WorldWideScience

Sample records for soviet union sociological

  1. Soviet Union's Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union's nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry's strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources

  2. Underwater Activities in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    Galeazzi Bells 43 4. Diver Transfer Systems 45 D. Drones 47 1. Skorpena 47 E. Remote-Controlled Platforms 50 1. Krab 50 2. Manta Experimental...1957, Galeazzi , Ltd, sold five bells and two armored diving suits to the Soviet Union. Quick comparison of ehe photos shows some minor...differences among them, particularly, the view ports. 43 Fig. 33 and 34. Soviet-Owned Galeazzi Bells [202, 200]. Fig. 35. Soviet-Owned

  3. The Soviet Union: Population Trends and Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, Murray

    1982-01-01

    Recent trends and differentials among the Soviet Union's 15 republics and major nationalities are reviewed, focusing on fertility, mortality and urbanization, the prospect for labor supplies and military manpower, emigration, and projected population growth to 2000. Estimated at 270 million as of mid-1982, the Soviet population is currently…

  4. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  5. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs

  6. Frank Lloyd Wright in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Spencer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1937 the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Architects was held in Moscow. The congress brought  architects from all areas of the  Soviet Union. Under the auspices of Vsesoiuvnoe Obshchestvo Kul'turnoi Sviazi s zagranitsei (VOKS it invited international architects from Europe and North and South America.  The Organizing Committee of the Union of Soviet Architects invited Frank Lloyd Wright from the United States. Frank Lloyd Wright presented his philosophy and exhibited his work, specifically his designs for the weekend home for E. J. Kaufmann "Fallingwater" and the drawings for the S.C. Johnson Administration. Frank Lloyd Wright's presentation did not focus heavily on the architecture but, rather the spirit of the Russian and Soviet vision.

  7. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-20

    Kogan depicts it in the USSR Supreme Soviet. It is definitely not so simple. A sociological survey shows that no more than 20-25 percent of the non...SOVETSKAYA KULTURA in Russian No 19, 12 May 90 p 3 [Article by Aleksandr Kapto, deputy chief of the Ideo- logical Department of the CPSU Central

  8. The Soviet Union and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-22

    in the area. In Angola, Agostinho Neto regularly declared his government’s intention to repay all aid it received from the Soviet Union. Despite the...no noticeable change in Soviet-Angolan relations. The new president, Jose Eduardo dos Santos , pledged to continue Neto’s policies, including seeking...Western investment and remaining nonaligned. While Brezhnev and dos Santos exchanged messages on the third anniversary of their nations’ Treaty of

  9. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  10. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE's cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union

  11. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-18

    peoples. Kkhir Dzhokhari states that the recent success- ful visit of Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad to the Soviet Union, which here...university. In his speeches during his stay in the USSR in July and August of this year, Prime Minister Mahathir bin Moha- mad, emphasizing the "coincidence

  12. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  13. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-23

    the Soviet Union for its exports of fiber-board, electric motors, mechanical watches, pianos, nickel, aluminum, glass and some other goods. In 23...relations has engen - dered new (and extremely so for us) phenomena and concepts. For example, the joint venture and marketing. Marketing is the ability to...and plants making shoes, knit goods, and electrical appliances. But we are warned by Xiao Fang to keep in mind that: "This is not association or

  15. Ethnicity and Power in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wierzbicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years have passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Up until the point of dissolution, the Soviet authorities and intellectual elite had attempted to build a community in order to unite all Soviet citizens in the spirit of socialist modernisation. Although it is difficult to demonstrate that ‘a Soviet nation’ was successfully created [1], the attempt to build such a nation can serve as a case study through which to examine nation-building processes for constructivists as well as modernists . In addition to socialist modernisation, the Soviet nation aimed to be identified as a state, which would make it similar to the political nations dominant in western countries. Contrary to western tradition, however, it was not a nation state that provided full rights for all its citizens, but rather a socialist state that was ‘ruled by workers and peasantry’. Nevertheless, the authorities aimed to give the Soviet nation the characteristics of a specific nation state. “It was a nation that in historical terms strived, or more accurately part of which strived, to form or proclaim a particular state” [2]. While at the time of proclaiming the USSR there was no such thing as the Soviet nation, it can be assumed that it was intended to become a constructed titular nation. The majority of national communities, even created ones, have an ethnic core. However academics cannot agree on the kind of state the USSR was, to what extent it took into account the ethnicity of its multinational population, how much it reflected the values, culture, and interests of its largest population group (i.e., the Russians or even whether it was a Russian national state despite the strong influence of Russian ideology and politics. Some Russian academics, especially those in nationalistic circles (e.g., Valerij Solovej as well as western scholars such as Terry Martin and Geoffrey Hosking stressed that Russians dominated demographically and politically

  16. The Soviet Union: population trends and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, M

    1982-08-01

    Focus in this discussion of population trends and dilemmas in the Soviet Union is on demographic problems, data limitations, early population growth, geography and resources, the 15 republics of the Soviet Union and nationalities, agriculture and the economy, population growth over the 1950-1980 period (national trend, regional differences); age and sex composition of the population, fertility trends, nationality differentials in fertility, the reasons for fertility differentials (child care, divorce, abortion and contraception, illegitimacy), labor shortages and military personnel, mortality (mortality trends, life expectancy), reasons for mortality increases, urbanization and emigration, and future population prospects and projections. For mid-1982 the population of the Soviet Union was estimated at 270 million. The country's current rate of natural increase (births minus deaths) is about 0.8% a year, higher than current rates of natural increase in the U.S. (0.7%) and in developed countries as a whole (0.6%). Net immigration plays no part in Soviet population growth, but emigration was noticeable in some years during the 1970s, while remaining insignificant relative to total population size. National population growth has dropped by more than half in the last 2 decades, from 1.8% a year in the 1950s to 0.8% in 1980-1981, due mostly to declining fertility. The national fertility decline masks sharp differences among the 15 republics and even more so among the some 125 nationalities. In 1980, the Russian Republic had an estimated fertility rate of 1.9 births/woman, and the rate was just 2.0 in the other 2 Slavic republics, the Ukraine and Belorussia. In the Central Asian republics the rates ranged up to 5.8. Although the Russians will no doubt continue to be the dominant nationality, low fertility and a relatively higher death rate will reduce their share of the total population by less than half by the end of the century. Soviet leaders have launched a

  17. The Soviet Union and Mosaddeq: a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalinovsky, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the Soviet Union did not play a significant role in the events leading to the overthrow of Mohammed Mosaddeq in 1953, little has been written about how the Soviets perceived the Iranian leader and the movement he inspired. This article argues that Soviet

  18. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants open-quotes ATETsclose quotes optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled

  19. Radon therapy in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Andrejew, S.V.

    1991-08-01

    In the Soviet Union approximately one million courses of radon treatment each lasting three weeks are prescribed every year. The curative application of radon used for cardiovascular diseases, including aftercare in cases of cardiac infarction, disorders of the locomotor system and joints and muscles, the male and female sexual system, diseases of the nervous system, endocrinology and metabolic diseases. Contraindication practice is similar to that in Central Europe. Radon is given to skin stimulation by wet and above all dry baths. The radiation exposure of patients from these three-week radon treatments is relatively low. The radon effect is interpreted as 'radiation flash' stimulating the nervous system. The skin plays a particular role in this process, acting as the stimulus acceptor. (orig./MG) [de

  20. RLC Vegetative Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This dataset is a 1:4 million scale vegetation map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Three hundred seventy-three cover classes are...

  1. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  2. RLC Forest Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a 1:15 million scale forest cover map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Twenty-two land cover classes are distinguished, of...

  3. RLC Vegetative Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is a 1:4 million scale vegetation map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Three hundred seventy-three cover classes are distinguished, of...

  4. RLC Forest Cover Map of the Former Soviet Union, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a 1:2.5 million scale forest cover map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union that was completed in 1990 (Garsia 1990). There are...

  5. RLC Forest Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a 1:15 million scale forest cover map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Twenty-two land cover classes are distinguished, of which 20 are...

  6. PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION AT THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of historical retrospective of integrationprocesses in former Soviet Union, ways and opportunities for furtherdevelopment thereof.The authors make a study of the problems of development and functioningof Eurasian cooperation, the effectiveness of interaction with certain states,analyze the reasons of failures, emphasize the achievements results ofcooperation, point out the opportunities for integration processes betweendifferent CIS and provide practical recommendations for effectiveness thereof in former Soviet Union.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; Krafsig, J.; Moon, F.C.; Shlesinger, M.F.

    1992-08-01

    This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Political Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ...) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical data and reports All information has been obtained...

  9. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into? Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty

  10. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  11. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-10

    milk in the stores? Have the cows begun to give less of it since the Declaration? [Rubiks] I believe that there will be even less milk on the...shelves. In one of his recent speeches D. Ivans called for milk not to be given to the city. Here they are, founda- tions for inciting interethnic enmity...Khakass. These are our Soviet kids , the graduates of our Soviet schools. Together, they listen to the same lectures as the people their own age who

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-08

    explosions was signed at the Soviet-U.S. summit meeting in Mos- cow. For this purpose a group of Soviet experts are now at the Nevada test site, while a...assemblies. Particularly for yesterday’s school child . But a choice is a choice. The officer profession is a difficult one. As they say, it is heroic...do everything possible to elimi- nate, or at least reduce the hunger in the personnel ranks. This motive sounded clearly in his speech at the gradu

  13. Earthquake research in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    Henry Spall talked recently with Robert L. Wesson, the new Chief, Office of Earthquake Studies at the U.S Geological Survey National Center, Reston, Va. Wesson has spent altogether almost 1 year in the U.S.S.R, and 6 months of that time in the Garm area of Soviet Tadzhikistan in 1974. 

  14. RLC Forest Cover Map of the Former Soviet Union, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a 1:2.5 million scale forest cover map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union that was completed in 1990 (Garsia 1990). There are forty-five...

  15. The Press of the Soviet Union: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergethon, Bruce; And Others

    Compiled in response to the need for more information on the differences between the press systems of the United States and the Soviet Union, this bibliography contains 240 entries. Consisting of newspaper articles, journal articles, books, and pamphlets, the bibliography provides an overview of the different journalistic philosophies of the two…

  16. Attitude Change of American Tourists in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Peter

    Pre- and post-travel questionnaires mailed to American tourists visiting the Soviet Union record attitude change and serve as the basis for this eight-chapter research project report. Most of the report considers the relation of various factors to attitude change, including education, level of information, language ability, sex, age, occupation,…

  17. Aging in the Soviet Union: A West Siberian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Shimkin

    1989-01-01

    Presents ethnographic observations on the aged and aging from six months' residence in Siberian industrial city. Describes interactions with medical personnel and reviews scanty literature in Soviet Union. Notes integration of aged in families and respect given to older persons. Discusses problems of elderly caused by hard living conditions,…

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-07

    When business travel to a socialist country is necessary, the directorship of any republic organization (which has the status of a juristic person) is...apparatus, but also by workers in cooperatives which are registered in their territories. It is clear that business travel abroad by a specialist who is...other travel documents, as payment for the stamp duty as well as for business travel and other expenses in both Soviet and foreign currency, are the

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-17

    auctions, preferring to hold it on account as a hedge against inflation or to use it to buy up commodities in short supply. The possibility is not to be...products, pig iron, petroleum products, mineral fertilizers, and com- mercial lumber. Imports from the People’s Republic are soybeans , corn, peanuts...planting soybeans in the Soviet Far East and tea and coffee in southern China—in the province of Guang- dong and the Hainan Peninsula. Two years ago an

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-31

    demands to the Supreme Soviet. The behavior of the crowd that gathered there, its excitement kept up by slogans, was a logical continuation of...discrimination against colleagues who are not members of the "Democratic Bloc?" Can democracy be permeated with suspicion, hostility, the aggresive ...an effective incentive for correcting prisoners’ behavior . There are now substantial restrictions during conditions of deprivation of freedom on

  1. Background Information on the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    ministries) in 1965." In this childish disregard for truth lies a pride in Soviet 1969 there were 220.t)0) scientists with doctor’s or achievement and a...novel pharisees drown everything," he was unduly Cancer Ward, published abroad in 1969, depicts the pessimistic. On the tenth anniversary of his death, in...1974. Whitney, Parts III and IV. New York; Harper& Row. 1975. Solzhenitsyn, A. Cancer Ward. Translated by Bethell & Burg. Terz. A. (Sinyavsky). On

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-03

    cuts to fashion parade held a BUDAPRINT showroom to which Soviet and other journalists were invited; shows models displaying fashions made at...half its territory, including Texas and California with their very rich natural resources. The virtually indefinite occupation of alien territory has...subregion, has allowed itself the liberty of expressing dissatisfaction with IMF policy. Virtually all countries support in one form or another a review of

  3. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  4. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known

  5. The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    C601.1po’iett the Mi nistrN (If’Radio IndustrN , elct r’)tiic VoduK, Nht io v f Mdi rn i acineBu ir g I ticlear weaponis- the Niinistrv of (iner~d Ma1 ...in Ethiopia, Aden Reported," Washington Star, September 23, 1979, p. 3; Stephen S. Kaplan , ’The Historical Record," and Colin Legum, "Angola and the...Horn of Africa," in Stephen S. Kaplan , ed., Diplomacy of Power: Soviet Armed Forces As a Political Instrument (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings

  6. The Soviet Union prepares to roll up its sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The first conference of the Soviet Nuclear Society (NESU-90) was held, from 26 to 29 June in Obninsk at the Moscow Region Scientific Centre, where the first nuclear power plant was commissioned. Around 600 specialists including several dozen distinguished foreigners were assembled there. The title of the conference - Nuclear energy in the USSR: problems and prospects (ecology, economics and law) - underlined its intention: to promote a dialogue with society on the broad question of satisfying the demand for energy. The 55 papers read and discussed at the conference, were largely concerned with the problems confronting nuclear power, and attention was directed to the surrounding social environment in the Soviet Union. (author)

  7. The Educational Role of Soviet Trade Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Beatrice Beach

    1983-01-01

    How to increase the productivity of the labor force is of extreme importance in Russia today because of the declining birthrate. What trade unions are doing to educate their currently employed workers and youth is the focus of the articles in this issue. (RM)

  8. Tokamak research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Important milestones on the way to the tokamak fusion reactor are recapitulated. Soviet tokamak research concentrated at the I.V. Kurchatov Institute in Moscow, the A.F. Ioffe Institute in Leningrad and the Physical-Technical Institute in Sukhumi successfully provides necessary scientific and technological data for reactor design. Achievments include, the successful operation of the first tokamak with superconducting windings (T-7) and the gyrotron set for microwave plasma heating in the T-10 tokamak. The following problems have intensively been studied: Various methods of additional plasma heating, heat and particle transport, and impurity control. The efficiency of electron-cyclotron resonance heating was demonstrated. In the Joule heating regime, both the heat conduction and diffusion rates are anomalously high, but the electron heat conduction rate decreases with increasing plasma density. Progress in impurity control makes it possible to obtain a plasma with effective charge approaching unity. (J.U.)

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-18

    of us. For eliminating them, we must first Union Production-Scientific Association for Agrochem - of all create the ability to critically analyze what...increase in mutations (this was the term used from the world of mutated animals will abound. Such a at the beginning of the century to describe...hereditary future is the most frightening thing of all. changes) may at some poiont become uncontrollable. Once they have appeared, mutations manifest them

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-07

    Jun 90] 61 Toxic Substance Mishandling Trend Seen As Possible ’Chemical Chernobyl’ [Ye. Solomenko; IZVESTIYA, 21 May 90] 63 JPRS-UPA-90-039 7...taking into account regional conditions and modern trends in the union and world economy; to marshal creative energies of the people, to bring new...this last and only chance get away. Let our reason be with us, since it is based on the millenial wisdom and historical traditions of our diligent

  11. Soviet Union in the context of the Nobel prize

    CERN Document Server

    Blokh, Abram M

    2018-01-01

    The result of meticulous research by Professor Abram Blokh, this book presents facts, documents, thoughts and comments on the system of the Nobel Prize awards to Russian and Soviet scientists. It provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between the ideas expressed by the Nobel Foundation and those expressed by the autocratic and totalitarian regimes in Russia and the ex-Soviet Union during the 20th century who had the same attitude of revulsion toward the intellectual and humanistic values represented by the Nobel Prizes. To do his research, the author had access to the declassified documents in the archives of the Nobel Foundation for many years. Also included in the book are new materials obtained and developed by the author after the publication of the first two editions (in Russian). This additional information is from the archives of the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Soviet Writers' Union et al. in Moscow and St Petersburg. These documents shed new...

  12. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  13. Digitization of Nuclear Explosion Seismograms from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Yakutia), Russia, Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 103, 730–740, 2013. Mikhailova., N.N. and A.K. Kurskeev, Present Status of the Network for Seismic...chemical explosions, Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 88, 1511–1524, 1998. Khalturin, V.I., et al., A review of nuclear testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya... Seism . Soc. Am., 94, 1879–1889, 2004. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 56 This page is intentionally left blank. Approved for

  14. Globalization, marine regime shifts and the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österblom, Henrik; Folke, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts have been observed in marine ecosystems around the world, with climate and fishing suggested as major drivers of such shifts. The global and regional dynamics of the climate system have been studied in this context, and efforts to develop an analogous understanding of fishing activities are developing. Here, we investigate the timing of pelagic marine regime shifts in relation to the emergence of regional and global fishing activities of the Soviet Union. Our investigation of official catch statistics reflects that the Soviet Union was a major fishing actor in all large marine ecosystems where regime shifts have been documented, including in ecosystems where overfishing has been established as a key driver of these changes (in the Baltic and Black Seas and the Scotian Shelf). Globalization of Soviet Union fishing activities pushed exploitation to radically new levels and triggered regional and global governance responses for improved management. Since then, exploitation levels have remained and increased with new actors involved. Based on our exploratory work, we propose that a deeper understanding of the role of global fishing actors is central for improved management of marine ecosystems.

  15. Composite regional catalogs of earthquakes in the former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautian, Tatyana; Leith, William

    2002-01-01

    Seismological study of the territory of the former Soviet Union developed in the 20th century with the approach of maintaining constant observations with standard instrumentation and methods of data processing, determining standardized parameters describing the seismic sources, and producing regular summary publications. For most of the century, event data were published only in Russian and were generally unavailable to the Western scientific community. Yet for many regions of this vast territory, earthquakes with magnitudes less than 2 were routinely located and characterized, especially since the early 1960s. A great volume of data on the seismicity of the Eurasian land mass is therefore available, although to date only in scattered publications and for incomplete periods of time.To address this problem, we have undertaken a comprehensive compilation, documentation and evaluation of catalogs of seismicity of the former Soviet Union. These include four principal, Soviet-published catalog sources, supplemented by other publications. We view this as the first step in compiling a complete catalog of all known seismic events in this large and important region. Completion of this work will require digitizing the remaining catalogs of the various regional seismological institutes. To make these data more useful for regional seismic investigations, as well as to be consistent with their provenance, we have prepared composite regional catalogs, dividing the territory of the former Soviet Union into 24 regions. For each of these regions, all the data available from the basic catalog sources (see below) have been combined and evaluated. Note that, for regions with low seismicity, the historical (non-instrumental, macro-seismic) data are of increased importance. Such information, if not included in any summary, were taken from various publications and marked as "historical".

  16. The changing face of environmentalism in the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Igor Izodorovich Altshuler and Ruben Artyomovich Mnatsakanyan are scientific researchers in the department of geography at Moscow State University and cofounders of the Association for the Support of Ecological initiatives established by the Soviet Foundation for Social Innovations. They authored a report on glasnost and ecology in the Soviet Union published in the December 1988 ENVIRONMENT. Recently, Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan visited ENVIRONMENT's offices in Washington, D.C., and talked at length about environmental problems and issues in the USSR. This paper presents excerpts of an interview of Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan conducted by Barbara Richman, managing editor of ENVIRONMENT. They discuss environmental problems, global climate change, agriculture, lack of information on the biggest polluters, transboundary pollution, impact of recent elections on environmental policy, the use of environmental impact assessments, public information about the environment, training of reporters, environmental organizations, and lack of money and political obstacles to environmental improvements.

  17. Mineral production statistics of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Four tables show, for each of the years 1980 to 1991 Soviet oil production, Soviet gas production, Soviet coal production and Soviet steel production. Total figures are given along with a regional breakdown. 4 refs

  18. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  19. Reflections on the Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovskii, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers reflections on the sociology of education, beginning with a discussion on the trajectory of the rise of the sociology of education in Russia. The author examines how the sociology of education in Russia looks compared to the rest of the world. The sociological study of education in Russia and the Soviet Union has…

  20. Irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2012-06-01

    The USSR failed to establish a modern pharmaceutical industry and lacked the capacity for reliable distribution of drugs. Patients were required to pay for outpatient drugs and the successor states have inherited this legacy, so that those requiring long-term treatment face considerable barriers in receiving it. It was hypothesised that citizens of former Soviet republics requiring treatment for hypertension may not be receiving regular treatment. To describe the regularity of treatment among those diagnosed with hypertension and prescribed treatment in eight countries of the former Soviet Union, and explore which factors are associated with not taking medication regularly. Using data from over 18 000 respondents from eight former Soviet countries, individuals who had been told that they had hypertension by a health professional and prescribed treatment were identified. By means of multivariate logistic analysis the characteristics of those taking treatment daily and less than daily were compared. Only 26% of those prescribed treatment took it daily. The probability of doing so varied among countries and was highest in Russia, Belarus and Georgia, and lowest in Armenia (although Georgia's apparent advantage may reflect low rates of diagnosis). Women, older people, those living in urban areas, and non-smokers and non-drinkers were more likely to take treatment daily. A high proportion of those who have been identified by health professionals as requiring hypertension treatment are not taking it daily. These findings suggest that irregular hypertension treatment is a major problem in this region and will require an urgent response.

  1. [History of psychotherapy in Russia and the Soviet Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, H; Stern, G

    1977-10-01

    Previously, articles on and contributions to the history of psychotherapy proceeded on the assumption that the most essential sources were to be found in Anglo-Saxon and German literature. Developments in other civilizations were usually treated as undeserving of consideration. It is important to note that a large amount of specialized literature on psychotherapy has been published in the Soviet Union, and this shows that a great importance is attached in that country to the treatment of nervous and mental disorders by psychological methods. A review of the writings of S. S. Korsakov and V. M. Bekhterev shows that the essential principles of group psychotherapy had been recognized by those authors already in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, respectively. Results achieved by Makarenko appear valuable in the light of what we know today. The method of "collective psychotherapy", which was first described by Libch, is discussed in detail. This method is being widely used in the Soviet Union. The concern of this paper is to describe developments which have not so far been covered in our literature, thus attempting to make an addition to psychotherapeutic activity in this country.

  2. Impact of GRM: New evidence from the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnutt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity information released by the Soviet Union allows the quantitative assessment of how the geopotential research mission (GRM) mission might effect the ability to use global gravity data for continental tectonic interpretation. The information is of an isostatic response spectra for eight individual tectonic units in the USSR. The regions examined include the Caroathians, Caucasus, Urals, Pamirs, Tien-Shan, Altal, Chersky Ridge, and East Siberian Platform. The 1 deg x 1 deg gravity data are used to calculate the admittances are used in two different sorts of tectonic studies of mountain belts in the USSR: (1) interpretation of isostatic responses in terms of plate models of compensation for mountainous terrain. Using geologic information concerning time of the orogeny, lithospheric plates involved, and polarity of subduction in collision zones, they convert the best-fitting flexural rigidity to an elastic plate thickness for the lithospheric plate inferred to underlie the mountains; the isostatic admittance functions is an attempt to directly model gravity and topography data for a few select regions in the Soviet Union. By knowing the value of the expected correlation between topography and gravity from the admittances, the Artemjev's map in mountainous areas can be calibrated, and the maps are converted back to Bouguer gravity. This procedure is applied to the Caucasus and southern Urals.

  3. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzoo Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans were further dispersed to other parts of the Soviet Union in the post-Stalin era. These multiple dispersions of Soviet Koreans not only transformed their culinary habit, but also helped Korean food spread among the peoples of the Soviet Union. As a result, Korean food, such as kimchi, miyŏk (edible kelp, and others, were introduced and widely consumed throughout the Soviet Union. This paper explores this unusual spread and popularity of Korean food in the Soviet Union, focusing on the migration history of the Soviet Koreans and Soviet culinary culture. This work is based on the author's fieldwork in the Soviet Union in the early 1900s and again in mid-2000s. The unusual diffusion and popularity of the Korean food in the former Soviet Union provides us with important insights on migration and globalization of ethnic food.

  4. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D.

    1993-01-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs

  5. Former Soviet Union's refining sector faces big shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The crisis gripping the refining sector in the former Soviet Union (FSU) is deepening as that industry faces massive rationalization and restructuring. Refinery runs in FSU republics have been on the decline for a number of years. Peak throughput occurred in 1987 at 9.69 million b/d. In Russia, however, the peak came in 1980 at 6.5 million b/d. Given current operable refining capacity in the FSU, now down to about 9.27 million b/d distributed among 48 refineries, capacity utilization will average only about 65% this year. The paper discusses worsening conditions, a comparison of the FSU declines, the financial crisis, energy consumption, and the focus of FSU refineries on secondary capacity to upgrade the product mix

  6. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Sociological Studies No 10, October 1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Labor Career From the Standpoint of the Life Cycle, The Peak of Tension in the Year of the Horse , A Nontraditional Method for Analysis of Interparty Struggle, Echo of the Afghan War,The Demographic...

  8. Area Handbook Series: Soviet Union: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    in gen- eral and Soviet feminism in particular. Gail Warshofsky Lapidus has written several informative books and articles on Soviet women. (For...Minister Mahathir Bin Mohamad of Malaysia visited Moscow, and in May 1988 Prime Minister Prem Tinsulanonda of Thailand also visited. The major Soviet...Syria, Argentina, Egypt, Turkey, Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Malaysia together ac- counted for 75 percent of Soviet imports from and 80 percent of Soviet

  9. Chernobyl as the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lindbladh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The belief in technology was fundamental in Soviet culture. When the nuclear reactor exploded and harvested souls and spread illness throughout a vast area, over the course of many years, an image of the collapse of the Soviet Union was thereby created. Chernobyl became an image of the apocalypse of communism.

  10. Understanding party politics in the former Soviet Union: authoritarianism, volatility, and incentive structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, M.

    2009-01-01

    Party politics in the former Soviet Union is fundamentally different from party politics in Western democracies in many ways. Since 1991, two crucial aspects of party politics in the less-than-democratic former Soviet republics have been the impact of authoritarian practices on party politics and

  11. Country Profile: International Education in Schools in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Yury I.

    1982-01-01

    International education is central to Soviet education because of the many different nationalities in the USSR. Students learn about the history and cultures of the Soviet Union, as well as about the history of other nations. Special attention is paid to understanding the causes of war and conditions for peace. (IS)

  12. Organization of the Hydrological Service and Hydrological Studies in the Soviet Union

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaczmarek, Z

    1960-01-01

    Basic research in the field of hydrology, meteorology and oceanography is conducted in the Soviet Union by a combined hydrological and meteorological service under the direct control of the Council of Ministers...

  13. RLC AVHRR-Derived Land Cover, Former Soviet Union, 15-km, 1984-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is a 15-kilometer resolution land cover map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. There are sixty land cover classes distinguished in this...

  14. RLC Generalized Forest Map of the Former Soviet Union, 1-km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is the Former Soviet Union (FSU) portion of the Generalized World Forest Map (WCMC, 1998), a 1-kilometer resolution generalized forest cover map for...

  15. RLC AVHRR-Derived Land Cover, Former Soviet Union, 15-km, 1984-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This dataset is a 15-kilometer resolution land cover map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. There are sixty land cover classes distinguished in...

  16. Space activities in the Soviet Union, Japan, and the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    The space programs of the Soviet Union, Japan, and China are discussed. The types of launch vehicles they used and the classes of spacecraft they launched are examined. The political motivations of these nations are analyzed.

  17. RLC Generalized Forest Map of the Former Soviet Union, 1-km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is the Former Soviet Union (FSU) portion of the Generalized World Forest Map (WCMC, 1998), a 1-kilometer resolution generalized forest cover...

  18. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former

  19. Culture and the environment in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1985-03-01

    The Soviet Union is one of the most physically and culturally diverse nations on earth. Its natural environment embraces a rich variety of resources and ecosystems, many of which, such as Lake Baikal, are of world significance. Culturally, it is comprised of over a hundred ethnic groups, belonging to eight major language groups and six major religions. However, two cultures are dominant: the Slavic group (which takes in 75% of the USSR population and 80% of its land area) and the Turkic-Islamic peoples who account for the large majority of the remainder. Owing to the highly centralized nature of the country's political-administrative system, however, the effect of culture or ethnic traditions in the resolution of national environmental issues is quite small. Major decisions regarding either specific conservation issues or basic environmental policies are made at the centralized level by ministerial, planning, and Communist Party officials, and are based on pragmatically refined ideological considerations, rather than on regional cultural attitudes. This pragmatic refining of ideological considerations will involve the weighing of specific economic and environmental imperatives, and deciding on appropriate trade-offs. To find cultural expression in environmental management, one would need to look closely at local projects and approaches in the various ethnic regions, particularly the non-Slavic ones.

  20. Energy supply problems seen persisting in former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the former Soviet Union's energy crisis likely will persist through the end of the 1990s. However, rising natural gas and coal production may marginally ease the nation's fuel shortage at least by 1994. Especially important in easing energy problems in the new Commonwealth of Independent States will be conservation in industrial and domestic sectors, says a study published by the Moscow weekly Ekonomika i Zhizn (Economics and Life). C.I.S. oil flow is expected to fall again this year. But the study shows higher capital investment including foreign funds, improved technology, replacement of worn out equipment, better management, and market oriented prices could enable crude and condensate production to hold virtually steady at about 10 million b/d during 1995-2000. Without required changes, C.I.S. oil production could fall to about 9.2 million b/d by 1995 before recovering slightly to about 9.5 million b/d in 2000, the study shows

  1. Viral gastroenteritis in rotavirus negative hospitalized children Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Preeti; Samoilovich, Elena; Yermalovich, Marina; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Gheorghita, Stela; Cojocaru, Radu; Shugayev, Nazim; Sahakyan, Gayane; Lashkarashvili, Marina; Chubinidze, Marina; Zakhashvili, Khatuna; Videbaek, Dovile; Wasley, Annemarie; Vinjé, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Rotavirus causes nearly 40% of all hospitalizations for AGE among children Soviet Union. The etiologic role of other established gastroenteritis viruses in this age group is unknown. Laboratory-confirmed rotavirus negative fecal specimens (N=495) collected between January and December 2009 from children in 6 NIS (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine) were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, enteric adenovirus and astrovirus by real-time RT-PCR. Genotyping was carried out by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Norovirus, enteric adenovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus were detected in 21.8%, 4.0%, 3.2%, and 1.4% of the rotavirus negative specimens, respectively. Mixed infections were identified in 4.1% of the specimens. Phylogenetic analysis showed co-circulation of several different genotypes with GII.4 Den Haag (2006b) norovirus, GI.2 sapovirus, adenovirus type 41, and astrovirus type 1 causing majority of the infections. Norovirus, enteric adenovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus account for a significant proportion (30.5%) of AGE in hospitalized children <5 years of age in 6 NIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Problem behaviors of children adopted from the former soviet union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cheryl B; McGuinness, Teena M; Azuero, Andres; Pallansch, Leona

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the results of behavioral assessments collected at three time points of a cohort of children adopted from the former Soviet Union with particular emphasis on the impact of the adoptive family on problem behaviors. Families adopting from the former USSR are concerned about the influence of pre-adoptive circumstances on their child's future health. The study utilized data gathered in 1998 when the children's mean age was close to 8 years, in 2001 when the children were entering early adolescence, and in 2006 when the average age of the children was just over 15 years. The authors hypothesized that the negative impact of risk factors decreases over time, and that a family environment that is stable and supportive is inversely related to problem behaviors. The Child Behavior Checklist, the Family Environment Scale, and a parental report form were used for data collection. Significant relationships between family environment and problem behaviors over time were found, with lower levels of conflict and higher levels of cohesion associated to lower problem behaviors. Being female does contribute to problem behavior with the passage of time. Although the magnitude of these effects was small to moderate, a protective family environment may assist in decreasing problem behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1970-01-01

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  4. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  5. Military-Economic Role of "Lend-Lease" for the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Grigory G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the empirical analysis of the military-economic significance of Allied supplies to the Soviet Union through the "lend-lease". The author gives the description associated with the process of the formation of "lend-lease" for Soviet-American relations. The article describes the technical implementation of the program "lend-lease" at the initial stage of the great Patriotic war. For the first time in the domestic economic historiography author carries out the brief analysis of the scope of supplies of American products to the Soviet Union outside the program "lend-lease". For the first time also author analyzes the value of deliveries of military goods from the Western countries to the USSR on the base of valuation of Soviet military production in 1941 and 1942 on the basis of the actual exchange rate of Ruble to Dollar.

  6. RLC State and Regional Boundaries for the Former Soviet Union

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set of state and regional boundaries was derived from the 1:3 million scale administrative boundaries (ESRI, 1998) for the land area of the Former Soviet...

  7. The Soviet Union in the Third World: Successes and Failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-20

    American radio, cinema and literature negate Soviet influence culturally just as Western capital and technology undermine it economically. Moscow’s...only Latin American country where all of the above objectives largely have been achieved already. But as Paul Sigmund notes, the Cuban experience may...Soviet success. Sigmund agrees that "the Cuban intervention in Africa which clearly turned the tide in Angola, and probably in Ethiopia as well

  8. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  9. Illusions of Friendship? The Soviet Union and Russia in the Finnish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Luostarinen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The image of the Soviet Union and Russia has changed dramatically in the press in Finland after the World War II. This article is based on a frequency analysis in which mentions of certain countries, groups of states and international organizations were coded (like the Soviet Union/Russia, United States, NATO, UN etc.. To make the analysis more revealing and interesting, a distinction was made whether the mention was made in the context of (1 alliance, friendship and cooperation, or in the context of (2 distance, restriction and enemy image, or (3 both in a positive and in a negative context. The time frame was from 1945 till the end of the century, and the newspapers chosen for the study represented the whole political spectrum of the Finnish media. The selection criteria of the material emphasized national celebration days. The study proves clearly what has been the main object of Finnish foreign policy after the WW II: in all coded press material, the Soviet Union/Russia was mentioned 222 times which makes 37.5% of all mentions. Other important states or groups have been the United States (5.3 %, EC/EU/WEU/West-Europe (12.6 %, United Nations (9.0 % and Nordic council/Nordic co-operation (11.2 %. With very few exceptions, all mentions concerning the UN and Nordic co-operation are positive. The Soviet Union has also been described rather positively (77.5 %. The share of negative mentions is 8.1% and mixture of negative and positive mentions 14.4%. Images of the United States and the European alliances are most contradictory. In the case of USA, 54.8 % of the mentions are positive and 45.2% negative. Concerning EC/EU etc. 54.1 % of mentions are positive, 28.4 % negative and 17.6 % mixtures of positive and negative references. Changes in attitudes towards the Soviet Union in different time spots are remarkable. The share of negative mentions of the Soviet Union was very low, except in 1995 (30 % when Finland already was a member of the EU

  10. International assistance to upgrade the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Selected activities in Eastern and Central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.

    1993-12-01

    The overview is merely a snapshot of nuclear safety activities to assist the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. While many other activities are planned or ongoing, this publication is meant to provide a general overview of the world community's commitment to improving the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

  11. Theory and practice of population policies in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2017-01-01

    population policy, the formulation of goals, objectives, principles and approaches to assessment of the effectiveness of demographic policy.This study shows the difficulties facing the practical implementation of theoretical notions about population policy, the dependence of the population policies on specific historical and socio-economic conditions. The collapse of the Soviet Union has put the issue of developing conceptual frameworks and mechanisms for the implementation of demographic policies in the new economic and socio-political conditions. At the same time, theoretical and applied researches in the field of population policy during the USSR epoch largely retained their relevance, including the field of new support measures for families with children, the development of criteria and indexes for assessing the impact of demographic policies, improving the implementation methods of demographic programmes with regional peculiarities of the demographic situation.We still, as 50 years ago, are looking for the ways to increase fertility, to counter the threats of depopulation, and the ways to reduce the backlog in the life expectancy and optimize migration. Critical thinking on the theory and practice of population policies will help today in searching the opportunities to intensify the demographic policy and enhance its effectiveness, at both the federal and regional levels. 

  12. The health crisis in the former Soviet Union: a report from the 'post-war' zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, M G

    1995-12-01

    Observers of the Soviet health and demographic scene have noted that many of the phenomena (particularly mortality) were unprecedented in 'peace time.' In fact, the Cold War (or Third World War) was 'war time,' although not in the conventional military sense (it was ideological, political and economic warfare). The health crisis in the former Soviet Union is partly the result of that lost conflict by the Soviet side due to its inability to match the West in defense outlays and to provide for the needs of the civilian sector. Health conditions began to deteriorate in the late sixties, and were exacerbated by the collapse of the Soviet Empire in late 1991. These were reflected in increasing mortality and morbidity, decreasing natality, a deteriorating health service, and an environment ruined by the heedless drive toward industrialization and militarization. This resulted in a 'systemic' breakdown of the Soviet system, not only its health care structure. The situation of the former Soviet Union is that of a country that has suffered a humiliating national defeat with all the consequences of a 'post-war' situation, including inflation, anomie and social polarization. The health crisis is likely to get worse, and will not be resolved until a viable political, economic and social order is established. Today's deteriorating health and demographic situation will create 'echo' problems in the decade to come.

  13. History: An Analysis of the Former Soviet Union Foreign Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an appraisal of the FSU's foreign policy using Russia and Ukraine as case studies. The international context which Russia and Ukraine have confronted in view of the gravity of change, combined with the unique circumstances of their emergence through a process of the soviet state collapse, has ...

  14. Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kitty D.

    The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

  15. How successful was Joseph Stalin in establishing Soviet Union as a superpower?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Majkowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay will firstly address the extent of Stalin’s achievements in leading the course for domestic policy of the Soviet Union and its contribution towards maintaining the country’s supremacy in the world, for example the rapid post-war recovery of industry and agriculture, and secondly, the foreign policy including ambiguous relations with Communist governments of countries forming the Eastern Bloc, upkeeping frail alliances and growing antagonism towards western powers, especially the United States of America. The actions and influence of Stalin’s closest associates in the Communist Party and the effect of Soviet propaganda on the society are also reviewed. This investigation will cover the period from 1945 to 1953. Additionally, other factors such as the impact of post-war worldwide economic situation and attitude of the society of Soviet Union will be discussed.

  16. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  17. Naming Patterns of Recent Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union to Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Edwin D.; Glushkovskaya, Irina

    To identify patterns of first names over three generations, two samples of 100 Jewish families representing over 1,400 individuals from the former Soviet Union were interviewed. Sample 1 came mainly from Ukraine and European Russia; Sample 2 came from Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan. Individuals in the samples were born between 1886 and 1992. Both…

  18. Comparative Power Projectional Capabilities: The Soviet Union and the United States 1980-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-26

    fifty-year " Kondratieff cycle". The Russian economist’s projection of fifty years ago, based on upward curves derived from technological innovation and...exacerbated in a way Kondratieff could not have forseen - ironically by the Soviet Union’s enhanced ability to erode the stability of the world system. 2

  19. Primary care reforms in countries of the former soviet union: success and challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühlbrandt, C.; Boerma, W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This article examines primary care reforms in countries of the former Soviet Union. It places reforms in their wider political context and points to infrastructural, human and economic successes and challenges. There is great heterogeneity between countries regarding the effectiveness of

  20. Growth, Poverty and Inequality : Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Asad; Murthi, Mamta; Yemtsov, Ruslan; Murrugarra, Edmundo; Dudwick, Nora; Hamilton, Ellen; Tiongson, Erwin

    2005-01-01

    While the countries of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union have made significant progress in reducing poverty in the past five years, poverty and vulnerability remain significant problems. More than 60 million are poor and more than 150 million are vulnerable. Growth, Poverty, and Inequality examines these important issues and recommends that public policies focus on: accelerating s...

  1. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

  2. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York…

  3. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  4. A Comment on the Changes in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    At the time of their independence, the structure of higher education, curriculum content, governance, and admissions procedures were more or less identical across the fifteen republics of the former Soviet Union. Since independence there have been multiple changes, but often these have been quite similar in nature. There has been a move toward…

  5. Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

  6. Bias Factors in Mathematics Achievement Tests among Israeli Students from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Keren, Michal

    2016-01-01

    This study explains mathematical difficulties of students who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) vis-à-vis Israeli students, by identifying the existing bias factors in achievement tests. These factors are irrelevant to the mathematical knowledge being measured, and therefore threaten the test results. The bias factors were identified…

  7. Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Hilary F.

    The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

  8. Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

    2004-01-01

    Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

  9. Teaching Economics in the Former Soviet Union: New Curriculum, Old Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests that the reform of economic instruction in the Former Soviet Union should focus on both learning and action. The incorporation of mathematical methods into the new economic curriculum will occur based on close cooperation among mathematicians and economists. The new economic instruction will have an interdisciplinary…

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 7, May 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-13

    international affairs, who look at everything through the lens of anti-Sovietism, are ready to start the fireworks, to celebrate the failure to...requires the harnessing of all creative forces and the entire energy of the party and the people. Restructuring is not a sum of cosmetic operations...She started work at the Leningrad Institute of Neurosurgery. Surgery was based on the preliminary diagnosis and the physicians which would determine

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 10, July 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-21

    general scientific knowledge: the general theory of sys- tems, cybernetics, sociology and others. Sciences such as bionics appear at the intersection...Metaphorically speaking, scientific-theoretical awareness performs the role of the locomotive engine which pulls on the tracks of history the ordinary...true that the following question arises: "Is social science today ready to play the role of a ’ locomotive ’ which would pull mass consciousness forward

  12. Adult mortality patterns in the former Soviet Union's southern tier: Armenia and Georgia in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Duthé

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: While the health crisis in the former USSR has been well-documented in the case of Russia and other northern former Soviet republics, little is known about countries located in the southern tier of the region, i.e., the Caucasus and Central Asia. Objective: This paper presents new mortality information from two Caucasian countries, Georgia and Armenia. Results are compared with information from two relevant countries previously examined in the literature, Kyrgyzstan and Russia. Methods: Using official statistics (with adjustments when necessary, we compare adult mortality patterns in the four countries since 1979, for all causes and by cause for the recent period. For Kyrgyzstan results are presented by ethnicity, as its mortality levels have been impacted by its large Slavic population. Results: Adult mortality patterns in Armenia and Georgia have been more favorable than in Russia. This appears to be due to a large extent to lower mortality from alcohol-related causes. Mortality patterns in these Caucasian republics resemble those observed in Kyrgyzstan, especially when considering the native portion of the population. Conclusions: As far as mortality is concerned, Armenia and Georgia have weathered the collapse of the Soviet Union better than Russia. These results document a distinct southern tier pattern of adult mortality in the former Soviet Union. Contribution: This article enriches our understanding of the health crisis in the former Soviet Union by bringing new information from two lesser-known countries and further documenting the scale of heterogeneity in mortality experiences across this vast region.

  13. Infant mortality in Kyrgyzstan before and after the break-up of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Michel; Lim, So-Jung; Torgasheva, Liudmila; Denisenko, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty over the levels of, and trends in, infant mortality in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. As a result, the impact of the break-up of the Soviet Union on infant mortality in the region is not known, and proper monitoring of mortality levels is impaired. In this paper, a variety of data sources and methods are used to assess levels of infant mortality and their trend over time in one Central Asian republic, Kyrgyzstan, between 1980 and 2010. An abrupt halt to an already established decline in infant mortality was observed to occur during the decade following the break-up of the Soviet Union, contradicting the official statistics based on vital registration. Infants of Central Asian ethnicity and those born in rural areas were also considerably more at risk of mortality than suggested by the official sources. We discuss the implications of these findings, both for health policy in this seldom studied part of the former Soviet Union and for our understanding of the health crisis which it currently faces.

  14. Economic Leverage on the Soviet Union in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    administration’s position is certainly not mercantilist in the sense of striving for a larger U.S. esport surplus; the concern is with the efect of Soviet...and the value of hard currency esports that would have to be forgone to the @I*" wsrere I dIne ’away from export sectors. (An Padma Duda pointed...eartas tactics which are inconsistnt with our oe’ Identity n liberal democratic socetis." LA. p. 21. Urban ,spste, dly eod Holst bow the West could deal

  15. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the Ameri...

  16. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra

    2012-02-01

    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  17. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-01-01

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic

  18. Older immigrants from the former Soviet Union and their use of complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Son, Catherine R; Stasyuk, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    The population of older immigrants in the United States is growing and they bring their health beliefs and practices with them. Older immigrants from the former Soviet Union use a variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) remedies which includes in part: 1) foods to which medicinal properties are attributed, 2) herbs, 3) external treatments, and 4) pharmaceuticals manufactured in the former Soviet Union and available over-the-counter. These remedies vary in their efficacy and are often used in combination with or in lieu of prescribed allopathic (Western) medications. Health beliefs regarding medicine in the United States has led older Slavic immigrant to distrust their US health care providers and system. Nurses are in a key position to inquire and work with older Slavic immigrants to safely use their CAM and provide more information about prescribed allopathic medications and the harmful effects of combining remedies without consultation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-Term Depressive Symptoms and Acculturative Stress Issues Among Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Cathy J

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies regarding depressive symptoms and acculturative stress among immigrants have been limited to the initial period after immigration. The relationships between depressive symptoms, acculturation, and acculturative stress among immigrants from the former Soviet Union were examined in this descriptive study. Eighty immigrants from the former Soviet Union who had immigrated within the past 20 years were recruited in various community locations. Participants (N = 80), including recent and longer residing immigrants, reported elevated depressive symptoms and acculturative stress. Acculturative stress predicted depressive symptoms, controlling for dominant culture (American) immersion. However, length of time in the United States was not associated with depressive symptoms, ethnic culture immersion, or acculturative stress. Our results suggest that elevated depressive symptoms are related to acculturative stress but are not confined to the initial adjustment period. Steps to decrease acculturative stress might help decrease depressive symptoms in immigrants regardless of the number of years lived in the United States. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Adopted children from the former Soviet Union: are they at risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon

    2013-10-01

    One of the families in my practice is considering adoption of a 2-year-old child from the former Soviet Union. The family has been reassured by the agency that a doctor will examine the child to rule out developmental delays. However, my understanding from your previous articles is that one cannot rule out fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) at that age. Are these children at increased risk of developing FASD? You are correct: FASD cannot be ruled out at 2 years of age. The risk of FASD, neglect, and abuse among children in orphanages in the former Soviet Union is high. While adoption of children with known developmental delays should be encouraged and supported, most families seek to adopt with the assumption that these children will be healthy.

  1. Economic Aid to the Former Soviet union: A Chance for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-03

    particularly in the Ukraine .9 President Gorbachev’s central governmental concept ended with his formal resignation and closing out of the Soviet Union...monetary stabilization began In Russia on 2 January 1992. At least two other republics -- Ukraine and Belarus-- In the CIS also initiated price reforms...wages nd enforce strict government spending to prevent hyperinflation , price controls can work. Continued patience by Russian citizens and political

  2. Education and Ethnicity Revitalization in the Eurasian Countries of the Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Raby, Rosalind L.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Eurasian countries of the former Soviet Union all underwent similar transformations with respect to education and ethnicity revitalization. Each country has prominent ethnic populations with strong revitalization agendas who struggled to preserve their language and culture from assimilation and repression. Upon independence, revitalization efforts, while plentiful, were hampered by the reality of post-independent multilingual/multicultural populations that forced ind...

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 6, June 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-05

    potential not only for inhibiting the militarization of the capitalist economy but for its large-scale demilitarization as well. Realism in the eval...arena. Under these conditions, the positive approach to inter- national relations and the political restraint and realism shown by the Soviet Union...Capital 41-53 M. Boyko, VI. Kuznetsov, Neoclassical Theory of Con- trol Over Capital 54-57 S. Pyatenko, Study In Order to Apply 58-59 Distribution

  4. Ukrainian science before, during and after the fall of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-11-01

    My activities in science have stretched over 45 years, quite a long time. They started in the 1970s, during Brezhnev's rule and continued during the collapse of the Soviet Union and first few decades of an independent Ukrainian state. Unfortunately, most of the time doing science in the Ukraine has been hard. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. We are both diplomats and traders: Afghan transregional traders across the former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Building on fieldwork with Afghan traders in the former Soviet Union, this article uses the idea of diplomacy to explore the skills and capacities that are central to the traders’ self-understandings and working lives. Of central concern is the way in which the traders often identify themselves as being ‘diplomats’. The expressions of the traders’ diplomatic skills take various forms including an ability to speak multiple languages, form intimate personal relationships across the boundaries o...

  6. Teaching evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telen, Marilyn J

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named "eminence-based medicine." After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union?

  7. [History and current status of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia and former Soviet Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Lei, Yan

    2012-10-01

    A brief history and new developments of acupuncture moxibustion in the former Soviet Union is provided in this paper, as well as in Russia. Science of acupuncture-moxibustion was introduced into Russia after the 10th Century. After the foundation of People's Republic of China, acupuncture-moxibustion therapy has drawn widespread attention in the former Soviet Union and Russia since the 1950s. Notably, acupuncture moxibustion therapy was legalized and popularized in mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, which was gradually accepted as a part of the country's medical system. In the latest 20 years, Federal health departments have paid attention to acupuncture-moxibustion therapy and issued laws and regulations on acupuncture reflexotherapy. The number of books and journals about acupuncture-moxibustion has been increasing; clinical application of acupuncture-moxibustion has been spreading and is welcomed by people. Academic exchanges between China and Russia are more frequent, which promoted the development of science of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia.

  8. HIV/AIDS in the countries of the former Soviet Union: societal and attitudinal challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechel, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    For several years, some of the countries of the former Soviet Union have experienced the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the world, with the vast majority of reported infections contracted through injecting drug use. However, most governments of the region have been slow to recognize the severity of the problem. The scope and coverage of governmental HIV/AIDS programmes have remained very limited. Harm reduction programmes are mainly financed by external donors, while substitution treatment remains illegal in Russia and unavailable in some other countries of the region. Being based on a review of published and grey literature, this paper explores attitudinal and societal barriers to scaling up HIV programmes in the countries of the former Soviet Union. A major challenge in many countries is negative public attitudes towards people living with HIV, as well as towards those most at risk of contracting the disease: injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. This extends to the actions of state authorities which often pursue a punitive approach to drug users, with high rates of incarceration for minor drug offences. While many of the findings reported here relate to the Russian Federation, there is reason to believe that similar challenges exist in many other countries of the former Soviet Union. More needs to be done to document challenges to HIV prevention and treatment programmes across the region, so that policy interventions can be more effective.

  9. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Changzoo Song

    2016-01-01

    The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram) in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans w...

  10. Systems Analysis of Interaction between Russia and the European Union in the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasfilov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes post-Soviet relations between Russia and the European Union using the theoretical framework of neoclassical realism. It finds that the post-Soviet level of competition between Russia and the EU is higher than required by the international system. The reason is rooted in the influence of a number of internal factors (or intervening variables. Consequently, elites in both Russia and the EU are not able to adequately understand the signals sent by the international system. There is a wide variety of intervening variables; for example, there are factors caused by the political elites’ perceptions of each other’s intentions and of the international situation, factors related to inadequate information, factors related to the complex institutional structure of the EU and factors related to domestic political issues. In addition, the current international environment, characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, increases the effects of these intervening variables. These effects result in inaccurate and incorrect processing of the signals of the international system by Russian and European elites. As a result, a subsystem of international relations has arisen in the post-Soviet space, featuring a highly competitive environment. However, there are only two major actors in the region: Russia and the EU. Small countries are too weak, so must choose to align themselves with either Russia or the Euone or the other. This causes a rivalry between Russia and the EU for influence on small and medium-sized countries in the post-Soviet space.

  11. Suicide rates and socioeconomic factors in Eastern European countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union: trends between 1990 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; Milner, Allison; Värnik, Peeter

    2013-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the various Eastern European (EE) countries adapted in different ways to the social, political and economic changes. The present study aims to analyse whether the factors related to social integration and regulation are able to explain the changes in the suicide rate in EE. A separate analysis of suicide rates, together with the undetermined intent mortality (UD), was performed. A cross-sectional time-series design and applied a panel data fixed-effects regression technique was used in analyses. The sample included 13 countries from the former Soviet bloc between 1990 and 2008. Dependent variables were gender-specific age-adjusted suicide rates and suicide plus UD rates. Independent variables included unemployment, GDP, divorce rate, birth rate, the Gini index, female labour force participation, alcohol consumption and general practitioners per 100,000 people. Male suicide and suicide or UD rates had similar predictors, which suggest that changes in suicide were related to socioeconomic disruptions experienced during the transition period. However, male suicide rates in EE were not associated with alcohol consumption during the study period. Even so, there might be underestimation of alcohol consumption due to illegal alcohol and differences between methodologies of calculating alcohol consumption. However, predictors of female suicide were related to economic integration and suicide or UD rates with domestic integration. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A sociological analysis of labour unions and labour union elites in Developing countries: Turkish labour union elites

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Arslan

    2016-01-01

    This study will concern itself with Turkish labour unions and social portrait of contemporary Turkish labour union elites: firstly, brief information on theoretical and historical background of labour (trade) unions is given, then major findings about contemporary Turkish labour union elites are presented. Multiple methodological approaches were used to define the research subject, to outline the research universe. Extensive field researches comprise the major data sources of the study. V...

  13. Nuclear energy in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (1917-1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterman, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The study is divided into several main sections. A brief history of nuclear development in the USSR is described; in particular, the influence of military achievements on subsequent civilian applications is outlined. Economic factors affecting the utilisation of nuclear energy and the feasibility of nuclear fuel are discussed, and an attempt is made to identify organisational aspects of the industry. Past nuclear power plans are evaluated and compared with actual events, and the probable role of nuclear power beyond the 1980s is outlined. The depletion of conventional fuel resources in Eastern Europe has increased the viability of nuclear fuel. The political and economic consequences arising from the transfer of Soviet nuclear technology to the area are assessed. Finally, technological and economic aspects of power reactors in the Soviet Union are evaluated and, where possible, comparisons are made with Western achievements. (author)

  14. The safety of nuclear power plants in eastern Europe and countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Luis

    1996-01-01

    A particular type of pressurized light water reactors, WWERs, (water cooled, water moderated energy reactors) is the only Soviet designed nuclear power reactor which have been built outside the former Soviet Union. There are 45 such units in operation and 14 under construction, including those outside Eastern Europe. There are 11 first generation 440 MW(e) WWER model 110 (WWER-440/230) plants in operation. One of the two units in Armenia shut down since 1989, following a devastating earthquake near the site was restarted in 1995. Four units in the eastern part of Germany were shut down permanently in 1990. Four of the operating units are in Bulgaria, two are in the Slovak Republic and four are in Russia. All of these units had been designed before formal nuclear safety standards were issued in the Soviet Union, and lack safety features basic to other pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Their shortcomings reported in the assessments made by the IAEA and others include reactor pressure vessel embrittlement problems, limited emergency core cooling capability, insufficient redundancy and separation of safety equipment, deficient instrumentation and control systems, insufficient internal and external hazards protection, the lack of a containment, and the absence of comprehensive accident analysis and safety analysis reports. Of the second generation, 440 MW(e) WWER model 213 (WWER 440/213), 16 units are in operation: four in the Czech Republic, four in Hungary, two in Russia, two in the Slovak Republic, two in Ukraine and two in Finland. The two reactors in Finland have undergone significant safety improvements, particularly in the fitting of non-Soviet instrumentation and of a containment structure

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientific interactions with the Former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wide-ranging set of scientific interactions with technical institutes in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Many of these collaborations, especially those in pure science, began long before the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union. This overview will, however, focus for the most part on those activities that were initiated in the last few years. This review may also serve both to indicate the broad spectrum of US government interests that are served, at least in part, through these laboratory initiatives, and to suggest ways in which additional collaborations with the FSU may be developed to serve similar mutual interests of the countries involved. While most of the examples represent programs carried out by Los Alamos, they are also indicative of similar efforts by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. There are indeed other Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and many of them have active collaborative programs with FSU institutes. However, the laboratories specifically identified above are those with special nuclear weapons responsibilities, and thus have unique technical capabilities to address certain issues of some importance to the continuing interests of the United States and the states of the Former Soviet Union. Building on pre-collapse scientific collaborations and contacts, Los Alamos has used the shared language of science to build institutional and personal relationships and to pursue common interests. It is important to understand that Los Alamos, and the other DOE weapons laboratories are federal institutions, working with federal funds, and thus every undertaking has a definite relationship to some national objective. The fertile areas for collaboration are obviously those where US and Russian interests coincide

  16. Social desintegration and violent deaths in countries of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Daniel Bonaldi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intents to show that deep social transformations that took place in the Soviet Union, between middle 80s and middle 90s during XXth. century, provoqued a significant increase in violent deaths rates (suicides, homicides and accidents. Our study follows a theoretical perspective based on Durkheim ideas , that try to explain variations in violent deaths rates analyzing changes in the intensity and nature of social relationships. The analysis of evolution of specific rates by region, sex and age allowed us to verify that groups more directly affected by social transformations were those that also presented the highest rates in the proportion of violent deaths. 

  17. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R; Rivera Drew, Julia A

    2011-02-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants.

  18. Russian criminal culture among drug-addicted former soviet union immigrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liat, Yakhnich

    2017-07-05

    This article explores the cultural context of substance abuse among drug-addicted Former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants in Israel. Using a qualitative approach, it focuses on immigrant users' affiliation with the Russian criminal culture. The data analysis elicited a number of themes, including the key components of this culture, its attitude toward drug consumption, and its role in the users' lives and rehabilitation. It is argued that drug-addicted immigrants suffer multiple marginalization. Their affiliation with the ethnic criminal subculture serves as a defense reaction that protects their identities and grants them a sense of mastery not afforded in the wider society.

  19. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegselius, Per

    2010-09-01

    The historical evolution of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) decision-making in Western Europe and North America is already fairly well-known. For the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in particular the Soviet Union, we know less. There have recently been several good studies of Soviet nuclear power history (e.g. Schmid 2004, 2006, Josephson 2005), but none of them has gone into any depth when it comes to SNF, but rather focused on nuclear power reactors, public acceptance, the role of the media, etc. There are also several good overviews available that problematize the radioactive legacy of the Soviet Union, including the SNF and waste issue, but these studies do not address the historical dynamics and evolution of SNF management over a longer period of time; in other words, they fail to explain how and why the present state of affairs have actually come into being. The aim of this paper is to provide historical insight into the dynamics of SNF decision-making in the Soviet Union, from the origins of nuclear engineering in the 1930s to the collapse of the country in 1991. The nuclear fuel system can be described as a large technical system with a variety of interrelated components. The system is 'large' both because it involves key links between geographically disperse activities, and because it involves a variety of technologies, organizations and people that influence the dynamics and evolution of the system. Soviet SNF history is of particular interest in this context, with a nuclear fuel system that was the most complex in the world. The USSR was a pioneer within nuclear power and developed a variety of reactor designs and technologies for uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, as well as for transport, treatment, storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It explored both military and civil uses of the atom, and an enormous amount of people and organizations were involved in realizing highly ambitious nuclear programmes. The USSR is of

  20. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per (History of Science and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)), e-mail: perho@kth.se

    2010-09-15

    The historical evolution of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) decision-making in Western Europe and North America is already fairly well-known. For the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in particular the Soviet Union, we know less. There have recently been several good studies of Soviet nuclear power history (e.g. Schmid 2004, 2006, Josephson 2005), but none of them has gone into any depth when it comes to SNF, but rather focused on nuclear power reactors, public acceptance, the role of the media, etc. There are also several good overviews available that problematize the radioactive legacy of the Soviet Union, including the SNF and waste issue, but these studies do not address the historical dynamics and evolution of SNF management over a longer period of time; in other words, they fail to explain how and why the present state of affairs have actually come into being. The aim of this paper is to provide historical insight into the dynamics of SNF decision-making in the Soviet Union, from the origins of nuclear engineering in the 1930s to the collapse of the country in 1991. The nuclear fuel system can be described as a large technical system with a variety of interrelated components. The system is 'large' both because it involves key links between geographically disperse activities, and because it involves a variety of technologies, organizations and people that influence the dynamics and evolution of the system. Soviet SNF history is of particular interest in this context, with a nuclear fuel system that was the most complex in the world. The USSR was a pioneer within nuclear power and developed a variety of reactor designs and technologies for uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, as well as for transport, treatment, storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It explored both military and civil uses of the atom, and an enormous amount of people and organizations were involved in realizing highly ambitious nuclear programmes. The USSR is

  1. Quality of life among former Soviet Union and Israeli origin methadone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander; Pruginin, Itay

    2016-01-01

    A common treatment intervention for heroin addiction is methadone maintenance. In recent years a wider perspective has been adapted to understand and evaluate addiction through quality of life. This article examines quality of life conditions of 170 male former Soviet Union and Israeli origin drug users in methadone maintenance and provides an understanding of conditions linked to the World Health Organization Quality of Life project's best available techniques reference document. Having a partner or spouse and less chronic illness are positive factors affecting quality of life regardless of country of origin. Israeli born drug users reported better quality of life based on their psychological health and environment domain responses; no difference was found for the physical health and social relationship domains of the Israeli and former Soviet Union origin males. Because heroin addiction is a chronic and relapsing illness, one of the goals of methadone maintenance is to address patients' health status from a broad perspective. Based on clinical observations, the treatment of special populations may be enhanced if their particular needs are considered and met. Quality of life factors are relevant for assessing high risk groups, including those from different ethnic origins, in poor physical and psychological health, their treatment and personal adjustment, and their service personnel training needs.

  2. Mental health inequalities in 9 former Soviet Union countries: evidence from the previous decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the previous two decades, countries of the former Soviet Union underwent substantive economic and social changes. While there has been some limited evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic well-being and mental health in the developing and transitional economies, the evidence on economic inequalities in mental health has so far been scarce. In this paper, we analyse two unique datasets collected in 2001 (N = 18,428) and in 2010 (N = 17,998) containing data on 9 countries of the former Soviet Union, exploring how mental health inequalities have changed between 2001 and 2010. Using regression analysis, as well as the indirect standardization approach, we found that mental health appears to have substantially improved in most studied countries during the past decade. Specifically, both the proportion of people with poor mental health, as well as wealth-related inequalities in poor mental health, decreased in almost all countries, except Georgia. Hence, we did not find evidence of a trade-off between changes in average and distributional mental health indicators between 2001 and 2010. Our findings give ground for optimism that at least on these measures, the most difficult times associated with the transition to a market economy in this region may be coming to an end. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk and protective factors in children adopted from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, T M; McGuinness, J P; Dyer, J G

    2000-01-01

    The former Soviet Union (including the present independent republics of Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Belarus, Lithuania, and Georgia) is the leading source of children adopted from overseas by persons in the United States (US Department of State, 1998). This study sought to (a) characterize the current social, academic, and conduct competencies of 6- to 9-year-old children adopted from the former Soviet Union who have resided in the United States for at least 2 years and (b) evaluate both risks and protective influences of adoptive families and their relationships to competence via a structural equation model. Telephone interviews and a postal survey of children were drawn from a US community sample of 105 children. Measures included (a) Child Behavior Checklist, (b) Teacher Report Form, (c) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, (c) Family Environment Scale, and (d) demographic information. Many children had experienced abuse, abandonment, or neglect between birth and entry to the institution. Their mean birth weight was 2637 g, and alcohol abuse by the birth mother was common (41%). Although the children scored below average in competence, adoptive family environments were positive and served as buffers between the risks experienced by the children and the subsequent development of competence within the adoptive family. Children's abilities ranged from severely challenged to developmentally normal. The high rate of fetal alcohol exposure in the children may portend future challenges for families.

  4. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  5. The influence of concern about crime on levels of psychological distress in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Petticrew, Mark; McKee, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that the fear of crime is associated with worse mental health, with social capital potentially having a mediating influence. However, no studies could be identified on this issue in countries of the former Soviet Union, despite them experiencing increasing rates of crime and profound social change. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between concern about crime and levels of psychological distress in eight countries of the former Soviet Union. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in eight former Soviet countries using a standardised questionnaire containing items on psychological distress and concern about five criminal activities. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between concern about criminal activities and psychological distress. Separate regression models were run to explore the influence of social capital on this relationship. The first model (excluding social capital) produced significant positive coefficients of association for all five types of criminal activity with psychological distress, with a range from 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.54) for suffering abuse because of nationality to 0.56 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.70) for being sexually molested. The second model (including social capital) also showed significant associations for all five criminal activities, but coefficients were slightly smaller. This study provides preliminary evidence of a relationship between fear of crime and psychological distress in the study countries, with possibly a small mediating influence of social capital. Further studies are required to explore the relationship between fear of crime, social capital and mental health in the region.

  6. “Dawn in Russia” by W. Frank: Soviet Union in the Eyes of the American Traveler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Yu. Popova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of perception of the Soviet reality of 1930th by the American writer Waldo Frank are considered. In the 1920s the writer’s contacts with the USSR are tied up, in 1931, he visits the Soviet Union, the literary outcome of the trip is the travel agent «Dawn in Russia. Notes on the journey» («Dawn in Russia: the Record of a Journey», released in 1932 in the US by the publishing house «Charles Scribner’s Sons». In «Dawn in Russia» Frank clarifies the details of his journey about Moscow, Leningrad and the Volga cities, expresses the idea of the emergence of a «new world», ascending, alive, awakening from sleep; compares Soviet reality and «old Russia», not yet captured by revolutionary tendencies; reflects on the spiritual potential of the Russian people. In the last chapter, W. Frank gives an assessment of life in the Soviet Union: outlines the main trends in the development of the building of communism, examines the prospect of the influence of the Soviet model of the social system on capitalist states. Despite the interest of the Soviet audience in W. Frank, the translation of the book was not carried out. The article analyzes the Soviet reception of the book, contains fragments of reviews published in Literaturnaya Gazeta (No. 47, 1932 and Pravda (No. 358, 1932, the history of the literary connections of the writer with the Soviet Union is reconstructed and the reasons of their termination.

  7. Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

    2010-01-01

    The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

  8. Communication and Academic Challenges in Early Adolescence for Children Who Have Been Adopted from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Brenda L.; McGuinness, Teena M.; Blanton, Debra J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This was a Time II survey of outcomes for children, now ages 9 to 13 years, who were almost 4 years old on average when they were adopted from the former Soviet Union. Method: As part of a larger study (see T. McGuinness, R. Ryan, & C. Broadus Robinson, 2005), parents of 55 children (M age = 11 years) were surveyed regarding their…

  9. A distribution list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera of Tian-Shan within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Korb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A distributive list of butterflies of Tian-Shan in borders of former Soviet Union is compiled, it contains 289 species: Hesperiidae – 21 species, Papilionidae – 21 species; Pieridae – 38 species, Satyridae – 67 species, Lybitheidae – 1 species, Danaidae – 1 species, Nymphalidae – 42 species, Riodinidae – 2 species, Lycaenidae – 96 species. New synonyms are established.

  10. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs, Press Surveys from Soviet Southern Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-17

    teenagers must always be at the center of attention." THREE NEW OIL WELLS IN CASPIAN [Editorial Report] Baku KOMMUNIST in Azeri 13 September 1983...in the rayon. "Perfecting a materialist worldview in the younger generation is one of the basic duties of Soviet schools. In this direction

  11. Explanatory models of health and disease: surprises from within the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract The review of anthropological theories as applied to public health by Jennifer J. Carroll (Carroll, 2013 published in this issue of TCPHEE made me recollect my first and most surprising discoveries of how differently same things can be understood in different parts of the world. Probably less unexpectedly, these impressions concern substance abuse and addiction behaviors, similarly to many examples deployed by Jennifer J. Carroll. The first of these events happened soon after the break-up of the Soviet Union when some of the most active people from the West rushed to discover what was going on behind the opening iron curtain. A director of an addiction clinic, who had just come into contact with a Dutch counterpart, invited me to join the collaboration and the innovation process he planned to launch. Being a participant of the exchange program started within this collaboration, I had an opportunity to discover how addictive behaviors were understood and explained in books (English, 1961; Kooyman, 1992; Viorst, 1986 recommended by the colleagues in the Netherlands and, as I could observe with my own eyes, addressed in everyday practice. This was a jaw-dropping contrast to what I learnt at the soviet medical university and some post-graduate courses, where all the diseases related to alcohol, tobacco, or drug abuse were considered predominantly a result of the substance intake. In the Soviet discourse, the intake itself was understood as 'willful and deliberate' or immoral behavior which, in some cases, was to be rectified in prison-like treatment facilities. In the West, quite oppositely, substance abuse was seen rather as a consequence of a constellation of life-course adversities thoroughly considered by developmental psychology. This approach was obviously deeply ingrained in how practitioners diagnosed and treated their patients.

  12. Migrant Selection and the Health of U.S. Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Irma T.

    2012-01-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000–2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50–84). Our findings suggest an “epidemiologic paradox” in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970–1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987–2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites. PMID:22421810

  13. Migrant selection and the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T

    2012-05-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000-2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50-84). Our findings suggest an "epidemiologic paradox" in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970-1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987-2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites.

  14. The conversion of military science and technology: Former Soviet Union case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellini, M.

    1998-01-01

    The end of the Cold War which has brought deep changes in the very concept of defence, requires fundamental changes in the defence strategies of all nations, the new international situation is encouraging the conversion of the military sector for the benefit of the civilian economy. This process involves many companies that have previously worked mostly or exclusively on the basis of military orders. In particular, from the nuclear non-proliferation point of view and environmental safety standpoint, some urgent problems arise: civilian management of military nuclear technologies, management and storage of weapon-grade materials, namely plutonium and highly enriched uranium from dismantled nuclear warheads, cleaning and reusing large areas which have been taken up for the production of weapon-grade plutonium and uranium enrichment (in Soviet Union so called 'atomic sites'), retraining scientific personnel and engineers in the nuclear military industry

  15. Psychological and mental illness among elder immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Svetlana A; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the cultural context of psychological illness among elder immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Kleinman's (1980) explanatory model of illness and Leininger's theory of culture care (1997) provided the conceptual framework for the study. Participant Observations were conducted in an Adult Day Care Center and Senior Housing. Twenty-three key informants and 10 general informants participated. The social and historical context of the FSU influenced the meaning, attitudes, expressions, and coping strategies toward psychological and mental illness. Cultural stigma influenced the attribution of cause, somatic expression of symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking professional help. Psychological illness was unrecognized, whereas mental illness was viewed as lack of dusha (inner strength and moral character). Group differences were evident with ethnicity as a significant influence in symptom recognition, expression, and attitude toward seeking professional help.

  16. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Zawacki-Richter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review of distance education research in the Anglo-American sphere showed that within the past 10 years not a single article dealing with the Russian system was published. Consequently, within international DE research Russia remains uncharted territory. The following explorative study introduces the educational and tertiary educational system and presents current statistical data while emphasizing the historical perspective to further describe how the distance education system is embedded therein. In order to discuss current practice in this field, one of the biggest higher distance education institutions in Moscow with approximately 110,000 students is used as an example.

  17. Longitudinal Changes in Acculturation for Immigrant Women from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Wang, Edward; Szalacha, Laura A.; Sorokin, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Most research on immigrant acculturation has been conducted with cross-sectional samples, using statistical designs that may not capture different trajectories for the components that contribute to this complex concept. The purpose of this study was to examine change over time in acculturation for 226 women from the former Soviet Union who had lived in the US fewer than eight years when recruited. Using self-report data from four annual waves, growth trajectories were examined in four components of acculturation (American behavior, Russian behavior, English language proficiency, and cultural generativity). Results indicate that these components changed at varying rates. Acculturation is a process with multiple distinct components which should be measured separately to obtain a full profile of change over time. PMID:22180661

  18. Ethnic Clusters in Public Housing and Independent Living of Elderly Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, Andrey; Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The study examines the effects of ethnic clusters and independent living arrangements on adaptation of elderly immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. The multigenerational living arrangements were compared with independent living in a dispersed ethnic community and in an ethnic cluster of public housing. The residents of the ethnic clusters of public housing reported poorer health, were more reliant on government resources, and experienced greater acculturative hassles. However, public housing residents reported significantly larger Russian-speaking and American social networks, greater American acculturation, higher social support from neighbors, as well as lower cultural alienation. In contrast, the multigenerational living arrangements were related to greater social support from extended family and higher extended family satisfaction. While, the independent living in the dispersed ethnic community was associated with smaller American social networks and higher levels of cultural alienation. The results highlight how the ecologies of different living arrangements are reflected in the nature of acculturative, social, and psychological experiences of elderly immigrants.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtype A in former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibekova, Lazzat; Foley, Brian; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Raees, Muhammad; Abdraimov, Sabit; Toichuev, Rakhmanbek; Ali, Syed

    2018-01-01

    While in other parts of the world it is on decline, incidence of HIV infection continues to rise in the former Soviet Union (FSU) countries. The present study was conducted to investigate the patterns and modes of HIV transmission in FSU countries. We performed phylogenetic analysis of publicly available 2705 HIV-1 subtype A pol sequences from thirteen FSU countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Our analysis showed that the clusters from FSU countries were intermixed, indicating a possible role of transmigration in HIV transmission. Injection drug use was found to be the most frequent mode of transmission, while the clusters from PWID and heterosexual transmission were intermixed, indicating bridging of HIV infection across populations. To control the expanding HIV epidemic in this region, harm reduction strategies should be focused on three modes of transmission, namely, cross-border migration, injection drug use and heterosexual.

  20. Cross border environmental issues arising from the former Soviet Union nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.R.; Dooley, J.J.; Bradley, D.J.

    1998-02-01

    Radioactive contamination from sites in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) threaten bordering states via transport through marine environments. Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Finland share waterways or border common bodies of water with the FSU. Cross-border contamination resulting from past and in some cases current radioactive waste practices FSU nuclear wastes could under the right circumstances destabilize military, economic, or other relationships between the FSU and these border nations. The United States has an ongoing obligation to assist many of these border nations in times of need. This analysis was sponsored by the Office of Policy and International Affairs, Office of Materials-Asset Management and National Security Policy Analysis. The Center for Environmental Security was tasked to identify cross-border and other policy issues from an extensive body of technical materials dealing with nuclear materials management in the Former Soviet Union compiled over time by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analysis focused on cross-border impacts but also provides insights into policy analysis based on this existing technical work. The efficiencies and results realized by this study indicate that this analytical methodology has merit for additional policy studies. There are three elements comprising the problem of understanding cross border transport. The amount of FSU nuclear waste that has been disposed of in ways that did not, or probably will not contain the waste is the first element. The past and probable future entry of these wastes into groundwater and surface waters, thence to seas is the second. Finally, adverse effects on human health and welfare from ingesting contaminated sea products, and from damaged fisheries and food production activities is the third

  1. Teaching - methodical and research center of hydrogen power engineering and platinum group metals in the former Soviet Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimov, A.A; Sigov, A.S; Shinkarenko, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Teaching - Methodical and Research Center (TMRC) 'Sokolinaja Gora' is founded in order to provide methodical-information and scientific support of institutes of higher education in the field of hydrogen power engineering and platinum group metals in Russia and in the countries of the Former Soviet union. It is independent association of creative communities of scientist of higher educational specialists. The main directions of the Center activity are: 1. Teaching-methodological support and development of teaching in the field of hydrogen power engineering and platinum group metals in Russia in the countries of the Former Soviet Union. Themes of teaching includes the basic of safe using of hydrogen technologies and devices, ecological, economic and law aspects of new hydrogen power engineering, transition to which in 21 century is one of the central problems of mankind survival; 2. Organizing of joint researches by independent creative communities of scientists in the field of hydrogen power engineering and platinum group metal; 3. Independent scientific examination, which is made by Advisory Committee of High Technologies consisting of representatives of the countries of Former Soviet Union, which are standing participants of an Annual International Symposia 'Hydrogen Power Engineering and Platinum Group Metals in the Former Soviet Union Countries'. Structure of the Center: 1. Center of strategic development in the field of high technologies; 2. Scientific Research Institute of Hydrogen Power Engineering and Platinum Group Metals; 3. Teaching-Methodical Association in specialization 'Hydrogen Power Engineering and economics' and hydrogen wide spread training; 4. Media Center 'Hydrogen Power Engineering and Platinum Group Metals', 5. Organizational Center; 6. Administrative Center. The Center will be established step-by-step in 2005-2010 on the basis of the following programs: Teaching-methodological program. On the basis of this program it is planned to

  2. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met

  3. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met [fr

  4. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met [es

  5. Social factors associated with alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Adrianna; Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a major cause of premature mortality in countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Despite the unique social profile of the region, we could find no published systematic review of studies of social factors and alcohol consumption in formerly Soviet countries. We aim to critically review the current evidence for social factors associated with alcohol consumption in the fSU and to identify key gaps in the literature. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health databases for cross-sectional, case-control, longitudinal or qualitative studies of demographic, socio-economic, psycho-social and contextual factors associated with alcohol consumption, in any language, published from 1991 until 16 December 2011. Additional studies were identified from the references of selected papers and expert consultation. Our review followed PRISMA guidelines for the reporting of systematic reviews. Our search strategy resulted in 26 articles for review. Although there is strong evidence in the literature that males and smokers in the fSU are more likely to engage in hazardous alcohol consumption, findings regarding other social factors were mixed and there were almost no data on the association of contextual factors and alcohol consumption in this region. This review highlights the extremely limited amount of evidence for social factors associated with heavy alcohol consumption in the fSU. Given the unique social environment of countries of the fSU, future research should take these factors into account in order to effectively address the high levels of alcohol-related mortality in this region.

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military History Journal, No. 11, November 1987

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    .... The articles are By the Course Indicated by Lenin, Outstanding Victory of Soviet Army, Strategic Soviet Troop Regroupings in Preparation of 1942-1943 Winter Campaign, Combat of 87th Rifle Division...

  7. Morphometric Characteristics of Ice and Snow in the Arctic Basin: Aircraft Landing Observations from the Former Soviet Union, 1928-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sea ice and snow measurements collected during aircraft landings associated with the Soviet Union's historical Sever airborne and North Pole...

  8. Morphometric Characteristics of Ice and Snow in the Arctic Basin: Aircraft Landing Observations from the Former Soviet Union, 1928-1989, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains sea ice and snow measurements collected during aircraft landings associated with the Soviet Union's historical Sever airborne and North Pole...

  9. The Soviet Union and Muslim Guerrilla Wars, 1920-1981: Lessons for Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    inability of the Soviet-backed Afghan regimes to defeat the Afghan resistance movements and to govern the population in the wake of the Soviet invasion of...Kazakh revolt of 1916. The Soviets subsequently participated in extended conflicts against the Basmachi movement in Central Asia and Muslim...environment that defies control , and the preemptive actions of the Muslim guerrillas, most efforts by the Soviet and Afghan governments have ended in

  10. Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies.

  11. Alcohol poisoning in Russia and the countries in the European part of the former Soviet Union, 1970 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Andreev, Evgueni; Razvodovsky, Yury; Vågerö, Denny; McKee, Martin

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the phenomenon of alcohol poisoning in Russia and the countries in the European part of the former Soviet Union in the period 1970-2002. Four time points were chosen spanning the late Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Data relating to alcohol poisoning deaths were collected at each point for the countries in the region-Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia and Ukraine. Age-standardized death rates from alcohol poisoning were subsequently calculated for the total population and separately for men and women. In 1970, the alcohol poisoning rates in the countries in this region were exceptionally high in comparative terms. Rates continued to rise in the late Soviet period in all the countries, only falling in the period following Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign. Mortality from alcohol poisoning became more common amongst women during the study period. In post-Soviet society alcohol poisoning mortality is occurring on an unprecedented scale although there may be some divergence in trends between the Slavic and Baltic countries which had mirrored each other in the Soviet period. Extremely high poisoning rates are probably explained by a combination of the volume of alcohol being consumed, what exactly is drunk and how it is being drunk. The consumption of illicitly produced alcohol in the post-Soviet period may also be contributing to the high mortality rates. Acute alcohol poisoning has now reached unprecedented rates in parts of the ex-USSR with worrying trends among men as well as among women. Effective action by the governments concerned is now essential.

  12. New currencies in the Former Soviet Union: a recipe for hyperinflation or the path to price stability

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Melliss; Mark Cornelius

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the break-up of the rouble zone after the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991 and the opportunities and risks involved in establishing separate currencies in the new republics of the FSU. Fundamental disagreements about the desirable pace of economic reform, together with the need for radical changes in the pattern of economic activity, greatly weakened the case for retention of a single currency. Also, by mid-1993, the reformers in Russia had realised that cont...

  13. A surge of MDR and XDR tuberculosis in France among patients born in the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C; Brossier, F; Sougakoff, W; Veziris, N; Frechet-Jachym, M; Metivier, N; Renvoisé, A; Robert, J; Jarlier, V

    2013-08-15

    A marked increase in the number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) cases entirely related to patients born in the Former Soviet Union was observed in France in the last two years. Very few cases were clustered, suggesting it is a consequence of recent immigration of patients already infected in their country of origin. This major increase challenges the existing structures for management of MDR and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB).

  14. Epizootic of vesicular disease in pigs caused by coxsackievirus B4 in the Soviet Union in 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakina, Natalia F; Shustova, Elena; Strizhakova, Olga M; Drexler, Felix; Lukashev, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) emerged around 1960 from a human enterovirus ancestor, coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), and caused a series of epizootics in Europe and Asia. We characterized a coxsackievirus B4 strain that caused an epizootic involving 24 488 pigs in the Soviet Union in 1975. Phylogenetic evidence suggested that the swine virus emerged from a human ancestor between 1945 and 1975, almost simultaneously with the transfer of CVB5.

  15. The Epidemiologic Vocabulary of the West and the Former Soviet Union: Different Sides of the Same Science

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoryan, Anna; Clarke, Carmen; Zueva, Lyudmila; Chumachenko, Tetyana; Maes, Edmond F.; Smoak, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this project was to develop an English-Russian Epidemiology Dictionary, which is needed for improved international collaboration in public health surveillance. Introduction As part of the US Department of Defense strategy to counter biological threats, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency?s Cooperative Biological Engagement Program is enhancing the capabilities of countries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) to detect, diagnose, and report endemic and epidemic, man-made ...

  16. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  17. Publication Productivity in Central Asia and Countries of the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Askarova, Sholpan; Welburn, Sharon C; Goughnour, Sharon L; Konishi, Ayumi; LaPorte, Ronald; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant number of research institutions and rich scientific heritage, published research from Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan) is traditionally underrepresented in international scientific literature. The goal of this paper was to analyze publication patterns in Central Asian countries, and to explore the factors that contributed to the publication productivity in Kazakhstan. Publication productivity was evaluated using data generated by the SCImago Journal & Country Rank over the period of 1996-2014 for all of the 15 former Soviet Union Republics for all subject categories. Country specific data, including total population, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, research and development (R&D) expenditure (% of GDP), number of reserchers (per million people), was abstracted from World Bank data. ANOVA and ANCOVA analyses compared the mean number of publications among Central Asian countries. Separate analyses was done for publication patterns in the health sciences. Multiple comparisons were performed using Tukey method. The analysis of publication productivity showed significant discrepancies in the number of published documents among the Central Asian countries. Kazakhstan demonstrated a significant increase in the number of published documents in the period of 1996-2014, mainly in the areas of natural and multidisciplinary sciences. Our analyses also showed that the number of publications are siginicantly associated with GDP and population size. We identified large gaps in publication productivity among the Central Asian countries. The association between publication rate with GDP and population size indicates there is a need to adjust for these factors when planning research policy.

  18. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Bouville, A.

    1995-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance

  19. Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Eugenia V; Ives, A R; Pidgeon, A M; Kuemmerle, T; Baskin, L M; Gubar, Y P; Piquer-Rodríguez, M; Keuler, N S; Petrosyan, V G; Radeloff, V C

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse. The long-term Database of the Russian Federal Agency of Game Mammal Monitoring, consisting of up to 50,000 transects that are monitored annually, provided an exceptional data set for investigating these population trends. Three species showed strong declines in population growth rates in the decade following the collapse, while grey wolf (Canis lupus) increased by more than 150%. After 2000 some trends reversed. For example, roe deer (Capreolus spp.) abundance in 2010 was the highest of any period in our study. Likely reasons for the population declines in the 1990s include poaching and the erosion of wildlife protection enforcement. The rapid increase of the grey wolf populations is likely due to the cessation of governmental population control. In general, the widespread declines in wildlife populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union highlight the magnitude of the effects that socioeconomic shocks can have on wildlife populations and the possible need for special conservation efforts during such times. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebel, P.E. [BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

  1. Hazardous alcohol drinking in the former Soviet Union: a cross-sectional study of eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, Joceline; McKee, Martin; Rose, Richard; Haerpfer, Christian W; Rotman, David; Tumanov, Sergej

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous consumption of large quantities of alcohol is a major cause of ill-health in the former Soviet Union (fSU). The objective of this study was to describe episodic heavy drinking and other hazardous drinking behaviors in eight countries of the fSU. Data from national surveys of adults conducted in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2001 were used (overall sample size 18,428; response rates 71-88%). Heavy episodic drinking, high alcohol intake, drinking alcohol during the working day, and using illegally produced strong spirits were examined. On average, 23% of men and 2% of women were defined as heavy episodic drinkers (> or = 2 l of beer or > or = 750 g bottle of wine or > or = 200 g strong spirits at least once every 2-3 weeks). This was more common in young males, women who are single or who are divorced/separated/widowed, in smokers, and in frequent alcohol drinkers. About half the respondents who drank strong spirits obtained at least some alcohol from private sources. Among drinkers, 11% of males and 7% of women usually took their first drink before the end of working day. Heavy episodic alcohol drinking is frequent in males throughout the region--although prevalence rates may have been affected by underreporting--but is still relatively rare in women. Alcohol policies in the region should address hazardous drinking patterns and the common use of illegally produced alcohol.

  2. The first year of hyperinflation in the former Soviet Union: nutritional deprivation among elderly pensioners, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, D; Welch, K

    1996-03-01

    Hyperinflation began in early 1992 in the former Soviet Union. This paper describes factors associated with nutritional status that year among elderly pensioners. Approximately 300 pensioners were selected randomly in each of eight cities. Surveys of diet, weight, health status, and social and economic conditions were done between June and December 1992. This paper reports on 2281 completed questionnaires. Half the pensioners reported that they had lost 5 or more kilograms in the prior 6 months; 57% did not have enough money to buy food, and 39% needed medicines they could not afford. Forty percent consumed less than a half kilogram of meat, 50% consumed less than a half kilogram of fruit, a third consumed less than a liter of milk, and a third consumed less than 2 kg of bread per week. Weight loss was strongly associated with not having enough money to buy food, and inability to afford medication, and consumption of fewer than three meals a day. Concurrent with these conditions, there was a large increase in mortality in Russia. The results of these surveys suggest that many elderly pensioners were experiencing severe nutritional deprivation in the latter half of 1992.

  3. Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F.; Ebel, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy's International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy's program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC ampersand A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC ampersand A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC ampersand A Programs

  4. Patterns of public support for price increases on alcohol in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Murphy, Adrianna; Kizilova, Kseniya; Bryden, Anna; Rotman, David; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    To measure levels of public support for price increases on beer and spirits in nine former Soviet Union countries and to examine the characteristics influencing such support. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 with 18,000 respondents aged 18+ in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. The lowest level of support for price increases on beer were in Georgia (men 5%, women 9%) and Armenia (men 5%, women 11%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 30%, women 38%), Azerbaijan (men 27%, women 37%) and Russia (men 23%, women 34%). The lowest levels of support for price increases on spirits were Armenia (men 8%, women 14%) and Georgia (men 14%, women 21%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 38%, 47% women) and Moldova (men 36%, women 43%). Characteristics associated with supporting price increases included gender (women), higher education, good economic situation, lower alcohol consumption and greater knowledge of harmful alcohol behaviour. Alcohol price increases are an effective means to reduce hazardous alcohol use. Despite opposition in some groups, there is evidence of public support for alcohol price increases in the study countries.

  5. Food consumption and nutritional labeling among immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit; Zemach, Mina; Tirosh-Kamienchick, Yaara

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional labeling helps consumers make healthier choices regarding food product purchases. In this study, we examined the difference between immigrants from the former Soviet Union who emigrated to Israel beginning in 1990 (IIFSU) and the general population of Israel regarding food consumption broadly and the use of nutritional labeling specifically. A representative sample of each population (n = 592) was composed and interviewed. According to the findings, compared to the general population, the IIFSU attribute less importance to health factors in purchasing food products and information about the ingredients contained in food products; they tend not to follow nutritional labels; and report less on the need for nutritional integrative labeling. Following from this, in the second part of the study, we investigated which of the socio-economic variables is most dominant in shaping attitudes towards food consumption and nutritional labeling. Only immigration and age were found in correlation with attitudes related to healthy food consumption. In contrast, gender, education and religious observance did not affect food selection. Immigration was recognized as the main factor with more clout than the other variables. In conclusion, it is crucial to clarify immigrants' perceptions of the concept of "health" and "proper nutrition" in formulating health promotion programs.

  6. Male solitary drinking and hazardous alcohol use in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Kizilova, Kseniya; McKee, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking. Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Crime and subjective well-being in the countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-03

    Criminal victimisation and subjective well-being have both been linked to health outcomes, although as yet, comparatively little is known about the relationship between these two phenomena. In this study we used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to examine the association between different types of crime and subjective well-being. Data were obtained from 18,000 individuals aged 18 and above collected during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Ukraine. Information was obtained on respondents' experience of crime (violence and theft) and self-reported affective (happiness) and cognitive (life satisfaction) well-being. Ordered probit and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses were undertaken to examine the associations between these variables. In pooled country analyses, experiencing violence was associated with significantly lower happiness and life satisfaction. Theft victimisation was associated with significantly reduced life satisfaction but not happiness. Among the individual countries, there was a more pronounced association between violent victimisation and reduced happiness in Kazakhstan and Moldova. The finding that criminal victimisation is linked to lower levels of subjective well-being highlights the importance of reducing crime in the fSU, and also of having effective support services in place for victims of crime to reduce its detrimental effects on health and well-being.

  8. The effect of health on labour supply in nine former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Rocco, Lorenzo; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines for the first time the consequences of ill health on labour supply for a sample of nine countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU), using a unique multicountry household survey specifically designed for this region. We control for a wide range of individual, household, and community factors, using both standard regression techniques and instrumental variable estimation to address potential endogeneity. Specifically, we find in our baseline ordinary least squares specification that poor health is associated with a decrease in the probability of working of about 13 %. Controlling for community-level unobserved variables slightly increases the magnitude of this effect, to about 14 %. Controlling for endogeneity with the instrumental variable approach further supports this finding, with the magnitude of the effect ranging from 12 to 35 %. Taken together, our findings confirm the cost that the still considerable adult health burden in the FSU is imposing on its population, not only in terms of the disease burden itself, but also in terms of individuals' labour market participation, as well as potentially in terms of increased poverty risk. Other things being equal, this would increase the expected "return on investment" to be had from interventions aimed at improving health in this region.

  9. Changing patterns of fruit and vegetable intake in countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sarah Krull; Stickley, Andrew; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-11-01

    To assess how the frequency of low fruit and vegetable consumption has changed in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) between 2001 and 2010 and to identify factors associated with low consumption. Cross-sectional surveys. A standard questionnaire was administered at both time points to examine fruit and vegetable consumption frequency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between demographic, socio-economic and health behavioural variables and low fruit and vegetable consumption in 2010. Nationally representative population samples from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Adults aged 18 years and older. Between 2001 and 2010 notable changes occurred in fruit and vegetable consumption in many countries resulting in a slight overall deterioration in diet. By 2010 in six countries about 40% of the population was eating fruit once weekly or less often, while for vegetables the corresponding figure was in excess of 20% in every country except Azerbaijan. A worse socio-economic situation, negative health behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and rural residence were all associated with low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. International dietary guidelines emphasise the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption. The scale of inadequate consumption of these food groups among much of the population in many FSU countries and its link to socio-economic disadvantage are deeply worrying. This highlights the urgent need for a greater focus to be placed on population nutrition policies to avoid nutrition-related diseases in the FSU countries.

  10. Health Care Reform in the Former Soviet Union: Beyond the Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess accessibility and affordability of health care in eight countries of the former Soviet Union. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collection conducted in 2010 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Study Design Cross-sectional household survey using multistage stratified random sampling. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were collected using standardized questionnaires with subjects aged 18+ on demographic, socioeconomic, and health care access characteristics. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used. Principal Findings Almost half of respondents who had a health problem in the previous month which they viewed as needing care had not sought care. Respondents significantly less likely to seek care included those living in Armenia, Georgia, or Ukraine, in rural areas, aged 35–49, with a poor household economic situation, and high alcohol consumption. Cost was most often cited as the reason for not seeking health care. Most respondents who did obtain care made out-of-pocket payments, with median amounts varying from $13 in Belarus to $100 in Azerbaijan. Conclusions Access to health care and within-country inequalities appear to have improved over the past decade. However, considerable problems remain, including out-of-pocket payments and unaffordability despite efforts to improve financial protection. PMID:22092004

  11. Sensitive analysis of genetic heterogeneity of adenovirus types 3 and 7 in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, G I; Zolotaryov, F N; Yurlova, T I

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of adenovirus strains isolated in the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988 revealed four genome types of adenovirus type 3 (Ad3), i.e., Ad3a4, Ad3a9, Ad3a10, and Ad3a11, and four genome types of adenovirus type 7 (Ad7), i.e., Ad7p, Ad7a, Ad7a(1-5), and Ad7f1, identified with the DNA restriction enzymes BamHI, BglII, and HindIII. Three of them, Ad3a10, Ad3a11, and Ad7f1, are newly discovered. The genetic heterogeneity of adenoviruses was examined with restriction endonuclease Cfr13I with a 4-base recognition cleavage site. Eighteen different restriction patterns were identified among 21 selected Ad3 strains after cleavage of DNA with Cfr13I. Eight different subtypes were identified among 20 Ad7 strains by the same technique. For estimation of the relationships among these genome subtypes, pairwise analyses of comigrating DNA restriction fragments from isolates of Ad3 and Ad7 were done after digestion with Cfr13I or with restriction endonucleases recognizing DNA sequences of 6 bp. Surprisingly, the results were very discrepant. Images PMID:1658038

  12. Present situation of radioactive contamination in and around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Hoshi, M.; Takada, J.; Tsukatani, T.; Oikawa, S.; Yoshikawa, I.; Takatsuji, T.; Sekerbaev, A. Kh.; Gusev, B.I.

    2001-01-01

    Field missions were sent to the Semipalatinsk regions to investigate the present radioecological situation as a result of the radioactive fallout from nuclear test explosions carried out at the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). For this purpose, surface and core soil samples were collected at more than 60 sites, including several settlements such as Dolon, Chagan and Sarzhal, within and outside the SNTS territory. The radioactivities of long-lived radionuclides, 137 Cs, 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu, and the atomic ratio of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu were determined in combination with non-destructive g-ray spectrometric method and radiochemical separation followed by a-particle spectrometric and/or ICP-MS methods. The results showed a distinction of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu inventories in soil depending on a sampling sites. Although 137 Cs was within typical environmental levels except for the area near the first nuclear test site and Balapan, 239,240 Pu was at elevated levels in all areas we visited. This high Pu contamination was recognized to be due to the weapons-grade Pu from the SNTS by the measurement of 240 Pu/ 239P u atomic ratio in soil samples. (author)

  13. Managing military uranium and plutonium in the United States and the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, M.; Holdren, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Effective approaches to the management of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)--the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons--are fundamental to controlling nuclear proliferation and providing the basis for deep, transparent, and irreversible reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are creating unprecedented stresses on the systems for managing these materials, as well as unprecedented opportunities for cooperation to improve these systems. In this article, the authors summarize the technical background to this situation, and the current and prospective security challenges posed by military stockpiles of these materials in the US and Russia. They then review the programs in place to address these challenges, the progress of these programs to date, and the work remaining to be done, in five areas: (a) preventing theft and smuggling of nuclear warheads and fissile materials; (b) building a regime of monitored reductions in nuclear warhead and fissile material stockpiles; (c) ending further production of excess fissile materials; (d) reducing stockpiles of excess fissile materials; and (e) avoiding economic collapse in the nuclear cities where substantial fractions of these materials and their guardians reside. 128 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Sociological Studies, No. 5, September-October 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-10

    alcohol abuse, drug addiction , prostitution and other types of antisocial behavior, and the departmental attacks on nature and on the material culture...of the given social group or stan- dards decreed "from above." The bureaucrat, the drug addict , and the prostitute, as people with no individual...34 typically refuse to take part in social activity, have a strong interest in mysticism, Buddhism, and yoga (in a modified form), and use drugs as a

  15. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Sociological Studies, No. 3, May-June 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-10

    not to mention an adequate knowledge of Islamic dog - mata. They are more likely to be distinguished by nominal participation in religious activity...are not. This could be called "social autism ." It is a dangerous and infectious disease which cripples the social organism at every level of its

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Sociological Studies, No. 4, July-August 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-22

    the ages of 11-13). The adop- tion of the male or female behavioral stereotype characteristic of this phase was repressed by the imme- diate...conflicts between parents or the remar- riage of the mother) from an early age. The majority of male clients were elder siblings and the majority of...the time they were 5, 6, or 7 years old. No transsexual (identification with the opposite sex) or intersexual (gender confusion) ten- dencies were

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Sociological Studies, No. 6, November-December 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-02

    the metaphysical spirituality of the New Time ("Deep Purple ") and in Negro blues ("Led Zepelin"). Today’s imitators of hard rock—heavy metal—have...popular music (the works of the "Beatles" and "Deep Purple " and the rock operas by Weber, and others), the so-called rock underground was formed. It...place with a skull and crossbones on it. They drank it anyway. Or take the other day. Three young fellows got hold of some alcohol somewhere in the

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-11

    Research suggests that since the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been a sharp growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in some former Soviet countries. However, as yet, comparatively little is known about the use of CAM in the countries throughout this region. Against this background, the aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of using alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in eight countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) and to examine factors associated with their use. Data were obtained from the Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health (LLH) survey undertaken in eight former Soviet countries (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine) in 2001. In this nationally representative cross-sectional survey, 18428 respondents were asked about how they treated 10 symptoms, with options including the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the treatment of differing symptoms by such practitioners in these countries. The prevalence of using an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner for symptom treatment varied widely between countries, ranging from 3.5% in Armenia to 25.0% in Kyrgyzstan. For nearly every symptom, respondents living in rural locations were more likely to use an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner than urban residents. Greater wealth was also associated with using these practitioners, while distrust of doctors played a role in the treatment of some symptoms. The widespread use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in some fSU countries and the growth of this form of health care provision in the post-Soviet period in conditions of variable licensing and regulation, highlights the urgent need for more research on this phenomenon and its potential effects on population health in the countries in this region.

  19. The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perminov, V. G.

    1999-01-01

    Perminov was the leading designer for Mars and Venus spacecraft at the Soviet Lavochkin design bureau in the early days of Martian exploration. In addition to competing with the U.S. to get to the Moon, the Soviets also struggled to beat the U.S. to Mars during the Cold War. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets attempted to send a number of robotic probes to Mars, but for a variety of reasons, most of these missions ended in failure. Despite these overall failures, the Soviets garnered a great deal of scientific and technical knowledge through these efforts. This monograph tells some fascinating, but little-known, stories.

  20. Maternal and child health supercourse for the former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, Saida; Laporte, Ron; Shubnikov, Eugene; Linkov, Faina

    2007-11-01

    Maternal and child health (MCH) is a growing concern among the countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) where economic issues and changing infrastructures are seriously deteriorating the public health system. Moreover, in the past decade, lack of primary prevention programs coupled with a shortage of well-trained public health professionals are having an increasingly negative impact on MCH outcomes. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the current state of MCH, health care and public health education in the FSU. We suggest that indices could be improved by developing new inexpensive information exchange systems, and that system is Supercourse (accessible at www.pitt.edu/ approximately super1). Supercourse is an Internet-based library of public health lectures in PowerPoint format that are accessible, free of charge to anyone, anywhere, who has Internet access including scientists, doctors, and, specifically, educators. As of April 2007, Supercourse has more than 3,200 public health lectures, a network of more than 42,000 faculty members across 151 countries, with Nobel Prize winners and the former head of the CDC being among the lectures' authors. Supercourse lectures are aimed at the educator with the goal of improving public health training through timely and customizable lectures. The distinguishing features of Supercourse are ease of access in low-bandwidth lecture, minimal cost, a distribution system for lectures in CD format, high-quality content, and the capacity to create and sustain a global network of public health professionals. Additionally, statistical process control procedures for industry developed by W. Edwards Deming are utilized to ensure the quality of Supercourse lectures. Papers on Supercourse already have been published in the British Medical Journal, Nature, and Lancet, and are having a wide impact in the field of public health. Currently, an increasing number of lectures in the Supercourse library are dedicated to the theme of

  1. The Viability of the Oil and Gas Industry within the Former Soviet Union, excluding Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coish, J.; Pyne, M.

    2004-01-15

    The former Soviet Union (FSU) has huge potential in the future of the world's oil and gas industry. The FSU includes some of the biggest producers and consumers of oil and gas in the world, and many of these countries include areas that lie untouched or explored. FSU territory also surrounds the Caspian Sea, which is itself a hotbed of activity in the oil and gas industry. The Caspian alone is important to world energy markets because of its own potential for oil and gas production and export, and this adds to the overall potential of the FSU. The FSU has been moving towards a free market economy since the fall of communism in the early 90's, and as such, is becoming a much more attractive area for foreign companies to operate. The FSU countries still requires foreign investment for their respective industries, and some of them have even put into place legislation to provide benefits to foreign investors. There are many types of foreign investment required in the FSU. Much of the infrastructure already in place is old and dilapidated, and requires maintenance and improvement. As well, new equipment and technologies for exploration and production are required to tap the oil and gas resources that lie in inconvenient locations. Finally, transportation of the oil and gas is a major issue here, as many of the fields are in hard to reach areas, and thus pipeline projects are increasing. Since the fall of communism, the FSU has been opening its doors more and more to foreign investors eager to bite into the huge market, and many of the largest oil and gas companies in the world are already operating there. The industries are still young to foreign investment, however, and those companies who get their foot in the door early, will be able to reap the benefits for years to come.

  2. Fish introductions in the former Soviet Union: The Sevan trout (Salmo ischchan - 80 years later.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Bogdanowicz

    Full Text Available The Soviet Union played the leading role in fish introductions in Eurasia. However, only 3% of all introductions prior to 1978 gave a commercial benefit. One of the noteworthy examples appears to be the Sevan trout (Salmo ischchan Kessler, 1877-an endemic salmonid of Lake Sevan in Armenia. This species has been introduced to Kirghizstan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, however, only the Kirghiz population has persisted in relatively high numbers. In this paper we provide the first extensive molecular study of S. ischchan using samples from the native population from Lake Sevan and three hatcheries in Armenia, as well as from the population introduced to Lake Issyk Kul in Kirghizstan. The Kirghiz population has been isolated since the introductions took place in 1930 and 1936. Our results, based on 11 nuclear microsatellites and a 905 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region suggest that hatcheries have maintained genetic variability by way of ongoing translocations of individuals from Lake Sevan. Simultaneously, significant Garza-Williamson M-values suggest that bottlenecks could have reduced the genetic variability of the wild populations in the past. This hypothesis is supported by historical data, indicating highly manipulated water-level regulations and poaching as two main factors that dramatically impact fish abundance in the lake. On the other hand, a similar situation has been observed in Kirghizstan, but this population likely rebounded from small population size faster than the other populations examined. The Kirghiz population is significantly genetically differentiated from the other groups and have morphological features and biological attributes not observed in the source population. Genetic data imply that the effective population size in the native population is lower than that found in the introduced population, suggesting that some active protection of the Lake Sevan population may be needed urgently.

  3. Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice.

  4. Estimated inventory of radionuclides in former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.E.; Sheaffer, M.K.; Abbott, D.T.

    1993-07-01

    Radionuclide inventories have been estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 69 to 111 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 3,053 to 7,472 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1,127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 23 to 38 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 674 to 708 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. Twenty years from now, the inventories are projected to be 11 to 18 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 415 to 437 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 63.5 to 64 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.014 to 0.015 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two

  5. Fish introductions in the former Soviet Union: The Sevan trout (Salmo ischchan) - 80 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Wiesław; Rutkowski, Robert; Gabrielyan, Bardukh K; Ryspaev, Akylbek; Asatryan, Anzhela N; Mkrtchyan, Jon A; Bujalska, Barbara M

    2017-01-01

    The Soviet Union played the leading role in fish introductions in Eurasia. However, only 3% of all introductions prior to 1978 gave a commercial benefit. One of the noteworthy examples appears to be the Sevan trout (Salmo ischchan Kessler, 1877)-an endemic salmonid of Lake Sevan in Armenia. This species has been introduced to Kirghizstan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, however, only the Kirghiz population has persisted in relatively high numbers. In this paper we provide the first extensive molecular study of S. ischchan using samples from the native population from Lake Sevan and three hatcheries in Armenia, as well as from the population introduced to Lake Issyk Kul in Kirghizstan. The Kirghiz population has been isolated since the introductions took place in 1930 and 1936. Our results, based on 11 nuclear microsatellites and a 905 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region suggest that hatcheries have maintained genetic variability by way of ongoing translocations of individuals from Lake Sevan. Simultaneously, significant Garza-Williamson M-values suggest that bottlenecks could have reduced the genetic variability of the wild populations in the past. This hypothesis is supported by historical data, indicating highly manipulated water-level regulations and poaching as two main factors that dramatically impact fish abundance in the lake. On the other hand, a similar situation has been observed in Kirghizstan, but this population likely rebounded from small population size faster than the other populations examined. The Kirghiz population is significantly genetically differentiated from the other groups and have morphological features and biological attributes not observed in the source population. Genetic data imply that the effective population size in the native population is lower than that found in the introduced population, suggesting that some active protection of the Lake Sevan population may be needed urgently.

  6. Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Kizilova, Kseniya; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

  7. Smoking status, nicotine dependence and happiness in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Leinsalu, Mall; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; McKee, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has established a policy of substantially discounting the health benefits of reduced smoking in its evaluation of proposed regulations because of the cost to smokers of the supposed lost pleasure they suffer by no longer smoking. This study used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to explore this association in a setting characterised by high rates of (male) smoking and smoking-related mortality. Data came from a cross-sectional population-based study undertaken in 2010/2011 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Information was collected from 18 000 respondents aged ≥18 on smoking status (never, ex-smoking and current smoking), cessation attempts and nicotine dependence. The association between these variables and self-reported happiness was examined using ordered probit regression analysis. In a pooled country analysis, never smokers and ex-smokers were both significantly happier than current smokers. Smokers with higher levels of nicotine dependence were significantly less happy than those with a low level of dependence. This study contradicts the idea that smoking is associated with greater happiness. Moreover, of relevance for policy in the fSU countries, given the lack of public knowledge about the detrimental effects of smoking on health but widespread desire to quit reported in recent research, the finding that smoking is associated with lower levels of happiness should be incorporated in future public health efforts to help encourage smokers to quit by highlighting that smoking cessation may result in better physical and emotional health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. SCORE performance in Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union: MONICA and HAPIEE results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhireva, Olga; Pajak, Andrzej; Broda, Grazyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Skodova, Zdena; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-03-01

    The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scale assesses 10 year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk SCORE version is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), but its performance has never been systematically assessed in the region. We evaluated SCORE performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. The cohorts based on the World Health Organization MONitoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) surveys in the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s. The Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002-05. In Cox regression analyses, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline significantly predicted CVD mortality in both MONICA [n = 15 027; hazard ratios (HR), 1.7-6.3] and HAPIEE (n = 20 517; HR, 2.6-10.5) samples. While SCORE calibration was good in most MONICA samples (predicted and observed mortality were close), the risk was underestimated in Russia. In HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE overpredicted the estimated 10 year mortality for Czech and Polish samples and adequately predicted it for Russia. SCORE discrimination was satisfactory in both MONICA and HAPIEE. The high-risk SCORE underestimated the fatal CVD risk in Russian MONICA but performed well in most MONICA samples and Russian HAPIEE. This SCORE version might overestimate the risk in contemporary Czech and Polish populations.

  9. Criminal victimisation and health: examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that

  10. Urban-rural differences in psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness can vary between urban and rural locations. This study extended research to the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) by assessing the association between settlement type and psychological distress and whether factors associated with psychological distress vary by settlement type. Data on 18,000 adults aged ≥18 years from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2010/11 were analyzed. Settlement types were country capitals, regional capitals, cities/other urban settlements, and villages. Psychological distress was defined as the country-specific highest quintile of a composite score based on 11 questions. Logistic regression analysis with random effects was used to examine associations. In a pooled country analysis, living in a smaller urban settlement or village was associated with significantly higher odds for psychological distress compared to living in the country capital. Lower social support was a strong correlate of psychological distress in all locations except capital cities. The psychological distress measure has not been formally validated in the study countries. Lower levels of urbanicity are associated with greater psychological distress in the fSU countries. As many Western studies have linked greater urbanization to poorer mental health, this highlights the need for caution in extrapolating findings from one part of the world to others and the importance of undertaking research on the geographical correlates of mental health in different world regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    2004-04-01

    The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality

  12. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Post-Socialist Countries of the European Union: Motives and Patterns of Entrepreneurship of Post-Soviet Immigrants in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tepavcevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between migration, entrepreneurship, and foreign direct investments by focusing on entrepreneurial activities of post-Soviet (immigrants in Hungary in periods between 1991 and 2016. Post-Soviet migrants are in focus because between 1956 and 1989 the Soviet Union coercively kept Hungary in the Socialist bloc. Based on surveys and in-depth interviews, this paper reveals that there are considerable differences in patterns of entrepreneurship among post-Soviet immigrant entrepreneurs depending mostly on time of their arrival to Hungary. Similarly, motives for entrepreneurship among the first-wave migrants combine negative factors in the former Soviet Union with positive factors encountered in Hungary, while factors in Hungary recognized as positive by most post-Soviets prevail in motives for later waves of post-Soviet migration and entrepreneurship in Hungary. The paper also demonstrates that many relatively small investments have been conducted since 2000 by citizens of post-Soviet countries to Hungary. Some of them are transforming into an entrepreneurial activity, serving also as a basis for immigration to Hungary.

  13. CIS as a successor of the Soviet Union: who is financially responsible for the uranium waste storage sites in Kyrgyzstan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtmatova, J.

    2001-05-01

    Full text: As the Second World War came to an end and the Cold War just started, the Soviet Union was faced with a problematic necessity of the nuclear weapons' production. Indeed, the Soviet Empire was in the extreme need of such weapons since their possession was viewed as an only guarantee of peaceful relations between USSR and United States. Exactly in that period the Soviet Union started its intensive exploitation of the large radioactive ore deposits (basically, uranium and radium), located on the territory of the present-day Kyrgyzstan. Throughout the post-war cold period and right up to mid-80s Kyrgyzstan had been one of the leading producers of uranium in the Soviet Union. In fact, the first Soviet atomic bomb was produced using Kyrgyz uranium. In the intense arms race with United States there was no time to concern oneself with environmental and demographic protection of the exploited territory, unfortunately. The role of the Kyrgyz ASSR (Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) was to provide raw materials, concurrently being a conveniently remote place to treat foreign radioactive ores (imported from Eastern Germany and Czechoslovakia) and serving as a burial place for their wastes. Creating an enormous amount of the radioactive wastes, the uranium and radium ore deposits were located in immediate proximity to highly populated areas; in the basins of transboundary rivers; and in the seismic-active regions of the Republic. As it could be legitimately assumed, the Soviet Union was not deeply obsessed with the environmental peculiarities of the treated area and did not give a damn to its protection, being solely interested in the maximization of the uranium extraction. In 1991, immediately after the Soviet Union's dissolution, the Russian Federation officially proclaimed itself its successor. Consequently, it was Russia that received the bigger part of a huge military potential (particularly, nuclear one) of its predecessor, including the nuclear

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs, Restructuring of Finance-Credit Management Mechanism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senchagov, V

    1990-01-01

    ...) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical data and reports All information has been obtained...

  15. A Summary History of Reusable Spaceplane Development in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    Beginning the early years of space advocacy in the 1920s, the Soviets proposed a large number of winged space vehicle concepts as part of broader work on space transportation systems. These designs left an important legacy that has remained unexamined. In the 1920s, theorists and publicists such as Konstantin Tsiolkovskiy and Fridrikh Tsander were the earliest proponents of spaceplane designs. These were followed in the 1930s by the first concrete projects for rocket-propelled aircraft designed by the young Sergey Korolev. During World War II, the Soviets experimented with a number of rocket-planes, not for spaceflight, but for battle purposes. Subsequently, in the postwar years, the Soviet government for the first time funded a research project into a hypersonic winged vehicle for delivery of nuclear weapons. In later years, in the 1960s, with the growth of the Soviet space program, Soviet designers fielded a multitude of spaceplane programs that all culminated in the development of the famous Buran space shuttle. In this article, I will summarize all known hypersonic and spaceplane proposals during the Soviet era. Despite considerable funding, none of the spaceplane designs ever reached operational status. My goal is to highlight the technological lineage of Soviet and Russian reusable spaceplane concepts in the hope of illuminating design approaches that have continued to influence approaches to developing space transportation systems.

  16. HIV Risks, Testing, and Treatment in the Former Soviet Union: Challenges and Future Directions in Research and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    The dissolution of the USSR resulted in independence for constituent republics but left them battling an unstable economic environment and healthcare. Increases in injection drug use, prostitution, and migration were all widespread responses to this transition and have contributed to the emergence of an HIV epidemic in the countries of former Soviet Union. Researchers have begun to identify the risks of HIV infection as well as the barriers to HIV testing and treatment in the former Soviet Union. Significant methodological challenges have arisen and need to be addressed. The objective of this review is to determine common threads in HIV research in the former Soviet Union and provide useful recommendations for future research studies. In this systematic review of the literature, Pubmed was searched for English-language studies using the key search terms "HIV", "AIDS", "human immunodeficiency virus", "acquired immune deficiency syndrome", "Central Asia", "Kazakhstan", "Kyrgyzstan", "Uzbekistan", "Tajikistan", "Turkmenistan", "Russia", "Ukraine", "Armenia", "Azerbaijan", and "Georgia". Studies were evaluated against eligibility criteria for inclusion. Thirty-nine studies were identified across the two main topic areas of HIV risk and barriers to testing and treatment, themes subsequently referred to as "risk" and "barriers". Study design was predominantly cross-sectional. The most frequently used sampling methods were peer-to-peer and non-probabilistic sampling. The most frequently reported risks were condom misuse, risky intercourse, and unsafe practices among injection drug users. Common barriers to testing included that testing was inconvenient, and that results would not remain confidential. Frequent barriers to treatment were based on a distrust in the treatment system. The findings of this review reveal methodological limitations that span the existing studies. Small sample size, cross-sectional design, and non-probabilistic sampling methods were frequently

  17. Fruit and vegetable consumption in the former Soviet Union: the role of individual- and community-level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Rocco, Lorenzo; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    To explain patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption in nine former Soviet Union countries by exploring the influence of a range of individual- and community-level determinants. Cross-sectional nationally representative surveys and area profiles were undertaken in 2010 in nine countries of the former Soviet Union as part of the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study. Individual- and area-level determinants were analysed, taking into account potential confounding at the individual and area level. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Adult survey respondents (n 17 998) aged 18-95 years. Being male, increasing age, lack of education and lack of financial resources were associated with lower probability of consuming adequate amounts of fruit or vegetables. Daily fruit or vegetable consumption was positively correlated with the number of shops selling fruit and vegetables (for women) and with the number of convenience stores (for men). Billboard advertising of snacks and sweet drinks was negatively related to daily fruit or vegetable consumption, although the reverse was true for billboards advertising soft drinks. Men living near a fast-food outlet had a lower probability of fruit or vegetable consumption, while the opposite was true for the number of local food restaurants. Overall fruit and vegetable consumption in the former Soviet Union is inadequate, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. Both individual- and community-level factors play a role in explaining inadequate nutrition and thus provide potential entry points for policy interventions, while the nuanced influence of community factors informs the agenda for future research.

  18. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

  19. Overview of nuclear safety regulations in countries of Easter Europe and the former Soviet Union. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The document contains a compilation of information on Nuclear Safety Regulations in countries of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union provided by the representatives of Armenia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine in the Steering Committee of the Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of WWER Nuclear Power Plants (the Steering Committee provides co-ordination and guidance to the IAEA on technical matters and serves as a forum for exchange of information with the European Commission and with other international and financial organizations). A separate abstract was prepared for each of the seven individual papers

  20. [Representations of Care of Migrants from the former Soviet Union with Alcohol or Drug Problems in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhnsch, Gundula; Flick, Uwe

    2015-10-01

    Which representations of care can be found in migrants with alcohol or drug problems from the former Soviet Union? How do they correspond with views in the care system? Episodic interviews with 46 migrants, expert interviews with 33 service providers; analysis with thematic coding. For migrants and experts holistic care is important, which include spiritual-religious components but are also control-oriented. The cultural specificity of migrants' care representations should be acknowledged by the health care system much more. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior

  2. Socio-economic impact of Trans-Siberian railway after the collapse of Soviet Union by integrated spatial data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Seina; Takeuchi, Wataru; Hatoyama, Kiichiro; Mazurov, Yuri

    2016-06-01

    How Russian cities have stood up again after the collapse of Soviet Union will be discussed in this paper. In order to know how the cities has managed the difficult period after the change of social system, transition of urban area, population, and nighttime light is searched. Although Far East will not stop as one of the most important area with abundant resources, overpopulation in towns and depopulation in countryside is going on. By searching the present situation, this research also aims to predict the future of Far East and Russia. First of all, Landsat data from 1987 to 2015 is collected over Moscow, Vladivostok, Novosibirsk, Tynda, and Blagoveshchensk and urban area is calculated by land cover classification. Secondly, population and retail turnover data are collected from year books in Russia. Thirdly, gross regional product (GRP) is estimated by nighttime light images from DMSP-OLS and VIIRS DNB dataset. In addition, these data are compared and difference of development stage after the collapse of Soviet Union between the unstable era (1990s-2000) and development era (2000-) will be discussed. It is expected that these analysis will give us useful information about Russian strategy for the future.

  3. National laboratory technical exchanges with institutions and laboratories in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preszler, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    In March, 1992, the Department of Energy and the State Department established guidelines to encourage and direct laboratory-to-laboratory (lab-to-lab) cooperation with institutes in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. As a nonproliferation effort, the cooperative activities focus on the need to prevent emigration of weapons scientists to potentially proliferant states and organizations. The objective is to encourage joint projects/contracts in non-weapons-related areas in order to provide meaningful work, commensurate with scientific capabilities, that will reduce economic pressures for emigration and assist in the development of a market economy. In addition, by encouraging Western science's philosophy of openness, peer reviews and publishing, the cooperative projects improve the transparency of weapons laboratories in the former Soviet Union. Technical collaborations are rapidly increasing in number and are fostering US industrial participation. Since the initial technical exchanges in October of 1992, lab-to-lab interactions resulted in more than 200 contracts, totaling more than $5 million, and involving more than 40 institutes in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus

  4. [Depression and anxiety in elderly Jews from former Soviet Union in Germany: the role of discrimination and religiosity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterko, Yuriy; Seidel, Nadja; Brähler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2014-03-01

    There is a lack of empirical studies focusing on mental health in Jews from former Soviet Union in Germany. The influence of discrimination and religiosity on symptoms of depression and anxiety was investigated. 110 elderly Jews living in Leipzig and Halle/Saale were asked to fill out a questionnaire including information about their immigration background (length of stay, age at migration, and country of origin), perceived discrimination, religiosity and level of integration. Depression and anxiety were assessed with PHQ-4. Linear regressions were applied as statistical tests. Participants who live alone and report higher level of perceived discrimination indicate higher anxiety and depression scores. Length of stay is positively associated with anxiety, as well as religiosity with symptoms of depression. Some results are similar to the findings of others international studies, some other findings underline the specificity of the target group. The influence of discrimination has been demonstrated, implications for further investigation, especially with attention to the integration of older Jews from former Soviet Union in Germany are given. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Developments in Soviet Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Studies the news values, practices, and role of journalists in the Soviet Union. Claims that, although the Soviet press currently resembles a corporate public relations department, there are signs of change because of public demands. States that journalistic practices in the U.S. and Soviet Union are similar in their reliance on routine and…

  6. Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991

  7. Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence and Outcomes of Unintended Pregnancy Among National Samples of Women From Three Former Soviet Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    The article examines the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among nationally representative samples of women in three former Soviet Union countries. Women who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV from their current or most recent husband or living together partner demonstrated higher risks of unintended last pregnancy, either terminated through abortion (in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine) or resulting in unintended live birth (in Ukraine). IPV prevention components should be integrated into reproductive health programs to reduce the risk of unintended births and abortions among women living with abusive partners in these former Soviet Union countries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Technology and society: ideological implications of information and computer technologies in the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigle, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the impact of technology on the USSR's social system from the perspective of Soviet ideological development. The analysis of information and computer technologies within this framework de-emphasizes both modernization theories and those that assume unchallenged Communist Party control over technological development. Previous studies have examined the level of Soviet technological achievements and the gap between this level and those in the West, many referring to ideological boundaries of Soviet technological development without, however, systematically analyzing the resulting implications for the Soviet ideology of Marxism-Leninism. This study develops a framework for analyzing the impact of new technologies in the USSR in the fields of technology, ideology, and the scientific and technological revolution. On the basis of this framework, examination turns to the relevant Soviet theoretical and technical literature and debates among Soviety elites, concluding that the introduction of information and computer technologies and the organization of computer networks has exacerbated tensions in Soviety Marxism-Leninism.

  9. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, James C; Pearson, Andrew D; Stenseth, Nils Chr; LeDuc, James W; Hirschberg, David L; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world's great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to

  10. An Enigmatic Embrace: Problems of Regulating the Effects of New Communication Technologies in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, Eric

    The telecommunication revolution in the USSR is creating structural change in the culture, encompassing media, societal, and ideological systems. In the process, it is replacing traditional Soviet collectivist values with individualist, western values. Increasingly easy access to western ideas through VCRs, direct broadcast satellites (DBS), and…

  11. Russian Language Prestige in the States of the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Puglisi , “The ‘Normalisation’ of Russian Foreign Policy,” in Graeme P. Herd and Jennifer D.P. Moroney, Security Dynamics in the Former Soviet Bloc...www.russkiymir.org/en/news/index.php?from4= 25&id4=1087 (accessed October 5, 2008). Puglisi , Rosaria. “The ‘Normalisation’ of Russian Foreign Policy.” In

  12. On the history of the development of solid-propellant rockets in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobedonostsev, Y. A.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-World War II Soviet solid-propellant rocket technology is reviewed. Research and development regarding solid composite preparations of pyroxyline TNT powder is described, as well as early work on rocket loading calculations, problems of flight stability, and aircraft rocket launching and ground rocket launching capabilities.

  13. ESTIMATING THE TERRESTIAL CARBON POOLS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CONTERMINOUS U.S., AND BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrestrial-carbon (C) pool sizes are of interest in relation to quantifying current sources and sinks of C, and evaluating the possibilities for future C sequestration or release by the biosphere. In this study, the C pools in the terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Unio...

  14. Homonationalism Before Homonationalism: Representations of Russia, Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union in the U.S. Homophile Press, 1953-1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Dasha

    2017-01-01

    This essay focuses on representations of Russia, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. Extending the application of Jasbir Puar's concept of homonationalism to the Cold War period, the essay examines 128 articles and other items that were published in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder and demonstrates that these periodicals often engaged in homonationalist discourses when constructing the Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European "other." Negative constructions of these regions were sometimes used to affirm the political alignment of the homophile authors with the American nation. At other times, negative constructions were used in comparative assessments that critiqued both the United States and the Soviet and Eastern European regions. In contrast, positive constructions of Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European peoples and cultures were used as evidence that non-heteronormative desires and bodies had legitimate places in many "primitive" cultures and existed across all nations and periods.

  15. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  16. South Korea and Its Security Environment (Korea’s Position in the Power Relationship between the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan & China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    i ;v.i a or the Soviet Union. Equally important is the recognitio:. ot: ’. :,a.1i iro;un of South Korea’s economy by U.S. observers. Economia ...of the Koreans themselves, is the security of Japan. An assessment of Japanese and U.S. interests in Korea is inevitably some- thing of a circular

  17. Silent mutation in the V3 region characteristic of HIV type 1 env subtype B strains from injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobkov, A. F.; Lukashov, V. V.; Goudsmit, J.; Weber, J. N.

    2000-01-01

    New independent states of the former Soviet Union are facing a rapidly growing epidemic of HIV-1 among injecting drug users (IDUs). This epidemic is caused by three HIV-1 populations, one belonging to HIV-1 subtype A (IDU-A), another to subtype B (IDU-B), and the third being a recombinant of the

  18. Ideologies, Strategies and Higher Education Development: A Comparison of China's University Partnerships with the Soviet Union and Africa over Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun

    2017-01-01

    University partnerships have been a key dimension of higher education development. Based on documentary analysis and empirical data, this study compares two distinctive models of university partnership experienced by China, first as a "recipient" with the Soviet Union in the 1950s and later as a "provider" with African…

  19. Acculturation and adjustment of elderly émigrés from the former Soviet Union: Alife domains perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Genkova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Former Soviet émigrés in the United States are on average older than other immigrant groups, with adultsover 65 comprising a large portion of the Russian-speaking population. Despite known risks associated withold-age migration, however, researchers and providers have underestimated adjustment difficulties forRussian-speaking elderly in U.S. These older adults tend to acquire a new culture with difficulty and remainhighly oriented towards their heritage culture. However, limited research examines how acculturation to boththe culture of origin and the host culture contributes to wellbeing for this immigrant group. This studyassesses the adaptive value of host and heritage acculturation across several domains in the lives of olderémigrés from the former Soviet Union resettled in the Baltimore and Washington, DC areas in the UnitedStates. Acculturation level with respect to both host and heritage culture was measured with the Language,Identity, and Behavior Scale (LIB; Birman and Trickett, 2001 and used to predict psychological, family, social,and medical care adjustment outcomes. Results suggest that acculturation to the host or heritage culture hasdifferent functions depending on life domain. Particularly, high American acculturation contributed to betteradjustment in the psychological, family, and social domains. Heritage acculturation was associated withbetter outcomes in the social domain and had mixed effects for psychological adjustment. Theoreticalimplications highlight the importance of evaluating multiple life domains of adapting through a bilinearacculturation model for the understudied population of elderly immigrants.

  20. A strategic approach for coping with unsafe nuclear plants in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The recent nuclear accident near St Petersburg has intensified concerns about the safety of nuclear power plants in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and has stimulated interest in finding ways of shutting down those plants that are considered especially dangerous, before another Chernobyl takes place. A promising strategy for coping with this problem involves replacing nuclear power with power-generating systems based on the use of aeroderivative gas turbines which are fired with natural gas and are financed largely by Western investors. This could be done at a much lower cost and in a much shorter period than with any alternative energy supply option. This approach would also offer strategic benefits unrelated to nuclear safety. (author)

  1. The burden of culture? Health outcomes among immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Erin Trouth

    2012-04-01

    Immigrants in the U.S. often experience better health than the native-born, and many explanations for this phenomenon center around the positive health behaviors that immigrants bring from their home cultures. Immigrants from the former Soviet Union may be an exception; because they come from societies where unhealthy lifestyles and high mortality are common, they are often expected to experience worse health than the native population. Using data from the Integrated Health Interview Series, I compare FSU immigrants with U.S.-born, non-Hispanic whites on several health measures. FSU immigrants are twice as likely as native whites to report fair or poor health, but they are less likely to smoke or drink, and are less likely to report a functional limitation. FSU immigrants' advantage in functional limitation is largely explained by their very high levels of education and marriage, indicating that selectivity is important to understanding the health of this population.

  2. Environmental impact of the nuclear incident occurring in the middle Asia of the former Soviet Union on Beijing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong

    1995-10-01

    The results of a nuclear incident occurred in the Middle Asia of the former Soviet Union was monitored and reported. Its impact on Beijing area was estimated under some assumptions. The concentration of 7 Be in the rain water was increased by two times or more compared with the annual average of the normal conditions and the one in the atmospheric dust was about two times during the monitoring period. The concentration of the 7 Be in the same samples is much higher than the one in the rainy season of the same period of the year. This will cause about 0.41 μSv/a additional dose load to the residents in Beijing area, which is about 1/10,000 to 1/1,000 of the dose level limitation set in the national standard 'GB4792-84'. (3 figs., 1 tab.)

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, Volkogonov’s Political Portrait of Stalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-09

    would "happen," but the other would be eventually averted at the cost of innumerable losses and human stoicism , since the city on the Neva would...great stoicism and a genuine grandeur of spirit. Hitler said cynically on November 9, 1941, as 38 JPRS-UPA-90-062 9 November 1990 he tried to...stabbings thanks to the great stoicism of the people, their unbroken faith in socialist ideals, to Russian and Soviet patriotism amplified by the

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 12, December 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-19

    realism in the approach to international problems of the end of the 20th century. The demilitarization of human society combined with development...efforts as disarmament, development and security? Evaluating the outcome of the conference per the criteria of realism and not maximalism, it is...Yu. Kochevrin, " Neoclassical Theory of Production and Distribution" (10) A. Kudryavtsev, "The World Economy Today and Tomorrow (Meeting of Soviet

  5. SPECIFICS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERPRISE INTEGRATION IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on problems and futuredevelopment of integration processes in thepost-Soviet space. The author highlightssome of the key factors contributing to thedevelopment of centripetal and centrifugaltrends of the region. Special attention isgiven to the industrial policy of countriesinvolved in integration processes. The paper analyzes the role and importance of corporate integration as well as discovers ways ofits development.

  6. The Scent of the Future: Manned Space Travel and the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    an 860 kilogram geophysical module, and was stabilized by a pendulum system ["mayatnikovaya sistema stabilizatsii"] daring flights to altitudes up to...of the cosmonauts (including cardiovascular and neurological tests, measurement of maximum hand strength, sampling of expired air, and mental testing...environmental and meteorological research and to aid the Soviet fishing fleet locate schools of fish, cardiovascular and oxygen economy studies, and

  7. Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union? Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor

    2002-09-01

    The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Despite an overall decline in abortion and an increase in contraceptive use since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, abortion has remained a prominent part of the country's reproductive culture and practices. This study shows how abortion-related views reflect the long-standing ethnocultural differences between the indigenous Kazakhs and Kazakhstan's residents of European roots, as the latter continue to have significantly higher levels of abortion. The study, however, also reveals the internal diversity among Kazakhs with respect to abortion experiences and views, stemming from decades of the Soviet sociocultural influence in Kazakhstan. In addition, the analysis points to some generational differences in views concerning abortion and contraception. Finally, the study demonstrates parallels in attitudes toward abortion and toward contraception, thereby questioning straightforward assumptions about the replacement of abortion with contraception.

  8. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika; Prishchepov, Alexander; Lambin, Eric F; Radeloff, Volker C

    2011-01-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  9. Differences Between New Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union and Veteran Residents in Knowledge, Perception, and Risk Factors of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Semyon; Itzhaki, Michal; Koton, Silvia

    Stroke is the fourth most common cause of death in developed countries and a leading cause of acquired disability in adults. Awareness of risk factors and warning signs for stroke has a considerable impact on early arrival at the hospital and early thrombolytic treatment. Delays in seeking medical treatment following the onset of stroke symptoms have been shown to be more common among ethnic minorities. The aim of the current study was to examine stroke awareness and knowledge among new immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (IFSUs) compared with veteran residents (VRs). The study was conducted by students of the nursing master of arts program. Data were collected during March 2010 and June 2014. Trained registered nurses conducted interviews, using a structured, pretested, open-ended questionnaire. Participants were recruited by a snowball method from among the interviewers' friends and family members, 40 years or older with no history of stroke. A total of 643 Israelis, 420 VRs (65.3%) and 223 IFSUs (34.7%), were interviewed; 40.7% were men, with a mean age of 52.6 (SD, 9.3) years. Compared with VRs, IFSUs were more likely to report previous myocardial infarction (P = .022), hypertension (P Soviet Union were more aware of strategies for the prevention of stroke than VRs (P = .02). The preferred sources of information about stroke for IFSUs, as distinguished from VRs, were personal doctors (P = .001) and radio programs (P = .03). Veteran residents showed lower levels of knowledge about stroke. Educational campaigns aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke among Israel's general population in Israel, as well as culturally targeting specific subgroups, are recommended.

  10. The Epidemiologic Vocabulary of the West and the Former Soviet Union: Different Sides of the Same Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Anna; Clarke, Carmen; Zueva, Lyudmila; Chumachenko, Tetyana; Maes, Edmond F.; Smoak, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this project was to develop an English-Russian Epidemiology Dictionary, which is needed for improved international collaboration in public health surveillance. Introduction As part of the US Department of Defense strategy to counter biological threats, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biological Engagement Program is enhancing the capabilities of countries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) to detect, diagnose, and report endemic and epidemic, man-made or natural cases of especially dangerous pathogens. During these engagements, it was noted that Western-trained and Soviet-trained epidemiologists have difficulty, beyond that of simple translation, in exchanging ideas. The Soviet public health system and epidemiology developed independently of that of other nations. Whereas epidemiology in the West is thought of in terms of disease determinants in populations and relies on statistics to make inferences, classical Soviet epidemiology is founded on a more ecological view with the main focus on infectious diseases’ spread theory. Consequently many fundamental Soviet terms and concepts lack simple correlates in English and other languages outside the Soviet sphere; the same is true when attempting to translate from English to Russian and other languages of the FSU. Systematic review of the differences in FSU and Western epidemiologic concepts and terminology is therefore needed for strengthening understanding and collaboration in disease surveillance, pandemic preparedness, response to biological terrorism, etc. Methods Following an extensive search of the Russian and English literature by a working group of Western and FSU epidemiologists, we created a matrix containing English and Russian definitions of key epidemiologic terms found in FSU and Western epidemiology manuals and dictionaries, such as A Dictionary of Epidemiology (1), Epidemiology Manual (2) and many other sources. Particular emphasis was placed on terms

  11. Press Reviews of Mei Lanfang in the Soviet Union, 1935, by Female Writers: Neher Versus Shaginyan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2016-01-01

    There are two interesting female exceptions to the all-male chorus reviewing the Chinese performer of female roles Mei Lanfang and his troupe in the local newspapers during Mei's Soviet tour in the spring of 1935. One is the well-established Russian writer Marietta Shaginyan (1888-1982), whose......, and to uncover why Neher's expert professional analysis has so far been unduly and sadly neglected. To further set off their contrasting views of Mei Lanfang and Chinese theatre, I compare these to the more well-known viewpoints of Sergei Tretyakov and Bertolt Brecht....

  12. Compilation of seismic-refraction crustal data in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Robert; Durbin, William P.; Healy, J.H.; Warren, David H.

    1964-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is preparing a series of terrain atlases of the Sino-Soviet bloc of nations for use in a possible nuclear-test detection program. Part of this project is concerned with the compilation and evaluation of crustal-structure data. To date, a compilation has been made of data from Russian publications that discuss seismic refraction and gravity studies of crustal structure. Although this compilation deals mainly with explosion seismic-refraction measurements, some results from earthquake studies are also included. None of the data have been evaluated.

  13. Dynamics of soil carbon stocks due to large-scale land use changes across the former Soviet Union during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurganova, Irina; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Müller, Daniel; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Land use change is a major driver of land-atmosphere carbon (C) fluxes. The largest net C fluxes caused by LUC are attributed to the conversion of native unmanaged ecosystems to croplands and vice versa. Here, we present the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in response to large-scale land use changes in the former Soviet Union from 1953-2012. Widespread and rapid conversion of native ecosystems to croplands occurred in the course of the Virgin Lands Campaign (VLC) between 1954 to 1963 in the Soviet Union, when more than 45 million hectares (Mha) were ploughed in south-eastern Russia and northern Kazakhstan in order to expand domestic food production. After 1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union triggered the abandonment of around 75 Mha across the post-Soviet states. To assess SOC dynamics, we generated a static cropland mask for 2009 based on three global cropland maps. We used the cropland mask to spatially disaggregate annual sown area statistics at province level based on the suitability of each plot for crop production, which yielded land use maps for each year from 1954 to 2012 for all post-Soviet states. To estimate the SOC-dynamics due to the VLC and post-Soviet croplands abandonment, we used available experimental data, own field measurements, and soil maps. A bookkeeping approach was applied to assess the total changes in SOC-stocks in response to large-scale land use changes in the former Soviet Union. The massive croplands expansion during VLC resulted in a substantial loss of SOC - 611±47 Mt C and 241±11 Mt C for the upper 0-50 cm soil layer during the first 20 years of cultivation for Russia and Kazakhstan, respectively. These magnitudes are similar to C losses due to the plowing up of the prairies in USA in the mid-1930s. The total SOC sequestration due to post-Soviet croplands abandonment was estimated at 72.2±6.0 Mt C per year from 1991 to 2010. This amount of carbon equals about 40% of the current fossil fuel emission for this

  14. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use, and Hepatitis C Virus Risk Among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L A; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18-29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions.

  15. The consequences of Chernobyl for Germany and the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Leser, B.

    1992-01-01

    Five years following the Chernobyl reactor accident, the event was discussed in terms of its effects on Germany and the Sovjet Union. During this period, particular attention had been given to the radioactive load from exposure of the general public to internal as well as external radiation. Wholebody measurements and epidemiologic surveys permitted insights into the radiation effects attributable to the Chernobyl fallout. The most recent Law on the Prevention of Radiation Injuries, which was passen in 1986, and the current situation in the Sovjet Union were dealt with in brief. (DG) [de

  16. Prosthetic Manhood in the Soviet Union at the End of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Millions of Soviet soldiers were disabled as a direct consequence of their service in the Second World War. Yet despite its expressions of gratitude for their sacrifices, the state evinced a great deal of discomfort regarding their damaged bodies. The countless armless and legless veterans were a constant reminder of the destruction suffered by the country as a whole, an association increasingly incompatible with the postwar agenda of wholesale reconstruction. This article focuses on a key strategy for erasing the scars of war, one with ostensibly unambiguous benefit for the disabled themselves: the development of prostheses. In addition to fostering independence from others and ultimately from the state, artificial limbs would facilitate the veterans' return to the kinds of socially useful labor by which the country defined itself. In so doing, this strategy engendered the establishment of a new model of masculinity: a prosthetic manhood.

  17. The Deportation of Germans from Romania to the Soviet Union in 1944–1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murádin János Kristóf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines the capturing of prisoners by the Red Army taking control over Transylvania in the fall of 1944. It presents the second wave of capturing: the deportations in January-February 1945, pronouncedly oriented toward the German community (Transylvanian Saxons and Swabians primarily living in the Banat. There are described the circumstances of capturing the prisoners, the number of those taken away, the routes of their deportation, the locations and lengths of their captivity, the number of the victims, and the return of the survivors. Finally, the remembrance of the 1945 Soviet deportations, their present social embeddedness is expounded. The source material of the study consists of specialist books, essays, published recollections, and interviews with survivors made by the author and other researchers

  18. On the situation in the areas of the Soviet Union affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg

    1991-01-01

    The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station on April 26, 1986 is the event with the most severe consequences in the history of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. Five years later, the experts and the public, both national and international, are still far from having obtained a complete overview of the radiological situation in the immediate and more distant environment of the destroyed plant. Copious information about measurements conducted by the Soviets, but also by international agencies, has produced partly contradictory findings, all of it extremely fragmentary about partial aspects of the disaster. This summary report about the situation written from a radiobiologist's point of view covers such aspects as the failure of the policy which had sought to put a ban on the dissemination of information; the levels of contamination; a radiological assessment of the 35 rem concept; the issue of generally higher morbidity; and the necessary measures of support and assistance. (orig.) [de

  19. JPRS Report, Arms Control, Protocol to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests of July 3, 1974, hereinafter referred to as the Treaty, convinced of the necessity to ensure effective...

  20. Message dated 8 January 1987 from Mr. Mikhail Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to Mr. Javier Perez de Cuellar, Secretary-General of the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This message is an account to the world community on what the Soviet Union did concretely in 1986 to ensure that this year, proclaimed by the United Nations the International Year of Peace, justifies the hopes pinned on it

  1. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrite, alkalinity, and pH data collected by multiple former Soviet Union institutions from Okhotsk Sea from 1981-09-23 to 1988-06-17 (NODC Accession 0081217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrite, alkalinity, and pH data collected by multiple former Soviet Union institutions from Okhotsk...

  2. Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and meteorological data collected by various Russian and former Soviet Union institutions from North Pacific Ocean and Okhotsk Sea from 1930-07-23 to 2004-04-18 (NODC Accession 0083635)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and meteorological data collected by various Russian and former Soviet Union institutions from North Pacific...

  3. Migration pattern and mortality of ethnic German migrants from the former Soviet Union: a cohort study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaucher, Simone; Deckert, Andreas; Becher, Heiko; Winkler, Volker

    2017-12-19

    We aimed to investigate all-cause and cause-specific mortality among ethnic German migrants from the former Soviet Union by different immigration periods to describe associations with migration pattern and mortality. We used pooled data from three retrospective cohort studies in Germany. Ethnic German migrants from the former Soviet Union (called resettlers), who immigrated to Germany since 1990 to the federal states North Rhine-Westphalia and Saarland and to the region of Augsburg (n=59 390). All-cause and cause-specific mortality among resettlers in comparison to the general German population, separated by immigration period. Immigration periods were defined following legislative changes in German immigration policy (1990-1992, 1993-1995, 1996+). Resettlers' characteristics were described accordingly. To investigate mortality differences by immigration period, we calculated age-standardised mortality rates (ASRs) and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) of resettlers in comparison to the general German population. Additionally, we modelled sex-specific ASRs with Poisson regression, using age, year and immigration period as independent variables. The composition of resettlers differed by immigration period. Since 1993, the percentage of resettlers from the Russian Federation and non-German spouses increased. Higher all-cause mortality was found among resettlers who immigrated in 1996 and after (ASR 628.1, 95% CI 595.3 to 660.8), compared with resettlers who immigrated before 1993 (ASR 561.8, 95% CI 537.2 to 586.4). SMR analysis showed higher all-cause mortality among resettler men from the last immigration period compared with German men (SMR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.19), whereas resettlers who immigrated earlier showed lower all-cause mortality. Results from Poisson regression, adjusted for age and year, corroborated those findings. Mortality differences by immigration period suggest different risk-factor patterns and possibly deteriorated integration

  4. JPRS report, arms control, protocol to the treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-08-01

    The United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, hereinafter referred to as the Parties, confirming the provisions of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests of July 3, 1974, hereinafter referred to as the Treaty, convinced of the necessity to ensure effective verification of compliance with the Treaty. Contents of the Treaty are enclosed.

  5. “Declarations of Emotional Independence” in Soviet Poetry in the 1930s: A Historical-Sociological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Irina G. Tazhidinova

    2014-01-01

    The turn to the cultural-anthropological dimension of the past leads to re-evaluation of the significance of literature as a historical source. The article brings to light the potential of lyric poetry for the study of the emotions of the man of the 1930s and the history of the Soviet everyday. The work analyzes the verses of young poets (P. Kogan, N. Mayorov, and N. Ovsyannikov), which can be treated as “declarations of emotional independence”. In them, the authors declaim against hypocrisy ...

  6. Soviet energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    As it moves from a centrally planned economy toward a market-based system, the Soviet Union will need to produce and export large quantities of oil to help finance industrial development and to purchase consumer goods from the West. Since 1988, however, Soviet oil production has fallen by about 8.8 percent. Oil exports also have declined, falling by about 15 percent from 1988 to 1990. The main reasons for the production decline are the lack of enough capital for exploration and production and the use of outdated and inefficient production practices. While U.S.-Soviet joint ventures could potentially help reverse this situation, both the United States and the Soviet Union maintain policies and practices that hinder U.S. trade and investment in Soviet oil exploration and production. Despite such difficulties, several U.S. multinational oil companies are proceeding with joint venture agreements, and progress is being made on overcoming some of the obstacles. For example, training programs in western business practices are being offered b the U.S. government, private companies, and universities. In addition, the U.S. and Soviet governments are now negotiating a tax treaty. GAO summarized this report in testimony before Congress

  7. Letter from Mr. M. Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to Dr. H. Blix, Director General of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The full text of the letter from Mr. M. Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to Dr. H. Blix, Director General of the IAEA after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl power station is presented. Suggestions for the establishment of an international regime of safe nuclear power development as a result of lessons from the Chernobyl accident are made

  8. Chronic disease mortality associated with infectious agents: a comparative cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jördis J; Paltiel, Ari M; Winkler, Volker; Becher, Heiko

    2008-04-09

    Prevalence of infectious diseases in migrant populations has been addressed in numerous studies. However, information is sparse on their mortality due to chronic diseases that are aetiologically associated with an infectious agent. This study investigates mortality related to infectious diseases with a specific focus on cancers of possibly infectious origin in voluntary migrants from the Former Soviet Union residing in Israel and in Germany. Both groups of migrants arrived from the Former Soviet Union in their destination countries between 1990 and 2001. Population-based data on migrants in Israel were obtained from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Data for migrants in Germany were obtained from a representative sample of all migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany. Cause of death information was available until 2003 for the Israeli cohort and until 2005 for the German cohort. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated relative to the destination country for selected causes of death for which infectious agents may be causally involved. Multivariate Poisson regression was applied to assess differences in mortality by length of residence in the host country. Both in Israel and in Germany these migrants have lower overall mortality than the population in their destination countries. However, they have significantly elevated mortality from viral hepatitis and from stomach and liver cancer when compared to the destination populations. Regression analysis shows that in Israel stomach cancer mortality is significantly higher among migrants at shorter durations of residence when compared to durations of more than nine years. Higher mortality from cancers associated with infection and from viral hepatitis among migrants from the Former Soviet Union might result from higher prevalence of infections which were acquired in earlier years of life. The results highlight new challenges posed by diseases of infectious origin in migrants and call attention to the

  9. Social capital and self-reported general and mental health in nine Former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Rocco, Lorenzo; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been proposed as a potentially important contributor to health, yet most of the existing research tends to ignore the challenge of assessing causality in this relationship. We deal with this issue by employing various instrumental variable estimation techniques. We apply the analysis to a set of nine former Soviet countries, using a unique multi-country household survey specifically designed for this region. Our results confirm that there appears to be a causal association running from several dimensions of individual social capital to general and mental health. Individual trust appears to be more strongly related to general health, while social isolation- to mental health. In addition, social support and trust seem to be more important determinants of health than the social capital dimensions that facilitate solidarity and collective action. Our findings are remarkably robust to a range of different specifications, including the use of instrumental variables. Certain interaction effects are also found: for instance, untrusting people who live in communities with higher aggregate level of trust are even less likely to experience good health than untrusting people living in the reference communities.

  10. Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: changes between 2001 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Alimbekova, Gulzhan; Pachulia, Merab; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; McKee, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors associated with intention of Israeli-born women and immigrant women from the Former Soviet Union to take folic acid before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Brandin Rimkus, Alina; Tseytlin Eryomine, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy decreases rates of neural tube defects. However, many women fail to adhere to folic acid supplementation recommendations. This study explored factors associated with women's intention to take folic acid before and during pregnancy, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour, with an emphasis on differences between Israeli-born women and immigrant women from the Former Soviet Union. In this cross-sectional study, 100 Israeli born-women and 100 women from the Former Soviet Union of childbearing age completed a questionnaire, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The findings indicated a significant difference in the rates at which Israeli-born and FSU-born women took folic acid before and during pregnancy, as well as a significant difference in their intention to take folic acid supplementation in future pregnancies. The theoretical model explained 88.7% of variance in women's intention to take folic acid, with the most influential variable being behavioural attitudes towards taking folic acid. The study emphasizes the need to increase knowledge and change attitudes and beliefs about folic acid supplementation among women and their significant others, as well as the importance of cultural, language, and economic barriers when treating Former Soviet Union immigrant populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  13. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-01-01

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17–36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; Ppsychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a background of migration from the post-Soviet-Union areas to Germany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

  14. JPRS Report Soviet Union USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology No 12, December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-05

    York, 1984, pp 172-173. 9. G. Herken, " Counsels of War," New York, 1985, p 291. 10. "Nuclear War Strategy. Hearing Before the Commit- tee on Foreign...an oversimplified approach to the problem of nuclear safety," said E. Weiss, the chief legal counsel of the Union of Concerned Scientists. As J...34Television Evangelists and Their Flock," No 12 Kalugin, V.l., "Washington and Greece," No 8 Kozin, V.P., "United Nations and Naval Limitations," No 10

  15. Estimated inventory of radionuclides in Former Soviet Union Naval Reactors dumped in the Kara Sea and their associated health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.E.; Layton, D.W.; Schwertz, N.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Robison, W.L.

    1993-05-01

    Radionuclide inventories have bin estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 17 to 66 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 1695 to 4782 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 6 to 24 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 492 to 540 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two

  16. The comorbidity of hypertension and psychological distress: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Tumanov, Sergei; McKee, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Mental health problems in those with physical ailments are often overlooked, especially in the former Soviet Union (fSU) where this comorbidity has received little attention. Our study examines the comorbidity of psychological distress and hypertension in the fSU. Nationally representative household survey data from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2001 and 2010 were analysed to compare the levels of psychological distress in people with and without self-reported hypertension. Multivariate regression analysed determinants of psychological distress in hypertensive respondents, and prevalence rate ratios were calculated to compare the change in distress between the two groups. There were significantly higher levels of psychological distress among hypertensive respondents (9.9%) than in the general population (4.9%), and a significant association between the two conditions [odds ratio (OR) = 2.27 (1.91; 2.70)]. Characteristics associated with distress among hypertensive respondents included residing in Armenia or Kyrgyzstan, being female, over age 50, with a poor economic situation, lower education, poor emotional support and limited access to medical drugs. Levels of distress declined between 2001 and 2010, but at a lesser rate in hypertensive respondents [rate ratio (RR) = 0.85 (0.75; 0.95)] than non-hypertensive respondents [RR = 0.65 (0.56; 0.75)]. There is a significant association between psychological distress and hypertension in the region.

  17. Ice-core based assessment of historical anthropogenic heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Sb, Zn) emissions in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Eyrikh, Stella; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

    2014-01-01

    The development of strategies and policies aiming at the reduction of environmental exposure to air pollution requires the assessment of historical emissions. Although anthropogenic emissions from the extended territory of the Soviet Union (SU) considerably influenced concentrations of heavy metals in the Northern Hemisphere, Pb is the only metal with long-term historical emission estimates for this region available, whereas for selected other metals only single values exist. Here we present the first study assessing long-term Cd, Cu, Sb, and Zn emissions in the SU during the period 1935-1991 based on ice-core concentration records from Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai and emission data from 12 regions in the SU for the year 1980. We show that Zn primarily emitted from the Zn production in Ust-Kamenogorsk (East Kazakhstan) dominated the SU heavy metal emission. Cd, Sb, Zn (Cu) emissions increased between 1935 and the 1970s (1980s) due to expanded non-ferrous metal production. Emissions of the four metals in the beginning of the 1990s were as low as in the 1950s, which we attribute to the economic downturn in industry, changes in technology for an increasing metal recovery from ores, the replacement of coal and oil by gas, and air pollution control.

  18. Knowledge of the health impacts of smoking and public attitudes towards tobacco control in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Gilmore, Anna B; Danishevski, Kirill; Kizilova, Kseniya; Bryden, Anna; Rotman, David; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

    2013-11-01

    To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support. Standardised, cross-sectional nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/2011 with 18 000 men and women aged 18 years and older in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Respondents were asked a range of questions on their knowledge of the health effects of tobacco and their support for a variety of tobacco control measures. Descriptive analysis was conducted on levels of knowledge and support, along with multivariate logistic regression analysis of characteristics associated with overall knowledge and support scores. Large gaps exist in public understanding of the negative health effects of tobacco use, particularly in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Moldova. There are also extremely high levels of misunderstanding about the potential effects of 'light' cigarettes. However, there is popular support for tobacco control measures. Over three quarters of the respondents felt that their governments could be more effective in pursuing tobacco control. Higher levels of education, social capital (membership of an organisation) and being a former or never-smoker were associated with higher knowledge on the health effects of tobacco and/or being more supportive of tobacco control measures. Increasing public awareness of tobacco's health effects is essential for informed decision-making by individuals and for further increasing public support for tobacco control measures.

  19. A life domains perspective on acculturation and psychological adjustment: a study of refugees from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Dina; Simon, Corrina D; Chan, Wing Yi; Tran, Nellie

    2014-03-01

    The study articulates a contextual approach to research on acculturation of immigrants, suggesting that the relationship between acculturation and adjustment is dependent on the cultural demands of the life domains considered. Specifically, the study investigated the mediating effects of adjustment in occupational and social life domains on the relationship between acculturation and psychological adjustment for 391 refugees from the former Soviet Union. The study used bilinear measures of acculturation to the host (American) and heritage (Russian) cultures. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the study confirmed the hypothesized relationships, such that the positive effects of American acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by occupational adjustment, and the effects of Russian acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by satisfaction with co-ethnic social support. Psychological adjustment was measured in two ways, as psychological well-being, using a measure of life satisfaction, and as symptoms of depression and anxiety, using the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL). Life satisfaction served as a mediator between adjustment in occupational and social domains and HSCL, suggesting that it may be an intervening variable through which environmental stress associated with immigration contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder.

  20. Public satisfaction as a measure of health system performance: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Mills, Anne; Richardson, Erica; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Measurement of health system performance increasingly includes the views of healthcare users, yet little research has focussed on general population satisfaction with health systems. This study is the first to examine public satisfaction with health systems in the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data were derived from two related studies conducted in 2001 and 2010 in nine fSU countries, using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of health system satisfaction in each country was compared for 2001 and 2010. Patterns of satisfaction were further examined by comparing satisfaction with the health system and other parts of the public sector, and the views of health care users and non-users. Potential determinants of population satisfaction were explored using logistic regression. For all countries combined, the level of satisfaction with health systems increased from 19.4% in 2001 to 40.6% in 2010, but varied considerably by country. Changes in satisfaction with the health system were similar to changes with the public sector, and non-users of healthcare were slightly more likely to report satisfaction than users. Characteristics associated with higher satisfaction include younger age, lower education, higher economic status, rural residency, better health status, and higher levels of political trust. Our results suggest that satisfaction can provide useful insight into public opinion on health system performance, particularly when used in conjunction with other subjective measures of satisfaction with government performance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Cancer incidence in ethnic German migrants from the Former Soviet Union in comparison to the host population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Becher, Heiko

    2014-02-01

    To investigate cancer incidence patterns among ethnic German migrants (Aussiedler) from the Former Soviet Union, a large migrant group in Germany, in comparison to autochthonous Saarland population over a 20 year observation period. Data were obtained from a cohort of Aussiedler residing in the federal state of Saarland (n=18,619). Cancer incidence and vital status were ascertained through record linkage with the Saarland Cancer Registry and local population registries. During the follow up period from 1990 to 2009 we observed 638 incident diagnoses of malignant neoplasms (except non-melanoma skin cancer). The overall standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.92, 1.04). However, site-specific SIRs revealed great variation. Stomach cancer incidence was significantly higher among Aussiedler. Lung cancer was elevated for males, but lower among females. Additionally, diagnoses for colorectal cancer among males were significantly lower. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) over time show not all cancer rates of Aussiedler attenuate as expected to Saarland rates. For example, lung and prostate cancer incidence rates show increasing disparity from Saarland rates and female breast cancer incidence develops in parallel. Furthermore, ASR for overall cancer incidence of Aussiedler shows a yearly decrease (p=0.06) whereas Saarland rates remain stable. Aussiedler incidence rates reflect incidence pattern observed in their countries of origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. "I Want Her to Make Correct Decisions on Her Own:"Former Soviet Union Mothers' Beliefs about Autonomy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolova, Masha; Lipnitsky, Jane Y

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examined Former Soviet Union (FSU) mothers' explicit and implicit attitudes and parenting practices around adolescents' autonomy development. Interviews were conducted with 10 mothers who had immigrated from the FSU to the US between 10 and 25 years ago, and who had daughters between the ages of 13 and 17 years. Mothers predominantly defined autonomy in terms of adolescents' ability to carry out instrumental tasks, make correct decisions, and financially provide for themselves, but rarely mentioned psychological or emotional independence. Mothers reflected on the various aspects of autonomy emphasized in their country of origin and America, and balancing the two sets of cultural values in their parenting. Although mothers discussed attempts to adopt a less authoritarian approach to parenting than they themselves experienced as children, some mothers' controlling attitudes were revealed through a close analysis of their language. The findings provide important insights into the parenting experiences of FSU immigrant mothers, and the way in which autonomy-related processes may vary cross-culturally. Implications for parenting and clinical practice are also discussed.

  3. Migration and changes in loneliness over a 4-year period: the case of older former Soviet Union immigrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberg, Pnina; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Ayalon, Liat

    2016-12-01

    Both older adult and immigrant populations are at a high risk of loneliness. The current research compares older veteran Israelis to older immigrants who arrived in Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) after 1989. Early studies have found high levels of loneliness among older FSU immigrants; however, little is known regarding changes in loneliness among this group over time. The present study examines change in loneliness among older FSU immigrants and older veteran Jewish Israelis and its potential predictors. A prospective association between immigrant's status and loneliness over time was examined using the second (2009/2010) and third (2013) waves of SHARE-Israel. The sample consisted of 208 FSU immigrants and 1080 veteran Jewish Israelis. Bivariate analyses indicated that in 2009/2010, older FSU immigrants were significantly lonelier than older veteran Jews, and more disadvantaged on all social and health variables measured. Yet, no significant differences emerged between the two groups with regard to loneliness in 2013. In the adjusted model, older immigrants presented positive change in loneliness (less loneliness over time) compared with veteran Jewish Israelis. Depressive symptoms explained a large part of the variance in change in loneliness. Potential explanations suggest that the long-term psychological adjustment process and the characteristics of the FSU immigrants in Israel as a large and relatively strong immigrant group have served as protective factors with regard to changes in loneliness over time.

  4. Mapping health research capacity in 17 countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Alessio; Glonti, Ketevan; Bertollini, Roberto; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Policies to improve health status, tackle disease and ensure equitable access to healthcare should be informed by evidence derived from high-quality research. However, health research capacity is unevenly distributed across countries, as revealed by mapping exercises that have been undertaken to provide a basis for concerted action to strengthen capacity. This study systematically describes capacity to undertake health research in the countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe and identifies the elements required to create a national health research system. The mapping exercise comprised two elements: a survey of key informants in the respective countries and a bibliometric analysis of scientific publications in the field of public health. Our results confirm that health research remains a low priority in some countries of the WHO European Region. In these countries, most of the literature was produced by researchers outside the country, often to inform international donors. This study provides important information for countries seeking to initiate action to strengthen their research capacity. There is a need for a comprehensive strategy with sustained investment in training and career development of researchers. There is also a need to create new funding systems to provide financial support to those undertaking policy-relevant research. International collaboration and investment in mechanisms to bridge the gap between research and policy are urgently required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

    2000-01-01

    Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing (∼15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to ∼ 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m b = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m b o and 10 o , respectively

  6. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem

  7. The mechanism of influence of interest groups in the European Union: political and sociological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kanevsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between interest groups and political institutions is one of the cornerstones of the European Union policy making process. Although majority of Russian and foreign works dedicated to lobbying and decision making in the EU, concentrate on a governmental stadial system and normative procedures that regulate interest groups access to policy making centers. Such institutional approach doesn’t clarify why the EU has concrete policies, why not all interest groups are able to win, who sets the agenda and in whose interests decisions are made. Current article, using contemporary theories and research, analyzes process of interaction between interest groups and governmental structures in the EU. It also proposes explanations of wins and losses in the policy making process, trying to answer how interest groups interacts with each other and what patterns can be identified in the process of interest aggregation by governmental structures.

  8. Institutional, Sociological and Spatial Factors Influencing Consumer Protection Perceptions in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa MARE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses through quantitative methods the problems specific to consumer protection. We focused on the factors that influence the number of complaints at national level and the perception of consumers that they are protected by public authorities. Data used for the 27 countries of the European Union were collected by official institutions, such as Heritage Foundations, United Nations Development Programme and the European Commission. Two types of econometric tools were employed: Ordinary Least Squares Multiple Regression and Spatial Econometric methods, such as map analysis, Moran’s I test for spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression. The results are convincing in what regards the institutional factors. Other types of behavior, such as social factors and spatial neighborhood effects, could not be highlighted.

  9. Report on the visit of a U.S. Nuclear Safety Delegation to the Soviet Union, August 19-31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    During August 1988 a US delegation of nuclear reactor safety specialists, led by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chairman Lando W. Zech, Jr., visited the Soviet Union to initiate cooperative activities in civilian nuclear reactor safety between the two countries under their April 1988 Memorandum of Cooperation. Areas of future cooperation and a schedule of working group meetings to explore these areas were defined in a protocol signed during this visit. The delegation met with Soviet representatives in Moscow as the Joint coordinating Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety. Additionally, while in Moscow, Chairman Zech held discussions with leaders and other senior officials of Soviet organizations with responsibility for nuclear power safety. Nuclear facilities were also visited, including the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy (Moscow), the Novovoronezh Atomic Power Station, the Novovoronezh Training and Commissioning Center, the Izhora Heavy Equipment Production Plant (Kolpino), the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (Gatchina), the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, the All-Union Center for Radiation Medicine (Kiev), and the Rovno Atomic Power Station. 35 figs

  10. Last glacial maximum climate of the former Soviet Union and Mongolia reconstructed from pollen and plant macrofossil data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, P.E. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyi Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Geography; Peyron, O. [IMEP, CNRS UMR 6100, Faculte de St-Jerome, case 451, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)]|[CEREGE, B.P. 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 4 (France); Guiot, J.; Brewer, S. [IMEP, CNRS UMR 6100, Faculte de St-Jerome, case 451, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Volkova, V.S. [Institute of Geology, Russian Academy of Sciences (Siberian Branch), Universitetskii 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Bezusko, L.G. [Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Tereshchenkovskaya 2, Kiev 252601 (Ukraine); Dorofeyuk, N.I. [Institute of Evolution and Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Piatnitskaya 47, Stroenie 3, Moscow 109017 (Russian Federation); Kvavadze, E.V. [Institute of Palaeobiology, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Potomaja 4, Tbilisi 380004 (Georgia); Osipova, I.M. [Central Geological Laboratory, Zvenigorodskoe Shosse 9, Moscow 309252 (Russian Federation); Panova, N.K. [Forest Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Ural Branch), Bilimbaevskaya 32 A, Ekaterinburg 620134 (Russian Federation)

    1999-03-01

    An improved concept of the best analogues method was used to reconstruct the last glacial maximum (LGM) climate from a set of botanical records from the former Soviet Union and Mongolia. Terrestrial pollen and macrofossil taxa were grouped into broad classes - plant functional types (PFTs), defined by the ecological and climatic parameters used in the BIOME1 model. PFT scores were then calibrated in terms of modern climate using 1245 surface pollen spectra from Eurasia and North America. In contrast to individual taxa, which exhibit great variability and may not be present in the palaeoassemblages, even in suitable climates, PFTs are more characteristic of the vegetation types. The modified method thus allows climate reconstruction at time intervals with partial direct analogues of modern vegetation (e.g. the LGM). At 18 kBP, mean temperatures were 20-29 C colder than today in winter and 5-11 C colder in summer in European Russia and Ukraine. Sites from western Georgia show negative, but moderate temperature anomalies compared to today: 8-11 C in January and 5-7 C in July. LGM winters were 7-15 C colder and summers were 1-7 C colder in Siberia and Mongolia. Annual precipitation sums were 50-750 mm lower than today across northern Eurasia, suggesting a weakening of the Atlantic and Pacific influences. Reconstructed drought index shows much drier LGM conditions in northern and midlatitude Russia, but similar to or slightly wetter than today around the Black Sea and in Mongolia, suggesting compensation of precipitation losses by lower-than-present evaporation. (orig.) With 3 figs., 6 tabs., 65 refs.

  11. Self-selection and earnings assimilation: immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yinon; Haberfeld, Yitchak

    2007-08-01

    Drawing on U.S. decennial census data and on Israeli census and longitudinal data, we compare the educational levels and earnings assimilation of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the United States and Israel during 1968-2000. Because the doors to both countries were practically open to FSU immigrants between 1968 and 1989, when FSU immigrants were entitled to refugee visas in the United States, the comparison can be viewed as a natural experiment in immigrants' destination choices. The results suggest that FSU immigrants to the United States are of significantly higher educational level and experience significantly faster rates of earnings assimilation in their new destination than their counterparts who immigrated to Israel. We present evidence that patterns of self-selection in immigration to Israel and the United States--on both measured and unmeasured productivity-related traits--is the main reason for these results. When the immigration regulations in the United States changed in 1989, and FSU Jewish immigrants to the United States had to rely on family reunification for obtaining immigrant visas, the adverse effects of the policy change on the type of FSU immigrants coming to the United States were minor and short-lived As early as 1992, the gaps in the educational levels between FSU immigrants coming to Israel and to the United States returned to their pre-1989 levels, and the differences in earnings assimilation of post-1989 immigrants in the United States and Israel are similar to the differences detected in the 1980s.

  12. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  13. Micro- and meso-level influences on obesity in the former Soviet Union: a multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kaitlyn; Roberts, Bayard; Chow, Clara; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Limited evidence exists on obesity in the former Soviet Union (fSU), particularly its micro- and meso-level determinants. The objectives of this study were to determine age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of self-reported overweight and obesity in nine fSU countries; explore the relationship between individual and household (micro-level) factors and obesity; and explore the relationship between features of nutritional and physical environments (meso-level) and obesity. Data were collected from 18,000 adults using household surveys and from 333 communities using community profiles in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2010. Individual- and community-level determinants of self-reported obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) were analysed using multi-level random intercept logistic regression models. A total of 13% of the males and 18% of the females were categorized as obese. Factors associated with obesity in males were older age, increasing educational achievement, declining self-reported health, alcohol consumption and automobile ownership. Males who were current smokers, not married and perceived physical activity to be important were less likely to be obese. For females, obesity was associated with older age, completion of secondary-level education, declining self-reported health and average household financial situation. Unmarried women were less likely to be obese. Multi-level analysis indicated that individuals living in communities with higher presence of garbage were more likely to be obese. This is the first study to examine both micro- and meso-level influences on obesity in fSU using multi-level analysis. Findings indicate a similar obesity risk profile to countries in Western Europe and North America.

  14. All-cause and Cardiovascular mortality among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Becher, Heiko; Razum, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Background Migration is a phenomenon of particular Public Health importance. Since 1990, almost 2 million ethnic Germans (Aussiedler) have migrated from the former Soviet Union (FSU) to Germany. This study compares their overall and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality to that of Germany's general population. Because of high overall and CVD mortality in the FSU and low socio-economic status of Aussiedler in Germany, we hypothesize that their mortality is higher. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study for 1990–2002 with data of 34,393 Aussiedler. We assessed vital status at population registries and causes of death at the state statistical office. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the whole cohort and substrata of covariables such as age, sex and family size. To assess multivariate effects, we used Poisson regression. Results 1657 cohort members died before December 31, 2002, and 680 deaths (41.03%) were due to CVD. The SMR for the whole cohort was 0.85 (95%-CI 0.81–0.89) for all causes of death and 0.79 (95%-CI 0.73–0.85) for CVD. SMRs were higher than one for younger Aussiedler and lower for older ones. There was no clear effect of duration of stay on SMRs. For 1990–93, SMRs were significantly lower than in subsequent years. In families comprising at least five members upon arrival in Germany, SMRs were significantly lower than in smaller families. Conclusion In contrast to our hypothesis on migrants' health, overall and CVD mortality among Aussiedler is lower than in Germany's general population. Possible explanations are a substantially better health status of Aussiedler in the FSU as compared to the local average, a higher perceived socio-economic status of Aussiedler in Germany, or selection effects. SMR differences between substrata need further exploration, and risk factor data are needed. PMID:16438727

  15. Ischaemic heart disease in the former Soviet Union 1990-2015 according to the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Adrianna; Johnson, Catherine O; Roth, Gregory A; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ng, Marie; Pogosova, Nana; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Moran, Andrew E

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and risk factor burden across former Soviet Union (fSU) and satellite countries and regions in 1990 and 2015. The fSU and satellite countries were grouped into Central Asian, Central European and Eastern European regions. IHD mortality data for men and women of any age were gathered from national vital registration, and age, sex, country, year-specific IHD mortality rates were estimated in an ensemble model. IHD morbidity and mortality burden attributable to risk factors was estimated by comparative risk assessment using population attributable fractions. In 2015, age-standardised IHD death rates in Eastern European and Central Asian fSU countries were almost two times that of satellite states of Central Europe. Between 1990 and 2015, rates decreased substantially in Central Europe (men -43.5% (95% uncertainty interval -45.0%, -42.0%); women -42.9% (-44.0%, -41.0%)) but less in Eastern Europe (men -5.6% (-9.0, -3.0); women -12.2% (-15.5%, -9.0%)). Age-standardised IHD death rates also varied within regions: within Eastern Europe, rates decreased -51.7% in Estonian men (-54.0, -47.0) but increased +19.4% in Belarusian men (+12.0, +27.0). High blood pressure and cholesterol were leading risk factors for IHD burden, with smoking, body mass index, dietary factors and ambient air pollution also ranking high. Some fSU countries continue to experience a high IHD burden, while others have achieved remarkable reductions in IHD mortality. Control of blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking are IHD prevention priorities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Loneliness: its correlates and association with health behaviours and outcomes in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Tumanov, Sergei; McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU)--a region where loneliness has been little studied to date. Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries--Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine--in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress). The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova. Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.

  17. Ischaemic heart disease in the former Soviet Union 1990–2015 according to the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Adrianna; Johnson, Catherine O; Roth, Gregory A; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ng, Marie; Pogosova, Nana; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Moran, Andrew E

    2018-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and risk factor burden across former Soviet Union (fSU) and satellite countries and regions in 1990 and 2015. Methods The fSU and satellite countries were grouped into Central Asian, Central European and Eastern European regions. IHD mortality data for men and women of any age were gathered from national vital registration, and age, sex, country, year-specific IHD mortality rates were estimated in an ensemble model. IHD morbidity and mortality burden attributable to risk factors was estimated by comparative risk assessment using population attributable fractions. Results In 2015, age-standardised IHD death rates in Eastern European and Central Asian fSU countries were almost two times that of satellite states of Central Europe. Between 1990 and 2015, rates decreased substantially in Central Europe (men −43.5% (95% uncertainty interval −45.0%, −42.0%); women −42.9% (−44.0%, −41.0%)) but less in Eastern Europe (men −5.6% (−9.0, –3.0); women −12.2% (−15.5%, −9.0%)). Age-standardised IHD death rates also varied within regions: within Eastern Europe, rates decreased −51.7% in Estonian men (−54.0, −47.0) but increased +19.4% in Belarusian men (+12.0, +27.0). High blood pressure and cholesterol were leading risk factors for IHD burden, with smoking, body mass index, dietary factors and ambient air pollution also ranking high. Conclusions Some fSU countries continue to experience a high IHD burden, while others have achieved remarkable reductions in IHD mortality. Control of blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking are IHD prevention priorities. PMID:28883037

  18. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Zemli

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  19. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use and HCV Risk among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A.; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L.A.; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18–29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions. PMID:26132715

  20. Training-related activities for nuclear power plant personnel in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A Technical Cooperation Meeting on Training-Related Activities for NPP Personnel in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union was held at the IAEA, Vienna. The main objective of the meeting was to identify, through information exchange and discussion, possible TC projects and assistance related to nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel training, which would meet overall coherent national goals and would demonstrate and important impact and relevance for national policy priorities. An array of such projects were identified for each participating country of the CEEC and FSU as were a number of regional cooperation projects. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Managing environmental issues at large-scale industrial estates: Problems and initiatives in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, R.

    1996-01-01

    A great many large-scale industrial sites are undergoing major transformation and restructuring in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The EBRD's portfolio of investment projects increasingly includes such sites, presenting the Bank with environmental challenges related to their size, complexity and history. Both technological improvements and changes in management structure are needed in order to address environmental, and health and safety, issues. The EBRD requires ''environmental due diligence'' on all of its projects under preparation. Requirements vary, depending on the nature of each project. (author)

  2. Cooperation with the Soviet Union in the development of the fuel and power base and in the implementation of the nuclear programme in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvanek, Z.

    1976-01-01

    One of the decisive chapters of the long-term programme of international cooperation with the Soviet Union is the solution of the problems of the development of the Czechoslovak fuel and power base, i.e., by the implementation of the nuclear programme. Cooperation in the solution of these tasks is oriented to the following spheres of activity: the realization of and cooperation in research and development tasks, the implementation of project designs based on basic and applied research, and cooperation in the production and assembly of technological equipment for nuclear power production. (J.P.)

  3. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Bartholomew

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need, and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to solve the issues. The Republics Georgia, formerly part of the Soviet Union provides a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world’s great epidemics began. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR Program together with the Georgian government, have worked diligently to improve the capabilities in this region to guard against the potential future risk from especially dangerous pathogens. This effort culminated in the construction of a modern containment laboratory, the Richard G. Lugar Center for Public Health Research in Tbilisi to house both especially dangerous pathogens as well as the research to be conducted on these agents. The need now is to utilize and sustain the investment made by CTR by establishing strong public and animal health science programs tailored to the needs of the region and the goals for which this investment was made. Here we provide the analysis and recommendations of an international panel of expert scientists to provide advice to the stakeholders on the scientific path for the future. The emphasis is on an implementation strategy for decision makers and

  4. Suicide and external mortality pattern in a cohort of migrants from the former Soviet Union to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Andreas; Winkler, Volker; Meisinger, Christa; Heier, Margit; Becher, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    Mental health consequences of migration are manifold. Where some migrants experience migration as liberation from life threatening conditions, others suffer from hostility and social descent in the target country. This study investigates deaths due to external causes, suicides, and events of undetermined intent in German repatriates from the Former Soviet Union. The relation between age at migration and suicide mortality is also explored. A cohort of German repatriates who migrated between 1990 and 1999 was followed-up until 2010. Each individual accumulated time at risk, expressed in person years (PY). Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated, supplemented by subgroup analyses for age and calendar year strata, and immigration period. Multivariate Poisson models were used to investigate the influence of age, sex, calendar year, number of moves, and final move distance. A total of 6378 German repatriates (3031 men, 3347 women) accumulated 92,149 PY. Median age at immigration was 30 years in women and 27 years in men. Women's all-cause mortality was significantly lower (SMR = 0.85 [0.75; 0.97]). Men more often died from external causes (SMR = 1.58 [1.09; 2.23]), intentional self-harm (SMR = 1.68 [0.90; 2.88]), and events of undetermined intent such as poisoning by drugs (SMR = 8.07 [4.02; 14.44]). External cause mortality was significantly increased after 1995 (SMR = 1.87). In particular, men who migrated when they were 11-20 years old were at strongly increased risk of committing suicide (SMR = 3.84) or dying due to events of undetermined intent (SMR = 14.75). The most endangered subgroup is men who migrated at teenage age. Protective factors such as strong family bounds formerly present in the FSU failed in Germany, the higher population density caused intense friction. The changes in the families' ethnical composition from mostly ethnic German members in the early 90s' towards predominantly Russian members around the turn of the millennium complicated

  5. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-08

    officers in the field of military art but also to contribute to the mastery of effective forms and methods of training and educating personnel of units...into account the latest achievements of military thought, and high competence in questions of tactics and operational art are the foremost qualities...first time, and the new embroidery had to be interspersed with the old canvas. In spite of everything they decided to continue the experiment. 84

  6. Agreement of 27 September 1988 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The full text of the Agreement of 27 September 1988 between the Agency and the Government of India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station composed of two pressurized light water reactors, each of 1000 MW(e) from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced

  7. The Text of the Agreement of 17 November 1977 between the Agency and India for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Heavy Water from the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The text of the Agreement of 17 November 1977 between the Agency and India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of heavy water from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  8. Interplay of identities: a narrative study of self-perceptions among immigrants with severe mental illness from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaifel, Evgeny; Mirsky, Julia

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the self-perceptions of individuals with mental illness who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. In particular, we examined the double stigma borne by these individuals as new immigrants and psychiatric patients, which may threaten their identity and render them at risk for social marginalization. We interviewed 12 FSU immigrants diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI), who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities in the past and, at the time of the interview, were residing in community rehabilitation centers. Their narratives revealed that they constructed multiple identities for themselves: as bearers of Russian culture, as Soviet Jews, as normative immigrants, and only lastly as consumers of mental health services. In the case of FSU newcomers with mental illness immigration may serve as a normalizing and positive experience. Study findings suggest that stressing patients' identity as mentally ill may be counterproductive in their rehabilitation; instead, clinicians may consider working to mobilize patients' personal and cultural assets and helping them reinstate a more complex self-perception. Further research is needed to explore how immigration may affect self-perceptions of individuals with SMI from other cultural groups. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-04-01

    We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to monitor articles of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries. The GYTS is a school-based survey, which uses a two-stage sample design to produce representative, independent, cross-sectional estimates. The GYTS was conducted in 10 out of 12 FSU countries from 1999 to 2008. The prevalence of ever smoking and current smoking, smoking initiation, and exposure to second-hand smoking decreased over time. Overall, willingness to stop smoking, supporting smoking bans, and receiving information about the dangers of smoking increased over time. Overall, our study shows that FSU countries had positive changes in tobacco-use prevalence and perception among youth over time. Our findings should be used as baseline measures for future tobacco-control interventions aimed at reducing tobacco use among youth. Moreover, our results call for the enforcement of restricting advertising for tobacco products.

  10. The Impact of the Soviet Union’s Demise on the U.S. Military Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-19

    January 1993, A 23; Simon Johnson and Oleg Ustenko, " Ukraine on the Brink of Hyperinflation ," RFEIRL Research Repora 1:50 (18 December 1992), 52. 27...L. Soviet MilitaryStrategyin Space New York: Jane’s Publishing, Inc., 1987. Johnson, Simon and Oleg Ustenko. " Ukraine on the Brink of Hyperinflation ...standing enthusiasm for military space matters with an opportunity to travel to Russia and Ukraine as part of the Air War College’s Regional Security

  11. Risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union: results of a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhrs, Ema; Winkler, Volker; Becher, Heiko

    2012-03-13

    Diseases of the circulatory system (CVD) are the most common causes of death in developed countries. However, the prevalence of CVD varies between countries; for example, the mortality rate in Russia is about four times higher than in Western Europe. In a recent retrospective cohort study it was unexpectedly found that CVD mortality is lower among "Aussiedler" (ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union) compared to the German population. This is a case-control study, nested into a recent cohort study of migrants from the former Soviet Union. Relatives of cases and controls themselves were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire. To estimate relative risks via the odds ratio (OR), a conditional logistic regression procedure was performed. Commonly known risk factors for CVD were identified as relevant to Aussiedler. The best multivariate model for CVD includes five risk factors: consumption of alcohol, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol and consumption of sweets. For alcohol consumption and smoking, OR = 3.68 (95% CI, 1.58-8.58) and OR = 3.07 (95% CI, 1.42-6.62), respectively. For diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol values, OR = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.50-7.39) and OR = 2.32 (95% CI, 1.11-4.88), respectively. The almost complete abdication of sweets is associated with a protective effect, OR = 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64). The prevalence of risk factors is somewhat different to that of the autochthon German population and partly explains the differences in CVD mortality between both groups. The reported lower prevalences of known risk factors of CVD such as alcohol consumption, high cholesterol, diabetes and smoking (in women) could contribute to a lower risk of CVD.

  12. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-03-12

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17-36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; PGermany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; PGermany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms.

  13. Women on the Edge of Time: Representations of revolutionary motherhood in the NEP-era Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Proctor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the October revolution of 1917 the fledgling Soviet government legalized divorce and abortion, secularized marriage, and decriminalized homosexuality. Utopians dreamed of the withering away of the family and the transformation of women's roles in the home and the workplace. But at least for the time being, only some bodies were capable of bearing children. Women's bodies became contested territory, a site of paradox. On the one hand the image of woman was re-imagined as a de-libidinalized fellow comrade, but this was combined with a continued emphasis on women's biological role as the privileged carriers of the future generation. Rather than circumventing this seeming contradiction, Soviet artworks of the 1920s confronted it, depicting motherhood as an emancipatory and revolutionary act. And this crucially does not only relate to bodies but to emotions. Revolutionary maternal love has a positive, affective dimension that provides an alternative to sexual love. The figure of the revolutionary mother prefigures the still hazily defined qualitative richness of the communist future. This article examines the figure of the revolutionary mother through a discussion of key artworks from the NEP era (1921-1928 concluding by considering how the representation of motherhood shifted in the Stalin era. The article asks what these historical ideas might still teach us today.

  14. Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, and meteorological data collected from Former Soviet Union platforms Lomonosov, Murmanets, and Akademik Shokalsky in 1933 - 1962 years from Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Kara Sea, and Laptev Sea (NODC Accession 0108117)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, and meteorological data collected from Former Soviet Union platforms Lomonosov,Murmanets, and Akademik Shokalsky in...

  15. Forest Cover Change within the Russian European North after the Breakdown of Soviet Union (1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Potapov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest cover dynamics (defined as tree canopy cover change without regard to forest land use within the Russian European North have been analyzed from 1990 to 2005 using a combination of results from two Landsat-based forest cover monitoring projects: 1990–2000 and 2000–2005. Results of the forest cover dynamics analysis highlighted several trends in forest cover change since the breakdown of the Soviet planned economy. While total logging area decreased from the 1990–2000 to the 2000–2005 interval, logging and other forms of anthropogenically-induced clearing increased within the Central and Western parts of the region. The most populated regions of European Russia featured the highest rates of net forest cover loss. Our results also revealed intensive gross forest cover loss due to forest felling close to the Russian-Finland border. The annual burned forest area almost doubled between the two time intervals. The 2000–2005 gross forest cover gain results suggest that tree encroachment on abandoned agriculture land is a wide-spread process over the region. The analysis demonstrates the value of regional-scale Landsat-based forest cover and change quantification. Our results supplemented official data by providing independently derived spatial information that could be used for assessing on-going trends and serve as a baseline for future forest cover monitoring.

  16. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  17. Investigation of the feasibility of an international integrated demonstration: Joint demonstration of environmental cleanup technologies in Eastern Europe/former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagood, M.C.; Stein, S.L.; Brouns, T.M.; McCabe, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe (EE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU) republics have areas that are contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The Westinghouse Hanford Company is exploring the feasibility of establishing a collaborative effort with various US agencies to establish an International Integrated Demonstration (IID). Westinghouse manages the waste management and cleanup programs at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The purpose of the IID would be to (1) facilitate assistance to EE/FSU cleanup efforts, (2) provide hands-on management and operational assistance to EE/FSU countries, (3) provide a basis for evaluating opportunities for and establishing future collaborations, and (4) evaluate the applicability of US technologies to both US and EE/FSU cleanup efforts. The DOE's Integrated Demonstration Programs are currently providing the conduit for development and demonstration and transfer and deployment of innovative technologies to meet DOE's cleanup need for hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Integrated Demonstrations are focused on all facets of environmental restoration including characterization, remediation, monitoring, site closure, regulatory compliance, and regulatory and public acceptance. Innovative technologies are being tested and demonstrated at host sites across the country to provide the necessary performance data needed to deploy these technologies. The IID concept would be to conduct an Integrated Demonstration at one or more EE/FSU host sites

  18. Cultural Impact on SAD: Social Anxiety Disorder among Ethiopian and Former Soviet Union Immigrants to Israel, in Comparison to Native-born Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenson-Atzmon, Kelly; Marom, Sofi; Sofer, Tamar; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Youngmann, Rafael; Hermesh, Haggai; Kushnir, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is linked to social norms and role expectations which are culture dependent, such as the construal of one's self as independent or interdependent in relation to others. The current study is the first to examine SAD symptoms among Ethiopian and former Soviet Union immigrants to Israel compared to a sample of native Israelis. We investigated the relationship between SAD, ethnicity and independent/ interdependent self-construals. A total of 261 students (151 native-born Israelis, 60 Ethiopian immigrants and 50 students from the former USSR) were administrated the Liebowitz Scale (LSAS), the Self-construal Scale (SCS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Ethiopians exhibited highest SAD scores while no differences were found between the FSU immigrants and native-born Israelis. Additionally, Ethiopians and native-born Israeli students exhibited similar high interdependence scores. Finally, SAD scores were predicted by gender, origin, independent and interdependent self-construals. Immigration per se is not a universal risk factor of SAD and ethnological-cultural factors do contribute specifically to SAD. A possible psychological mediator between culture and the susceptibility to SAD are the interdependence and independent self-construals. When treating immigrants, clinicians and health care providers are advised to consider the effect of cultural influence on the mental well-being and integration process of immigrants in to their host country.

  19. “I Want Her to Make Correct Decisions on Her Own:” Former Soviet Union Mothers' Beliefs about Autonomy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolova, Masha; Lipnitsky, Jane Y.

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study examined Former Soviet Union (FSU) mothers' explicit and implicit attitudes and parenting practices around adolescents' autonomy development. Interviews were conducted with 10 mothers who had immigrated from the FSU to the US between 10 and 25 years ago, and who had daughters between the ages of 13 and 17 years. Mothers predominantly defined autonomy in terms of adolescents' ability to carry out instrumental tasks, make correct decisions, and financially provide for themselves, but rarely mentioned psychological or emotional independence. Mothers reflected on the various aspects of autonomy emphasized in their country of origin and America, and balancing the two sets of cultural values in their parenting. Although mothers discussed attempts to adopt a less authoritarian approach to parenting than they themselves experienced as children, some mothers' controlling attitudes were revealed through a close analysis of their language. The findings provide important insights into the parenting experiences of FSU immigrant mothers, and the way in which autonomy-related processes may vary cross-culturally. Implications for parenting and clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:29434558

  20. “I Want Her to Make Correct Decisions on Her Own:” Former Soviet Union Mothers' Beliefs about Autonomy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Komolova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study examined Former Soviet Union (FSU mothers' explicit and implicit attitudes and parenting practices around adolescents' autonomy development. Interviews were conducted with 10 mothers who had immigrated from the FSU to the US between 10 and 25 years ago, and who had daughters between the ages of 13 and 17 years. Mothers predominantly defined autonomy in terms of adolescents' ability to carry out instrumental tasks, make correct decisions, and financially provide for themselves, but rarely mentioned psychological or emotional independence. Mothers reflected on the various aspects of autonomy emphasized in their country of origin and America, and balancing the two sets of cultural values in their parenting. Although mothers discussed attempts to adopt a less authoritarian approach to parenting than they themselves experienced as children, some mothers' controlling attitudes were revealed through a close analysis of their language. The findings provide important insights into the parenting experiences of FSU immigrant mothers, and the way in which autonomy-related processes may vary cross-culturally. Implications for parenting and clinical practice are also discussed.

  1. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  2. Molecular cloning and analysis of full-length genome of HIV type 1 strains prevalent in countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masharsky, Alexei E; Klimov, Nikolai A; Kozlov, Andrei P

    2003-10-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) was caused mainly by two HIV-1 variants: subtype A and CRF03-AB. To date only three full-length HIV-I genomes from the FSU have been sequenced: one subtype A from Byelorussia and two CRF03-AB from Russia. We report the full-length genome cloning and analysis of two more HIV-1 strains from the FSU countries (98UA0116 of subtype A and 98BY10443 of CRF03-AB). Isolate 98UA0116 is the second cloned and sequenced full-length HIV-1 genome of subtype A lineage from the FSU, which may be a novel subsubtype within sub-type A. Isolate 98BY10443 is the third full-length HIV-1 genome of CRF03-AB in the world to be cloned and sequenced. Additionally, it is the first CRF03-AB strain discovered in Byelorussia. Cloned genomic sequences of the FSU HIV-1 isolates are being used for the development of a region-specific HIV-1 vaccine.

  3. Internet as a Source of Long-Term and Real-Time Professional, Psychological, and Nutritional Treatment: A Qualitative Case Study Among Former Israeli Soviet Union Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shalayeva, Svetlana

    2017-02-03

    The Internet is considered to be an effective source of health information and consultation for immigrants. Nutritional interventions for immigrants have become increasingly common over the past few decades. However, each population of immigrants has specific needs. Understanding the factors influencing the success of nutrition programs among immigrants requires an examination of their attitudes and perceptions, as well as their cultural values. The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of the Internet as a tool for long-term and "real-time" professional, psychological, and nutritional treatment for immigrants from the former Soviet Union who immigrated to Israel (IIFSU) from 1990 to 2012. A sample of nutrition forum users (n=18) was interviewed and comments of 80 users were analyzed qualitatively in accordance with the grounded theory principles. The results show that IIFSU perceive the Internet as a platform for long-term and "real-time" dietary treatment and not just as an informative tool. IIFSU report benefits of online psychological support with professional dietary treatment. They attribute importance to cultural customization, which helps reduce barriers to intervention. In light of the results, when formulating nutritional programs, it is essential to have a specific understanding of immigrants' cultural characteristics and their patterns of Internet use concerning dietary care. ©Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Svetlana Shalayeva. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 03.02.2017.

  4. Using multi-level data to estimate the effect of an 'alcogenic' environment on hazardous alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Adrianna; Roberts, Bayard; Ploubidis, George B; Stickley, Andrew; McKee, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether alcohol-related community characteristics act collectively to influence individual-level alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union (fSU). Using multi-level data from nine countries in the fSU we conducted a factor analysis of seven alcohol-related community characteristics. The association between any latent factors underlying these characteristics and two measures of hazardous alcohol consumption was then analysed using a population average regression modelling approach. Our factor analysis produced one factor with an eigenvalue >1 (EV=1.28), which explained 94% of the variance. This factor was statistically significantly associated with increased odds of CAGE problem drinking (OR=1.40 (1.08-1.82)). The estimated association with EHD was not statistically significant (OR=1.10 (0.85-1.44)). Our findings suggest that a high number of beer, wine and spirit advertisements and high alcohol outlet density may work together to create an 'alcogenic' environment that encourages hazardous alcohol consumption in the fSU. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing Pregnancy Outcomes of Immigrants from Ethiopia and the Former Soviet Union to Israel, to those of Native-Born Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubotzky-Gete, Shakked; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Sheiner, Eyal

    2017-12-01

    To compare pregnancy outcomes of immigrants from Former-Soviet-Union (FSUI) and Ethiopia (EI) to those of Jewish-native-born Israelis (JNB), in context of universal health insurance. Birth outcomes of all singletons born in Soroka-University Medical-Center (1998-2011) of EI (n = 1,667) and FSUI (n = 12,920) were compared with those of JNB (n = 63,405). Low birthweight rate was significantly higher among EI (11.0 %) and slightly lower (7.0 %) among FSUI, compared to JNB (7.5 %). Preterm-delivery rates were similar to those of JNB. Both immigrant groups had significantly (p < 0.001) higher rates of perinatal mortality (PM) than JNB (21/1000 in EI, and 11/1000 in FSUI, compared to 9/1000). Using multivariable GEE models both immigrant groups had significantly increased risk for PM; however, EI had twice as much FSUI origin (OR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.6-3.4, and OR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6, respectively). Universal health care insurance does not eliminate excess PM in immigrants, nor the gaps between immigrant groups.

  6. Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2013-05-01

    Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy.

  7. Estimating the causal effect of alcohol consumption on well-being for a cross-section of 9 former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; McKee, Martin

    2013-07-01

    While the adverse health and economic consequences attributable to alcohol consumption are widely acknowledged, its impact on psychological wellbeing is less well understood. This is to a large extent due to the challenge of establishing causal effects of alcohol consumption when using standard single-equation econometric analyses. Using a unique dataset collected in 2010/11 of 18,000 individuals and also community characteristics from nine countries of the former Soviet Union, a region with a major burden of alcohol related ill health, we address this problem by employing an instrumental variable approach to identify any causal effects of alcohol consumption on mental well-being. The availability of 24-h alcohol sales outlets in the neighbourhood of the individuals is used as an instrument, based on theoretical reasoning and statistical testing of its validity. We find that increased alcohol consumption decreases well-being and that ignoring endogeneity leads to underestimation of this effect. This finding adds a further and previously under-appreciated dimension to the expected benefits that could be achieved with more effective alcohol policy in this region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF 6 ) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ''transparency),'' and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed

  9. A Soviet Navy for the Nuclear Age,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    8217 exploits and Peter the Great (1672-1725). Senior Soviet naval officers and other Soviet naval publicists often recount a glorious naval heritage...schools of thought on the best naval strategy for the Soviet Union between the wars shows that, even given general acceptance of a continental...orientation for Soviet military strategy , differing views on the kind of navy required could exist.7 There was an "Old School Strategy " which would have

  10. Soviet submarine accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breemer, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Although the Soviet Union has more submarines than the NATO navies combined, and the technological superiority of western submarines is diminishing, there is evidence that there are more accidents with Soviet submarines than with western submarine fleets. Whether this is due to inadequate crews or lower standards of maintenance and overhaul procedures is discussed. In particular, it is suggested that since the introduction of nuclear powered submarines, the Soviet submarine safety record has deteriorated. Information on Soviet submarine accidents is difficult to come by, but a list of some 23 accidents, mostly in nuclear submarines, between 1966 and 1986, has been compiled. The approximate date, class or type of submarine, the nature and location of the accident, the casualties and damage and the source of information are tabulated. (U.K.)

  11. Negation, Including, Gradual Oblivion: State Strategies On Soviet Heritage In Georgia, Armenia And Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tokarev

    2017-01-01

    formally maintain electoral competition. This conjunction of Soviet symbols (Armeniadid not carry out systematic decommunization and political practices is oddly mixed with the image of GareginNzhdeh as “the father of nation”, a person who was accused in theUSSRfor collaborating with the Third Reich. Georgia tries to part with the Soviet Union to the maximum extent at a symbolic level, has made great progress in building formal democratic institutions, but in reality it is still managed through informal procedures, to which discursive and symbolic decommunization did not affect in principle. Discursive and symbolic decommunization had no impact on the way this country is ruled. The study is based on the data from national censuses, sociological studies, texts of official documents and, especially, the invaluable experience of the included observation of symbolic politics in all three countries.

  12. Does inclusion of education and marital status improve SCORE performance in central and eastern europe and former soviet union? findings from MONICA and HAPIEE cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vikhireva

    Full Text Available The SCORE scale predicts the 10-year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD, based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk version of SCORE is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU, due to high CVD mortality rates in these countries. Given the pronounced social gradient in cardiovascular mortality in the region, it is important to consider social factors in the CVD risk prediction. We investigated whether adding education and marital status to SCORE benefits its prognostic performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts.The WHO MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease cohorts from the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg, Lithuania (Kaunas, and Russia (Novosibirsk were followed from the mid-1980s (577 atherosclerotic CVD deaths among 14,969 participants with non-missing data. The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow, and Russian (Novosibirsk cohorts from 2002-05 (395 atherosclerotic CVD deaths in 19,900 individuals with non-missing data.In MONICA and HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline strongly and significantly predicted fatal CVD both before and after adjustment for education and marital status. After controlling for SCORE, lower education and non-married status were significantly associated with CVD mortality in some samples. SCORE extension by these additional risk factors only slightly improved indices of calibration and discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement <5% in men and ≤1% in women.Extending SCORE by education and marital status failed to substantially improve its prognostic performance in population-based CEE/FSU cohorts.

  13. Societal characteristics and health in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Martin; Murphy, Mike; Rose, Richard; Marmot, Michael

    2007-11-01

    To examine whether, in former communist countries that have undergone profound social and economic transformation, health status is associated with income inequality and other societal characteristics, and whether this represents something more than the association of health status with individual socioeconomic circumstances. Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data. 13 Countries from Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Population samples aged 18+ years (a total of 15 331 respondents). Poor self-rated health. There were marked differences among participating countries in rates of poor health (a greater than twofold difference between the countries with the highest and lowest rates of poor health), gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity (a greater than threefold difference), the Gini coefficient of income inequality (twofold difference), corruption index (twofold difference) and homicide rates (20-fold difference). Ecologically, the age- and sex-standardised prevalence of poor self-rated health correlated strongly with life expectancy at age 15 (r = -0.73). In multilevel analyses, societal (country-level) measures of income inequality were not associated with poor health. Corruption and gross domestic product per capita were associated with poor health after controlling for individuals' socioeconomic circumstances (education, household income, marital status and ownership of household items); the odds ratios were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.29) per 1 unit (on a 10-point scale) increase in the corruption index and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.93) per $5000 increase in gross domestic product per capita. The effects of gross domestic product and corruption were virtually identical in people whose household income was below and above the median. Societal measures of prosperity and corruption, but not income inequalities, were associated with health independently of individual

  14. Help seeking and barriers to utilisation of medical and health social work services among ageing immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskolne, Varda; Auslander, Gail K; Ben-Shahar, Ilana

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to examine utilisation of medical and health social work services among ageing recent and long-term immigrants, to identify barriers to service utilisation, and to examine factors related to utilisation. Participants (n = 402) recruited from a random community sample of immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel, aged 55 and over, residing in urban areas throughout the country were interviewed by telephone. Using an expanded framework of Andersen's behavioural model, the independent variables included predisposing, enabling and need variables, and additional variables--barriers to utilisation or difficulties encountered during utilisation of services. For multivariate analyses of the dependent variables, a linear multiple regression model was employed for utilisation of medical services and a logistic regression model for utilisation of social work services. The main findings show that utilisation rates were high for medical services, but low for social work services. Recent immigrants had similar utilisation rates of medical services but utilised more social work services than long-term immigrants. There were few barriers but numerous difficulties in utilisation of medical services, while there were barriers but negligible difficulties in utilisation of social work services. Predisposing and need variables explained utilisation of medical services, whereas a combination of predisposing, enabling and need variables explained utilisation of social work services. The findings suggest that different factors are associated with the use of non-discretionary versus discretionary (social work) services. There is a need to reduce difficulties in utilisation of medical services and to enhance awareness about health social work services among the immigrants.

  15. Japanese nuclear power cooperation enhancing nuclear safety culture for Asian regions, the former Soviet Union and other Eastern-Block Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Tadamasa; Abe, Hiroshi; Moriya, Fukashi

    1996-01-01

    Japanese electric power industry has versatile programs of international cooperation in the field of nuclear power generation. Japan Electric Power Information Center (JEPIC) has been playing an essential role in executing these programs. The core of such activities is the 'International Invitation Program for Safety Management at Nuclear Power Plant' (IPSNP). IPSNP is sponsored by Japanese Government and aims to enhance the nuclear safety culture for the Former Soviet Union and other Eastern-Block Nations, inclusive of China. The program is started since 1992, and every year we invite some 100 nuclear specialists, so as to let them familiarize with the Japanese nuclear safety management practice. We have already welcomed more than 360 nuclear specialists, and when this program lasts for 10 years, total number of participants will be reached to 1,000 in all. Another feature of our cooperative programs is the JICA's 'Training Course for Nuclear Power Generation.' Since 1985, we have already invited some 60 training participants from the regions in Asia and the Pacific rim. This course is to deliver lectures in English under a broader curriculum on the nuclear power production in general. Furthermore, we have been dispatching the experienced nuclear experts to the Asian nations, such as China, Indonesia, etc. since 1984. This is to expedite to propagate the importance of safety in developing the nuclear power generation. Some 190 experienced experts have already been dispatched and successfully have executed the lectures and seminars on: water chemistry, regular inspection scheduling, plant performance evaluation, preoperation during commissioning stage, etc... (author)

  16. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Biczo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated

  17. Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Kenzie William R

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS of the former Soviet Union (FSU were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS is presented here as a prototype. Discussion We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis. The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. Summary The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility.

  18. Using multi-level data to estimate the effect of social capital on hazardous alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Adrianna; Roberts, Bayard; Kenward, Michael G; De Stavola, Bianca L; Stickley, Andrew; McKee, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a leading cause of mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU), but little is known about the social factors associated with this behaviour. We set out to estimate the association between individual- and community-level social capital and hazardous alcohol consumption in the fSU. Data were obtained from Health in Times of Transition 2010, a household survey of nine fSU countries (n = 18 000 within 2027 communities). Individual-level indicators of social isolation, civic participation, help in a crisis and interpersonal trust were aggregated to the community level. Adjusting for demographic factors, the association of individual- and community-level indicators with problem drinking (CAGE) and episodic heavy drinking was estimated using a population average model for the analysis of multi-level data. Among men, individual social isolation [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20], community social isolation (OR = 1.18) and community civic participation (OR = 4.08) were associated with increased odds of CAGE. Community civic participation (OR = 2.91) increased the odds of episodic heavy drinking, while community interpersonal trust (OR = 0.89) decreased these odds. Among women, individual social isolation (OR = 1.30) and community civic participation (OR = 2.94) increased odds of CAGE. Our results provide evidence of the role of some elements of social capital in problem drinking in the fSU, and highlight the importance of community effects. The nature of civic organizations in the fSU, and the communities in which civic participation is high, should be further investigated to inform alcohol policy in the region. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Histologic types of gastric cancer among migrants from the former Soviet Union and the general population in Germany: what kind of prevention do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaehn, Philipp; Holleczek, Bernd; Becher, Heiko; Winkler, Volker

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer (GC) is high among migrants from Eastern Europe and Asia, but a detailed picture of disease characteristics is missing. Our study examined the incidence of histologic types among resettlers from the former Soviet Union and the general population in Germany to draw conclusions on risk factors and possible prevention strategies. Between 1990 and 2009, all GC diagnoses among a cohort of 18 619 resettlers residing in the Saarland were identified in the Saarland Cancer Registry database. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of the entire Saarland population and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of resettlers compared with the Saarland population were calculated for types according to Laurén. In addition, ASRs and SIRs were modeled using Poisson's regression to investigate time trends. The ASR of intestinal GC in the Saarland population decreased over time, whereas the ASR of diffuse GC remained unchanged. Resettlers' incidence of intestinal GC was elevated among men [SIR: 3.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05-4.50] and women (SIR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.61-4.79), whereas diffuse GC was elevated only among women (SIR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.07-3.69). No time trends for SIRs could be observed in regression analysis. Different trends of diffuse GC incidence in Germany and the USA underline the importance of environmental risk factors. The continuously elevated risk of GC among male resettlers is probably associated with risk factors affecting exclusively the intestinal type such as a low intake of fruit and vegetables and heavy alcohol consumption. Future prevention programs for resettlers should include dietary measures.

  20. Does inclusion of education and marital status improve SCORE performance in central and eastern europe and former soviet union? findings from MONICA and HAPIEE cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhireva, Olga; Broda, Grazyna; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pająk, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Skodova, Zdena; Simonova, Galina; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-01-01

    The SCORE scale predicts the 10-year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk version of SCORE is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), due to high CVD mortality rates in these countries. Given the pronounced social gradient in cardiovascular mortality in the region, it is important to consider social factors in the CVD risk prediction. We investigated whether adding education and marital status to SCORE benefits its prognostic performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. The WHO MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) cohorts from the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s (577 atherosclerotic CVD deaths among 14,969 participants with non-missing data). The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002-05 (395 atherosclerotic CVD deaths in 19,900 individuals with non-missing data). In MONICA and HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline strongly and significantly predicted fatal CVD both before and after adjustment for education and marital status. After controlling for SCORE, lower education and non-married status were significantly associated with CVD mortality in some samples. SCORE extension by these additional risk factors only slightly improved indices of calibration and discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement <5% in men and ≤1% in women). Extending SCORE by education and marital status failed to substantially improve its prognostic performance in population-based CEE/FSU cohorts.

  1. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuperberg, J.M. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Biczo, I.L. [Technical Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1994-10-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated.

  2. Soviet Involvement in the Korean War: A New View from the Soviet-era Archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the Soviet Union's role in the Korean War using the resources of the Soviet-era archives in Russia. Provides historical background about the pre-Korean War era, the start of the war, the Soviet-Chinese relationship, the air and ground battles, and the reasons for ending the Korean War. (CMK)

  3. The text of the agreement of 14 October 1981 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of Safeguards to heavy water supplied from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 14 October 1981 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards to heavy water supplied from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has been suspended

  4. The text of the agreement of 8 July 1982 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of Safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 8 July 1982 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has been suspended

  5. Stomach cancer mortality in two large cohorts of migrants from the Former Soviet Union to Israel and Germany: are there implications for prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ott, Jördis Jennifer; Paltiel, Ari; Razum, Oliver; Schwarzbach, Matthias; Winkler, Volker; Becher, Heiko

    2009-04-01

    Prevention and early detection are key elements for the reduction of stomach cancer mortality. To apply pertinent measures effectively, high-risk groups need to be identified. With this aim, we assessed stomach cancer mortality among migrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU), a high-risk area, to Germany and Israel. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing stomach cancer mortality in two retrospective migrant cohorts from the FSU to Germany (n=34,393) and Israel (n=589,388) to that in the FSU and the host country. The study period ranges from 1990 to 2005 in Germany and from 1990 to 2003 in Israel. Vital status and cause of death were retrieved from municipal and state registries. To assess secular mortality trends, we calculated annual age-standardized mortality rates in the cohorts, the FSU, and the two host countries and conducted Poisson regression modeling. SMRs (95% confidence intervals) for men in the German migrant cohort were 0.51 (0.36-0.70) compared with the FSU population and 1.44 (1.04-1.99) compared with the German population, respectively. For women, SMRs were 0.73 (0.49-1.03) compared with the FSU population and 1.40 (0.98-1.99) compared with the German population. SMRs for men in the Israeli migrant cohort were 0.49 (0.45-0.53) compared with the FSU population and 1.79 (1.65-1.94) compared with the Israeli population. SMRs for women in the Israeli cohort were 0.65 (0.59-0.72) compared with the FSU population and 1.82 (1.66-1.99) compared with the Israeli population. Poisson modeling showed a secular decrease in all populations with a time lag of 4-5 years between migrants and 'natives' in Germany and converging rates between migrants and the general population in Israel. Stomach cancer mortality in migrants from the FSU remains elevated after migration to Germany and Israel but is much lower than in the FSU. Due to a secular decline, it can be expected that mortality among migrants from the FSU reaches within a few years

  6. The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and obesity among immigrants from East Africa and the former Soviet Union: a retrospective comparative 30-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuven, Yonatan; Dreiher, Jacob; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2016-05-05

    Previous studies have reported an increasing prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in immigrants who moved from low-cardiovascular-risk regions to Western countries, but little is known about time trends following immigration. A retrospective cohort study of immigrants from Ethiopia in east Africa (EAI), the former Soviet Union (FSUI) and native-born Israelis (NBI) over a 35-year period. EAI were divided into three groups by date of immigration. Associations between ethnicity, age, sex and metabolic risk factors were assessed using logistic regression models. The study included 58,901 individuals (20,768 EAI, 20,507 FSUI, and 17,626 NBI). The multivariate odds ratios (OR) for diabetes were 2.4 (95 % CI 2.1-2.6), 2.1 (95 % CI 1.9-2.2) and 1.5 (95 % CI 1.3-1.7), respectively, for the three waves of EAI immigrations (P < 0.001 for trend) and 1.1 (95 % CI 0.9-1.2) for FSUI. For hypertension, the corresponding ORs were 1.8 (95 % CI 1.6-1.9), 1.4 (95 % CI 1.3-1.5), and 1.1 (95 % CI 0.9-1.2), respectively (P < 0.001) for EAI, and 2.1 (95 % CI 1.9-2.2) for FSUI. For obesity the ORs were -0.5 (95 % CI 0.4-0.6), 0.5 (95 % CI 0.4-0.6), and 0.3 (95 % CI 0.2-0.3), respectively (P < 0.001) for EAI, and 1.2 (95 % CI 1.1-1.3) for FSUI. The prevalence of diabetes in NBI with a BMI of 30 was identical to a BMI of 23.4 for EAI and 28.9 for FSUI. The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was higher in EAI and increased over the years, despite a lower prevalence of obesity. It exceeded the prevalence rates in NBI.

  7. Stage of cancer diagnoses among migrants from the former Soviet Union in comparison to the German population - are diagnoses among migrants delayed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, An Bin; Jaehn, Philipp; Holleczek, Bernd; Becher, Heiko; Winkler, Volker

    2018-01-17

    In this study, we compared stage at diagnosis, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of most frequent cancer diagnoses between re-settlers (Aussiedler) from the former Soviet Union and the general population in the Saarland in Germany to assess possible delays in diagnosis of cancer among this migrant group. Lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin and stomach cancer diagnoses among a cohort of 18,619 re-settlers living in the Saarland between 1990 and 2009 were identified by the federal state's cancer registry. Vital status was available for the respective time-period and used to calculate SIR and SMR in comparison to the autochthonous population. Tumor stages were condensed into local and advanced stages. Odds ratios (OR) for an advanced tumor stage were modeled in dependence of re-settler-status and relevant covariates by logistic regression. Missing values were addressed in a sensitivity analysis. The influence of duration of stay in Germany on advanced stage diagnosis was analyzed among re-settlers. SIR and SMR of lung and breast cancer were lower among female re-settlers, while SIR and SMR of colorectal and prostate cancer were lower among male re-settlers. SIR and SMR of stomach cancer were elevated among both sexes. Female re-settlers showed an elevated OR for being diagnosed with advanced stage breast cancer. Both male and female re-settlers showed an elevated OR when observing all six sites combined (OR among males 1.47, p = 0.04; OR among females 1.37, p = 0.05). The result of elevated ORs was supported in the sensitivity analysis. Finally, male re-settlers showed a weak association between duration of stay in Germany and reduced risk for advanced stage diagnosis. Re-settlers were more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced tumor stage. These findings are in line with previous research having shown unfavorable health care utilization of re-settlers. Overall

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-22

    row and were the victims of all kinds of excesses, including experiments involving the use of psychedelic drugs . The jailers mounted provocations...strength and historical and moral justice. Honest and talented testimony about life can only benefit the republic and the revolution. This was...who used their ability and talent to obtain instant benefits , titles and positions, willingly serving anyone with power. These negative aspects in

  9. The Soviet Union and Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-10

    Algerians against the Moroccans in 1963 and with the PAIGC ( Partido Africano da Independencia da Guine e Cabo Verde ) against the Portuguese during the...MFA’s African independence process. Gradually, independence was granted to Guinea-Bissau (September 10, 1974), Mozambique (June 25, 1975), Cape Verde ...leaders met at Lajes in the Azores on June 19, 1974. This consultation led to a conference at Sal in the Cape Verde islands on September 14. Spinola, FNLA

  10. Ascensão e queda da União Soviética: o império de nações The rise and fall of Soviet Union: the empire of nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Grigor Suny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A URSS foi o primeiro Estado na história a organizar-se como uma federação de nações soberanas ostensivamente iguais, ainda que de fato se assemelhasse mais a um império com uma metrópole dominante governando uma periferia multinacional. A intenção original dos líderes soviéticos no sentido de ultrapassar o nacionalismo acabou ensejando a criação de nações coerentes e conscientes em algumas das repúblicas soviéticas e, uma vez desintegrado o centro, sob Gorbatchov, a união também se desintegrou. Este artigo explora os objetivos, práticas e contradições da política soviética a respeito de nacionalidade, de Lenin a Stalin e até a Gorbatchov, para se entender tanto o poder como a fragilidade da federação socialista soviética.The USSR was the first State in history to organize itself as a federation of ostensibly equal sovereign nations, yet in its actuality it was more like an empire with a dominant metropole ruling over a multinational periphery. The original intentions of the Soviet leaders to move beyond nationalism ultimately gave way to the creation of coherent and conscious nations in some of the Soviet republics, and once the center disintegrated under Gorbachev, the union did as well. This paper explores the aims, practices, and contradictions of Soviet nationality policy from Lenin to Stalin and on to Gorbachev to understand both the power and the fragility of the Soviet socialist federation.

  11. The Revitalization of the Soviet Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Yuri

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how the grip of the Soviet Union's past--from Stalinist mythology to ideological cliche--is being exposed and undermined whereas a sense of individual efficacy, necessary for the present, has yet to emerge from the portrayals in Soviet films. (PRA)

  12. Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

  13. Feedback, Surveys, and Soviet Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Reports on how traditional feedback channels in the Soviet Union work and how public opinion surveys have caused Communist party leaders to assess and expand their feedback channels, particularly in the area of letters from private citizens. (PD)

  14. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HSDSD product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the former Soviet Union. The area covered...

  15. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HSDSD product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the former Soviet Union. The area covered...

  16. Science and Technology in the Soviet Union: Proceedings of a Conference Held at Stanford, California on 26-27 July 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-31

    8217) would not be very popular among Soviet scientists, and it is not. Con- sidering all the attention given to collective research in contemporary "big...SSSR of I April 1961, No. 282. In M. Ya. Chernyak (ed.), Zakonodatel’stvo o kapital’nom stroitel’stve, Vypusk 1, Moscow: "Yuridicheskaya Literatura

  17. International Chernobyl project - input from the Commission of the European Communities to the evaluation of the relocation policy adopted by the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In October 1989, the Government of the USSR formally requested the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out: '...an international experts' assessment of the concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in those areas to safeguard the health of the population'. The response to this request was a proposal for a multinational team to undertake an assessment of the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics - the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (UKrSSR), the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR) and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). The International Chernobyl Project was established for this purpose with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Office (ILO), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). An International Advisory Committee, comprising scientists from 10 countries and seven international organizations, was established to direct the Project and be responsible for its findings. The results of the Project have been published in two reports - an overview and a technical report -prepared by the International Advisory Committee

  18. The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Honoria; Moore, Sarah K; Marsch, Lisa A; Florio, Sal

    2012-01-12

    Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU) and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease. Further research on opioid-using FSU immigrants is warranted and

  19. The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarino Honoria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Conclusion Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease

  20. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  1. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by the media? Does the choice of public sociology mean the relinquishment of scientific integrity and critical conviction? These questions will also be addressed in this book - together with a host of others related to the topic of public sociology.   The chapters included in this book are all manuscripts...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...... irrelevance and introversion and the Charybdis of public relevancy and extroversion. But what does it mean to be a ‘public sociologist' in contemporary society and are there really any other ways of doing sociology? What are the requirements of sociologists in a social world increasingly informed and shaped...

  2. Another sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carleheden, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    During the second half of the 20th century, sociology as a social technology in service of the welfare state has been the predominant form, especially in Scandinavia. The crisis of the welfare state has led this form of sociology into a crisis as well. Instead, I argue for a critical sociology...... contributing dianostics of the social pathologies of the modern state. Such an approach can find inspiration in classical sociology, but it is also important to realize that, today, we are living in another modernity. A liberation from social technology must thus include a liberation from objectivistic methods....

  3. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade

  4. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield? An unanswerable first strike? When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means

  5. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  6. "Not human, dead already": Perceptions and experiences of drug-related stigma among opioid-using young adults from the former Soviet Union living in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Alana; Guarino, Honoria

    2016-12-01

    Young people from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the U.S. are engaging in opioid and injection drug use (IDU) in substantial numbers, paralleling nationwide trends. Yet opioid-using FSU immigrants face distinctive acculturation challenges, including perceived stigmatisation as drug users within their immigrant communities, which may exacerbate the negative health and psychosocial consequences of such use. This qualitative study draws on semi-structured interviews with 26 FSU immigrant young adults (ages 18-29) living in New York City who reported opioid use in the past month and/or were currently in treatment for opioid use disorder. Interviews probed youths' drug use histories, immigration/acculturation experiences, family and peer relationships, and service utilisation. Interviews or focus groups were also conducted with 12 FSU mothers of opioid-using youth and 20 service providers familiar with the FSU population. In a content-based thematic analysis, verbatim transcripts were coded for salient themes. All three participant groups emphasized that stigma towards drug users within the FSU community is pervasive and acute, in contrast to the cultural acceptance of heavy drinking, and is rooted in punitive Soviet-era drug policies, fostering widespread ignorance about drugs and addiction. Young adults and service providers reported instances in which anticipation of community stigmatisation deterred youth from accessing drug treatment and harm reduction services. Similarly, stigma contributed to parents' failure to recognize early signs of their children's opioid problems and their reluctance to seek drug treatment for their children until opioid use had become severe. Young adults described how drug-use stigma is frequently internalized, leading to shame and loss of self-esteem. Findings indicate an urgent need for community-wide education about drugs within FSU immigrant communities, and suggest specific service modalities that may be less stigmatizing for youth

  7. Regional Sociological Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Morev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS in conducting sociological research on the territory of the Vologda Oblast and the Northwestern Federal District. It describes the historical aspects of formation of the system for public opinion monitoring and examines its theoretical and methodological foundations. The author of the article analyzes the structure of monitoring indicators and provides a brief interpretation of research findings that reflect social wellbeing and social perception trends. In addition, the paper analyzes people’s attitude toward the activities of federal and regional authorities, trends in social well-being, consumer sentiment and also the complex indicator – the index of public sentiment in the region – developed by ISEDT RAS researchers. The results of sociological studies carried out at ISEDT RAS correlate with the dynamics of the all-Russian public opinion polls conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM, Levada-Center, etc. They indicate that Russian society gradually adapts to new conditions of life after the collapse of the USSR. Besides, opinion polls show the most important features of the post-Soviet Russian history at its present stage; they are associated with the intensification of international political relations, the consequences of the “Crimean spring” and the new challenges Russia’s economy is facing now. The article concludes that as global community, of which Russian society is part, is evolving, sociological knowledge begins to play an increasingly important role in administration and national security; this is associated with the greater importance attached to intangible development factors. Therefore, a necessary prerequisite for administration effectiveness in all its stages is to implement the results of sociological research on social

  8. Soviet civil defense is inadequate and meaningless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Soviet civil defense plans exist primarily on paper and are used to pacify the Soviet people, not as plans to survive and prevail in a nuclear confrontation with the U.S. The author describes how the Soviet people have little faith in the civil defense programs. They don't believe they can survive an attack. Furthermore, he says the Soviets have never staged an evacuation exercise in any major city nor, even in smaller towns, has an entire community been evacuated. The author says there are numerous problems with the shelter programs as well. Very few existing shelters have any food stocks, only a few more have any water. There is little evidence that Soviet leaders have planned their economy with civil defense in mind. Nor - given the blatant inadequacies of Soviet civil defense programs, the marked vulnerabilities of the Soviet economy, and the intrinsic limitation and uncertainties about civil defense generally - is there much basis for claiming that Soviet leaders, even in desperate straits, would risk war with the United States while counting on civil defense measures to limit the damage wreaked on the Soviet Union

  9. Soviet Operational Deception: The Red Cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    of military art In the L’vov-Sandomierz operations]. Voyenno Istordcheskli zhurnal [Military history journal], February 1960:15-31, Japan. Kantogun... history journal], April 1982:18-26, 1985 Art of War Symposiwn-From the Dnepr to the Ilstula: Soviet Offensive Operations, November 1943-August 1944...2. World War, 1939- 1945-Military intelligence-Soviet Union. 3. Deception (Military science)- History -20th century. 4. Strategy- History -20th century

  10. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide`s chemical form.

  11. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide's chemical form.

  12. Soviet Weapon-System Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    curriculum department of the state music education authority in Moscow for use by all piano teachers throughout the Soviet Union.-All other curricula 1...become as self-sufficient as possible to ensure greater control over their supply bases. 64 "The Ministry of Aviation Industry . . .produces sheet aluminum...in contrast to the Western approach of starting with a clean - sheet of paper and designing an entirely new Isystem from scratch, right dowa to- the

  13. [Rehabilitative physiotherapy in Soviet medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, U; Sirtori, P G; Balsamo, V; Miani, A; Pirola, V

    There are three different levels of rehabilitational physical therapy in heart diseases in the Soviet Union. Natural methods are used such as climate therapy, baths, sunshine and physiotherapy as well as artificial methods including laser, electric and mechanical energy, etc. Artificially produced mineral waters which are identical to natural ones are also applied. All these methods yield good results in myocardial infarction, cerebral ictus, coronary diseases, cerebral ischemia, hypothyroidism, etc.

  14. Soviet Countertrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Wall Street Journal , 13 July 1983, pp. 1, 20. 19 the seller. The...Weaker", The Wall Street Journal , ii Jan. 1985, pp. 1,9; and, "Oil-for-Planes Accord Is Likely For UAE, France", The Wall Street Journal , 1 Oct. 1984...the 19. See for example, "Soviets Planning Economic Zones To Draw More Foreign Investment", Wall Street Journal , May 2, 1989, p. A3. 20. Press

  15. Book Review: Odintsov, M. I. Confessional Policy in the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War in 1941-1945 [Text] / M. I. Odintsov, A. S. Kochetova. – M. : Scientific & Political Book : Political Encyclopedia, 2014. – 317 p. – (History of Stalinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim N. Yakunin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The book contains the information about the status and activities of churches and religious groups in the Soviet Union before and during the Great Patriotic War in 1941–1945. The causes which led to the change in the policy of the Soviet government against the religious organizations are identified, the analysis of the activities of the Soviet state on creating a new system of state-church relations, the main stages of its development are represented. The activity of the newly created authorities on “Religious Affairs” – the Council for Russian Orthodox Church and the Religious Affairs Council is revealed. The authors show a response to the change in the statechurch relations in the center and different strata of Soviet society and also the ratio of official policy and propaganda with a specific embodiment of the state church policy. M.I. Odintsov and A.S. Kochetova analyze the situation and activity of religious organizations in the occupied territories of the USSR. The plans and main directions of the Nazi policy towards religion and religious organizations in the occupied territories of the USSR, directives of the political and military leadership of Nazi Germany are studied. The authors compare the religious policies of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union and show their similarities and differences, emphasizing that the last ones were most clearly expressed from the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. The book features a wide source base. The documentation of 6 major Russian archives was used for solving the research problem.

  16. Soviet Inroads in the Middle East - A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    of Turkish citizens in jail for their progressive views.൝ It appears that the Soviets hope to capitalize on anti-Western sentiment, to discredit the...during the 1954-1955 time frame. The effect of the new relationship between Egypt and the Soviet Union was significant and is well suma - rized by Dr. J. B...backing and support of the Pales- tine Liberation Organization (PLO). This has allowed the Soviets to capitalize on anti-Israeli sentiment and has

  17. The Icarus Illusion: Technology, Doctrine and the Soviet Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Kipp, Jacob W., eds. Soviet Aviation and Air Power. Boulder: Westview Press, 1977. Hollowav. David. The Soviet Union and the Arms Race. New Haven: Yale...L. Fighter Combat: Tactics, and Maneuvering. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1985. Scott, Harriet Fast and Scott, William F. The Armed Forces of the...USSR. Boulder: Praeger, 1979. Scott, Harriet Fast and Scott, William F., eds. The Soviet Art of War: Doctrine, Strategy and Tactics. Boulder

  18. Syringe sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    In this article I consider the impact of social epistemologies for understanding the object of the syringe. My aim is to examine the process through which the syringe transforms from an injecting device to a tool of social and political inquiry. Paying particular attention to the uses of Foucault, Becker, Bourdieu, Freud and Latour in empirical studies of injecting heroin use, I examine the sociology of the syringe through the lens of habit and habitus, discourse and deviance, mourning and melancholia, attachment and agencement. In pursuing the theory behind the object my goal is to address a sociological object in the making. In so doing I show how the syringe has been significant for social research, social theory, and sociology. It is the difference the object makes that this article seeks to describe. In tracing the epistemology of the syringe I show how the object is important not just for knowledge of addiction but sociology itself. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  19. “Not human, dead already”: Perceptions and experiences of drug-related stigma among opioid-using young adults from the former Soviet Union living in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Alana; Guarino, Honoria

    2017-01-01

    Background Young people from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the U.S. are engaging in opioid and injection drug use (IDU) in substantial numbers, paralleling nationwide trends. Yet opioid-using FSU immigrants face distinctive acculturation challenges, including perceived stigmatisation as drug users within their immigrant communities, which may exacerbate the negative health and psychosocial consequences of such use. Methods This qualitative study draws on semi-structured interviews with 26 FSU immigrant young adults (ages 18–29) living in New York City who reported opioid use in the past month and/or were currently in treatment for opioid use disorder. Interviews probed youths’ drug use histories, immigration/acculturation experiences, family and peer relationships, and service utilisation. Interviews or focus groups were also conducted with 12 FSU mothers of opioid-using youth and 20 service providers familiar with the FSU population. In a content-based thematic analysis, verbatim transcripts were coded for salient themes. Results All three participant groups emphasized that stigma towards drug users within the FSU community is pervasive and acute, in contrast to the cultural acceptance of heavy drinking, and is rooted in punitive Soviet-era drug policies, fostering widespread ignorance about drugs and addiction. Young adults and service providers reported instances in which anticipation of community stigmatisation deterred youth from accessing drug treatment and harm reduction services. Similarly, stigma contributed to parents’ failure to recognize early signs of their children’s opioid problems and their reluctance to seek drug treatment for their children until opioid use had become severe. Young adults described how drug-use stigma is frequently internalized, leading to shame and loss of self-esteem. Conclusion Findings indicate an urgent need for community-wide education about drugs within FSU immigrant communities, and suggest specific service

  20. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  1. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  2. Spy and Counterspy as a “Cultural Hero” in the Soviet Cinema of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Sukovataya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aim to analyze the evolution of the Soviet spy cinema of the Cold War in the context of the cultural history and the social changes in the USA and the Soviet Union, and the relations with the political opponents. The public reception of the Soviet spy and spying was evolved in the Soviet Union and it was reflected in the cinema plots and characters transformations.

  3. U.S. and Soviet Agriculture: The Shifting Balance of Power. Worldwatch Paper 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.

    Analysts of U.S.-Soviet balance of power usually focus on relative military strength. But other factors determine a country's overall power and influence. Among the most basic is a country's capacity to feed its people. By this measure the Soviet Union appears to be in deep trouble. Massive spending has increased Soviet military strength in recent…

  4. Political democracy, economic liberalization, and macro-sociological models of intergenerational mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugushvili, Alexi

    2017-08-01

    Building on the previously investigated macro-sociological models which analyze the consequences of economic development, income inequality, and international migration on social mobility, this article studies the specific contextual covariates of intergenerational reproduction of occupational status in post-communist societies. It is theorized that social mobility is higher in societies with democratic political regimes and less liberalized economies. The outlined hypotheses are tested by using micro- and macro-level datasets for 21 post-communist societies which are fitted into multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions. The derived findings suggest that factors specific to transition societies, conventional macro-level variables, and the legacy of the Soviet Union explain variation in intergenerational social mobility, but the results vary depending which birth cohorts survey participants belong to and whether or not they stem from advantaged or disadvantaged social origins. These findings are robust to various alternative data, sample, and method specifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The outlook for Soviet gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The economic collapse of the Soviet Union has seen the decline of its oil and gas industry through a lack of capital investment, idle wells, shortages of equipment and spare parts, worker apathy, and a leaky pipeline network. Natural gas reserves controlled by the Soviet Union total some 50 trillion m 3 , over 70% of which are in western Siberia. A total of just 19 gas deposits hold 70% of the total reserves and account for over 75% of national output. Natural gas production in 1990 was 815 billion m 3 or 38% of world output; exports reached 109 billion m 3 , divided roughly equally between eastern and western Europe, and all transported by pipeline. The Soviet Union is also a major gas consumer, at around 709 billion m 3 /y, and uses about half this amount for generating electricity. In the early 1980s, a crash program to expand the gas industry raised production from 435 billion m 3 in 1980 to 643 billion m 3 in 1985, but at the cost of hastily built pipelines and facilities, and a premature exhaustion of major gas fields. A prohibition on import of western-made compressors, due to the Afghanistan invasion, forced the installation of unreliable domestic compressors. Slow growth in gas ouput and unreliability of the current gas supply and transmission system has threatened the stability of supply to domestic and export customers, and gas delivery shortfalls of 50-60 billion m 3 were thought possible. The industry's future depends on development of additional fields, and a revived interest in Soviet natural gas is being shown by foreign investors. Since many of these fields are in remote or geologically unfavorable areas, large investments and lead times will be needed

  6. IMPRESSIONS OF SOVIET PSYCHIATRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, George J.

    1960-01-01

    Psychiatry in the Soviet Union is essentially conservative, middle-of-the-road and eclectic. It rejects both extremes: radical surgical treatment such as prefrontal lobotomy, and Freudian psychoanalysis. It is Pavlovian and neurophysiological in its orientation and closely linked to Marxian philosophy; most personal problems are believed to be sociocultural in origin, and they are expected to diminish as the country moves closer toward its political and economic goals, making psychiatry progressively more circumscribed in its applications. The varieties of therapy include work therapy, aimed toward returning patients to society quickly and productively; electrosleep therapy and electroconvulsive therapy, both of which seem to be falling into disrepute; insulin-coma therapy, widely used in psychosis; hunger therapy; pharmacotherapy similar to our own but lacking in the large numbers of drugs we use; tissue therapy; psychotherapy, of limited depth and chiefly concerned with the rational, conscious elements in the patient's life. PMID:13783499

  7. Breakup of the Soviet State and Disintegration of the Renowned Sport System. The Future of Athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibberman, Victor; Andersen, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    Two articles examine athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The first discusses the disintegration of the Soviet sport system following the Soviet Union's breakup. The second examines the future of CIS athletics which, it is claimed, may never again reach the stature achieved by the Soviet Union. (SM)

  8. Soviet experience with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Soviet Union is pursuing an active program for developing peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). They have reported 16 explosions, with applications ranging from putting out oil-well fires and stimulating oil recovery to creating instant dams and canals. The data reported generally agree with U.S. experience. Seismic data collected by western sources on explosions outside the known Soviet test sites indicate that the Soviet program is at least twice as large as they have reported. The accelerated pace of these events suggests that in some applications the Soviet PNE program is approaching routine industrial technology

  9. A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

  10. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Russia and the European Union: The Sources and Limits of "Special Relationships"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Cynthia A

    2007-01-01

    More than 15 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union and two decades after the last Soviet President, Mikhail Gorbachev, raised hopes that Russia would liberalize and join a common European home...

  13. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  14. Historical bottle data collected from the Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea, Japan Sea, and North Pacific Ocean by multiple Russian, Former Soviet Union, and Japan platforms in 1888 - 1936 years (NODC Accession 0101422)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical bottle data collected from the Sea of Okhotsk,Bering Sea, Japan Sea, and North Pacific Ocean in 1888 - 1936 years by multiple Russian, Former Soviet...

  15. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmer Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater

  16. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  17. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  18. On sociological catastrophe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, L.

    1974-01-01

    The present paper deals with standard terms of sociological catastrophe theory hitherto existing, collective behaviour during the catastrophe, and consequences for the empiric catastrophe sociology. (RW) [de

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-23

    brought up on the juices of their native land rather than beverages prepared from dubious recipes. Therefore they spared neither energy nor... exhibitors unani- mously valued the criticism as a qualitatively new stage with respect to previous exhibition practices, when the periodic reports...homemade alcoholic beverages , we confiscated 84 stills, and we arrested 1,340 drunk drivers. This I emphasize was just in the last 2 months. We

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-17

    organizes comprehensive commodity and promotional advertising. On exhibitors ’ orders it places advertisements and notices in the mass media, distributes...arranging a separ- ate pavilion for US exhibitors at the Strojindustria-S7 exhibition. The Council promoted the signing of the five new agreements on...the USSR apple juice concentrate, as well ais for the preparation and bottling of non- alcoholic beverages Fanta and Coca-Cola from pur- chased

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-08

    gene pool has been ruined and immunogenesis has been ruined. The defense The essence of the conception is this: to join an immu- mechanism of the human... mechanisms of the body... [Khartmane] Well, you know, the usual. Until now, financing for this type of start has only been possible [Fonarev] I still...ordinary deodorant canisters [dezodor- quilizers. The next day there was no necessity of this. We anty] and sprayed them all around. On their faces

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-04

    would have to do would be to force him to learn Polish. It has so many sibilants.... It was difficult enough. The Polish intelligentsia’s atti- tude...of our own making, in carrying out truly meaninful negotiations with Moscow, are ultimately injurious to the process of moving toward independence... learned from their more than sad historical experience, are scared to see any concentration of power in one person’s hands. Nevertheless, I would

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-05

    tage" department will present F. Abramov , I. Bunin, M. Gorkiy, Yu. Kazakov, A. Platonov, A. Remizov, V. Tendryakova, V. Shalamov, and M. Sholokhov...of the club of socially active people; Yuris Dimiters, artist; Arnold Klotinsh, musicolo- gist; Marina Kostenetskaya, writer; Dina Kuple, actress

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-20

    the Gosteleradio [State committee on television and radio], country. V. Ye. Abramov , chairman of TSSR Gosplan and others. In connection with this the...The It should be said that the nationalities question was round-table discussion was conducted by Marina Shak- neglected for more than 50 years-there

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-12

    of us are not guilty of what happened 50 years ago, but we are guilty for what happened in 1968 because only ten people in the whole country said...34It also happens that you find a person felling trees on the scene, and he comes at you with the ax. We recently found Olimpiada Muntyanu, a...incidentally, had been seriously thinned out at the hands of seekers of free firewood. Olimpiada Muntyanu intended to plow the ground in a landslip

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-07

    hearts, let us each ask ourselves, how often do we visit the auditoria where so many critical questions have accumulated? Are we carrying on open...taking a proper approach to this question. Its officials go to the small auditoria too, and persistently switch from monologues to dialogs and

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-15

    practice in our literature around a quarter of a century ago (S. Zalygin’s novella "On the Irtysh" and the works of F. Abramov and B. Mozhayev), but...published poem "prohibited" all ironic nuances, although "strict literature" existed even before this time—after all, F. Abramov and V. Bykov...global status. In the cycle of works by Abramov , Belov, Zalygin, Nosov, Mozhayev, and Shukshin, this literature was one of the first to bring

  8. The Soviet Union and Iraq Since 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    the United Arab Republic. Both the present day Iraqi and Syrian Ba’th parties maintain the fiction that there is a single, overarching Ba’th National...the Kurds seem to be the bfte noire of the army. This attitude distinguishes military hardliners from their civilian counterparts. There is no

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-14

    the debate, such a Faustian winking is inevi- table: We know everything, but write and speak "within limits." Whence the impossibility of a clear...Made, one of the fathers of the IME idea, of all people. What was the author’s purpose? To sink his own brainchild which was fighting against heavy

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-13

    activities. The official church is cut off from the unoffi- cial church (the " catacombs ") and the Orthodox church abroad. Our Orthodox countrymen must...representatives of the ROC went into the " catacombs ." Is the reunification of the ROC, the Russian Church abroad, and the Truly Orthodox (" catacomb ") churches...both the Russian Church abroad and the " catacomb " Church support them) the differ- ences will disappear. By the way, the " catacomb " Church, thanks

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-23

    Dne- serious impediment to achieving true workers’ self- propetrovsk Oblast, got the following greeting from management. housing management immediately...for example, matrimonial alliances, more than 1500 are so developed that the Bible has been and, at the same time, how many problems and different...foreigners Varna, Berlin, Leipzig, Dresden, and Sofia without any on a personal basis, and will be conducive to a more impediments . And if we recount

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-11

    devised. But the chief impediment on the path of breaking up the state corporations, in our opinion, will be the "quiet" sabotage of these companies...been characteristic of contemporary Chinese literature in general for many decades, but now commentary is also being written about matrimonial

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    included the Rigasmanufak- turas Association (terrycloth and linen towels ), the Sarma Home Labor Combine (all of its products), the Saule Combine (plaids...Drukshyay and the sanitary -hygiene environment of the whole region of the Ignalinskaya AES were not in a condition to provide for normal operation of...percent. Living in temporary or unsuitable conditions which are hastily equipped and frequently do not meet sanitary norms for residential premises

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-30

    endeavors of students; they may conduct various out-of-class and extracurricular educational activities taking into account the students’ interests and...received a ř" grade in their proficiency tests , and have been active in social work are issued a cum lauda diploma (certificate). Graduates who...manage. It is a matter of equipment and machinery, but not only of this. We have begun to economize on purchases of coffee, drugs , and other consumer

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-31

    VD, Narcotics Urged Turkmen Teacher Expelled From CPSU On Drug Charges " "Rock Against Drug Addiction " Concert to be Held in Moscow o...law enforcement organs, the struggle against drug addiction and alcoholism and in the maintenance and proper allocation of housing." Thereupon the...receiving window. These lads have earlier spe- cialized in the resale of literature on the occult, astrology, and yoga . There were enough horoscope

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-12

    being promoted on the Sakhalin shelf with the participation of Japanese firms. It is not great, and so it is that the income in foreign currency...campgrounds, and hotels will be built for them, and stores with local handicrafts and restaurants with the national cuisine will be provided for

  17. JPRS Report: Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-15

    back- time to blink. Tomorrow at dawn we have to split, because ground of abounding bananas and kiwi-fruit, Japanese this parking lot starts charging...visit to the Problematic USSR. After "Moscow" other restaurants featuring Rus- 92P30004A Beijing GUOJI JINGMAO XIAOXI sian cuisine flung their doors...islands in the South China Sea, and the ican companies spend 3.5 percent, whereas Japanese com- position of persons of Chinese nationality-the "Hua

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-05

    The Art of Makonde 2 64 Ozhogin V. Lev Tolstoy and Japanese Culture 8 46 Potabenko S. Depicting Reality 11 46 Prolomov Yu. Nigeria. Masterpieces of...Krasnodembskaya N. Sri Latoka. The Sinhalese: The Environment of Eatingi Living and Habit 6 58 Ovsyannikova V. Korean Rational Cuisine 4 54...Four Centuries of Japanese Culture (L.D. Grisheleva. The Formation of Japanese National Cul- ture. End of the 16th—Beginning of the 20th Centuries

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-26

    Visita del presidente de la Republica de Colombia Belisario Betancur a los Estados Unidos: abril, 1985. S. 1., s.a., pp 370, 372. 19. EL ESPECTADOR...publishing and the export of book production. They include first of all Chile and Panama. And book production in Peru and Costa Rica is constantly

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    inflation into hyperinflation . Inflation necessarily leads to a sharp deterioration in the conditions of production development. For example, in... Ukraine for production of prefabricated furniture for young people. I want to remark that we decided to take the step forward and go ahead in order to...services of the Lutsk [ Ukraine ] synthetic leather plant collective in fraternal collaboration with the Nad- buzhanskiy tannery in Poland’s Chelm

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-17

    be luxurious,I could hear someone practicing scales. Music here is a t naud rwwt padrsn rnhs compulsory subject from the first year to the last. In...34 piano or simply a student passing by humming a non- In talking he at the same time makes light sketches on the secular melody. blackboard, as if...chairman a sheet of paper which mand-administrative system in agriculture and in indus- briefly and clearly states how much of what must be try, although

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-13

    JPRS-UPA-88-046 13 October 1988 96 CULTURE Moskva Hotel, when we went by it, it became visible as the procession with the garlands was already...34 collectivization and "purges," executions without trials, and rigged judi - cial proceedings, the epoch of violence and coercion on an unheard of

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    they capable of making military affairs interesting to a young men in Adidas jackets with dyed- hackle hairdos, of getting them to love military...of an emergency situation from its origins to the end result, hone the personnel’s interaction in the course of a specific modeled emergency, and

  4. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-27

    for such purposes, the Paneris Sheep Sovkhoz transferred 20,000 rubles from the social development fund, the Litmeliovodstroy Asso- ciation...Name is Arlekino." The scene in " Dolly " is perfectly chaste; here it is only a matter of the breaking of the social barriers between student and...information media, which formulate public opinion and provide an analysis of this or that movement. With rare exceptions—there’s a black sheep in every

  5. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-13

    Rational Nature Management, Candidate of Biological Sciences I. Rusev. "Its medicinal muds, in essence, have been destroyed. The water which is...oversaturated with blue- green algae blooms and rots. Fish kills have become more often. The appearance of bacterial flora has been observed. As a...is to deal with ecological problems, and especially hydrobiologists in the field of ecotoxicology , to use as their tools the basic principles of

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    of the church should be out of the question." A. Laptev’s statement was incorrect. Negative opinions were based mainly on the publica - tions in the...magazine No.38, February 22 and which were sent to us by our OGONEK, the journal ZNAMYA and other publica - readers. tions most of us read and love...begun to be The Bakulovski family, in the NARODNOYE OBRA - drawn into the channel that was laid by the Baltic ZOVANIYE newspaper, expresses the opinion

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-12

    of emigre status in France under my belt): What do people out there think of our pere- stroyka? I answer frankly: Today foreigners hardly know... Kafka , and the poet Brodskiy. ..." There is nothing surprising in the fact that soon after this publication I. Shafarevich along with M. Antonov and V

  8. JPRS Report:. Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    development of the Latvian nation; —We are sympathetic and understanding to the idea of the moral priority of a system of Christian values before ethnic...and class values, and we believe that respect not only for Christianity but also for other religions is necessary; —We categorically reject the...Aleksiy II, Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus, will perform the divine liturgy . Obviously, one has to remind Leningrad residents that precisely the

  9. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-25

    mineral fertilizers: They are getting shallow and they are full of algae . Chemicals and careless economic activity have reduced the productivity of...unlikely to be achieved by either purely cosmetic measures, such as changing its name, or by destroying it as an organization and changing it into

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-05

    Moscow, 1986, p 345. 18. F. Castro, "La historia me absolver " [History Will Absolve Me], Havana, 1973, pp 59-61; "Fidel and Religion," p 165. 19. S. J...THE NEW YORK TIMES, 12 November 1987. 24. L’EXPRESSO, Rome , 30 August 1987; see also: I. M. Bulichev, "The Contras: The War of the Doomed

  11. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-19

    before the next baby appeared. And this had to do with nourishment of the mother. Her diet included more than that of the modern Turkmen woman . There...after the mass pogroms and the deportation of Arme- nians in Sumgait, Baku, and other parts of Azerbaijan, which actions were carried out under the...Armenian CP, condemning the crimes against humanity—genocide, pogroms and deportation , must strive to recognize the genocide of Armenians both on the

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-21

    of intercultural relations, and the study and cultivated growth of indigenous linguistic traditions among those national groups living in the...national and cultural needs of all national groups in the population living in the republic, particularly with respect to education, intercultural rela...take advantage of the geographical proximity of the two nations. It will undoubtedly promote a more lively tourism and will energize commercial

  13. JPRS Report:. Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ...; REPUBLIC PARTY AND STATE AFFAIRS - Baltic Unity Efforts Assessed, Baltic Military District Loyal to USSR Law, Latvia Paramilitary Leader on Group's Role, Formation of Latvian Defense Units, Latvian...

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-29

    34Znaniye" Society. At meetings in the Society imeni Nikola Tesla and at Lyublyana Uni- versity, when conversation turned to perestroyka in our country...means of cost accounting took shape at the Nikola - yev-Lvov Combine, but this is impossible without com- plete self-management. Everyday practical

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    writing about is some sort of myth , created by the concerned public for its own consumption and picked up by you. Indeed, we know nothing about...mothers is quite understandable in terms of demographic reality, and the other is that because of the stigma attached to unwed motherhood

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-22

    vulgar primitive is very much alive. Poets and librettists of low manner are getting ovations which neither Shakespeare nor Pushkin ever dreamed of...which possesses an irrepressible, limitless supply of directorial ingenuity and directorial energy. Several seasons back could we have dreamed of...pay attention to his words. His talks and argumentation on every question are convincing and lucid to those around him. "Those coming to ’sell

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-07

    institutions. The commission also looked into the use of the Belorus- sian language in traffic signs. Taking part in the work of the commission...attempts to disseminate handwritten leaflets and political slogans of a nationalistic nature. Stating it bluntly, these are no childish pranks...checked by radar or by traffic police [GAI] post! If it is prescribed to drive at a certain speed, one should drive precisely so. In what is the

  18. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    justification of the late sending of troops into Baku, the reason given is... "the Tbilisi syndrome ." The center, it was said, was experiencing...refused acceptance anywhere broke through a 40 NATIONALITY ISSUES JPRS-UPA-90-043 26 July 1990 militia cordon and seized the vestibule of the

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-03

    headed at Mosfilm). It is difficult even to name them: Grigoriy Chukhray and Vasiliy Shukshin, Andrey Tarkovskiy and Marien Khutsiyev, Tengiz...34 of Marien Khutsiyev’s painting. "Do you know who is most to blame for this," Mikhail Ilich said to me then. "Our friends and colleagues. The...doctor of biological sciences and deputy director of the Biology Institute of the Bashkir Scientific Center of the USSR Academy of Sciences’ Ural

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-04

    this "image" well, that’s because he would never substitute colors : white is white, black is black; nor did the phrase "let’s talk about this...de la planification alimentaire ," paris, 1983, pp 26, 27. 10. Quoted from "Poverty, Unemployment and Devel- opment Policy," New York, 1975, pp 11...depersonalizing green and blue uniforms and choose brighter colored clothes with a more modern cut. But for some reason the taxi driver, who I

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    when we began looking at Germany as the "victim" and England and France—as the "aggressors." We disori - ented our society and the world communist...yet those signals received no proper response. Furthermore, as pointed out in the CPSU Central Com- mittee resolution, "...the previous leaders of...the ridiculously enormous area of the garden, the middle of which bee -pollinators simply do not get to, while the apples which have fallen unto

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-04

    gilt and bright colors, will appear before the inhabitants and guests of Kharkov in all its beauty, giving joy to all who understand and value art...materials about our old disease are still kept under "seven seals" in the depths of the special archives. And so there remains only one thing for us...enterprises. "It would be desirable, as a feedback , to learn the opinion of members of the Shkola Temporary Scientific Research Collective on this

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-06

    child, decided to repair both of the buildings and place a kolkhoz health center in both buildings. Today one can get all kinds of physiotherapy ...led to the write-off of 70,000-plus hectares of conducted more sensibly , scientifically and economi- land, unrestrained growth in the cost of

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-19

    in UGOL UKRAINY No 5, 1988, pp 16-18] Results of Industrial Tests of the SPTs-162 Flight Conveyor [Abstract of article by K. K. Kogan and G. A...especially when one realizes that the described sin of planners is not the only one and by no means the most terrible. Aleksandr Avanesyan, deputy general

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-29

    opportunities for the personnel to rest. Sports courts and corners function actively on the ship. Competitions are held in weightlifting , horizontal... Olympic Games. N. Rusak, first deputy chairman, USSR Goskomsport; Maj Gen V. Marushchak, chairman of the Sports Com- mittee, USSR Ministry of

  6. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-18

    O. Raye , director of Secondary School No. 1 in Kiviyli, and K. Nagelman, secretary of the Kokhtla-Yarva party gorkom, said that the technical...his own career, about his place in the sun, so to speak, for which the users, flatterers and bureaucrats are striving. How do you bar his way to

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-27

    resident per day, which is below the norm by a factor of five. What can one say here about other reasons for the high rate of tuberculosis , viral...indepedent judgment on the reproduced situation in life, the authors gradually encounter the idea that the social and moral infantilism of young people was

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-16

    equal basis with the solution of future problems. First of all, he noted, this involves fuller satisfaction of buyer demand for basic-necessity goods...between "reactionaries" and "extremists," you will agree, is no choice at all, but a new compulsion . In the minds of many people (really, many

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-09

    As of the start of the 13th 5-year plan this mechanism should enter fully into force. An end will thereby be put to the unique symbiosis of old and...proved the defendants will get the most severe punishment. But the solicitors - Polina Shaposhnikova and Ruben Rshtuni - representing the

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-16

    innovative teachers who bravely seek new approaches to education and training and enrich military school with their fresh ideas and meth - odological...aspect of the project. They brought out the first batches of our uranium ore on mules , right in sacks! V.V. Goncharov, as I already said, was

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-25

    drank tea with Ayvi [Ivy] Litvinova, the diplomat’s widow, and his children — Tatyana and Mikhail. For some reason my attention was attracted by the...have perpetrated their dark villainous deed." Molva, same date: "The purple -robed martyr has per- ished." Russkiye vedomosti, 2 March: ""The...people’s court of Zhda- nov Rayon stating that this student, together with the student G. from school No 66 sentenced for robbing an apartment, drank

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-28

    children’s playground has been built. Each gardener has been given a standards booklet. Through the efforts and JPRS-UEA-88-024 28 June 1988 24...any independence is unthinkable without responsibility. Right now primarily economic responsibility is being promoted. Nowadays the sources of all

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-22

    Central Committee secretary, noted in speaking at the April 1987 Plenum of the Tajik CP Central Committee, nowadays under Cen- tral Asia’s conditions it... playgrounds need to be kept in order, and there are questions of environmental protection or preservation of monuments to resolve. After all, there

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-07

    disregarded and their constructive contribution to the historical process is completely ignored. It is a chameleon -like existence. The history of...Afrida Galimzhanovna, "there is a growing number of congen- ital defects, genetic anomalies, and premature births. All of this is directly tied to

  15. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-15

    violence (see 1, vol 20, p 189). Categorically rejecting the vulgar- materialist interpreta- tion of the philosophical category "violence," the...competition between different systems, and in the lan- guage of materialistic dialectics this is also called a struggle. And there is nothing odious...girls of kindergarten age in a terrible way, has not yet been unraveled; the case of the policeman, who beat a teenager taken to the police

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-10

    upon to provide a scientific interpre- tation to the world and to develop a materialistic outlook among the students. In addition, medical school...the methods of non-break-in bur- glaries. Fifteen to sixteen year old teenagers come to the schools, extract house keys from a youngster in a broth

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-28

    unmatched value of our statehood, which spans an entire millennium if one casts off ideo- logical and other stereotypes, consists in that not one of the...of the bolshevik party. However much bread, vegetables, meat, milk, sugar, clothing, footwear, heating fuel, energy, cast iron, iron and cement may...PARTY AND STATE AFFAIRS 41 each person of the means of existence with a ladle filled from the common pot, and this, selectively, depending on each

  18. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-19

    prohibition are following the Stalin-Suslov-Brezhnev interpretation of Marxism- Leninism. I refer those who object to Lenin’s "The Childish Disease of...of Europe—to be no more than childish willfulness. A free economic zone is another matter. Here there is a basis for removing ourselves from conflict...sense. A stock phrase—this is a metaphorical cancer . Thousands of stock phrases have already blos- somed in the era of perestroyka. And the most

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-22

    documents for the general review of the lists of the elections. voters, and other election measures. The necessary measures must be taken for the compul...more. It is changing but not diminishing. of ths co ituted aCulture is called upon to deal with one of the mostof our culture. important tasks: that of...are poorly monitoring construction. payment and repayment of pensions. Deadlines for reviews of pension matters are not met. Keep in mind There must

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-29

    attempts at an explosion would have been Don Quixotism ." The Marxists hardly felt that it was for them to create an economic mechanism from the bottom up...Volga- Don sector of the Volga Railroad. True, they were called that cautiously. Because it was headed by the sector managers themselves. Instead

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    try to build a garage or even a new school, and you will immediately receive an indignant collective petition: What do you mean, there will be kids ...K.Rash blames professors for everything. Assessing disdainfully Freud’s work in psychoanalysis , Cobusier’s ideas about architecture and C.Levi

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-14

    warning to him for instigat- ing people to commit group acts of antisocial behaviour , and also of holding meetings and marches not permitted by the...demonstrations, violation of which reg- ulations will be regarded as an antisocial act and will be blocked accordingly by the organs of public order...that one can speculate on a noble idea or that one would attach oneself to such an idea for mercenary purposes (in this case by mercenary I mean a

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-14

    their lips was only the problem of NKAO. Such is the strength of the over- agitated national feelings, that they even "deafen" the pain from the...Aleksandrovich Koshelev; date and place not specified: "Protectionism: ’ Apparition ’ or Reality?"] [Text] Protectionism... This ugly social phenomenon...a painful heart. Everything in it is correct: the fact that our Army is being intentionally sullied by some, and the fact that the prestige of the

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-28

    in the course of discussing the sug- gestions which have been received that a number of the statutes in the draft laws on amendments to the Consti...half-year, the political persona of our society has changed considerably. This raises entirely new requirements for the party and requires fundamen

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-05

    The region for its part is a supplier to the USSR of most important types of raw materials and foodstuffs: rubber, jute, tea, coffee, cocoa beans...South African mining industry. The yeast of terrorism thrown into the bullion of social unrest has evoked a tempestuous reaction of ferment . The

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-14

    de estudios internationales (CEPEI), Lima, 1986, XXXVI+498 pp] [Text] The latest publication of the Peruvian Center for International Research is...United States on the Malvinas Islands and Easter Island (p 377). Mercado Harrin, former minister of foreign affairs and prime minister of Peru who...urgent tasks in the realm of foreign policy. E. Mercado Harrin, analyzing the geopolitical climate in Latin America after the Malvinas conflict of

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-29

    days passed. Artur was seen on a regularly sched- uled bus. Two policemen rushed after him through the overcrowded Ikarusa showroom . Despite...in our evaluations. The first signs of restlessness were that the regimental staff of officers was virtually at odds. Not that everyone did not sit...advan- tages in terms of delivery vehicles, especially aircraft. The Warsaw Pact had virtually no artillery capable of shooting down nuclear weapons

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-30

    persecuted Ukrainian autocephalous church... The deputy addressed Filaret: "Why do we need intermediaries in the person of the Roman Pope?" Why...of the KGB Central Archives V. Vinogradov by PRAVDA correspondents N. Stapanishev and A. Fedotov: "Special Repository Without a ’Secret’ Stamp ...34Yekpetalskiy" forestry farm in Uilskiy Rayon. A small, attractive brick building, the classrooms are bright, water is nearby, and there is no problem with

  9. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-07

    republic and foreign states in the field of culture, science and technology, education, health, sports , and tourism is also within the jurisdiction of...were ready to accept as a model for the "Pacific community." American and Australian political scientists R. Meyers and G. Albins - kiy, for example

  10. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  11. Soviet scientists speak out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb

  12. The Northern Territories: Case Study in Japanese-Soviet Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    merely anti-Soviet neo -militarism forwarded by revanchist Japanese who are opposed to favorable relations 4 with the Soviet Union. The Japanese people...perpetrated by the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), the conservative ruling party in Japan, as an instrument of neo -militarism.7 6 This neo -militarism is cited...Japan economic system; Malthusian resource constraints; trade protectionism; a return to nationalistic merchantilistic mentalities. (2) Political

  13. Soviet command and control in a historical context

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Jeffrey A.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An examination is made of the historical antecedents of present day command and control doctrine in the Soviet Union. The continuity of principal characteristics is demonstrated. The ideological determinants shaping the command and control system are first developed. These include centralism, collective decision-making, unity of command, and redundancy. Practical consequences of these are explored. The functioning of Soviet command...

  14. Text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The document reproduces the text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement issued on 10 December 1987 at the conclusion of the meeting between the President of the United States and the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Washington, December 7-10, 1987). It refers to the arms control (including nuclear weapons), human rights and humanitarian concerns, regional issues, bilateral affairs and further meetings

  15. The evolution of Soviet forces, strategy, and command

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the evolution of Soviet forces, strategy and command. Soviet leaders have repeatedly emphasized that it would be tantamount to suicide to start a nuclear war. Mutual deterrence, however, does not make nuclear was impossible. The danger remains that a large-scale nuclear was could start inadvertently in an intense crisis, or by escalation out of a conventional war, or as an unforeseen combination of these. For these reasons crisis management has become a central issue in the United States, but the standard Soviet response to this Western interest has been to say that what is needed is crisis avoidance, not recipes for brinkmanship masquerading under another name. There is much sense in this view. Nevertheless, this demeanor does not mean that the Soviet Union has given no thought to the danger that a crisis might lead to nuclear war, only that Soviet categories for thinking about such matters differ from those employed in the United States

  16. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  17. The Role of Women in the Soviet Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-15

    unlimited. UACCLASS OF 1991 fD~- rTIC U.S. ARMY WAR COLEGE , ( 01-C-629 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF T4 S PAGE Form Approved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMBNo...Soviet Union are liberated--are treated equal to men. Over ninety percent of Soviet women of working age are either in the labor force or students . It...she would stereotype Soviet women, she stated: "Overworked, unhappy with their lives-- standing in lines, taking care of the kids, alcoholism among men

  18. The Re-birth of Soviet Criminal Law in Post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Mishina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike some other Soviet Codes, first acts of the Bolshevist Criminal law were not modeled after the pre-revolutionary imperial codes. In the early Soviet criminal legislation, key juridical categories were replaced by sociological categories. The Marxist-Leninist principle of supremacy of interests of the state over the interests of an individual was envisaged on the legislative level and became a fundamental principle of the Soviet criminal law: crimes against the state were made the gravest ones, and the punishment for these crimes was much heavier than for all other crimes. The principle of analogy allowed criminal prosecution even in the cases, where the offence was not stipulated in the Criminal Code. In 1930s, the trend towards criminal repression intensified. Big changes, including the restoration of the traditional vocabulary of criminal law, the limitation of the doctrine of analogy, the careful analysis of crime in terms of subject and object, took place in the Soviet criminal legislation in 1960, when the new Criminal Code of the RSFSR was adopted. 1990s saw the long-awaited humanization and modernization of Russian criminal law, but situation started to change after the turn of the millennium.Certain cases as well as recently passed pieces of the Russian legislation show the sings of old Soviet attitudes in contemporary Russian criminal law and law enforcement.

  19. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Strategic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    training in the Soviet Union. Inevitably, some Afghan men brought home Russian brides . For example, Galina Margoeva married an Afghan engineering...tradition of forced child marriage. Although the attempt to liberate women was a laudable effort, even the former King Zahir Shah faced widespread...best efforts, the U.S. has little impact in eliminating the various warlords that govern the country or in reducing crime and corruption in the Afghan

  20. Analysis of the Soviet Crisis Management Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-30

    between Congo (Zaire) and Portugual ; Congo charges that Tshombe opposition forces are . operating out of Portuguese Cabinda; Portugal charges that Congo has...regime (for example, South Vietnam, Rhodesia, Portuguese colonies in Africa), or denial of military access (that is, Western and Chinese). * The USSR was...172 601118 French paratroops intervene to aid pro-French regime in Gabon. *• 173 610315- The Soviet Union opposes continued Portuguese colonial

  1. Introduktion til klassisk sociologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas......Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas...

  2. Sociology as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the meaning of practicing sociology, claiming to "commit a social science" still makes sense. Accepts Max Weber's arguments that sociology clarifies human affairs and is oriented to certain virtues. Suggests, however, that sociology is a passion as well as a profession, something Weber recognized but did not elaborate. (NL)

  3. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 8, Germany's War on the Soviet Union, 1941-45. II. Some Important Weather Forecasts, 1942-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, J.; Flohn, H.

    1988-07-01

    Short- to medium-range weather forecasts were prepared by Soviet meteorologists for the Battle of Stalingrad. These included forecasts for days suitable for massing troops and equipment and for starting the Soviet offensive in November 1942 that resulted in the encirclement of the German 6th Army. Another forecast was connected with the operation of artificial thickening of the ice cover of the Volga River in the Stalingrad area that made it possible to drive tanks from the cast bank to the west bank of the river (width: about 1 km).In January 1943 a German Panzer army had to be withdrawn from the Caucasus. To accelerate the retreat, light elements of that army crossed some 42 km of the ice cover of the Gulf of Taganrog (Sea of Azov). The crossing was authorized after a meteorologist proved his estimate of the ice-cover thickness by landing in a light plane on the ice.In January 1945 weather forecasts played an important role in the major Soviet (2 200 000 troops and 5 000 warplanes) Oder-Vistula offensive. Marshal Koney writes with appreciation of the correct weather forecasts.In the Appendix, considerations that led German meteorologists to formulate a forecast for a minimum of five days of fog or low clouds from the Ardennes to southern England are reviewed. This forecast was used by the German High Command for the start of the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944.

  4. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1469

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-08

    67 Youth Indifference, Antisocial Attitude Remain a Problem (Jozef Grabowicz; WALRA . MLODYCH, 5 Jun 77) 73 Sejm Commission Starts Review of Law ...Soviet Union. The fact that the USSR fundamental law entered into force on the eve of the 60th anniversary of the October Revolution imparts...classless communist society. The nationwide discussion of the draft of the fundamental law in the Soviet Union convincingly demonstrated the strength of

  5. The Sociological Imagination -- A Basis for Teaching of Introductory Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1974-01-01

    The problem in teaching introductory sociology is to determine what can be extracted from the sociological tradition and the current crisis in sociology that will help students lead more meaningful lives. The answer lies in kindling the sociological imagination by the development of a sociology curriculum based upon the study of contemporary youth…

  6. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. the deployment of soviet chemical forces in afghanistan and south

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Recently chemical warfare has become a most distinct feature of military technique. This can be said after it has been established that the Soviet. Union used chemical agents in South-East Asia and Afghanistan. The first reports dealt with some unexplained deaths among the Hmong people of Laos and shortly ...

  9. American News Media and Soviet Diplomacy, 1934-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Thomas R.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the coverage given by 35 newspapers to United States-Soviet Union relations during 1934-41 reveals that newspapers with the most interest in foreign affairs expressed the opinion that Stalin had abandoned the idea of world revolution, while those with less interest viewed him as an imperialist. (FL)

  10. Soviet Space Program Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    in advance and some events were even broadcast live. Immediately following the first success- ful launch of their new Energia space launch vehicle in...early 1988. Just as a handbook written a couple of years ago would need updating with Mir, Energia , and the SL-16, this handbook will one day need up...1986. Johnson, Nicholas L. The Soviet Year in Space 1983. Colorado Springs, CO: Teledyne Brown Engineering, 1984. Lawton, A. " Energia - Soviet Super

  11. Sociology through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how photography can inspire and cultivate sociological mindfulness. One set of assignments uses self-portraiture to highlight the complexity of visual representations of social identity. Another uses photography to guide sociological inquiry. Both sets of assignments draw on the Literacy Through Photography methodology,…

  12. Awakening Students' Sociological Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Students who experience a transcendent moment as they vicariously walk in the shoes of another person demonstrate the utilization of sociological imagination. Even though the concept of sociological imagination was advanced more than 50 years ago by sociologist C. Wright Mills, there is high value to revisit this concept and for its application to…

  13. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE “COLOR REVOLUTIONS” PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Krutilin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical questions of sociological analysis of problems connected with dismantling political regimes and change of ruling elites in contemporary states (both authoritative, and democratic type by means of social and humanitarian technologies under the name “color revolutions”. Though the phenomenon of “color revolutions” has been in the center of attention of both domestic and foreign sociologists and political scientists for more than ten years, the uniform synthetic theory in this area has not been developed yet. “Velvet revolutions” in the socialist camp, “color revolutions” in the post Soviet Union area, events of “the Arab spring” and many other phenomena of the last three decades had more than once forced the academic community to reinterpret the subject of revolutions. The analysis shows that “color revolutions” represent social and humanitarian technologies which provide formation and regulation from the outside of protest the potential of the population in combination with political, economic and other non-military measures to influence interstate stability. Similar technologies are widely applied by the USA and their allies to those states in which they have strategic interests. Thus ultimate goals of “color revolutions” are to establish control over resource base of development of a certain society and to resolve own geopolitical tasks of weakening rival states. The author’s approach of the sociological analysis of the considered phenomenon is developed taking into account the features of modern technologies of delegitimization of power their accurate orientation against well before known weak points of a specific state. Therefore the article formulates a sociological concept of assessment of modern revolutionary potential in five spheres of functioning of society: economic, political, social, spiritual and military safety. In each of the listed spheres it is necessary to

  14. An Examination of the Effect of External Influences on the Soviet Negotiation Position in Post 1962 Arms Control Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-09

    Tabular Evaluation of Soviet Negoiat ng Ponition APPENDIX I - TABLE I INDEX OF RELATIVE CODED VALUES Criteria .. Coded Value a) Reversal of official...chemical fertilizer industry to almost triple production by 1970 to 80 million tons, JAN (73) a)Sale of 1 million tons of wheat 9 to Soviet Union

  15. Education for Trade Union Officials and Militants in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglay, M. V.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes labor education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The course system consists of three levels of courses, including (1) local short-term trade union courses, (2) regional permanent courses that last up to a month, and (3) seminars at the Trade Unionist Upgrading Institute. (CH)

  16. Mobile sociology. 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, John

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a manifesto for a sociology concerned with the diverse mobilities of peoples, objects, images, information, and wastes; and of the complex interdependencies between, and social consequences of, such diverse mobilities. A number of key concepts relevant for such a sociology are elaborated: 'gamekeeping', networks, fluids, scapes, flows, complexity and iteration. The article concludes by suggesting that a 'global civil society' might constitute the social base of a sociology of mobilities as we move into the twenty-first century.

  17. Sergei and the “Divinely Appointed” Stalin: Theology and Ecclesiology in Church-State Relations in the Soviet Union in the Lead-up to the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Boer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the tendency to focus on political and social reasons for the rapprochement between the Soviet government and the Russian Orthodox Church, between Stalin and the later patriarch Sergei, this article deals with theological and ecclesiological sensibilities. One would expect such reasons from the side of the church but I also argue that they were important for Stalin’s considerations and acts. His deep awareness and intimate knowledge of the church, and active involvement and concrete proposals in the long interaction between church and state, were as important as those of Sergei. The article begins with a reconsideration of Stalin’s period of theological study, which influenced him deeply and provided with him unique insights into the nature of the church. After this period, an intriguing path unfolds, through key categories of Stalin’s thought thought and his effort—which was strongly opposed – to include the article on religious freedom in the 1936 constitution, let alone the definition of socialism (in contrast to communism in terms of two biblical verses in the very same constitution. At the same time, the statements and actions of Sergei, already from 1927, were also part of the narrative, so the analysis moves between church and state until the meeting in 1943. All of this is crucial material for understanding developments in the period officially known as the Cold War.

  18. When ideology and controversy collide: the case of Soviet science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L R

    1982-04-01

    Using specific examples such as the recombinant DNA debate, the author compares Soviet and American decision-making procedures in resolving bioethical controversies. In the Soviet Union, the dominant approach is for specialists to arrive at the "correct" position inherent in the world view of Marxism-Leninism. In the United States, it is common to negotiate a compromise between what science can achieve and what defenders of old values are willing to accept. The author concludes that, in both countries, resolution of biomedical issues is influenced more by culture and tradition than by logic and reason.

  19. Sociology Back to the Publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a reading of the `new sociology' that is mainly identified with the works of C. Wright Mills and Alvin Gouldner. Its main argument is that during the past 40 years the new sociology gave back a public face to sociology. This distinguishes it from the `old sociology' that had not been

  20. Sociology of Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    Sociology of Discourse takes the perspective that collective actors like social movements are capable of creating social change from below by creating new institutions through alternative discourses. Institutionalization becomes a process of moving away from existing institutions towards creating...