease-resistant identification, and we had created four high-oil soybean varieties (lines), they were Hefeng46 (Hefu93154-4), Hefeng47(Hefu 93154-2), Hefeng48 (Hefu 93155-6), Hefu 93148-4. Their oil content ranges from 21.28% to 23.18%, and the yield is 2208-2578.5 kg/hm 2 , compared with the check, the yield is 10.1%-13.1% higher. All those varieties resisted one or two main soybean diseases. (authors)

  20. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess and Philippines edible medicinal wild mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NRRL B-59985) (Hou and Lin, 2013). The objective of this study is to identify the chemical ...

  1. Stability studies on refined soybean oil stored in various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arawande, J.O.; Amoo, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 12 months stability study of freshly produced refined soybean oil revealed that refined soybean oil stored in plastic containers in dark was more hydrolytically and oxidatively stable than that stored in other containers in light condition. There was no significant difference at P < 0.05 in free fatty acids and acid value of oil stored under light and dark conditions in tin and glass containers but there was significant difference at P < 0.05 in peroxide value of oil stored in light and dark conditions in all the storage containers. Light increased the degree of oxidative rancidity of refined soybean oil, the most in tin containers, followed by glass containers and the least in plastic containers. (author)

  2. Gamma radiation effects on crude oil yield of some soybean seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the crude oil yield of eight different varieties of soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds ... the health advantages of soybeans in both in vivo and in vitro experiments [2]. Therefore, plant breeding has gained importance especially soybean plants. ..... Ionizing radiation might affect the quality of oils.

  3. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted chemoenzymatic epoxidation of soybean oil by using lipase as biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalerao, Machhindra S; Kulkarni, Vaishali M; Patwardhan, Anand V

    2018-01-01

    The present work reports the use of ultrasonic irradiation for enhancing lipase catalyzed epoxidation of soybean oil. Higher degree of unsaturated fatty acids, present in the soybean oil was converted to epoxidized soybean oil by using an immobilized lipase, Candida antarctica (Novozym 435). The effects of various parameters on the relative percentage conversion of the double bond to oxirane oxygen were investigated and the optimum conditions were established. The parameters studied were temperature, hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio, stirring speed, solvent ratio, catalyst loading, ultrasound frequency, ultrasound input power and duty cycle. The main objective of this work was to intensify chemoenzymatic epoxidation of the soybean oil by using ultrasound, to reduce the time required for epoxidation. Epoxidation of the soybean oil was achieved under mild reaction conditions by indirect ultrasonic irradiations (using ultrasonic bath). The relative percentage conversion to oxirane oxygen of 91.22% was achieved within 5h. The lipase was remarkably stable under optimized reaction conditions, later was recovered and reused six times to produce epoxidized soybean oil (ESO). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  6. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  8. Desolventizing of soybean oil/azeotrope mixtures using ceramic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Jonas R M; Tiggeman, Lidia; Rezzadori, Katia; Steffens, Juliana; Palliga, Marshall; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Di Luccio, Marco; Tres, Marcus V

    2017-08-01

    This work investigates the use of ceramic membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs: 5, 10 and 20 kDa) to desolventize azeotropic solvent mixtures (ethanol/n-hexane and isopropyl alcohol/n-hexane) from soybean oil/azeotrope micelles. Results show that a decrease in the MWCO of a membrane and an increase in the solvent mass ratio in the mixture resulted in a significant reduction in the permeate flux. The 20 kDa membrane presented the highest permeate flux, 80 and 60 kg/m 2 h for the soybean oil/n-hexane/isopropyl alcohol and soybean oil/n-hexane/ethanol azeotropes, respectively, for an oil to solvent ratio of 1:3 (w/w). The highest oil retention was found using the n-hexane/isopropyl alcohol azeotrope, around 25% in the membrane with the lowest MWCO, that is, 5 kDa. It is shown that the azeotropic mixtures provided intermediate characteristics compared to the original pure solvent behavior.

  9. BIOSURFACTANTS PRODUCTION BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa USING SOYBEAN OIL AS SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venty Suryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization condition of the biosurfactants production by P. aeruginosa using soybean oil as substrate has been examined. The media containing 10% v/v of the soybean oil and 6 days of the fermentation time was the optimum condition for the biosurfactants production. The extraction technique using different solvent polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol, respectively was applied for the isolation of the biosurfactants. The biosurfactant was found in the extract chloroform of the crude biospasoy (biosurfactants obtained from soybean oil as substrate which then is called chlo-biospasoy. The chlo-biospasoy was identified as rhamnolipids which had oil in water (o/w emulsion type, had the CMC of 860 mg/L and could reduced the surface tension of the water from 72 mN/m to 52 mN/m. The chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifier to form emulsion between water and hydrocarbon such as palm oil, benzene, premium or toluene with various stability. The results indicated that chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifying and emulsion-stabilizing agent.     Keywords: Biosurfactants, P. aeruginosa, Soybean Oil, Emulsifier

  10. Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from soycake meal production in Ghana. ... yield of 83.3 per cent was recorded. Results of quality assessment of the final laboratory refined oil compared favourably with Ghana Standards Board's specification for edible soybean oil. Ghana Journal of Science Vol.

  11. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... The chickens fed diets containing palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil as the ... polyunsaturated fatty acids; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, .... content of muscles in broilers fed different dietary CLA levels. Javadi et al. (2007) ...

  12. Effect of dietary soybean oil and soybean protein concentration on the concentration of digestible amino acids in soybean products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, S K; Stein, H H

    2008-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the effect of adding soybean oil to soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) on apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs. A second objective was to compare AID and SID of AA in a new high-protein variety of full fat soybeans (FFSB) to values obtained in other soybean products. Commercial sources of FFSB (FFSB-CV), SBM, and SPC, and of a new high-protein variety of FFSB (FFSB-HP) were used in the experiment. Four diets were prepared using each soybean product as the sole source of CP and AA in 1 diet. Two additional diets were formulated by adding soybean oil (7.55 and 7.35%, respectively) to the diets containing SBM and SPC. A nitrogen-free diet was also used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The 2 sources of FFSB were extruded at 150 degrees C before being used in the experiment. Seven growing barrows (initial BW = 26.2 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 7 x 7 Latin square design. Ileal digesta were collected from the pigs on d 6 and 7 of each period. All digesta samples were lyophilized and analyzed for DM, CP, AA, and chromium, and values for AID and SID of CP and AA were calculated. The addition of oil improved (P oil and SPC, but these values were lower (P oil. In conclusion, the addition of oil improved the SID of most AA in SBM and SPC fed to growing pigs, and the SID of AA in FFSB-HP were greater than in SBM and similar to the SID of AA in SBM with oil and in SPC.

  13. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Damude, Howard G.; Everard, John D.; Booth, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm. Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  14. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David

    2013-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation.

  15. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-10-07

    Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  16. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  17. The optimization of soybean oil hydrolysis reaction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnisa Hashim; Jumat Salimon

    2008-01-01

    The hydrolysis reaction of soybean oil was optimized. The concentration effect of ethanolic alkaline solution (KOH and NaOH) to the oil acidity was studied. The alkaline concentrations, reaction time and temperature factors was investigated during the optimization of the hydrolysis or saponification reaction. KOH solution of 1 M showed a good saponification activity which resulted oil acid value of 226.8 mg/ g compared to NaOH solution with acid value of 225.4 mg/ g for the same reaction. The optimum saponification reaction of soybean oil occurred at 60 degree Celsius in 30 minutes by using ethanolic KOH 1 M with acid value of 229.6 mg/ g. Composition of free fatty acid before and after hydrolysis were determined by using gas chromatography. (author)

  18. Enhancement of antioxidative activity and cardiovascular protection in hamsters by camellia oil and soybean-camellia blended oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Yi; Lu, Yi-Fa; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of several vegetable oils and blended oil composed of soybean and camellia oils on blood lipid reduction and antioxidative activity. Forty male hamsters were fed an AIN-93 G diet for 1 wk, followed by dividing into five groups: control group-1 was fed a low-fat diet containing 5% oil for 6 wk, and the other four groups were fed high-fat diets with group-2 containing 14% palm oil, group-3 containing 14% camellia oil, group-4 containing 14% soybean oil, and group-5 containing 14% blended oil (8.4% soybean oil and 5.6% camellia oil) along with 0.2% cholesterol and 0.1% bile acid. High-fat diets raised serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase in hamsters without affecting alanine aminotransferase. Compared with palm oil-containing diet, the other three high-fat diets reduced serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with an opposite trend for liver total cholesterol. However, compared with the control group, the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was raised for all four high-fat diets. The higher the degree of oil unsaturation, the higher the serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the lower the liver triacylglycerol level and activities of fatty acid synthase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzymes. Both soybean and blended oils lowered the antioxidative activity of liver. Camellia and blended oils were more efficient than soybean oil in elevating serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing the ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of feeding soybean, linseed oil and different forms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... redox and immune status of turkey hens. The experiment was carried out on 480 turkey hens, type BIG 6, which were divided into four groups. Birds in Group I (control) received soybean oil and synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate in their feed mixture. Group II received soybean oil and natural RRR-d-alpha-tocopherol.

  20. The integral and extrinsic bioactive proteins in the aqueous extracted soybean oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Cao, Yanyun; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2013-10-09

    Soybean oil bodies (OBs), naturally pre-emulsified soybean oil, have been examined by many researchers owing to their great potential utilizations in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. This study was the first time to confirm that lectin, Gly m Bd 28K (Bd 28K, one soybean allergenic protein), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI), and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) were not contained in the extracted soybean OBs even by neutral pH aqueous extraction. It was clarified that the well-known Gly m Bd 30K (Bd 30K), another soybean allergenic protein, was strongly bound to soybean OBs through a disulfide bond with 24 kDa oleosin. One steroleosin isoform (41 kDa) and two caleosin isoforms (27 kDa, 29 kDa), the integral bioactive proteins, were confirmed for the first time in soybean OBs, and a considerable amount of calcium, necessary for the biological activities of caleosin, was strongly bound to OBs. Unexpectedly, it was found that 24 kDa and 18 kDa oleosins could be hydrolyzed by an unknown soybean endoprotease in the extracted soybean OBs, which might give some hints for improving the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of soybean free oil.

  1. Soybean (Glycine max) oil bodies and their associated phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Gray, David A

    2011-01-01

    Soybean oil bodies were isolated from 3 cultivars (Ustie, K98, and Elena) and the occurrence of 2 classes of phytochemicals (tocopherol isoforms and isoflavones) and strength of their association with isolated oil bodies was evaluated. Tocopherol is shown to be closely associated with soybean oil bodies; δ-tocopherol demonstrated a significantly greater association with oil bodies over other tocopherol isoforms. Isoflavones do not show a significant physical association with oil bodies, although there is some indication of a passive association of the more hydrophobic aglycones during oil body isolation. Oil bodies are small droplets of oil that are stored as energy reserves in the seeds of oil seeds, and have the potential to be used as future food ingredients. If oil body suspensions are commercialized on a large scale, knowledge of the association of phytochemicals with oil bodies will be valuable in deciding species of preference and predicting shelf life and nutritional value. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Selection of progenitors for increase in oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low genetic diversity brings limitation to breeding, because genetically similar genotypes share alleles in common, causing little complementarity and low vigor due to the low levels of heterozygosity in crosses. The objective of this work was to analyze the oil content and genetic diversity of soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill based on QTL regions of this trait for choice of progenitors for increase in oil content. Twenty-two genotypes with wide variation in oil content, including cultivars with high oil contents, were cultivated in different Brazilian conditions and the oil content of the grains was quantified by infrared spectrometry. Microsatellite markers selected based on QTL regions for oil content in soybean were analyzed to estimate the genetic diversity. In these studies, a wide variation in oil content (17.28-23.01% and a reasonable diversity among the genotypes were observed, being PI181544 the most divergent genotype, followed by Suprema. The genotypes PI371610/Suprema and Suprema/CD01RR8384 showed genetic distance and higher oil contents in the grains, while the cultivars Suprema and CD01RR8384 had the highest oil contents and proved to be little genetically related. These genotypes are promising progenitors for selection of high oil content in soybean.

  3. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ming; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Lam, Sin-Man; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-04-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean ( Glycine max ) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351 , encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1 , BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2 , 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III , DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1 , and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean ( Glycine soja ) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  5. Identification of molecular species of polyol oils produced from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa e03-12 nrrl b-59991

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier methods for microbial screening and production of polyol oils from soybean oil (Hou and Lin, 2013). The polyol oil produced by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NR...

  6. Selection for Oil Content During Soybean Domestication Revealed by X-Ray Tomography of Ancient Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yunbing; Yao, Shengkun; Crawford, Gary W.; Fang, Hui; Lang, Jianfeng; Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Xiulan; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Luan, Fengshi; Wang, Qing; Chen, Xuexiang; Jiang, Huaidong

    2017-02-01

    When and under what circumstances domestication related traits evolved in soybean (Glycine max) is not well understood. Seed size has been a focus of archaeological attention because increased soybean seed weight/size is a trait that distinguishes most modern soybeans from their ancestors; however, archaeological seed size analysis has had limited success. Modern domesticated soybean has a significantly higher oil content than its wild counterpart so oil content is potentially a source of new insight into soybean domestication. We investigated soybean oil content using X-ray computed tomography (CT; specifically, synchrotron radiation X-ray CT or SRX-CT) of charred, archaeological soybean seeds. CT identified holes in the specimens that are associated with oil content. A high oil content facilitates the development of small holes, whereas a high protein content results in larger holes. The volume of small holes increased slowly from 7,500 to 4,000 cal B.P. We infer that human selection for higher oil content began as early as 7,500 cal B.P. and that high oil content cultivars were well established by 4,000 cal B.P.

  7. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS of soybean seed oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castamann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS can improve interpretations of leaf analysis to determine the nutrient status. Diagnoses by this method require DRIS norms, which are however not known for oil content of soybean seeds. The aims of this study were to establish and test the DRIS method for oil content of soybean seed (maturity group II cultivars. Soybean leaves (207 samples in the full flowering stage were analyzed for macro and micro-nutrients, and the DRIS was applied to assess the relationship between nutrient ratios and the seed oil content. Samples from experimental and farm field sites of the southernmost Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul (28° - 29° southern latitude; 52° -53° western longitude were assessed in two growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The DRIS norms related to seed oil content differed between the studied years. A unique DRIS norm was established for seed oil content higher than 18.68 % based on data of the 2007/2008 growing season. Higher DRIS indices of B, Ca, Mg and S were associated with a higher oil content, while the opposite was found for K, N and P. The DRIS can be used to evaluate the leaf nutrient status of soybean to improve the seed oil content of the crop.

  8. Heat- and light-induced thiol-ene oligomerization of soybean oil-based polymercaptan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized soybean oil (PMSO), the product of a thiol-ene reaction between soybean oil and hydrogen sulfide, is a material of interest as a lubricant additive and polymer precursor. We investigated with gel permeation chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance (one-dimensional and two-dimensi...

  9. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Ho Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c. and intramuscular (i.m. adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control, with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (p<0.03. SCD gene expression did not change between the initial and intermediate biopsies but declined by over 75% by the final period (p = 0.04, and G-coupled protein receptor 43 (GPR43 gene expression was unaffected by diet or time on trial. Soybean oil decreased (p = 0.01 PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (p<0.05. AMPKα gene expression was less in s.c. adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04 and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (p<0.03. Soybean oil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05; SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers

  10. Development of rigorous fatty acid near-infrared spectroscopy quantitation methods in support of soybean oil improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seed of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) is a valuable source of high quality edible oil and protein. Despite dramatic breeding gains over the past 80 years, soybean seed oil continues to be oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation. ...

  11. Development of radiation curable surface coating based on soybean oil. part I. preparation and characterization of acrylated oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Said, H.M.; Moussa, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from epoxidized soybean oil (ESOL) by using acrylic acid monomer. Triethyl amine (TEA) and hydroquinone were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. The epoxidized soybean oil acrylate (ESOLA) is done by introducing acrylic acid into oxirane groups of the epoxidized oil (ESOL). This reaction was confirmed by analytical data in terms of oxirane oxygen content, acid value, viscosity and spectroscopically analysis

  12. The refining of soybean oil to optimum quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusell, J.

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the American Soybean Association is to improve the quality of soybean and related products in Turkey. In order to achieve this, a number of extraction plants and refineries were visited to enable first hand information to be obtained on the type of equipment used in all unit processes, the methodology employed, quality standards and levels of efficiency. The culmination of the visit was a seminar organised jointly by the American Soybean Association and the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association in Istanbul on 22nd September 1989, at which a paper with the above title was presented. A reproduction of this paper is attached which briefly describes the critical areas of soybean oil processing and includes recommendations for quality improvements. It concludes with the comment that provided proper care is taken and optimum refining processes employed, including hydrogenation where appropriate, an impressive range of oils, margarines and shortenings of high quality can ben produced. The author would like to record his grateful thanks to Dr. R. Leysen of the American Soybean Association for all his help and guidance, to Mr. Kenon Marasoglu, Chairman of the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association and to the management and staff of all the factories visited. Acknowledgement is also made to Dr. D. R. Arickson and Mr. L. H. Wiedermann of the American Soybean Association for the use of some technical information from a paper entitled «Soybean Oil-Modern Processing and Utilisation» which is to be published shortly.

    Uno de los objetivos de la Asociación Americana de Soja en Turquía es mejorar la calidad de la soja y de los productos relacionados. En orden a conseguir esto, diversas plantas de extracción y refinerías fueron visitadas para permitir obtener de primera mano información sobre el tipo de equipo usado en todas las unidades de proceso, la metodología empleada, los estándar de calidad y los niveles de eficacia. La

  13. Transesterification of Waste Frying Oil and Soybean Oil by Combi-lipases Under Ultrasound-Assisted Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Jakeline Kathiele; Matte, Carla Roberta; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2018-04-21

    This work describes the use of an ultrasound system for the enzymatic transesterification of oils using combi-lipases as biocatalyst. The reactions were carried out evaluating the individual use of waste oil and fresh soybean oil, and the immobilized lipases CALB, TLL, and RML were used as biocatalysts. It was performed in a mixture design of three factors to obtain the ideal mixture of lipases according to the composition of fatty acids present in each oil, and the main reaction variables were optimized. After 18 h of reaction, ultrasound provided a biodiesel yield of about 90% when using soybean oil and 70% using the waste oil. The results showed that ultrasound technology, in combination with the application of enzyme mixtures, known as combi-lipases, and the use of waste oil, could be a promising route to reduce the overall process costs of enzymatic production of biodiesel.

  14. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  15. Studies on carotenoids and oxidative stability of winter squash seed and soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy, H. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash seed and soybean oils were extracted with commercial hexane. Carotenoids and other pigments m the oils were studied using spectrophotometric and thin layer chromatographic analysis. Three types of pigments were identified: carotenoids. mainly lutein and β-carotene, chlorophyll and some unidentified pigments. Carotenoids content were 70, 60, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed oil, and 80, 65, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached soybean oil respectively. Stability was evaluated for crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed and soybean oils and an 1:1 admixture. Mixing winter squash seed oil with soybean oil increased the stability of soybean oil. Crude oil showed greater stability than refined and bleached oils.

    Se han extraído con hexano comercial aceites de semilla de calabaza y de soja. Usando análisis espectrofotométrico y cromatografía en capa fina se han estudiado en estos aceites tres tipos de pigmentos: carotenoides, principalmente luteína y β-caroteno, clorofilas y otros no identificados. Los contenidos en carotenoides fueron 70, 60, 0 ppm en aceite de semilla de calabaza de invierno crudo, refinado y decolorado, y 80, 65, 0 ppm en aceite de soja crudo, refinado y decolorado respectivamente. Se ha evaluado la estabilidad de aceites de semilla de calabaza de invierno, soja y una mezcla 1:1 de ambos, en sus estados crudo, refinado y decolorado. La mezcla de semilla de calabaza de invierno con aceite de soja aumentó la estabilidad de este último. El aceite crudo mostró una mayor estabilidad que los aceites refinados y decolorados.

  16. Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Saponified Epoxidized Soybean Oil-Grafted Hydroxyethyl Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xujuan; Li, Qiaoguang; Liu, He; Shang, Shibin; Shen, Minggui; Song, Jie

    2017-05-03

    An oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by saponified epoxidized soybean oil-grafted hydroxyethyl cellulose (H-ESO-HEC) was investigated. By using an ultrasonic method, oil-in-water emulsions were prepared by blending 50 wt % soybean oil and 50 wt % H-ESO-HEC aqueous suspensions. The influence of H-ESO-HEC concentrations on the properties of oil-in-water emulsions was examined. The H-ESO-HEC concentrations in the aqueous phase varied from 0.02 to 0.40 wt %. When the H-ESO-HEC concentration was 0.4 wt %, the emulsion remained stable for >80 days. The mean droplet sizes of the emulsions decreased by increasing the H-ESO-HEC concentration and extending the ultrasonic time. The adsorption amounts of H-ESO-HEC at the oil-water interface increased when the H-ESO-HEC concentrations in the aqueous phase increased. The rheological property revealed that the apparent viscosity of the H-ESO-HEC-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions increased when the H-ESO-HEC concentrations increased. Steady flow curves indicated an interfacial film formation in the emulsions. The evolution of G', G″, and tan η indicated the predominantly elastic behaviors of all the emulsions.

  17. Extraction and characterization of oil bodies from soy beans: a natural source of pre-emulsified soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Daigo; Gray, David A; Fisk, Ian D; Decker, Eric Andrew; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2007-10-17

    Soybeans contain oil bodies that are coated by a layer of oleosin proteins. In nature, this protein coating protects the oil bodies from environmental stresses and may be utilized by food manufacturers for the same purpose. In this study, oil bodies were extracted from soybean using an aqueous extraction method that involved blending, dispersion (pH 8.6), filtration, and centrifugation steps. The influence of NaCl (0-250 mM), thermal processing (30-90 degrees C, 20 min) and pH (2-8) on the properties and stability of the oil bodies was analyzed using zeta-potential, particle size, and creaming stability measurements. The extracted oil bodies were relatively small ( d 32 approximately 250 nm), and their zeta-potential went from around +12 mV to -20 mV as the pH was increased from 2 to 8, with an isoelectric point around pH 4. The oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at low (pH = 2) and high (pH >/= 6) pH values but were unstable at intermediate values (3 oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at relatively low salt concentrations (NaCl oil bodies were stable to thermal processing from 30 to 90 degrees C (0 mM NaCl, pH 7), but there appeared to be a change in their interfacial properties (decrease in zeta-potential) at temperatures exceeding 60 degrees C. These results suggest that oil bodies extracted from soybeans have similar or improved stability compared to soybean oil emulsions produced from bulk ingredients and may provide a new way of creating functional soy products for the food industry.

  18. Integrated and comparative proteomics of high-oil and high-protein soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu Ping; Liu, Hui; Tian, Lihong; Dong, Xiang Bai; Shen, Shi Hua; Qu, Le Qing

    2015-04-01

    We analysed the global protein expression in seeds of a high-oil soybean cultivar (Jiyu 73, JY73) by proteomics. More than 700 protein spots were detected and 363 protein spots were successfully identified. Comparison of the protein profile of JY73 with that of a high-protein cultivar (Zhonghuang 13, ZH13) revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins, including oil synthesis, redox/stress, hydrolysis and storage-related proteins. All redox/stress proteins were less or not expressed in JY73, whereas the expression of the major storage proteins, nitrogen and carbon metabolism-related proteins was higher in ZH13. Biochemical analysis of JY73 revealed that it was in a low oxidation state, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. Vitamin E was more active than antioxidant enzymes and protected the soybean seed in a lower oxidation state. The characteristics of high oil and high protein in soybean, we revealed, might provide a reference for soybean nutrition and soybean breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of polysoap on physical and tribology properties of soybean oil-based grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate the evolution of soybean oil based grease containing polysoaps made from polymeric epoxdized soybean oil. With this aim, lubricating greases were prepared from a mixed soap comprising lithium soap and triethanol ammonium polysoap synthesized from so...

  20. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  1. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  2. Soybean oil in water-borne coatings and latex film formation study by AC impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiratumnukul, Nantana

    Conventional coalescing agents such as butyl cellosolve, butyl carbitol, and TexanolRTM are widely use in the latex coatings industry to facilitate film formation at ambient temperature. Coalescent aids are composed of solvents with low evaporation rates. After water evaporates, coalescent aids would help soften polymer molecules and form continuous films, then gradually evaporates from the film. Coalescent aids, therefore, are considered as volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are of environmental concern. The main purpose of this research project was to prepare a fatty acid glycol ester from soybean oil and glycol (polyols). The soybean oil glycol ester can be used as a coalescent aid in latex paint formulation. The soybean oil glycol ester not only lowered the minimum film formation temperature of latex polymers and continuous film formed at ambient temperature, but also after it has facilitated film formation, does not substantially evaporate, but becomes part of the film. Soybean oil glycol esters, therefore, can reduce the VOC levels and facilitate film formation of latex paints. In the second part of this research AC-Impedance was used to investigate the efficiency of soybean oil coalescent aid in latex film formation relative to the conventional ones. The coating resistance showed that the efficiency of film formation was increased as a function of dry time. The coating resistance also exhibited the effect of soybean oil ester in latex film formation in the same fashion as a conventional coalescent aid, TexanolRTM.

  3. Teaching Green Chemistry with Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Tuachi, Abraham; Zhang, Yuanzhuo

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) provides students a vantage point on the application of green chemistry principles in a series of experiments. Qualitative tests review the reactions of alkenes, whereas spectroscopic analyses provide insight in monitoring functional group transformations.

  4. Protein and oil composition predictions of single soybeans by transmission Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmerich, Matthew V; Walsh, Michael J; Gelber, Matthew K; Kong, Rong; Kole, Matthew R; Harrison, Sandra K; McKinney, John; Thompson, Dennis; Kull, Linda S; Bhargava, Rohit

    2012-08-22

    The soybean industry requires rapid, accurate, and precise technologies for the analyses of seed/grain constituents. While the current gold standard for nondestructive quantification of economically and nutritionally important soybean components is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), emerging technology may provide viable alternatives and lead to next generation instrumentation for grain compositional analysis. In principle, Raman spectroscopy provides the necessary chemical information to generate models for predicting the concentration of soybean constituents. In this communication, we explore the use of transmission Raman spectroscopy (TRS) for nondestructive soybean measurements. We show that TRS uses the light scattering properties of soybeans to effectively homogenize the heterogeneous bulk of a soybean for representative sampling. Working with over 1000 individual intact soybean seeds, we developed a simple partial least-squares model for predicting oil and protein content nondestructively. We find TRS to have a root-mean-standard error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.89% for oil measurements and 0.92% for protein measurements. In both calibration and validation sets, the predicative capabilities of the model were similar to the error in the reference methods.

  5. Study of physical and tribology properties of soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoaps, which was synthesized from polymeric epoxdized soybean oil, was investigated. Greases were prepared using a mixture of lithium soap and triethanolammonium polysoap. Grease properties investigated were: hardness, using cone penetration procedure (AS...

  6. Atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice fed cholesterol and soybean oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Olsen, P.; Frandsen, H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study aortic atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic response to dietary cholesterol and soybean oil in homozygous LDLR-/- mice, the 16 weeks old animals were randomized in 4 groups either fed standard diet (no cholesterol added, group I, 12 male and 12 female), standard diet added 0.......5% cholesterol (group II, 12 male and 12 female), standard diet added 10% soybean oil (group Iii, 7 male) or standard diet added 0.5% cholesterol and 10% soybean oil (group IV, 7 male) for 14 weeks. At termination, the plasma cholesterol of males was: 9.4 mmol/I +/- 0.3 (SD) (group I), 34.4 +/- 6.2 (group II), 9...

  7. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: I. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high-oil parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-02-01

    Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America. Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration. The objectives of this study were to discover and validate oil QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses between three moderately high-oil soybean cultivars, OAC Wallace, OAC Glencoe, and RCAT Angora. The RIL populations were grown across several environments over 2 years in Ontario, Canada. In a population of 203 F(3:6) RILs from a cross of OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, a total of 11 genomic regions on nine different chromosomes were identified as associated with oil concentration using multiple QTL mapping and single-factor ANOVA. The percentage of the phenotypic variation accounted for by each QTL ranged from 4 to 11 %. Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of 211 F(3:5) RILs from the cross RCAT Angora × OAC Wallace, a "trait-based" bidirectional selective genotyping analysis validated four QTL (80 %). In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high-oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

  8. Anti-oxidative effect of turmeric on frying characteristics of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Ghosh, Santinath; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, is known to act as an anti-oxidant, anti-mutagen and anti-carcinogen. This study aimed to find out the thermal and oxidative stability of soybean oil when potatoes marinated with turmeric were deep fried in the oil. Two sets of experiment were carried out. In one set, 1 L of oil was heated for 24 h (8 h daily for 3 consecutive days) and 200 g of potato chips without any marination were fried each time twice daily. Foods were fried in batches to replicate the commercial practice of the food industries. The temperature maintained during the whole experiment was at 180-190 °C i.e. at the frying temperature. About 50 ml of the oil sample was collected after every 4 h. In the second set, another 1 L of soybean oil was heated for 24 h in the similar manner and potato chips marinated with turmeric was fried twice daily. Oil samples were collected as before and comparative studies were done. The chemical parameters like acid value, peroxide value, content of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) and fatty acid composition for all the oil samples of each set were determined. The comparative studies on peroxide value and content of HNE revealed that the antioxidant property of curcumin in turmeric helped in reducing the oxidation of the oil initially, but with increase in duration of time, the antioxidant potency got gradually reduced. The loss of unsaturated fatty acids were calculated from the fatty acid composition and it was found that loss of unsaturation in soybean oil where turmeric marinated potatoes were fried was 6.37 % while the controlled one showed 7.76 % loss after 24 h of heating. These results indicated higher thermal and oxidative stability of the soybean oil in presence of turmeric. However, the antioxidant effect gradually decreased with increase in duration of heating.

  9. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Li, Xiang Zi; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Won Young; Jeong, Joon; Johnson, Bradley J; Zan, Linsen; Smith, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (poil decreased (p = 0.01) PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (ppalm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (poil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers. Contrary to our original hypothesis, palm oil did not promote adipogenic gene expression in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue.

  10. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil and phytosterol in supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lizhi; Llibin, Sun; Li, Jun; Qi, Liangjun; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Dianyu; Walid, Elfalleh; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2015-12-01

    The transesterification of phytosterol and soybean oil was performed using Novozym 435 in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The transesterification reaction was conducted in soybean oil containing 5-25% phytosterol at 55-95 °C and free-water solvent. The effects of temperature, reaction time, phytosterol concentration, lipase dosage and reaction pressure on the conversion rate of transesterification were investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were the reaction temperature (85 °C), reaction time (1 h), phytosterol concentration (5%), reaction pressure (8 Mpa) and lipase dosage (1%). The highest conversion rate of 92% could be achieved under the optimum conditions. Compared with the method of lipase-catalyzed transesterification of phytosterol and soybean oil at normal pressure, the transesterification in SC-CO2 reduced significantly the reaction temperature and reaction time.

  11. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  12. High fluorescence emission silver nano particles coated with poly (styrene-g-soybean oil) graft copolymers: Antibacterial activity and polymerization kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazer, Baki; Kalaycı, Özlem A

    2017-05-01

    Autoxidation of poly unsaturated fatty acids makes negative effect on foods. In this work, this negative effect was turned to a great advantage using autoxidized soybean oil as a macroperoxide nanocomposite initiator containing silver nano particles in free radical polymerization of vinyl monomers. The synthesis of soybean oil macro peroxide was carried out by exposing soybean oil to air oxygen with the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at room temperature. Autoxidized soybean oil macroperoxide containing silver nanoparticles (Agsbox) successfully initiated the free radical polymerization of styrene in order to obtain Polystyrene (PS)-g-soybean oil graft copolymer containing Ag NPs. Both autoxidized soybean oil and PS-g-sbox with Ag NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance and high fluorescence emission. Overall rate constant (K) of styrene polymerization initiated by autoxidized soybean oil macroperoxide with Ag NPs was found to be K=1.95.10 -4 Lmol -1 s -1 at 95°C. Antibacterial efficiency was observed in the PS-g-soybean oil graft copolymer film samples containing Ag NPs. 1 H NMR and GPC techniques were used for the structural analysis of the fractionated polymeric oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vernonia DGATs can complement the disrupted oil and protein metabolism in epoxygenase-expressing soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Tateno, Mizuki; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Hildebrand, David F

    2012-01-01

    Plant oils can be useful chemical feedstocks such as a source of epoxy fatty acids. High seed-specific expression of a Stokesia laevis epoxygenase (SlEPX) in soybeans only results in 3-7% epoxide levels. SlEPX-transgenic soybean seeds also exhibited other phenotypic alterations, such as altered seed fatty acid profiles, reduced oil accumulation, and variable protein levels. SlEPX-transgenic seeds showed a 2-5% reduction in total oil content and protein levels of 30.9-51.4%. To address these pleiotrophic effects of SlEPX expression on other traits, transgenic soybeans were developed to co-express SlEPX and DGAT (diacylglycerol acyltransferase) genes (VgDGAT1 & 2) isolated from Vernonia galamensis, a high accumulator of epoxy fatty acids. These side effects of SlEPX expression were largely overcome in the DGAT co-expressing soybeans. Total oil and protein contents were restored to the levels in non-transgenic soybeans, indicating that both VgDGAT1 and VgDGAT2 could complement the disrupted phenotypes caused by over-expression of an epoxygenase in soybean seeds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Soybean oil and linseed oil supplementation affect profiles of ruminal microorganisms in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S L; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Hu, Z Y; Li, D; Wei, H Y; Zhou, L Y; Loor, J J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ruminal microorganisms and fermentation parameters due to dietary supplementation of soybean and linseed oil alone or in combination. Four dietary treatments were tested in a Latin square designed experiment using four primiparous rumen-cannulated dairy cows. Treatments were control (C, 60 : 40 forage to concentrate) or C with 4% soybean oil (S), 4% linseed oil (L) or 2% soybean oil plus 2% linseed oil (SL) in a 4 × 4 Latin square with four periods of 21 days. Forage and concentrate mixtures were fed at 0800 and 2000 h daily. Ruminal fluid was collected every 2 h over a 12-h period on day 19 of each experimental period and pH was measured immediately. Samples were prepared for analyses of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) by GLC and ammonia. Counts of total and individual bacterial groups (cellulolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic bacteria and total viable bacteria) were performed using the roll-tube technique, and protozoa counts were measured via microscopy in ruminal fluid collected at 0, 4 and 8 h after the morning feeding. Content of ruminal digesta was obtained via the rumen cannula before the morning feeding and used immediately for DNA extraction and quantity of specific bacterial species was obtained using real- time PCR. Ruminal pH did not differ but total VFA (110 v. 105 mmol/l) were lower (P ruminal NH3-N (4.4 v. 5.6 mmol/l) was greater (P ruminal fluid was substantially lower (P ruminal microorganisms, except proteolytic bacteria, are highly susceptible to dietary unsaturated fatty acids supplementation, particularly when linolenic acid rich oils were fed. Dietary oil effects on ruminal fermentation parameters seemed associated with the profile of ruminal microorganisms.

  15. Soybean (Glycine max) WRINKLED1 transcription factor, GmWRI1a, positively regulates seed oil accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zheng, Yuhong; Dong, Zhimin; Meng, Fanfan; Sun, Xingmiao; Fan, Xuhong; Zhang, Yunfeng; Wang, Mingliang; Wang, Shuming

    2018-04-01

    Soybean is the world's most important leguminous crop producing high-quality protein and oil. Elevating oil accumulation in soybean seed is always many researchers' goal. WRINKLED1 (WRI1) encodes a transcription factor of the APETALA2/ethylene responsive element-binding protein (AP2/EREBP) family that plays important roles during plant seed oil accumulation. In this study, we isolated and characterized three distinct orthologues of WRI1 in soybean (Glycine max) that display different organ-specific expression patterns, among which GmWRI1a was highly expressed in maturing soybean seed. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrid experiments demonstrated that the GmWRI1a protein was capable of binding to AW-box, a conserved sequence in the proximal upstream regions of many genes involved in various steps of oil biosynthesis. Transgenic soybean seeds overexpressing GmWRI1a under the control of the seed-specific napin promoter showed the increased total oil and fatty acid content and the changed fatty acid composition. Furthermore, basing on the activated expressions in transgenic soybean seeds and existence of AW-box element in the promoter regions, direct downstream genes of GmWRI1a were identified, and their products were responsible for fatty acid production, elongation, desaturation and export from plastid. We conclude that GmWRI1a transcription factor can positively regulate oil accumulation in soybean seed by a complex gene expression network related to fatty acid biosynthesis.

  16. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonamjot Deol

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has led to extensive research into potential contributing dietary factors, especially fat and fructose. Recently, increased consumption of soybean oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, has been proposed to play a causal role in the epidemic. Here, we designed a series of four isocaloric diets (HFD, SO-HFD, F-HFD, F-SO-HFD to investigate the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fat, as well as fructose, on obesity and diabetes. C57/BL6 male mice fed a diet moderately high in fat from coconut oil and soybean oil (SO-HFD, 40% kcal total fat showed statistically significant increases in weight gain, adiposity, diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance compared to mice on a diet consisting primarily of coconut oil (HFD. They also had fatty livers with hepatocyte ballooning and very large lipid droplets as well as shorter colonic crypt length. While the high fructose diet (F-HFD did not cause as much obesity or diabetes as SO-HFD, it did cause rectal prolapse and a very fatty liver, but no balloon injury. The coconut oil diet (with or without fructose increased spleen weight while fructose in the presence of soybean oil increased kidney weight. Metabolomics analysis of the liver showed an increased accumulation of PUFAs and their metabolites as well as γ-tocopherol, but a decrease in cholesterol in SO-HFD. Liver transcriptomics analysis revealed a global dysregulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp genes in SO-HFD versus HFD livers, most notably in the Cyp3a and Cyp2c families. Other genes involved in obesity (e.g., Cidec, Cd36, diabetes (Igfbp1, inflammation (Cd63, mitochondrial function (Pdk4 and cancer (H19 were also upregulated by the soybean oil diet. Taken together, our results indicate that in mice a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose or coconut oil.

  17. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deol, Poonamjot; Evans, Jane R; Dhahbi, Joseph; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Han, Diana S; Spindler, Stephen; Sladek, Frances M

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has led to extensive research into potential contributing dietary factors, especially fat and fructose. Recently, increased consumption of soybean oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been proposed to play a causal role in the epidemic. Here, we designed a series of four isocaloric diets (HFD, SO-HFD, F-HFD, F-SO-HFD) to investigate the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fat, as well as fructose, on obesity and diabetes. C57/BL6 male mice fed a diet moderately high in fat from coconut oil and soybean oil (SO-HFD, 40% kcal total fat) showed statistically significant increases in weight gain, adiposity, diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance compared to mice on a diet consisting primarily of coconut oil (HFD). They also had fatty livers with hepatocyte ballooning and very large lipid droplets as well as shorter colonic crypt length. While the high fructose diet (F-HFD) did not cause as much obesity or diabetes as SO-HFD, it did cause rectal prolapse and a very fatty liver, but no balloon injury. The coconut oil diet (with or without fructose) increased spleen weight while fructose in the presence of soybean oil increased kidney weight. Metabolomics analysis of the liver showed an increased accumulation of PUFAs and their metabolites as well as γ-tocopherol, but a decrease in cholesterol in SO-HFD. Liver transcriptomics analysis revealed a global dysregulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes in SO-HFD versus HFD livers, most notably in the Cyp3a and Cyp2c families. Other genes involved in obesity (e.g., Cidec, Cd36), diabetes (Igfbp1), inflammation (Cd63), mitochondrial function (Pdk4) and cancer (H19) were also upregulated by the soybean oil diet. Taken together, our results indicate that in mice a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose or coconut oil.

  18. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of refined soybean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the production of biodiesel via transesterification of refined soybean oil obtained locally. Sodium hydroxide was used as the alkali catalyst and methanol (as alcohol) was used in the transesterification process due to its low cost. The methanol-to-oil molar ratio was maintained at 6:1. The effect of ...

  19. Effect of soybean lecithin on iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of canola oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeesu; Oh, Boyoung; Choe, Eunok

    2014-11-01

    The effect of soybean lecithin addition on the iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of emulsions consisting of purified canola oil and water (1:1, w/w) was studied based on headspace oxygen consumption using gas chromatography and hydroperoxide production using the ferric thiocyanate method. Addition levels of iron sulfate, chlorophyll, and soybean lecithin were 5, 4, and 350 mg/kg, respectively. Phospholipids (PLs) during oxidation of the emulsions were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. Addition of soybean lecithin to the emulsions significantly reduced and decelerated iron-catalyzed oil oxidation by lowering headspace oxygen consumption and hydroperoxide production. However, soybean lecithin had no significant antioxidant effect on chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of the emulsions. PLs in soybean lecithin added to the emulsions were degraded during both oxidation processes, although there was little change in PL composition. Among PLs in soybean lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were degraded the fastest in the iron-catalyzed and the chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation, respectively. The results suggest that addition of soybean lecithin as an emulsifier can also improve the oxidative stability of oil in an emulsion. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Rapid characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean oils by chemometric methods using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Pinho, Jéssica S. A.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate classification were applied to discriminate soybean oil samples into non-transgenic and transgenic. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract relevant features from the spectral data and to remove the anomalous samples. The best results were obtained when with Support Vectors Machine-Discriminant Analysis (SVM-DA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) after mean centering plus multiplicative scatter correction. For SVM-DA the percentage of successful classification was 100% for the training group and 100% and 90% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively. For PLS-DA the percentage of successful classification was 95% and 100% in training group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively and 100% and 80% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic respectively. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can provide a rapid, nondestructive and reliable method to distinguish non-transgenic and transgenic soybean oils.

  1. A novel FAD2-1 A allele in a soybean plant introduction offers an alternate means to produce soybean seed oil with 85% oleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2011-09-01

    The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean to improve soybean oil quality has been a long-time goal of soybean researchers. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of soybean oil compared to other oils. In the lipid biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is responsible for the conversion of oleic acid precursors to linoleic acid precursors in developing soybean seeds. Two genes encoding FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were identified to be expressed specifically in seeds during embryogenesis and have been considered to hold an important role in controlling the seed oleic acid content. A total of 22 soybean plant introduction (PI) lines identified to have an elevated oleic acid content were characterized for sequence mutations in the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genes. PI 603452 was found to contain a deletion of a nucleotide in the second exon of FAD2-1A. These important SNPs were used in developing molecular marker genotyping assays. The assays appear to be a reliable and accurate tool to identify the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genotype of wild-type and mutant plants. PI 603452 was subsequently crossed with PI 283327, a soybean line that has a mutation in FAD2-1B. Interestingly, soybean lines carrying both homozygous insertion/deletion mutation (indel) FAD2-1A alleles and mutant FAD2-1B alleles have an average of 82-86% oleic acid content, compared to 20% in conventional soybean, and low levels of linoleic and linolenic acids. The newly identified indel mutation in the FAD2-1A gene offers a simple method for the development of high oleic acid commercial soybean varieties.

  2. Identification and characterization of transcript polymorphisms in soybean lines varying in oil composition and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettel, Wolfgang; Xia, Eric; Upchurch, Robert; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Pengyin; An, Yong-Qiang Charles

    2014-04-23

    Variation in seed oil composition and content among soybean varieties is largely attributed to differences in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil production related genes in seeds. Discovery and analysis of sequence and expression variations in these genes will accelerate soybean oil quality improvement. In an effort to identify these variations, we sequenced the transcriptomes of soybean seeds from nine lines varying in oil composition and/or total oil content. Our results showed that 69,338 distinct transcripts from 32,885 annotated genes were expressed in seeds. A total of 8,037 transcript expression polymorphisms and 50,485 transcript sequence polymorphisms (48,792 SNPs and 1,693 small Indels) were identified among the lines. Effects of the transcript polymorphisms on their encoded protein sequences and functions were predicted. The studies also provided independent evidence that the lack of FAD2-1A gene activity and a non-synonymous SNP in the coding sequence of FAB2C caused elevated oleic acid and stearic acid levels in soybean lines M23 and FAM94-41, respectively. As a proof-of-concept, we developed an integrated RNA-seq and bioinformatics approach to identify and functionally annotate transcript polymorphisms, and demonstrated its high effectiveness for discovery of genetic and transcript variations that result in altered oil quality traits. The collection of transcript polymorphisms coupled with their predicted functional effects will be a valuable asset for further discovery of genes, gene variants, and functional markers to improve soybean oil quality.

  3. Effects of oil-water mixed frying and pure-oil frying on the quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of oil-water mixed frying (OWF and pure-oil frying (POF on changes in quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop during six days of frying were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the changes in specific extinction coefficients, p-anisidine value, carbonyl value, viscosity and color of soybean oil were more pronounced in the case of POF, indicating that oil oxidative and polymeric degradation was retarded by OWF. Concerning fat content of chicken chop, lower (p<0.05 values were observed in the last three days in the case of OWF than POF. Meanwhile, OWF led to lower acrylamide formation in chops during the six days. Sensory evaluation showed that OWF provided chops with five attributes similar to those of chops fried by POF on the first day. As frying days increased, the decreases in scores for color, odor, flavor and overall acceptability were less in the case of OWF. In conclusion, OWF could be a worthwhile alternative for retarding oil deterioration and producing healthier and higher quality fried meat products.

  4. Management of soybean oil refinery wastes through recycling them for producing biosurfactant using Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partovi, Maryam; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Roostaazad, Reza; Bahmaei, Manochehr; Tayyebi, Shokoufe

    2013-06-01

    Biosurfactant production through a fermentation process involving the biodegradation of soybean oil refining wastes was studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01 was able to produce extracellular biosurfactant when it was cultured in three soybean oil refinement wastes; acid oil, deodorizer distillate and soapstock, at different carbon to nitrogen ratios. Subsequent fermentation kinetics in the three types of waste culture were also investigated and compared with kinetic behavior in soybean oil medium. Biodegradation of wastes, biosurfactant production, biomass growth, nitrate consumption and the number of colony forming units were detected in four proposed media, at specified time intervals. Unexpectedly, wastes could stimulate the biodegradation activity of MR01 bacterial cells and thus biosurfactant synthesis beyond that of the refined soybean oil. This is evident from higher yields of biodegradation and production, as revealed in the waste cultures (Ydeg|(Soybean oil) = 53.9 % YP/S|(Soybean oil) = 0.31 g g(-1), respectively). Although production yields were approximately the same in the three waste cultures (YP/S|(wastes) =/~ 0.5 g g(-1)), microbial activity resulted in higher yields of biodegradation (96.5 ± 1.13 %), maximum specific growth rate (μ max = 0.26 ± 0.02 h(-1)), and biosurfactant purity (89.6 %) with a productivity of 14.55 ± 1.10 g l(-1), during the bioconversion of soapstock into biosurfactant. Consequently, applying soybean oil soapstock as a substrate for the production of biosurfactant with commercial value has the potential to provide a combination of economical production with environmental protection through the biosynthesis of an environmentally friendly (green) compound and reduction of waste load entering the environment. Moreover, this work inferred spectrophotometry as an easy method to detect rhamnolipids in the biosurfactant products.

  5. Using the candidate gene approach for detecting genes underlying seed oil concentration and yield in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-07-01

    Increasing the oil concentration in soybean seeds has been given more attention in recent years because of demand for both edible oil and biodiesel production. Oil concentration in soybean is a complex quantitative trait regulated by many genes as well as environmental conditions. To identify genes governing seed oil concentration in soybean, 16 putative candidate genes of three important gene families (GPAT: acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, DGAT: acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and PDAT: phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase) involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathways were selected and their sequences retrieved from the soybean database ( http://www.phytozome.net/soybean ). Three sequence mutations were discovered in either coding or noncoding regions of three DGAT soybean isoforms when comparing the parents of a 203 recombinant inbreed line (RIL) population; OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe. The RIL population was used to study the effects of these mutations on seed oil concentration and other important agronomic and seed composition traits, including seed yield and protein concentration across three field locations in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. An insertion/deletion (indel) mutation in the GmDGAT2B gene in OAC Wallace was significantly associated with reduced seed oil concentration across three environments and reduced seed yield at Woodstock in 2010. A mutation in the 3' untranslated (3'UTR) region of GmDGAT2C was associated with seed yield at Woodstock in 2009. A mutation in the intronic region of GmDGAR1B was associated with seed yield and protein concentration at Ottawa in 2010. The genes identified in this study had minor effects on either seed yield or oil concentration, which was in agreement with the quantitative nature of the traits. However, the novel gene-specific markers designed in the present study can be used in soybean breeding for marker-assisted selection aimed at increasing seed yield and oil

  6. Modelling Chemical Kinetics of Soybean Oil Transesterification Process for Biodiesel Production: An Analysis of Molar Ratio between Alcohol and Soybean Oil Temperature Changes on the Process Conversion Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Tait

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model describing chemical kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production has been developed. The model is based on the reverse mechanism of transesterification reactions and describes dynamics concentration changes of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, biodiesel, and glycerol production. Reaction rate constants were written in the Arrhenius form. An analysis of key process variables such as temperature and molar ratio soybean oil- alcohol using response surface analysis was performed to achieve the maximum soybean conversion rate to biodiesel. The predictive power of the developed model was checked for the very wide range of operational conditions and parameters values by fitting different experimental results for homogeneous catalytic and non-catalytic processes published in the literature. A very good correlation between model simulations and experimental data was observed.

  7. Deacidification of Soybean Oil Combining Solvent Extraction and Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Fornasero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the removal of free fatty acids (FFAs from soybean oil, combining solvent extraction (liquid-liquid for the separation of FFAs from the oil and membrane technology to recover the solvent through nanofiltration (NF. Degummed soybean oil containing 1.05 ± 0.10% w/w FFAs was deacidified by extraction with ethanol. Results obtained in the experiences of FFAs extraction from oil show that the optimal operating conditions are the following: 1.8 : 1 w : w ethanol/oil ratio, 30 minutes extraction time and high speed of agitation and 30 minutes repose time after extraction at ambient temperature. As a result of these operations two phases are obtained: deacidified oil phase and ethanol phase (containing the FFAs. The oil from the first extraction is subjected to a second extraction under the same conditions, reducing the FFA concentration in oil to 0.09%. Solvent recovery from the ethanol phase is performed using nanofiltration technology with a commercially available polymeric NF membrane (NF-99-HF, Alfa Laval. From the analysis of the results we can conclude that the optimal operating conditions are pressure of 20 bar and temperature of 35°C, allowing better separation performance: permeate flux of 28.3 L/m2·h and FFA retention of 70%.

  8. Rapid methodology via mass spectrometry to quantify addition of soybean oil in extra virgin olive oil: A comparison with traditional methods adopted by food industry to identify fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Roberta; Vágula, Julianna Matias; de Lima Figueiredo, Ingrid; Claus, Thiago; Galuch, Marilia Bellanda; Santos Junior, Oscar Oliveira; Visentainer, Jesui Vergilio

    2017-12-01

    Fast and innovative methodology to monitors the addition of soybean oil in extra virgin olive oil was developed employing ESI-MS with ionization operating in positive mode. A certified extra virgin olive oil and refined soybean oil samples were analyzed by direct infusion, the identification of a natural lipid marker present only in soybean oil (m/z 886.68 [TAG+NH 4 ] + ) was possible. The certified extra virgin olive oil was purposely adulterated with soybean oil in different levels (1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 70, 90%) being possible to observe that the new methodology is able to detect even small fraud concentration, such as 1% (v/v). Additionally, commercial samples were analyzed and were observed the addition of soybean oil as a common fraud in this segment. This powerful analytical method proposed could be applied as routine analysis by control organization, as well as food industries, considering its pronounced advantages; simplicity, rapidity, elevated detectability and minor amounts of sample and solvent consumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fate of 14 C Labelled fungicides maneb and mancozeb during processing of contaminated soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Hegazi, B.

    1991-01-01

    Soybeans from plants previously treated with 14 C-maneb and 14 C-mancozeb contain 0.62% and 3.15% of the applied dose, respectively. Crude soybean soil extracted from seeds was subjected to different refining processes. The effect of commercial refining processes, namely: alkali treatment, bleacking, winterization and deoderization on the nature and magnitude of the original residues was investigated. A high percentage of the residues was eliminated by alkali refining and deoderization processes. Analysis of residues after each step showed the ETU, ETM and ETD, in addition to two unknowns where the main 14 C-residues present in the oil. The refined oil contains around 1% of the residues originally present in the crude soybean oil.4 tab

  10. Effects of Chemical Inter esterification on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Stearin, Palm Kernel Oil and Soybean Oil Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti, M. F.H.; Norizzah, A. R.; Zaliha, O.

    2012-01-01

    Palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) blends were formulated according to Design Expert 8.0.4 (2010). All the sixteen oil blends were subjected to chemical inter esterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effects of chemical inter esterification on the slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and polymorphism were investigated. Palm based trans-free table margarine containing PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31, (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple ternary phase diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profiles as compared with commercial table margarine. This study has shown that blending and chemical inter esterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their blends. (author)

  11. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Saurabh; Gogate, Parag R; Moreira, Paulo F; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel. Various experiments were performed for understanding the effect of operating parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and speed of rotation of the homogenizer. For soybean oil, the maximum biodiesel yield as 84% was obtained with catalyst loading of 3wt% and molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:10 at 50°C with 12,000rpm as the speed of rotation in 30min. Similarly biodiesel yield of 88% was obtained from waste cooking oil under identical operating conditions except for the catalyst loading which was 1wt%. Significant increase in the rate of biodiesel production with yields from soybean oil as 84% (in 30min) and from WCO as 88% (30min) was established due to the use of high speed homogenizer as compared to the conventional stirring method (requiring 2-3h for obtaining similar biodiesel yield). The observed intensification was attributed to the turbulence caused at microscale and generation of fine emulsions due to the cavitational effects. Overall it can be concluded from this study that high speed homogenizer can be used as an alternate cavitating device to efficiently produce biodiesel in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of Soybean Oil Solvent Extraction through Enzymatic Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Grasso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate multienzyme hydrolysis as a pretreatment option to improve soybean oil solvent extraction and its eventual adaptation to conventional processes. Enzymatic action causes the degradation of the cell structures that contain oil. Improvements in terms of extraction, yield, and extraction rate are expected to be achieved. Soybean flakes and collets were used as materials and hexane was used as a solvent. Temperature, pH, and incubation time were optimized and diffusion coefficients were estimated for each solid. Extractions were carried out in a column, oil content was determined according to time, and a mathematical model was developed to describe the system. The optimum conditions obtained were pH 5.4, 38°C, and 9.7 h, and pH 5.8, 44°C, and 5.8h of treatment for flakes and collets, respectively. Hydrolyzed solids exhibited a higher yield. Diffusion coefficients were estimated between 10-11 and 10-10. The highest diffusion coefficient was obtained for hydrolyzed collets. 0.73 g oil/mL and 0.7 g oil/mL were obtained at 240 s in a column for collets and flakes, respectively. Hydrolyzed solids exhibited a higher yield. The enzymatic incubation accelerates the extraction rate and allows for higher yield. The proposed model proved to be appropriate.

  13. Determination and Comparison of Seed Oil Triacylglycerol Composition of Various Soybeans (Glycine max (L. Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Woo Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using 1H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln, linoleic (L, and oleic (O ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%–50.1%, and 15.7%–34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the 1H-NMR method.

  14. Determination and comparison of seed oil triacylglycerol composition of various soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Woo; Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Yong Deog; Yeom, Myung Hun; Shin, Song Seok; Yi, Jun Gon; Lee, Min-Seuk; Park, Hye Yoon; Cho, Dong Ha

    2013-11-21

    Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using ¹H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln), linoleic (L), and oleic (O) ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%-50.1%, and 15.7%-34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the ¹H-NMR method.

  15. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and soybean oil effects on quality characteristics of pork patties studied by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunkyung; Joo, Nami

    2013-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect and interactions of processing variables such as roselle extract (0.1-1.3%), soybean oil (5-20%) on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked pork patties. It was found that reduction in thickness, pH, L* and b* values decreased; however, water-holding capacity, reduction in diameter and a* values increased, respectively, as the amount of roselle increased. Soybean oil addition increased water-holding capacity, reduction in thickness, b* values of the patties. The hardness depended on the roselle and soybean oil added, as its linear effect was negative at proselle and soybean oil. The maximum overall quality score (5.42) was observed when 12.5 g of soybean oil and 0.7 g of roselle extract was added. The results of this optimization study would be useful for meat industry that tends to increase the product yield for patties using the optimum levels of ingredients by RSM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodiesel from soybean oil: experimental procedure of transesterification for organic chemistry laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geris, Regina; Santos, Nadia Alessandra Carmo dos; Amaral, Bruno Andrade; Maia, Isabelle de Souza; Castro, Vinicius Dourado; Carvalho, Jose Roque Mota

    2007-01-01

    The transesterification procedure of triacylglycerides from soybean oil (in natura and waste oil) to give biodiesel was adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale as an additional experimental technique of nucleophilic acyl substitution for undergraduate courses in Chemistry and related areas. (author)

  17. Genome-wide association mapping for seed protein and oil contents using a large panel of soybean accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Zhao, Xue; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Wenbin; Xie, Futi

    2018-01-08

    Soybean is globally cultivated primarily for its protein and oil. The protein and oil contents of the seeds are quantitatively inherited traits determined by the interaction of numerous genes. In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular foundation of soybean protein and oil content for the marker-assisted selection (MAS) of high quality traits, a population of 185 soybean germplasms was evaluated to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the seed protein and oil contents. Using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology, a total of 12,072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.05 were detected across the 20 chromosomes (Chr), with a marker density of 78.7 kbp. A total of 31 SNPs located on 12 of the 20 soybean chromosomes were correlated with seed protein and oil content. Of the 31 SNPs that were associated with the two target traits, 31 beneficial alleles were identified. Two SNP markers, namely rs15774585 and rs15783346 on Chr 07, were determined to be related to seed oil content both in 2015 and 2016. Three SNP markers, rs53140888 on Chr 01, rs19485676 on Chr 13, and rs24787338 on Chr 20 were correlated with seed protein content both in 2015 and 2016. These beneficial alleles may potentially contribute towards the MAS of favorable soybean protein and oil characteristics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability.

  19. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: II. QTL and genes that increase oil concentration without decreasing protein or with increased seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed oil is the primary global source of edible oil and a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, increasing the relative oil concentration in soybean is desirable; however, that goal is complex due to the quantitative nature of the oil concentration trait and possible effects on major agronomic traits such as seed yield or protein concentration. The objectives of the present study were to study the relationship between seed oil concentration and important agronomic and seed quality traits, including seed yield, 100-seed weight, protein concentration, plant height, and days to maturity, and to identify oil quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are co-localized with the traits evaluated. A population of 203 F4:6 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between moderately high oil soybean genotypes OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, was developed and grown across multiple environments in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. Among the 11 QTL associated with seed oil concentration in the population, which were detected using either single-factor ANOVA or multiple QTL mapping methods, the number of QTL that were co-localized with other important traits QTL were six for protein concentration, four for seed yield, two for 100-seed weight, one for days to maturity, and one for plant height. The oil-beneficial allele of the QTL tagged by marker Sat_020 was positively associated with seed protein concentration. The oil favorable alleles of markers Satt001 and GmDGAT2B were positively correlated with seed yield. In addition, significant two-way epistatic interactions, where one of the interacting markers was solely associated with seed oil concentration, were identified for the selected traits in this study. The number of significant epistatic interactions was seven for yield, four for days to maturity, two for 100-seed weight, one for protein concentration, and one for plant height. The identified molecular

  20. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  1. Identification of Major Quantitative Trait Loci for Seed Oil Content in Soybeans by Combining Linkage and Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongce; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Zili; Chang, Fangguo; Kong, Jiejie; Gai, Junyi; Zhao, Tuanjie

    2017-01-01

    Soybean oil is the most widely produced vegetable oil in the world and its content in soybean seed is an important quality trait in breeding programs. More than 100 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for soybean oil content have been identified. However, most of them are genotype specific and/or environment sensitive. Here, we used both a linkage and association mapping methodology to dissect the genetic basis of seed oil content of Chinese soybean cultivars in various environments in the Jiang-Huai River Valley. One recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (NJMN-RIL), with 104 lines developed from a cross between M8108 and NN1138-2 , was planted in five environments to investigate phenotypic data, and a new genetic map with 2,062 specific-locus amplified fragment markers was constructed to map oil content QTLs. A derived F 2 population between MN-5 (a line of NJMN-RIL) and NN1138-2 was also developed to confirm one major QTL. A soybean breeding germplasm population (279 lines) was established to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 59,845 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism markers. In the NJMN-RIL population, 8 QTLs were found that explained a range of phenotypic variance from 6.3 to 26.3% in certain planting environments. Among them, qOil-5-1, qOil-10-1 , and qOil-14-1 were detected in different environments, and qOil-5-1 was further confirmed using the secondary F 2 population. Three loci located on chromosomes 5 and 20 were detected in a 2-year long GWAS, and one locus that overlapped with qOil-5-1 was found repeatedly and treated as the same locus. qOil-5-1 was further localized to a linkage disequilibrium block region of approximately 440 kb. These results will not only increase our understanding of the genetic control of seed oil content in soybean, but will also be helpful in marker-assisted selection for breeding high seed oil content soybean and gene cloning to elucidate the mechanisms of seed oil content.

  2. Potential of glycerol and soybean oil for bioremediation of weathered oily-sludge contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, T.C.F.; Franca, F.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica], E-mail: fpfranca@eq.ufrj.br; Oliveira, F.J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    The bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil was investigated on laboratory scale. This work evaluated the effect of co-substrate addition in tropical climate soil highly contaminated with oily residue. Glycerol and soybean oil were used as auxiliary co-substrates for contaminant degradation. Three different concentrations of co-substrate were tested, and the experiments were carried out over 60 days. The following parameters were monitored: humidity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria, total fungi, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and the concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene. The soil supplementation with renewable co-substrates improved the efficiency of the biodegradation TPH, with removals of 85% and 83% for glycerol and soybean oil, respectively, compared to a 55% removal yielded by the biodegradation process without supplementation. The use of glycerol increased Chrysene and Benzo[a]pyrene biodegradation by 50%, while soybean oil supplementation increased their removal by 36%. (author)

  3. Using near infrared spectroscopy to classify soybean oil according to expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Gean Bezerra; Fernandes, David Douglas Sousa; Gomes, Adriano A; de Almeida, Valber Elias; Veras, Germano

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and non-destructive methodology is proposed for the screening of edible vegetable oils according to conservation state expiration date employing near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools. A total of fifty samples of soybean vegetable oil, of different brands andlots, were used in this study; these included thirty expired and twenty non-expired samples. The oil oxidation was measured by peroxide index. NIR spectra were employed in raw form and preprocessed by offset baseline correction and Savitzky-Golay derivative procedure, followed by PCA exploratory analysis, which showed that NIR spectra would be suitable for the classification task of soybean oil samples. The classification models were based in SPA-LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis coupled with Successive Projection Algorithm) and PLS-DA (Discriminant Analysis by Partial Least Squares). The set of samples (50) was partitioned into two groups of training (35 samples: 15 non-expired and 20 expired) and test samples (15 samples 5 non-expired and 10 expired) using sample-selection approaches: (i) Kennard-Stone, (ii) Duplex, and (iii) Random, in order to evaluate the robustness of the models. The obtained results for the independent test set (in terms of correct classification rate) were 96% and 98% for SPA-LDA and PLS-DA, respectively, indicating that the NIR spectra can be used as an alternative to evaluate the degree of oxidation of soybean oil samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  5. Biodiesel production from soybean oil and methanol using hydrotalcites as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carla Cristina C.M.; Aranda, Donato A.G. [GREENTEC - Laboratory of Green Technologies, Escola de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco E, sala 211, CEP 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Nielson F.P.; Souza, Mariana M.V.M. [LabTecH - Laboratory of Hydrogen Technologies, Escola de Quimica/UFRJ, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco E, sala 206, CEP 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    Esters of fatty acids, derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, and known as biodiesel, are a promising alternative diesel fuel regarding the limited resources of fossil fuels and the environmental concerns. In this work, methanolysis of soybean oil was investigated using Mg-Al hydrotalcites as heterogeneous catalyst, evaluating the effect of Mg/Al ratio on the basicity and catalytic activity for biodiesel production. The catalysts were prepared with Al/(Mg + Al) molar ratios of 0.20, 0.25 and 0.33, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), textural analysis (BET method) and temperature-programmed desorption of CO{sub 2} (CO{sub 2}-TPD). When the reaction was carried out at 230 C with a methanol:soybean oil molar ratio of 13:1, a reaction time of 1 h and a catalyst loading of 5 wt.%, the oil conversion was 90% for the sample with Al/(Mg + Al) ratio of 0.33. This sample was the only one to show basic sites of medium strength. We also investigated the reuse of this catalyst, the effect of calcination temperature and made a comparison between refined and acidic oil. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the Protective Role of Glycine max Seed Extract (Soybean Oil) in Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Experimental Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Anand; Jothivel, Nandhakumar; Das, Saibal; Swapna, A; Albert, Alice Padmini; Barnwal, Preeti; Babu, Dinesh

    2017-09-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of Glycine max seed extract (soybean oil) against gentamicin- and rifampicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare its effects with those of vitamin E, which has well-established antioxidant and nephroprotective effects. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 150-210 g) were divided into 10 groups. The first five groups were treated for 14 consecutive days with normal saline (5 ml/kg, by mouth [p.o.]); gentamicin (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally [i.p.]); gentamicin (80 mg/kg, i.p.) + vitamin E (250 mg/kg p.o.); gentamicin (80 mg/kg i.p.) + soybean oil (2.5 ml/kg p.o.); and gentamicin (80 mg/kg, i.p.) + soybean oil (5 ml/kg p.o.), respectively. For the next five groups, the same group allocation was done, but gentamicin was replaced with rifampicin (1 g/kg i.p.). Various biomarkers for nephrotoxicity in serum and urine were evaluated along with histopathological examination of kidneys. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done following Tukey's multiple comparison test; p Soybean oil in both doses significantly (p Soybean oil also showed strong antioxidant effects, causing significant (p Soybean oil demonstrated good nephroprotective activity due to antioxidant effects.

  7. Oil Bodies Extracted from High-Fat and Low-Fat Soybeans: Stability and Composition During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu Ling; Li Cui, Chun; Jiang, Lian Zhou; Liu, Yue; Liang, Xin Ting; Hou, Jun Cai

    2017-06-01

    Soybeans contain oil bodies (OBs) that encapsulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a phospholipid monolayer carrying scattered proteins. In nature, soybean OBs can form natural emulsions in aqueous media and may serve as natural, minimally processed, stable, and pre-emulsified oil for addition into appropriate food systems. In this study, OBs were obtained by aqueous extraction from the mature seeds of 2 soybean crop cultivars, high-fat soybean and low-fat soybeans. The compositions of the extracted OBs were analyzed during storage at room temperature up to 14 d (pH = 7). The oxidative stability of these OBs, stored at 60 °C, was evaluated by measuring the presence of primary (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde) by determining the standard peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value. During storage, the contents of unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and tocopherols declined in both OBs, while their mean particle diameters (d 32 ) and ζ-potentials increased. The changes in PV and TBARS values exhibited a similar trend for both OBs, but the OBs from low-fat soybeans had significantly lower PV and higher TBARS values than the OBs from high-fat soybean cultivars (P soybean cultivars had good stability during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. In growing pigs, the true ileal and total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in extracted corn oil is greater than in intact sources of corn oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Stein, H H

    2013-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the true ileal digestibility (TID) and the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) in extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ, and high protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and to compare these values to the TID and TTTD of AEE in full-fat soybeans. Nineteen barrows with an initial BW of 52.2 kg (SD = 3.8) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 19 × 11 Youden square design with 19 diets and 11 periods. A basal diet based on cornstarch, casein, sucrose, and corn bran was formulated. Eighteen additional diets were formulated by adding 3 levels of extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, HP DDG, or full-fat soybeans to the basal diet. The apparent ileal and the apparent total tract digestibility of AEE were calculated for each diet. The endogenous flow of AEE associated with each ingredient and values for TID and TTTD were calculated using the regression procedure. Results indicated that digested AEE in ileal digesta and feces linearly increased as AEE intake increased regardless of ingredient (P 0.77). However, the ileal and fecal endogenous losses of AEE were different (P oil, HP DDG, and full-fat soybeans. The TID of AEE was greater (P oil (95.4%) than for all other ingredients. The TID of AEE in HP DDG (76.5%) was not different from the TID of AEE in full-fat soybeans (85.2%) but greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ (53.0, 62.1, and 50.1%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE was greater (P oil (94.3%) than for all other ingredients, and the TTTD in full-fat soybeans (79.7%) was greater (P oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, and HP DDG (41.4, 51.9, 43.9, and 70.2%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE in HP DDG was also greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ. In conclusion, the intact sources of oil originating from high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, or HP DDG are much less digestible than extracted corn oil

  9. Effects of high-pressure process on kinetics of leaching oil from soybean powder using hexane in batch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Joo Tae; Yoon, Won Byong

    2011-08-01

    Mass transfer models of leaching oil from soybean (Glycine max) flour with hexane after high-pressure process (HPP) treatment were developed. High pressure (450 MPa) was applied to the soybean flour (mean diameter of flour particle: 365 μm) for 30 min before leaching the oil components in the solvent. The ratio of solvent (volume, mL) to soybean flour (mass, g), such as 1:10 and 1:20, was employed to characterize the effect of solvent ratio on the leaching rate in the batch type of extraction process. Ultraviolet absorbance at 300 nm was used to monitor the extraction rate. Saturation solubility (C(AS)) was determined to be 21.73 kg/m³. The mass transfer coefficients (k) were determined based on the 1st- and 2nd-order kinetic models. The 2nd kinetic model showed better fit. The HPP treatment showed a higher extraction rate and yield compared to the control, while the amount of solvent did not affect the extraction rate and yield. The scanning electron microscope showed that HPP-treated soybean particles included more pores than the untreated. The pores observed in the HPP-treated soybean flours might help increase the mass transfer rate of solvent and solute in the solid matrix. High-pressure processing can help increase the extraction rate of oil from the soybean flour operated in batch systems. The conventional solid to solvent ratio (1:20) used to extract oil composition from the plant seed did not help increase the amount of oil extracted from the soybean flour. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  11. Environmentally Friendly Compatibilizers from Soybean Oil for Ternary Blends of Poly(lactic acid-PLA, Poly(ε-caprolactone-PCL and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-PHB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Garcia-Campo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ternary blends of poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL with a constant weight percentage of 60%, 10% and 30% respectively were compatibilized with soybean oil derivatives epoxidized soybean oil (ESO, maleinized soybean oil (MSO and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO. The potential compatibilization effects of the soybean oil-derivatives was characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. The effects on morphology were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. All three soybean oil-based compatibilizers led to a noticeable increase in toughness with a remarkable improvement in elongation at break. On the other hand, both the tensile modulus and strength decreased, but in a lower extent to a typical plasticization effect. Although phase separation occurred, all three soybean oil derivatives led somewhat to compatibilization through reaction between terminal hydroxyl groups in all three biopolyesters (PLA, PHB and PCL and the readily reactive groups in the soybean oil derivatives, that is, epoxy, maleic anhydride and acrylic/epoxy functionalities. In particular, the addition of 5 parts per hundred parts of the blend (phr of ESO gave the maximum elongation at break while the same amount of MSO and AESO gave the maximum toughness, measured through Charpy’s impact tests. In general, the herein-developed materials widen the potential of ternary PLA formulations by a cost effective blending method with PHB and PCL and compatibilization with vegetable oil-based additives.

  12. Environmentally Friendly Compatibilizers from Soybean Oil for Ternary Blends of Poly(lactic acid)-PLA, Poly(ε-caprolactone)-PCL and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-PHB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Campo, María Jesús; Quiles-Carrillo, Luis; Masia, Jaime; Reig-Pérez, Miguel Jorge; Montanes, Nestor; Balart, Rafael

    2017-11-22

    Ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with a constant weight percentage of 60%, 10% and 30% respectively were compatibilized with soybean oil derivatives epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), maleinized soybean oil (MSO) and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). The potential compatibilization effects of the soybean oil-derivatives was characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. The effects on morphology were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). All three soybean oil-based compatibilizers led to a noticeable increase in toughness with a remarkable improvement in elongation at break. On the other hand, both the tensile modulus and strength decreased, but in a lower extent to a typical plasticization effect. Although phase separation occurred, all three soybean oil derivatives led somewhat to compatibilization through reaction between terminal hydroxyl groups in all three biopolyesters (PLA, PHB and PCL) and the readily reactive groups in the soybean oil derivatives, that is, epoxy, maleic anhydride and acrylic/epoxy functionalities. In particular, the addition of 5 parts per hundred parts of the blend (phr) of ESO gave the maximum elongation at break while the same amount of MSO and AESO gave the maximum toughness, measured through Charpy's impact tests. In general, the herein-developed materials widen the potential of ternary PLA formulations by a cost effective blending method with PHB and PCL and compatibilization with vegetable oil-based additives.

  13. Synthesis and properties of a novel bio-based polymer from modified soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. T.; Yang, L. T.; Zhang, H.; Tang, Z. J.

    2017-02-01

    Maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) was prepared by acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and maleic anhydride. AESO were obtained by the reaction of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with acrylic acid as the ring-opening reagent. The polymer was prepared by MAESO react with styrene. The structures of the products were studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and were consistent with the theoretical structures. Swelling experiment indicated that the crosslinking degree increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO. Thermal properties was tested by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), indicating that glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO, and thermal stability of polymer have a good correlation with the crosslinking degree. Mechanical properties analysis presented that tensile strength and impact strength affected by epoxy value of ESO. With the increase of epoxy value, the tensile strength increase, while the impact strength decrease. The property of the polymer ranged from elastomer to plastic character depended on the functionality of the ESO.

  14. Modeling the dose effects of soybean oil in salad dressing on carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability in salad vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Wendy S; Zhou, Yang; Crane, Agatha; Dixon, Philip; Quadt, Frits; Flendrig, Leonard M

    2017-10-01

    Background: Previously, we showed that vegetable oil is necessary for carotenoid absorption from salad vegetables. Research is needed to better define the dose effect and its interindividual variation for carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins. Objective: The objective was to model the dose-response relation between the amount of soybean oil in salad dressing and the absorption of 1 ) carotenoids, phylloquinone, and tocopherols in salad vegetables and 2 ) retinyl palmitate formed from the provitamin A carotenoids. Design: Women ( n = 12) each consumed 5 vegetable salads with salad dressings containing 0, 2, 4, 8, or 32 g soybean oil. Blood was collected at selected time points. The outcome variables were the chylomicron carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin area under the curve (AUC) and maximum content in the plasma chylomicron fraction ( C max ). The individual-specific and group-average dose-response relations were investigated by fitting linear mixed-effects random coefficient models. Results: Across the entire 0-32-g range, soybean oil was linearly related to the chylomicron AUC and C max values for α-carotene, lycopene, phylloquinone, and retinyl palmitate. Across 0-8 g of soybean oil, there was a linear increase in the chylomicron AUC and C max values for β-carotene. Across a more limited 0-4-g range of soybean oil, there were minor linear increases in the chylomicron AUC for lutein and α- and total tocopherol. Absorption of all carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins was highest with 32 g oil ( P vitamins ( P vitamins could be largely predicted by the soybean oil effect. However, the effect varied widely, and some individuals showed a negligible response. There was a global soybean oil effect such that those who absorbed more of one carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin also tended to absorb more of the others. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02867488. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Influence of spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med.) essential oil in the quality, stability and composition of soybean oil during microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nuno; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Asensio-S-Manzanera, M Carmen; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Lipids oxidation is one of the main factors leading to quality losses in foods. Its prevention or delay could be obtained by the addition of antioxidants. In this sense the present work intend to monitor the protective effects of Lavandula latifolia essential oil during soybean oil microwave heating. To achieve the proposed goal quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value, specific coefficients of extinction and ΔK), fatty acids profile, tocopherols and tocotrienols composition, antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were evaluated in soybean oil with and without spike lavender essential oils (EO) submitted to different microwave heating exposure times (1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 min; 1000 Watt) with a standard domestic microwave equipment. Microwave heating induced severe quality and composition losses, mainly above 3 min of microwave heating, regardless the sample tested. However, spike lavender EO addition counteracts the oxidation comparatively to control oils, by presenting enhanced values in quality parameters. A higher protection in unsaturated fatty acids loss was also observed as well as a higher antioxidant activity and oxidative stability. The microwave heating effects were clearly different in the samples with essential oils addition, allowing discrimination from plain soybean oils by a principal component analysis, being also capable to discriminate the different heating times tested within each sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of a novel bio-based resin from maleated soybean oil polyols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. T.; Yang, L. T.; Zhang, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel bio-based resin was prepared by the radical copolymerization of maleated soybean oil polyols (MSBOP) and styrene (ST). Structure of the product was studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and the result was found to be consistent with that of theoretical structure. Swelling experiments indicated that the crosslinking degree increased with the increase of hydroxyl value. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) revealed that glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer increased with increasing hydroxyl values, and that its thermal stability showed a good correlation with the hydroxyl value. The tensile strength and impact strength were significantly affected by the hydroxyl value of soybean oil polyols. With increasing hydroxyl value, the tensile strength presented an increasing trend, while the impact strength showed a decreasing one. Moreover, the property of the polymer from elastomer to plastic character also depended on the functionality of the hydroxyl value of soybean oil polyols.

  17. Experiment and Simulation Study of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Performance, Using Soybean Oil Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizqi Ariefianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— The most common fuel uses in the world is made from fossil. Fossil fuel is categorized as a non-renewable energy source. For that reason, there should be an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel by using biodiesel and one of the stock comes from soybean bean. Before using the biodiesel made from soybean bean oil, there should be a research to find out the properties and the effect of biodiesel from soybean bean oil regarding the performance of the engine. The research can be conducted in experiment and simulation. The properties result of soybean oil biodiesel should be tested to confirm whether this biodiesel have meet the standard requirement of biodieselor not. This biodiesel sproperties are Flash Point value is 182 o C , Pour Point value is -7 o C, Density at 15 o C is 890 Kg/m3, Kinematic Viscosity at 40 o C is 5.58 (cSt, and Lower Heating Value is 42.27686 MJ/kg. The result from this research is the highest power from simulation is 9% higher than the experiment. The highest torque from the experiment is 37% lower than the simulation’s torque. Lowest SFOC from experiment is  28% lower than the simulation’s SFOC. Highest BMEP from simulation is 20% higher than the highest BMEP from experiment. The  highest thermal efficiency from experiment is 6% higher than the highest thermal efficiency from simulation. The engine performance result using soybean oil biodiesel is not better than the Pertamina Dex. For that reason, the use of this biodiesel is not suggested to substitute Pertamina Dex.

  18. Thermally stable, transparent, pressure-sensitive adhesives from epoxidized and dihydroxyl soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, B Kollbe; Kraft, Stefan; Wang, D; Sun, X Susan

    2011-05-09

    Thermal stability and optical transparency are important factors for flexible electronics and heat-related applications of pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). However, current acryl- and rubber-based PSAs cannot attain the required thermal stability, and silicon-based PSAs are much more expensive than the alternatives. Oleo-chemicals including functionalized plant oils have great potential to replace petrochemicals. In this study, novel biobased PSAs from soybean oils were developed with excellent thermal stability and transparency as well as peel strength comparable to current PSAs. In addition, the fast curing (drying) property of newly developed biobased PSAs is essential for industrial applications. The results show that soybean oil-based PSA films and tapes have great potential to replace petro-based PSAs for a broad range of applications including flexible electronics and medical devices because of their thermal stability, transparency, chemical resistance, and potential biodegradability from triglycerides.

  19. Use of ultrasound to monitor physical properties of soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêsso, R. M.; Oliveira, P. A.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    The study of the monitoring physical properties of soybean oil was performed. The pulse-echo method allowed measuring the density and viscosity of the oil in real time and accurately. The physical property values were related to the acoustic time of flight ratio, dimensionless parameter that can be obtained from any reference. In our case, we used the time of flight at 20°C as reference and a fixed distance between the transducer and the reflector. Ultrasonic monitoring technique employed here has shown promising in the analysis of edible oils.

  20. Influence of Tunisian aromatic plants on the prevention of oxidation in soybean oil under heating and frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Salma; Chammem, Nadia; Sifaoui, Ines; Bouassida-Beji, Maha; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Silva, Sandra Diniz; Hamdi, Moktar; Bronze, Maria Rosário

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil by using aromatic plants. Soybean oil flavored with rosemary (ROS) and soybean oil flavored with thyme (THY) were subjected to heating for 24h at 180°C. The samples were analyzed every 6h for their total polar compounds, anisidine values, oxidative stability and polyphenols content. The tocopherols content was determined and volatile compounds were also analyzed. After 24h of heating, the incorporation of these plants using a maceration process reduced the polar compounds by 69% and 71% respectively, in ROS and THY compared to the control. Until 6h of heating, the ROS kept the greatest oxidative stability. The use of the two extracts preserves approximately 50% of the total tocopherols content until 18h for the rosemary and 24h for the thyme flavored oils. Volatile compounds known for their antioxidant activity were also detected in the formulated oils. Aromatic plants added to the soybean oil improved the overall acceptability of potato crisps (p<0.05) until the fifteenth frying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrating multi-omics analyses of Nonomuraea dietziae to reveal the role of soybean oil in [(4'-OH)MeLeu]4-CsA overproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanhuan; Huang, Di; Jin, Lina; Wang, Cheng; Liang, Shaoxiong; Wen, Jianping

    2017-07-14

    Nonomuraea dietziae is a promising microorganism to mediate the region-specific monooxygenation reaction of cyclosporine A (CsA). The main product [(4'-OH)MeLeu] 4 -CsA possesses high anti-HIV/HCV and hair growth-stimulating activities while avoiding the immunosuppressive effect of CsA. However, the low conversion efficiency restricts the clinical application. In this study, the production of [(4'-OH)MeLeu] 4 -CsA was greatly improved by 55.6% from 182.8 to 284.4 mg/L when supplementing soybean oil into the production medium, which represented the highest production of [(4'-OH)MeLeu] 4 -CsA so far. To investigate the effect of soybean oil on CsA conversion, some other plant oils (corn oil and peanut oil) and the major hydrolysates of soybean oil were fed into the production medium, respectively. The results demonstrated that the plant oils, rather than the hydrolysates, could significantly improve the [(4'-OH)MeLeu] 4 -CsA production, suggesting that soybean oil might not play its role in the lipid metabolic pathway. To further unveil the mechanism of [(4'-OH)MeLeu] 4 -CsA overproduction under the soybean oil condition, a proteomic analysis based on the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was implemented. The results showed that central carbon metabolism, genetic information processing and energy metabolism were significantly up-regulated under the soybean oil condition. Moreover, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis indicated that soybean oil had a great effect on amino acid metabolism and tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, the transcription levels of cytochrome P450 hydroxylase (CYP) genes for CsA conversion were determined by RT-qPCR and the results showed that most of the CYP genes were up-regulated under the soybean oil condition. These findings indicate that soybean oil could strengthen the primary metabolism and the CYP system to enhance the mycelium growth and the

  2. EFFECT OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakoor. H. I., M. L. Khan, Z. Nasir, N. Mukhtar and M. S. Rehman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola oil and soybean oil on production performance and serum lipid profile in layers. In this study 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 different dietary treatments viz control (A. containing 2.5 % canola oil (B, 5% canola oil (C, 2.5% soybean oil (D and 5% soybean oil (E for a period of 9 weeks. Effects of five treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg quality, weight gain and serum lipid profile, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were monitored. Serum lipid profile was determined 0.31 and 63 days from start of experiment. Significantly (P<0.05 less serum cholesterol was found in treatment C (295.1 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (321 mg/dl. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL was significantly (P<0.01 , less in treatment C ( 131.7 mg/dl as compared with treatment A. ( 161 mg/dl and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL was significantly (P<0.01 high in treatment C (31.76 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (25.42 mg/dl and triglyceride (TG was found significantly (P<0.01 less in treatment E ( 907.3 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (960 mg/dl. The results suggested that as the percentage of oils increased in the diet, serum lipid profile showed a positive trend.

  3. Analyzing the Effects of Climate Factors on Soybean Protein, Oil Contents, and Composition by Extensive and High-Density Sampling in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenwen; Yang, Ruping; Wu, Tingting; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Zhang, Shouwei; Jiang, Bingjun; Tian, Shiyan; Liu, Xiaobing; Han, Tianfu

    2016-05-25

    From 2010 to 2013, 763 soybean samples were collected from an extensive area of China. The correlations between seed compositions and climate data were analyzed. The contents of crude protein and water-soluble protein, total amount of protein plus oil, and most of the amino acids were positively correlated with an accumulated temperature ≥15 °C (AT15) and the mean daily temperature (MDT) but were negatively correlated with hours of sunshine (HS) and diurnal temperature range (DTR). The correlations of crude oil and most fatty acids with climate factors were opposite to those of crude protein. Crude oil content had a quadratic regression relationship with MDT, and a positive correlation between oil content and MDT was found when the daily temperature was soybean protein and oil contents. The study illustrated the effects of climate factors on soybean protein and oil contents and proposed agronomic practices for improving soybean quality in different regions of China. The results provide a foundation for the regionalization of high-quality soybean production in China and similar regions in the world.

  4. Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

  5. Inhibitory effect of ramosetron on corticotropin releasing factor- and soybean oil-induced delays in gastric emptying in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takuya; Keto, Yoshihiro; Yamano, Mayumi; Yokoyama, Toshihide; Sengoku, Takanori; Seki, Nobuo

    2012-09-01

    Symptoms of functional dyspepsia (FD) are highly prevalent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the effects of therapeutic agents for IBS on the pathophysiology of FD are unclear. In this study, therefore, we examined the effects of ramosetron, a serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, on corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)- and soybean oil-induced delays in gastric emptying of rats, in comparison with anti-diarrheal agent and spasmolytics. The involvement of 5-HT and the 5-HT(3) receptor in delayed gastric emptying was also evaluated. Corticotropin releasing factor was administered intravenously to rats 10min before oral administration of 0.05% phenol red solution, and the amount remaining in the stomach was measured after 30min. Soybean oil was administered orally with glass beads, and the number of residual beads in the stomach was counted 1h later. Both CRF and soybean oil inhibited gastric emptying dose-dependently. Ramosetron and itopride, a gastro-prokinetic agent, significantly reduced both CRF- and soybean oil-induced delays in gastric emptying, while an anti-diarrheal agent and spasmolytics aggravated them. Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine for 2days to reduced the synthesis of endogenous 5-HT diminished the effects of both CRF and soybean oil on gastric emptying. A 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide suppressed gastric emptying of both phenol red and glass beads, and those effects were reversed by ramosetron. These results suggest that CRF and soybean oil suppress gastric emptying in rats by activating 5-HT(3) receptors, and that by antagonizing these receptors, ramosetron may ameliorate symptoms of FD in clinical settings. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Speed of sound as a function of temperature for ultrasonic propagation in soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Silva, R. M. B.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound has been used for characterization of liquid in several productive sectors and research. This work presents the studied about the behavior of the speed of sound in soybean oil with increasing temperature. The pulse echo technique allowed observing that the speed of sound decreases linearly with increasing temperature in the range 20 to 50 °C at 1 MHz. As result, a characteristic function capable to reproduce the speed of sound behavior in soybean oil, as a function of temperature was established, with the respective measurement uncertainty.

  7. POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE) PRODUCTION BY Cupriavidus necator SUPPLEMENTED WITH MINIEMULSIFIED SOYBEAN OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, M.; Ienczak, J. L.; Quines, L. K.; Zanfonato, K.; Schmidell, W.; Aragão, G. M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown that the supplementation of vegetable oils, in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production, provides an increase in the process productivity, besides inducing lipase activity in the medium. The supplementation with miniemulsified oils could potentialize these results. In this work, the influence of supplementation of the medium with soybean oil, without treatment and miniemulsified, on polymerr production was evaluated. The best moment to supplement the medium and its influ...

  8. Efficiency of the refining processes in removing 14C-dichlorvos residues in soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Crude soybean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-dichlorvos at a dose 24 mg insecticide / kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes such as alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization. The effect of the refining processes on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. The insecticide residues in crude oil and cake amounted to 9.5% and 55% , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds. Extraction of the seeds with hexane gave crude oil with 9.5 % of original residues in seeds. The l4 C-activity in the crude stored Soya beans oil could be reduced by about 82% of radioactivity originally present in crude oil eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. A high percentage of the residues (50-55%) were eliminated during alkali treatment and bleaching. Refining of soybeans oil fortified with '1 4 C-dichlorovos. The final refined oil had only 13% of the radioactivity originally present, mainly in the form of dichlorvos, dimethyl and monomethyl phosphate in addition to desmethyl dichlorvos in oil with aged residues

  9. Experimental data of thermal cracking of soybean oil and blends with hydrogenated fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Beims

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the experimental data on the thermal cracking of soybean oil and blends with hydrogenated fat. Thermal cracking experiments were carried out in a plug flow reactor with pure soybean oil and two blends with hydrogenated fat to reduce the degree of unsaturation of the feedstock. The same operational conditions was considered. The data obtained showed a total aromatics content reduction by 14% with the lowest degree of unsaturation feedstock. Other physicochemical data is presented, such as iodine index, acid index, density, kinematic viscosity. A distillation curve was carried out and compared with the curve from a petroleum sample.

  10. Changes in oil content of transgenic soybeans expressing the yeast SLC1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suryadevara S; Hildebrand, David

    2009-10-01

    The wild type (Wt) and mutant form of yeast (sphingolipid compensation) genes, SLC1 and SLC1-1, have been shown to have lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) activities (Nageic et al. in J Biol Chem 269:22156-22163, 1993). Expression of these LPAT genes was reported to increase oil content in transgenic Arabidopsis and Brassica napus. It is of interest to determine if the TAG content increase would also be seen in soybeans. Therefore, the wild type SLC1 was expressed in soybean somatic embryos under the control of seed specific phaseolin promoter. Some transgenic somatic embryos and in both T2 and T3 transgenic seeds showed higher oil contents. Compared to controls, the average increase in triglyceride values went up by 1.5% in transgenic somatic embryos. A maximum of 3.2% increase in seed oil content was observed in a T3 line. Expression of the yeast Wt LPAT gene did not alter the fatty acid composition of the seed oil.

  11. Production of top quality soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa, Dr. Ahmad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments the most adequate conditions required to produce to quality soybean oil. It is essential to avoid contaminations (water, metallic, oxidation products, overheating, undue exposition to air, as well as an appropriate control of the different steps of the refining process.

    El trabajo presenta las condiciones recomendadas para obtener aceite de soja de la mejor calidad. Es importante evitar las contaminaciones (agua, metales y compuestos oxidados, los sobrecalentamientos, la exposición al aire, así como el adecuado control de los diferentes pasos del proceso de refinación.

  12. Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of soybean oil into ethyl esters. The process resulted in a maximum yield of 91.8% after 30 minutes of reaction. The process variables alcohol to oil ratio and catalyst to oil ratio were statistically significant regarding the yield of ethyl esters. The optimal operating condition was obtained applying an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 10.2 and a catalyst to oil weight ratio of 0.0035.

  13. Direct stacking of sequence-specific nuclease-induced mutations to produce high oleic and low linolenic soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, Zachary L; Coffman, Andrew; Baltes, Nicholas J; Stoddard, Thomas J; Clasen, Benjamin M; Luo, Song; Retterath, Adam; Yabandith, Ann; Gamo, Maria Elena; Bissen, Jeff; Mathis, Luc; Voytas, Daniel F; Zhang, Feng

    2016-10-13

    The ability to modulate levels of individual fatty acids within soybean oil has potential to increase shelf-life and frying stability and to improve nutritional characteristics. Commodity soybean oil contains high levels of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acid, which contribute to oxidative instability - a problem that has been addressed through partial hydrogenation. However, partial hydrogenation increases levels of trans-fatty acids, which have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Previously, we generated soybean lines with knockout mutations within fatty acid desaturase 2-1A (FAD2-1A) and FAD2-1B genes, resulting in oil with increased levels of monounsaturated oleic acid (18:1) and decreased levels of linoleic (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3). Here, we stack mutations within FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B with mutations in fatty acid desaturase 3A (FAD3A) to further decrease levels of linolenic acid. Mutations were introduced into FAD3A by directly delivering TALENs into fad2-1a fad2-1b soybean plants. Oil from fad2-1a fad2-1b fad3a plants had significantly lower levels of linolenic acid (2.5 %), as compared to fad2-1a fad2-1b plants (4.7 %). Furthermore, oil had significantly lower levels of linoleic acid (2.7 % compared to 5.1 %) and significantly higher levels of oleic acid (82.2 % compared to 77.5 %). Transgene-free fad2-1a fad2-1b fad3a soybean lines were identified. The methods presented here provide an efficient means for using sequence-specific nucleases to stack quality traits in soybean. The resulting product comprised oleic acid levels above 80 % and linoleic and linolenic acid levels below 3 %.

  14. Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1994-08-01

    The effects of psyllium fibre supplementation to polyunsaturated fatty acid rich soybean oil and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil diets on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion were investigated in healthy humans. The study consisted of four 7-day experimental periods. Participants consumed soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (SO+PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (CO+PF) diets. Laboratory diet provided 30% calories from fat (20% from test oils and 10% from basal diet), 15% calories from protein and 55% calories from carbohydrate. Fat digestibility was significantly lower and faecal fat excretion was significantly higher with SO+PF diet than SO diet and with CO+PF diet than CO diet. Faecal excretion of myristic and lauric acids was not affected by test diets. Percent faecal palmitic acid excretion was significantly higher during psyllium supplementation periods. Higher faecal linoleic acid excretion was observed with soybean oil diets compared with coconut oil diets. Increased faecal fat loss, decreased fat digestibility and increased faecal palmitic acid excretion with psyllium supplementation may partly explain the hypocholesterolaemic action of psyllium fibre.

  15. Mutant alleles of FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B combine to produce soybeans with the high oleic acid seed oil trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Anh-Tung

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] to improve soybean oil quality is an important and evolving theme in soybean research to meet nutritional needs and industrial criteria in the modern market. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of the oil. Commodity soybean oil typically contains 20% oleic acid and the target for high oleic acid soybean oil is approximately 80% of the oil; previous conventional plant breeding research to raise the oleic acid level to just 50-60% of the oil was hindered by the genetic complexity and environmental instability of the trait. The objective of this work was to create the high oleic acid trait in soybeans by identifying and combining mutations in two delta-twelve fatty acid desaturase genes, FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B. Results Three polymorphisms found in the FAD2-1B alleles of two soybean lines resulted in missense mutations. For each of the two soybean lines, there was one unique amino acid change within a highly conserved region of the protein. The mutant FAD2-1B alleles were associated with an increase in oleic acid levels, although the FAD2-1B mutant alleles alone were not capable of producing a high oleic acid phenotype. When existing FAD2-1A mutations were combined with the novel mutant FAD2-1B alleles, a high oleic acid phenotype was recovered only for those lines which were homozygous for both of the mutant alleles. Conclusions We were able to produce conventional soybean lines with 80% oleic acid in the oil in two different ways, each requiring the contribution of only two genes. The high oleic acid soybean germplasm developed contained a desirable fatty acid profile, and it was stable in two production environments. The presumed causative sequence polymorphisms in the FAD2-1B alleles were developed into highly efficient molecular markers for tracking the

  16. Mutant alleles of FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B combine to produce soybeans with the high oleic acid seed oil trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2010-09-09

    The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] to improve soybean oil quality is an important and evolving theme in soybean research to meet nutritional needs and industrial criteria in the modern market. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of the oil. Commodity soybean oil typically contains 20% oleic acid and the target for high oleic acid soybean oil is approximately 80% of the oil; previous conventional plant breeding research to raise the oleic acid level to just 50-60% of the oil was hindered by the genetic complexity and environmental instability of the trait. The objective of this work was to create the high oleic acid trait in soybeans by identifying and combining mutations in two delta-twelve fatty acid desaturase genes, FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B. Three polymorphisms found in the FAD2-1B alleles of two soybean lines resulted in missense mutations. For each of the two soybean lines, there was one unique amino acid change within a highly conserved region of the protein. The mutant FAD2-1B alleles were associated with an increase in oleic acid levels, although the FAD2-1B mutant alleles alone were not capable of producing a high oleic acid phenotype. When existing FAD2-1A mutations were combined with the novel mutant FAD2-1B alleles, a high oleic acid phenotype was recovered only for those lines which were homozygous for both of the mutant alleles. We were able to produce conventional soybean lines with 80% oleic acid in the oil in two different ways, each requiring the contribution of only two genes. The high oleic acid soybean germplasm developed contained a desirable fatty acid profile, and it was stable in two production environments. The presumed causative sequence polymorphisms in the FAD2-1B alleles were developed into highly efficient molecular markers for tracking the mutant alleles. The resources described here for the creation

  17. Assessing the reaction conditions to mediate the milkfat-soybean oil enzymatic interesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Veloso de Paula

    Full Text Available Summary A food grade lipase from Rhizopus oryzae immobilized on a hybrid polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol matrix (SiO2-PVA was used as the biocatalyst to mediate the interesterification reactions of a blend containing 65% milkfat and 35% soybean oil. All the reactions occurred in an inert nitrogen atmosphere in cylindrical glass reactors (80 mL with 40 g of the milkfat-soybean oil blend. The influence of the following variables was evaluated: biocatalyst loading (250-1500 activity units per gram of blend, biocatalyst moisture content (5-20%, temperature (45-60 °C and incubation time (2-48 h. The reactions were monitored by determining the free fatty acid content, triacylglycerol (TAGs composition in carbon species, and the consistency of the interesterified (IE products. The reaction conditions were set based on the parameters that provided a high interesterification yield and good consistency of the final product within the ideal range (200 to 800 gf cm-2. Hence the best results were obtained using a biocatalyst loading of 500 U g-1 of blend with 10% moisture content at 45 °C for 4 h. Under these conditions the consistency of the interesterified product was 539.7 ± 38 gf cm-2. The results demonstrated the potential of the immobilized lipase to alter the TAGs profile of the milkfat-soybean oil blend, allowing for the production of structured lipids.

  18. Synthesis and self-assembly behavior of a biodegradable and sustainable soybean oil-based copolymer nanomicelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lixia; Bian, Longchun; Zhao, Mimi; Lei, Jingxin; Wang, Jiliang

    2014-08-01

    Herein, we report a novel amphiphilic biodegradable and sustainable soybean oil-based copolymer (SBC) prepared by grafting hydrophilic and biocompatible hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) polymeric segments onto the natural hydrophobic soybean oil chains. FTIR, H1-NMR, and GPC measurements have been used to investigate the molecular structure of the obtained SBC macromolecules. Self-assembly behaviors of the prepared SBC in aqueous solution have also been extensively evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared SBC nanocarrier with the size range of 40 to 80 nm has a potential application in the biomedical field.

  19. SUPPLEMENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH HOMOZYGOUS SICKLE-CELL DISEASE WITH ZINC, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, VITAMIN-C, SOYBEAN OIL, AND FISH OIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester

  20. Yield and acidity indices of sunflower and soybean oils in function of grain drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the best conditions for drying and storing soybeans and sunflower grains to maintain their quality. In the first experiment, the soybeans were found to have initial moisture contents of 25 and 19% (w.b. at different drying air temperatures (75, 90, 105, and 120°C. In the second step, the soybeans were evaluated after they were stored in paper bags and plastic polyethylene at temperatures of 3, 10 and 23°C for six months. In the third experiment, sunflower grains were tested after exposure to drying air temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C, and under storage conditions of 25°C and 50%, 20°C and 60%, 30°C and 40% RH over six months in paper bags and raffia. Drying the sunflower seeds at 45°C and storing them at 30°C and 40% RH led to higher oil yields and lower acid numbers. The oil that was extracted from the acid number was higher for soybean grains that were dried down from initial concentrations of 25% water at a drying air temperature of 120°C. The air temperature in storage at 3°C favored for yield and reduction of the soybean oil acidity.

  1. Quantification of anti-nutritional factors and their correlations with protein and oil in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Rafael D; Borges, Leandro L; God, Pedro I V Good; Piovesan, Newton D; Teixeira, Arlindo I; Cruz, Cosme Damião; Barros, Everaldo G DE

    2018-01-01

    Soybeans contain about 30% carbohydrate, mainly consisting of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and oligosaccharides. NSP are not hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of monogastric animals. These NSP negatively affect the development of these animals, especially the soluble fraction. This work aimed to establish a method to quantify NSP in soybeans, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and to estimate correlations between NSP, oligosaccharides, protein and oil. Sucrose, raffinose + stachyose, soluble and insoluble NSP contents were determined by HPLC. Oil and protein contents were determined by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The soluble PNAs content showed no significant correlation with protein, oil, sucrose and raffinose + stachyose contents, but oligosaccharides showed a negative correlation with protein content. These findings open up the possibility of developing cultivars with low soluble NSP content, aiming to develop feed for monogastric animals.

  2. Effect of Furan Fatty Acids and 3-Methyl-2,4-nonanedione on Light-Induced Off-Odor in Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Takashi; Okabe, Ryo; Iwahashi, Maiko; Imagi, Jun; Sato, Toshiro; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2017-03-15

    Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed vegetable oils. However, under photooxidative conditions, this oil develops a beany and green off-odor through a mechanism that has not yet been elucidated. Upon photooxidation, 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (3-MND) produces a strong aroma. In this study, the effect of furan fatty acids and 3-MND on odor reversion in soybean oil was investigated. Our findings suggest that the observed light-induced off-odor was likely attributable to the furan fatty acids present in the oil through the generation of 3-MND. While 3-MND may not be directly responsible for the development of light-induced off-odor, this compound appears to be involved because off-odor was detected in canola oil samples containing added 3-MND. In addition, in the present work, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, which is derived from 3-MND, was identified for the first time in light-exposed soybean oil and shown to be one of the compounds responsible for odor reversion.

  3. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2001-04-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments.

  4. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments

  5. Optimization of biodiesel production from soybean oil in a microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Aghel, Babak; Alitabar, Mohammad; Sepahvand, Arash; Ghasempour, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Continuous transesterification of soybean oil is studied in a microreactor. • Box–Behnken method and response surface methodology used for optimization. • Fatty Acid Methyl Ester transesterification of 89% obtained at optimum condition. • The microchannel pressure drop was related to energy dissipation rate and FAME %. • Higher FAME % values were obtained at higher energy dissipation rate. - Abstract: Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide, as a catalyst, in a microreactor has been investigated. The transesterification reaction was performed at specific condition in circular tubes with hydraulic diameter of (0.8 mm). In order to further improve the biodiesel production, the experimental design was performed using Box–Behnken method. The results were analyzed using response surface methodology. The influence of reaction variables including; molar ratio of methanol to oil (6:1–12:1), temperature (55–65 °C) and catalyst concentration (0.6–1.8 wt.%) and residence time (20–180 s) under various flow rates of reactants (1–11 ml min −1 ) on Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) transesterification reaction was studied. The optimum condition was found at molar ratio of methanol to oil (9:1), catalyst concentration (1.2 wt.%) and temperature (60 °C) with a FAME % of about 89%. Considering optimum parameters, by changing the reactant residence time the FAME % was reached to 98% at 180 s

  6. Oil accumulation in soybean seeds grown in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonardo Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The soybean seed presents around 20% of oil and 40% of protein. These levels, during the filling of the seeds, can be influenced by environmental conditions, where are produced changes on its biochemistry composition. The higher temperatures promote the accumulation of protein, and the moderate temperatures favor the oil accumulation. Under in vivo growing conditions the control of these factors is difficult. The in vitro procedure can help the research, because the seed can be isolated from the mother plant in controlled environment. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the oil content of BRS184 and BRS282in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo procedure, occurred in the greenhouse, with 3plantsper potand seed collectionin R8, and in vitro procedure, developed in the laboratory, where the immature seeds were taken from the mother plant in R5 stage, cultured with a liquid culture medium containing 20 mM, 40 mM and 60 mM glutamine, with a constant agitation, during eight days at 25 ± 0.2 °C, and sucrose concentration of 204.5 mM. After the in vitro cultivation time for, the fresh weight gain of the seeds was evaluated, and after both experiments, was determined by the oil content for cultivation in R5, and R8. The accumulation of oil in soybean seeds presents a complex interaction, ranging between the genotype and the environmental conditions, under in vivo and in vitro cultivation. There is a positive correlation between production and oil content in seeds.

  7. Comparison of Oxidation Stability and Quenchant Cooling Curve Performance of Soybean Oil and Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Diego; Belinato, Gabriela; Sarmiento, Gustavo S.; Otero, Rosa L. Simencio; Totten, George E.; Gastón, Analía; Canale, Lauralice C. F.

    2013-07-01

    The potential use of vegetable oil-derived industrial oils continues to be of great interest because vegetable oils are relatively non-toxic, biodegradable, and they are a renewable basestock alternative to petroleum oil. However, the fatty ester components containing conjugated double bonds of the triglyceride structure of vegetable oils typically produce considerably poorer thermal-oxidative stability than that achievable with petroleum basestocks under typical use conditions. Typically, these conditions involve furnace loads of hot steel (850 °C), which are rapidly immersed and cooled to bath temperatures of approximately 50-60 °C. This is especially true when a vegetable oil is held in an open tank with agitation and exposed to air at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time (months or years). This paper will describe the thermal-oxidative stability and quenching performance of soybean oil and palm oil and the resulting impact on the heat transfer coefficient. These results are compared to typical fully formulated, commercially available accelerated (fast) and an unaccelerated (slow) petroleum oil-based quenchants.

  8. Quantification of anti-nutritional factors and their correlations with protein and oil in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL D. BUENO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soybeans contain about 30% carbohydrate, mainly consisting of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP and oligosaccharides. NSP are not hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of monogastric animals. These NSP negatively affect the development of these animals, especially the soluble fraction. This work aimed to establish a method to quantify NSP in soybeans, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and to estimate correlations between NSP, oligosaccharides, protein and oil. Sucrose, raffinose + stachyose, soluble and insoluble NSP contents were determined by HPLC. Oil and protein contents were determined by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The soluble PNAs content showed no significant correlation with protein, oil, sucrose and raffinose + stachyose contents, but oligosaccharides showed a negative correlation with protein content. These findings open up the possibility of developing cultivars with low soluble NSP content, aiming to develop feed for monogastric animals.

  9. High level of dietary soybean oil depresses the growth and anti-oxidative capacity and induces inflammatory response in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hua; Shen, Haohao; Liu, Jiahuan; Xie, Fangli; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2018-06-01

    Increasing demand, uncertain availability and high price of fish oil with the expansion of aquaculture made it essential to search alternative lipid sources. Vegetable oil has been proved to be the best candidate for the replacement of fish oil in aquafeeds. However, this replacement especially in high level potentially has some negative effects on fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, anti-oxidative and inflammatory responses of large yellow croaker to replacement of dietary fish oil by soybean oil. Three isonitrogenous (46% crude protein) and isolipidic (13% crude lipids) diets were formulated to feed fish (initial body weight: 36.80 ± 0.39 g) for 12 weeks. The control diet was designed to contain 6.5% of fish oil, and named as FO. On the basis of the control diet, the fish oil was 50% and 100% replaced by soybean oil, and these two diets were named as FS and SO, respectively. Results showed that the specific growth rate significantly decreased in the SO group. Crude lipid contents in muscle and liver of fish fed SO diet were significantly higher than those in the FO group. The ratio of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to identified fatty acids in liver decreased significantly, while n-6 PUFAs increased significantly with increasing dietary soybean oil inclusion. The levels of triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acid and tumour necrosis factor α, and the activity of aspartate aminotransferase in serum significantly increased in SO group. The total anti-oxidative capacity and expressions of the anti-oxidation-related genes (superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, catalase, glutathion peroxidase and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) were significantly decreased by dietary soybean inclusion. Dietary soybean oil significantly decreased the gene expressions of the anti-inflammatory cytokines (arginase I and interleukin 10), and increased the pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin

  10. The interaction of the soybean seed high oleic acid oil trait with other fatty acid modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil value is determined by the functional qualities imparted from the fatty acid profile. Soybean oil historically had excellent utilization in both food and industrial uses, but the need to increase the stability of the oil without negative health consequences has led to a significant decline in s...

  11. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muchlish Adie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addition, the use of soybean for biofuel feedstock is expected to motivate farmers to cultivate soybeans, so their use is not limited to non-energy raw materials. Soybean varieties that have a high oil content as well as high yield is a source of major biodiesel feedstock. From 73 soybean varieties that have been released in Indonesia, has an average oil content of 18%. Varieties with high oil content can be used as raw material for biodiesel. Research on the use of soy as an ingredient of energy crops (biodiesel have been carried out. In fact, soybean oil is the vegetable oil feedstock for most of the biodiesel being produced in the United States today. With the potential for soybean crops in Indonesia, both in terms of availability of land and varieties, the use of soybean oil for biofuel development in Indonesia is the flagship prospective materials for bio fuel substitute than other plants in the future.

  12. Measurements of physical properties during transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel for prediction of reaction progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, G.R.; Dehghani, S.; Ghanei, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Reaction progress in transesterification of soybean oil predicted using physical properties. ► Transesterification performed at 70 °C with Me/oil ratio 12:1 and 5 wt.% of BaO as catalyst. ► Viscosity and refractive index decreases nonlinearly during the progress of transesterification. ► Pour point increases linearly and cloud point increases nonlinearly during progress of reaction. ► Refractive index and pour point recommended for prediction transesterification progress. - Abstract: Biodiesel is a pure, non-toxic, biodegradable, clean-burning fuel and renewable alternative for fossil diesel fuel. In this work, a new method was introduced to determine reaction progress in transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel by the use of physical property variation during reaction. Quantitative analysis stage for determination fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) which is expensive and time-consuming can be replaced by this method. To develop the method, in the first stage, transesterification of soybean oil at optimum conditions (70 °C with MeOH to oil molar ratio of 12:1 and 5 wt.% of BaO as catalyst) was carried out to determine how conversion and physical properties change with time. Then appropriate functions were fitted on the extracted data and were evaluated by comparison with GC results. Refractive index was selected as good physical property to predict reaction progress.

  13. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Pfat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; PMilk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (Pfat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (Pfat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  14. Occurrence of Conjugated Linolenic Acids in Purified Soybean Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Kinami, Tomohisa; Horii, Naoto; Narayan, Bhaskar; Arato, Shingo; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo; Negishi, Hironori; Ikuina, Junichi; Noda, Ryuji; Shirasawa, Seiichi

    2007-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for the determination of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acids (CLN). Methyl esters prepared from purified lipid fractions of soybean oil were analyzed using an HPLC system equipped with photodiode-array detector to detect peaks having maximum absorption around 233 and 275 nm. These peaks were concentrated by AgNO3-silicic acid column chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. The structural analysis, o...

  15. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content.

  16. Embryo-specific expression of soybean oleosin altered oil body morphogenesis and increased lipid content in transgenic rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen Xian; Liu, Hua Liang; Qu, Le Qing

    2013-09-01

    Oleosin is the most abundant protein in the oil bodies of plant seeds, playing an important role in regulating oil body formation and lipid accumulation. To investigate whether lipid accumulation in transgenic rice seeds depends on the expression level of oleosin, we introduced two soybean oleosin genes encoding 24 kDa proteins into rice under the control of an embryo-specific rice promoter REG-2. Overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice leads to an increase of seed lipid content up to 36.93 and 46.06 % higher than that of the non-transgenic control, respectively, while the overall fatty acid profiles of triacylglycerols remained unchanged. The overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice seeds resulted in more numerous and smaller oil bodies compared with wild type, suggesting that an inverse relationship exists between oil body size and the total oleosin level. The increase in lipid content is accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of total seed protein. Our results suggest that it is possible to increase rice seed oil content for food use and for use as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel by overexpressing oleosin in rice seeds.

  17. Macronutrients and micronutrients of soybean oil bodies extracted at different pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeming; Cao, Yanyun; Zhao, Luping; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the macronutrients and micronutrients of pH 6.8, 8.0, 9.5, and 11.0 extracted soybean oil bodies (OBs) were examined, revealing that soybean OBs might be used as a natural carrier for bioactive components (unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipid, tocopherol, and phytosterol). pH 6.8 extracted OBs (dry basis) contained 85.88% neutral lipid, 8.18% protein, and 5.85% polar lipid (mainly phospholipid) by gravimetric analysis. The percentage of neutral lipid was increased, while those of protein and polar lipid were decreased with increasing pH. Tocopherol (about 75 mg/100 g neutral lipid of OBs) was not affected, while phytosterol was decreased (136 to 110 mg/100 g neutral lipid of OBs) with increasing pH. The detectable total monosaccaride (galactosamine, glucosamine, and glucose) content of extracted OBs was low and also decreased (35.80 to 6.13 mg/100 g neutral lipid of OBs) with increasing pH. The protein of extracted OBs had higher percentage of essential amino acids than soybean protein isolate with tryptophan and methionine as limited amino acids. The fatty acid composition of extracted OBs was rich in linoleic acid (about 59%), oleic acid (about 20%), and α-linolenic acid (about 7%). Oil bodies (OBs) from soybean and other plant seeds are greatly examined owing to their potential utilizations in food ingredients. The determination of its macronutrients and micronutrients would be very meaningful for its efficient utilization in the future. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Performance, carcass traits, muscle fatty acid composition and meat sensory properties of male Mahabadi goat kids fed palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, M H; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Mohammadi, H; Hopkins, D L; Ponnampalam, E N

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effect of palm, soybean or fish oils on the performance, muscle fatty acid composition and meat quality of goat kids. Twenty-four male Mahabadi kids (BW=19.4±1.2 kg) were divided into three groups according to liveweight and randomly allocated to one of three diets. Animals were fed ad libitum for 84 days. Different dietary fat sources had no effect on performance and/or carcass quality attributes. The soybean oil diet decreased 16:0 and 18:0 concentrations and increased 18:2 and 18:3 and the ratio of PUFA/SFA in the muscle compared with other treatments. Fish oil feeding increased 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 concentrations and decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 in the muscle. The results demonstrate that the use of fish oil is a nutritional strategy to improve the health claimable long-chain omega-3 fatty acid content and n-6/n-3 ratio in goat meat without changing the sensory properties or colour of meat. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil on growth performance, digestibility, and gut integrity in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of peroxidized oils has been shown to affect pig performance and oxidative status through the development of compounds which differ according to how oils are thermally processed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding varying degrees of peroxidized soybean oil ...

  20. Characterization Study of EPDM Rubber Vulcanized by Gamma Radiation in The Presence of Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radi, H.; Mousaa, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Composites based on ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) were prepared. EPDM loaded with 40 phr fumed silica in the presence of different concentrations of epoxidized soybean oil ranging between 4 and 8 phr. The composites were subjected to various gamma irradiation doses up to 200 kGy. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of rubber composition as a function of irradiation dose were investigated. Gamma irradiation led to a significant improvement in the properties of the all compositions. Besides, an improvement in the mechanical properties was attained with the addition of 4 phr of epoxidized soybean oil.

  1. Influence of supplemental canola or soybean oil on milk yield, fatty acid profile and postpartum weight changes in grazing dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-Reyes, Israel; Mendoza-Martínez, German D; Rojo-Rubio, Rolado; Mejia, Mario; García-Lopez, J C; Lee-Rangel, Héctor A

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine×Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] 43.5±1.7 kg) from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15); grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12); and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12) from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils); CII (soybean vs canola oil) to compare the treatment effects. The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: -0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03) but did not improve milk production or affect kids' growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (poils compared to the control group. Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids' performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.

  2. Effects of spent engine oil contamination on soybean (Glycine max L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Research Farm to determine the effect of spent auto-engine oil on soil and soybean ... importance and diverse domestic usage, nevertheless, ... 3 % equivalent to 0, 10, 000, 20,000 and 30,000 mg ... moisture content to obtain the yield. ... (Table 1) revealed that the texture of the ..... cowpea in two contrasting soil types from.

  3. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine operated with fuel blends derived from a mixture of Pakistani waste tyre oil and waste soybean oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Hussain, Mazhar

    2017-10-18

    The waste tyre and waste cooking oils have a great potential to be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. The aim of this study was to convert light fractions of pyrolysis oil derived from Pakistani waste vehicle tyres and waste soybean oil methyl esters into valuable fuel and to reduce waste disposal-associated environmental problems. In this study, the waste tyre pyrolysis liquid (light fraction) was collected from commercial tyre pyrolysis plant and biodiesel was prepared from waste soybean oil. The fuel blends (FMWO10, FMWO20, FMWO30, FMWO40 and FMWO50) were prepared from a 30:70 mixture of waste tyre pyrolysis liquid and waste soybean oil methyl esters with different proportions of mineral diesel. The mixture was named as the fuel mixture of waste oils (FMWO). FT-IR analysis of the fuel mixture was carried out using ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine were carried out with various FMWO blends. It was observed that the engine fuel consumption was marginally increased and brake thermal efficiency was marginally decreased with FMWO fuel blends. FMWO10 has shown lowest NOx emissions among all the fuel blends tested. In addition, HC, CO and smoke emissions were noticeably decreased by 3.1-15.6%, 16.5-33.2%, and 1.8-4.5%, respectively, in comparison to diesel fuel, thereby qualifying the blends to be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

  4. Utilization of selected biorenewable resources: solubilization of lignocellulosics and conjugation of soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshel, Reed E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, concern has risen over the use of fossil fuels due to their contribution to global warming, and to our dependence on imports of petroleum from nations that could pose a threat to national security. As a result, it has become increasingly important to develop technologies to replace fossil fuel based products with biorenewable alternatives. In this thesis nearly quantitative solubilization of lignocellulosic materials using phosphite esters has been realized, and is presented as a potential pretreatment for production of fermentable sugars for use in manufacturing commodity chemicals, specifically ethanol. Water solubilization of lignocellulosics using phosphite esters will enhance digestibility by disrupting the lignocellulose structure, changing cellulose morphology, and cleaving some glycosidic bonds. In a second project, soybean oil, which contains un-conjugated polyunsaturated fatty acid esters, is isomerized into oil containing conjugated polyunsaturates. The process is carried out under photochemical conditions using iodine as a catalyst in a hexanes solution to achieve 99% conjugation. The resulting conjugated soybean oil is demonstrated to have enhanced drying properties for use in alkyd resins.

  5. Oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol retention in soybean oil with lemon seed extract (Citrus limon) under thermoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2009-11-01

    The synergistic effect of lemon seed extract with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in soybean oil subjected to thermoxidation by Rancimat was investigated, and the influence of these antioxidants on a-tocopherol degradation in thermoxidized soybean oil. Control, LSE (2400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract), TBHQ (50 mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180 degrees C for 20 h. Samples were taken at time 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analysed for oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol content. LSE and Mixtures 1 and 2 showed the capacity of retarding lipid oxidation when added to soya oil and also contributed to alpha-tocopherol retention in oil heated at high temperatures. However, Mixtures 1 and 2 added to the oil presented a greater antioxidant power, consequently proving the antioxidants synergistic effect.

  6. Soybean plant-based toxicity assessment and phytoremediation of soils contaminated by vegetable and mineral oils used in power electrical transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Karina; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando Rodolfo; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes; Júnior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Schuelter, Adilson Ricken; Neves, Camila Vargas; Kroumov, Alexander Dimitrov

    2018-04-01

    In this work, deleterious effects in soils due to the presence of dielectric fluids were investigated. For this purpose, vegetable (Envirotemp ® FR3) and mineral (Lubrax AV 66 IN) oils were used for simulating a set of soils contaminated in different oil contents (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10%) in which three 120-days soybean crop periods (SCP) were carried out using the species Glycine max (L.) Merr. Both soil and soybean plant samples were analysed on following the changes on chemical attributes, content of oils and greases (COG) in soils and phytotechnical characteristics of soybean plant. No significant changes on soil chemical attributes were found. For a 0.5% vegetable oil fraction, COG removals of 35, 60 and 90% were observed after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd SCPs, respectively, whereas removals of 25, 40 and 70% were observed for 0.5% mineral oil fraction after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd SCPs, respectively. There was an effectively accumulated removal on all tested oil fractions as being proportional to the integrated 120-days SCPs, suggesting a lesser number of crops for a complete abatement of oil fraction in soil. A 100% recovery on the seedlings emergence fractions was also evidenced, revealing that at least a number of 7 and 9 SCPs should be applied continuously in soils contaminated by vegetable and mineral oils, respectively, in order to no longer jeopardize soybean plant growth. Finally, an empirical prediction of the number of SCPs necessary for the complete removal of oil from the soil was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variations of quality characteristics among oils of different soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Anwar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the variation of quality attributes among oils from different soybean varieties (Bovender special, Foster and F-8827.Oils were extracted using n-hexane as solvent. Results indicated that contents of seed oil among the tested varieties varied from 15.85% to 19.49%, moisture 8.4–10.2%, protein 41.67–45.64%, fiber 6.6–7.6% while ash 5.5–6.9%. The physical and chemical characteristics among the tested oils varied as: color (4.2–5.3R + 40–50Y, iodine value (119–128 g of I/100 g of oil, refractive index (1.4590–1.468, density (0.8698–0.8712 g/cm3 at 36 °C, free fatty acid content (0.39–0.67% as oleic acid, saponification value (181–187 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter (0.42–0.74%. The oxidation parameters including peroxide value, conjugated dienes and conjugated triene were recorded as 1.80–2.64 meq/kg, 0.41–0.65 and 1.50–1.91, respectively. The fatty acid composition showed the presence of palmitic acid (11.00–13.50%, stearic acid (3.02–4.90%, oleic acid (22.60–24.00%, linoleic acid (49.03–53.00% and linolenic acid (6.50–8.00%. The amounts of α, γ and δ-tocopherols ranged from 66.5 to 90.7 mg/kg, 907.5–1011.9 mg/kg and 399.8–411.5 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicated a significant variation for most of the physicochemical parameters among three soybean oils which can be mainly linked to the specific genetic makeup of each variety as well as the agro-climatic conditions of the harvest.

  8. Interesterification reaction activity, fatty acid composition and selectivity ratio of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The interesterification reaction was carried out by adding oleic acid to soybean oil by ratio 1:2 w/w under different conditions of temperature, stirring and catalyst percentages. Assessment of the interesterification of oils was reported by determination of saponification value, iodine value and fatty acids composition. This study showed that linolenic acid which is responsible for flavour instability of soybean oil and consider as primary factor contributing to deterioration of this oil could be reduced to less than or equals 3%.

    Se han llevado a cabo reacciones de interesterificación mediante la adición de ácido oleico a aceite de soja en la relación 1:2 w/w bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura, agitación y porcentaje de catalizador. La evaluación de la interesterificación de los aceites se realizó por determinación del índice de saponificación, el índice de iodo y la composición en ácidos grasos. Este estudio mostró que el ácido linolénico, que es responsable de la inestabilidad del flavor del aceite de soja y considerado como factor primario que contribuye a la deterioración de este aceite, podría ser reducido a cantidades menores o iguales al 3%.

  9. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO 4. The surface properties of LiFePO 4 are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO 4, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO 4 (D 50 = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2 C rate reach 150 mAh g -1 or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0 C/0.2 C are between 94.4 and 98.9%.

  10. Effect of Addition of Soybean Oil and Gamma-Ray Cross-linking on the Nanoporous HDPE Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nanoporous high-density polyethylene (HDPE membrane was prepared by a wet process. Soybean oil and dibutyl phthalate (DBP were premixed as codiluents, and gamma-rays were used for the cross-linking of HDPE. The pore volume of the nanoporous HDPE membranes with soybean oil was affected by the extracted amount of oil. The tensile strength of the membrane improved with an increasing absorbed dose up to 60 kGy, but decreased at 80 kGy due to severe degradation. The ionic conductivity of the nanoporous HDPE membrane did not really change with an increasing absorbed dose because the pores had already been formed before the gamma-ray radiation. Finally, the electrochemical stability of the HDPE membrane increased when the absorbed dose increased up to 60 kGy.

  11. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets of soybean and coconut oil on serum lipids in normolipidemic humans. A 28-day study was divided into four 7-day experimental periods. Dietary periods were soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fiber (SO + PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fiber (CO + PF), and were arranged to a randomized cross over design. Ten subjects consumed controlled diet containing 30% fat calories (20% from test oils and 10% from controlled diet) and 20 g per day of psyllium during fiber supplementation periods. SO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with SO diet (P < 0.001). CO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with CO diet (P < 0.014). Hypocholesterolemic response was greater with SO + PF compared with CO + PF (0.36 mmol 1(-1) vs 0.31 mmol 1(-1)). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were parallel to reductions of serum cholesterol. SO diet decreased, while CO diet increased serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo B. Very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo A-1 were unaffected by psyllium fiber and saturation of fat. Reduction of serum cholesterol was due to reduction of LDL cholesterol. Psyllium fiber supplementation lowered serum cholesterol regardless of saturation level of dietary fat.

  12. Effect of Water Deficit-Induced at Vegetative and Reproductive Stages on Protein and Oil Content in Soybean Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane M. Mertz-Henning

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is one of the most common grain crops worldwide, representing an important protein and oil source. Although genetic variability in the chemical composition of grains is seen in soybean, the mean levels of proteins have remained stagnant or, in some cases, have decreased over time, arousing concern in the agricultural industry. Furthermore, environmental conditions influence the chemical composition of grains. Thus, the present study evaluated the effect of water deficit (WD induced at the vegetative period (vegetative stress (VS and reproductive period (reproductive stress (RS on the protein and oil contents of grains in different soybean genotypes. Yield and its components were evaluated to evaluate the interrelation of these traits. The experiment was completed over three crop seasons under field conditions in Londrina, Paraná (PR, Brazil. WD was induced using rainout shelters and then stress treatments with irrigated and non-irrigated conditions were compared. WD negatively affected yield and its components. All evaluated genotypes showed similar responses for oil and protein contents under different water conditions. Higher protein content and lower oil content were observed in grains under RS. Such a relationship was not equally established under VS. Additionally, negative relationships between protein and oil content and between protein content and yield were confirmed.

  13. Process design for isolation of soybean oil bodies by applying the product-driven process synthesis methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zderic, A.; Taraksci, T.; Hooshyar, N.; Zondervan, E.; Meuldijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the product driven process synthesis (PDPS) methodology for the conceptual design of extraction of intact oil bodies from soybeans. First, in this approach consumer needs are taken into account and based on these needs application of the final product (oil bodies) is

  14. Preparation of curcumin microemulsions with food-grade soybean oil/lecithin and their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Yin; Chi, Ming-Hung; Shen, Chin-Min; Chen, Hwan-Wen; Yang, Wen-Jen; Lee, Mei-Hwa

    2014-07-01

    The choice of surfactants and cosurfactants for preparation of oral formulation in microemulsions is limited. In this report, a curcumin-encapsulated phospholipids-based microemulsion (ME) using food-grade ingredients soybean oil and soybean lecithin to replace ethyl oleate and purified lecithin from our previous study was established and compared. The results indicated soybean oil is superior to ethyl oleate as the oil phase in curcumin microemulsion, as proven by the broadened microemulsion region with increasing range of surfactant/soybean oil ratio (approx. 1:1-12:1). Further preparation of two formula with different particle sizes of formula A (30nm) and B (80nm) exhibited differential effects on the cytotoxicity of hepatocellular HepG2 cell lines. At 15μM of concentration, curcumin-ME in formula A with smaller particle size resulted in the lowest viability (approx. 5%), which might be explained by increasing intake of curcumin, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-ME is exclusively prominent on HepG2, not on HEK293, which showed over 80% of viability at 15μM. The results from this study might provide an innovative applied technique in the area of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cold Storage Stability of Blend Oil from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil with Different Melting Points%大豆油调和不同熔点棕榈液油的冷藏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴苏喜; 刘立萍; 李慧; Ooi Cheng KEAT

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide references for preparing blend oil from soybean oil and palm oil with different melting points, the effects of different types and amounts of anti-crystallization agent and soybean oil-to-palm oil ratio on the cold storage stability of blend oil were studied. The best anti-crystallization agent was hydroxyl stearin at a dose of 0.025%. The blend oil A composed of 70% soybean oil, 30% palm olein with melting point of 10 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 16 hours at 0 ℃ and more than 72 h at 5℃. The blend oil B composed of 70% soybean oil, 30% palm olein with melting point of 18 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 30 h at 10℃. The blend oil C composed of 60% soybean oil, 40% palm olein with melting point of 18 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 20 h at 15℃. The blend oil D composed of 60% soybean oil, 40% μm olein with melting point of 24℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 10 h.%为了制备适应不同储存温度的豆油.棕榈液油调和油,以大豆油与不同熔点棕榈液油为原料,采用冷藏试验方法优化抑晶剂种类、用量和调和油配方。结果表明,羟基硬脂精是效果最佳的抑晶剂,其最佳添加量为0.025%;调和油1(豆油70%+10℃棕榈油30%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在0℃环境下储存可保持16h以上澄清透亮,在5℃条件可保持72h以上澄清透亮;调和油2(豆油70%+18℃棕榈油30%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在10℃环境下可保持30h以上澄清透亮;调和油3(豆油60%+18℃棕榈油40%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在15℃环境下可保持20h以上澄清透亮;调和油4(豆油60%+24℃棕榈油40%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在20℃环境下可保持10h以上澄清透亮。

  16. Oxidative stability of soybean oil in oleosomes as affected by pH and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapchie, Virginie N; Yao, Linxing; Hauck, Catherine C; Wang, Tong; Murphy, Patricia A

    2013-12-01

    The oxidative stability of oil in soybean oleosomes, isolated using the Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Process (EAEP), was evaluated. The effects of ferric chloride, at two concentration levels (100 and 500 μM), on lipid oxidation, was examined under pH 2 and 7. The peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value of oil, in oleosome suspensions stored at 60 °C, were measured over a 12 day period. The presence of ferric chloride significantly (Poil in the isolated oleosome, as measured by the PV and TBARS. Greater lipid oxidation occurred under an acidic pH. In the pH 7 samples, the positively charged transition metals were strongly attracted to the negatively charged droplets. However, the low ζ-potential and the high creaming rate at this pH, may have limited the oxidation. Freezing, freeze-drying or heating of oleosomes have an insignificant impact on the oxidative stability of oil in isolated soybean oleosomes. Manufacturers should be cautious when adding oleosomes as ingredients in food systems containing transition metal ions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Essential oils and whole milk in the control of soybean powdery mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano José Perina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils (EOs and cow's whole milk (CWM in order to control soybean powdery mildew and to estimate the most effective concentrations of these natural products in reducing the disease severity on soybean plants. Three experiments were carried out: The first experiment evaluated and selected the most effective treatments to reduce the severity of soybean powdery mildew under greenhouse conditions; the second experiment evaluated the effect of CWM and EOs of citronella, lemongrass, eucalyptus, cinnamon and tea tree on the pathogen through the ultrastructure analysis of soybean leaflets infected by Erysiphe diffusa using the scanning electron microscope (SEM and light microscope (LM technology. In the third experiment, the most effective products were tested at several concentrations in order to define the most effective concentrations to reduce disease severity under greenhouse conditions. The treatments CWM (100mL L-1 and EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus (1.0mL L-1, reduced the disease severity from 67 to 74%. Direct effects from all natural products tested on the structures of E. diffusa were demonstrated through the SEM and LM analysis. Concentrations at 1.5mL L-1 for EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus and also at 180mL L-1 for the treatment CWM were the most effective against E. diffusa on soybean.

  18. Combined "de novo" and "ex novo" lipid fermentation in a mix-medium of corncob acid hydrolysate and soybean oil by Trichosporon dermatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Luo, Mu-Tan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Qi, Gao-Xiang; Xiong, Lian; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Can; Li, Hai-Long; Chen, Xin-De

    2017-01-01

    Microbial oil is one important bio-product for its important function in energy, chemical, and food industry. Finding suitable substrates is one key issue for its industrial application. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates can be utilized by oleaginous microorganisms with two different bio-pathways (" de novo " lipid fermentation and " ex novo " lipid fermentation). To date, most of the research on lipid fermentation has focused mainly on only one fermentation pathway and little work was carried out on both " de novo " and " ex novo " lipid fermentation simultaneously; thus, the advantages of both lipid fermentation cannot be fulfilled comprehensively. In this study, corncob acid hydrolysate with soybean oil was used as a mix-medium for combined " de novo " and " ex novo " lipid fermentation by oleaginous yeast Trichosporon dermatis . Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates (sugars and soybean oil) in the medium can be utilized simultaneously and efficiently by T. dermatis . Different fermentation modes were compared and the batch mode was the most suitable for the combined fermentation. The influence of soybean oil concentration, inoculum size, and initial pH on the lipid fermentation was evaluated and 20 g/L soybean oil, 5% inoculum size, and initial pH 6.0 were suitable for this bioprocess. By this technology, the lipid composition of extracellular hydrophobic substrate (soybean oil) can be modified. Although adding emulsifier showed little beneficial effect on lipid production, it can modify the intracellular lipid composition of T. dermatis . The present study proves the potential and possibility of combined " de novo " and " ex novo " lipid fermentation. This technology can use hydrophilic and hydrophobic sustainable bio-resources to generate lipid feedstock for the production of biodiesel or other lipid-based chemical compounds and to treat some special wastes such as oil-containing wastewater.

  19. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates, but rapeseed oil and safflower oil accelerate renal injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as compared with soybean oil, which is associated with expression for renal transforming growth factor-beta, fibronectin and renin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, M; Takemura, N; Watanabe, S; Hata, N; Misawa, Y; Okuyama, H

    2000-01-03

    We have noted that n-3 fatty acid-rich oils, such as fish oil, perilla oil and flaxseed oil as well as ethyl docosahexaenoate (DHA) prolonged the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) rats by approximately 10% as compared with linoleate (n-6)-rich safflower oil. Rapeseed oil with a relatively low n-6/n-3 ratio unusually shortened the survival time by approximately 40%, suggesting the presence of minor components unfavorable to SHRSP rats. This study examined the effects of dietary oils and DHA on renal injury and gene expression related to renal injury in SHRSP rats. Rats fed rapeseed oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets developed more severe proteinuria than those fed soybean oil-supplemented diet used as a control, but there were no significant differences in blood pressure. In contrast, the DHA-supplemented diet inhibited the development of proteinuria and suppressed hypertension. The mRNA levels for renal TGF-beta, fibronectin and renin were higher in the rapeseed oil and safflower oil groups after 9 weeks of feeding of the experimental diet than in the soybean oil and DHA groups. The fatty acid composition of kidney phospholipids was markedly affected by these diets. These results indicate that the renal injury observed in the groups fed safflower oil with a high n-6/n-3 ratio and rapeseed oil with presumed minor components is accompanied by increased expression of the TGF-beta, renin and fibronectin genes, and that dietary DHA suppresses renal injury and gene expression as compared with soybean oil.

  20. Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Kyujung; McHale, Leah K

    2017-06-01

    Soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs.

  1. Comparison of Chemical and Enzymatic Interesterification of Fully Hydrogenated Soybean Oil and Walnut Oil to Produce a Fat Base with Adequate Nutritional and Physical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Farfán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal physical, chemical and nutritional properties of natural lipids depend on the structure and composition of triacylglycerols. However, they are not always mutually compatible. Lipid modification is a good way to give them specific functionalities, increase their oxidative stability, or improve their nutritional value. As such, chemical and enzymatic interesterification may be used to modify them and produce structured lipids. In accordance, the aim of this study is to compare chemical and enzymatic interesterifi cation of binary blends of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil, using sodium methoxide or Lipozyme TL IM, respectively, to produce a fat base with adequate nutritional and physical characteristics. Three different mass ratios of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil blends (20:80, 40:60 and 60:40 were interesterified and evaluated. Total interesterification was determined by the stabilization of the solid fat content. Chemical reaction of the 20:80 blend was completed in 10 min and of the 40:60 and 60:40 blends in 15 min. Enzymatically interesterified blends were stabilized in 120 min at all of the mass ratios. Complete interesterification significantly reduced the solid fat content of the blends at any composition. Chemical and enzymatically interesterified fully hydrogenated blend of soybean and walnut oil at mass ratio of 40:60 showed the plastic curve of an all-purpose-type shortening rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a high linolenic acid (C18:3n3 content and with zero trans-fatty acids.

  2. Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil on oxidative status in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding thermally processed peroxidized soybean oil (SO) induces markers of oxidative stress and alters antioxidant status in pig tissue, blood, and urine. Fifty-six barrows (25.3 ± 3.3 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments...

  3. Synthesis of Biolubricant Basestocks from Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Turco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the preparation of biolubricant basestocks through the ring-opening reaction of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO by alcohols in presence of solid acid catalysts (SAC-13 resin. To this end, different experimental runs were carried out in a lab-scale reactor, analyzing the effect of the alcohol (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, catalyst mass loading (from 1 to 10 wt % with respect to the oil mass and operating temperature (60–90 °C. The main focus of investigation was oxirane conversion. The study was complemented by FT-IR, 1H NMR and kinematic viscosity characterization of the different products of the ring-opening reaction. Experimental conversion data were fitted through a suitable kinetic model. Values of the best-fitting parameters in terms of rate constant, activation energy and catalyst reaction order were obtained, and were potentially useful for the design of an industrial process.

  4. Factors affecting emulsion stability and quality of oil recovered from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S; Maurer, D; Johnson, L A

    2009-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess how the stability of the emulsion recovered from aqueous extraction processing of soybeans was affected by characteristics of the starting material and extraction and demulsification conditions. Adding endopeptidase Protex 6L during enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of extruded soybean flakes was vital to obtaining emulsions that were easily demulsified with enzymes. Adding salt (up to 1.5 mM NaCl or MgCl(2)) during extraction and storing extruded flakes before extraction at 4 and 30 degrees C for up to 3 months did not affect the stabilities of emulsions recovered from EAEP of soy flour, flakes and extruded flakes. After demulsification, highest free oil yield was obtained with EAEP of extruded flakes, followed by flour and then flakes. The same protease used for the extraction step was used to demulsify the EAEP cream emulsion from extruded full-fat soy flakes at concentrations ranging from 0.03% to 2.50% w/w, incubation times ranging from 2 to 90 min, and temperatures of 25, 50 or 65 degrees C. Highest free oil recoveries were achieved at high enzyme concentrations, mild temperatures, and short incubation times. Both the nature of enzyme (i.e., protease and phospholipase), added alone or as a cocktail, concentration of enzymes (0.5% vs. 2.5%) and incubation time (1 vs. 3 h), use during the extraction step, and nature of enzyme added for demulsifying affected free oil yield. The free oil recovered from EAEP of extruded flakes contained less phosphorus compared with conventional hexane-extracted oil. The present study identified conditions rendering the emulsion less stable, which is critical to increasing free oil yield recovered during EAEP of soybeans, an environmentally friendly alternative processing method to hexane extraction.

  5. Dissecting genomic hotspots underlying seed protein, oil, and sucrose content in an interspecific mapping population of soybean using high-density linkage mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Vuong, Tri D; Kale, Sandip; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Zhu, Chengsong; Wu, Xiaolei; Bai, Yonghe; Yungbluth, Dennis; Lu, Fang; Kumpatla, Siva; Grover Shannon, J; Varshney, Rajeev K; Nguyen, Henry T

    2018-04-04

    The cultivated [Glycine max (L) Merr.] and wild [Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.] soybean species comprise wide variation in seed composition traits. Compared to wild soybean, cultivated soybean contains low protein, high oil and high sucrose. In this study, an inter-specific population was derived from a cross between G. max (Williams 82) and G. soja (PI 483460B). This recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 188 lines was sequenced at 0.3x depth. Based on 91,342 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), recombination events in RILs were defined, and a high-resolution bin map was developed (4,070 bins). In addition to bin mapping, QTL analysis for protein, oil and sucrose was performed using 3,343 polymorphic SNPs (3K-SNP), derived from Illumina Infinium BeadChip sequencing platform. The QTL regions from both platforms were compared and a significant concordance was observed between bin and 3K-SNP markers. Importantly, the bin map derived from next generation sequencing technology enhanced mapping resolution (from 1325 Kb to 50 Kb). A total of 5, 9 and 4 QTLs were identified for protein, oil and sucrose content, respectively and some of the QTLs coincided with soybean domestication related genomic loci. The major QTL for protein and oil was mapped on Chr. 20 (qPro_20) and suggested negative correlation between oil and protein. In terms of sucrose content, a novel and major QTL was identified on Chr. 8 (qSuc_08) and harbors putative genes involved in sugar transport. In addition, genome-wide association (GWAS) using 91,342 SNPs confirmed the genomic loci derived from QTL mapping. A QTL based haplotype using whole genome resequencing of 106 diverse soybean lines identified unique allelic variation in wild soybean that could be utilized to widen the genetic base in cultivated soybean. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. OPTIMASI RENDEMEN EKSTRAKSI LESITIN DARI MINYAK KEDELAI VARIETAS ANJASMORO DENGAN WATER DEGUMMING [Yield Optimization of Lecithin Extraction of Anjasmoro Variety Soybean Oil by Water Degumming

    OpenAIRE

    Teti Estiasih1)*; Kgs. Ahmadi2); Erliana Ginting3); Deny Kurniawati1)

    2013-01-01

    Lecithin is one of natural emulsifiers widely used in food industries. The main source of lecithin is soybean and it is obtained during water degumming in soybean oil purification. This research was aimed to optimize the yield of lecithin during water degumming of Anjasmoro variety soybean oil by response surface methodology. The factors optimized were added water (%), temperature (ºC), and extraction time (minute). The relationship between lecithin yield and the parameters was quadratic. The...

  7. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  8. Influence of supplemental canola or soybean oil on milk yield, fatty acid profile and postpartum weight changes in grazing dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Lerma-Reyes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Methods Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine×Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] 43.5±1.7 kg from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15; grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12; and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12 from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils; CII (soybean vs canola oil to compare the treatment effects. Results The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: −0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03 but did not improve milk production or affect kids’ growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (p<0.05 with respect to control. However, C12, C14, C16, C18, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, and C18:3n3 were reduced (p<0.05 in supplemented goats. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was increased (p<0.05 in goats supplemented with oils compared to the control group. Conclusion Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids’ performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.

  9. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo [Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 641-600 (Korea)

    2007-05-15

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO{sub 4}. The surface properties of LiFePO{sub 4} are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO{sub 4}, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO{sub 4} (D{sub 50} = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2C rate reach 150 mAh g{sup -1} or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0C/0.2C are between 94.4 and 98.9%. (author)

  10. New sources of soybean seed meal and oil composition traits identified through TILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilyeu Kristin D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several techniques are available to study gene function, but many are less than ideal for soybean. Reverse genetics, a relatively new approach, can be utilized to identify novel mutations in candidate genes; this technique has not produced an allelic variant with a confirmed phenotype in soybean. Soybean raffinose synthase genes and microsomal omega-6 fatty acid desaturase genes were screened for novel alleles in mutagenized soybean populations. Results Four mutations in independent lines were identified in the raffinose synthase gene RS2; two mutations resulted in amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed oligosaccharide phenotype. The resulting phenotype was an increase in seed sucrose levels as well as a decrease in both raffinose and stachyose seed oligosaccharide levels. Three mutations in independent lines were identified in the omega-6 fatty acid desaturase gene FAD2-1A; all three mutations resulted in missense amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed fatty acid profile that led to an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid in the seed oil. Conclusion The oligosaccharide phenotype controlled by the novel RS2 allele is similar to previously observed seed oligosaccharide phenotypes in RS2 mutant (PI 200508 allele-containing lines. Due to the anti-nutritional characteristics of raffinose and stachyose, this represents a positive change in seed composition. The fatty acid phenotype controlled by the novel FAD2-1A allele controls an increase in oleic acid in the seed oil, a phenotype also observed in a line previously characterized to have a null allele of the FAD2-1A gene. Molecular marker assays were developed to reliably detect the inheritance of the mutant alleles and can be used in efficient breeding for these desired seed phenotypes. Our results serve as the first demonstration of the identification of soybean mutants controlling seed phenotypes discovered through the

  11. Essential oils from Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima and Cordia verbenacea reduce the progress of Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Costa da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of essential oils derived from Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima and Cordia verbenacea for controlling Asian soybean rust. The inhibitory activities of the essential oils (applied in a concentration range of 0.05 - 2% on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi urediniospores were investigated using in vitro assays. The curative and eradicating properties of the oils (applied in a concentration range of 0.05 - 0.5% were studied under greenhouse conditions using the P. pachyrhizi-susceptible soybean cultivar MG/BR 46 (Conquista. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the effects of the essential oils on the morphology of the P. pachyrhizi urediniospores. The treatment with the essential oils at all concentrations tested led to the total inhibition of spore germination in vitro. The curative application of the essential oils reduced the disease severity, expressed as the area under the disease-progress curves, by 33 to 41%, whereas the commercial fungicide (pyraclostrobin + epoxyconazole employed as a positive control reduced the severity by 61%. The treatment of infected plants with the essential oils resulted in morphological alterations in the fungal structures that were similar to those produced by the commercial fungicide, namely, a shrivelling of the urediniospores, appressoria, germ tubes and paraphyses.

  12. Combined effect of carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol on the oxidative stability of soybean oil using a simplex centroid mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Salma; Chammem, Nadia; Sifaoui, Ines; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Piñero, José E; Bouassida-Beji, Maha; Hamdi, Moktar; L Bazzocchi, Isabel

    2017-08-01

    Oxidation taking place during the use of oil leads to the deterioration of both nutritional and sensorial qualities. Natural antioxidants from herbs and plants are rich in phenolic compounds and could therefore be more efficient than synthetic ones in preventing lipid oxidation reactions. This study was aimed at the valorization of Tunisian aromatic plants and their active compounds as new sources of natural antioxidant preventing oil oxidation. Carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol were isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus capitatus by column chromatography and were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Their antioxidant activities were measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. These active compounds were added to soybean oil in different proportions using a simplex-centroid mixture design. Antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of oils were determined before and after 20 days of accelerated oxidation at 60 °C. Results showed that bioactive compounds are effective in maintaining oxidative stability of soybean oil. However, the binary interaction of rosmarinic acid and thymol caused a reduction in antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of soybean oil. Optimum conditions for maximum antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were found to be an equal ternary mixture of carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. High-temperature epoxidation of soybean oil in flow : speeding up elemental reactions wanted and unwanted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortese, B.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Hessel, V.

    2012-01-01

    The soybean oil epoxidation reaction is investigated theoretically through kinetic modeling of temperature effects enabled through flow processing under superheated conditions. Different from previous studies on such processing, here a complex reaction network superimposed by multiphase transport is

  14. Poly(Lactic Acid) Filled with Cassava Starch-g-Soybean Oil Maleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiangkitiwan, Nopparut; Srikulkit, Kawee

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer, but its applications are limited by its high cost and relatively poorer properties when compared to petroleum-based plastics. The addition of starch powder into PLA is one of the most promising efforts because starch is an abundant and cheap biopolymer. However, the challenge is the major problem associated with poor interfacial adhesion between the hydrophilic starch granules and the hydrophobic PLA, leading to poorer mechanical properties. In this paper, soybean oil maleate (SOMA) was synthesized by grafting soybean oil with various weight percents of maleic anhydride (MA) using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as an initiator. Then, SOMA was employed for the surface modifying of cassava starch powder, resulting in SOMA-g-STARCH. The obtained SOMA-g-STARCH was mixed with PLA in various weight ratios using twin-screw extruder, resulting in PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH. Finally, the obtained PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH composites were prepared by a compression molding machines. The compatibility, thermal properties, morphology properties, and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated. The results showed that the compatibility, surface appearance, and mechanical properties at 90 : 10 and 80 : 20 ratios of PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH were the best. PMID:24307883

  15. Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,S.; Mazzone,L. C. A.; Santos,F. F. P.; Cruz,M. G. A.; Fernandes,F. A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel) from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of so...

  16. Acid activation of upper Eocene Ca-bentonite for soybean oil clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Salima; Herchi, Mongi; Mechti, Wafa; Gaied, Mohamed Essghaier

    2017-10-01

    In central Tunisia, many upper Eocene outcrops supply smectitic claystone which are characterized by several analytical techniques (calcimetry, XRD, SediGraph, chemical analysis, surface area, etc.). Beidellite is the main mineral detected by the XRD method. Representative raw samples M1, taken from Henchir Souar (Zaghouan, Tunisia), were acid activated in order to improve their physicochemical properties. This study consists in optimizing the activation conditions with HCl 3 N by varying the following parameters: time (2, 4, and 6 h) and temperature (25, 50, 75, and 90 °C). The characterization by XRD and chemical analysis was carried out on the samples (M1, activated for 2 and 6 h at 75 °C), showing a structural modification of the clay by reduction of intensity reflection 001 order of smectite and dissolution of metal ions (Al 3+ , Fe 3+ , and Mg 2+ ) from clay structure. Optimum condition for soybean oil clarification is obtained using a variety of amount raw clays (0.5, 0.75, and 1%). Thus, the best clarification yield is given at 0.75% of clay, showing a capacity of about 55%. Various forms of activated materials were used with a 75% proportion to leach soybean oil. Results were compared with commercial bentonite (Tonsil) having surface area (378 m 2 /g). The activated sample M1 during 4 h at 75 °C possesses a decolorizing capacity of about 85% greater than the oil treated by Tonsil in laboratory (58%).

  17. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muchlish Adie, M; Krisnawati, Ayda

    2014-01-01

    These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addi...

  18. Enhancement of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil by potassium fluoride modification of a calcium magnesium oxides catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingming; Zhang, Pingbo; Ma, Qinke

    2012-01-01

    Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of CaO-MgO and KF-modified CaO-MgO catalysts at atmospheric pressure. While the methyl ester yield for the CaO-MgO catalyst with a ratio of 8:2 (CaO:MgO) was 63.6%, it was 97.9% for the KF-modified catalyst at a 2% catalyst to the reactants (methanol/oil mixture) weight ratio, a temperature of 65 °C, a methanol-soybean oil ratio of 9:1 and a reaction time of 2.5 h. The KF/CaO-MgO catalyst still yielded 86.7% after four successive uses. The catalytic performance of the KF/CaO-MgO catalyst was attributed to the formation of active KCaF(3) and K(2)MgF(4) centers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and Extract of the Seeds of Glycine max (Soybean) from North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Baharfar, Robabeh

    2017-04-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merrill (soybean) is a major leguminous crop, cultivated globally as well as in Iran. This study examines the chemical composition of soybean essential oil, and evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seeds on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of soybean seeds was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria, and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration technique. The soybean seeds were also subjected to screening for possible antioxidant activity by using catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Forty components were identified, representing 96.68% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were carvacrol (13.44%), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (9.15%), p-allylanisole (5.65%), p-cymene (4.87%), and limonene (4.75%). The oil showed significant activity against Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae, Rathayibacter toxicus with MIC = 25 µg/mL, and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC = 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil was determined with an IC 50 value of 162.35 µg/mL. Our results suggest that this plant may be a potential source of biocide, for economical and environmentally friendly disease control strategies. It may also be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  20. Comparison of the effects of semi-refined rice oil and soybean oil on meat oxidative stability, carcass yield, metabolism, and performance of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML de Moraes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments (EXP 1 and EXP 2 were conducted to compare soybean oil (SO and semi-refined rice oil (RBO added to broilers diets. In EXP 1, 400 male Ross x Ross 308 broilers were reared in battery cages, and their performance was evaluated. A metabolism assay was performed. In EXP 2, 1344 broilers from the same strain were reared in floor pens with rice husks litter. In addition to performance, carcass yield and meat oxidative stability were evaluated. In both EXP, birds were distributed in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with two types of oils (SO or RBO and four oil inclusion levels (1%, 2.5%, 4%, or 5.5%. Two periods were considered: starter (1 to 21 days of age and grower (22 to 42 days. In both EXP, oil type had no influence on starter performance. Although treatments promoted similar in weight gain (WG and feed intake (FI, grower birds fed RBO had better feed conversion (FCR in EXP 2, but not in EXP1. In both trials, increasing dietary oil levels negatively influenced FI and positively FCR. Weight gain was similar among all treatments in EXP 1, whereas in EXP 2, WG was higher when 4 and 5.5% oil was included in the feed. RBO presented 94% fat metabolizability, and crude energy and metabolizable energy levels of 9.260 and 8.714 kcal/kg, respectively. Carcass yield was not influenced by oil type; however, oil inclusion level negatively affected breast yield. The experimental treatments had no effect on meat oxidative stability. RBO can be used as an alternative to soybean oil in broilers diets.

  1. Transesterification of soybean oil catalyzed by Sr-doped cinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreen, Sadia; Liu, Hui; Khan, Romana; Zhu, Xiao-chan; Skala, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sr-doped cinder catalyst was prepared and used for biodiesel synthesis. • A 99% of triglycerides conversion was achieved under optimal reaction conditions. • SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 and Sr 5 Al 8 O 1 are determined as dominant compounds which are responsible for high catalytic activity. • Catalyst exhibits high activity and can be easily recovered and regenerated. • The Sr-doped cinder catalyst is used in 14 repeated runs. - Abstract: The Strontium doped cinder was prepared using the wet impregnation method and analyzed as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis. Different procedure for cinder impregnation were investigated (temperature and duration of catalyst calcinations, the concentration of SrCl 2 solution) and optimal condition was established: impregnation 20 g of cinder 2–5 mm particles with 0.2 M SrCl 2 solution followed by calcinations at 1000 °C for 4 h. The Sr-cinder activity was tested at 90–200 °C using 1–5% mass of catalyst with different molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil (from 9 to 36). The maximum triglycerides (TG) conversion of 99.0% with the Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) yield of 97.1% was obtained by using 4% catalyst at 180 °C, for 1 h, and methanol/oil molar ratio 24:1. Influence of free fatty acid (FFA) and water in soybean oil on catalyst activity was analyzed, too. The catalyst could be used for 14 times with TG conversion and FAME yield above 90% and 80% respectively. The Sr-doped cinder catalysts before and after transesterification were characterized using BET surface area, basic strength, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ICP-AAS. Results showed that the formation of SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 and Sr 5 Al 8 O 17 complexes should be the main reason for the catalytic activity of prepared catalyst. Slow decrease of catalyst activity during its repeated use is result of Sr–Al-glycerolate formation in reaction between Sr–Al complexes and glycerol

  2. Topology and stability of a water-soybean-oil swirling flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Luis; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reveals and explains the flow topology and instability hidden in an experimental study by Tsai et al. [Tsai et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 031002(R) (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.031002. Water and soybean oil fill a sealed vertical cylindrical container. The rotating top disk induces the meridional circulation and swirl of both fluids. The experiment shows a flattop interface shape and vortex breakdown in the oil flow developing as the rotation strength R eo increases. Our numerical study shows that vortex breakdown occurs in the water flow at R eo=300 and in the oil flow at R eo=941 . As R eo increases, the vortex breakdown cell occupies most of the water domain and approaches the interface at R eo around 600. The rest of the (countercirculating) water separates from the axis as the vortex breakdown cells in the oil and water meet at the interface-axis intersection. This topological transformation of water flow significantly contributes to the development of the flattop shape. It is also shown that the steady axisymmetric flow suffers from shear-layer instability, which emerges in the water domain at R eo=810 .

  3. Performance and emissions characteristics of biodiesel from soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M. [Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey). Faculty of Technical Education

    2005-07-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that can be produced from renewable feedstocks such as vegetable oils, waste frying oils, and animal fats. It is an oxygenated, non-toxic, sulphur-free, biodegradable, and renewable fuel. Many engine manufacturers have included this fuel in their warranties since it can be used in diesel engines without significant modification. However, the fuel properties such as cetane number, heat of combustion, specific gravity, and kinematic viscosity affect the combustion, engine performance and emission characteristics. In this study, the engine performance and emissions characteristics of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels) and biodiesel from soybean oil and its 20 per cent blends with No. 2 diesel fuel were compared. The results showed that the engine performance of the neat biodiesel and its blend was similar to that of No. 2 diesel fuel with nearly the same brake fuel conversion efficiency, and slightly higher fuel consumption. CO{sub 2} emission for the biodiesel was slightly higher than for the No. 2 diesel fuel. Compared with diesel fuels, biodiesel produced lower exhaust emissions, except NO{sub x}. (author)

  4. Replacement of fish oil with soybean oil in diets for juvenile Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus): effects on liver lipid peroxidation and biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deng-Hang; Chang, Jia-Zhi; Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the replacement of fish oil (FO) by soybean oil (SO) on growth performance, liver lipid peroxidation, and biochemical composition in juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Fish (13.7 ± 0.2 g) in triplicate were fed five experimental diets in which 0% (FO as control), 40% (SO40), 60% (SO60), 80% (SO40), and 100% (SO100) FO were replaced by SO. The body weight gain of fish fed SO40, SO60, or SO80 diet was similar to FO group, but diets that have 100% soybean oil as dietary lipid significantly reduced fish growth (P fish liver fed diets that contained SO, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the ratio n-3/n-6 were significantly reduced by the inclusion of dietary SO (P fish. However, diet containing 100% SO as dietary lipid could reduce growth performance. Thus, we recommended that 40-80% SO can be used as dietary lipid to replace FO for juvenile Chinese sucker.

  5. Replacement of soybean oil by fish oil increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats fed a high-carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angélica Heringer; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Neves, Maria José; Botion, Leida Maria; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that fish oil consumption improves metabolic syndrome and comorbidities, as insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidaemia and hypertension induced by high-fat diet ingestion. Previously, we demonstrated that administration of a fructose-rich diet to rats induces liver lipid accumulation, accompanied by a decrease in liver cytosolic lipases activities. In this study, the effect of replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in a high-fructose diet (FRUC, 60% fructose) for 8 weeks on lipid metabolism in liver and epididymal adipose tissue from rats was investigated. The interaction between fish oil and FRUC diet increased glucose tolerance and decreased serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-TAG secretion and lipid droplet volume of hepatocytes. In addition, the fish oil supplementation increased the liver cytosolic lipases activities, independently of the type of carbohydrate ingested. Our results firmly establish the physiological regulation of liver cytosolic lipases to maintain lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. In epididymal adipose tissue, the replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in FRUC diet did not change the tissue weight and lipoprotein lipase activity; however, there was increased basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake. Increased cytosolic lipases activities were observed, despite the decreased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol release to the incubation medium. These findings suggest that fish oil increases the glycerokinase activity and glycerol phosphorylation from endogenous TAG hydrolysis. Our findings are the first to show that the fish oil ingestion increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats treated with high-carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis of Streptomyces tsukubaensis reveals the metabolic mechanism of FK506 overproduction by feeding soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Huanhuan; Huang, Di; Jin, Lina; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianping

    2017-03-01

    FK506 (tacrolimus) is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide that possesses powerful immunosuppressant activity. In this study, feeding soybean oil into the fermentation culture of Streptomyces tsukubaensis improved FK506 production by 88.8%. To decipher the overproduction mechanism, comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis was carried out. A total of 72 protein spots with differential expression in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS), and 66 intracellular metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analysis of proteome and metabolome indicated that feeding soybean oil as a supplementary carbon source could not only strengthen the FK506 precursor metabolism and energy metabolism but also tune the pathways related to transcriptional regulation, translation, and stress response, suggesting a better intracellular metabolic environment for the synthesis of FK506. Based on these analyses, 20 key metabolites and precursors of FK506 were supplemented into the soybean oil medium. Among them, lysine, citric acid, shikimic acid, and malonic acid performed excellently for promoting the FK506 production and biomass. Especially, the addition of malonic acid achieved the highest FK506 production, which was 1.56-fold of that in soybean oil medium and 3.05-fold of that in initial medium. This report represented the first comprehensive study on the comparative proteomics and metabolomics applied in S. tsukubaensis, and it would be a rational guidance to further strengthen the FK506 production.

  7. Effect of corn silage particle size and level of soybean oil on ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the effects of two corn silage particle size (coarse particle with geometric mean of 5.83 ± 2.47 mm and fine particle with geometric mean of 4.74 ± 2.74 mm) and two levels of soybean oil (0 and 4% of DM) on ruminal mat composition, distribution and consistency, four two years fistulated ruminant Zel ewes (BW ...

  8. Characterization of a Soybean Oil-based Biosurfactant and Evaluation of its Ability to Form Microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper characterizes the physio-chemical properties of the soybean oil (SBO)-based polymeric surfactant, Palozengs R-004 (hereafter referred to as R-004). The surface activity of R-004 is comparable to the reported activities of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms and higher than some of ...

  9. Effect of temperature and composition on density, viscosity and thermal conductivity of fatty acid methyl esters from soybean, castor and Jatropha curcas oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustra, Mara K.; Silva, Juliana R.F.; Ansolin, Marina; Balen, Manuela; Cantelli, Keli; Alkimim, Isabella P.; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cabral, Vladimir F.; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Corazza, Marcos L.; Vladimir Oliveira, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermophysical properties of soybean, castor and Jatropha curcas oils and related systems. ► Effect of temperature and composition on density, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the systems studied. ► Density, dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity data were correlated using empirical equations. -- Abstract: This work is focused on experimental determination of density, viscosity and thermal conductivity as a function of temperature and composition for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from soybean, castor and Jatropha curcas oils. Results show that an increase in temperature, over the range of (273 to 363) K, resulted in a decrease of all properties studied. FAME from soybean and J. curcas oils presented similar rheological behaviour, while FAME from castor oil presented higher values for density and viscosity. Density, dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity data for all systems obtained here were correlated using empirical equations with good agreement between experimental and calculated values. Experimental data presented here may be useful as a database for specification purposes and equipment design and plant operation in the biodiesel industry

  10. Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirino, M.R.; Oliveira, M.J.C.; Keyson, D.; Lucena, G.L.; Oliveira, J.B.L.; Gama, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnAl_2O_4 spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min. • The powders show high specific surface area. • ZAT_b15 showed activity of 52.22% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel. - Abstract: Zinc aluminate is a material with high thermal stability and high mechanical strength that, owing to these properties, is used as a catalyst or support. In this work, zinc aluminate spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min at a low temperature (150 °C) without templates, using only Al(NO_3)_3·9H_2O, Zn(NO_3)_2·6H_2O, and urea as precursors and applied in the transesterification of soybean oil. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that ZnAl_2O_4 had a cubic structure without secondary phases. The nitrogen adsorption measurements (BET) revealed a high surface area (266.57 m"2 g"−"1) for the nanopowder synthesized in 15 min. This powder showed activity of 52.22% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification.

  11. Exposure to mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during panfrying of beefsteak with margarine, rapeseed oil, olive oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Svendsen, Kristin

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to see if a cook could be exposed to mutagenic aldehydes in fumes from frying of beefsteak using margarine, rapeseed oil, soybean oil or virgin olive oil as frying fat. In addition, levels of particle exposure were measured to make the results comparable to other studies. The levels of higher aldehydes and total particles were measured in the breathing zone of the cook during the panfrying of beefsteak with the four different frying fats. In addition, the number of particles in the size intervals 0.3-0.5, 0.5-0.7 and 0.7-1.0 microm in the kitchen was registered. Measured levels of mutagenic aldehydes were between non-detectable and 25.33 microg m(-3) air. The exposure level of total aerosol was between 1.0 and 11.6 mg m(-3). Higher aldehydes were detected in all samples from this study, and mutagenic aldehydes were detected in most of the samples. Frying with margarine gave statistically significantly higher levels of mutagenic aldehydes and particles in all three size fractions than frying with the three different kinds of oil.

  12. Biodiesel production via the transesterification of soybean oil using waste starfish (Asterina pectinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Beom; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Ko, Chang Hyun; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Calcined waste starfish was used as a base catalyst for the production of biodiesel from soybean oil for the first time. A batch reactor was used for the transesterification reaction. The thermal characteristics and crystal structures of the waste starfish were investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The biodiesel yield was determined by measuring the content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The calcination temperature appeared to be a very important parameter affecting the catalytic activity. The starfish-derived catalyst calcined at 750 °C or higher exhibited high activity for the transesterification reaction. The FAME content increased with increasing catalyst dose and methanol-over-oil ratio.

  13. Development and phenotypic screening of an ethyl methane sulfonate mutant population in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is an important oil-producing crop in the Fabaceae family and is utilized in various industries. With increasing demands for soybean oil and other soybean products, its production must be increased. Genetic improvement of the crop is important to meet the increasing demands for soybean. A ne...

  14. No evidence found for Diels-Alder reaction products in soybean oil oxidized at the frying temperature by NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been generally accepted that the Diels-Alder reaction mechanism is one of the major reaction mechanisms to produce dimers and polymers during heating process of vegetable oil. Soybean oil oxidized at 180 °C for 24 hrs with 1.45 surface area-to-volume ratio showed 36.1% polymer peak area in g...

  15. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, Kaniz; Rakib Uddin, M.; Islam, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Khan, Maksudur R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean) oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO). Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  16. A multilayered supramolecular self-assembled structure from soybean oil by in situ polymerization and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Varadharajan; Gnanamani, Arumugam

    2013-05-01

    The present study emphasizes in situ transformation of soybean oil to self-assembled supramolecular multilayered biopolymer material. The said polymer material was characterized and the entrapment efficacy of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties was studied. In brief, soybean oil at varying concentration was mixed with mineral medium and incubated under agitation (200 rpm) at 37 degrees C for 240 h. Physical observations were made till 240 h and the transformed biopolymer was separated and subjected to physical, chemical and functional characterization. The maximum size of the polymer material was measured as 2 cm in diameter and the cross sectional view displayed the multilayered onion rings like structures. SEM analysis illustrated the presence of multilayered honeycomb channeled structures. Thermal analysis demonstrated the thermal stability (200 degrees C) and high heat enthalpy (1999 J/g). Further, this multilayered assembly was able to entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components simultaneously, suggesting the potential industrial application of this material.

  17. Evaluation of a diesel engine running with stationary mixtures of soybean oil and reused oil diesel; Avaliacao de um motor diesel estacionario funcionando com misturas de oleo de soja reutilizado e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maronhas, Maite E.S.; Fernandes, Haroldo C.; Siqueira, Wagner C.; Figueiredo, Augusto C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: maronhas@gmail.com, haroldo@ufv.br, augusto.figueiredo@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    The tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Agricultural Mechanization Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa using a stationary diesel engine Yanmar brand NS{sub B} 75, with nominal power of 5.8 kw at 2400 rpm, direct injection, and water cooled. This work aimed to examine the reuse of soybean oil to drive the engine stationary. Were used as fuel five mixtures of diesel oil (DO) and soybean oil (OS) re-used in the kitchen of the restaurant of the university in the proportions of 0-100%, 25-75%, 50-50%, 75-25 % and 100-0% respectively. The power and torque of the engine is higher for the mixture showed a 75% OD and 25% OS and 25% lower for DO and 75% OS. The lowest hourly consumption was with a mixture of 25% and 75% OD and OS was 15% lower than for the pure diesel. The values found justifying the use of mixtures of diesel and soybean oil reused, but the technical aspects, especially regarding the wear of the engine, must be evaluated to indicate the use after a long period of engine operation. (author)

  18. Comparative Biochemical and Proteomic Analyses of Soybean Seed Cultivars Differing in Protein and Oil Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chul Woo; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, So Wun; Lee, So Eui; Kim, Yong Chul; Bae, Dong Won; Han, Won Young; Lee, Byong Won; Ko, Jong Min; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Sun Tae

    2015-08-19

    This study develops differential protein profiles of soybean (Glycine max) seeds (cv. Saedanbaek and Daewon) varying in protein (47.9 and 39.2%) and oil (16.3 and 19.7%) content using protamine sulfate (PS) precipitation method coupled with a 2D gel electrophoresis (2DGE) approach. Of 71 detected differential spots between Daewon and Saedanbaek, 48 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Gene ontology analysis revealed that up-regulated proteins in Saedanbaek were largely associated with nutrient reservoir activity (42.6%), which included mainly seed-storage proteins (SSPs; subunits of glycinin and β-conglycinin). Similar results were also obtained in two cultivars of wild soybean (G. soja cv. WS22 and WS15) differing in protein content. Western blots confirmed higher accumulation of SSPs in protein-rich Saedanbaek. Findings presented and discussed in this study highlight a possible involvement of the urea cycle for increased accumulation of SSPs and hence the higher protein content in soybean seeds.

  19. Glymes as benign co-solvents for CaO-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaokun; Zhao, Hua; Song, Zhiyan; Olubajo, Olarongbe

    2013-07-01

    The base (such as CaO)-catalyzed heterogeneous preparation of biodiesel encounters a number of obstacles including the need for CaO pretreatment and the reactions being incomplete (typically 90-95% yields). In this study, a number of glymes were investigated as benign solvents for the CaO-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil into biodiesel with a high substrate loading (typically soybean oil >50% v/v). The triglyceride-dissolving capability of glymes led to a much faster reaction rate (>98% conversions in 4h) than in methanol alone (typically 24h) and minimized the saponification reaction when catalyzed by anhydrous CaO or commercial lime without pre-activation. The use of glyme (e.g. P2) as co-solvent also activates commercial lime to become an effective catalyst without calcination pretreatment. The SEM images suggest a dissolution-agglomeration process of CaO surface in the presence of P2, which could remove the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 layer coated on the surface of lime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heat release and engine performance effects of soybean oil ethyl ester blending into diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Andre Valente; Velasquez, Jose Antonio; Milanez, Luiz Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The engine performance impact of soybean oil ethyl ester blending into diesel fuel was analyzed employing heat release analysis, in-cylinder exergy balances and dynamometric tests. Blends with concentrations of up to 30% of soybean oil ethyl ester in volume were used in steady-state experiments conducted in a high speed turbocharged direct injection engine. Modifications in fuel heat value, fuel-air equivalence ratio and combustion temperature were found to govern the impact resulting from the addition of biodiesel on engine performance. For the analyzed fuels, the 20% biodiesel blend presented the best results of brake thermal efficiency, while the 10% biodiesel blend presented the best results of brake power and sfc (specific fuel consumption). In relation to mineral diesel and in full load conditions, an average increase of 4.16% was observed in brake thermal efficiency with B20 blend. In the same conditions, an average gain of 1.15% in brake power and a reduction of 1.73% in sfc was observed with B10 blend.

  1. Effects of different levels of lespedeza and supplementation with monensin, coconut oil, or soybean oil on ruminal methane emission by mature Boer goat wethers after different lengths of feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature Boer goat wethers were supplemented with 0.5% BW rolled corn and consumed pelleted alfalfa (CON), pelleted Sericea lespedeza (HSL; 6.4% condensed tannins), a 1:1 mixture of alfalfa and lespedeza (MSL), or alfalfa with monensin (ION; 22 mg/kg), coconut oil (CCO; 4%), or soybean oil (SBO; 4%). ...

  2. Hedging with futures contracts in the Brazilian soybean complex: BM&F vs. CBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Regina O. da Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the effectiveness of hedging Brazilian soy oil, soy meal, and soybeans in the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT and in the Brazilian Commodities and Futures Exchange (BM&F to reduce the risk of financial loss due to commodity price fluctuations. The econometric results show that a cross-hedging strategy using the BM&F soybean futures contract is an instrument of low effectiveness for managing soy oil and soy meal price risk. Despite low effectiveness, the estimates demonstrate total advantage for soy meal hedging operations using CBOT soy meal futures contracts rather than cross-hedging using BM&F soybean futures contracts. With some exceptions, the results are also more favorable for hedging soy oil with soy oil futures contracts at the CBOT rather than cross hedging with soybeans at the BM&F. Conversely, Brazilian traders hedging soybeans receive more effective risk protection by trading soybean futures contracts at the BM&F than by trading soybean futures contracts at the CBOT.

  3. Consumption of Oxidized Soybean Oil Increased Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Affected Intestinal Immune Variables in Yellow-feathered Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Liang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of oxidized soybean oil in the diet of young chickens on growth performance and intestinal oxidative stress, and indices of intestinal immune function. Corn-soybean-based diets containing 2% mixtures of fresh and oxidized soybean oil provided 6 levels (0.15, 1.01, 3.14, 4.95, 7.05, and 8.97 meqO2/kg of peroxide value (POV in the diets. Each dietary treatment, fed for 22 d, had 6 replicates, each containing 30 birds (n = 1,080. Increasing POV levels reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI of the broilers during d 1 to 10, body weight and average daily gain at d 22 but did not affect overall ADFI. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA increased in plasma and jejunum as POV increased but total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC declined in plasma and jejunum. Catalase (CAT activity declined in plasma and jejunum as did plasma glutathione S-transferase (GST. Effects were apparent at POV exceeding 3.14 meqO2/kg for early ADFI and MDA in jejunum, and POV exceeding 1.01 meqO2/kg for CAT in plasma and jejunum, GST in plasma and T-AOC in jejunum. Relative jejunal abundance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB P50 and NF-κB P65 increased as dietary POV increased. Increasing POV levels reduced the jejunal concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and cluster of differentiation (CD 4 and CD8 molecules with differences from controls apparent at dietary POV of 3.14 to 4.95 meqO2/kg. These findings indicated that growth performance, feed intake, and the local immune system of the small intestine were compromised by oxidative stress when young broilers were fed moderately oxidized soybean oil.

  4. Mapping the low palmitate fap1 mutation and validation of its effects in soybean oil and agronomic traits in three soybean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Andrea J; Whetten, Rebecca; Wang, Sanbao; Auclair, Jérôme; Hyten, David; Cregan, Perry; Bachlava, Eleni; Gillman, Jason; Ramirez, Martha; Dewey, Ralph; Upchurch, Greg; Miranda, Lilian; Burton, Joseph W

    2014-01-01

    fap 1 mutation is caused by a G174A change in GmKASIIIA that disrupts a donor splice site recognition and creates a GATCTG motif that enhanced its expression. Soybean oil with reduced palmitic acid content is desirable to reduce the health risks associated with consumption of this fatty acid. The objectives of this study were: to identify the genomic location of the reduced palmitate fap1 mutation, determine its molecular basis, estimate the amount of phenotypic variation in fatty acid composition explained by this locus, determine if there are epistatic interactions between the fap1 and fap nc loci and, determine if the fap1 mutation has pleiotropic effects on seed yield, oil and protein content in three soybean populations. This study detected two major QTL for 16:0 content located in chromosome 5 (GmFATB1a, fap nc) and chromosome 9 near BARCSOYSSR_09_1707 that explained, with their interaction, 66-94 % of the variation in 16:0 content in the three populations. Sequencing results of a putative candidate gene, GmKASIIIA, revealed a single unique polymorphism in the germplasm line C1726, which was predicted to disrupt the donor splice site recognition between exon one and intron one and produce a truncated KASIIIA protein. This G to A change also created the GATCTG motif that enhanced gene expression of the mutated GmKASIIIA gene. Lines homozygous for the GmKASIIIA mutation (fap1) had a significant reduction in 16:0, 18:0, and oil content; and an increase in unsaturated fatty acids content. There were significant epistatic interactions between GmKASIIIA (fap1) and fap nc for 16:0 and oil contents, and seed yield in two populations. In conclusion, the fap1 phenotype is caused by a single unique SNP in the GmKASIIIA gene.

  5. Influence of thermally peroxidized soybean oil on growth performance and oxidative status in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding peroxidized soybean oil (SO) on growth performance and oxidative status in growing pigs. Fifty-six barrows (25.3 ± 3.3 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing either 10% fresh SO (22.5 C) or SO exposed to...

  6. Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, M.R. [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, M.J.C. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratory of study in Science, DME, Federal University of Paraíba, Campus I, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lucena, G.L., E-mail: guilherme_leo1@yahoo.com.br [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, J.B.L. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN, Campus I, 59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Gama, L. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min. • The powders show high specific surface area. • ZAT{sub b}15 showed activity of 52.22% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel. - Abstract: Zinc aluminate is a material with high thermal stability and high mechanical strength that, owing to these properties, is used as a catalyst or support. In this work, zinc aluminate spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min at a low temperature (150 °C) without templates, using only Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O, Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, and urea as precursors and applied in the transesterification of soybean oil. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} had a cubic structure without secondary phases. The nitrogen adsorption measurements (BET) revealed a high surface area (266.57 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) for the nanopowder synthesized in 15 min. This powder showed activity of 52.22% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification.

  7. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, Seth R.; Porter, Paul; Jordan, Nicholas; Lazarus, William

    2011-01-01

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L -1 of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L -1 and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L -1 depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L -1 and from 0.14 to 0.33 L -1 , respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L -1 for soybean and 0.44 L -1 for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L -1 . (author)

  8. Processing quality of NS soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current NS soybean varieties are of satisfactory technological quality, and also significant technological diversity. Varieties Triumf and Venera possess higher oil content. Variety Sava has a balanced oil and protein content, and can be used for obtaining different soy products. Variety Rubin has the highest protein content and is suitable for new high protein products. Estimated processing value is a good parameter to describe the processing quality of soybeans. Based on several years and spatial analysis, it is possible to separate the geographic regions with prevailing favourable conditions for obtaining higher protein or oil content.

  9. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 不同环境条件下大豆籽粒蛋白质和油分含量与指数的遗传效应分析%Analysis of Genetic Effects on Contents and Indexed of Protein and Oil in Soybean Seeds in Different Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁海龙; 李文霞; 李文滨; 王继安

    2005-01-01

    Protein and oil are two of the important quantitative traits closely related to the nutrient quality in soybean(Glycine max [L. ] Merry). The content and yield of protein and oil have become one of the main goals in soybean breeding. For soybean breeding programs, understanding the inheritance is of importance. Genetic analyses of protein and oil content in soybean seed have been reported. Most of the studies showed that protein and oil content are quantitatively inherited. Genetic effects, heritability and correlation of protein and oil content in soybean seeds have been estimated.

  11. Vitamins as radioprotectors in vivo II. protection by vitamin A and soybean oil against radiation damage caused by internal radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harapanhalli, R.S.; Narra, V.R.; Yaghmai, V.; Azure, M.T.; Goddu, M.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    Tissue-incorporated radionuclides impart radiation energy over extended periods of time depending on their effective half-lives. The capacity of vitamin A dissolved in soybean oil to protect against the biological effects caused by internal radionuclides is investigated. The radiochemicals examined are DNA-binding 125 IdU, cytoplasmically localized H 125 IPDM and the α-particle emitter 210 Po citrate. As in our previous studies, spermatogenesis in mice is used as the experimental model and spermatogonial cell survival is the biological end point. Surprisingly, soybean oil itself provides substantial and equal protection against the Auger effect of 125 IdU, which is comparable to a high-LET radiation effect, as well as the low-LET effects of H 125 IPDM, the dose modification factors (DMFs) being 3.6 ± 0.9 (SEM) and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively. The protection afforded by the oil against the effects of 5.3 MeV α particles emitted by 210Po is also significant (DMF = 2.2 ± 0.4). The presence of vitamin A in the oil further enhanced the radioprotection against the effect of 125 IdU (DMF = 4.8 ± 1.3) and H 125 IKPDM (DMF = 5.1 ± 0.6); however, no enhancement is provided against the effects of α particles. These interesting results with soybean oil and vitamin A, together with data on the subcellular distribution of the protectors, provide clues regarding the mechanistic aspects of the protection. In addition, the data for vitamin A reaffirm our earlier conclusion that the mechanism by which DNA-bound Auger emitters impart biological damage is primarily indirect in nature. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  13. Rheological properties of soybean protein isolate gels containing emulsion droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, K.H.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Vliet, van T.

    2001-01-01

    Rheological properties of soybean protein gels containing various volume fractions oil droplets have been studied at small and large deformations. Dynamic viscoelastic properties of soybean protein isolate gels were determined as a function of the volume fraction of oil droplets stabilised by the

  14. Optimization of biosurfactant production in soybean oil by rhodococcus rhodochrous and its utilization in remediation of cadmium-contaminated solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Andriani, Dewi

    2016-02-01

    Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus rhodochrous in soybean oil was developed, where the effect of medium composition and fermentation time were evaluated. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved when a medium containing 30 g/L TSB (tryptic soy broth) and 20% v/v soybean oil was used as media with 7 days of fermentation. Biosurfactant was identified as glycolipids type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 896 mg/L. The biosurfactant had oil in water emulsion type and was able to reduce the surface tension of palm oil about 52% which could stabilize the emulsion up to 12 days. The batch removal of cadmium metal ion by crude and partially purified biosurfactants have been examined from synthetic aqueous solution at pH 6. The results exhibited that the crude biosurfactant had a much better adsorption ability of Cd(II) than that of partially purified biosurfactant. However, it was found that there was no significant difference in the adsorption of Cd(II) with 5 and 10 minutes of contact time. The results indicated that the biosurfactant could be used in remediation of heavy metals from contaminated aqueous solution.

  15. Development of new antioxidant systems for frying oil and omega-3 oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of natural antioxidant systems for frying oil will be discussed in this presentation. This study aimed to utilize vegetable oils such as soybean oil for frying, of which the United States is the world’s largest producer. To overcome the vulnerability of soybean oil to oxidation due t...

  16. Soybean production in eastern and southern Africa and threat of yield loss due to soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.M.; Beed, F.; Tukamuhabwa, P.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is a major source of oil and proteins worldwide. The demand for soybean has increased in Africa, driven by the growing feed industry for poultry, aquaculture and home consumption in the form of processed milk, baked beans and for blending with maize and wheat flour. Soybean, in addition

  17. Effect of the addition of ultraviolet absorber (Tinuvin 234) on the quality of soybean oil packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Alves, M.A. de; Arruda, C.S.; Ogliari, P.J.; Meinert, E.M.; Teixeira, E.; Barrera-Arellano, D.; Block, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the effect of the addition of the UV absorber Tinuvin 234 on the quality of soybean oil packaged in PET bottles stored at ambient temperature for 6 months under fluorescent light (634 lux). Along this period determinations were made of: peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm (EE) and sensorial evaluation (SE). The analysis of variance and resistance between the linear coefficients of each treatment indicates that significant difference does not exist (p0.0001) during the storage in relation to all determinations (PV, FFA, EE and SE). The results indicate that the addition of the absorbent Tinuvin 234 to PET bottles in the concentrations of 0.12% and 0.22% was not efficient in slowing down the deterioration of the oil exposed to the fluorescent light, when compared with soybean oil in PET bottles without addition of Tinuvin 234. (author) [es

  18. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, Seth R.; Porter, Paul; Jordan, Nicholas [Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Borlaug 411, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States); Lazarus, William [Department of Applied Economics, 231 Classroom Office Building, 1994 Buford Avenue, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L{sup -1} of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L{sup -1} and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L{sup -1} depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L{sup -1} and from 0.14 to 0.33 L{sup -1}, respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L{sup -1} for soybean and 0.44 L{sup -1} for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L{sup -1}. (author)

  19. Synthesis of zinc oxide by microwave hydrothermal method for application to transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirino, Max Rocha; Oliveira, Mateus José C.; Keyson, Davy; Lucena, Guilherme Leocárdio; Oliveira, João Bosco L.; Gama, Lucianna

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by microwave hydrothermal treatment using two different mineralization agents (NaOH and NH 4 OH), and were evaluated as catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The XRD patterns indicated the formation of the hexagonal wurtzite phase in both samples. SEM analysis showed completely different morphologies based on the mineralization agent employed. The ZnO nanostructures synthesized with NaOH (ZONa5 and ZONa5P) presented plate-like agglomerates, resulting in a quasi-spherical morphology, whereas the materials synthesized with NH 4 OH (ZONH5 and ZONH5P) presented a flower-like morphology. The ZONa5P sample showed an activity of 77.82% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification using methanol. - Highlights: • ZnO was synthesized by MH method in only 5 min. • The powders morphology is completely influenced by mineralization agent. • ZONa5P showed activity of 77.82% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel.

  20. Use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics for the authentication of avocado oil in ternary mixtures with sunflower and soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sotelo, Paola; Hernández-Martínez, Maylet; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Meza-Márquez, Ofelia Gabriela; García-Ochoa, Felipe; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí

    2016-07-01

    Avocado oil is a high-value and nutraceutical oil whose authentication is very important since the addition of low-cost oils could lower its beneficial properties. Mid-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to detect and quantify adulteration of avocado oil with sunflower and soybean oils in a ternary mixture. Thirty-seven laboratory-prepared adulterated samples and 20 pure avocado oil samples were evaluated. The adulterated oil amount ranged from 2% to 50% (w/w) in avocado oil. A soft independent modelling class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed to discriminate between pure and adulterated samples. The model showed recognition and rejection rate of 100% and proper classification in external validation. A partial least square (PLS) algorithm was used to estimate the percentage of adulteration. The PLS model showed values of R(2) > 0.9961, standard errors of calibration (SEC) in the range of 0.3963-0.7881, standard errors of prediction (SEP estimated) between 0.6483 and 0.9707, and good prediction performances in external validation. The results showed that mid-FTIR spectroscopy could be an accurate and reliable technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of avocado oil in ternary mixtures.

  1. Oleosins (24 and 18 kDa) are hydrolyzed not only in extracted soybean oil bodies but also in soybean germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeming; Zhao, Luping; Cao, Yanyun; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2014-01-29

    After oil bodies (OBs) were extracted from ungerminated soybean by pH 6.8 extraction, it was found that 24 and 18 kDa oleosins were hydrolyzed in the extracted OBs, which contained many OB extrinsic proteins (i.e., lipoxygenase, β-conglycinin, γ-conglycinin, β-amylase, glycinin, Gly m Bd 30K (Bd 30K), and P34 probable thiol protease (P34)) as well as OB intrinsic proteins. In this study, some properties (specificity, optimal pH and temperature) of the proteases of 24 and 18 kDa oleosins and the oleosin hydrolysis in soybean germination were examined, and the high relationship between Bd 30K/P34 and the proteases was also discussed. The results showed (1) the proteases were OB extrinsic proteins, which had high specificity to hydrolyze 24 and 18 kDa oleosins, and cleaved the specific peptide bonds to form limited hydrolyzed products; (2) 24 and 18 kDa oleosins were not hydrolyzed in the absence of Bd 30K and P34 (or some Tricine-SDS-PAGE undetectable proteins); (3) the protease of 24 kDa oleosin had strong resistance to alkaline pH while that of 18 kDa oleosin had weak resistance to alkaline pH, and Bd 30K and P34, resolved into two spots on two-dimensional electrophoresis gel, also showed the same trend; (4) 16 kDa oleosin as well as 24 and 18 kDa oleosins were hydrolyzed in soybean germination, and Bd 30K and P34 were always contained in the extracted OBs from germinated soybean even when all oleosins were hydrolyzed; (5) the optimal temperature and pH of the proteases were respectively determined as in the ranges of 35-50 °C and pH 6.0-6.5, while 60 °C or pH 11.0 could denature them.

  2. Different responses of soybean cyst nematode resistance between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YONGCHUN LI

    95, xx–xx]. Introduction. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide accounting for about 30% of the vegetable oil and 60% of the vegetable protein in world production. However, the sustain- ability of soybean production has been challenged by inten- sified pest problems (Skorupska et al. 1994). Soybean cyst.

  3. Mass spectrometry characterisation of fatty acids from metabolically engineered soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, André M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Machado, Alex M; da Cunha, Nicolau B; Coelho, Cíntia M; Lacerda, Valquiria A M; Coelho, Marly C; Rech, Elibio L

    2014-05-01

    Improving the quality and performance of soybean oil as biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of its fatty acids and requires an increase in monounsaturated acids and a reduction in polyunsaturated acids. Despite its current use as a source of biofuel, soybean oil contains an average of 25 % oleic acid and 13 % palmitic acid, which negatively impacts its oxidative stability and freezing point, causing a high rate of nitrogen oxide emission. Gas chromatography and ion mobility mass spectrometry were conducted on soybean fatty acids from metabolically engineered seed extracts to determine the nature of the structural oleic and palmitic acids. The soybean genes FAD2-1 and FatB were placed under the control of the 35SCaMV constitutive promoter, introduced to soybean embryonic axes by particle bombardment and down-regulated using RNA interference technology. Results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 94.58 %) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and non-transgenic oil extracts.

  4. 21 CFR 526.1696b - Penicillin G procaine-dihydrostreptomycin in soybean oil for intramammary infusion (dry cows).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subclinical mastitis in dairy cows at the time of drying off, specifically against infections caused by... soybean oil for intramammary infusion (dry cows). 526.1696b Section 526.1696b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... infusion (dry cows). (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliters of suspension contains penicillin G procaine...

  5. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo Dalton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB or saline (CT i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression.

  6. Early-maturing soybean cropping system. III. Protein and oil contents and oil composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, M.V.; Steele, C.C.; Grabau, L.J.; MacKown, C.T.; Hildebrand, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Expanding production of early-maturing soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars in the southeastern USA has exposed such cultivars to a wide range of environmental conditions during seed-fill. Temperatures during this growth stage influence levels of specific fatty acids, particularly of the unsaturated fatty acids. Our objective was to evaluate the grain quality responses of early-maturing cultivars to the wide range of planting dates in the southeastern USA. Protein and oil contents along with fatty acid profiles were assessed for cultivars from Maturity Group (MG) 00 through IV using late April mid-May early June, and late June planting dates on a well-drained Maury silt loam (fine, mixed, mesic Typic Paleudalf) in 1990 through 1993. Across years and cultivars. delayed planting increased protein content and linolenic acid levels and reduced oil content and oleic acid levels but had little or no influence on palmitic stearic or linoleic acid levels. The higher seed-fill temperatures associated with early planting were strongly correlated with increased oil content and oleic acid levels and reduced linolenic acid levels. Increasing seed-fill temperatures were closely associated with reduced linolenic acid levels for all six cultivars. However, the oleic acid response to seed-temperatures strongly depended on cultivar maturity. Oleic acid levels of early-maturing cultivars were much more sensitive to seed-fill temperatures than were those of later maturing cultivars. While other effects of environment on grain quality characteristics may be relatively small perhaps the quality of new low linolenic acid cultivars could be amplified through culture under the warmer conditions the southeastern USA

  7. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: Structural effects and synergism with tocopherols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180 ºC, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra ami...

  8. Soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions: effects of polyol functionality and hard segment content on properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2008-11-01

    The environmentally friendly vegetable-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions with very promising properties have been successfully synthesized without difficulty from a series of methoxylated soybean oil polyols (MSOLs) with different hydroxyl functionalities ranging from 2.4 to as high as 4.0. The resulting soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane (SPU) dispersions exhibit a uniform particle size, which increases from about 12 to 130 nm diameter with an increase in the OH functionality of the MSOL from 2.4 to 4.0 and decreases with increasing content of the hard segments. The structure and thermophysical and mechanical properties of the resulting SPU films, which contain 50-60 wt % MSOL as renewable resources, have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and mechanical testing. The experimental results reveal that the functionality of the MSOLs and the hard segment content play a key role in controlling the structure and the thermophysical and mechanical properties of the SPU films. These novel films exhibit tensile stress-strain behavior ranging from elastomeric polymers to rigid plastics and possess Young's moduli ranging from 8 to 720 MPa, ultimate tensile strengths ranging from 4.2 to 21.5 MPa, and percent elongation at break values ranging from 16 to 280%. This work has addressed concerns regarding gelation and higher cross-linking caused by the high functionality of vegetable-oil-based polyols. This article reports novel environmentally friendly biobased SPU materials with promising applications as decorative and protective coatings.

  9. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing event DP-3O5423-1, nontransgenic near-isoline control, or commercial reference soybean meal, hulls, and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Hinds, M; Sanders, C; Layton, R; Lamb, I; Delaney, B

    2008-12-01

    DP-3Ø5423-1 (305423) is a genetically modified soybean that was produced by biolistic insertion of the gm-fad2-1 gene fragment and gm-hra genes into the germline of soybean seeds. Expression of gm-fad2-1 results in greater concentrations of oleic acid (18:1) by suppressing expression of the endogenous FAD2-1 gene, which encodes an n-6 fatty acid desaturase enzyme that catalyzes desaturation of 18:1 to linoleic acid (18:2). The GM-HRA protein expressed by the gm-hra gene is a modified version of the soybean acetolactate synthase enzyme that is used as a selectable marker during transformation. A 42-d feeding trial was conducted with broiler chickens to compare the nutritional performance of 305423 soybeans with nontransgenic soybeans. Diets were prepared using processed fractions (meal, hulls, and oil) from 305423 soybean plants. For comparison, additional diets were produced with soybean fractions obtained from a nontransgenic near-isoline (control) and nontransgenic commercial Pioneer brand varieties (93B86, 93B15, and 93M40). Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases. Starter, grower, and finisher diets contained 26.5, 23, and 21.5% soybean meal, respectively. Soybean hulls and oil were added at 1.0 and 0.5%, respectively, across all diets in each phase. No statistically significant differences were observed in growth performance (BW, mortality, feed efficiency), organ yield (liver and kidney), or carcass yield (breast, thigh, leg, wing, and abdominal fat) variables between broilers consuming diets prepared with isolated fractions from 305423 or near-isoline control soybean. Additionally, all performance and carcass variables from control and 305423 soybean treatment groups fell within tolerance intervals constructed for each response variable using data from broilers fed diets prepared with reference soybean fractions. Based on the results from this study, it was concluded that 305423 soybeans were nutritionally

  10. Chemical compositions as quality parameters of ZP soybean and wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the analysis of chemical characteristics of ZP soybean and wheat genotypes, as well as, on nutritional differences between this two complementary plant species. The experimental material consisted of two bread (ZP 96/I and ZP 87/Ip, two durum (ZP 34/I ZP and ZP DSP/01-66M wheat genotypes and four soybean varieties (Nena, Lidija, Lana and Bosa of different genetic background. All ZP soybean genotypes, except the Lana, had over 40% of total proteins by dry matter. Lana and Lidija, variety of recent creation, developed as a result of selection for specific traits, had high oil content. Wheat genotypes had much a lower content of ash, oil, total and water soluble proteins than soybean cultivars. The highest oil, total and water soluble proteins content was detected in grain of durum genotype ZP DSP/01-66M. Lignin content varies much more among soybean than among the wheat genotypes. Generally, contents of total phenolics, carotenes and tocopherol were more abundant in ZP soybean than bread and durum wheat genotypes.

  11. Thermophysical properties of conjugated soybean oil/corn stover biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Daniel P; Larock, Richard C

    2010-08-01

    Novel "green composites" have been prepared using a conjugated soybean oil-based resin and corn stover as a natural fiber. Corn stover is the residue remaining after grain harvest and it is estimated that approximately 75 million tons are available annually in the United States. The effect of the amount of filler, the length of the fiber, and the amount of the crosslinker on the structure and thermal and mechanical properties of the composites has been determined using Soxhlet extraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. Increasing the amount of corn stover and decreasing the length of the fiber results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the composites. The Young's moduli and tensile strengths of the composites prepared range from 291 to 1398 MPa and 2.7 to 7.4 MPa, respectively. Water uptake data indicate that increasing the amount and fiber length of the corn stover results in significant increases in the absorption of water by the composites. The composites, containing 20 to 80 wt.% corn stover and a resin composed of 50 wt.% natural oil, contain 60 to 90 wt.% renewable materials and should find applications in the construction, automotive, and furniture industries. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Gamma Radiation on Bio-oil Produced from Pyrolysis of Soybean Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichestapong, P.; Injarean, U.; Prapakornrattana, P.; Charoen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean cake residue from soy milk making can be pyrolysed to produce pyrolysis liquid or bio-oil which has potency to be used as liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of soybean cake residue with the application of gamma irradiation was investigated in a batch reactor at 450°C for 1.5 hr under nitrogen flow 250 cc/min. Feed of soybean cake residue was exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of 200 to 1,000 kGy before pyrolysing. It was found that pyrolysis liquid yield increased significantly by 12.9 to 19.3 % at the irradiation doses of 400 kGy and higher. The increment was mainly due to the increasing of aqueous phase in the pyrolysis liquid. The heating value of organic phase in the pyrolysis liquid was 7,890 kcal/kg. The organic phase from the unexposed feed was also irradiated at 20-100 kGy. The viscosity of irradiated organic phase was found to increase with the increasing irradiation dose. Irradiated organic phase was distilled at temperatures 200 and 250°C. It was found that the first distilled fraction (<200°C) corresponding to gasoline fraction increased with the increasing irradiation dose while the second distilled fraction (200-250°C) corresponding to kerosene fraction seems to decrease. The composition of organic phase was also determined by GC-MS.

  13. Comparative study for the effect of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers on soybean oil content and its potential for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosheen, A.; Bano, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study makes comparative evaluation of biofertilizers (brands Biopower and Biozote) and chemical fertilizers (urea and diamonium phosphate (DAP)) on yield and the quality of soybean cv.NARC-1. Significant increase in number of pods per plant, seed oil content and specific gravity of oil was observed in case of chemical fertilizer treatment. All the treatments decreased the acid value and free fatty acid (oleic acid) content of oil, maximum reduction being in the case of Biopower treatment. Biopower treated plant seed oil exhibited higher refractive index and maximum conversion to methyl esters/biodiesel. (author)

  14. The effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Genyuan; Wang Huaguo; Qi Mengwen; Wang Fujun; Zhou Changjiu

    1994-01-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with 14 C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with 14 C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit

  15. Synthesis of zinc oxide by microwave hydrothermal method for application to transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, Max Rocha [LABQUIM/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus III, 58200-000, Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, Mateus José C. [DEMA/Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Campus I, 58429-900, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Keyson, Davy [DME/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus – I, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lucena, Guilherme Leocárdio, E-mail: guilhermelucena@cchsa.ufpb.br [LABQUIM/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus III, 58200-000, Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, João Bosco L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus I, 59078-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Gama, Lucianna [DEMA/Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Campus I, 58429-900, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by microwave hydrothermal treatment using two different mineralization agents (NaOH and NH{sub 4}OH), and were evaluated as catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The XRD patterns indicated the formation of the hexagonal wurtzite phase in both samples. SEM analysis showed completely different morphologies based on the mineralization agent employed. The ZnO nanostructures synthesized with NaOH (ZONa5 and ZONa5P) presented plate-like agglomerates, resulting in a quasi-spherical morphology, whereas the materials synthesized with NH{sub 4}OH (ZONH5 and ZONH5P) presented a flower-like morphology. The ZONa5P sample showed an activity of 77.82% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification using methanol. - Highlights: • ZnO was synthesized by MH method in only 5 min. • The powders morphology is completely influenced by mineralization agent. • ZONa5P showed activity of 77.82% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel.

  16. Combinations of mutant FAD2 and FAD3 genes to produce high oleic acid and low linolenic acid soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2012-08-01

    High oleic acid soybeans were produced by combining mutant FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B genes. Despite having a high oleic acid content, the linolenic acid content of these soybeans was in the range of 4-6 %, which may be high enough to cause oxidative instability of the oil. Therefore, a study was conducted to incorporate one or two mutant FAD3 genes into the high oleic acid background to further reduce the linolenic acid content. As a result, soybean lines with high oleic acid and low linolenic acid (HOLL) content were produced using different sources of mutant FAD2-1A genes. While oleic acid content of these HOLL lines was stable across two testing environments, the reduction of linolenic acid content varied depending on the number of mutant FAD3 genes combined with mutant FAD2-1 genes, on the severity of mutation in the FAD2-1A gene, and on the testing environment. Combination of two mutant FAD2-1 genes and one mutant FAD3 gene resulted in less than 2 % linolenic acid content in Portageville, Missouri (MO) while four mutant genes were needed to achieve the same linolenic acid in Columbia, MO. This study generated non-transgenic soybeans with the highest oleic acid content and lowest linolenic acid content reported to date, offering a unique alternative to produce a fatty acid profile similar to olive oil.

  17. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  18. Current development and application of soybean genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli HE; Jing ZHAO; Man ZHAO; Chaoying HE

    2011-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max),an important domesticated species originated in China,constitutes a major source of edible oils and high-quality plant proteins worldwide.In spite of its complex genome as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidilization,platforms for map-based genomics,sequence-based genomics,comparative genomics and functional genomics have been well developed in the last decade,thus rich repertoires of genomic tools and resources are available,which have been influencing the soybean genetic improvement.Here we mainly review the progresses of soybean (including its wild relative Glycine soja) genomics and its impetus for soybean breeding,and raise the major biological questions needing to be addressed.Genetic maps,physical maps,QTL and EST mapping have been so well achieved that the marker assisted selection and positional cloning in soybean is feasible and even routine.Whole genome sequencing and transcriptomic analyses provide a large collection of molecular markers and predicted genes,which are instrumental to comparative genomics and functional genomics.Comparative genomics has started to reveal the evolution of soybean genome and the molecular basis of soybean domestication process.Microarrays resources,mutagenesis and efficient transformation systems become essential components of soybean functional genomics.Furthermore,phenotypic functional genomics via both forward and reverse genetic approaches has inferred functions of many genes involved in plant and seed development,in response to abiotic stresses,functioning in plant-pathogenic microbe interactions,and controlling the oil and protein content of seed.These achievements have paved the way for generation of transgenic or genetically modified (GM) soybean crops.

  19. Differential Impacts of Soybean and Fish Oils on Hepatocyte Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Primary Rabbit Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xueping; Xiao, Zhihui; Xu, Yumin; Zhao, Xingli; Cheng, Ping; Cui, Ningxun; Cui, Mingling; Li, Jie; Zhu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a severe ailment associated with long-term parenteral nutrition. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions (SOLE) are thought to promote PNALD development, whereas fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLE) are thought to protect against PNALD. This study aimed to investigate the effects of SOLE and FOLE on primary rabbit hepatocytes. The results reveal that SOLE caused significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial damage, ultimately resu...

  20. Phosphate Fertilizer and Growing Environment Change the Phytochemicals, Oil Quality, and Nutritional Composition of Roundup Ready Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scilewski da Costa Zanatta, Tatiane; Manica-Berto, Roberta; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Cardozo, Michele Maciel Crizel; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Zambiazi, Rui Carlos; Dias, Álvaro Renato Guerra

    2017-04-05

    Phosphorus (P) intake, genotype, and growth environment in soybean cultivation can affect the composition of the soybean. This experiment was conducted in two locations (microregions I and II) using a randomized complete block design, including conventional soybean (BRS Sambaíba) and genetically modified (GM) [Msoy 9144 Roundup Ready (RR)] cultivars and varying doses of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 60, 120, and 240 kg/ha P 2 O 5 ). Soybeans were evaluated for chemical composition, total phenols, phytic acid content, individual isoflavone content, antioxidant activity, oil quality, fatty acid profile, total carotenoid content, and individual tocopherol contents. Multivariate analysis facilitated reduction in the number of variables with respect to soybean genotype (conventional BRS Sambaíba and GM Msoy 9144 RR), dose of P 2 O 5 fertilizer, and place of cultivation (microregion I and II). BRS Sambaíba had higher concentrations of β-glucosides, malonylglucosides, glycitein, and genistein than Msoy 9144 RR, which showed a higher concentration of daidzein. The highest concentrations of isoflavones and fatty acids were observed in soybeans treated with 120 and 240 kg/ha P 2 O 5 , regardless of the location and cultivar.

  1. Chronic Swimming Exercise Ameliorates Low-Soybean-Oil Diet-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment by Enhancing BDNF-Mediated Synaptic Potentiation in Developing Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei; Cong, Jiyan; Wu, Yulong; Xie, Jiacun; Wang, Siyuan; Zhao, Yue; Zang, Xiaoying

    2018-05-01

    Exercise and low-fat diets are common lifestyle modifications used for the treatment of hypertension besides drug therapy. However, unrestrained low-fat diets may result in deficiencies of low-unsaturated fatty acids and carry contingent risks of delaying neurodevelopment. While aerobic exercise shows positive neuroprotective effects, it is still unclear whether exercise could alleviate the impairment of neurodevelopment that may be induced by certain low-fat diets. In this research, developing spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with chronic swimming exercise and/or a low-soybean-oil diet for 6 weeks. We found that performance in the Morris water maze was reduced and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus was suppressed by the diet, while a combination treatment of exercise and diet alleviated the impairment induced by the specific low-fat diet. Moreover, the combination treatment effectively increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR), which were both down-regulated by the low-soybean-oil diet in the hippocampus of developing SHR. These findings suggest that chronic swimming exercise can ameliorate the low-soybean-oil diet-induced learning and memory impairment in developing SHR through the up-regulation of BDNF and NMDAR expression.

  2. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of soybean oil using calcium supported tin oxides as heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wenlei; Zhao, Liangliang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heterogeneous catalysts were prepared by an impregnation method with different conditions. • The catalysts were efficient in the soybean oil transesterification. • The catalytic activity and stability of the catalyst were investigated. - Abstract: The main objective of this work was to develop an environmentally benign process for the production of biodiesel by using a stable solid base catalyst. To this purpose, different heterogeneous CaO–SnO 2 catalysts have been prepared by means of impregnation methods. Various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied for the catalyst characterization. The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, to produce biodiesel, was carried out under batch conditions at refluxed methanol over the CaO–SnO 2 catalysts. The catalytic activity is found to be highly dependent on the Ca/Sn ratio and calcination temperature. The solid catalyst with the Ca/Sn molar ratio of 4:1 and calcined at a temperature of 973 K, performed the best activity, reaching the conversion to methyl esters of 89.3% after 6 h of reaction at methanol reflux temperature (343 K) when a methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1 and catalyst dosage of 8 wt.% were employed. Further, the solid catalyst is proved to be stable and durable for the transesterification reaction

  3. The characterization of soybean oil body integral oleosin isoforms and the effects of alkaline pH on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanyun; Zhao, Luping; Ying, Yusang; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Yeming

    2015-06-15

    Oil body, an organelle in seed cell (naturally pre-emulsified oil), has great potentials to be used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. Researchers have tried to extract oil body by alkaline buffers, which are beneficial for removing contaminated proteins. But it is not clear whether alkaline buffers could remove oil body integral proteins (mainly oleosins), which could keep oil body integrity and stability. In this study, seven oleosin isoforms were identified for soybean oil body (three isoforms, 24 kDa; three isoforms, 18 kDa; one isoform, 16kDa). Oleosins were not glycoproteins and 24 kDa oleosin isoforms possessed less thiol groups than 18 kDa ones. It was found that alkaline pH not only removed contaminated proteins but also oleosins, and more and more oleosins were removed with increasing alkaline pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Feeding Oxidized Soybean Oil against Antioxidant role of Pomegranate Seed on Physiology and Metabolism of Periparturient Saanen Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ehsan Ghiasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress is metabolic and physiologic status caused by imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense of body. In some physiological status such as rapid growth, parturition, disease and high production rate that imbalance would occur. High producing dairy animals are suspected to oxidative stress and require to antioxidant supplementation. Negative energy balance in early lactation force the nutrition specialist to apply oil and high NFC diet to exceed the requirement of high producing dairy animals such as Holstein cows and Saanen goats. In recent years, the attention to the use of herbal or organic antioxidant in animal nutrition has increased. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding oxidized soybean oil (OSO plus pomegranate seed (PS as a natural antioxidant, on metabolism and physiology of Preparturient Saanen Goats. Materials and Methods Eighteen Saanen dairy goats with initial body weight of 47 ± 9 kg were assigned to three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with repeated measurements for 21 days before anticipated parturition. Experimental treatments including: 1 base diet and 4% fresh soybean oil (FSO, 2 base diet and 4% oxidized soybean oil (DM basis respectively, and 3 base diet plus 4% OSO and 8% Pomegranate seed (OSO-PS. After 2 weeks of feeding trial diets, goats were sampled for blood, rumen liquor, faeces and urine for measuring parameters of blood glucose, BHBA, lipid and nitrogen profile, rumen liquor ammonia nitrogen, urine pH and volume, faeces qualitative and quantitative variables and other responses such as nutrients digestibility. The GLM procedure of SAS software v.9.2 were used for statistical analysis. Initial body weight and metabolic variables were used as covariate in the model. Results and discussion All nutrients digestibility, Ruminal ammonia nitrogen and voluntary feed intake were decreased by OSO (p

  5. Hot topic: Enhancing omega-3 fatty acids in milk fat of dairy cows by using stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil from genetically modified soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Santos, G; O'Donnell, A M; Vicini, J L; Hartnell, G F; Bauman, D E

    2010-01-01

    Very long chain n-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) are important in human cardiac health and the prevention of chronic diseases, but food sources are limited. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4n-3) is an n-3 fatty acid that humans are able to convert to EPA. In utilizing SDA-enhanced soybean oil (SBO) derived from genetically modified soybeans, our objectives were to examine the potential to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of milk fat and to determine the efficiency of SDA uptake from the digestive tract and transfer to milk fat. Three multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were assigned randomly in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) control (no oil infusion); 2) abomasal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-abo); and 3) ruminal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-rum). The SDA-enhanced SBO contained 27.1% SDA, 10.4% alpha-linolenic acid, and 7.2% gamma-linolenic acid. Oil infusions provided 57 g/d of SDA with equal amounts of oil infused into either the rumen or abomasum at 6-h intervals over a 7-d infusion period. Cow numbers were limited and no treatment differences were detected for DMI or milk production (22.9+/-0.5 kg/d and 32.3+/-0.9 kg/d, respectively; least squares means +/- SE), milk protein percentage and yield (3.24+/-0.04% and 1.03+/-0.02 kg/d), or lactose percentage and yield (4.88+/-0.05% and 1.55+/-0.05 kg/d). Treatment also had no effect on milk fat yield (1.36+/-0.03 kg/d), but milk fat percentage was lower for the SDA-rum treatment (4.04+/-0.04% vs. 4.30+/-0.04% for control and 4.41+/-0.05% for SDA-abo). The SDA-abo treatment increased n-3 fatty acids to 3.9% of total milk fatty acids, a value more than 5-fold greater than that for the control. Expressed as a percentage of total milk fatty acids, values (least squares means +/- SE) for the SDA-abo treatment were 1.55+/-0.03% for alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), 1.86+/-0.02 for SDA, 0.23 +/- soybeans combined with proper ruminal protection to achieve

  6. CaFeAl mixed oxide derived heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Zaiwu; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2015-08-01

    CaAl layered double oxides (LDO) were prepared by co-precipitation and calcined at 750°C, and then applied to biodiesel production by transesterification reaction between methanol and soybean oil. Compared with characteristics of CaFe/LDO and CaAl/LDO, CaFeAl/LDO had the best performance based on prominent catalytic activity and stability, and achieved over 90% biodiesel yield, which stayed stable (over 85%) even after 8 cycles of reaction. The optimal catalytic reaction condition was 12:1M-ratio of methanol/oil, reaction temperatures of 60°C, 270rpm stirring rate, 60min reaction time, and 6% weight-ratio of catalyst/oil. In addition, the CaFeAl/LDO catalyst is insoluble in both methanol and methyl esters and can be easily separated for further reaction, turning it into an excellent alternative for biodiesel synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of commercial processing procedures on {sup 14}C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genyuan, Peng; Huaguo, Wang; Mengwen, Qi; Fujun, Wang; Changjiu, Zhou [Laboratory for the Application of Nuclear Techniques, Beijing Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    1994-06-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with {sup 14}C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with {sup 14}C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit.

  8. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  9. RNAi trigger fragment truncation attenuates soybean FAD2-1 transcript suppression and yields intermediate oil phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicholas; Mroczka, Andrew; Roberts, Peter D; Schreckengost, William; Voelker, Toni

    2011-09-01

    Suppression of the microsomal ω6 oleate desaturase during the seed development of soybean (Glycine max) with the 420-bp soybean FAD2-1A intron as RNAi trigger shifts the conventional fatty acid composition of soybean oil from 20% oleic and 60% polyunsaturates to one containing greater than 80% oleic acid and less than 10% polyunsaturates. To determine whether RNAi could be attenuated by reducing the trigger fragment length, transgenic plants were generated to express successively shorter 5' or 3' deletion derivatives of the FAD2-1A intron. We observed a gradual reduction in transcript suppression with shorter trigger fragments. Fatty acid composition was less affected with shorter triggers, and triggers less than 60 bp had no phenotypic effect. No trigger sequences conferring significantly higher or lower suppression efficiencies were found, and the primary determinant of suppression effect was sequence length. The observed relationship of transcript suppression with the induced fatty acid phenotype indicates that RNAi is a saturation process and not a step change between suppressed and nonsuppressed states and intermediate suppression states can be achieved. © 2010 Monsanto. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. An evaluation of heat on protein oxidation of soy protein isolate or soy protein isolate mixed with soybean oil and its consequences on redox status of broilers at early age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglun Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of heat treatment and soybean oil inclusion on protein oxidation of soy protein isolate (SPI and of oxidized protein on redox status of broilers at an early age. Methods SPI mixed with soybean oil (SPIO heated at 100°C for 8 h was used to evaluate protein oxidation of SPI. A total of two hundred and sixteen 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 12 birds, receiving basal diet (CON, heat-oxidized SPI diet (HSPI or mixture of SPI and 2% soybean oil diet (HSPIO for 21 d, respectively. Results Increased protein carbonyl, decreased protein sulfhydryl of SPI were observed as heating time increased in all treatments (p<0.05. Addition of 2% soybean oil increased protein carbonyl of SPI at 8 h heating (p<0.05. Dietary HSPI and HSPIO decreased the average daily gain of broilers as compared with the CON (p<0.05. Broilers fed HSPI and HSPIO exhibited decreased glutathione (GSH in serum, catalase activity and total sulfhydryl in liver and increased malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl in serum, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs in liver and protein carbonyl in jejunal mucosa as compared with that of the CON (p<0.05. Additionally, broilers receiving HSPIO showed decreased glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px in serum, GSH and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity in liver, GSH-Px activity in duodenal mucosa, GSH-Px activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity in jejunal mucosa and increased AOPPs in serum, MDA and protein carbonyl in liver, MDA and AOPPs in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05. Conclusion Protein oxidation of SPI can be induced by heat and soybean oil and oxidized protein resulted in redox imbalance in broilers at an early age.

  11. Synthesis of soybean oil-based thiol oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jennifer F; Fernando, Shashi; Weerasinghe, Dimuthu; Chen, Zhigang; Webster, Dean C

    2011-08-22

    Industrial grade soybean oil (SBO) and thiols were reacted to generate thiol-functionalized oligomers via a thermal, free radical initiated thiol-ene reaction between the SBO double bond moieties and the thiol functional groups. The effect of the reaction conditions, including thiol concentration, catalyst loading level, reaction time, and atmosphere, on the molecular weight and the conversion to the resultant soy-thiols were examined in a combinatorial high-throughput fashion using parallel synthesis, combinatorial FTIR, and rapid gel permeation chromatography (GPC). High thiol functionality and concentration, high thermal free radical catalyst concentration, long reaction time, and the use of a nitrogen reaction atmosphere were found to favor fast consumption of the SBO, and produced high molecular weight products. The thiol conversion during the reaction was inversely affected by a high thiol concentration, but was favored by a long reaction time and an air reaction atmosphere. These experimental observations were explained by the initial low affinity of the SBO and thiol, and the improved affinity between the generated soy-thiol oligomers and unreacted SBO during the reaction. The synthesized soy-thiol oligomers can be used for renewable thiol-ene UV curable materials and high molecular solids and thiourethane thermal cure materials. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwakeel Eman A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration

  13. Biodiesel production from soybean and Jatropha oils by magnetic CaFe2O4–Ca2Fe2O5-based catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Bao-jin; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous CaFe 2 O 4 –Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5 -based catalyst with weak magnetism was prepared by co-precipitation and calcination. It was characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption method. Its active components were identified as mainly Ca–Fe composite oxides such as CaFe 2 O 4 for transesterification. The magnetism was further strengthened by reducing its component of Fe 2 O 3 to Fe 3 O 4 –Fe under H 2 atmosphere for better magnetic separation. Both catalysts were used for the catalytic transesterification of soybean and Jatropha oils to biodiesel. The highest biodiesel yields for soybean oil of 85.4% and 83.5% were obtained over the weak and strong magnetic catalysts, respectively under the optimized conditions (373 K, 30 min, 15/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4 wt% catalyst). The catalysts could be recycled three times. Biodiesel production from pretreated Jatropha oil was tested with the magnetic CaFe 2 O 4 –Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5 –Fe 3 O 4 –Fe catalyst, and 78.2% biodiesel yield was obtained. The magnetic CaFe 2 O 4 –Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5 -based catalyst shows a potential application for the green production of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Magnetic catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation, calcination and reduction. • The catalyst was composed of CaFe 2 O 4 –Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5 –Fe 3 O 4 –Fe. • Biodiesel yields of 83.5% and 78.2% were achieved for soybean and Jatropha oils. • The catalyst was easily separated by a magnet and used for three cycles

  14. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  15. Sonocrystallization of Interesterified Soybean Oil: Effect of Saturation Level and Supercooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhee; Claro da Silva, Roberta; Gibon, Veronique; Martini, Silvana

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supercooling and degree of saturation on lipid sonocrystallization under similar driving force of crystallization. Samples consisting of 100%, 50%, and 20% interesterified soybean oil (IESBO) diluted in high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO) were crystallized with and without high-intensity ultrasound (HIU). Two power levels were used by changing the amplitude of vibration of the tip (24 μm and 108 μm of tip amplitude). HIU operating at a frequency of 20 kHz was applied for 10 s. Sonication induced crystallization in the 100% IESBO sample and sonication power did not affect the results. A greater induction in crystallization was observed when higher power levels were used in the 50% IESBO sample, while no effect was observed in the crystallization kinetics of the 20% IESBO samples. Changes in the crystallization kinetics affected physical properties of the material, influencing elasticity. For example, sonication increased the elasticity of the 100% IESBO sample for both tip amplitudes from 435.9 ± 173.3 Pa to 72735.0 ± 9547.9 Pa for the nonsonicated and sonicated samples using 108 μm of amplitude, respectively. However, sonication only increased the elasticity in the 50% sample when used at the higher power level of 108 μm from 564.2 ± 175.2 Pa to 21774.0 ± 5694.9 Pa, and it did not affect the elasticity of the 20% IESBO samples. These results show that the level of saturation and the degree of supercooling affect sonication efficiency. High-intensity ultrasound (HIU) has been used as a novel method for changing the crystallization behavior of fats. HIU can be used to improve the physical properties of trans-free fats that are low in saturated fatty acids. Although recent studies have proven the effectiveness of this method to induce crystallization, the process must still be optimized to the industrial setting. All process parameters should be considered during the application of HIU, as they directly

  16. Comparison of piascledine (avocado and soybean oil) and hormone replacement therapy in menopausal-induced hot flashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Kashani, Nafise; Baharie Javan, Nika; Dadjo, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Different symptoms in Climacteric period, includes hot flash. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is common therapy for relief of menopausal symptoms but has possible contraindications and side effects. Recently Piascledine (combination of Avocado oil with Soybean oil) showed effects in reducing hot flash severity. Present study designed to compare the effects of HRT with Piascledine in treatment of hot flash. The cases of this study were sixty-six women at the age range of 40 to 70 years and complaints of menopause-induced hot flashing, whose last menstruation dated at least 6 months prior to the beginning of the study. The patients in this open label clinical trial, randomized to receive Piascledine capsule 1 mg or HRT (0.625 mg oral daily Conjugated Estrogen tablets, plus 2.5 mg continuous oral daily Medroxyprogesterone Acetate tablets) for 2 month. Hot flash property and severity was assessed via a daily check list and Visual analog scale. Climacteric symptom was measured before and after intervention using Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS) and Blatt-kupperman Menopausal Index (BKMI). Thirty-three eligible patients were allocated in each group. From the Piascledine group, one patient and from the HRT group, 16 patients weren›t willing to attend the study; therefore, 32 and 17 woman received treatment in Piascledine and HRT groups. 4 patients were withdrawn for vaginal bleeding and one for breast tenderness from HTR group. Hot flash severity in both groups decreased during the time similarly. With regard to GCS (p = 0.571) and BMKI (p = 0.891), the outcome was similar among the two groups. Due to low HRT compliance and its possible risks in long period of time and considering the same activity of soybean supplement and HRT in relieving the hot flash as menopausal symptoms in women, it seems that soybean supplements can be an alternative therapy to hormone.

  17. Oxidative stability of biodiesel from soybean oil fatty acid ethyl esters Estabilidade oxidativa de biodiesel de ésteres etílicos de ácidos graxos de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Ap. Ferrari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel consists of long-chain fatty acid esters, derived from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, and its utilization is associated to the substitution of the diesel oil in engines. Depending on the raw material, biodiesel can contain more or less unsaturated fatty acids in its composition, which are susceptible to oxidation reactions accelerated by exposition to oxygen and high temperatures, being able to change into polymerized compounds. The objective of this work was to determine the oxidative stability of biodiesel produced by ethanolysis of neutralized, refined, soybean frying oil waste, and partially hydrogenated soybean frying oil waste. The evaluation was conducted by means of the Rancimat® equipment, at temperatures of 100 and 105ºC, with an air flow of 20 L h-1. The fatty acid composition was determined by GC and the iodine value was calculated. It was observed that even though the neutralized, refined and waste frying soybean oils presented close comparable iodine values, biodiesel presented different oxidative stabilities. The biodiesel from neutralized soybean oil presented greater stability, followed by the refined and the frying waste. Due to the natural antioxidants in its composition, the neutralized soybean oil promoted a larger oxidative stability of the produced biodiesel. During the deodorization process, the vegetable oils lose part of these antioxidants, therefore the biodiesel from refined soybean oil presented a reduced stability. The thermal process degrades the antioxidants, thus the biodiesel from frying waste oil resulted in lower stability, the same occuring with the biodiesel from partially hydrogenated waste oil, even though having lower iodine values than the other.Biodiesel consiste em ésteres de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa, proveniente de fontes renováveis como óleos vegetais, e sua utilização está associada à substituição do diesel em motores. Dependendo da matéria-prima, o biodiesel

  18. Synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil by coupling catalysis with subcritical methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jianzhong; Xiao Min; Wang Aiqin; Xiu Zhilong

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and methanol was investigated under supercritical and subcritical conditions. Under the supercritical conditions, the maximum methyl ester yield exceeded 98% when the molar ratio of methanol to oil was 42:1 and the reaction temperature ranged from 260 deg. C to 350 deg. C. In order to decrease the operational temperature and pressures and to increase the conversion efficiency of methanol, first co-solvent was added to the reaction mixture to improve the reaction process, and then a novel idea was presented in which catalysis and supercritical effect were coupled together. Thus, with 2.5 wt% hexane, temperature of 300 deg. C, methanol to oil ratio of 42, a 85.5% conversion is observed in 30 min, while a 62.2% conversion is observed without hexane in the same condition; with less carbon dioxide, temperature of 300 deg. C, methanol to oil ratio of 42, a 91.6% conversion is observed in 20 min, while a 51.4% conversion is observed without carbon dioxide in the same condition; With only a little amount of potassium hydroxide as the catalyst (KOH/oil = 0.1 wt%), a 98% yield of methyl esters was obtained in 10 min at a reaction temperature of 160 deg. C and the molar ratio (methanol/oil) of 24:1. In contrast, above 1 wt% of catalyst is required in the conventional alkali-catalyzed method; while only 6% yield of methyl ester was obtained at 260 deg. C (corresponding to subcritical conditions) without the catalyst. This result demonstrated that by coupling the catalysis and subcritical operation, the amount of catalyst could be largely reduced and the methanol utilization could be significantly enhanced. Thus, the present method offers some advantages over both the conventional alkali-catalyst method and the expensive supercritical method

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction of soybean oil from the surface of spiked quartz sand - modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Stela Jokić; B. Nagy; K. Aladić; B. Simándi

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of soybean oil from the surface of spiked quartz sand using supercritical CO2 was investigated. Sand as solid was used; it is not porous material so the internal diffusion does not exist, all the soluble material is in the surface of the particles. Sovová’s model has been used in order to obtain an analytical solution to develop the required extraction yield curves. The model simplifies when the internal diffusion can be neglected. The external mass transfer coefficient was det...

  20. Studies on the mechanism by which a high intake of soybean oil depresses the apparent digestibility of fibre in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.L.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Cone, J.W.; Vries, de H.T.; Hallebeek, J.M.; Hovenier, R.; Kuilen, van der J.; Huurdeman, C.M.; Verstappen, D.C.G.M.; Gresnigt, M.C.; Beynen, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    An increased intake of soybean oil at the expense of an iso-energetic amount of non-structural carbohydrates reduces the apparent digestibility of fibre in horses. Literature data indicate that bile acids and linoleic acid (C18:2 n ¿ 6) may inhibit growth of pure cultures of microorganisms. In the

  1. Induced mutation for soybean quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiying; Xu Dechun; Guo Yuhong; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiaonan

    2000-01-01

    Gamma rays of acute and chronic radiation, thermal neutrons as well as ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), sodium azide (NaN 3 ) of chemical mutagens were used to improve the quality of soybean seed. Some mutants of better quality were selected. 'Heinong No.41' With protein and oil content of 45.23% and 18.80% respectively was tolerant to akali-saline and had a higher yield potential; 90-3527 with earlier mature (110 days of growth period) and high protein content (47.53%) had a resistance to soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and frog-eye lief spot of soybean. The mutants with higher linoleic acid content (more than 60%) and lower linolenic acid content (less than 3.5%) were developed

  2. Control of powdery mildew on glasshouse-grown roses and tomatoes in the Netherlands using anhydrous milk fat and soybean oil emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurms, K.V.; Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very serious disease affecting glasshouse-grown roses and tomatoes in the Netherlands. Control is limited because of resistance to existing fungicides. Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and soybean oil (SBO) emulsions were evaluated for control of PM in roses and tomatoes. Both

  3. Method for the validation and uncertainty estimation of tocopherol analysis applied to soybean oil with addition of spices and TBHQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva, M. G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The tocopherol contents of refined soybean oil with the addition of rosemary, oregano, garlic, annatto seeds and TBHQ was evaluated during storage at 25 °C and 35 °C for twelve months, in comparison with a control soybean oil without the antioxidant addition. The method proposed to assess the tocopherol content was validated and the uncertainty estimation was determined. The method presented adequate linearity and precision, accuracy between 93% and 103% and expanded uncertainty of 2%. The contents of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols of all the tested soybean oils remained constant during the storage at 25 °C and 35 °C regardless of antioxidant addition, while β-tocopherol content decreased. The addition of a mixture of rosemary, oregano, garlic and annatto seeds increased the concentration of γ- and δ-tocopherol. The oil with spices presented a similar behavior to that of the oil with the addition of TBHQ.La concentración de tocoferoles en aceite de soja refinado (muestra control, aceite de soja adicionado de romero, orégano, ajo, semilla de achiote y TBHQ fueron cuantificados durante el almacenamiento durante 12 meses a 25°C y 35°C. El método propuesto para medir tocoferoles fue validado y determinada la incertidumbre. Este método presentó linealidad y precisión adecuadas, exactitud entre 93% y 103% además de una incertidumbre expandida de 2%. Las cantidades de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol en el aceite de soja refinado, aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos y aceite de soja adicionado con TBHQ se mantuvieron constantes durante el almacenamiento a 25°C y 35°C con excepción del β-tocoferol el cual disminuyó. El aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos (romero, orégano, ajo, y semilla de achiote presentó mayores concentraciones de γ- y δ-tocoferol en comparación con el aceite de soja refinado utilizado como control. El aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos presentó un comportamiento semejante al aceite de soja adicionado

  4. Effect of biostimulation using sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw on oil degradation and bacterial community composition in a contaminated desert soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya eAl-Kindi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities more than the addition of soybean meal. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7 to 1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥ 90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes were measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences of acquired sequences from the original soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R=0.66, P=0.0001. The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences belonging to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  5. Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and acetic acid at lower reaction severity under subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Alchris Woo; Sutanto, Sylviana; NguyenThi, Bich Thuyen; Cabatingan, Luis K.; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (trans)Esterification of oils under subcritical conditions. • Acetic acid as catalyst and co-solvent in biodiesel production. • Influence of reactor hydrodynamic (loading and stirring) on FAME yield. • High methyl ester yield can be obtained at less severe reaction conditions. - Abstract: Soybean oil (56–80 g) was reacted with methanol (40–106 mL) to produce fatty acid methyl ester in the presence of 1–6% acetic acid under subcritical condition at 250 °C. Stirring and loading of the reaction system affected the yield and severity of the process. The presence of acetic acid improved the yield of FAME from 32.1% to 89.5% at a methanol to oil molar ratio of 20 mL/g. Acetic acid was found to act strongly as an acid catalyst and to some extent improved the solubility between oil and methanol. Reaction pressure higher than the supercritical pressure of methanol (7.85 MPa) was not required to achieve high FAME yield (89.5–94.8%) in short time (30–60 min)

  6. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  7. Microwave Synthesis and Characterization of Waste Soybean Oil-Based Gemini Imidazolinium Surfactants with Carbonate Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Divya Bajpai; Mishra, Anuradha

    Gemini surfactants are presently gaining attention due to their unusual self-assembling characteristics and incomparable interfacial activity. Current research work involves the cost-effective microwave (MW) synthesis of waste soybean oil-based gemini imidazolinium surfactants (GIS) having a carbonate linkage in its spacer moiety. Structural characterizations of the materials have been done using FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Using indigenous and natural material as base and MW as energy source for synthesizing the GIS with easily degradable chemical moiety make them to be labeled as green surfactants.

  8. Soybean in China: adaptating to the liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamet Jean-Paul

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978 and its opening, China has undergone a process of nutrition transition, animal products taking an increasing share. Anxious to ensure a certain level of food independence, Chinese authorities have developed national livestock production. The increase in volumes and the development of large scale breeding have increased the demand for commercial feed and thus soymeal. Meanwhile, edible oil consumption rose sharply, accentuating the demand for soybeans. To meet this demand, soybean imports were liberalized early, leading the country to become heavily dependent. China has indeed made the choice to maintain its independence in cereals at the expense of other grains, such as soybeans. Competition between corn and soybeans has turned in favor of the cereal, soybean production levelling off then regressing. China’s dependence extends to the crushing sector, controlled by foreign companies. Public supports in place, such as minimum prices, have resulted in increasing the price gap with imported products, leading to a reform of soybean policy in 2014.

  9. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  10. Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of Hydroxylated Soybean Lecithin from Crude Soybean Lecithin as an Emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplunkar, Pranali P; Pratap, Amit P

    2017-10-01

    Soybean lecithin is a by-product obtained during degumming step of crude soybean oil refining. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) contains major amount of phospholipids (PLs) along with minor amount of acylglycerols, bioactive components, etc. Due to presence of PLs, CSL can be used as an emulsifier. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) was utilized to synthesize hydroxylated soybean lecithin (HSL) by hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide and catalytic amount of lactic acid to enhance the hydrophilicity and emulsifying properties of CSL. To reduce the reaction time and to increase rate of reaction, HSL was synthesized under ultrasound irradiation. The effect of different operating parameters such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle in synthesis of HSL were studied and optimized. The surface tension (SFT), interfacial tension (IFT) and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the HSL (26.11 mN/m, 2.67 mN/m, 112 mg/L) were compared to CSL (37.53 mN/m, 6.22 mN/m, 291 mg/L) respectively. The HSL has better emulsion stability and low foaming characteristics as compared to CSL. Therefore, the product as an effective emulsifier can be used in food, pharmacy, lubricant, cosmetics, etc.

  11. Isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Šertović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of five Croatian soybean seed cultivars from two locations were analysed. The content of total and individual isofavones was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. For determination of antioxidant properties scavenging capacity on DPPHֹ radicals has been applied. The total phenolic content, oil and protein content in soybean cultivars were also determined. Significant differences in the content of individual isoflavones were observed within the soybean cultivars. The total phenol content in soybean cultivars ranged from 87.2 to 216.3 mg GAE/100g of soybean. The total isoflavone content in soybean seeds ranged from 80.7 to 213.6 mg/100g of soybean. The most abundant isoflavone in soybean seeds was genistein. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 among two locations in total and individual isoflavone contents. The highest contents of total isoflavones were found in cultivar “os55-95”. Conversely, cultivars poor in isoflavones also showed low levels of DPPH-radical scavenging activity.

  12. Improved soybean oil quality by targeted mutagenesis of the fatty acid desaturase 2 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, William; Coffman, Andrew; Clasen, Benjamin M; Demorest, Zachary L; Lowy, Anita; Ray, Erin; Retterath, Adam; Stoddard, Thomas; Juillerat, Alexandre; Cedrone, Frederic; Mathis, Luc; Voytas, Daniel F; Zhang, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean oil is high in polyunsaturated fats and is often partially hydrogenated to increase its shelf life and improve oxidative stability. The trans-fatty acids produced through hydrogenation pose a health threat. Soybean lines that are low in polyunsaturated fats were generated by introducing mutations in two fatty acid desaturase 2 genes (FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B), which in the seed convert the monounsaturated fat, oleic acid, to the polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were engineered to recognize and cleave conserved DNA sequences in both genes. In four of 19 transgenic soybean lines expressing the TALENs, mutations in FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were observed in DNA extracted from leaf tissue; three of the four lines transmitted heritable FAD2-1 mutations to the next generation. The fatty acid profile of the seed was dramatically changed in plants homozygous for mutations in both FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B: oleic acid increased from 20% to 80% and linoleic acid decreased from 50% to under 4%. Further, mutant plants were identified that lacked the TALEN transgene and only carried the targeted mutations. The ability to create a valuable trait in a single generation through targeted modification of a gene family demonstrates the power of TALENs for genome engineering and crop improvement. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mutants obtained by chronic gamma irradiation of soybean [Glycine Max (l.) Merrill]varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajos Novak, M; Korosi, F.; Sipos, T.; Hodosne Kotvics, G.

    2001-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a wonder crop, containing about 20% oil and 40% high quality protein, having multiple uses such as food, fodder and industrial products. In Hungary in he last few years there has been a renewed interest in improving protein and oil content of the soybean crop. Selection for oil and/or protein content from segregating populations, derived from induced mutagenesis or hybridization, is known to be effective. Orf and Helms (1994) emphasized, that to fulfill demands of both sellers and purchasers, combined selection for yield components, yield, oil and/or protein content has to be carried out. For this purpose mutant soybean germplasm s were developed by pedigree method from a Carpathian-Ukrainian (KA) further more a Vietnamese (VL40) local variety adapted to Hungarian environmental conditions by 100-300 Gy chronic gamma irradiation. A function index was introduced to evaluate the genetic variability for the quality parameters and the most important agronomic traits. Chronic gamma irradiation increased the genetic variability of the oil content in the KA and of the protein content in the VL40 germplasm. Function index predicted up to 28% oil content in the KA mutant germplasm. Plants with 24.1 and 23.6% oil content were selected from the 150 Gy and the 100 Gy populations in the M4 generation. In the M5, progenies of a superior plant with 23.6% oil content were homozygous for this characteristics, while progenies of a superior plant with 24.1% oil content were segregating. Year can cause +-2.0-2.5% differences in the oil content of the seeds. Oil content had a moderate negative correlation with 1000-seed weight in both of the above mentioned generations .Seed samples with the highest oil content were analysed for fatty acid composition using gas-liquid chromatography. Their linoleic acid content ranged from 51.8 to 55.0%. Unfortunately, in M5 the linolenic acid content was higher than in M4, varying between 7.9% and 9.3%. The 200 Gy

  14. Solid-state fermentation of Mortierella isabellina for lipid production from soybean hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo

    2012-02-01

    Soybean hull, generated from soybean processing, is a lignocellulosic material with limited industrial applications and little market value. This research is exploring a new application of soybean hull to be converted to fungal lipids for biodiesel production through solid-state fermentation. Mortierella isabellina was selected as the oil producer because of its high lipid content at low C/N ratio. Several cultivation factors were investigated, including moisture content, inoculums size, fungal spore age, and nutrient supplements, in an attempt to enhance the lipid production of the solid-state fermentation process. The results showed that lipid production with the increase of the moisture content and the spore age, while decreased as the size of inoculums increased. Nutrients addition (KH₂PO₄ 1.2 mg and MgSO₄ 0.6 mg/g soybean hull) improved the lipid production. The total final lipid reached 47.9 mg lipid from 1 g soybean hull after the conversion, 3.3-fold higher than initial lipid reserve in the soybean hull. The fatty acid profile analysis indicated that fatty acid content consisted of 30.0% of total lipid, and 80.4% of total fatty acid was C16 and C18. Therefore, lipid production from soybean hull is a possible option to enable soybean hull as a new resource for biodiesel production and to enhance the overall oil production from soybeans.

  15. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  16. The reactivity of linseed and soybean oil with different epoxidation degree towards vinyl acetate and impact of the resulting copolymer on the wood durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jebrane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Linseed (LO and soybean oil (SO were in–situ epoxidized with peracetic acid to produce different degree of epoxidized LO and epoxidized SO. For comparison purpose, commercial epoxidized linseed oil (ELO® and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO® were also included in the study. The effect of epoxidation degree on the copolymerization reaction between epoxidized oils and vinyl acetate (VAc was investigated. Results showed that a copolymer can be formed between VAc and epoxidized LO with high epoxy content, while no reaction occurred between VAc and SO or its epoxidized derivatives. As the most reactive monomer among the studied oils, the epoxidized LO with highest epoxy content (i.e. ELO® was mixed with VAc and then impregnated into the wood using three different ELO®/VAc formulations either as solution or as emulsions. After curing, the impact of the resulting copolymer issued from the three tested formulations on the wood durability was evaluated. Results showed that the formulation comprising VAc, ELO®, H2O, K2S2O8 and alkaline emulsifier (Formulation 3 can significantly improve wood’s durability against white rot- (Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana. Treated wood of 8% weight percentage gain (WPG was sufficient to ensure decay resistance against the test fungi with less than 5% mass loss.

  17. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelda Dantas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 °C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 m²g- 1 and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m²g- 1 and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion.

  18. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Joelda; Santos, Jakeline Raiane D.; Cunha, Rodrigo Bruno L.; Costa, Ana Cristina F.M.; Kiminami, Ruth Herta G.A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 °C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w) of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 m2 g -1 and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m 2 g -1 and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion. (author)

  19. Quality of second season soybean submitted to drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Pedro Hartmann Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying agricultural products reduces the moisture content to suitable levels for storage, in order to maintain the product quality. However, special care with the temperatures applied in the process is important for the integrity and longevity of the material. The present study aimed at determining the immediate and latent effect of air-drying temperatures on the quality of soybean produced as a second season crop. The grains were collected at the R8 stage, close to the physiological maturity, with moisture content of approximately 23 % (w.b., submitted to drying temperatures of 40 ºC, 50 ºC, 60 ºC, 70 ºC and 80 ºC, up to a moisture content of 12.5 ± 0.7 % (w.b., and then stored under non-controlled humidity and temperature for 180 days. Thereafter, quality was assessed every 45 days by determining the dry matter loss, color and crude protein and lipid contents, as well as the acidity and peroxide indices of the crude oil extracted. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the increase in the air-drying temperature affects the soybean quality and crude oil extracted, being this effect enhanced with the storage time; the soybean and crude oil quality decline with an increase in the air-drying temperature and storage time; the air temperature of 40 ºC has the least effect on the quality of soybean grains and crude oil extracted.

  20. Synergy of licorice extract and pea protein hydrolysate for oxidative stability of soybean oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Lirong

    2014-08-13

    Previously developed radical-scavenging pea protein hydrolysates (PPHs) prepared with Flavourzyme (Fla-PPH) and Protamex (Pro-PPH) were used as cosurfactants with Tween 20 to produce soybean oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, and the suppression of lipid oxidation was investigated. Both PPHs significantly retarded oxidation (P < 0.05) of the emulsions when stored at 37 °C for 14 days. Electron microscopy revealed an interfacial peptidyl membrane around oil droplets, which afforded steric restrictions to oxidation initiators. When licorice extract (LE) was also used in emulsion preparation, a remarkable synergistic oxidation inhibition was observed with both PPHs. LE adsorbed onto oil droplets either directly or through associating with PPH to produce a thick and compact interfacial membrane enabling the defense against oxygen species. Liquiritin apioside, neolicuroside, glabrene, and 18β-glycyrrhetic acid were the predominant phenolic derivatives partitioning at the interface and most likely the major contributors to the notable synergistic antioxidant activity when coupled with PPHs.

  1. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

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    Ling Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1, which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71% and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3% in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts.

  2. Identification and characterization of large DNA deletions affecting oil quality traits in soybean seeds through transcriptome sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettel, Wolfgang; Ramirez, Martha; Upchurch, Robert G; An, Yong-Qiang Charles

    2016-08-01

    Identification and characterization of a 254-kb genomic deletion on a duplicated chromosome segment that resulted in a low level of palmitic acid in soybean seeds using transcriptome sequencing. A large number of soybean genotypes varying in seed oil composition and content have been identified. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these variations is important for breeders to effectively utilize them as a genetic resource. Through design and application of a bioinformatics approach, we identified nine co-regulated gene clusters by comparing seed transcriptomes of nine soybean genotypes varying in oil composition and content. We demonstrated that four gene clusters in the genotypes M23, Jack and N0304-303-3 coincided with large-scale genome rearrangements. The co-regulated gene clusters in M23 and Jack mapped to a previously described 164-kb deletion and a copy number amplification of the Rhg1 locus, respectively. The coordinately down-regulated gene clusters in N0304-303-3 were caused by a 254-kb deletion containing 19 genes including a fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase B gene (FATB1a). This deletion was associated with reduced palmitic acid content in seeds and was the molecular cause of a previously reported nonfunctional FATB1a allele, fap nc . The M23 and N0304-304-3 deletions were located in duplicated genome segments retained from the Glycine-specific whole genome duplication that occurred 13 million years ago. The homoeologous genes in these duplicated regions shared a strong similarity in both their encoded protein sequences and transcript accumulation levels, suggesting that they may have conserved and important functions in seeds. The functional conservation of homoeologous genes may result in genetic redundancy and gene dosage effects for their associated seed traits, explaining why the large deletion did not cause lethal effects or completely eliminate palmitic acid in N0304-303-3.

  3. Canola and hydrogenated soybean oils accelerate ectopic bone formation induced by implantation of bone morphogenetic protein in mice

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    Yoko Hashimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola oil (Can and hydrogenated soybean oil (H2-Soy are commonly used edible oils. However, in contrast to soybean oil (Soy, they shorten the survival of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP rats. It has been proposed that the adverse effects of these oils on the kidney and testis are caused at least in part by dihydro-vitamin K (VK 1 in H2-Soy and unidentified component(s in Can. Increased intake of dihydro-VK1 is associated with decreased tissue VK2 levels and bone mineral density in rats and humans, respectively. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of these oils on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-induced ectopic bone formation, which is promoted by VK2 deficiency, in relation to the role of VK in the γ-carboxylation of osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein. A crude extract of BMPs was implanted into a gap in the fascia of the femoral muscle in 5-week-old mice maintained on a Soy, Can, or H2-Soy diet. Newly formed bone volume, assessed by three-dimensional X-ray micro-computed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction imaging for bone, was 4-fold greater in the Can and H2-Soy groups than in the Soy group. The plasma carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC and total OC (Gla-OC plus undercarboxylated osteocalcin [Glu-OC] levels were significantly lower in the Can group than in the Soy group (p < 0.05. However, these levels did not significantly differ between the H2-Soy and Soy groups. The plasma Gla-OC/Glu-OC ratio in the Can and H2-Soy groups was significantly lower (in Can; p = 0.044 or was almost significantly lower (in H2-Soy; p = 0.053 than that in the Soy group. In conclusion, Can and H2-Soy accelerated BMP-induced bone formation in mice to a greater extent than Soy. Further research is required to evaluate whether the difference in accelerated ectopic bone formation is associated with altered levels of VK2 and VK-dependent protein(s among the three dietary groups.

  4. Improvement of Soybean Products Through the Response Mechanism Analysis Using Proteomic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    Soybean is rich in protein/vegetable oil and contains several phytochemicals such as isoflavones and phenolic compounds. Because of the predominated nutritional values, soybean is considered as traditional health benefit food. Soybean is a widely cultivated crop; however, its growth and yield are markedly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Proteomic techniques make it feasible to map protein profiles both during soybean growth and under unfavorable conditions. The stress-responsive mechanisms during soybean growth have been uncovered with the help of proteomic studies. In this review, the history of soybean as food and the morphology/physiology of soybean are described. The utilization of proteomics during soybean germination and development is summarized. In addition, the stress-responsive mechanisms explored using proteomic techniques are reviewed in soybean. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic analysis and performance of a low power diesel engine using soybean oil refined; Analise economica e de desempenho de um motor diesel de baixa potencia utilizando oleo de soja refinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme Ladeira dos; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Alvarenga, Cleyton Batista de; Leite, Daniel Mariano; Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mails: glsantos@yahoo.com.br, haroldo@ufv.br, cleyton.alvarenga@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br, wagner.siqueira@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil is the main source of energy available to power internal combustion engines, enabling its transformation into mechanical energy. To meet the production of vegetable oils, many cultures can be used, according to regional conditions, especially those that are already commercially exploited, such as peanuts, Soybeans, Corn, Palm oil, Sunflower and Canola, and other public regional and castor oil, Andiroba, Pequi, Buriti, Inaja, Carnauba, Jatropha, among others. The objective of this work make an economic analysis of replacing diesel fuel by mixing and compare performance on the engine and using B{sub 2} biodiesel fuel mixture of diesel with 2 % Refined Soybean Oil (SAB). The loads applied by the dynamometer in the engine were 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21.5 lbs. The engine was coupled to the dynamometer with the aid of pulleys and belts of the type V with gear ratio of 1:1,9. Apparently, the best vegetable oil mixture was 30 %, both in terms of specific consumption and cost from R$ kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Providing the same cost of pure diesel. (author)

  6. Desempenho de misturas pré-aquecidas de óleo de soja cru e diesel como combustível para motores agrícolas Performance of preheated crude soybean oil-diesel blends as fuel in agricultural engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Schlosser

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O óleo de soja é um dos óleos vegetais que têm potencial de uso como combustível para motores diesel, pois é renovável, seguro e de fácil utilização. Em temperatura ambiente, o óleo cru apresenta uma viscosidade cerca de dez vezes maior que a do óleo diesel. Para reduzir a viscosidade do óleo de soja a níveis aceitáveis, é necessária uma temperatura de aquecimento em torno de aproximadamente 60°C ou misturá-lo com óleo diesel. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho do óleo de soja cru e suas misturas com óleo diesel, pré-aquecidas antes da bomba injetora entre 57°C e 68°C, como combustível para motores diesel. O desempenho das misturas combustíveis foi avaliado num motor monocilíndrico de injeção indireta e comparado com o obtido pelo óleo diesel. Os ensaios de curta duração foram conduzidos entre 1.800 e 2.800rpm, sob condição de plena carga em dinamômetro hidráulico. Ensaios realizados a 68°C apresentaram sempre os melhores valores para torque, potência e consumo específico de combustível do que a 57°C. Uma mistura composta por 70% de óleo de soja e 30% de óleo diesel, aquecida a 68°C, apresentou os melhores resultados.Crude soybean oil is one of the vegetable oils that have potential for use as fuel for diesel engines. Soybean oil is renewable, and is safe and easy to handle. At room temperature crude oil has a viscosity about ten times higher than that of diesel oil. To lower soybean oil's viscosity to the acceptable levels a heating temperature at least 60°C is needed or blending with diesel fuel. The objective of this study was evaluating the soybean oil and blends performance as a fuel for diesel engines. On both crude soybean oil and soybean oil blends were used pre-heating temperature levels on the range between 57°C and 68°C, before fuel pump. The performance of the fuel blends were evaluated in a single cylinder indirect injection diesel engine and compared with the performance

  7. Reactivity of the biphasic trichloroacetonitrile-CH2Cl2/H2O2 system in the epoxidation of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli, Márcia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the epoxidation of soybean oil by the trichloroacetonitrile -CH2Cl2/H2O2 byphasic system. The reaction was carried out at room temperature and, most importantly, in non acid conditions which prevent the opening of the oxirane ring. The epoxidized soybean oil was characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR. A maximum conversion of 81 % was achieved in two hours with 86% of selectivity in epoxy groupsEn el presente trabajo informamos sobre la epoxidación de aceite de soja mediante el sistema bifásico tricloroacetonitrilo-CH2Cl2/H2O2. La reacción fue realizada bajo condiciones de temperatura ambiente y, lo más importante, en condición no ácida, lo que evita la apertura del anillo oxirano. El aceite de soja fue caracterizado por infrarrojo y RMN de 1H and 13C. En dos horas se alcanzó una conversión máxima del 81 % obteniéndose una selectividad del 86 % en grupos epóxidos

  8. Evaluation of seed chemical quality traits and sensory properties of natto soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yoko; Chen, Pengyin; Zhang, Bo; Scaboo, Andrew; Orazaly, Moldir

    2014-06-15

    Natto is a popular soyfood in Japan, and the U.S. is the largest supplier of natto soybeans. However, information on natto seed chemical and sensory properties is very limited. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of seed chemical and sensory properties among natto types and determine heritability and correlation. A total of 15 small-seeded natto genotypes (three superior, nine moderate and three inferior) were evaluated for protein, oil, calcium, manganese, boron and sugar content and processed into a natto product to evaluate appearance, stickiness, flavor, texture and shelf-life. The superior natto group had a higher sugar content but lower protein plus oil, calcium, manganese and boron content than other two groups. Most seed quality traits exhibited high heritability. The natto sensory preference was positively correlated with sucrose and oil content, but negatively correlated with seed hardness, protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron contents. Selecting soybean lines with low protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron content while with high sucrose will be an effective approach for soybean breeding for natto production. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Impact of Environment on the Biomass Composition of Soybean (Glycine max) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Tamara; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Osmark, Veronika; McHale, Leah K; Alonso, Ana Paula

    2017-08-16

    Factors including genetics, fertilization, and climatic conditions, can alter the biomass composition of soybean seeds, consequently impacting their market value and usage. This study specifically determined the content of protein and oil, as well as the composition of proteinogenic amino acids and fatty acids in seeds from 10 diverse soybean cultivars grown in four different sites. The results highlighted that different environments produce a different composition for the 10 cultivars under investigation. Specifically, the levels of oleic and linoleic acids, important contributors to oil stability, were negatively correlated. Although the protein and oil contents were higher in some locations, their "quality" was lower in terms of composition of essential amino acids and oleic acid, respectively. Finally, proteinogenic histidine and glutamate were the main contributors to the separation between Central and Northern growing sites. Taken together, these results can guide future breeding and engineering efforts aiming to develop specialized soybean lines.

  11. Analisis Sistem Proses Pindah Massa pada Ekstraksi secara Mekanik Minyak Kedelai (Glycine Max Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwi Argo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean, a vegetable protein-rich commodity needed to improve public nutrition, safe to consume, and the price affordable. The purpose of this research are to: 1. determine the effect of pressure and time of extraction the mass balance, yield and level of soybean oil extraction, 2. Gain mass transfer coefficient value in soybean oil extraction process, and 3. analyze the mechanism of mass changes during the extraction process soybean oil is mechanically using hydraulic pressing. Oil obtained results indicate an increase due to the influence of a given amount of pressure and length of time silenced. The greater the pressure exerted, the more oil produced this shows soybean oil can come out with a maximum at the greatest pressure of 200 kg/cm2. Mass transfer coefficient in soybean oil extraction process at a pressure of 100 kg/cm2 5.57x10-5 gcm3/cm seconds. In the pressure is 200 kg/cm2 15.39 x 10-5g cm3/cm seconds.

  12. Accumulation of genistein and daidzein, soybean isoflavones implicated in promoting human health, is significantly elevated by irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John O; Yu, Oliver; Heatherly, Larry G; Krishnan, Hari B

    2004-12-15

    To circumvent drought conditions persisting during seed fill in the mid-south U.S. soybean production region, researchers have developed the early soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production system (ESPS), which entails early planting of short-season varieties. Because soybean supplies a preponderance of the world's protein and oil and consumption of soy-based foods has been associated with multiple health benefits, the effects of this agronomic practice on seed quality traits such as protein, oil, and isoflavones should be investigated. Four cultivars of soybean, two from maturity group IV and two from maturity group V, were planted in April (ESPS) and May (traditional) in a two-year study at Stoneville, MS. Near-infrared analysis of soybean seed was utilized to determine the percentages of protein and oil. Dependent upon variety, the oil content of the early-planted crop was increased by 3-8%, whereas protein was not significantly changed. Visualization of protein extracts fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that early planting did not affect the relative accumulation of the major seed-storage proteins; thus, protein composition was equal to that of traditionally cultivated soybeans. Maturity group IV cultivars contained a higher percentage of oil and a lower percentage of protein than did the maturity group V cultivars, regardless of planting date. Gas chromatographic separation of fatty acids revealed that the percentages of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were not significantly altered by planting date. Methanol extracts of seed harvested from different planting dates when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography showed striking differences in isoflavone content. Dependent upon the variety, total isoflavone content was increased as much as 1.3-fold in early-planted soybeans. Irrigation enhanced the isoflavone content of both early- and

  13. Influence of the type of cellulosic derivatives on the texture, and oxidative and thermal stability of soybean oil oleogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totosaus, A.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, R.; Fragoso, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use oleogels (defined as edible oils entrapped in a three-dimensional network employing a self-assembled structuring agent) has recently been proposed to replace saturated fat or trans-fats in foods. In this work the effects of different cellulose derivative mixtures (Avicel, ethyl cellulose and a-cellulose) on lipid stability, glass transition temperature and the texture of soybean oil oleogels were determined by employing a mixture design approach. Avicel affected lipid stability, increasing the oxidative rancidity and peroxide values of oleogels. Oleogels with higher proportions of Avicel also presented higher transition temperatures. A higher percent of ethyl cellulose and a-cellulose in the oleogel mixture resulted in a more stable system with lower oil rancidity and lower glass transition temperatures. In addition, Avicel resulted in a softer and less tacky texture, an important characteristic to consider for food applications. [es

  14. Productive and quality characteristics of soybean in agroecological conditions of Sombor, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to examine and present the results of soybean grain yield, protein and oil content during a two-year period (2009 to 2010 in agro-ecological conditions of Sombor, Serbia. Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance, using the method of two factorial trials (variety, year. LSD was used to compare means for significant differences. Significantly higher yields were recorded in 2010 compared to 2009. Average yield amounted to 4,196 kg ha-1 for analyzed soybean varieties, and ranged from 2,889 kg ha-1 (2009 to 5,503 kg ha-1 (2010. The year 2010 was favourable for protein synthesis. The highest protein content was achieved by Bečejka variety (38.38% and Proteinka variety (38.33% in 2010. Proteinka had statistically significantly higher average protein content compared to other tested varieties in the two-year average. The tested soybean varieties had average oil content of 20.93%. The highest oil content was found in Sava variety (23.03% in 2009. Statistically significantly higher oil content was recorded in 2009 compared to 2010, while variety and their interactions had statistically significant effect (p <0.05, p <0.01 on yield and grain quality of soybean. Irrigation and appropriate cultural practices are the only measures that could mitigate limitation factors and increase yields.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Soybean-Based Biodiesel in Argentina for Export

    OpenAIRE

    Panichelli, Luis; Dauriat, Arnaud; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim and scope. Regional specificities are a key factor when analyzing the environmental impact of a biofuel pathway through a life cycle assessment (LCA). Due to different energy mixes, transport distances, agricultural practices and land use changes, results can significantly vary from one country to another. The Republic of Argentina is the first exporter of soybean oil and meal and the third largest soybean producer in the world, and therefore, soybean-based biodiesel producti...

  16. Effects of soybean isoflavone on intestinal antioxidant capacity and cytokines in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Ma, Xian-Yong; Jiang, Zong-Yong; Hu, You-Jun; Zheng, Chun-Tian; Yang, Xue-Fen; Wang, Li; Gao, Kai-Guo

    To investigate the effect of glycitein, a synthetic soybean isoflavone (ISF), on the intestinal antioxidant capacity, morphology, and cytokine content in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil, 72 4-d-old male piglets were assigned to three treatments. The control group was fed a basal diet containing fresh fish oil, and the other two groups received the same diet except for the substitution with the same dosage of oxidized fish oil alone or with ISF (oxidized fish oil plus ISF). After 21 d of feeding, supplementation of oxidized fish oil increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO, and Caspase-3 in jejunal mucosa, and decreased the villous height in duodenum and the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IL-4 in the jejunal mucosa compared with supplementation with fresh oil. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF partially alleviated this negative effect. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF increased the villous height and levels of sIgA and IL-4 in jejunal mucosa, but decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-2 in jejunal mucosa (Poil. Collectively, these results show that dietary supplementation of ISF could partly alleviate the negative effect of oxidized fish oil by improving the intestinal morphology as well as the antioxidant capacity and immune function in young piglets.

  17. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Joelda; Santos, Jakeline Raiane D.; Cunha, Rodrigo Bruno L.; Costa, Ana Cristina F.M., E-mail: joeldadantas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LabSMaC/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Lab. de Sintese de Materiais Ceramicos; Kiminami, Ruth Herta G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenhria de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 Degree-Sign C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w) of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 {sup m2}g{sup -1} and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m{sup 2}g{sup -1} and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion. (author)

  18. Millet and corn oil in sorghum-based diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of millet and corn oil additions to sorghum-based diets on the performance, carcass yields and prime cuts (i.e., wings, breasts, thighs and drumsticks and the relative weights of edible offal (i.e., gizzard, heart, and liver of broiler chickens. A total of 684 Hubbard Flex chickens, including 342 broilers of each sex, were housed. The design was completely randomized, and the following diets were supplied: A sorghum and soybean meal + soybean oil (control; B sorghum and soybean meal + corn oil; and C sorghum and soybean meal + millet and soybean oil. Six replicates with 38 birds each (19 males and 19 females were evaluated regarding each experimental diet. At 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age, the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability of the chickens were evaluated. At 42 days, the live weight, carcass yield, prime cuts and relative weight of the edible offal were measured. The dietary inclusion of either millet or corn oil did not affect any of the parameters. In conclusion, additions of millet and corn oil to sorghum-based diets of broilers do not compromise poultry performance.

  19. Optimization of physicochemical and textural properties of pizza cheese fortified with soybean oil and carrot extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevalizadeh, Ehsan; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Milani, Elnaz; Hooshmand-Dalir, Moosa Al-Reza

    2018-03-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize pizza cheese containing carrot extract. The effects of two important independent variables including soybean oil (5%-20%) and carrot extract (5%-20%) were studied on physicochemical and textural properties of pizza cheese containing carrot extract. According to the results, RSM was successfully used for optimizing formulation of pizza cheese containing carrot juice. Results of this study revealed that oil (A), carrot (B), AB, square term of carrot (B 2 ), B, AB, square term of oil (A 2 ), B 2 , AB, AB, A 2 B, A 2 , A 2 , A, A 2 , A 2 , AB, and AB 2 had the most effect on moisture, acidity, stretch, L*, a*, b*, hardness, meltability, springiness, peroxide value (PV), cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess, fracture force, adhesiveness force, stiffness, flavor, and overall acceptability, respectively. A formulation upon 20% oil and 10.88% carrot extract was found as the optimal formulation for pizza cheese containing carrot extract. At the optimal formulation, PV, L*, a*, b*, meltability, stretch, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, chewiness, adhesive force, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability at the optimum formulation were measured 2.23, 82.51, -3.69, 18.05, 17.86, 85.61, 0.41, 7.874, 23.7, 0.27, 0.61, 3.50, 3.95, and 3.65, respectively.

  20. ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY AMONG SOYBEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Analysis, Resource use efficiency, Farmers, production function analysis, Benue, Nigeria. ... Soybean seeds also contain about 20% oil on a dry matter basis, and this ..... Manual for training in Seed Technology.

  1. Chemical quality of Baru almond (Dipteryx alata oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vegetable oils are suitable for human consumption as part of a healthy diet and native fruits of the cerrado, such as almond baru, which are natural sources of these oils. This study informed about the quality of baru oil having as a basis for comparison, soybean oil and olive oil, usually consumed in human diet. Analyzes of acid value, peroxide and iodine for the three oils and fatty acid composition for the baru oil were performed according to official standard methodology. Baru oil has the potential to be part of the human consumption, in healthy diets similarly to soybean oil and olive oil.

  2. A genome-wide association study of seed protein and oil content in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Young; Song, Qijian; Jia, Gaofeng; Specht, James E; Hyten, David L; Costa, Jose; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-01-02

    Association analysis is an alternative to conventional family-based methods to detect the location of gene(s) or quantitative trait loci (QTL) and provides relatively high resolution in terms of defining the genome position of a gene or QTL. Seed protein and oil concentration are quantitative traits which are determined by the interaction among many genes with small to moderate genetic effects and their interaction with the environment. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed protein and oil concentration in 298 soybean germplasm accessions exhibiting a wide range of seed protein and oil content. A total of 55,159 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using various methods including Illumina Infinium and GoldenGate assays and 31,954 markers with minor allele frequency >0.10 were used to estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions. In euchromatic regions, the mean LD (r2) rapidly declined to 0.2 within 360 Kbp, whereas the mean LD declined to 0.2 at 9,600 Kbp in heterochromatic regions. The GWAS results identified 40 SNPs in 17 different genomic regions significantly associated with seed protein. Of these, the five SNPs with the highest associations and seven adjacent SNPs were located in the 27.6-30.0 Mbp region of Gm20. A major seed protein QTL has been previously mapped to the same location and potential candidate genes have recently been identified in this region. The GWAS results also detected 25 SNPs in 13 different genomic regions associated with seed oil. Of these markers, seven SNPs had a significant association with both protein and oil. This research indicated that GWAS not only identified most of the previously reported QTL controlling seed protein and oil, but also resulted in narrower genomic regions than the regions reported as containing these QTL. The narrower GWAS-defined genome regions will allow more precise

  3. Genome-wide association studies dissect the genetic networks underlying agronomical traits in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Ma, Yanming; Wu, Shiwen; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Rui; Hu, Guanghui; Zhou, Zhengkui; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Min; Pan, Yi; Zhou, Guoan; Ren, Haixiang; Du, Weiguang; Yan, Hongrui; Wang, Yanping; Han, Dezhi; Shen, Yanting; Liu, Shulin; Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Jixiang; Qin, Hao; Yuan, Jia; Yuan, Xiaohui; Kong, Fanjiang; Liu, Baohui; Li, Jiayang; Zhang, Zhiwu; Wang, Guodong; Zhu, Baoge; Tian, Zhixi

    2017-08-24

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is one of the most important oil and protein crops. Ever-increasing soybean consumption necessitates the improvement of varieties for more efficient production. However, both correlations among different traits and genetic interactions among genes that affect a single trait pose a challenge to soybean breeding. To understand the genetic networks underlying phenotypic correlations, we collected 809 soybean accessions worldwide and phenotyped them for two years at three locations for 84 agronomic traits. Genome-wide association studies identified 245 significant genetic loci, among which 95 genetically interacted with other loci. We determined that 14 oil synthesis-related genes are responsible for fatty acid accumulation in soybean and function in line with an additive model. Network analyses demonstrated that 51 traits could be linked through the linkage disequilibrium of 115 associated loci and these links reflect phenotypic correlations. We revealed that 23 loci, including the known Dt1, E2, E1, Ln, Dt2, Fan, and Fap loci, as well as 16 undefined associated loci, have pleiotropic effects on different traits. This study provides insights into the genetic correlation among complex traits and will facilitate future soybean functional studies and breeding through molecular design.

  4. Genome Sequence of the Palaeopolyploid soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Cannon, Steven B.; Schlueter, Jessica; Ma, Jianxin; Mitros, Therese; Nelson, William; Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Thelen, Jay J.; Cheng, Jianlin; Xu, Dong; Hellsten, Uffe; May, Gregory D.; Yu, Yeisoo; Sakura, Tetsuya; Umezawa, Taishi; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder; Valliyodan, Babu; Lindquist, Erika; Peto, Myron; Grant, David; Shu, Shengqiang; Goodstein, David; Barry, Kerrie; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Abernathy, Brian; Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Zhu, Liucun; Gill, Navdeep; Joshi, Trupti; Libault, Marc; Sethuraman, Anand; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wing, Rod A.; Cregan, Perry; Specht, James; Grimwood, Jane; Rokhsar, Dan; Stacey, Gary; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2009-08-03

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale draft sequence assembly. We predict 46,430 protein-coding genes, 70percent more than Arabidopsis and similar to the poplar genome which, like soybean, is an ancient polyploid (palaeopolyploid). About 78percent of the predicted genes occur in chromosome ends, which comprise less than one-half of the genome but account for nearly all of the genetic recombination. Genome duplications occurred at approximately 59 and 13 million years ago, resulting in a highly duplicated genome with nearly 75percent of the genes present in multiple copies. The two duplication events were followed by gene diversification and loss, and numerous chromosome rearrangements. An accurate soybean genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of many soybean traits, and accelerate the creation of improved soybean varieties.

  5. Óleo de soja e própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Soybean oil and propolis in the diets of dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Paula Lana

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, verificar os efeitos da adição de óleo de soja e/ou de extrato etanólico de própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade de nutrientes, a produção e composição do leite e alguns parâmetros de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas dezesseis cabras Alpinas (quatro fistuladas no rúmen. Os animais foram alocados em quatro quadrados latinos 4x4, em arranjo fatorial 2x2 dos tratamentos. Foram adicionados ao concentrado 0 ou 120 g de óleo de soja e 0 ou 10 mL de extrato etanólico de própolis/animal/dia (30% p/v de própolis bruta moída em solução alcoólica a 70% em água. As dietas foram isoprotéicas, com 11,5% de PB, e compostas de 67% de silagem de milho e 33% de concentrado à base de fubá de milho e farelo de soja. O óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de matéria seca (%PV e g/kg PV0,75, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de carboidratos não-fibrosos; diminuiu a digestibilidade da FDN; aumentou a digestibilidade da PB e do EE e o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT; reduziu a produção e aumentou os percentuais de gordura, proteína e sólidos totais no leite; aumentou o pH; e reduziu a relação acetato:propionato no líquido ruminal. Houve interação entre óleo de soja e extrato etanólico de própolis, de modo que o óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de MS, MO e FDN (em kg/animal/dia somente na presença de própolis e aumentou o consumo de PB na ausência de própolis. O óleo de soja mostrou-se mais efetivo em alterar as variáveis analisadas que o extrato etanólico de própolis.The objective of this experiment was to verify the effects of soybean oil and/or ethanolic extract of propolis, in the diets of dairy goats, on intake, on digestibility of nutrients, on milk production and composition and some ruminal parameters. Sixteen Alpine female goats were used, in which four animals fistulated in the rumen. The animals were allocated in four 4

  6. Soybean breeding through cross breeding combined with irradiation mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiutian; Zheng Yanhai; Yang Xiufeng; Zhang Kunpu; Jia Aijun

    2005-01-01

    Using 'Heidou 2' which immune to the race 2 of Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) crossbreeded with 'Huangsha soybean' which has high yield characteristic. The authors obtained some better cultivars of soybean. Then, the authors used laser irradiation to these cultivars and selected a variety with high yield, good quality, resistance to the race 2 of SCN, called 'Dedou 99-16' which in black seed coat. In the year 2001 to 2003, the authors joined the variety comparison and regional test of Shandong province. Its yield hit 2739.0 kg/hm 2 , crude protein and crude oil content had reached the governmental standard of good quality soybean, and it had high resistance to the race 2 of SCN. It is suitable for planting in Huanghuaihai area. (authors)

  7. Model study on transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel with methanol using solid base catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejun; Piao, Xianglan; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Shenlin

    2010-03-25

    Modeling of the transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel using a solid base as a catalyst is very important because the mutual solubilities of oil and methanol will increase with the increasing biodiesel yield. The heterogeneous liquid-liquid-solid reaction system would become a liquid-solid system when the biodiesel reaches a certain content. In this work, we adopted a two-film theory and a steady state approximation assumption, then established a heterogeneous liquid-liquid-solid model in the first stage. After the diffusion coefficients on the liquid-liquid interface and the liquid-solid interface were calculated on the basis of the properties of the system, the theoretical value of biodiesel productivity changing with time was obtained. The predicted values were very near the experimental data, which indicated that the proposed models were suitable for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel when solid bases were used as catalysts. Meanwhile, the model indicated that the transesterification reaction was controlled by both mass transfer and reaction. The total resistance will decrease with the increase in biodiesel yield in the liquid-liquid-solid stage. The solid base catalyst exhibited an activation energy range of 9-20 kcal/mol, which was consistent with the reported activation energy range of homogeneous catalysts.

  8. Study on Formulation Optimization of Black Soybean Paste%黑豆沙配方优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益叶; 周宏胜; 胡花丽; 罗淑芬; 李鹏霞

    2018-01-01

    Black soybean variety "Xindali No. 1" was taken as the raw material of black soybean paste processing, and the optimum formulation of black soybean paste preparation was studied. The sensory quality score of product was used as the evalua-tion criterion. Firstly, sunflower seed oil and white granulated sugar were selected as the best species of oil and sugar for the pro-cessing of black soybean paste. Secondly, the ranges of optimum addition amount of flour, sunflower seed oil and white granulated sugar in black soybean paste were determined based on the results of single-factor tests. Finally, the best proportion of flour, sun-flower seed oil and white granulated sugar in black soybean paste was ascertained through the orthogonal test. The optimum formu-lation of black soybean paste preparation was obtained as follows:50 g black soybean, 20 g white granulated sugar, 15 g sunflow-er seed oil, and 20 g flour. The prepared black soybean paste through the above best formulation had fine and smooth taste, uni-form color and lustre, and unique fragrance without obvious oil leaking out.%针对黑豆沙加工工艺缺乏的现状,以新大粒1号黑豆为原料,进行黑豆沙加工过程主要添加物的配方优化研究.以感官品质评分为标准,首先确定了加工过程中所需的油与糖的最优种类为葵花籽油和白砂糖;基于单因素试验确定面粉、葵花籽油、白砂糖的最佳用量范围,再通过正交试验的方法确定面粉、葵花籽油、白砂糖的最优配比.最终确定新大粒1号黑豆沙最佳配方为:以黑豆质量为基准(100%),添加40%白砂糖,30%葵花籽油,40%面粉.通过该配方制得的黑豆沙口感细腻,色泽均匀,无明显走油现象,具有黑豆沙独特的香味和色泽.

  9. Dynamics of world oil crops market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the harvested area, oil crops are the second most important crops after cereals. Soybean is the most important oil crop in terms of production and trade of oilseeds and meals, and second most important in terms of production and trade of vegetable oils after palm oil. Dynamics of prices of derived oil crop products in the international market is conditioned by the relationship between supply and demand in the overall market of oil crops. The substitution of animal fats with vegetable oils in human nutrition, the expansion of biodiesel industry and intensification of livestock production have led to increased demand for oil crops. The objective of this paper was to identify trends in production, consumption and trade of soybeans, rapeseed and sunflower and their derived products.

  10. Suplementação com óleo de soja na dieta de potros Soybean oil supplementation in the diet of foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska Tobo Pastori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em um delineamento quadrado latino 4 X 4 balanceado, foram utilizados quatro potros, filhos do mesmo garanhão, com idade entre 10 e 12 meses e 270 ± 9,80 kg. Foram analisados os efeitos dos níveis de 5, 10, 15 e 20% de óleo de soja no concentrado sobre a aceitabilidade e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e sobre a concentração plasmática de colesterol total e suas frações nas lipoproteínas de densidade muito baixa (VLDL-C, densidade baixa (LDL-C e densidade alta (HDL-C e nos triglicérides totais. O aumento do nível de óleo na dieta afetou as digestibilidades da matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido, que apresentaram resposta quadrática, com diminuição após os valores de 10,7; 9,5 e 10,5%, respectivamente, de extrato etéreo na dieta. Os níveis de óleo de soja tiveram efeito linear sobre as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol e LDL-C, que apresentaram diminuição de 0,65 mg/dL e 0,58 mg/dL, respectivamente, a cada 1% de aumento no extrato etéreo do concentrado. Níveis de óleo de soja superiores a 9,5% no concentrado afetam a digestibilidade da dieta, principalmente na parede celular, e diminuem as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol e LDL-C.Four foals, sired by the same stallion, aged between 10 and 12 months and 270 ± 9.80 kg average weight, were alloted in a 4 X 4 balanced Latin Square design. The effects were analyzed of the inclusion of the levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of soybean oil in the concentrate on the acceptability, nutrient digestibilities and on total cholesterol plasma concentrations and its fractions: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and total triglycerides (TRG. The increase in the level of soybean oil in the diet affected the digestibilities of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber that presented a quadratic response which decreased after a expected values of 10

  11. Selecting and training a panel to evaluate the rancid defect in soybean oil and fish hamburgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marques

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its composition of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, oils and fats are very susceptible to oxidation, with rancidity being one of the main defects. Among the several existing methodologies to monitor oxidation in foods, sensory analysis stands out because of the sensitivity of responses. Accordingly, this study aimed to select and train a panel of expert assessors to identify the rancid flavor, showing the statistical steps in the process. Assessors were selected according to their individual performance, statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s mean comparison, Wald Sequential Analysis and chi-square test. The validation of the trained panel was carried out with the sensory analysis of fish burgers and soybean oil. F Value and box-plot graphic methods were effective for better visualization of results when used along with the mean and standard deviation tables. The final trained panel consisted of seven assessors, who have been able to identify and differentiate rancid taste in both samples used for validation.

  12. Selecting and training a panel to evaluate the rancid defect in soybean oil and fish hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, C.; Dos Reis, A.S.; Da Silva, L.D.; Carpes, S.T.; Mitterer-Daltoé, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Due to its composition of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, oils and fats are very susceptible to oxidation, with rancidity being one of the main defects. Among the several existing methodologies to monitor oxidation in foods, sensory analysis stands out because of the sensitivity of responses. Accordingly, this study aimed to select and train a panel of expert assessors to identify the rancid flavor, showing the statistical steps in the process. Assessors were selected according to their individual performance, statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s mean comparison, Wald Sequential Analysis and chi-square test. The validation of the trained panel was carried out with the sensory analysis of fish burgers and soybean oil. F Value and box-plot graphic methods were effective for better visualization of results when used along with the mean and standard deviation tables. The final trained panel consisted of seven assessors, who have been able to identify and differentiate rancid taste in both samples used for validation. [es

  13. The effect of extra virgin olive oil and soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Al-Abbadi, Hatim Ali; Serafi, Abdulhalim Salim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K; Sobhy, Hanan M; Richardson, John R C

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents' organs and warrants further investigation in humans.

  14. Non-catalytic production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil with supercritical ethanol in a two-step process using a microtube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Camila da; Lima, Ana Paula de; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Cardozo Filho, Lucio; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using different reactor configurations. Experiments were performed in a microtube reactor with experimental simulation of two reactors operated in series and a reactor with recycle, both configurations at a constant temperature of 573 K, pressure of 20 MPa and oil to ethanol mass ratio of 1:1. Results show that the configurations studied with intermediate separation of glycerol afford higher conversions of vegetable oil to its fatty acid ethyl ester derivatives when compared to the one-step reaction, with relatively low decomposition of fatty acids (<3.0 wt%).

  15. Resolution of parenteral nutrition-associated jaundice on changing from a soybean oil emulsion to a complex mixed-lipid emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Rafeeq; Bremner, Ronald; Protheroe, Sue; Johnson, Tracey; Holden, Chris; Murphy, M Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Resolution of parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated jaundice has been reported in children given a reduced dose of intravenous fat using a fish oil-derived lipid emulsion. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect on PN-associated jaundice of changing from a soybean oil-derived lipid to a mixed lipid emulsion derived from soybean, coconut, olive, and fish oils without reducing the total amount of lipid given. Retrospective cohort comparison examining serum bilirubin during 6 months in children with PN-associated jaundice who changed to SMOFlipid (n=8) or remained on Intralipid (n=9). At entry, both groups received most of their energy as PN (SMOFlipid 81.5%, range 65.5-100 vs Intralipid 92.2%, range 60.3-100; P=0.37). After 6 months, both tolerated increased enteral feeding but still received large proportions of their energy as PN (SMOFlipid 68.4%, range 36.6-100 vs Intralipid 50%, range 37.6-76; P=0.15). The median bilirubin at the outset was 143 μmol/L (range 71-275) in the SMOFlipid group and 91 μmol/L (range 78-176) in the Intralipid group. After 6 months, 5 of 8 children in the SMOFlipid and 2 of 9 children in the Intralipid group had total resolution of jaundice. The median bilirubin fell by 99 μmol/L in the SMOFlipid group but increased by 79 μmol/L in the Intralipid group (P=0.02). SMOFlipid may have important protective properties for the liver and may constitute a significant advance in PN formulation. Randomised trials are needed to study the efficacy of SMOFlipid in preventing PN liver disease.

  16. Thermal edible oil evaluation by UV-Vis spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rhayanna P; Março, Paulo H; Valderrama, Patrícia

    2014-11-15

    Edible oils such as colza, corn, sunflower, soybean and olive were analysed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution with Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS). When vegetable oils were heated at high temperatures (frying), oxidation products were formed which were harmful to human health in addition to degrading the antioxidants present, and this study aimed to evaluate tocopherol (one antioxidant present in oils) and the behaviour of oxidation products in edible oils. The MCR-ALS results showed that the degradation started at 110°C and 85°C, respectively, for sunflower and colza oils, while tocopherol concentration decreased and oxidation products increased starting at 70°C in olive oil. In soybean and corn oils, tocopherol concentration started to decrease and oxidation products increased at 50°C. The results suggested that sunflower, colza and olive oils offered more resistance to increasing temperatures, while soybean and corn oils were less resistant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. (RR) soybean cultivars estimated by phenotypic characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... phenotypic characteristics and microsatellite molecular markers (SSR). ... discriminatory analysis, principal components, coordinate and cluster analysis .... were employed with 10.000 simulations to attribute significance values to ...... association analysis of protein and oil content in food-grade soybeans ...

  18. Irradiation effects on the variability of yield characteristics of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, K.; Egri, K.; Toeroek, Z.; Bornemiszane, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    The seeds of soybean varieties 'Merit' and 'S-1346' were irradiated by fast neutrons with doses between 4 and 174 Gy. The doses in the range of 57-174 Gy proved to be lethal. After low dose irradiation, shorter breeding time and the stimulation of plant growth could be observed. The effects of irradiation on the oil and protein contents of soybeans were contradictory. (V.N.)

  19. Adaptability and stability of soybean genotypes in off-season cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, R O; Hamawaki, R L; Sousa, L B; Nogueira, A P O; Hamawaki, O T

    2015-08-14

    The oil and protein contents of soybean grains are important quantitative traits for use in breeding. However, few breeding programs perform selection based on these traits in different environments. This study assessed the adaptability and stability of 14 elite early soybean breeding lines in off-season cultivation with respect to yield, and oil and protein contents. A range of statistical methods was applied and these analyses indicated that for off-season cultivation, the lines UFUS 5 and UFUS 10 could be recommended due to their superior performance in grain yield, oil content, and specific adaptability to unfavorable environments along with high stability in these characteristics. Also recommended were UFUS 06, which demonstrated superior performance in all three tested characteristics and showed adaptation to favorable environments, and UFUS 13, which showed high adaptability and stability and a superior performance for protein content.

  20. Authentication of edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Zhijian; Hu, Xiaosong; Shen, Qun; Wu, Jihong

    2012-06-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy to authenticate edible vegetable oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed and soybean oil) adulterated with used frying oil was introduced in this paper. The FTIR spectrum of oil was divided into 22 regions which corresponded to the constituents and molecular structures of vegetable oils. Samples of calibration set were classified into four categories for corn and peanut oils and five categories for rapeseed and soybean oils by cluster analysis. Qualitative analysis of validation set was obtained by discriminant analysis. Area ratio between absorption band 19 and 20 and wavenumber shift of band 19 were treated by linear regression for quantitative analysis. For four adulteration types, LODs of area ratio were 6.6%, 7.2%, 5.5%, 3.6% and wavenumber shift were 8.1%, 9.0%, 6.9%, 5.6%, respectively. The proposed methodology is a useful tool to authenticate the edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gamma irradiation effect on acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil: polymerization and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-lopez, S.; Sanchez-Mendieta, V.; Vigueras-Santiago, E.; Martin Del Campo-Lopez, E.; Urena-Nunez, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present the gamma-irradiation dose effect on acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). AESO started to polymerize at 12 kGy and at higher doses (24, 110 and 340 kGy) there is an increase in cross-linking reaction without degradation, thermal or structural changes. Polymeric products were glassy, thermosetting, insoluble, which no longer melt upon heating, and no Tg was observed between -30 to 300 deg C. These polymers were obtained with a specific shape and different properties in comparison with the thermal PolyAESO (rubber) due to higher cross-linking achieved by gamma irradiation. NMR, FT-IR and DSC techniques evidenced these facts. Friction and scratching properties were dependent of irradiation dose. Due to an increase in cross-linking density, lower friction values, reached at high doses (110 and 340 kGy), were accompanied by a lower scratching penetration depth in these polymers. Gamma-ray polymerization could be an alternative and efficient method for in situ synthesis of thermosetting polymers, copolymers and composites with given shapes, controlled polymerization degrees and optimized properties

  2. Migration of Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESBO) and Phthalates From Twist Closures into Food and Enforcement of the Overall Migration Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Fankhauser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen samples of food in glass jars with twist closures were collected by the national food inspectors at Danish food producers and a few importers, focusing on fatty food, such as vegetables in oil, herring in dressing or pickle, soft spreadable cheese, cream, dressings, peanut butter, sauces...... and infant food. The composition of the plasticizers in the gaskets was analysed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates were determined in the homogenized food samples. ESBO...... was the principal plasticizer in five of the gaskets; in 14 it was phthalates. ESBO was found in seven of the food samples at concentrations from 6 to 100 mg kg(-1). The highest levels (91-100 mg kg(-1)) were in oily foods such as garlic, chilli or olives in oil. Phthalates, i.e. di-iso-decylphthalate (DIDP) and di...

  3. Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate usingcalcined duck eggshell as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiulian; Duan, Xiuli; You, Qinghong; Dai, Chunhua; Tan, Zhongbiao; Zhu, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calcined DES was used as catalyst for biodiesel production from SODD. • The obtained CaO was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM and the optimal calcination temperature was 900 °C. • The biodiesel yield was 94.6% at the optimal transesterification conditions. • The biodiesel yield was above 80% after five times usage. - Abstract: Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) using calcined duck eggshell (DES) as catalyst was studied. An inexpensive and environment-friendly catalyst was prepared from waste DES which is a source of calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate could be changed to calcium oxide (CaO) under high temperatures. The obtained CaO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectra (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). XRF was used to determine the elemental composition of the catalyst. BET analysis was performed to determine specific surface area, pore volume and particle size of the catalysts. Results showed that at 800 °C and 900 °C the calcium carbonate in DES was changed to CaO. The pre-esterification of SODD was conducted under the following conditions: H_2SO_4 concentration (v/w, based on oil weight) 1.5%, methanol to oil molar ratio 12:1, reaction time 120 min and reaction temperature 60 °C. Thephytosterols were removed by cooling down step by stepand temperature steps were 15 °C, 5 °C, −5 °C. The process of biodiesel production from pre-esterified SODD using the obtained CaO as catalyst was studied and the optimal conditions were: calcination temperature of 900 °C, catalyst amount of 10 wt.%, methanol to oil ratio of 10:1, reaction temperature of 60 °C and reaction time of 80 min and the biodiesel yield was 94.6% at these conditions. The reusability of the DES-derived catalyst was tested and the results showed that the biodiesel yield was above 80% after five times usage and was lower than 60% after 8 times usage.

  4. Soybean oil transesterification: Study of using Nb2O5.xH2O as catalyst in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic and environmental reasons show a trend towards replacing fossil fuels with biofuels such as those from triglycerides. Biodiesel can be obtained from vegetable oils and animal fat through several processes such as transesterification, esterification, usually with methanol, ethanol or through pyrolysis, all of them in the presence of an acid or basis catalyst. The use of solid catalysts in biodiesel production has the following advantages: easy recovery and reuse, thus decreasing process costs and amount of waste generated.1 Some of the problems in the use of solid catalysts are: low concentration of active sites, microporosity, and leaching of active sites.2 Studies aiming at developing methodologies involving hydrated niobium oxide as catalyst in biodiesel production have been carried out by our research group.3,4 Parameters such as the use of assistant solvent to increase the boiling point of the mixture (toluene, ethylene glycol, and DMSO, pre-thermal treatment (calcinations and catalyst molar concentration were initially assessed in esterification, oleic acid, and methanol reactions.  From these studies we could observe that high temperatures and excessive alcohol favor esterification reactions.  The best reaction conditions were then used as models and employed in transesterification reactions of soybean oil.  DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide was the solvent used to increase the reaction medium temperature without evaporating all the methanol. Transesterification reactions were carried out with soybean oil (0.5 g, methanol (0.85 g, DMSO (2.50 ml, and hydrated niobium oxide as catalyst in ratios of 20% and 100% (in relation to oil mass.  Catalyst was employed without pretreatment and after pretreatment at 115 °C, 300 °C, and 500 °C. The reactions occurred at 170 °C, under reflux for 48 hours.  A reaction without a catalyst was also carried out. All the reactions have shown conversion using CCD and they have been determined by 1H NMR

  5. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOYBEAN PROTEIN SOLUBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIŢĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of soybean products in animal feeds is limited due to the presence of antinutritional factors (ANF. Proper heat processing is required to destroy ANF naturally present in raw soybeans and to remove solvent remaining from the oil extraction process. Over and under toasting of soybean causes lower nutritional value. Excessive heat treatment causes Maillard reaction which affects the availability of lysine in particular and produces changes to the chemical structure of proteins resulting in a decrease of the nutritive value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating time on the protein solubility. The investigation of the heating time on protein solubility in soybean meal (SBM revealed a negative correlation (r = -0.9596. Since the urease index is suitable only for detecting under processed SBM, the protein solubility is an important index for monitoring SBM quality.

  6. Comparative inference of duplicated genes produced by polyploidization in soybean genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanmei; Wang, Jinpeng; Di, Jianyong

    2013-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for providing protein and oil. It is important to investigate soybean genome for its economic and scientific value. Polyploidy is a widespread and recursive phenomenon during plant evolution, and it could generate massive duplicated genes which is an important resource for genetic innovation. Improved sequence alignment criteria and statistical analysis are used to identify and characterize duplicated genes produced by polyploidization in soybean. Based on the collinearity method, duplicated genes by whole genome duplication account for 70.3% in soybean. From the statistical analysis of the molecular distances between duplicated genes, our study indicates that the whole genome duplication event occurred more than once in the genome evolution of soybean, which is often distributed near the ends of chromosomes.

  7. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  8. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2) curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively. [es

  9. One-Pot Conversion of Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESO into Soy-Based Polyurethanes by MoCl2O2 Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Pantone

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative and eco-friendly one-pot synthesis of bio-based polyurethanes is proposed via the epoxy-ring opening of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO with methanol, followed by the reaction of methoxy bio-polyols intermediates with 2,6-tolyl-diisocyanate (TDI. Both synthetic steps, methanolysis and polyurethane linkage formation, are promoted by a unique catalyst, molybdenum(VI dichloride dioxide (MoCl2O2, which makes this procedure an efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safer method amenable to industrial scale-up.

  10. Plant Oil-Derived Epoxy Polymers toward Sustainable Biobased Thermosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Yuan, Liang; Ganewatta, Mitra S; Lamm, Meghan E; Rahman, Md Anisur; Wang, Jifu; Liu, Shengquan; Tang, Chuanbing

    2017-06-01

    Epoxy polymers (EPs) derived from soybean oil with varied chemical structures are synthesized. These polymers are then cured with anhydrides to yield soybean-oil-derived epoxy thermosets. The curing kinetic, thermal, and mechanical properties are well characterized. Due to the high epoxide functionality per epoxy polymer chain, these thermosets exhibit tensile strength over an order of magnitude higher than a control formulation with epoxidized soybean oil. More importantly, thermosetting materials ranging from soft elastomers to tough thermosets can be obtained simply by using different EPs and/or by controlling feed ratios of EPs to anhydrides. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de óleo de soja e de canola não alteraram o consumo de ração, os pesos dos ovos, de albúmen, de gema e de casca, as porcentagens de albúmen, de gema e de casca e a gravidade específica dos ovos. Houve influência significativa da interação tipo × nível de óleo sobre a produção de ovos e a conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos. Com o aumento do nível de óleo de soja, os resultados obtidos para estas variáveis melhoraram, entretanto, a conversão por massa de ovo piorou com o aumento dos níveis de óleo de canola. A adição de óleo de soja promoveu desempenho melhor que o obtido com óleo de canola.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of soybean and canola oil added in crescent levels on production performance indexes and internal and external egg quality of brown commercial layers of the strain Bovans Goldline during five periods of 28 days. Two hundred and eighty hens with 18 weeks old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with seven diets in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement (oil type and oil level, and an additional control, with 5 replicates of 8 hens per experimental unit. The soybean and canola oil levels did not affect the feed consumption; egg, albumen, yolk and shell weights; albumen, yolk and shell percentages, neither the specific gravity. There was an interaction between type and oils levels on egg production and mass

  12. Maltodextrin and oils in the diet of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hauptli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of piglets fed two sources of oil (soybean and palm oil combined with maltodextrin and a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin, as well as the apparent digestibility coefficients of these diets. A total of 162 piglets weaned at 21 days, with a mean initial weight of 5.42 ± 0.55 kg, were allocated in a randomized block design consisting of three treatments and 18 replicates of three animals each. The following treatments were evaluated: T1: diet containing soybean oil [3.03% in the pre-initial (I and initial (II diets] and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T2: diet containing palm oil (3.03% in I and II and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T3: diet containing a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin (10.0% in I and II and maltodextrin added to the blend (4.07% in I so that the percentage of maltodextrin would be identical in the diets of the three treatments. The performance and digestibility data were submitted to analysis of variance using the MIXED and GLM procedures, respectively, of the SAS package and means were compared by the Tukey test (P0.05 in DFI, ADG or FC were observed between piglets submitted to the different treatments. The ADC of dry matter was 4.25% lower (P<0.05 for the diet containing palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin compared to the soybean oil diet. The ADC of ether extract was 54% higher (P<0.05 in the soybean oil diet compared to the palm oil diet, which negatively affected the ether extract digestibility coefficient. In conclusion, palm oil microencapsulated or not with maltodextrin can replace soybean oil in the diets of weaned piglets without compromising their performance.

  13. Preparation of the Pt/CNTs Catalyst and Its Application to the Fabrication of Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Containing a Low Content of Trans Fatty Acids Using the Solid Polymer Electrolyte Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huanyu; Ding, Yangyue; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Lin; Cui, Yueting; Han, Jianchun; Zhu, Xiuqing; Yu, Dianyu; Jiang, Lianzhou; Liu, Lilai

    2018-08-01

    Pt/CNTs were synthesized with an ethylene glycol reduction method, and the effects of carboxyl functionalization, ultrasonic power and the concentration of chloroplatinic acid on the catalytic activity of Pt/CNTs were investigated. The optimal performance of the Pt/CNTs catalyst was obtained when the ultrasonic power was 300 W and the concentration of chloroplatinic acid was 40 mg/mL. The durability and stability of the Pt/CNTs catalyst were considerably better compared to Pt/C, as shown by cyclic voltammetry measurement results. The trans fatty acids content of the obtained hydrogenated soybean oil (IV: 108.4 gl2/100 g oil) using Pt/CNTs as the cathode catalyst in a solid polymer electrolyte reactor was only 1.49%. The IV of hydrogenated soybean oil obtained using CNTs as carrier with Pt loading 0.1 mg/cm2 (IV: 108.4 gl2/100 g oil) was lower than carbon with a Pt loading of 0.8 mg/cm2 (IV: 109.9 gl2/100 g oil). Thus, to achive the same IV, the usage of Pt was much less when carbon nanotubes were selected as catalyst carrier compared to traditional carbon carrier. The changes of fatty acid components and the hydrogenated selectivity of octadecenoic acid were also discussed.

  14. Perfil de ácidos graxos do leite de vacas alimentadas com óleo de soja e monensina no início da lactação Milk fatty acid profile of cows fed monensin and soybean oil in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição de monensina sódica combinada com óleo de soja na dieta de vacas lactantes sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos (AG do leite na 5ª e 15ª semanas da lactação. Foram utilizadas 16 vacas multíparas cruzadas, dispostas em delineamento em blocos casualizados, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (presença ou não de monensina e presença ou não de óleo de soja. Os tratamentos consistiram das dietas: CT (controle = sem monensina ou óleo; MN = 33 ppm de monensina; OL = 3,9% de óleo de soja; e OM = óleo e monensina. Os animais foram confinados e alimentados com 52% de silagem de milho e 48% de concentrado. Não foi verificada interação entre óleo de soja e monensina para os ácidos graxos avaliados. A monensina aumentou os AG insaturados, monoinsaturados e poliinsaturados em 9,0; 8,8; e 10,7%, respectivamente. O óleo apresentou maior impacto sobre os AG poliinsaturados, aumentando-os em 39,2; 39,3; e 24,2%, respectivamente. Também reduziu os AG de cadeias curta (43,7% e média (49,1% e aumentou os AG de cadeia longa (55,3%. Os isômeros trans-C18:1 foram aumentados tanto pelo óleo como pela monensina, indicando efeito aditivo para trans-10 C18:1, que foi negativamente correlacionado ao teor de gordura do leite. O isômero cis-9 trans-11 do ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA não foi influenciado pelos tratamentos, observando-se que o óleo reduziu a atividade da delta9-desaturase. Houve interação entre tratamentos e semana da lactação sobre os AG de cadeias curta e média, C14:0, C16:0, cis-9 C18:1 e trans-10 C18:1. Os maiores efeitos sobre o perfil de AG do leite foram registrados quando monensina e óleo foram fornecidos em conjunto na dieta de vacas lactantes.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of dietary monensin and soybean oil on milk fatty acid (FA profile in the 5th and 15th week of lactation of dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous crossbred dairy cows averaging 30 days in milk were

  15. Comparing the environmental impacts of ethyl biodiesel production from soybean oil and beef tallow through lca for brazilian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Esteves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sought compare the environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of biodiesel production obtained from the two raw materials most used in Brazil (soybean oil and beef tallow through the process ethyl transesterification in an alkaline medium. The reference flow adopted for the work was the generation of power supplied 1GJ from the produced biodiesel. The data used in the inventory life cycle were calculated based on similar scientific papers. The method of assessment of environmental impacts chosen was the CML 2001 modified. Altogether, it were analyzed nine categories of environmental impacts for both processes (abiotic depletion (kg Sb eq, land use (m2a, global warming (kg CO2 eq, ozone layer depletion (kg CFC-11 eq, human toxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, freshwater ecotoxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, terrestrial ecotoxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, acidification (kg SO2 eq and eutrophication (kg PO43- eq. The results of evaluation of environmental impacts show that the biodiesel production process from soybean oil presents major environmental damage in seven categories of analyzed impacts (destruction of abiotic resources, destruction of the ozone layer, human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. The production process of biodiesel from tallow presents major environmental damage in two categories of impacts analyzed (land use and global warming. However, the results show that the absolute values of environmental damage caused by impacts of the production process using beef tallow are much more aggressive.

  16. QTL Analysis of Major Agronomic Traits in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-shan; ZHANG Zhong-chen; LIU Chun-yan; XIN Da-wei; QIU Hong-mei; SHAN Da-peng; SHAN Cai-yun; HU Guo-hua

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a main crop, and most agronomic traits of soybean are quantitative; therefore, there is very important studying and applying value to locating these traits. A F2:10 RIL population containing 154 lines, derived from the cross between Charleston as female and Dongnong 594 as male parent, were used in this experiment. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 164 SSR primers, which were screened with the two parents and amplified on the 154 lines. 12 agronomic traits different between the two parents were investigated, and QTLs of all the traits were analyzed using the software Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0. The agronomic traits included quality traits: protein content, oil content, and content of protein and oil; yield traits: pods per plant, seed weight per plant, arnd 100 seeds weight; and other agronomic traits: plant height, days to maturity, branches, nod number in main stem, average leaf length, and average leaf width. The results showed that 68 QTLs in total were found for the 12 agronomic traits. The number of QTLs per trait varied from 3 for the average leaf width to 11 for 100 seeds weight and plant height, and was 5.8 on average. Good accordance was seen in many QTLs between the results of this study and the results obtained by other similar studies; therefore, these QTLs may be valuable for molecular marker assistant selection in soybean. In this study, 68 major QTLs of 12 important traits of soybean were analyzed.

  17. Image analysis for composition monitoring. Commercial blends of olive and soybean oil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.15216

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Kehrig Fernandes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil represents an important component of a healthy and balanced dietary. Due to commercial features, characterization of pure olive oil and commercial mixtures represents an important challenge. Reported techniques can successfully quantify components in concentrations lower than 1%, but may present long delays, too many purification steps or use expensive equipment. Image analysis represents an important characterization technique for food science and technology. By coupling image and UV-VIS spectroscopy analysis, models with linear dependence on parameters were developed and could successfully describe the mixture concentration in the range of 0-100% in mass of olive oil content. A validation sample, containing 25% in mass of olive oil, not used for parameter estimation, was also used for testing the proposed procedure, leading to a prediction of 24.8 ± 0.6. Due to image analysis results,  3-parameter-based models considering only R and G components were developed for olive oil content prediction in mixtures with up to 70% in mass of olive oil, the same test sample was used and its concentration was predicted as 24.5 ± 1.2. These results show that image analysis represents a promising technique for on-line/in-line monitoring of blending process of olive soybean oil for commercial mixtures.  

  18. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( phytase was used and were greater ( phytase and fiber increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal, but inclusion of soybean oil did not affect digestibility of Ca or P. The observation that values for the ATTD and STTD of Ca and ATTD of P are greater in corn-based diets than in cornstarch-based diets indicates that values for the digestibility of Ca and P obtained in cornstarch-based diets may not always be representative for the digestibility in practical corn-based diets.

  19. Biodiesel de soja: reação de transesterificação para aulas práticas de química orgânica Biodiesel from soybean oil: experimental procedure of transesterification for organic chemistry laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Geris

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification procedure of triacylglycerides from soybean oil (in natura and waste oil to give biodiesel was adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale as an additional experimental technique of nucleophilic acyl substitution for undergraduate courses in Chemistry and related areas.

  20. soybeans yoghurt production using starter culture from

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    On kilogram (lkg) of soybeans used produced soy-milk ... production and the vegetable oil industry can not be overemphasised .... cost. Four genera ut microorgamsms were isolated from the fennented cow milk ... The bacteria involved might have enzyme systems capable of metabolizing .... A Textbook of Economic Botany.

  1. Synthesis by combustion reaction of ZnAl2O4 and application in methyl alcoholysis of soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, B.B.; Silva, A.S.; Cunha, R.B.L.; Leal, E.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel currently presents itself as a viable alternative to diesel oil front. However, implementation of actions most economic use as heterogeneous catalysts, allows further reduction of this biofuel by procedural steps. This work was supported application of catalytic ZnAl 2 O 4 obtained by combustion reaction in methyl alcoholysis of soybean oil. Samples of the supports were characterized by XRD, textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption and FTIR. The reaction tests were performed at 200°C, molar ratio 1:25, 2 and 4 wt% of catalyst and reaction time of 3 hours. XRD results indicate that the phase was obtained ZnAl 2 O 4 effectively, with surface areas of 14.9 and 8.6 m 2 g -1 . The tests demonstrated that reactional higher content of ester was 56.1 and 63.1% for the percentage of catalyst 2 and 4% respectively. (author)

  2. Irradiation mutation techniques combined with biotechnology for soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lianzheng; Wang Lan; Zhao Rongjuan; Pei Yanlong; Fu Yuqing; Yan Qingshang; Li Qiang

    2001-01-01

    By using 60 Co γ-irradiation to 30 adapted Chinese cultivars of soybean and selection of high yield, good quality, early maturity resistance to diseases and insects, several lines have been evaluated as good lines over the control, Zhonghuang 4, an important soybean variety in Beijing area. After 10 generations of individual selection, 5 high yield mutants are obtained and l ∼ 2 mutants from these mutants will be released in 2001. 3 mutants selected have the crude oil content of over 22.00%. The crude oil content of 397-2 is 23.52% and the crude protein content of 348-4 is 47.67%. 30 lines were evaluated for their genetic transformation ability and Heinong 35 has been identified as very suitable material for genetic transformation. (authors)

  3. Synthesis of ethyl biodiesel from soybean oil, frying oil and chicken fat, using catalysts based on vanadium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, T.A.; Rodrigues, I.A.; Estrela, T.S.; Nunes, C.N.F.; Machado, L.L.; Leão, K.V.; Barros, I.C.L.; Amorim, F.A.C.; Braga, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, vanadium pentoxide supported on rice husk ash containing 5, 10 and 15 mass% of V_2O_5 were prepared by the urea combustion method. These samples were characterized by FTIR (Fourier – transform infrared spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) and applied in the reactions of transesterification with ethanol by using different triglycerides sources, namely as soybean oil, frying oil and chicken fat. The XRD data of the V_2O_5/RHA showed reflections associated with the silica, sodium silicate and V_2O_5. The FTIR spectra of the V_2O_5/RHA samples containing 5 to 15 mass% of V_2O_5 presented absorptions related to silica, silicates and possible V–O–Si interactions, also been observed in the 15% V_2O_5/RHA an FTIR band associated to V_2O_5. The "1H NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance) and GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detection) analysis of the transesterification reactions presented conversions of triglycerides for biodiesel over 90% in a period of 6 h, demonstrating the potential of V_2O_5/RHA for the synthesis of ethyl biodiesel. - Highlights: • XRD of V_2O_5/RHA showed peaks associated with silica, sodium silicate and V_2O_5_. • V_2O_5/RHA showed IR bands related to silica, silicates and V-O-Si interactions. • V_2O_5/RHA displays potential for ethyl biodiesel synthesis.

  4. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol using lipases immobilized on highly crystalline PVA microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, Juliana; Araujo, Marcelo V. de; Vasconcellos, Adriano de; Luizon Filho, Roberto A.; Hatanaka, Rafael R.; Giotto, Marcus V.; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Nery, José G.

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres with different degree of crystallinity were used as solid supports for Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilization, and the enzyme-PVA complexes were used as biocatalysts for the transesterification of soybean oil to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). The amounts of immobilized enzyme on the polymeric supports were similar for both the amorphous microspheres (PVA4) and the high crystalline microspheres (PVA25). However, the enzymatic activity of the immobilized enzymes was depended on the crystallinity degree of the PVA microspheres: enzymes immobilized on the PVA4 microspheres have shown low enzymatic activity (6.13 U mg −1 ), in comparison with enzymes immobilized on the high crystalline PVA25 microspheres (149.15 U mg −1 ). A synergistic effect was observed for the enzyme-PVA25 complex during the transesterification reaction of soybean oil to FAEE: transesterification reactions with free enzyme with the equivalent amount of enzyme that were immobilized onto the PVA25 microspheres (5.4 U) have yielded only 20% of FAEE, reactions with the pure highly crystalline microsphere PVA25 have not yielded FAEE, however reactions with the enzyme-PVA25 complexes have yielded 66.3% of FAEE. This synergistic effect of an immobilized enzyme on a polymeric support has not been observed before for transesterification reaction of triacylglycerides into FAEE. Based on ATR-FTIR, 23 Na- and 13 C-NMR-MAS spectroscopic data and the interaction of the polymeric network intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lipases residual amino acids a possible explanation for this synergistic effect is provided. Highlights: • Rhizomucor miehei lipase was immobilized on PVA microspheres (PVA4, PVA12, PVA25). • Polymer-enzyme complex was characterized by XDR, SEM, ATR-FTIR, 13 C-CPMAS-NMR, 23 Na-MAS-NMR. • Polymer-enzymes (PVA12 and PVA25) enzymes yielded considerable amount of ethyl esters. • Synergistic effect was observed for the polymer-enzyme complexes

  5. Correlation between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty acid composition in soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maestri, Damián M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill with maturity groups IV, V, VI or VII were grown in 1995/96 at the Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA of Manfredi and Marcos Juárez, Argentina. The aim of this research was to determine possible associations between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty composition. Seed size varied between 13.9-21.0 g/100 seeds. Protein and oil contents ranged from 331 to 448 and from 198 to 267 g kg-1, respectively, and showed no significant correlation with seed size. There were significant correlations between seed size and individual fatty adds: positive with stearic and oleic and negative with linoleic. The results obtained suggest that seed size and its relationship with individual fatty acids must be considered in soybean breeding programs.

    Se analizaron 18 genotipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill con grupos de madurez IV, V, VI o VIl, cultivados en 1995/96 en la Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA de Manfredi y Marcos Juárez, Argentina. El propósito de la investigación fue determinar posibles asociaciones entre el tamaño del grano, los contenidos de proteínas y aceite y la composición de ácidos grasos del mismo. El tamaño del grano varió entre 13.9-21.0 g/100 granos. Los porcentajes de proteínas y aceite estuvieron comprendidos entre 331-448 y entre 198-267 g kg-1 respectivamente, y no mostraron correlaciones significativas con el tamaño del grano. Se observaron correlaciones significativas entre el tamaño del grano y determinados ácidos grasos: positivas con esteárico y oleico y negativa con linoleico. Las asociaciones encontradas podrían ser de utilidad en programas de mejoramiento de soja.

  6. Continuous production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil at supercritical conditions - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i2.11255

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using different reactor configurations. Experiments were performed in a tubular reactor in one-step reaction and experimentally simulating two reactors, one operated in series and the other a recycle reactor. The reaction products were analyzed for their content of residual triglycerides, glycerol, monoglycerides, diglycerides, ethyl esters and decomposition. Results show that the configurations studied with intermediate separation of glycerol afford higher conversions of vegetable oil to their fatty acid ethyl esters derivatives when compared to the one-step reaction, with relatively low decomposition of fatty acids (< 5.0 wt%.

  7. FLUXAPYROXAD IN THE ASIAN SOYBEAN RUST CONTROL IN THE CERRADO BIOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL MENEZES SILVA DE FREITAS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiologic agent of the Asian soybean rust is the Phakopsora pachyrhizi, which causes a reduction in the photosynthetic leaf area and, consequently, in the crop yield. Chemical control is one of the main measures for its management. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the fluxapyroxad fungicide on controlling the Asian soybean rust, under the edaphoclimatic conditions of the Cerrado biome. The experiment was conducted in an area under no-tillage system, in the Agricultural Research Center, Rio Verde, Goias, Brazil, during the 2012/2013 crop season, using the cultivar NA7337. A randomized block experimental design was used, with twelve treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of applications of fluxapyroxad (FX, pyraclostrobin (PT, epoxiconazole (EX and metconazole (MZ. The average severity of the disease in the plants reached 37% in the Control. All treatments with fungicides differed from the Control. Treatments 9, 10, 11 and 12 provided the greatest rates of soybean rust control. The treatments 10, 11 and 12 had the highest thousand grain weights, and the yields of the treatments 2, 3 and 11, despite higher than the Control, were lower than the treatments 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12, which had statistically equal yields. The increasing in yield, compared to the Control, ranged from 10.05% (pyraclostrobin, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin + mineral oil to 30.55% (pyraclostrobin, pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad + mineral oil and pyraclostrobin + metconazole + mineral oil. The highest rates of soybean rust control were presented by fungicides containing fluxapyroxad.

  8. Microencapsulation of stearidonic acid soybean oil in Maillard reaction-modified complex coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifeduba, Ebenezer A; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-05-15

    The antioxidant capacity of Maillard reaction (MR)-modified gelatin (GE)-gum arabic (GA) coacervates was optimized to produce microcapsules with superior oxidative stability compared to the unmodified control. MR was used to crosslink GE and GA, with or without maltodextrin (MD), to produce anti-oxidative Maillard reaction products (MRP) which was used to encapsulate stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO) by complex coacervation. Biopolymer blends (GE-GA [1:1, w/w] or GE-GA-MD [2:2:1, w/w/w]) were crosslinked by dry-heating at 80°C for 4, 8, or 16h. Relationships between the extent of browning, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and the total oxidation (TOTOX) of encapsulated SDASO were fitted to quadratic models. The [GE-GA-MD] blends exhibited higher browning rates and TEAC values than corresponding [GE-GA] blends. Depending on the type of biopolymer blend and dry-heating time, TOTOX values of SDASO in MRP-derived microcapsules were 29-87% lower than that of the non-crosslinked control after 30 days of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Use of flour from sunflower oil cake in the biosynthesis of antigungal antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharevich, V M; Shvetsova, N N; Prodan, S I; Malkov, M A

    1977-04-01

    The possibility of replacing soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by food wastes of the oilpress industry and the meal of the sunflower oil cake in particular is discussed as applied to the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics, such as levorin, mycoheptin, amphotericin. The studies showed that replacement of soybean meal by sunflower oil cake meal with simultaneous increasing of the amount of carbohydrates in the medium increased the levorin levels by 60--70 per cent as compared to the media used at present. When soybean meal and corn-steep liquor were simultaneously replaced by sunflower oil cake meal in amounts of 3--4 per cent the levels of mycoheptin in the fermentation broth increased by 30--65 per cent respectively. Replacement of soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by 3 per cent of sunflow oil cake meal in the medium used presently increased the amphotericin levels by 27 percent as compared to the control. Therefore, sunflower oil cake meal is a substitute of full value for soybean meal and corn-steep liquor in the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics.

  10. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis for fatty acid of cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Seung Man

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possibility for chemical changes analysis of the Soybean and Olive oil using a medical magnetic resonance imaging/spectrometer. The two edible oils including soybean and olive oil were selected for manufacturing the phantom series. For the acquisition of data without any physical environment change, 5 ml was transferred to a sealed plastic vial. All MRI and 1H-MRS experiments were performed on a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner using a 32-channel brain array coil. The total lipid ((-CH2-)n/noise), total saturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated bond, and poly unsaturated bond were quantified by separating each peak area of -CH_3, (-CH_2-)n, -CH_2-C=C-CH_2-, =C-CH_2-C=, and -CH=CH-byCH_3 by MRS analysis. Soybean oil had the highest concentration of methyl protons and methane protons, expressed as 0.9 and 5.3 ppm compared to olive oil. However, its methylene protons at 1.3 ppm were the lowest. Olive oil had the highest amount of methylene protons and allylic protons and the lowest amount of methyl protons. Through the magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis it was to analyze the chemical characteristics of Olive oil and soybean oil. And it was confirmed that it is possible to proceed to an extended study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  11. Alterações dos óleos de palma e de soja em fritura descontínua de batatas Palm and soybean oils alterations in the discontinued frying of potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rodrigues Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Óleos de palma e de soja foram utilizados em experimentos de fritura de batatas em fritadeiras elétricas domésticas de 1 L com relação inicial, superfície sobre volume, de 0,3 cm-1. Em cinco dias consecutivos cada óleo foi submetido por um período de 5 horas por dia à temperatura de (183,1 ± 1,7 °C. Após 25 horas, a perda de ácidos graxos foi de 15,0 e 62,2% (m/m, respectivamente, para os ácidos oléico e linoléico, no óleo de palma; e de 6,5; 24,9 e 39,7% (m/m, respectivamente, para os ácidos oléico, linoléico e linolênico, no óleo de soja. Os teores inicial e final de polímeros foram de 0,4 e 23,7% (m/m no óleo de palma, e de 0,5 e 30,7% (m/m no óleo de soja. A relação entre a perda dos ácidos graxos e a formação de polímeros mostrou uma correlação forte com coeficientes de correlação de 0,9951 e 0,9740 para os óleos de palma e de soja, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que maiores graus de alteração ocorreram em ácidos graxos mais insaturados; e que a alteração pode ser eficazmente verificada através da determinação quantitativa de polímeros.Palm and soybean oils were used in experiments of frying of potatoes in 1 L, household electric deep fryers with a surface-to-volume ratio of 0,3 cm-1. The oils were heated for five hours every day for five consecutive days at a temperature of 183.1 ± 1.7 °C. the evaluation of oil degradation was followed by the increase of polymer contents and changes in fatty acid composition. After 25 hours, the loss of fatty acids were 15.0 and 62.2% for oleic and linoleic acid, respectively in palm oil and 6.5, 24.9 e 39.7% for oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid, respectively in soybean oil. The content of polymers ranged from 0.4 to 23.7% and from 0.5 to 30.7% for palm and soybean oils, respectively. Linear association between the loss of total unsaturated fatty acids and polymers formation presented high correlation coefficients (0.9951 and 0.9740 for palm and soybean oils

  12. Study Quality Protein and Fat in Some Romanian and Foreign Soybean Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cenan (Pasc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide soy is one of the most important sources of vegetable protein and vegetable fats supplying plant. Soybean proteins are important both for human food and animal feed industry concentrated. In the last twenty years soybeans have become an irreplaceable product for the food industry. This paper presents the results of the production capacity, protein and oil content of 25 soybean genotypes studied in 2011-2013 at Agricultural Research Station Turda Development. Were calculated  the amounts of protein and oil produced by each genotype in part each year and averaged over three experimental years. Protein content was between 39 per cent and 43.9 per cent and for fat percentage values ​​were between 18.9 per cent and 21.8 per cent. Romanian genotypes quality results are similar to those obtained for foreign genotypes. These genotypes can be grown in climatic conditions of Transylvania resulting quality for there production.

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes between developing seeds of different soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongshuang Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of protein and oil and a primary feedstock for biodiesel production. Research on soybean seed composition and yield has revealed that protein, oil and yield are controlled quantitatively and quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified for each of these traits. However, very limited information is available regarding the genetic mechanisms controlling seed composition and yield. To help address this deficiency, we used Affymetrix Soybean GeneChips® to identify genes that are differentially expressed between developing seeds of the Minsoy and Archer soybean cultivars, which differ in seed weight, yield, protein content and oil content. A total of 700 probe sets were found to be expressed at significantly different (defined as having an adjusted p-value below or equal to 0.05 and an at least 2-fold difference levels between the two cultivars at one or more of the three developmental stages and in at least one of the two years assayed. Comparison of data from soybeans collected in two different years revealed that 97 probe sets were expressed at significantly different levels in both years. Functional annotations were assigned to 78% of these 97 probe sets based on the SoyBase Affymetrix™ GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array Annotation. Genes involved in receptor binding/activity and protein binding are overrepresented among the group of 97 probe sets that were differentially expressed in both years assayed. Probe sets involved in growth/development, signal transduction, transcription, defense/stress response and protein and lipid metabolism were also identified among the 97 probe sets and their possible implications in the regulation of agronomic traits are discussed. As the Minsoy and Archer soybean cultivars differ with respect to seed size, yield, protein content and lipid content, some of the differentially expressed probe sets identified in this study may thus play important roles in controlling these traits

  14. Gene divergence of homeologous regions associated with a major seed protein content QTL in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji eLestari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding several modes of duplication contributing on the present genome structure is getting an attention because it could be related to numerous agronomically important traits. Since soybean serves as a rich protein source for animal feeds and human consumption, breeding efforts in soybean have been directed toward enhancing seed protein content. The publicly available soybean sequences and its genomically featured elements facilitate comprehending of quantitative trait loci (QTL for seed protein content in concordance with homeologous regions in soybean genome. Although parts of chromosome (Chr 20 and Chr 10 showed synteny, QTLs for seed protein content present only on Chr 20. Using comparative analysis of gene contents in recently duplicated genomic regions harboring QTL for protein/oil content on Chrs 20 and 10, a total of 27 genes are present in duplicated regions of both chromosomes. Notably, 4 tandem duplicates of the putative homeobox protein 22 (HB22 are present only on Chr 20 and this Medicago truncatula homolog expressed in endosperm at seed filling stage. These tandem duplicates could contribute on the protein/oil QTL of Chr 20. Our study suggests that non-shared gene contents within the duplicated genomic regions might lead to absence/presence of QTL related to protein/oil content.

  15. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  16. Magnesium oxide prepared via metal-chitosan complexation method: Application as catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and catalyst deactivation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerindo, Gizelle I.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Campos, Carlos E. M.; de Almeida, Rusiene M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M. P.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Clacens, Jean-Marc; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    2011-10-01

    A simple method to prepare magnesium oxide catalysts for biodiesel production by transesterification reaction of soybean oil with ethanol is proposed. The method was developed using a metal-chitosan complex. Compared to the commercial oxide, the proposed catalysts displayed higher surface area and basicity values, leading to higher yield in terms of fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel). The deactivation of the catalyst due to contact with CO2 and H2O present in the ambient air was verified. It was confirmed that the active catalytic site is a hydrogenocarbonate adsorption site.

  17. Oxidation and low temperature properties of biofuels obtained from pyrolysis and alcoholysis of soybean oil and their blends with petroleum diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Brajendra K. [Food and Industrial Oil Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1815N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Suarez, Paulo A.Z. [Food and Industrial Oil Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1815N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); LMC-IQ, Universidade de Brasilia, CP 4478, CEP 70919-970, Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Perez, Joseph M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Erhan, Sevim Z. [Food and Industrial Oil Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1815N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Diesel-like fuels were synthesized by a pyrolysis method using soybean oil (pyrodiesel, PD) and soybean soapstock (SPD), respectively, as starting material. These pyrodiesel samples were compared with soy biodiesel (BD) samples. All these three biofuels (PD, SPD and BD) and their blends with high sulfur (HSD) and low sulfur (LSD) diesel fuels were evaluated by measuring a number of fuel properties, such as oxidative stability, low-temperature performance, acid value and corrosion properties. Compared to BD blends, PD and SPD and their blends were found to have better oxidative stability, though inferior acid values. SPD and its blends have better flow performance at low-temperature compared to BD and PD blends. All the biofuels and their blends met the copper corrosion requirement prescribed by US and European standard. Based on the results reported here, pyrodiesels from these two-different feedstocks have potential and will require some upgrading or change in pyrolysis conditions, if they are to be used as fuel blending component. (author)

  18. QTL that underlie seed protein, oil, fatty and amino acids content in the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line population of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving seed composition and quality, including protein, oil, fatty acids, and amino acids content is an important goal of soybean farmers and breeders. Our previous research identified novel QTLs associated with seed isoflavones. The aim of this study was to use the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recomb...

  19. Separation of FFA from Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Hydrolysate by Means of Membrane Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercial porous and non-porous polymeric membranes have been investigated for their capabilities to separate free fatty acids (FFA) from hydrolysate of partially hydrogenated soybean oil. A regenerated cellulose (RC, PLAC) membrane exhibited the most prominent difference...... in rejection between FFA and glycerides and the highest flux (27 kg h−1 m−2) in hydrolysate ethanol solution. The results also showed that, besides the pore size of membrane, the membrane flux depended largely on the property matching between membrane and solvent, as observed (40 kg h−1 m−2) flux was achieved...... with methanol but no flux detected with hexane for PLAC. The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, NTR-729 HF) and Polyamide (PA, NTR-759HR) membranes gave the second and third highest flux (10.1 and 5.7 kg h−1 m−2, respectively), where solute rejections for NTR-759HR were 95.9% for triacylglycerols (TG), 83...

  20. Optical characterization of pure vegetable oils and their biodiesels using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, S.; Anwar, S.; Waheed, A.; Maraj, M.

    2016-04-01

    Great concern regarding energy resources and environmental polution has increased interest in the study of alternative sources of energy. Biodiesels as an alternative fuel provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. The Raman spectra of pure biodiesels of soybean oil, olive oil, coconut oil, animal fats, and petroleum diesel are optically characterized for quality and biofuel as an alternative fuel. The most significant spectral differences are observed in the frequency range around 1457 cm-1 for pure petroleum diesel, 1427 for fats biodiesel, 1670 cm-1 for pure soybean oil, 1461 cm-1 for soybean oil based biodiesel, 1670 cm-1 for pure olive oil, 1666 cm-1 for olive oil based biodiesel, 1461 cm-1 for pure coconut oil, and 1460 cm-1 for coconut oil based biodiesel, which is used for the analysis of the phase composition of oils. A diode pump solid-state laser with a 532 nm wavelength is used as an illuminating light. It is demonstrated that the peak positions and relative intensities of the vibrations of the oils can be used to identify the biodiesel quality for being used as biofuel.

  1. Optimization of transesterification reaction conditions for the production of biodiesel from oil blend of castor bean and soybean; Otimizacao das condicoes reacionais de transesterizacao para producao de biodiesel a partir de mistura de oleos de mamona e soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Ana Katerine de Carvalho Lima; Lima, Milena Gouveia Oliveira de; Pontes, Luiz Antonio M.; Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Almeida, Daniel Freire; Costa, Tales Santana Martins; Menezes; Mateus Della Cella; Santos, Iran Talis Viana; Almeida, Selmo Q. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to diesel oil, and industrially obtained by the transesterification of triglycerides of fatty acids from vegetable oils and/or animal fats. Currently, the main raw material used to produce biodiesel in Brazil is soybean oil. The inclusion of other raw materials from different cultures in this sector is important and aims to reduce dependence on a single oilseed, assign specific characteristics to the product and encourage the development of family farming. The use of blends of soybean oil and castor for biodiesel may prove an important strategy to minimize the negative effects and maximize the positives of each oilseed. In this work, we carried out an experimental study using full factorial design 2{sup 4}, to increase the conversion of esters, by conventional transesterification, using as feedstock a blend of oils containing 20% castor and 80% soybean. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of mixing ratio of oil: methanol, KOH concentration, temperature and reaction time in biodiesel production. It was found that the variation of these parameters affected the conversion of esters and quality of biodiesel produced. Conversions above 95% were obtained, and the best conversion was 99.05% at 25 deg C in a reaction time of 20 minutes using 2% KOH as a catalyst and a molar ratio methanol/oil 12:1. In order to reduce the costs of the process with respect to amount of methanol used without affecting the conversion of esters, we identified a second set of process conditions, which used the same conditions of temperature, reaction time and catalyst concentration and a different molar ratio methanol/oil (6:1) which gave a conversion of esters of 98.59%. (author)

  2. Molecular mapping and genomics of soybean seed protein: a review and perspective for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Mian, Rouf; Vuong, Tri; Pantalone, Vince; Song, Qijian; Chen, Pengyin; Shannon, Grover J; Carter, Tommy C; Nguyen, Henry T

    2017-10-01

    Genetic improvement of soybean protein meal is a complex process because of negative correlation with oil, yield, and temperature. This review describes the progress in mapping and genomics, identifies knowledge gaps, and highlights the need of integrated approaches. Meal protein derived from soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] seed is the primary source of protein in poultry and livestock feed. Protein is a key factor that determines the nutritional and economical value of soybean. Genetic improvement of soybean seed protein content is highly desirable, and major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for soybean protein have been detected and repeatedly mapped on chromosomes (Chr.) 20 (LG-I), and 15 (LG-E). However, practical breeding progress is challenging because of seed protein content's negative genetic correlation with seed yield, other seed components such as oil and sucrose, and interaction with environmental effects such as temperature during seed development. In this review, we discuss rate-limiting factors related to soybean protein content and nutritional quality, and potential control factors regulating seed storage protein. In addition, we describe advances in next-generation sequencing technologies for precise detection of natural variants and their integration with conventional and high-throughput genotyping technologies. A syntenic analysis of QTL on Chr. 15 and 20 was performed. Finally, we discuss comprehensive approaches for integrating protein and amino acid QTL, genome-wide association studies, whole-genome resequencing, and transcriptome data to accelerate identification of genomic hot spots for allele introgression and soybean meal protein improvement.

  3. Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsini, Fábio Raphael; Mutton, Márcia Justino Rossini; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes Macedo; Benincasa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactants are bioactive agents that can be produced by many different microorganisms. Among those, special attention is given to yeasts, since they can produce many types of biosurfactants in large scale, using several kinds of substrates, justifying its use for industrial production of those products. For this production to be economically viable, the use of residual carbon sources is recommended. The present study isolated yeasts from soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons and assessed their capacity for producing biosurfactants in low cost substrates. From a microbial consortium enriched, seven yeasts were isolated, all showing potential for producing biosurfactants in soybean oil. The isolate LBPF 3, characterized as Candida antarctica, obtained the highest levels of production - with a final production of 13.86 g/L. The isolate LBPF 9, using glycerol carbon source, obtained the highest reduction in surface tension in the growth medium: approximately 43% of reduction after 24 hours of incubation. The products obtained by the isolates presented surfactant activity, which reduced water surface tension to values that varied from 34 mN/m, obtained from the product of isolates LBPF 3 and 16 LBPF 7 (respectively characterized as Candida antarctica and Candida albicans) to 43 mN/m from the isolate LPPF 9, using glycerol as substrate. The assessed isolates all showed potential for the production of biosurfactants in conventional sources of carbon as well as in agroindustrial residue, especially in glycerol.

  4. Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Raphael Accorsini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are bioactive agents that can be produced by many different microorganisms. Among those, special attention is given to yeasts, since they can produce many types of biosurfactants in large scale, using several kinds of substrates, justifying its use for industrial production of those products. For this production to be economically viable, the use of residual carbon sources is recommended. The present study isolated yeasts from soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons and assessed their capacity for producing biosurfactants in low cost substrates. From a microbial consortium enriched, seven yeasts were isolated, all showing potential for producing biosurfactants in soybean oil. The isolate LBPF 3, characterized as Candida antarctica, obtained the highest levels of production - with a final production of 13.86 g/L. The isolate LBPF 9, using glycerol carbon source, obtained the highest reduction in surface tension in the growth medium: approximately 43% of reduction after 24 hours of incubation. The products obtained by the isolates presented surfactant activity, which reduced water surface tension to values that varied from 34 mN/m, obtained from the product of isolates LBPF 3 and 16 LBPF 7 (respectively characterized as Candida antarctica and Candida albicans to 43 mN/m from the isolate LPPF 9, using glycerol as substrate. The assessed isolates all showed potential for the production of biosurfactants in conventional sources of carbon as well as in agroindustrial residue, especially in glycerol.

  5. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

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    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  6. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lin; Jun Rao; Jianxin Shi; Chaoyang Hu; Fang Cheng; Zoe AWilson; Dabing Zhang; Sheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world’s major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While “omics”studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especial y in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetical y related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  8. Relationships among oil content, protein content and seed size in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marega Filho

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available During 1995/96 and 1996/97, experiments were carried out at Londrina State University, aiming at quantifying the oil and protein contents in two groups of soybean genotypes; estimating the phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations existent among oil, protein content and seed size, and identifying genotypes for direct human consumption with high protein content. The evaluated characters were Weight of a Hundred Seeds (WHS, expressed in grams/100 seeds, Oil Content (OC and Protein Content (PC, expressed in %. In the experiment carried out in the field, OC ranged from 12 to 20.37 % and PC from 35.66 to 41.75% while in the experiment carried out in the greenhouse OC ranged from 12.26 to 21.79 % and PC from 32.95 to 41.56 % . The correlations between oil and protein were negative and significant. The relationship among WHS with OC and PC was low and higly affected by the time effect. Due to their high protein content and stability to oil and protein contents, there were distinction among the treatments carried out in the field (GA23 and GA20, and those carried out in the greenhouse (PI408251, Waseda, B6F4 (L-3 less, PI423909 and Tambagura.Durante 1995/96 e 1996/97, foram conduzidos experimentos na Universidade Estadual de Londrina, visando: quantificar os teores de óleo e proteína em dois grupos de genótipos de soja tipo alimento; estimar as correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas existentes entre os teores de óleo, proteína e tamanho das sementes; e, identificar genótipos para consumo humano de forma direta, com elevado teor de proteína. Foram avaliados os caracteres Peso de Cem Sementes (PCS, expresso em gramas / 100 sementes, Teor de Óleo (TO, e Teor de Proteína (TP, expressos em %. Na população conduzida a campo, a característica TO variou de 12 a 20,4 %, e TP de 35,7 a 41,8 %. A população conduzida em casa de vegetação apresentou uma variação de 12,3 a 21,8 % para TO, e de 33 a 41,6 % para TP. As correla

  9. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis for fatty acid of cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seung Man [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Gimcheon University, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possibility for chemical changes analysis of the Soybean and Olive oil using a medical magnetic resonance imaging/spectrometer. The two edible oils including soybean and olive oil were selected for manufacturing the phantom series. For the acquisition of data without any physical environment change, 5 ml was transferred to a sealed plastic vial. All MRI and 1H-MRS experiments were performed on a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner using a 32-channel brain array coil. The total lipid ((-CH2-)n/noise), total saturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated bond, and poly unsaturated bond were quantified by separating each peak area of -CH{sub 3}, (-CH{sub 2}-)n, -CH{sub 2}-C=C-CH{sub 2}-, =C-CH{sub 2}-C=, and -CH=CH-byCH{sub 3} by MRS analysis. Soybean oil had the highest concentration of methyl protons and methane protons, expressed as 0.9 and 5.3 ppm compared to olive oil. However, its methylene protons at 1.3 ppm were the lowest. Olive oil had the highest amount of methylene protons and allylic protons and the lowest amount of methyl protons. Through the magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis it was to analyze the chemical characteristics of Olive oil and soybean oil. And it was confirmed that it is possible to proceed to an extended study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  10. Soybean and sunflower oil-induced insulin resistance correlates with impaired GLUT4 protein expression and translocation specifically in white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Ana Cláudia; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Eichler, Paula; Takahashi, Hilton Kenji; Furuya, Daniela Tomie; Okamoto, Maristela Mitiko; Curi, Rui; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres

    2010-03-01

    Free fatty acids are known for playing a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. High fat intake is known for impairing insulin sensitivity; however, the effect of vegetable-oil injections have never been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of daily subcutaneous injections (100 microL) of soybean (SB) and sunflower (SF) oils, during 7 days. Both treated groups developed insulin resistance as assessed by insulin tolerance test. The mechanism underlying the SB- and SF-induced insulin resistance was shown to involve GLUT4. In SB- and SF-treated animals, the GLUT4 protein expression was reduced approximately 20% and 10 min after an acute in vivo stimulus with insulin, the plasma membrane GLUT4 content was approximately 60% lower in white adipose tissue (WAT). No effects were observed in skeletal muscle. Additionally, both oil treatments increased mainly the content of palmitic acid ( approximately 150%) in WAT, which can contribute to explain the GLUT4 regulations. Altogether, the present study collects evidence that those oil treatments might generate insulin resistance by targeting GLUT4 expression and translocation specifically in WAT. These alterations are likely to be caused due to the specific local increase in saturated fatty acids that occurred as a consequence of oil daily injections. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Macauba: a promising tropical palm for the production of vegetable oil

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    Colombo Carlos Augusto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for vegetable oils for food and for replacing fossil fuels leads to increased oilseeds production. Almost 122 of the current 187 million tons of vegetable oils produced in the world correspond to palm and soybean oils. The oil palm is cultivated in the tropical zone, in areas formerly occupied by forests, and soybean oil is a by-product of protein meal production. The diversification of raw materials for the vegetable oil market is thus strategic for both food and non-food sectors. Sources for vegetable oil should be economically competitive and provide sustainability indexes higher than that provided by oil palm and soybean. In this context, we describe the potential of Acrocomia aculeata, popularly known as macauba. Macauba is an American palm from the tropical zones which presents oil productivity and quality similar to that of the oil palm. It grows spontaneously in a wide range of environments and it is not very water demanding. Macauba palm has a high potential for oil production and for diversification of co-products with some potential of value aggregation. Such a perennial and sustainable species will probably fulfill the requirements to become an important new commercial oilseed crop.

  12. Soybean improvement: Achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of vegetable protein and oil in the world. Worldwide demand continues to be high and production has more than doubled in the past 20 years to a total of 264.2 million metric tons in 2011 (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2012. Much of this increase has been due to increased planting in Argentina and Brazil. But, there have been genetic gains as well. We now have powerful genetic tools and these will be useful in gene discovery and in developing selectable markers for those genes. But for traits that are quantitative and multigenic, marker assisted selection may not be practical. We are facing unprecedented changes in our climate which will require resourceful use of the new genetic tools along with standard plant breeding methodology to maintain soybean productivity and quality.

  13. Susceptibility of Aphelinus certus to foliar-applied insecticides currently or potentially registered for soybean aphid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewin, Andrew J; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2012-02-01

    Soybean aphid, a serious economic pest of soybean in North America, is currently managed by applying non-selective foliar insecticides during outbreaks according to decision thresholds and crop maturity. Natural enemies, such as the parasitoid Aphelinus certus Yasnosh, potentially play an important role in suppressing soybean aphid. Using selective insecticides that preserve A. certus may enhance the biological control service they provide and thus prevent or reduce the severity of soybean aphid outbreaks. The toxicity of five insecticides (λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, flonicamid, mineral oil, spirotetramat) and the biopesticide Beauveria bassiana to A. certus was assessed. The LD50 values of λ-cyhalothrin and dimethoate were similar; however, the hazard quotient of dimethoate was greater than that of λ-cyhalothrin. In a screening bioassay, the descending order of toxicity for the recommended rates 48 h after application was dimethoate>λ-cyhalothrin>flonicamid>mineral oil>Beauveria bassiana>spirotetramat. Overall, λ-cyhalothrin and dimethoate were both harmful to A. certus. The other insecticides tested were harmless to A. certus and are potential candidates for inclusion in soybean aphid management programs. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Bioremediation of cooking oil waste using lipases from wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Hamaio Okino-Delgado

    Full Text Available Cooking oil waste leads to well-known environmental impacts and its bioremediation by lipase-based enzymatic activity can minimize the high cytotoxic potential. In addition, they are among the biocatalysts most commercialized worldwide due to the versatility of reactions and substrates. However, although lipases are able to process cooking oil wastes, the products generated from this process do not necessarily become less toxic. Thus, the aim of the current study is to analyze the bioremediation of lipase-catalyzed cooking oil wastes, as well as their effect on the cytotoxicity of both the oil and its waste before and after enzymatic treatment. Thus, assessed the post-frying modification in soybean oil and in its waste, which was caused by hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by commercial and home-made lipases. The presence of lipases in the extracts obtained from orange wastes was identified by zymography. The profile of the fatty acid esters formed after these reactions was detected and quantified through gas chromatography and fatty acids profile compared through multivariate statistical analyses. Finally, the soybean oil and its waste, with and without enzymatic treatment, were assessed for toxicity in cytotoxicity assays conducted in vitro using fibroblast cell culture. The soybean oil wastes treated with core and frit lipases through transesterification reaction were less toxic than the untreated oils, thus confirming that cooking oil wastes can be bioremediated using orange lipases.

  15. Resilience of small intestinal beneficial bacteria to the toxicity of soybean oil fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzi, Sara C; Jacobson, Juliet; Kennedy, Elizabeth A; Bell, Mary E; Shi, Qiaojuan; Waters, Jillian L; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas; Britton, Robert A; Walter, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Over the past century, soybean oil (SBO) consumption in the United States increased dramatically. The main SBO fatty acid, linoleic acid (18:2), inhibits in vitro the growth of lactobacilli, beneficial members of the small intestinal microbiota. Human-associated lactobacilli have declined in prevalence in Western microbiomes, but how dietary changes may have impacted their ecology is unclear. Here, we compared the in vitro and in vivo effects of 18:2 on Lactobacillus reuteri and L. johnsonii. Directed evolution in vitro in both species led to strong 18:2 resistance with mutations in genes for lipid biosynthesis, acid stress, and the cell membrane or wall. Small-intestinal Lactobacillus populations in mice were unaffected by chronic and acute 18:2 exposure, yet harbored both 18:2- sensitive and resistant strains. This work shows that extant small intestinal lactobacilli are protected from toxic dietary components via the gut environment as well as their own capacity to evolve resistance. PMID:29580380

  16. World oil and agricultural commodity prices: Evidence from nonlinear causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban

    2011-01-01

    The increasing co-movements between the world oil and agricultural commodity prices have renewed interest in determining price transmission from oil prices to those of agricultural commodities. This study extends the literature on the oil-agricultural commodity prices nexus, which particularly concentrates on nonlinear causal relationships between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). To this end, the linear causality approach of Toda-Yamamoto and the nonparametric causality method of Diks-Panchenko are applied to the weekly data spanning from 1994 to 2010. The linear causality analysis indicates that the oil prices and the agricultural commodity prices do not influence each other, which supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. In contrast, the nonlinear causality analysis shows that: (i) there are nonlinear feedbacks between the oil and the agricultural prices, and (ii) there is a persistent unidirectional nonlinear causality running from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices. The findings from the nonlinear causality analysis therefore provide clues for better understanding the recent dynamics of the agricultural commodity prices and some policy implications for policy makers, farmers, and global investors. This study also suggests the directions for future studies. - Research highlights: → This study determines the price transmission mechanisms between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). → The linear and nonlinear cointegration and causality methods are carried out. → The linear causality analysis supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. → The nonlinear causality analysis shows that there is a persistent unidirectional causality from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices.

  17. EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES AND LINES OF SOYBEAN FOR BREEDING FOR VALUABLE TRAITS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Shafigullin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans is the most important source of high quality protein using as food and oil. Soybean protein is balanced for amino acid composition that is advantage in comparison with other legumes, oil crops, and cereals. Soybean protein contains all the essential amino acids in a ratio close to the animal protein. Due to the acute deficiency of protein, the interest in soybean production and breeding of new varieties are constantly growing worldwide. The early ripening lines for the duration of the vegetation period and interphase periods of development were selected. The soybean samples with a maximum seed weight per a plant, thousand-seed weight and the largest number of seeds in a bean were revealed. The genotypes with the optimal displays of these traits for the breeding in the different directions were identified.

  18. Soybean and fish oil mixture increases IL-10, protects against DNA damage and decreases colonic inflammation in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Patrícia O

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It was investigated whether dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA could influence colonic injury, tissue DNA damage, cytokines and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO and plasma corticosterone in DSS-induced colitis rats. Male weaning Wistar rats were fed for 47 days with an AIN-93 diet with control (C, fish (F or a mixture of fish and soybean oil (SF. The colitis was induced from day 36 until day 42 by 3% DSS in drinking water. On day 48, blood samples were collected for corticosterone determination. The distal colon was excised for histological analysis and to quantify the cytokine (IL-4, IL-10 and INF-γ, MPO and DNA damage. The disease activity index (DAI was recorded daily during colitis induction. The DAI, MPO, histological analyses showed decreases only in the SF group compared with the C group. IL-10 was increased and DNA damage was reduced in the groups F and SF, and an inverse correlation between these variables was found. There were no differences in corticosterone, IFN-γ and IL-4 levels. Soybean and fish oil mixture may be effective in improving colonic injury and DNA damage, and it could be an important complementary therapy in UC to reduce the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and prevent colorectal cancer.

  19. Multispecies Adulteration Detection of Camellia Oil by Chemical Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinjing; Mao, Jin; Zhang, Liangxiao; Xie, Huali; Chen, Lin; Yu, Li; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiupin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2018-01-25

    Adulteration of edible oils has attracted attention from more researchers and consumers in recent years. Complex multispecies adulteration is a commonly used strategy to mask the traditional adulteration detection methods. Most of the researchers were only concerned about single targeted adulterants, however, it was difficult to identify complex multispecies adulteration or untargeted adulterants. To detect adulteration of edible oil, identification of characteristic markers of adulterants was proposed to be an effective method, which could provide a solution for multispecies adulteration detection. In this study, a simple method of multispecies adulteration detection for camellia oil (adulterated with soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil) was developed by quantifying chemical markers including four isoflavones, trans-resveratrol and sinapic acid, which used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with solid phase extraction (SPE). In commercial camellia oil, only two of them were detected of daidzin with the average content of 0.06 ng/g while other markers were absent. The developed method was highly sensitive as the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 ng/mL to 0.16 ng/mL and the mean recoveries ranged from 79.7% to 113.5%, indicating that this method was reliable to detect potential characteristic markers in edible oils. Six target compounds for pure camellia oils, soybean oils, peanut oils and rapeseed oils had been analyzed to get the results. The validation results indicated that this simple and rapid method was successfully employed to determine multispecies adulteration of camellia oil adulterated with soybean, peanut and rapeseed oils.

  20. Optical characterization of pure vegetable oils and their biodiesels using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S; Anwar, S; Waheed, A; Maraj, M

    2016-01-01

    Great concern regarding energy resources and environmental polution has increased interest in the study of alternative sources of energy. Biodiesels as an alternative fuel provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. The Raman spectra of pure biodiesels of soybean oil, olive oil, coconut oil, animal fats, and petroleum diesel are optically characterized for quality and biofuel as an alternative fuel. The most significant spectral differences are observed in the frequency range around 1457 cm −1 for pure petroleum diesel, 1427 for fats biodiesel, 1670 cm −1 for pure soybean oil, 1461 cm −1 for soybean oil based biodiesel, 1670 cm −1 for pure olive oil, 1666 cm −1 for olive oil based biodiesel, 1461 cm −1 for pure coconut oil, and 1460 cm −1 for coconut oil based biodiesel, which is used for the analysis of the phase composition of oils. A diode pump solid-state laser with a 532 nm wavelength is used as an illuminating light. It is demonstrated that the peak positions and relative intensities of the vibrations of the oils can be used to identify the biodiesel quality for being used as biofuel. (paper)

  1. Hybrid thermosets from vinyl ester resin and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of hybrids composed of styrene crosslinkable vinyl ester (VE and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO were produced via free radical-induced crosslinking. The VE/AESO ratio was changed between 75/25 and 25/75 wt%. Moreover, to support phase grafting the VE/AESO = 50/50 wt% hybrid was modified with phthalic anhydride in various amounts (1, 5 and 10 wt%. The structure of the hybrid systems was investigated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The properties of the systems were assessed by static flexural and fracture mechanical tests. The resistance to thermal degradation was inspected by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results suggested that the hybrids have an interpenetrating network (IPN structure. With increasing AESO content the stiffness (modulus, strength and glass transition temperature (Tg of the hybrids decreased, whereas their ductility increased. Phthalic anhydride caused an adverse trend. Both the fracture toughness and fracture energy increased with increasing AESO content. They were less affected by adding phthalic anhydride phase couplant. Interestingly, the hybrids outperformed the parent VE and AESO in respect to resistance to thermal degradation.

  2. Effect of Oxidized Soybean Oil against Pomegranate Seed as Antioxidant on the in vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ehsan Ghiasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress is an inevitable consequence of intensive production due to mismatched balance between free radical production and natural antioxidant capacity of animals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS refers to a group of free radicals produced by oxidative energy cycle and also recently demonstrated to be as a weapon for macrophage cells. Moreover, feed processing phenomena such as extruding and pelleting is one of the major sources of ROS production in feed due to lipid peroxidation and notably oxidation cascades in unstable organic matters of feed. Although ROS could be a source of adverse effect on fiber degradation in the gut of ruminant by reducing microbial population counts and diversity, because rumen bacterial, protozoal and fungal community as well as eukaryotes are susceptible to oxidative damages. Therefore, using plant or feed base antioxidant in the diet of dairy animals would be necessary in further feeding strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of pomegranate seed against the adverse effect of peroxide content of feed that induced by supplementation of oxidized soybean oil as energy and fiber source in preparturient dairy goats. Materials and Methods The gas production experiment and batch culture degradability test were carried out to investigate the effects of fresh soybean oil (FSO, oxidized soybean oil (OSO and biologically active constituents of pomegranate seed (PS on microbial fermentation characteristics, kinetics of gas production, methane and carbon dioxide production, in vitro dry matter degradation (DMD, t 0.5, and lag time. Also, the calculated parameters e.g. microbial protein, molar proportion of volatile fatty acids, metabolizable energy (ME, and organic matter digestibility (OMD % were evaluated for different treatments. The parameters were analyzed through the completely randomized design with repeated measurements. The treatments were 1 base diet and FSO (4% of dry

  3. The effect of epoxidized soybean oil on mechanical and rheological properties of poly(butylene succinate)/lignin via vane extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanyu; Huang, Zhaoxia; Qu, Jinping; Meng, Cong

    2016-03-01

    Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESO) have been used as the compatilizer in the Poly (butylene succinate)/lignin (PBS/lignin) composites. Compatibilized composites were fabricated by a novel vane extruder (VE) which can generate global and dynamic elongational flow. The effects of ESO on the mechanical, rheological properties and morphology of PBS/lignin were studied. The results indicated that the use of ESO had plasticizing effect on the matrix PBS while the addition reduced tensile strength. From SEM micrographs it could be clearly observed that there was a better interfacial adhesion between lignin and matrix. Meanwhile, rheological tests showed the incorporation of ESO improved its Newtonian behavior and can enhance PBS's flexibility.

  4. EFFECTS OF HIGH SOYBEAN OIL FOR GOATS IN LATE LACTATION ON INTAKE, MILK COMPOSITION AND FATTY ACID PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brou Kouakou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal fat and vegetable oils are generally added to livestock diets to increase energy density. Unlike other ruminants, goats can tolerate more than 6% dietary fat. Feeding a diet containing soybean oil (SO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA to goats can change the milk fat composition, thereby modifying the nutritional quality of the milk. PUFA such as linoleic acids are considered healthier fats since they have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases in humans. Eighteen dairy goats (3 - 4 yr.; BW = 40 kg; 9 Saanen and 9 Alpine in late lactation were used in an experiment to determine the effect of high PUFA (12% soybean oil; 12% SO on feed intake, milk composition and fatty acid profile. Does were group fed once a day (2 pens per treatment a 16% CP and 3.5 Mcal DE/kg diets containing either 6 or 12% SO for 24 d. Feed intake was recorded daily during the trial and milk yield was recorded from d-10 to d-24. Milk samples were collected 3 times a week and analyzed for protein, fat, lactose, and total solids. Milk fat was extracted and prepared for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. The FAMEs were analyzed using a gas chromatography (GC unit, fitted with a 60 m x 0.25 mm i.d. fused silica SP 2380 (Sigma-Aldrich capillary column. The data were analyzed using MIXED procedures in SAS as a completely randomized design with repeated measures. Dietary treatments did not affect (P > 0.05 pen feed intake, milk yield or milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and total solids. Diet containing 12% SO decreased (P < 0.05 the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA; C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0 and increased (P < 0.01 the proportions of monounsaturated fat (MUFA; C18:1n9; C18:1t, and the predominant PUFA, linoleic acid (C18:2n6. The results indicate that goats consuming diet with 12% SO (high PUFA in late lactation produced milk with higher proportions of PUFA and MUFA and lower proportions of SFA compared to 6% SO.

  5. Gene expression profiling of the green seed problem in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renake N; Ligterink, Wilco; França-Neto, José de B; Hilhorst, Henk W M; da Silva, Edvaldo A A

    2016-02-01

    Due to the climate change of the past few decades, some agricultural areas in the world are now experiencing new climatic extremes. For soybean, high temperatures and drought stress can potentially lead to the "green seed problem", which is characterized by chlorophyll retention in mature seeds and is associated with lower oil and seed quality, thus negatively impacting the production of soybean seeds. Here we show that heat and drought stress result in a "mild" stay-green phenotype and impaired expression of the STAY-GREEN 1 and STAY-GREEN 2 (D1, D2), PHEOPHORBIDASE 2 (PPH2) and NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 (NYC1_1) genes in soybean seeds of a susceptible soybean cultivar. We suggest that the higher expression of these genes in fully mature seeds of a tolerant cultivar allows these seeds to cope with stressful conditions and complete chlorophyll degradation. The gene expression results obtained in this study represent a significant advance in understanding chlorophyll retention in mature soybean seeds produced under stressful conditions. This will open new research possibilities towards finding molecular markers for breeding programs to produce cultivars which are less susceptible to chlorophyll retention under the hot and dry climate conditions which are increasingly common in the largest soybean production areas of the world.

  6. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Misa; Nagahama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Kamagata, Mayo; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Hirasawa, Akira; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF) at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA), menhaden oil (standard), and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock. PMID:26161796

  7. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  8. ANALYSIS IMPORT POLICY OF SOYBEAN ON ECONOMICS PERFORMANCE OF INDONESIAN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Abda Azizah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalization is closely related to the opening of market access for Indonesian products to the world and vice versa. Since the soybean trade out of BULOG control began in 1998, soybean imports increased very rapidly (Sudaryanto and Swastika, 2007. This research aims to determine the general picture of soybean economy, factors analyses that influence the economic performance of Indonesian soybean and findings the alternative of policies that can reduce soybean imports in Indonesia. Methods of data analysis are descriptive analysis, 2SLS simultaneous equations, and simulation of policy alternatives. Results of the analysis of the factors that affect the economic performance of Indonesian soybean, consists of 1 The area of soybean harvest is influenced significantly by the price of domestic soybean and domestic prices of corn, 2 Productivity soybean influenced significantly by the domestic prices of soybean and fertilizer prices, 3 soybean demand influenced significantly by population, domestic prices of soybean, 4 domestic prices of soybean significantly affected by world prices of soybean, exchange rates, and soybean supply, 5 Imports of soybean influenced significantly by the domestic demand of soybean and soybean production. Therefore, policy scenarios should be made to reduce soybean imports, including by carrying out the expansion of soybean harvest policy, the policy of increasing the productivity of soybean, the policy of subsidizing the price of fertilizer.

  9. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment will ...

  10. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, E.C.; Jascolka, T.L.; Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M.; Peluzio, M.C.G.; Alvarez-Leite, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr −/− , C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action

  11. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, E.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jascolka, T.L. [Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peluzio, M.C.G. [Departamento de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Alvarez-Leite, J.I. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-05-11

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr{sup −/−}, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  12. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Aguilar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr-/-, C57BL/6-background. Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12 or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12 for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units. Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  13. Ruminal dry matter degradability of treated soybean meal as source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... treating soybean meal for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h in the rumen of three Taleshi .... pens with concrete floors that were cleaned regularly. ... fixed effect of oil levels ( ... microbial contamination of the incubated samples (Freer.

  14. Efeito de sementes oleaginosas inteiras e óleo de soja sobre a digestibilidade in vitro e os padrões ruminais de bezerros holandeses Effect of oleaginous whole seeds and soybean oil on the in vitro digestibility and ruminal pattern in holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Villaça

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para comparar os efeitos da adição de sementes inteiras de soja e algodão e de óleo de soja sobre os padrões ruminais e a digestibilidade in vitro, em bezerros Holandeses fistulados. Dois bezerros fistulados no rúmen foram alimentados com dieta basal com 2,5% de extrato etéreo (EE, o qual foi comparado com dietas com 5,0% de EE, em que as sementes de soja e algodão inteira ou o óleo de soja foram fontes de EE adicional. A adição de sementes de soja e de algodão resultou em decréscimo na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, porém não houve alterações na digestibilidade in vitro da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA em relação à dieta controle. A adição de semente algodão provocou decréscimo na digestibilidade in vitro da proteína bruta em comparação à dieta controle. A concentração de ácido propiônico nas dietas com adição de óleo de soja foi 16% mais elevada que a proporcionada pelas demais dietas. O uso de óleo de soja pareceu ser a mais adequada em relação à digestibilidade da matéria seca, FDA e FDN e à manutenção de pH, quando comparado a outros tipos de adição lipídica, porém menos eficiente que a semente de soja em relação à digestibilidade in vitro da proteína bruta. O número de protozoários apresentou grande variação entre dietas, mas nenhum efeito com adição de óleo foi observado. A maior concentração de N-NH3 ruminal foi obtida na dieta com óleo de soja, quando comparada às outras dietas.This work was conducted to compare the effects of whole soybean and cotton seeds and soybean oil on the ruminal pattern and in vitro disappearance, in fistulated Holstein calves. Two calves fitted with rumen cannula were fed a basal diet with 2.5% of ether extract (EE, which was compared with 5.0% EE, where whole soybean, whole cotton seeds or soybean oil were the source of additional EE. The addition of whole soybean and

  15. Fatty acids profile and alteration of lemon seeds extract (Citrus limon) added to soybean oil under thermoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2013-10-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating fatty acids profile and the total alteration of lemon seeds extract added to soybean oil under thermoxidation, verifying the isolated and synergistic effect of these antioxidants. Therefore, Control treatments, LSE (2,400 mg/kg Lemon Seeds Extract), TBHQ (mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180°C for 20 h. Samples were taken at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analyzed as for fatty acid profile and total polar compounds. Results were subjected to variance analyses and Tukey tests at a 5% significance level. An increase in the percentage of saturated fatty acids and mono-unsaturated, and decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed, regardless of the treatments studied. For total polar compounds, it was verified that Mixtures 1 and 2 presented values lower than 25% with 20 h of heating, not surpassing the limits established in many countries for disposal of oils and fats under high temperatures, thus proving the synergistic effect of antioxidants.

  16. 不同种肥施用量对高油大豆产量及品质的影响%Effects of Different Seed Fertilization on Yield and Quality Traits of High-oil Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽娟

    2013-01-01

      为促进大豆高产高效栽培,采用二因素裂区试验设计,研究了不同种肥施用量对高油大豆产量及品质的影响。结果表明:施肥量对高油大豆的农艺性状影响不大,而对产量性状和品质性状影响较大。施肥量在150~300 kg・hm-2时,单株荚数、单株粒数、单株粒重、产量及脂肪含量均随着施肥量的增加而增加,蛋白质含量则与之相反。%In order to promote the high yield and high efficient cultivation ,the effects of seed fertilization on the high-oil soybean yield and quality traits were studied using a split plot experiment with two factors .The results showed that the seed fertilization had smaller effects on agronomic trait of high-oil soybean ,and had larger effects on the yield and quality trait of high-oil soybean .The pods per plant ,grains per plant ,grain weight per plant ,yield and fat content were increased when fertilization increased from 150 to 300 kg・hm-2 ,and the protein content was dropped .

  17. Overexpression of GmCaM4 in soybean enhances resistance to pathogens and tolerance to salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is the major oilseed crop in the world and is a main source of oil and high-quality protein for both humans and animals worldwide. Plant diseases inflict heavy losses on soybean yield that negatively impact the US economy. Implicit in the high economic value of this ...

  18. Differential Impacts of Soybean and Fish Oils on Hepatocyte Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Primary Rabbit Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD is a severe ailment associated with long-term parenteral nutrition. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions (SOLE are thought to promote PNALD development, whereas fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLE are thought to protect against PNALD. This study aimed to investigate the effects of SOLE and FOLE on primary rabbit hepatocytes. The results reveal that SOLE caused significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondrial damage, ultimately resulting in lipid droplets accumulation and ER stress. While these deleterious events induce hepatocyte injury, FOLE at high doses cause only minor ER and mitochondrial damage, which has no effect on hepatic function. SOLE also significantly upregulated glucose-regulated protein 94 mRNA and protein expression. These data indicate that SOLE, but not FOLE, damage the ER and mitochondria, resulting in lipid droplets accumulation and ER stress and, finally, hepatocyte injury. This likely contributes to the differential impacts of SOLE and FOLE on PNALD development and progression.

  19. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (pcoconut oil level increased (poil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  20. Energetic assessment of soybean biodiesel obtainment in West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... Energetic outputs added up to 3,003.75 MJ and energy balance was 57,132.54 MJ. ... biodiesel, the study was divided into three stages: soybean farming, ... considering energetic consumptions with labor, seeds, diesel oil, ... model MF 283(4X2 TDA), power 63.2 kW (86 cv) in the engine, board weight.

  1. Modeling the relationship between the oil price and global food prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Sheng-Tung; Kuo, Hsiao-I; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2010-01-01

    The growth of corn-based ethanol production and soybean-based bio-diesel production following the increase in the oil prices have significantly affect the world agricultural grain productions and its prices. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between the crude oil price and the global grain prices for corn, soybean, and wheat. The empirical results show that the change in each grain price is significantly influenced by the changes in the crude oil price and other grain prices during the period extending from the 3rd week in 2005 to the 20th week in 2008 which implies that grain commodities are competing with the derived demand for bio-fuels by using soybean or corn to produce ethanol or bio-diesel during the period of higher crude oil prices in these recent years. The subsidy policies in relation to the bio-fuel industries in some nations engaging in bio-fuel production should be considered to avoid the consequences resulting from high oil prices. (author)

  2. Chemical properties of Aspergillus flavus-infected soybean seeds exposed to gamma-irradiation during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the chemical properties of Aspergillus flavus-infected soybean seeds exposed to different levels of gamma-irradiation; 0 1, 3 and 5 kGy, during storage. The results revealed that there was no effect of irradiation at different dose levels on moisture, protein, total lipids and amino acids content of the seeds for overall 60 days of storage under ambient temperature. At zero time, irradiation of A. flavus- infected-soybean seeds at 5.0 kGy caused a slight increase in peroxide value, no change in acid value, a slight decrease in saponification and iodine values in the crude oil extracted from the seeds. An increase in saturated fatty acids associated with a decrease in un-saturated fatty acids was also observed in the oil extracted from the seeds. Furthermore, at dose level 5 kGy the fungus growth was completely inhibited and there was no detection of aflatoxin B1 after 60 days of storage. It is concluded that gamma-irradiation of A. flavus-infected soybean seeds at dose level 5 kGY is sufficient to inhibit fungus growth and aflatoxin production over a storage period of 60 days without changes in major chemical properties of the seeds and the oil extracted from seeds

  3. Near Infrared Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence Microspectroscopy, Infrared Chemical Imaging and High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Soybean Seeds, Somatic Embryos and Single Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C; Hofmann, N E; Korban, S S; Lozano, P; You, T; AOCS 94th Meeting, Kansas

    2002-01-01

    Novel methodologies are currently being developed and established for the chemical analysis of soybean seeds, embryos and single cells by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence and High-Resolution NMR (HR-NMR). The first FT-NIR chemical images of biological systems approaching one micron resolution are presented here. Chemical images obtained by FT-NIR and FT-IR Microspectroscopy are presented for oil in soybean seeds and somatic embryos under physiological conditions. FT-NIR spectra of oil and proteins were obtained for volumes as small as two cubic microns. Related, HR-NMR analyses of oil contents in somatic embryos are also presented here with nanoliter precision. Such 400 MHz 1H NMR analyses allowed the selection of mutagenized embryos with higher oil content (e.g. ~20%) compared to non-mutagenized control embryos. Moreover, developmental changes in single soybean seeds and/or somatic embryos may be monitored by FT-NIR with a precision ...

  4. Reusability and Stability Tests of Calcium Oxide Based Catalyst (K2O/CaO-ZnO for Transesterification of Soybean Oil to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper was purposed for testing reusability and stability of calcium oxide-based catalyst (K2O/CaO-ZnO over transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol to produce biodiesel. The K2O/CaO-ZnO catalyst was synthesized by co-precipitation method of calcium and zinc nitrates followed by impregnation of potassium nitrate. The fresh and used catalysts were tested after regeneration. The catalysts were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and BET Surface Area in order to compare the catalyst structure between the fresh and used catalysts. The catalyst testing in transesterification proses was carried out at following operating conditions, i.e. catalyst weight of 6 wt.%, oil to methanol mole ratio of 1:15, and temperature of 60 oC. In addition, metal oxide leaching of K2O/CaO-ZnO catalyst during reaction was also tested. From the results, the catalysts exhibited high catalytic activity (80% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield after three-cycles of usage and acceptable reusability after regeneration. The catalyst also showed acceptable stability of catalytic activity, even after three-cycles of usage. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 16th January 2016; Accepted: 16th January 2016 How to Cite: Istadi, I., Mabruro, U., Kalimantini, B.A.,  Buchori, L., Anggoro, D.D. (2016. Reusability and Stability Tests of Calcium Oxide Based Catalyst (K2O/CaO-ZnO for Transesterification of Soybean Oil to Biodiesel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 34-39. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.413.34-39 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.413.34-39

  5. Oil content and physicochemical characteristics of some wild oilseed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant seed oils content reported in this study are comparatively higher than some food crop plants such as soybean and olive. Five of these oils have oil melting range as that of edible oils. C. grandiflora, C. halicacabum, M. eminii and the two species of Myrianthus are in the range of common cooking oils by their ...

  6. "Green" composites from renewable resources: preparation of epoxidized soybean oil and flax fiber composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zengshe; Erhan, Sevim Z; Akin, Danny E; Barton, Franklin E

    2006-03-22

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in using natural plant fibers as reinforcements for plastics. The motivation includes cost, performance enhancement, weight reduction, and environment concerns. High performance flax fiber could potentially substitute for glass or carbon fibers as reinforcements for plastics. This study reports the "green" composites obtained from a mixture of epoxidized soybean oil and epoxy resin, 1,1,1-tris(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane triglycidyl ether (THPE-GE), reinforced with flax fiber. The compression molding method is used for making the composites. Curing agents triethylenetetramine and diethylenetriamine provide better physical properties of the composites than Jeffamine agents D-230 and EDR-148. Both the flexural modulus and the tensile modulus of the composites increase as the amount of THPE-GE increases. The flexural modulus increased at a fiber content of fiber content until a maximum at 13.5 wt %, and then it decreases. The flax fiber length affected the mechanical properties of the composites: the longer the fiber length, the better are the mechanical properties observed.

  7. Thermodynamics of coil-hyperbranched poly(styrene-b-acrylated epoxidized soybean oil) block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Yi; Hohmann, Austin; Hernández, Nacú; Cochran, Eric

    Here we present the phase behavior of a new type of coil-hyperbranched diblock copolymer: poly(styrene- b-acrylated epoxidized soybean oil), or PS-PAESO. PS-PAESO is an example of a biorenewable thermoplastic elastomer (bio-TPE). To date, we have shown that bio-TPEs can be economical commercial substitutes for their petrochemically derived analogues--such as poly(styrene- b-butadiene- b-styrene) (SBS)--in a range of applications including pressure sensitive adhesives and bitumen modification. From a polymer physics perspective, PS-PAESO is an interesting material in that it couples a linear coil-like block with a highly branched block. Thus in contrast to the past five decades of studies on linear AB diblock copolymers, coil-hyperbranched block copolymers are relatively unknown to the community and can be expected to deviate substantially from the standard ``universal'' phase behavior in the AB systems. To explore these new materials, we have constructed a library of PS-PAESO materials spanning a range of molecular weight and composition values. The phase transition behavior and the morphology information will be interpreted by isochronal temperature scanning in dynamic shear rheology, small angle X-ray scattering and the corresponding transmission electron microscopy.

  8. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  9. Bio-Based Nano Composites from Plant Oil and Nano Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jue; Hong, Chang K.; Wool, Richard P.

    2003-03-01

    We explored the combination of nanoclay with new chemically functionalized, amphiphilic, plant oil resins to form bio-based nanocomposites with improved physical and mechanical properties. These can be used in many new applications, including the development of self-healing nanocomposites through controlled reversible exfoliation/intercalation, and self-assembled nano-structures. Several chemically modified triglyceride monomers of varying polarity, combined with styrene (ca 30include acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) and soybean oil pentaerythritol glyceride maleates (SOPERMA), containing either hydroxyl group or acid functionality or both. The clay used is a natural montmorillonite modified with methyl tallow bis-2-hydroxyethyl quaternary ammonium chloride, which has hydroxyl groups. Both XRD and TEM showed a completely exfoliated structure at 3 wtwhen the clay content is above 5 wtconsidered a mix of intercalated and partially exfoliated structure. The controlled polarity of the monomer has a major effect on the reversible dispersion of clay in the polymer matrix. The bio-based nanocomposites showed a significant increase in flexural modulus and strength. Supported by EPA and DoE

  10. Do food and oil prices co-move?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboredo, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies co-movements between world oil prices and global prices for corn, soybean and wheat using copulas. Several copula models with different conditional dependence structures and time-varying dependence parameters were considered. Empirical results for weekly data from January 1998 to April 2011 showed weak oil-food dependence and no extreme market dependence between oil and food prices. These results support the neutrality of agricultural commodity markets to the effects of changes in oil prices and non-contagion between the crude oil and agricultural markets. However, dependence increased significantly in the last three years of the sampling period, even though upper tail dependence remained insignificant, indicating that food price spikes are not caused by positive extreme oil price changes. These results have implications for policy design, risk management and hedging strategies. - Highlights: ► We study co-movement between food and oil markets through copulas. ► Food prices are neutral to the effects of changes in oil prices. ► Oil price spikes had no causal effect on agricultural price spikes. ► Oil–corn and oil–soybean dependence increased in recent years. ► Food subsidy policies and price controls are unnecessary to avoid extreme oil prices.

  11. Efeito de dietas com adição de óleo e do treinamento sobre a atividade muscular de equinos submetidos à prova de resistência = Effect of diets with soybean oil addition and training over muscular activity of equines submitted to resistance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ariboni Brandi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito da adição de óleo de soja e do treinamento na atividade plasmática das enzimas Creatina Quinase (CK e Aspartato Aminotransferase (AST sobre o trabalho muscular de equinos submetidos a teste de resistência. Foram fornecidas dietas experimentais compostas por cinco níveis de óleo desoja no concentrado (controle, 6, 12, 18 e 24%. Foram utilizados 20 equinos da raça Árabe, peso médio de 400 kg, submetidos a teste de resistência de 80 km em esteira rolante, em Laboratório de Fisiologia do Exercício. A simulação de enduro foi dividida em quatro fasesde 20 km cada. Observou-se efeito (p The aim of this study was to verify the effect of increasing soybean oil levels and training on the enzyme activity of AspartateAminotransferase (AST and Creatine kinase (CK as indicative of muscle work. Experimental diets were composed by five soy oil levels in the concentrate (control- no oil, 6, 12, 18 and 24%. Twenty Arabian horses, male and female, average weight of 400 kg weresubmitted to an 80-km endurance race in a treadmill. The treadmill experiment was conducted in the Exercise Physiology Laboratory. The endurance simulation was divided in 4 phases of 20 km each. The effect (p < 0.05 of soybean oil addition and run distance forCK and AST variables during the effort test and also in the recovering time were observed. It was concluded that soybean oil presents a beneficial effect on muscle work, as it decreasesthe activity of AST and CK enzymes in diets with more of 6% of soybean oil in the concentrate. The elevated value showed was not necessarily linked to muscle pathology presence. Each animal must be analyzed individually, based on its corresponding basal enzymatic activity.

  12. Influence of ionizing radiation and storage conditions upon some quality parameters of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beczner, J.; Kiss, I.; Peredi, J.

    1983-01-01

    Soyflour produced for animal feeding in a pilot plant was occasionally contaminated to an extent exceeding the microbiological standard set for human consumption. The suitability of ionizing radiation to reduce microbiological contamination was investigated. Soybeans of different moisture content (9 and 13%) were irradiated and stored in spaces of different relative humidity (55 and 75%) at 5-15 deg C or 20-25 deg C temperature. The soybeans samples were irradiated with 1 and 5 kGy, resp. The storage experiments have shown the humidity of the storage room to be of extreme importance to the propagation of moulds. The inhibitory effect of a temperature of 5-10 deg C in itself is not sufficient, neither is the effect of the radiation dose applied during a longer storage period. It was established that the moisture content of the seeds affected strongly the quality of the extracted oil. The unfavourable effects increase at higher temperatures. The radiation doses applied in the experiments did not affect the quality of the oil. It was concluded that the microbial contamination of soybeans can be kept at the initial low value by treatment with 1 kGy radiation dose, even under unfavourable storage conditions for a period of 2 months. Thus, irradiation may be applied as a temporary solution to stabilize the microbiological state of soybeans. (author)

  13. Preparation of Biodiesel from Soybean Catalyzed by Basic Ionic Liquids [Hnmm]OH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinggong Ren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A morpholine alkaline basic ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-3-methyl morpholine hydroxide ([Hnmm]OH was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR. [Hnmm]OH is highly active in catalyzing the synthesis of biodiesel from the reaction of methanol with soybean oil. The influence of the reaction conditions, including the [Hnmm]OH catalyst amount, the molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil, reaction temperature and time, was investigated. Moreover, the pH and thermal stability of the catalyst was studied. The catalytic activity was affected by its alkalinity. The optimum reaction conditions were found as [Hnmm]OH amount of 4% (mass fraction, the methanol to soybean oil molar ratio of 8, temperature 70 °C and reaction time 1.5 h, the yield of Biodiesel reached 97.0%, and exhibits high stability upon recycling, the yield of Biodiesel is still more than 90% even after being reused for five times. A great advantage of using ILs is that it is very easy to separate the final products. After the reaction, a biphasic system was obtained. The top phase contains biodiesel and a little bit of methanol. Pure biodiesel can be isolated by vacuum evacuating the methanol. The bottom phase contains methanol, glycerol and ILs. Pure glycerol can be obtained simply by distillation. After distillation, pure ILs was obtained, which can be used directly for another reaction. The as prepared biodiesel shows very appealing properties.

  14. A general computation model based on inverse analysis principle used for rheological analysis of W/O rapeseed and soybean oil emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintila, Iuliana; Gavrus, Adinel

    2017-10-01

    The present research paper proposes the validation of a rigorous computation model used as a numerical tool to identify rheological behavior of complex emulsions W/O. Considering a three-dimensional description of a general viscoplastic flow it is detailed the thermo-mechanical equations used to identify fluid or soft material's rheological laws starting from global experimental measurements. Analyses are conducted for complex emulsions W/O having generally a Bingham behavior using the shear stress - strain rate dependency based on a power law and using an improved analytical model. Experimental results are investigated in case of rheological behavior for crude and refined rapeseed/soybean oils and four types of corresponding W/O emulsions using different physical-chemical composition. The rheological behavior model was correlated with the thermo-mechanical analysis of a plane-plane rheometer, oil content, chemical composition, particle size and emulsifier's concentration. The parameters of rheological laws describing the industrial oils and the W/O concentrated emulsions behavior were computed from estimated shear stresses using a non-linear regression technique and from experimental torques using the inverse analysis tool designed by A. Gavrus (1992-2000).

  15. Characterization of Soybean WRKY Gene Family and Identification of Soybean WRKY Genes that Promote Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2017-12-19

    WRKY proteins are a superfamily of plant transcription factors with important roles in plants. WRKY proteins have been extensively analyzed in plant species including Arabidopsis and rice. Here we report characterization of soybean WRKY gene family and their functional analysis in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the most important soybean pathogen. Through search of the soybean genome, we identified 174 genes encoding WRKY proteins that can be classified into seven groups as established in other plants. WRKY variants including a WRKY-related protein unique to legumes have also been identified. Expression analysis reveals both diverse expression patterns in different soybean tissues and preferential expression of specific WRKY groups in certain tissues. Furthermore, a large number of soybean WRKY genes were responsive to salicylic acid. To identify soybean WRKY genes that promote soybean resistance to SCN, we first screened soybean WRKY genes for enhancing SCN resistance when over-expressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots. To confirm the results, we transformed five WRKY genes into a SCN-susceptible soybean cultivar and generated transgenic soybean lines. Transgenic soybean lines overexpressing three WRKY transgenes displayed increased resistance to SCN. Thus, WRKY genes could be explored to develop new soybean cultivars with enhanced resistance to SCN.

  16. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  17. Digestibilidade ileal e perdas endógenas de aminoácidos de dietas com óleo de soja para suínos em crescimento Ileal digestibility and endogenous losses of amino acids in soybean oil diets to growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Caperuto de Almeida

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de óleo de soja sobre as perdas endógenas e a digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos em dietas para suínos em crescimento. Foram testadas quatro dietas isoprotéicas, à base de milho e farelo de soja, formuladas segundo as exigências para essa fase e suplementadas com níveis crescentes de óleo de soja (0,0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5% e 0,25% de óxido crômico como indicador de indigestibilidade. Dezesseis suínos canulados (cânula T simples, com 48,0 ± 6,0 kg, foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com base no peso dos animais. Não houve efeito dos níveis óleo de soja sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente de glutamato, glicina, arginina, alanina, prolina, tirosina, histidina e lisina. Observaram-se efeito linear da suplementação com níveis de óleo de soja nos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de serina e treonina e efeito quadrático da suplementação de óleo de soja sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de valina, fenilalanina, total de aminoácidos não-essenciais e total de aminoácidos essenciais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira de arginina e tirosina também apresentaram efeito quadrático da suplementação de óleo de soja. Melhores valores de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos não-essenciais e essenciais são obtidos com adição de 2,8 a 3,0% de óleo de soja à dieta de suínos em crescimento.The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the different levels of soybean oil on endogenous losses, apparent and true ileal digestibility of amino acids in growing pigs diets. Four isoprotein corn and soybean meal based diets meeting the nutritional requirements for this phase, supplemented with crescent levels of soybean oil, (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 were evaluated. Chromic oxide (0

  18. POTENTIAL OF SOME PLANT OILS AND GAMMA RADIATION AS PROTECTANT OF DRIED FRUITS AGAINST PLODIA INTERPUNCTELLA AND ORYZAEPHILUS SURINAMENSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MIKHAIEL, A.A.; RIZK, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of certain plant oils (soybean, peppermint and cotton seed ) each applied at concentrations 30, 60 and 90 % as protectants of dried fruits (figs, raisins and dates) against the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hu . .ner),and the saw toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), was studied. Effects of plant oils on insect mortality, infestation, loss in fruit weight, oviposition and progeny emergence after treatment were measured. The experiments conducted revealed that cotton seed and soybean oils at the concentration of 60% were efficient against the moth or the beetle. A higher concentration (90%) of peppermint oil was needed to reach the same level of protection. No emergence of adult P. interpunctella was occurred with cotton seed or soybean oils at the 60% level treated cellophane that packed the figs. Also, oviposition of O. surinamensis adult was completely prevented by soybean oil at concentration 60%. The three plant oils at LC 5 0 were treated in combination with gamma radiation at 0.75 and 1.5 kGy against both insects in dried fruits. All treatments caused high mortality within one week of exposure and prevented the infestation of dried fruits

  19. [Symbiotic matching between soybean cultivar Luhuang No. 1 and different rhizobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhao-jun; Wang, Fei-meng; Wang, Su-ge; Yang, Sheng-hui; Guo, Rui; Tang, Ru-you; Chen, Wen-xin; Chen, Wen-feng

    2014-12-01

    Soybean plants could establish symbiosis and fix nitrogen with different rhizobial species in the genera of Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. Studies on the symbiotic matching between soybean cultivars and different rhizobial species are theoretically and practically important for selecting effective strains used to inoculate the plants and improve the soybean production and quality. A total of 27 strains were isolated and purified from a soil sample of Huanghuaihai area by using the soybean cultivar Luhang No. 1, a protein-rich cultivar grown in that area, as the trapping plants. These strains were identified as members of Sinorhizobium (18 strains) and Bradyrhizobium (9 strains) based on the sequence analysis of housekeeping gene recA. Two representative strains (Sinorhizobium fredii S6 and Bradyrhizobium sp. S10) were used to inoculate the seeds of Luhang No. 1 alone or mixed, in pots filled with vermiculite or soil, and in the field trial to investigate their effects on soybean growth, nodulation, nitrogen fixation activity, yield, contents of protein and oil in seeds. The results demonstrated that strain S6 showed better effects on growth-promotion, yield of seeds and seed quality than strain S10. Thus strain S6 was finally regarded as the effective rhizobium matching to soybean Luhuang No. 1, which could be the candidate as a good inoculant for planting the soybean Luhuang No. 1 at a large scale in the Huanghuaihai area.

  20. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fernández-Tirado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA and two functional units (FUs were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  1. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  2. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-09-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  3. Evaluating the Potential for Soybean Culture in Romania Compared with the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ŞURCĂ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a very popular plant for its wide use, and it is coming back to the attention of farmers due to its special importance in various sectors. Thus, the present study, aims to highlight Romania’s position regarding the areas cultivated with this plant, grain and oil production, consumption per capita and also forage consumption in the zootechnical sector. Also, it will bring in the highlight aspects very important, like imports and exports for the period of 2000-2016 in order to assess the potential of soybean culture and its necessity on the territory of Romania. Due to the high demand for soybeans and / or soybean products, Romania has to resort to the European or world market in order to satisfy the demand for this product, mainly used in the livestock sector. Soybean culture will be analyzed in two different period, the first period will be the pre-accession (2000-2007 and the second one will be the post-accession (2007-2016 of Romanian to the European Union, thus reference will be made to genetically modified soybeans and their use on national and European territories.

  4. The effects of Bifidobacteria on the lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers of male rats fed thermally oxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awney, Hala A

    2011-08-01

    Over the years, there has been concern about the changes taking place in heated oils and the effects on individuals consuming them. The present study investigated the effects of a diet containing thermally oxidized soybean oil (TO) or TO supplemented with probiotic Bifidobacteria (TO+Pro) on the serum lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers of male rats. The data showed several indicators of oil deterioration after thermal processing, including high levels of % free fatty acid (FFA; 15-fold), acid value (AV; 14-fold), peroxide value (8-fold), p-anisidine value (AnV; 39-fold), total oxidation value (TOTOX; 19-fold), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value (8.5-fold), and trans-FA (TFA) isomers (2.5-fold) compared to the control. The rats that were fed a diet containing TO showed a significant (p blood serum samples. High levels of TBARS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were also detected in the livers, kidneys, testes, and brains of rats. Interestingly, a diet containing TO+Pro restored all biological parameters to their control values. The present data suggested that Bifidobacteria may ameliorate the serum lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers that are generated in animals that are fed a TO diet.

  5. Molecular approaches for genetic improvement of seed quality and characterization of genetic diversity in soybean: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Niraj; Khare, Dhirendra

    2016-10-01

    Soybean is an economically important leguminous crop. Genetic improvements of soybeans have focused on enhancement of seed and oil yield, development of varieties suited to different cropping systems, and breeding resistant/tolerant varieties for various biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant breeders have used conventional breeding techniques for the improvement of these traits in soybean. The conventional breeding process can be greatly accelerated through the application of molecular and genomic approaches. Molecular markers have proved to be a new tool in soybean breeding by enhancing selection efficiency in a rapid and time-bound manner. An overview of molecular approaches for the genetic improvement of soybean seed quality parameters, considering recent applications of marker-assisted selection and 'omics' research, is provided in this article.

  6. Melting properties of some structured lipids native to high stearic acid soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn, R. O.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of structured lipids native to high stearic acid soybean oil were synthesized and their physical properties were determined by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, Mettler dropping point and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. 1,3 Distearo-2-olein (SOS, 1,3 distearo-2-linolein (SLS and1,3 distearo-2-linolenin (SlnS were synthesized from pure 1,3 diacylglycerols and the appropriate fatty acid. Pulsed NMR determinations over the temperature range 10-50 ºC showed that the symmetrical triacylglycerols (SUS: where S = stearic, U = oleic, linoleic or linolenic are high and sharply melting materials, all showing substantial amounts of solids at temperatures up to 33.3 ºC, yet are completely melted at only a few degrees higher. Mettler dropping points for SOS, SLS and SlnS were 44.1, 37.9 and 36.5 ºC respectively. The heats of fusion for the structured triacylglycerols were determined by DSC and shown to be of the order 29-32 cal/gm compared to 45 cal/gm for SSS. The heats of fusion were also calculated from Mettler dropping point determinations as admixtures with soybean oil and showed consistent agreement with the DSC data.Se sintetizaron algunos lípidos estructurados procedentes del aceite de soja con alto contenido en ácido esteárico y sus propiedades físicas se determinaron por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (NMR, punto de goteo Mettler y calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. Se sintetizaron 1,3 diestearo-2-oleina (SOS, 1,3 diestearo-2-linoleina (SLS y 1,3 diestearo-2-linolenina (SlnS a partir de 1,3 diacilgliceroles y de los ácidos grasos adecuados puros. Las determinaciones de NMR pulsada en el rango de temperaturas 10- 50 ºC mostraron que los triacilgliceroles simétricos (SUS: donde S = esteárico, U = oleico, linoleico o linolénico funden a mayor temperatura y más bruscamente, todos presentan altos contenidos en sólidos a todas las temperaturas hasta los 33.3 ºC, estando completamente fundidos

  7. Multi-Population Selective Genotyping to Identify Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed Protein and Oil QTLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phansak, Piyaporn; Soonsuwon, Watcharin; Hyten, David L; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry B; Graef, George L; Specht, James E

    2016-06-01

    Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which is mainly protein and oil, in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort. Though genome-wide association offers one such approach, selective genotyping of multiple biparental populations offers a complementary alternative, and was evaluated here, using 48 F2:3 populations (n = ∼224 plants) created by mating 48 high protein germplasm accessions to cultivars of similar maturity, but with normal seed protein content. All F2:3 progeny were phenotyped for seed protein and oil, but only 22 high and 22 low extreme progeny in each F2:3 phenotypic distribution were genotyped with a 1536-SNP chip (ca 450 bimorphic SNPs detected per mating). A significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) on one or more chromosomes was detected for protein in 35 (73%), and for oil in 25 (52%), of the 48 matings, and these QTL exhibited additive effects of ≥ 4 g kg(-1) and R(2) values of 0.07 or more. These results demonstrated that a multiple-population selective genotyping strategy, when focused on matings between parental phenotype extremes, can be used successfully to identify germplasm accessions possessing large-effect QTL alleles. Such accessions would be of interest to breeders to serve as parental donors of those alleles in cultivar development programs, though 17 of the 48 accessions were not unique in terms of SNP genotype, indicating that diversity among high protein accessions in the germplasm collection is less than what might ordinarily be assumed. Copyright © 2016 Phansak et al.

  8. Fuel properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils and oil mixtures. Influence of methyl esters distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, G.; Sánchez, N.; Encinar, J.M.; González, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the quality of biodiesel produced by basic transesterification from several vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower, Cynara Cardunculus L., Brassica Carinata and Jatropha Curca) cultivated in Extremadura has been studied in detail. The influence of raw material composition on properties such as density, viscosity, cetane number, higher heating value, iodine and saponification values and cold filter plugging point has been verified. Other biodiesel properties such as acid value, water content and flash and combustion points were more dependent on characteristics of production process. Biodiesel produced by rapeseed, sunflower and high oleic sunflower oils transesterification have been biofuels with better properties according to Norm EN 14214. Finally, it has been tested that it is possible to use oils mixtures in biodiesel production in order to improve the biodiesel quality. In addition, with the same process conditions and knowing properties of biodiesel from pure oils; for biodiesel from oils mixtures, its methyl esters content, and therefore properties dependent this content can be predicted from a simple mathematical equation proposed in this work. - Highlights: • Biodiesel quality produced by basic transesterification from vegetable oils. • We examine influences of methyl esters distribution on biodiesel properties. • Biofuels from soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils were with better properties. • Oils mixtures improve biodiesel quality to fulfill Norm EN 14214. • An equation to predict properties of biodiesel from oil mixtures is proposed

  9. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Essential Oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the composition of essential oils of two types of mint as well as compare the antimicrobial ... was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). ..... autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on some plant oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aafifi, El-Sayed A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using different sage doses of γ -rays (up to 1000 K. rad) for destroying or minimizing trypsin inhibitors for soybean seeds and detect their effect on the main constituents of seeds. Attention was focussed on changes occured in physiochemical properties, fatty acids composition and unsaponifiable matter components of soybean oil due to both gamma irradiation and storage treatments. In addition, the changes in the main constituents of soybean meals were also studied

  11. Consumo, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com óleo de soja e diferentes fontes de carboidratos na dieta Effects of different carbohydrates sources and soybean oil on intake, milk yield, and milk composition of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 12 vacas lactantes Holandês-Gir com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do fornecimento de dietas formuladas com diferentes fontes de carboidratos no concentrado, associadas ou não à suplementação com óleo de soja, sobre o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e a composição do leite. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrados à base de milho ou farelo de trigo (FT ou polpa cítrica (PC, associados ou não a óleo de soja (0 e 2,25%. Não houve interação significativa entre a presença de óleo e a fonte de carboidratos em qualquer variável avaliada. O consumo de MS (18,4 kg/dia e a produção de leite (23,5 kg/dia não diferiram entre MI, FT ou PC, mas a dieta com FT proporcionou maior consumo de FDN e menor digestibilidade aparente total da MO e dos CHOT e reduziu o teor de lactose no leite. A síntese microbiana não foi influenciada pela fonte de carboidrato ou pelo óleo, sendo, em média, de 239,4 g N/dia. Os animais alimentados com as dietas contendo óleo apresentaram menor consumo de matéria seca (19,0 vs 17,8 kg/dia e menores teores de lactose (4,49 vs 4,33% e gordura (3,34 vs 3,13% no leite, mas não diferiram quanto à produção de leite, ao teor de proteína, à digestibilidade dos nutrientes e à síntese microbiana. A presença de óleo promoveu maior eficiência alimentar (1,35 vs 1,23 e aumentou a relação proteína:gordura do leite (0,94 vs 1,00. Do ponto de vista econômico, PC e FT podem substituir totalmente o milho no concentrado em dietas para vacas com produção de até 24 kg/dia. O óleo na dieta diminui o consumo e mantém o nível de produção, aumentando a eficiência alimentar e alterando a composição do leite.Twelve Holstein-Zebu lactating dairy cows were used to study the effects of different carbohydrate sources and soybean oil on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition. The following carbohydrate sources were used: corn (CO, wheat bran (WB or citric pulp (CP

  12. Soybean epoxide production with in situ peracetic acid using homogeneous catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Boyacá Mendivelso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using vegetable oils has become an excellent option for petrochemical product substitution. The epoxides obtained from such oils have wide applications as plastifiers and PVC stabilisers and as raw material in polyol synthesis for the polyurethane industry. This paper presents soybean oil epoxidation using a homogeneous catalyst in a well-mixed, stirred reactor being operated in iso- thermal conditions. The best result achieved was a 6.4% oxyrane oxygen content using hydrogen peroxide (25% molar excess, a- cetic acid (5% p/p and sulphuric acid (2% p/p concentrations at 80°C.

  13. Pulse seed germination improves antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds in stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minwei; Jin, Zhao; Peckrul, Allen; Chen, Bingcan

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds extracted from germinated pulse seed including chickpeas, lentils and yellow peas. Phenolic compounds were extracted at different germination time and total phenolic content was examined by Folin Ciocalteu's reaction. Antioxidative activity of extracts was characterized by in vitro assay including 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), iron-binding assay, and in stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions. The results suggested that germination time is critical for phenolic compounds production. The form variation of phenolic compounds influenced the antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds both in vitro assay and in emulsion systems. Soluble bound phenolic compounds showed higher antioxidative ability in emulsion system with the order of chickpea > yellow pea > lentil. On the basis of these results, soluble bound phenolic compounds may be considered as a promising natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of biodiesel production process from soybean oil using the sodium potassium tartrate doped zirconia catalyst under Microwave Chemical Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihuai; Ye, Bin; Shen, Jiaowen; Tian, Zhen; Wang, Lijun; Zhu, Luping; Ma, Teng; Yang, Dongya; Qiu, Fengxian

    2013-06-01

    A solid base catalyst was prepared by the sodium potassium tartrate doped zirconia and microwave assisted transesterification of soybean oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. It was found that the catalyst of 2.0(n(Na)/n(Zr)) and calcined at 600°C showed the optimum activity. The base strength of the catalysts was tested by the Hammett indicator method, and the results showed that the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was related to their total basicity. The catalyst was also characterized by FTIR, TGA, XRD and TEM. The experimental results showed that a 2.0:1 volume ratio of methanol to oil, 65°C reaction temperature, 30 min reaction time and 10 wt.% catalyst amount gave the highest the yield of biodiesel. Compared to conventional method, the reaction time of the way of microwave assisted transesterification was shorter. The catalyst had longer lifetime and maintained sustained activity after being used for four cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant subcellular proteomics: Application for exploring optimal cell function in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-06-30

    Plants have evolved complicated responses to developmental changes and stressful environmental conditions. Subcellular proteomics has the potential to elucidate localized cellular responses and investigate communications among subcellular compartments during plant development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soybean, which is a valuable legume crop rich in protein and vegetable oil, can grow in several climatic zones; however, the growth and yield of soybean are markedly decreased under stresses. To date, numerous proteomic studies have been performed in soybean to examine the specific protein profiles of cell wall, plasma membrane, nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and endoplasmic reticulum. In this review, methods for the purification and purity assessment of subcellular organelles from soybean are summarized. In addition, the findings from subcellular proteomic analyses of soybean during development and under stresses, particularly flooding stress, are presented and the proteins regulated among subcellular compartments are discussed. Continued advances in subcellular proteomics are expected to greatly contribute to the understanding of the responses and interactions that occur within and among subcellular compartments during development and under stressful environmental conditions. Subcellular proteomics has the potential to investigate the cellular events and interactions among subcellular compartments in response to development and stresses in plants. Soybean could grow in several climatic zones; however, the growth and yield of soybean are markedly decreased under stresses. Numerous proteomics of cell wall, plasma membrane, nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and endoplasmic reticulum was carried out to investigate the respecting proteins and their functions in soybean during development or under stresses. In this review, methods of subcellular-organelle enrichment and purity assessment are summarized. In addition, previous findings of

  16. Electron beam irradiation: a novel technology to enhance the quality of soybean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, Shashi; Srinivasan, K.; Singh, Subadas; Thakur, Manju; Sharma, S.K.; Pramod, R.; Dwivedi, J.; Bapna, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Soybean seeds, rich in protein and oil, maintain their germinability only for short durations under ambient conditions. Loss of viability of stored seeds often hampers soybean production in harsh environments worldwide. Physiological factors favored by high temperature and high moisture content accelerate the seed deterioration in the tropics. Several chemical and physical treatments are being used to enhance quality. Irradiation is a novel technology for food preservation and is gaining importance all over the world. Low doses of irradiation bring about improvement in quality of food/seeds, which can be beneficial in several ways. Electron Beam (EB) irradiation is a new approach in this area. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of EB irradiation in enhancing the quality of low vigour soybean seeds

  17. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    and palm kernel oil exhibiting similar results in the control of the pest. ... the use of chemical pesticide in the protection of both field and stored crops is .... obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus.

  18. Effect of micella interesterification on fatty acids composition and volatile components of soybean and rapeseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi, Sherine M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Micella interesterification of soybean and rapeseed oils was carried out using 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percentages of nickel catalyst, each at different temperatures of 60, 90 and 120ºC for 2, 4, and 6 hours. The proposed interesterification reaction conditions to obtain an oil with low linoleic acid level were 0.2 % nickel catalyst at 120ºC for 4 hours, 0.4% nickel catalyst at 90ºC for 4 hours and 0.6% at 60ºC for 4 hours. Fatty acid composition and chemical analysis of the interesterified and non-esterified oils were estimated. Selected samples undergo heating at 180ºC for 4 hours determining the volatile components. The appearance of some components supported the interesterification process for modification of fatty acid constituents of the oils.Se ha llevado a cabo la interesterificación en fase miscelar de aceites de soja y de colza usando un 0.2%, 0.4% y 0.6% de níquel como catalizador, a diferentes temperaturas (60, 90 y 120ºC durante 2, 4 y 6 horas. Las condiciones de reacción de interesterificación propuestas para obtener un aceite con niveles de ácidos linolénicos bajos fueron 0.2 % de níquel a 120ºC durante 4 horas, 0.4 % de níquel a 90ºC durante 4 horas y 0.6 % a 60ºC durante 4 horas. Se han estimado la composición en ácidos grasos y el análisis químico de los aceites interesterificados y no-esterificados. Las muestras seleccionadas se sometieron a calentamiento a 180ºC durante 4 horas determinando los componentes volátiles. La aparición de algunos componentes apoyó el proceso de interesterificación por modificación de los ácidos grasos constituyentes de los aceites.

  19. Transesterification of triacetin, tributyrin, and soybean oil with methanol over hydrotalcites with different water contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Park, Se Min; Seo, Gon [School of Applied Chemical Engineering and the Research Institute for Catalysis, Chonnam National University, Yungbong-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Chang, Duck Rae [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 1110-9 Oryoung-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-480 (Korea)

    2010-06-15

    Transesterification of triacetin, tributyrin and soybean oil with methanol was examined over rehydrated hydrotalcites (HT-reh), which were previously calcined at 550 C and exposed to an ambient atmosphere, in order to investigate the effect of the water content on their catalytic activity. Rehydration of a calcined hydrotalcite at 25 C produced uniform mesopores of around 4 nm diameter, while the removal of water from the HT-reh by pretreatment at 500 C, formed large heterogeneous mesopores. Methanol was adsorbed and desorbed rapidly in the mesopores of the HT-reh filled with water. The pretreatment of the HT-reh at 500 C removed both water and carbon dioxide, producing strong basic sites. The high activity of fully rehydrated hydrotalcite in the transesterification of three triglycerides was explained by the generation of Broensted basic sites and the rapid migration of methanol in the mesopores, while the improved activity of the rehydrated hydrotalcite pretreated at 500 C by the generation of strong basic sites and empty mesopores due to the removal of water and carbon dioxide. (author)

  20. Efficacy of plant derived oils and extracts against white-fly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) on sesame crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, A.; Irfan, M.; Aslam, S.

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) is a polyphagous pest and is reported on more than 600 host plants worldwide. Different methods are being used for its control. The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect of some plant extracts of mint (Mentha spp.) and gera-nium (Pelargonium graveolens) and soybean oil (Glycine max), mustard oil (Brassica spp.) and taramera oil (Eruca sativa) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci on sesame crop. The data were recorded 24h before and 24h, 48h, 72h and 168h after application of each spray material. The results showed that whitefly population was significantly suppressed by both the botanical oils and extracts as compared to the control treatment but in general botanical oils showed significant results as compared to plant extracts. Soybean oil was quite effective in reducing whitefly population per leaf, while after second spray soybean oil and extract of Mentha spp. was more effective in the reducing whitefly population per leaf. The results indicated that plant derived oils and extracts have the potential to be used in plant protection strategies but still more research has to be incorporated in the pest management programmes. (author)

  1. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    OpenAIRE

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type t...

  2. Kinetics of soybean oil epoxidation with peracetic acid formed in situ in the presence of an ion exchange resin: Pseudo-homogeneous model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Milovan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic model was proposed for the epoxidation of vegetable oils with peracetic acid formed in situ from acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of an acidic ion exchange resin as a catalyst. The model is pseudo-homogeneous with respect to the catalyst. Besides the main reactions of peracetic acid and epoxy ring formation, the model takes into account the side reaction of epoxy ring opening with acetic acid. The partitioning of acetic acid and peracetic acid between the aqueous and organic phases and the change in the phases’ volumes during the process were considered. The temperature dependency of the apparent reaction rate coefficients is described by a reparameterized Arrhenius equation. The constants in the proposed model were estimated by fitting the experimental data obtained for the epoxidations of soybean oil conducted under defined reaction conditions. The highest epoxy yield of 87.73% was obtained at 338 K when the mole ratio of oil unsaturation:acetic acid:hydrogen peroxide was 1:0.5:1.35 and when the amount of the catalyst Amberlite IR-120H was 4.04 wt.% of oil. Compared to the other reported pseudo-homogeneous models, the model proposed in this study better correlates the change of double bond and epoxy group contents during the epoxidation process. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III45022

  3. High linolenic acid mutant in soybean induced by X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Y. [Saga Univ. (Japan); Hossain, A. B.M.M.; Yanagita, T.; Kusaba, S.

    1989-12-15

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Bay] seeds were irradiated with X-rays (25kR) and the M{sub 2} progeny was screened for changes in the fatty acid composition of seed oil. X-ray irradiation remarkably increased the variability of the fatty acid composition in the oil of the Bay cultivar. A mutant in which linolenic acid accounted for 18.4 per cent of the total oil cornpared with 9.4 per cent in the Bay cultivar was identified among 2006 M{sub 2} plants. The M{sub 3} generation of the mutant also showed a linolenic acid content approximately two times higher than that of the original variety.

  4. High linolenic acid mutant in soybean induced by X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Y.; Hossain, A.B.M.M.; Yanagita, T.; Kusaba, S.

    1989-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Bay] seeds were irradiated with X-rays (25kR) and the M 2 progeny was screened for changes in the fatty acid composition of seed oil. X-ray irradiation remarkably increased the variability of the fatty acid composition in the oil of the Bay cultivar. A mutant in which linolenic acid accounted for 18.4 per cent of the total oil cornpared with 9.4 per cent in the Bay cultivar was identified among 2006 M 2 plants. The M 3 generation of the mutant also showed a linolenic acid content approximately two times higher than that of the original variety

  5. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  6. Non Catalytic Transesterification of Vegetables Oil to Biodiesel in Sub-and Supercritical Methanol: A Kinetic’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Puspa Asri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non catalytic transesterification in sub and supercritical methanol have been used to produce biodiesel from palm oil and soybean oil. A kinetic study was done under reaction condition with temperature and time control. The experiments were carried out in a batch type reactor at reaction temperatures from 210 °C (subcritical condition to 290 °C (the supercritical state in the interval ranges of temperature of 20 °C and at various molar ratios of oil to methanol. The rate constants of the reaction were determined by employing a simple method, with the overall chemical reaction followed the pseudo-first–order reaction. Based on the results, the rate constants of vegetables oil were significantly influenced by reaction temperature, which were gradually increased at subcritical temperature, but sharply increased in the supercritical state. However, the rate constants of soybean oil were slightly higher than that of palm oil. The activation energy for transesterification of soybean oil was 89.32 and 79.05 kJ/mole for palm oil. Meanwhile, the frequency factor values of both oils were 72462892 and 391210 min-1, respectively. The rate reaction for both of oil were expressed as -rTG = 72462892 exp(-89.32/RTCTG for soybean oil and -rTG = 391210 exp(-79.05/RTCTG for palm oil. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 18th October 2012; Revised: 14th December 2012; Accepted: 16th December 2012[How to Cite: N.P. Asri, S. Machmudah, W. Wahyudiono, S. Suprapto, K. Budikarjono, A. Roesyadi, M. Goto, (2013. Non Catalytic Transesterification of Vegetables Oil to Biodiesel in Sub-and Supercritical Methanol: A Kinetic’s Study. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3: 215-223. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4060.215-223][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4060.215-223 ] View in  |

  7. Anti-obesity effect of a traditional Chinese dietary habit-blending lard with vegetable oil while cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Yan, Sisi; Xiao, Haisi; Zhou, Huijuan; Liu, Shuiping; Zeng, Yu; Liu, Biying; Li, Rongfang; Yuan, Zhihang; Wu, Jing; Yi, Jine; Razack, Yarou Bao Sero; Wen, Lixin

    2017-10-31

    Obesity, which is associated with dietary habits, has become a global social problem and causes many metabolic diseases. In China, both percentages of adult obesity and overweight are far lower compared to western countries. It was designed to increase the two levels of daily intake in human, namely 3.8% and 6.5%, which are recommendatory intake (25 g/d) and Chinese citizens' practical intake (41.4 g/d), respectively. The mice were respectively fed with feeds added with soybean oil, lard or the oil blended by both for 12 weeks. In the mice fed with diet containing 3.8% of the three oils or 6.5% blended oil, their body weight, body fat rate, cross-sectional area of adipocytes, adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adipose were decreased, whereas hydrolysis of triglyserides in adipose was increased. This study demonstrated that the oil mixture containing lard and soybean oil had a remarkable anti-obesity effect. It suggests that the traditional Chinese dietary habits using oils blended with lard and soybean oil, might be one of the factors of lower percentages of overweight and obesity in China, and that the increasing of dietary oil intake and the changing of its component resulted in the increasing of obesity rate in China over the past decades.

  8. Analysis of Gamma-irradiated Soybean Components by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.R. R. de; Quadrado, M.G.O.; Mastro, N.L. del

    2007-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) seeds contain besides oil and protein, important phytochemicals that have been shown in recent years to offer important health benefits. Soybean contains at least six classes of antioxidant compounds: flavonol, isoflavones, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, and poly carboxylic acids. An increasing number of studies have documented the significant value of many classes of these compounds, mainly isoflavones, not only as potent antioxidants, but also as antitumor agents and cardio protective compounds. Food irradiation is gaining increasing attention around the world but it is not a worldwide approved treatment yet. Electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR, is considered the most important technique to detect free-radicals on food. Results from a previous work showed that irradiated soybean could be detected by EPR only when higher doses were employed. This study was undertaken to investigate the radiation response of the diverse parts of the soy seed: hull or seed coat, cotyledons, hilum and hypocotyl axis or germ, from different soybean cultivars. Soybean samples were obtained from the National Soybean Research Center (Embrapa-Soja), Londrina, Brazil, separated in their components and gamma-irradiated in a Gamma cell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0.1 and 2.0 kGy at a dose rate of 2.9 kGy/h. EPR measurements were performed on an X-band spectrometer (ER 041 XG Microwave Bridge, Bruker). Both irradiation and EPR measurements were performed at room temperature (20-25 C). The results showed that the EPR signal intensity correlated with the ionizing radiation dose, although different cultivars presented differences in their radiation response. The main EPR peak corresponding to free radical presented differences in shape and intensity. The hull and the hilum presented signals higher and easier to be analyzed than the whole bean, indicating strong differences in radiation sensitivity of soybean components. (Author)

  9. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  10. Soybean polar lipids differently impact adipose tissue inflammation and the endotoxin transporters LBP and sCD14 in flaxseed vs. palm oil-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Manon; Couëdelo, Leslie; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Plaisancié, Pascale; Durand, Annie; Géloën, Alain; Joffre, Florent; Vaysse, Carole; Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Laugerette, Fabienne

    2017-05-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are nutritional pathologies, characterized by a subclinical inflammatory state. Endotoxins are now well recognized as an important factor implicated in the onset and maintain of this inflammatory state during fat digestion in high-fat diet. As a preventive strategy, lipid formulation could be optimized to limit these phenomena, notably regarding fatty acid profile and PL emulsifier content. Little is known about soybean polar lipid (SPL) consumption associated to oils rich in saturated FA vs. anti-inflammatory omega-3 FA such as α-linolenic acid on inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia. We then investigated in mice the effect of different synthetic diets enriched with two different oils, palm oil or flaxseed oil and containing or devoid of SPL on adipose tissue inflammation and endotoxin receptors. In both groups containing SPL, adipose tissue (WAT) increased compared with groups devoid of SPL and an induction of MCP-1 and LBP was observed in WAT. However, only the high-fat diet in which flaxseed oil was associated with SPL resulted in both higher WAT inflammation and higher circulating sCD14 in plasma. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that LPS transporters LBP and sCD14 and adipose tissue inflammation can be modulated by SPL in high fat diets differing in oil composition. Notably high-flaxseed oil diet exerts a beneficial metabolic impact, however blunted by PL addition. Our study suggests that nutritional strategies can be envisaged by optimizing dietary lipid sources in manufactured products, including fats/oils and polar lipid emulsifiers, in order to limit the inflammatory impact of palatable foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical composition of tempeh from soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Furlan Bavia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tempeh is a food obtained by fermentation of soybean grains by the fungus Rizophus oligosporus. It is a traditional Indonesian food that presents benefits for human health protecting against diarrhea and chronic diseases. Tempeh processing includes dehulling, cooking, inoculation, and fermentation. In this study, chemical characteristics of tempeh prepared with soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption (BRS 216, BRS 232, BRS 257, and BRS 267 were investigated. Soybean grains and tempeh obtained from these cultivars were analyzed for oil, protein, antinutrional factors, and isoflavone content. Cultivar BRS 216 presented the highest protein content in the grains (36.81% and in tempeh (51.99%. On average, the protein content in tempeh increased 16% in relation to that of soybean grains. Isoflavone content was higher in the grains than in tempeh with significant differences among the cultivars. However, the aglycones content increased about 50% in tempeh (49.00 mg.100 g-1 on average compared to that of raw material (soybean grains - 21.49 mg.100 g-1, on average. The content of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KSTI reduced 83% in tempeh, on average, as compared to the value found in the grains. Phytic acid content was similar in both tempeh and the grains.

  12. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the